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Sample records for grouper epinephelus costae

  1. Study on the Release of Grouper Epinephelus for Stock Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhili; Zhou Wanxia

    2003-01-01

    Two methods, tagging and ink injection, are used in the grouper releasing experiment. The studied fishes are the juvenile of Epinephelus akaara and Epinephelus awoara both artificially cultivated and caught from natural waters, and their wild adults. Experimental results show that the inhabiting behaviours for both juvenile and adult fishes show distinct regionality, which move within an area of 2 n mile diameter 651 days and 48 days after being released, respectively. With the tagging method, the tagged fishes could only be recaptured in the year of release while, with the injection method, they could be caught in the lst, 2nd and 3rd years. It is confirmed that in the cement tank, the tagged fishes lose their 1/3 tags. That means that the tagging method is not fit for the release research while the injection method is. Generally, the recaptured rates of injected fishes are 1.4 ~ 4.5 %, 3.1 ~ 13.4 % and 2.7 % for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd years, respectively.

  2. Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy in groupers (Epinephelus spp. in southern Italy: a threat for wild endangered species?

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    Vendramin Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER. To date, more than 50 species have proved to be susceptible and among them, those found in genus Epinephelus are highly represented. Clinical disease outbreaks are generally characterized by typical nervous signs and significant mortalities mainly associated with aquaculture activities, although some concerns for the impact of this infection in wild fish have been raised. In this study, the authors present the first documented report describing an outbreak of VER in wild species in the Mediterranean basin. Case presentation In late summer - early winter 2011 (September-December, significant mortalities affecting wild Dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus, Golden grouper (Epinephelus costae and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reported in the municipality of Santa Maria di Leuca (Northern Ionian Sea, Italy. The affected fish showed an abnormal swimming behavior and swollen abdomens. During this epizootic, five moribund fish showing clear neurological signs were captured and underwent laboratory investigations. Analytical results confirmed the diagnosis of VER in all the specimens. Genetic characterization classified all betanodavirus isolates as belonging to the RGNNV genotype, revealing a close genetic relationship with viral sequences obtained from diseased farmed fish reared in the same area in previous years. Conclusion The close relationship of the viral sequences between the isolates collected in wild affected fish and those isolated during clinical disease outbreaks in farmed fish in the same area in previous years suggests a persistent circulation of betanodaviruses and transmission between wild and farmed stocks. Further investigations are necessary to assess the risk of viral transmission between wild and farmed fish populations, particularly in marine protected areas where endangered species are present.

  3. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  4. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  5. Gonad Histology and Spawning Pattern of the White Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) from İskenderun Bay (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Gökçe, Mahmut Ali; CENGİZLER, İbrahim; ÖZAK, A. Argun

    2014-01-01

    The gonad histology and spawning pattern of the white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) were determined from fish sampled from commercial catches. Histological, microscopic and macroscopic techniques were used to examine the ovaries of E. aeneus. A six stage maturity scale based on morphology was proposed to classify ovarian development. The results showed that the white grouper has an asynchronous mode of ovarian development, and the histological study of oocyte development in the white grouper i...

  6. Transcriptome analysis of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides spleen in response to Singapore grouper iridovirus

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    Huang Youhua

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides is an economically important marine fish cultured in China and Southeast Asian countries. The emergence of infectious viral diseases, including iridovirus and betanodavirus, have severely affected food products based on this species, causing heavy economic losses. Limited available information on the genomics of E. coioides has hampered the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie host-virus interactions. In this study, we used a 454 pyrosequencing method to investigate differentially-expressed genes in the spleen of the E. coioides infected with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV. Results Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained abundant high-quality ESTs from two spleen-complementary DNA libraries which were constructed from SGIV-infected (V and PBS-injected fish (used as a control: C. A total of 407,027 and 421,141 ESTs were produced in control and SGIV infected libraries, respectively. Among the assembled ESTs, 9,616 (C and 10,426 (V ESTs were successfully matched against known genes in the NCBI non-redundant (nr database with a cut-off E-value above 10-5. Gene ontology (GO analysis indicated that "cell part", "cellular process" and "binding" represented the largest category. Among the 25 clusters of orthologous group (COG categories, the cluster for "translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis" represented the largest group in the control (185 ESTs and infected (172 ESTs libraries. Further KEGG analysis revealed that pathways, including cellular metabolism and intracellular immune signaling, existed in the control and infected libraries. Comparative expression analysis indicated that certain genes associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, chemokine, toll-like receptor and RIG-I signaling pathway were alternated in response to SGIV infection. Moreover, changes in the pattern of gene expression were validated by qRT-PCR, including cytokines

  7. DNA barcoding approaches for fishing authentication of exploited grouper species including the endangered and legally protected goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara

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    Rodrigo A. Torres

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing strategies are constantly changing to meet the needs for new or alternative food sources. Consequently, management of fishing activities regarding rates of exploitation is essential, as a number of resources have reached situations of overexploitation. The aim of the present study was to use DNA barcoding from the goliath grouper and other exploited epinephelids in order to provide procedures for DNA authentication to be used as evidence for combating putative illegal fishing. The species studied were Epinephelus adscensionis, Mycteroperca bonaci, Mycteroperca interstitialis, Epinephelus itajara, Mycteroperca venenosa, Epinephelus mystacinus, Dermatolepis inermis, Alphestes afer, Cephalopholis fulva, Mycteroperca acutirostris, Rypticus saponaceus, Mycteroperca marginata and Epinephelus morio. Four of these species are the main epinephelids fished in the Atlantic Ocean. Differential patterns of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism were obtained from the species and additional single nucleotide polymorphisms were also detected among the four main epinephelids studied. The procedures proved very efficient and we suggest their applicability to the other fish groups as a way to control illegal capture and retail around the world, especially in cases in which filleting and other forms of de-characterization cause a lack of morpho-anatomical key characters.

  8. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of ISG15 in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

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    Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Cai, Jia; Wei, Shina; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-05-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is an ubiquitin homolog that is significantly induced by type I interferons or viral infections. Groupers, Epinephelus spp. being maricultured in China and Southeast Asian countries, always suffer from virus infection, including iridovirus and nodavirus. To date, the roles of grouper genes, especially interferon related genes in virus infection remained largely unknown. Here, the ISG15 homolog (EcISG15) was cloned from grouper Epinephelus coioides and its immune response to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) was investigated. The full-length EcISG15 cDNA was composed of 948 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 155 amino acids with 37-68% identity with the known ISG15 homologs from other fish species. Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that EcISG15 contained two ubiquitin-like (UBL) domains and an Ub-conjugation domain (LRGG). Expressional analysis showed that EcISG15 was dramatically induced by GNNV infection, poly I:C or poly dA-dT treatment, but no obvious changes were observed during SGIV infection. Immunofluorescence assay showed that EcISG15 localized mainly in the cytoplasm of grouper cells in response to poly I:C stimulation or GNNV infection, but not in mock or SGIV infected cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the ISGylation was absent in SGIV-infected cells, but significantly enhanced in GNNV-infected or poly I:C transfected cells, suggesting that EcISG15 might play different roles in SGIV and GNNV infection. Furthermore, overexpression of EcISG15 in vitro inhibited the transcription of GNNV genes significantly. Taken together, the results indicated that fish ISG15 might exert important roles against RNA virus infection.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a galectin-1 homolog in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

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    Chen, Xiuli; Wei, Jingguang; Xu, Meng; Yang, Min; Li, Pingfei; Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    As a member of animal lectin family, galectin has the functions of pathogen recognition, anti-bacteria and anti-virus. In the present study, a galectin-1 homolog (EcGel-1) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its possible role in fish immunity was analyzed. The full length cDNA of EcGel-1 is 504 bp, including a 408 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 135 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15.19 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcGel-1 was constitutively expressed in all analyzed tissues of healthy grouper. The expression of EcGel-1 in the spleen of grouper was differentially up-regulated challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), poly (I:C), and LPS. EcGel-1 was abundantly distributed in the cytoplasm in GS cells. Recombinant EcGel-1(rEcGel-1) protein can make chicken erythrocyte aggregation, and combine with gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in the presence of 2-Mercaptoethanol (β-ME). Taken together, the results showed that EcGel-1 may be an important molecule involved in pathogen recognition and pathogen elimination in the innate immunity of grouper.

  10. Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of QRFP in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

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    Shu, Hu; Chen, Huapu; Liu, Yun; Yang, Lidong; Yang, Yuqing; Zhang, Haifa

    2014-10-01

    The peptide QRFP plays an important role in the regulation of vertebrate feeding behavior. In this study, we cloned the full length cDNA of a QRFP precursor in a teleost fish, the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis has shown that the functional regions of QRFP in other vertebrates (QRFP-25 and QRFP-7) are conserved in orange-spotted grouper. RT-PCR demonstrated that the pre-processed mRNA of QRFP is widely expressed in orange-spotted grouper. Three days of food deprivation did not change the hypothalamic pre-processed QRFP expression. However, QRFP expression significantly increased when the fish were reefed after three days of fasting. Intraperitoneal injection of QRFP-25 peptide to orange-spotted grouper suppressed expression of orexin, but elevated expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus. We also investigated the effects of QRFP-25 on the expression of reproductive genes. The peptide suppressed the expression of seabream-type gonadotropin-releasing hormones (sbGnRH), luteinizing hormone beta subunit (LHβ) and follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit (FSHβ) in vivo, as well as inhibited the expression of LHβ and FSHβ in pituitary cells in primary culture. Our results indicate that QRFP may play an inhibitory role in the regulation of feeding behavior and reproduction in orange-spotted grouper.

  11. Vaccination of grouper broodfish (Epinephelus tukula) reduces the risk of vertical transmission by nervous necrosis virus.

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    Kai, Yu-Hsuan; Su, Huei-Meei; Tai, Kun-Tsai; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2010-01-22

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) has caused mass mortality in many species of cultured fish at larval stage. Strong evidence of vertical transmission of NNV has been reported in the carrier broodstock of striped jack and sea bass. An effective immunization program was developed and monitored in adult groupers (Epinephelus coioides) with average body weight of 1.35kg. The highest neutralizing antibody titers were found in the fish intramuscularly injected with adjuvanted NNV vaccine at 10(9)TCID(50)kg(-1), and the enhanced 2-fold neutralization activity could sustain up to 17 months post-vaccination (mpv). An immunization program was applied in the broodstocks of grouper (Epinephelus tukula) with body weight of 35-60kg. The levels of NNV-specific antibodies detected, from 1 to 5 mpi, in the homogenates of the eggs from the vaccinated broodfish were elevated than that from non-vaccinated fish. By nested RT-PCR, NNV was detectable in the eggs from the non-vaccinated fish at Month 5, but not in the eggs from vaccinated fish. It is therefore suggested that vaccination will be a potentially practical measure to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of NNV of grouper broodfish under stress of repeated spawning.

  12. Immunogenicity and protective effects of inactivated Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) vaccines in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

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    Ou-yang, Zhengliang; Wang, Peiran; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Huang, Youhua; Wei, Shina; Ji, Huasong; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2012-10-01

    Vaccination is one of the best methods against viral diseases. In this study, experimental inactivated Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) vaccines were prepared, and immunogenicity and protection against virus infection of the vaccines were investigated in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Two kinds of vaccines, including β-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated virus at 4°C for 12 h and formalin inactivated virus at 4°C for 12 d, was highly protective against the challenge at 30-day post-vaccination and produced relative percent of survival rates of 91.7% and 100%, respectively. These effective vaccinations induced potent innate immune responses mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). It is noteworthy that ISGs, such as Mx and ISG15, were up-regulated only in the effective vaccine groups, which suggested that type I IFN system may be the functional basis of early anti-viral immunity. Moreover, effective vaccination also significantly up-regulated of the expression of MHC class I gene and produced substantial amount of specific serum antibody at 4 weeks post-vaccination. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrated that effective vaccination in grouper induced an early, nonspecific antiviral immunity, and later, a specific immune response involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.

  13. Stimulatory effects of neuropeptide Y on the growth of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuge; Li, Bo; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2012-11-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a member of the pancreatic polypeptide family which is a potent orexigenic peptide known to date in mammals and teleost. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of NPY on food intake and growth of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Synthetic grouper NPY (gNPY) was given orally at the dose of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μg/g feed for 50 days, results showed that NPY treatment (1.0 and 2.0 μg/g feed) significantly increased growth rate, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and pituitary growth hormone (GH) mRNA level than the control group (pgrouper as in other teleost fish, also indicate that recombinant gNPY from P. pastoris has the same bioactivity as synthetic gNPY and has the potential to be used as a feed additive for both research and aquatic application.

  14. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of a thioredoxin from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

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    Wei, Jingguang; Guo, Minglan; Ji, Huasong; Yan, Yang; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Huang, Xiaohong; Hang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2012-09-01

    Thioredoxins (TRXs) are a family of small, highly conserved proteins that are essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In this study, a thioredoxin gene was cloned from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides (designated as Ec-TRX). The full-length cDNA of Ec-TRX was comprised of 767bp with a 327bp open reading frame that encodes a putative protein of 108 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the Ec-TRX mRNA was distributed abundantly in grouper, E. coioides skin and liver, and the expression in liver was up-regulated after viral challenge with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Recombinant Ec-TRX (rEc-TRX) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified for mouse anti-Ec-TRX serum preparation. The rEc-TRX fusion protein was demonstrated to possess the expected redox activity in enzymatic analysis, and scavenge free radicals and protect supercoiled DNA from oxidative damage induced by a metal-ion catalyzed oxidation reaction. Subcellular localization revealed that Ec-TRX was distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of Ec-TRX in grouper spleen (GS) cells could promote the growth of GS cells and inhibit the replication of SGIV. These results suggest that Ec-TRX could function as an important antioxidant in a physiological context, and perhaps is involved in the responses to viral challenge.

  15. Wnt4 in protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides): identification and expression.

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    Chen, Huapu; Li, Shuisheng; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Yong; Li, Guangli; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2015-05-01

    Wnt4 (Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 4) has been demonstrated to play critical roles in ovarian development in mammals, but its function in fish reproduction is still unclear. In the present study, two full-length wnt4 cDNA sequences (named wnt4a and wnt4b) were cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Amino acid alignment analysis showed that both orange-spotted grouper Wnt4s proteins had the typical characteristics of the Wnt family. RT-PCR revealed that both wnt4a and wnt4b were highly expressed in the ovaries of the orange-spotted grouper. Temporal expression profiles of both wnt4 genes during embryonic and ovarian development were examined. The expressions of wnt4a and wnt4b genes were first detected at the embryonic morula stage, but the gens showed different expression patterns. During ovarian development, high expression of wnt4a was observed in the ovarian lumen formation and gonium proliferation stage, while wnt4b exhibited strong expression in the early developmental stage of oocytes. Taken together, the present study indicates that the two wnt4 genes are involved in the regulation of ovarian development in the orange-spotted grouper.

  16. Possibility of culturing Pacific goliath grouper Epinephelus quinquefasciatus in water with different salinities

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    Lury García N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the survival and growth of juvenile Pacific goliath grouper (Epinephelus quinquefasciatus in captivity at low salinities. Materials and methods. We randomly selected twelve juvenile goliath groupers with an average standard length of 44.2 ± 6.1 cm and 1492 ± 476 g in body weight, and raised them for three months in the laboratory in waters of 32-26, 20, 10 and 5 parts per thousand of salinity. Results. All juvenile Pacific goliath groupers tolerated the initial gradual transfer from full strength seawater to salinities of 32-26, 20, 10, and 5 parts per thousand, which was done over a period of four days. All of them survived and grew in body weight and length during the course of the three-month experiment, in all the treatments of high and low salinity water. The body condition factor (K for each fish was between 1.5 and 2.4. Conclusions. This is a first time trial that documents a randomized, controlled experiment demonstrating the ability of Pacific juvenile goliath grouper to gradually transfer from full strength seawater to water of lower salinity, and survive and grow well in these brackish waters.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) spleen in response to Singapore grouper iridovirus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Yan, Yang; Cai, Jia; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Cui, Huachun; Wang, Peiran; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-01-01

    .... coioides infected with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained abundant high-quality ESTs from two spleen-complementary DNA libraries which were constructed from SGIV-infected (V...

  18. Patterns of color phase indicate spawn timing at a Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus spawning aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie K ARCHER; Scott A HEPPELL; Brice X SEMMENS; Christy V PATTENGILL-SEMMENS; Phillippe G BUSH; Croy M MCCOY; Bradley C JOHNSON

    2012-01-01

    Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus are a large bodied,top level predator that is ecologically important throughout the Caribbean.Although typically solitary,Nassau grouper form large annual spawning aggregations at predictable times in specific locations.In 2003,The Cayman Islands Marine Conservation Board established protection for a newly rediscovered Nassau grouper spawning aggregation on Little Cayman,British West Indies.The large size of this aggregation provides a unique opportunity to study the behavior of Nassau grouper on a relatively intact spawning aggregation.During non-spawning periods Nassau grouper display a reddish-brown-and-white barred coloration.However,while aggregating they exhibit three additional color phases:“bicolor”,“dark”,and “white belly”.We video sampled the population on multiple days leading up to spawning across five spawning years.Divers focused a laser caliper equipped video camera on individual fish at the aggregation.We later analyzed the video to determine the length of the fish and record the color phase.Our observations show that the relative proportion of fish in the bicolor color phase increases significantly on the day leading up to the primary night of spawning.The increase in the proportion of the bicolor color phase from 0.05 early in the aggregation to 0.40 on the day of spawning suggests that this color phase conveys that a fish is behaviorally and physiologically prepared to spawn.Additionally,82.7% of fish exhibiting dark or white belly coloration early in the aggregation period suggests that these color phases are not only shown by female fish as was previously posited [Current Zoology 58 (1):73-83,2012].

  19. Does copepods influence dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus early development?

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    Monica Mateus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge on the development of early life stages is essential for successful conservation programs of threatened fish species. Diet and rearing system affects early life survival and juvenile quality. Copepods are the natural food of fish larvae in the wild possessing high nutritional value, when compared with live feeds used in aquaculture (rotifers and artemia, and a wide range of size classes. Rearing systems with low water column disturbance and low larval densities enhanced the survival of fragile fish larvae. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the introduction of copepods in the diet of early dusky grouper larvae reared in controlled mesocosm systems using larval development and juvenile quality as indicators. Two feeding protocols were tested, one composed only by rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, brine shrimp (Artemia spp. and dry feed and the other supplemented with copepods (Paracartia grani from mouth opening (2 day after hatching - DAH to 8 DAH. Feeding behavior, growth, survival, skeletal malformations and digestive enzymes activity was assessed at different developmental stages. The addition of copepods to the early larvae diet of dusky grouper resulted in faster development and higher survival rates. Larvae fed with copepods improved their development. At 20 DAH all larvae reared at the mesocosm with copedods were already at the stage of post-flexion while in the system without copepods this stage was attained later. At 25 DAH only 64% of the larvae were in post flexion in the mesoscosm without copepods. At 30 DAH larvae supplemented with copepods attained an acidic digestion (high specific activity of pepsin earlier than at the system without copepods. In this last system alkaline digestion (trypsin specific activity, characteristic of early larval stages, was significantly higher reinforcing the faster development of larvae fed with copepods. In both systems the incidence of skeletal malformations was low.

  20. Stimulatory effects of chitinase on growth and immune defense of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

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    Zhang, Yanhong; Feng, Shaozhen; Chen, Jun; Qin, Chaobin; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2012-05-01

    Chitinase, belonging to either family 18 or family 19 of the glycosylhydrolases, hydrolyze chitin into oligosaccharides. In the present study, the cDNA fragment encoding orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) chitinase1 was subcloned into pPIC3.5K vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The results showed that a band with the size of about 53 kDa could be detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The recombinant protein of grouper chitinase1 (rgChi1) was added into the fish diet containing shrimp shell chitin for feeding experiment lasting 8 weeks. The weight of orange-spotted grouper, fed with diets containing rgChi1 at 0, 5, 10 and 20 μg/g was calculated on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks, and difference in growth rates was first observed in the 6th week of the feeding period and it kept until the end of the feeding experiment. At the end of 8 weeks feeding trial, the percent weight gain (PWG), growth rate (GR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed with 10 and 20 μg rgChi1/g feed were significantly higher compared to the control group. The neuropeptide Y (NPY), growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), growth-hormone (GH), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (Cu/Zn) and SOD (Mn) mRNA expression of fish fed with diet containing 10 μg/g or/and 20 μg/g rgChi1 were obviously higher than the control group. The lysozyme (LZM) and total SOD activity of fish fed with diet containing rgChi1 at 10 and 20 μg/g were significantly higher than that of the control. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT) activity in 20 μg/g group decreased compared to the control group. These results indicated that the grouper chitinase1 was successfully produced using the P. pastoris expression system and the recombinant protein had obvious effects on growth and immune defense. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of grouper chitinase1 and chitinase2 were significantly stimulated in

  1. DISEASE RESISTANCE AND HUMORAL IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF VITAMIN C ON GROUPER, EPINEPHELUS AWOARA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The disease resistance and humoral immunomodulatory effects of vitamin C administered orally to grouper, Epinephelus awoara maintained on a frozen fish diet supplemented with vitamin C at 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg were investigated. After 20 weeks, the growth rates of the groups with high level of vitamin C apparently increased. The untreated fish had symptoms of vitamin C deficiency. The endogenous liver tissue vitamin C levels were found to reflect well the dietary treatments. After intraperitoneal injection or bath challenge with a virulent strain of Vibrio vulnificus, fish fed with high level vitamin C showed significantly higher survival rate compared with the normal control group. Vaccination with formalin inactivated V. vulnificus significantly enhanced the specific antibody production in fish treated with vitamin C, and completely protected from strong bacterial challenge the groups fed on fish with vitamin C 1500 and 2000 mg/kg diet.

  2. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2008-01-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (~ 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) ana...

  3. Conditioning of broodstock of tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, in a recirculating aquaculture system

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    Saleem Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Closing the cycle of commercial species of fish in a recirculating aquaculture system is gaining importance for a number of practical advantages. Founder broodstock originating from the wild population is conditioned to live in hatchery tanks under suitable environmental and feeding conditions and is induced to breed. The juveniles are grown to maturity and facilitated to spawn in captivity to close the life cycle in the hatchery. This experiment was carried out on tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. After preliminary observations, it was possible to identify appropriate environmental conditions in terms of water quality parameters, volume of broodstock tanks and ration. Growth was nearly isometric (growth exponent = 2.9185 and the condition factor = 1.86. This reflected good management conditions. Cues that trigger sex reversal in this protogynous fish in the hatchery were different from those that operate in nature. It appears that the differentiation of some individuals of a cohort into male sex is linked to socio-demographic cues as well as internal condition of the fish because it related to age and physiological condition. This view was reinforced by a lack of response in young fish to similar cues. The information generated through this study defines what is required for optimum conditioning of tiger grouper broodstock and explains the cues involved in sex differentiation.

  4. TEMPORAL VARIATION IN THE RED GROUPER, EPINEPHELUS MORIO, DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE FROM SOUTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

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    Doralice Caballero-Arango

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the demographic structure of red grouper Epinephelus morio from the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico, were evaluated during periods when total catches, CPUE and annual yields of the specie decreased. Fishery-dependent samples (n = 1887 were obtained between August 1989 and February 2004 from the Campeche Bank, and size-frequency distributions by sex, sex ratios and sizes of sexual maturation and sex change were compared between three periods: P11989-1992 (n = 886; P21996-1998 (n = 413; and P32003-2004 (n = 588. The temporal stability of size-frequency distribution by sex, with males always being larger than females, and the sex ratios always biased towards females, were consistent with this species’ type of sexuality. Size for females and males, as well as sizes at first sexual maturity and at sex reversal all decreased from the oldest period to the more recent one and could be a consequence of the fishing intensity applied to this stock. The reductions in size of females and males associated with a relatively stable sex ratio and the lack of any drastic decrease in the number of males can be explained by this species’ reproductive ecology. Results are discussed regarding the capacity for reproductive resilience of red grouper in response to fishing pressure like that currently experienced by the Campeche Bank stock.

  5. Characterization of LPS-induced TNFα factor (LITAF) from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Huang, Youhua; Wei, Shina; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα factor (LITAF) is an important transcription factor that mediates cell apoptosis and inflammatory response. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a LITAF gene from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (Ec-LITAF). Ec-LITAF encoded a predicted 142 amino acid protein which shared 74% identity to sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) LITAF homolog. Multiple amino acid alignment showed that Ec-LITAF contained a typical LITAF domain with two CXXC motifs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ec-LITAF was closely related to that of sablefish. Ec-LITAF mRNA was widely expressed in different tissues and its expression level in spleen was up-regulated after Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infection. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the distribution of Ec-LITAF showed diffuse and aggregated patterns in cytoplasm. Interestingly, the distribution of Ec-LITAF overlayed with a viral LITAF homolog (vLITAF) encoded by SGIV. Overexpression of Ec-LITAF in vitro up-regulated the expression of tumor necrosis factors (TNF1 and TNF2) and TNF receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2), and the expression of itself initiated apoptosis in fish cells. In addition, overexpression of Ec-LITAF not only accelerated SGIV infection induced CPE and cell death, but also increased viral gene transcription. Taken together, our data suggested that Ec-LITAF might play crucial roles during SGIV replication.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) CXC chemokine ligand 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Shiou; Wang, Ting-Yu; Liu, Chin-Feng; Lin, Hao-Ping; Chen, Young-Mao; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2015-12-01

    Chemokines are a family of soluble peptides that can recruit a wide range of immune cells to sites of infection and disease. The CXCL12 is a chemokine that binds to its cognate receptor CXCR4 and thus involved in multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes. In this study, we cloned and characterized CXCL12 from Epinephelus coioides (osgCXCL12). We found that the open reading frame of osgCXCL12 consists of 98 amino acid residues with the small cytokine C-X-C domain located between residues 29 and 87. Higher expression levels for osgCXCL12 were detected at the kitting stage, compared with the prolarva and larva shape stages. The expression patterns revealed that osgCXCL12 may play a key role in early grouper development. We detected mRNA transcripts for osgCXCL12 in healthy tissues and found the highest osgCXCL12 expression in the head kidney. Furthermore, a time-course analysis revealed significantly increased osgCXCL12 and osgCXCR4 expression levels after the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) challenge. In addition, expression of osgCXCL12 was affected by injection with microbial mimics [LPS and poly(I:C)]. These results suggest that osgCXCL12 is associated with inflammatory and developmental processes in the grouper.

  7. Efficacies of inactivated vaccines against betanodavirus in grouper larvae (Epinephelus coioides) by bath immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Yu-Hsuan; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2008-03-10

    Betanodavirus is the pathogen of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease that has caused mass mortality among many species of marine fish at larval stage. In this study, the efficacy of inactivated betanodavirus was evaluated by bath-immunization and bath-challenge of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) at early larval stage. Two kinds of chemicals were used for inactivation of the virus, and the relative percent survival (RPS) values of 0.4mM binary ethylenimine (BEI)-inactivated vaccine was revealed to be 79-95, higher than that of 0.1-0.2% formalin-inactivated vaccines (39-43). Three lengths of bath immunization time were tested, and 20 min immersion of BEI-inactivated betanodavirus at a concentration of 10(6)TICD(50)/ml was sufficient to induce high protection (RPS > 75). Protection of the BEI-inactivated vaccine was evaluated at different time post immunization, and the peak of protection was observed 30 days post vaccination, and retained for at least 3 months. The efficacies of formalin-inactivated vaccines with or without encapsulation were compared, and the result revealed that the efficacy of formalin-inactivated vaccine could be significantly improved by nano-encapsulation (RPS = 85). All these data strongly suggested that bath immunization with nano-encapsulated formalin-inactivated or BEI-inactivated betanodavirus vaccines is an effective strategy to protect grouper larvae against VNN.

  8. Development of novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers for giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keun-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Moon, Shin-Joo; Han, Seung-Hee; Bang, In-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a commercially important species, but its wild population has recently been classified as vulnerable. This species has significant potential for use in aquaculture, though a greater understanding of population genetics is necessary for selective breeding programs to minimize kinship for genetically healthy individuals. High-throughput pyrosequencing of genomic DNA was used to identify and characterize novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers in giant grouper from Sabah, Malaysia. In total, of 62,763 sequences containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were obtained, and 78 SSR loci were selected to possibly contain tetra- and trinucleotide repeats. Of these loci, 16 had tetra- and 8 had trinucleotide repeats, all of which exhibited polymorphisms within easily genotyped regions. A total of 143 alleles were identified with an average of 5.94 alleles per locus, with mean observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.648 and 0.620, respectively. Among of them, 15 microsatellite markers were identified without null alleles and with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These alleles showed a combined non-exclusion probability of 0.01138. The probability of individual identification (PID) value combined with in descending order 12 microsatellite markers was 0.00008, which strongly suggests that the use of the microsatellite markers developed in this study in various combinations would result in a high resolution method for parentage analysis and individual identification. These markers could be used to establish a broodstock management program for giant grouper and to provide a foundation for genetic studies such as population structure, parentage analysis, and kinship selection.

  9. Hydroacoustics for the discovery and quantification of Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus) spawning aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, J. P.; Johnson, A. F.; Le Vay, L.; McCoy, C. M.; Semmens, B. X.; Heppell, S. A.; Turner, J. R.

    2017-06-01

    Fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) are vital life-history events that need to be monitored to determine the health of aggregating populations; this is especially true of the endangered Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus). Hydroacoustics were used to locate Nassau grouper FSAs at sites on the west end of Little Cayman (LCW), and east ends of Grand Cayman (GCE) and Cayman Brac (CBE). Fish abundance and biomass at each FSA were estimated via echo integration and FSA extent. Acoustic mean fish abundance estimates (±SE) on the FSA at LCW (893 ± 459) did not differ significantly from concurrent SCUBA estimates (1150 ± 75). Mean fish densities (number 1000 m-3) were significantly higher at LCW (33.13 ± 5.62) than at the other sites (GCE: 7.01 ± 2.1, CBE: 4.61 ± 1.16). We investigate different acoustic post-processing options to obtain target strength (TS), and we examine the different TS to total length (TL) formulas available. The SCUBA surveys also provided measures of TL through the use of laser callipers allowing development of an in situ TS to TL formula for Nassau grouper at the LCW FSA. Application of this formula revealed mean fish TL was significantly higher at LCW (65.4 ± 0.7 cm) than GCE (60.7 ± 0.4 cm), but not CBE (61.1 ± 2.5 cm). Use of the empirical TS to TL formula resulted in underestimation of fish length in comparison with diver measurements, highlighting the benefits of secondary length data and deriving specific TS to TL formulas for each population. FSA location examined with reference to seasonal marine protected areas (Designated Grouper Spawning Areas) showed FSAs were partially outside these areas at GCE and very close to the boundary at CBE. As FSAs often occur at the limits of safe diving operations, hydroacoustic technology provides an alternative method to monitor and inform future management of aggregating fish species.

  10. Differential expression analysis of nuclear oligomerization domain proteins NOD1 and NOD2 in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qing-Hua; Yi, Shi-Bai; Ding, Xu; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Lu, Dan-Qi; Lin, Hao-Ran

    2012-11-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins-1 and -2 (NOD1 and NOD2) are members of the NOD-like receptors (NLRs) family. They are both cytoplasmic receptors, and sense microbial infections/danger molecules to induce host innate immune response. In this study, the full-length ORF sequences of NOD1 and NOD2 were cloned, and the putative amino acid sequences were identified in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The complete open reading frame (ORF) of grouper NOD1 contained 2823 bp encoding a 940 amino acid protein. Grouper NOD2 cDNA contained a 2967 bp ORF, encoding a protein of 988 amino acid residues. Both grouper NOD1 and NOD2 had similar domains to human and fish counterparts. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that grouper NOD1 clustered with grass carp, zebrafish and channel catfish, while NOD2 was most closely related to fugu. Expression patterns of grouper NOD1 and NOD2 were next studied. NOD1 had the highest level of expression in skin while NOD2 in trunk kidney. Post Vibrio alginolyticus (strain EcGS020401), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PolyI:C challenges, gene expression of grouper NOD1 and NOD2 was stimulated to different extents. NOD1 showed a significant enhancement after LPS stimulation, but NOD2 increased more significantly after PolyI:C invasion, indicating that NOD1 and NOD2 may exert different effects on the eradication of bacteria and virus. The adaptor protein RIP-like-interacting CLARP kinase (RICK) and downstream molecule interleukin-8 (IL-8) were also induced at different levels after stimulation, which indicated that NOD1 and NOD2 signal transduction was involved in grouper innate immune protection against bacterial and viral infections.

  11. Characterization of cathepsin B gene from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides involved in SGIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Yan, Yang; Guo, Chuanyu; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B of papain family is a key regulator and signaling molecule that involves in various biological processes, such as the regulation of apoptosis and activation of virus. In the present study, cathepsin B gene (Ec-CB) was cloned and characterized from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-CB cDNA was composed of 1918 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 330 amino acids with higher identities to cathepsin B of teleosts and mammalians. Ec-CB possessed typical cathepsin B structural features including an N-terminal signal peptide, the propeptide region and the cysteine protease domain which were conserved in other cathepsin B sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ec-CB was most closely related to Lutjanus argentimaculatus. RT-PCR analysis showed that Ec-CB transcript was expressed in all the examined tissues which abundant in spleen, kidney and gill. After challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) stimulation, the mRNA expression of cathepsin B in E. coioides was up-regulated at 24 h post-infection. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that Ec-CB was distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm. When the fish cells (GS or FHM) were treated with the cathepsin B specific inhibitor CA-074Me, the occurrence of CPE induced by SGIV was delayed, and the viral gene transcription was significantly inhibited. Additionally, SGIV-induced typical apoptosis was also inhibited by CA-074Me in FHM cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the Ec-CB might play a functional role in SGIV infection.

  12. Identification and characterization of Rab7 from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Huang, Youhua; Cai, Jia; Wei, Shina; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Ye, Fuzhou; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    Rab7 is a small GTPase that regulates vesicular traffic from early to late endosomal stages of the endocytic pathway. During the virus-host co-evolution, host Rab7 was also exploited by virus to complete their life cycle. To date, however, the roles of fish Rab7 in virus infection remained largely unknown. Here, we cloned and characterized a Rab7 gene from grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Ec-Rab7). The full-length Ec-Rab7 cDNA was composed of 1182 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 207 amino acids which shared 99% identity with that from Anoplopoma fimbria or Oreochromis niloticus. Ec-Rab7 contained five conserved domains of Rab GTPase family including GTP-binding or GTPase regions as well as an effector site. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Ec-Rab7 ubiquitously expressed in all detected tissues and its transcript in spleen was up-regulated after challenge with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Subcellular localization analysis revealed that Ec-Rab7 was distributed in the cytoplasm as spots and mostly colocalized with lysosomes. Notably, the ectopic expressed Ec-Rab7 partly aggregated into the viral factories in cells infected by SGIV. Furthermore, overexpression of Ec-Rab7 accelerated the occurrence of cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by SGIV infection and promoted viral gene transcription. In addition, far western blotting assay revealed that Ec-Rab7 might interact with viral proteins, including SGIV VP69 and VP101. Taken together, our data suggested that Ec-Rab7 might be potentially involved in SGIV replication.

  13. Immunomodulatory effect of sodium alginate enriched diet in kelp grouper Epinephelus brneus against Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Han, Yong-Jae; Jang, Ik-Soo; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-02-01

    The effect of diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ following challenge with Streptococcus iniae in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus were assessed with reference to survival rate and innate immune parameters such as alternative complement, lysozyme, natural haemagglutination, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase, and phagocytic activities on week 1, 2, and 4. Fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ after being challenged with S. iniae had higher survival rates of 75% and 60%, respectively than those fed with control diet (0 g kg⁻¹). With any enriched diet the percentage of macrophages significantly decreased from week 1-4, while the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes significantly increased. The alternate complement activity, natural haemagglutination, and phagocytic activities of infected fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ on week 2 and 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ diets on week 4 were significantly higher when compared to the control. The lysozyme, respiratory bursts, and superoxide dismutase activities of fish fed with enriched diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly increased on week 2 and 4. We therefore recommend that at 1.0 or 2.0 g kg⁻¹ dietary administration of sodium alginate can enhance innate immunity and disease resistance in kelp grouper against S. iniae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Kline

    Full Text Available Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  15. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Richard J; Khan, Izhar A; Holt, G Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  16. Local ecological knowledge on the goliath grouper epinephelus itajara (teleostei: serranidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    Full Text Available The goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara is a large sized (> 400 kg and critically endangered marine fish, which is protected in many countries, including Brazil. Through the application of semi-structured interviews, we investigated the local ecological knowledge of seven fishermen specialist on catching E. itajara from the Babitonga bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Local long-line fisheries for E. itajara seemed to be a disappearing tradition in the studied site, with a detailed inherent local ecological knowledge system, which is also being lost. Our study also showed that fishermen engaged in recent fisheries, such as spear-fishing, can also possess a detailed local ecological knowledge system. Through the analysis of fishermen local ecological knowledge, several aspects of E. itajara life history were registered. This species is found in the inner and outer Babitonga bay, from saline waters to areas with a large input of freshwater, and inhabits submerged wooden substrates and artificial reefs such as shipwrecks, mooring pillars and cargo containers. It is known to spawn in December and subsequent summer months in the studied area. Spawning aggregations are usually seen in December (during full moon, being also eventually observed in January and February by our informants. While lobsters, spadefishes and octopuses seem to constitute the most important food items of inner bay E. itajara, outer bay individuals may feed on catfishes, crustaceans and other fish species. The goliath grouper is regarded as pacific and curious fish, but frequently display agonistic behavior in the presence of divers. Based on the perception of well experienced spear fishermen, we hypothesize that E. itajara undertakes seasonal migrations from the inner to the outer bay during summer, and that the studied population is suffering from growth over-fishing. Our data provides a practical evidence of how joining scientific and local ecological knowledge will likely benefit E

  17. Behavior, Color Change and Time for Sexual Inversion in the Protogynous Grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Richard J.; Khan, Izhar A.; Holt, G. Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific “tuxedo” pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process. PMID:21647429

  18. Infection and pathology in Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), caused by exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae via different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamare-Deboutteville, J; Bowater, R; Condon, K; Reynolds, A; Fisk, A; Aviles, F; Barnes, A C

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of c-type lysozyme gene in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Cai, Jia; Huang, Xiaohong; Fu, Jing; Qin, Qiwei

    2012-08-01

    Lysozymes are key proteins of the host innate immune system against pathogen infection. In this study, a c-type lysozyme gene (Ec-lysC) was cloned and characterized from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-lysC cDNA is composed of 533 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 144-residue protein with 94% identity to lysC of Kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus. The genomic DNA of Ec-lysC consists of 4 exons and 3 introns, with a total length of 1897 bp. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that Ec-lysC possessed conserved catalytic residues (Glu50 and Asp67) and "GSTDYGIFQINS" motif. RT-PCR results showed that Ec-lysC transcript was most abundant in head kidney and less in muscle. The expression of Ec-lysC was differentially up-regulated in head kidney after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Vibrio alginolyticus and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Subcellular localization analysis revealed that Ec-lysC was distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm. The recombinant Ec-lysC (rEc-lysC) had lytic activities against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus iniae and Gram-negative bacteria V. alginolyticus. The lysozyme acted on M. lysodeikticus cell walls as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, overexpression of Ec-lysC in grouper cells delayed the occurrence of CPE induced by SGIV and inhibited the viral gene transcription significantly. Taken together, Ec-lysC might play an important role in grouper innate immune responses to invasion of bacterial and viral pathogens. C-type lysozyme gene from E. coioides (Ec-lysC) was identified and characterized.

  20. Molecular identification of Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822 (Perciformes: Epinephelidae and related commercial species applying multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnio S. Damasceno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Atlantic goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara , is a critically endangered species, threatened by illegal fishing and the destruction of its habitats. A number of other closely related grouper species found in the western Atlantic are also fished intensively. While some countries apply rigorous legislation, illegal harvesting followed by the falsification of fish products, which impedes the correct identification of the species, is a common practice, allowing the catch to be marketed as a different grouper species. In this case, molecular techniques represent an important tool for the monitoring and regulation of fishery practices, and are essential for the forensic identification of a number of different species. In the present study, species-specific primers were developed for the Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I gene, which were applied in a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous identification of nine different species of Epinephelidae: Epinephelus itajara , E. quinquefasciatus , E. morio , Hyporthodus flavolimbatus , H. niveatus , Mycteroperca acutirostris , M. bonaci , M. marginata , and M. microlepis . Multiplex PCR is a rapid, reliable and cost-effective procedure for the identification of commercially-valuable endangered fish species, and may represent a valuable tool for the regulation and sustainable management of fishery resources.

  1. Cloning, expression, and ligand-binding characterization of two neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Weimin; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important multifunctional peptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) performs its physiological functions through different subtype receptors. In this study, full-length cDNAs of two NPY receptors (YRs) in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were cloned and named npy8br (y8b) and npy2r (y2). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Y8b receptor is an ortholog of the teleostean Y8b receptor, which belongs to the Y1 subfamily, and the Y2 receptor is an ortholog of the teleostean Y2 receptor, which belongs to the Y2 subfamily. Both of the YRs have G protein-coupled receptor family profiles. Multiple alignments demonstrate that the extracellular loop regions of YRs have distinctive residues of each species. Expression profile analysis revealed that the grouper Y8b receptor mRNA is primarily expressed in the brain, stomach and intestine, while the grouper Y2 receptor mRNA is primarily expressed in the brain, ovary, liver and heart. Double immunofluorescence analysis determined that the grouper YRs interact with the grouper NPY around the human embryonic kidney 293T cell surface. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis in a phage display system revealed that Asp(6.59) might be a common NPY-binding site, while Asp(2.68) of the Y8b receptor and Glu(5.24) of the Y2 receptor could be likely involved in subtype-specific binding. Combining the expression profile and ligand-binding feature, the grouper Y8b receptor could be involved in regulating food intake via the brain-gut axis and the grouper Y2 receptor might play a role in balancing the regulatory activity of the Y8b receptor and participate in metabolism in the liver and ovary.

  2. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene-induced immunotoxicity in orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaniyan, Maryam; Salamat, Negin; Safahieh, Alireza; Movahedinia, Abdolali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on immune status of orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Fish were injected with 2, 20 and 35 mg/kg-bw of BaP and were kept under laboratory conditions for 14 days. Blood samples were taken at days 1, 4, 7, and 14 and changes in total WBC and RBC, phagocytosis, lysozyme activity, lysosomal membrane stability, immunoglobulin M (IgM) level and antibacterial activity were evaluated. Also BaP bioaccumulation in fish muscle was measured. BaP concentration in the muscle of treated fish reached a maximum level after 4 days (P < 0.05). Exposure of fish to BaP resulted in a significant decrease of total RBC and WBC, lysozyme activity, lysosomal membrane stability, IgM level and antibacterial activity after 4 days and phagocytosis after 7 days of the experiment (P < 0.05). Totally, the results revealed BaP ability to suppress the fish immune function.

  3. Anatomia e histologia gastrintestinal da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae = Dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae gastrintestinal anatomy and histology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A garoupa-verdadeira (Epinephelus marginatus é uma espécie de serranídeo com grande importância ecológica e boas perspectivas para o cultivo. A investigação da morfologia do trato digestório, associada à atividade alimentar, é fundamental para a compreensão da biologia dessa espécie e premissa básica para pesquisas sobrerequerimentos nutricionais, desenvolvimento de rações e práticas adequadas de manejo alimentar. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia e, por meio da microscopia de luz, as variações histológicas ao longo do tubo digestório de juvenis de Epinephelus marginatus, correlacionando a histologia de cada seguimento com as respectivas funções e o hábito alimentar. Verificou-se que essa espécie possui elevado número de tipos celulares ao longo do tubo digestório que estão intimamente relacionados com a resposta imunológica inata e adaptativa, permitindo o hábito alimentar detritívoro.grouper (Epinephelus marginatus is a serranida species with great ecological importance and good perspectives for rearing. The investigation of the digestive tract morphology associatedto the feeding activity is essential for the understanding of the biology of this species and a basic premise for research on feed requirements, feed development and appropriate feeding methods. The present study describes the anatomy and histological variations along the digestive tract of Epinephelus marginatus juveniles associating the histology with function and feeding habit. It was verified that this species possesses a high number of different cellular types along the digestive tube intimately related with the innate and adaptative immunological responses.

  4. Characterization and functional analysis of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhao, Zhe; Hong, Xiaoyou; Chen, Kunci; Zhu, Xinping

    2014-07-01

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a highly conserved integral protein of mitochondria in different eukaryotic species. It forms a selective channel in the mitochondrial outer membrane that serves as the controlled pathway for small metabolites and ions. In this study, a VDAC gene, EcVDAC1, was isolated from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The EcVDAC1 exhibits ubiquitous expression in various tissues of orange-spotted grouper and is upregulated in liver, gill, and spleen after stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Subcellular localization analysis shows that the EcVDAC1 protein colocalized with the mitochondria. A caspase-3 assay demonstrates that overexpression of the EcVDAC1 induced apoptotic cell death in fathead minnow cells. The data presented in this study provide new information regarding the relationship between LPS and the EcVDAC1 gene, suggesting that the fish VDAC1 gene may play an important role in antibacterial immune response.

  5. Mercury concentrations in dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast.

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    Condini, Mario V; Hoeinghaus, David J; Roberts, Aaron P; Soulen, Brianne K; Garcia, Alexandre M

    2017-02-15

    Our study incorporated a comprehensive suite of parameters (i.e., body size, age, diet and trophic position) to investigate mercury concentration in dusky groupers Epinephelus marginatus. This study was carried out in rocky bottoms in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast. We also determined spatial variation in mercury concentrations in individuals inhabiting both zones, which may provide insights into how dietary differences or potential pollution sources affect bioaccumulation. A total of 244 dusky groupers was analyzed to determine total mercury concentrations. Our study revealed that when considering similar body sizes, individuals inhabiting littoral rocky habitats had higher concentrations of mercury probably due to proximity to pollution sources associated with human activities in the estuary and its drainage basin. Furthermore, large individuals (>650mm and >8years old) showed mercury contamination levels that are potentially harmful for this endangered fish species and above the acceptable limits for human consumption.

  6. Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) adiponectin receptors: molecular characterization, mRNA expression, and subcellular location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaobin; Wang, Bin; Sun, Caiyun; Jia, Jirong; Li, Wensheng

    2014-03-01

    Adiponectin is an abundantly secreted adipokine from adipose tissue in mammals, which plays important roles in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The biological function of adiponectin is mediated by at least two receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Although both of them were identified in mammals, there are few researches about adiponectin and its receptors in teleosts. In this study, two types of adiponectin receptors have been isolated and characterized in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNAs of grouper AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are 1444 and 2034 bp in length, encoding proteins of 376 amino acids and 375 amino acids, respectively. Multiple alignment results showed that there was a variable region at the N-terminal of AdipoR1/R2, which has never been reported. Both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were found to be widely expressed in various tissues of grouper. Compared to AdipoR2, AdipoR1 expressed at higher levels in the nervous system and pituitary gland, but at lower levels in some peripheral tissues, including heart, liver, adipose tissue, stomach, intestine and especially gonad. Fasting and refeeding experiments showed that the mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/R2 were up-regulated by fasting in the muscle and adipose tissue of grouper, and restored rapidly to normal levels after refeeding. However, the mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/R2 in the hypothalamus and liver of grouper were insensitive to fasting. By indirect immunofluorescence, we demonstrated that grouper AdipoR1/R2 were integral membrane proteins; the C-terminals were extracellular, while the N-terminals were intracellular.

  7. Characterization of c-Jun from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides involved in SGIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear phosphoprotein c-Jun is a member of the AP1 family of transcription activating complex, can be induced by various extracellular stimuli such as virus infection. In this study, the c-Jun gene (Ec-c-Jun) was cloned from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-c-Jun cDNA is composed of 2046 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 328 amino acids with 81% identity of zebrafish. Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that Ec-c-Jun contained three conserved domains including a transactivation domain (TAD), a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and leucine zipper domain (LZD). RT-PCR results showed that Ec-c-Jun transcript was most abundant in spleen, kidney, heart and gill. The expression of Ec-c-Jun was up-regulated after challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). To investigate the roles of Ec-c-Jun during SGIV infection, we constructed its dominant-negative mutant (DN-Ec-c-Jun) by deleting the major TAD that lacks amino acids 3-122. Fluorescence microscopy observation revealed that Ec-c-Jun and DN-Ec-c-Jun were expressed predominantly in the nucleus in transfected cells. Interestingly, the green fluorescence of Ec-c-Jun was congregated and co-localized with virus assembly sites at the late stage of SGIV infection. However, in DN-Ec-c-Jun transfected cells, no virus assembly sites were observed, and the distribution of fluorescence remained unchanged. Moreover, overexpression of DN-Ec-c-Jun in vitro delayed the occurrence of CPE induced by SGIV infection and inhibited the virus gene transcription. In addition, ectopic expression of DN-Ec-c-Jun was able to inhibit SGIV induced c-Jun/AP1 promoter activity in GS cells. Thus, we proposed that c-Jun transcription factor was essential for SGIV replication in vitro. Our results will contribute to understanding the crucial roles of JNK signaling pathway in fish virus infection.

  8. Early Osteological Development of Larvae and Juveniles in Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara (Pisces: Serranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Myeong, Jeong In; Park, Jae Min

    2016-06-01

    We observed the osteological development of larval and juvenile red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in order to generate data for the assessment of skeletal deformities and to inform phylogenetic systematics research. Larvae and juveniles were obtained from a aquafarm in Muan-gun, Jeolla-namdo Province, Korea. The average water temperature at the time of breeding was 23.0°C and average water salinity was 33.0 psu. Freshly hatched fish larvae had not undergone any ossification, but ossification of the parasphenoid bone, which forms the base of the cranium, occurred as the juveniles reached an average body length (BL) of 2.49 mm. At the same time, ossification of the preopercle and opercle occurred in the operculum, and ossification of the maxilla, which forms the upper jaw, and the dentary bones, which form the lower jaw, began. In addition, ossification of the vertebra occurred by formation of 7 vertebral centra and the neural spine in the abdominal vertebra. When the juveniles reached an average (BL) of 5.22 mm, ossification of the nasal, lateral ethmoid, and alisphenoid bones occurred in the cranium; ossification of the endopterygoid and metapterygoid bones began in the palatine region; and ossification of the hypohyal and interhyal bones occurred in the hyoid arch. At an average (BL) of 20.9 mm, ossification of the basisphenoid bone in the cranium and the suborbital bone in the orbital region occurred. Ossification of the vertebra then occurred by the formation of long pairs of ribs from the third to the ninth abdominal vertebrae, completing osteological development.

  9. The biofunction of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) CC chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4) in innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Jiou; Hou, Chia-Yi; Lin, Shih-Jie; Kuo, Wan-Ching; Lin, Han-Tso; Lin, John Han-You

    2013-12-01

    CC chemokine (motif) ligand 4 (CCL4) is indispensable to the chemoattraction of macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes in mammals; however, it has only been cloned in a limited number of fish species and information related to its biofunction remains ambiguous with regard to teleosts. To explore the role of teleost CCL4, we first evaluated the mRNA expression of the Epinephelus coioides CCL4 (gCCL4) gene in various organs under LPS and poly (I:C) stimulated; secondary, we evaluated the immune-related genes expression of fish under the recombinant gCCL4 protein stimulated. Our results revealed an increase in the mRNA of gCCL4 in immune organs immediately following stimulation by poly (I:C); however, in LPS stimulated fish, the expression did not increase until nearly 24 h after induction. In biofunction assays, recombinant gCCL4 was found to induce chemotactic activity in the peripheral blood leukocytes of groupers and up-regulate the gene expressions of grouper TNFA1 (TNF-α1), TNFA2 (TNF-α2), IFNG (IFN-γ), MX, TBX21 (T-bet), CD8 (α and β chain). These findings indicate that grouper CCL4 attracts leukocytes, induces an inflammatory response, and drives lymphocyte differentiation into the Th1 pathway.

  10. Interferon regulatory factor 10 (IRF10): Cloning in orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and evolutionary analysis in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bei; Jia, Qin Qin; Liang, Ying; Huang, Wen Shu; Nie, P

    2015-10-01

    IRF10 gene was cloned in orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and its expression was examined following poly(I:C) stimulation and bacterial infection. The cDNA sequence of grouper IRF10 contains an open reading frame of 1197 bp, flanked by 99 bp 5'-untranslated region and 480 bp 3'- untranslated region. Multiple alignments showed that the grouper IRF10 has a highly conserved DNA binding domain in the N terminus with characteristic motif containing five tryptophan residues. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of IRF10 was responsive to both poly(I:C) stimulation and Vibrio parahemolyticus infection, with a higher increase to poly(I:C), indicating an important role of IRF10 in host immune response during infection. A phyletic distribution of IRF members was also examined in vertebrates, and IRF10 was found in most lineages of vertebrates, not in modern primates and rodents. It is suggested that the first divergence of IRF members might have occurred before the evolutionary split of vertebrate and cephalochordates, producing ancestors of IRF (1/2/11) and IRF (4/8/9/10)[(3/7) (5/6)], and that the second and/or third divergence of IRF members occurred following the split, thus leading to the subsets of the IRF family in vertebrates.

  11. Parasite fauna of wild and cultured dusky-grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 from Ubatuba, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Roumbedakis

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea, Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea, Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea, Helicometrina nimia (Digenea and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda. The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions.

  12. Estimating natural mortality rates and simulating fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico red grouper (Epinephelus morio) using the ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüss, Arnaud; Schirripa, Michael J.; Chagaris, David; Velez, Laure; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Verley, Philippe; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Ainsworth, Cameron H.

    2016-02-01

    The ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS was employed to evaluate natural mortality rates and fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico (GOM) red grouper (Epinephelus morio). OSMOSE-WFS represents major high trophic level (HTL) groups of species of the West Florida Shelf, is forced by the biomass of plankton and benthos groups, and has a monthly time step. The present application of the model uses a recently developed 'stochastic mortality algorithm' to resolve the mortality processes of HTL groups. OSMOSE-WFS predictions suggest that the natural mortality rate of juveniles of GOM red grouper is high and essentially due to predation, while the bulk of the natural mortality of adult red grouper results from causes not represented in OSMOSE-WFS such as, presumably, red tides. These results were communicated to GOM red grouper stock assessments. Moreover, OSMOSE-WFS indicate that altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have no global impact on the biomass of the major prey of red grouper, due to the high complexity and high redundancy of the modeled system. By contrast, altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have a large impact on the biomass of its major competitors. Increasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would increase the biomass of major competitors, due to reduced competition for food. Conversely, decreasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would diminish the biomass of major competitors, due to increased predation pressure on the juveniles of the major competitors by red grouper. The fishing scenarios that we evaluated may have slightly different impacts in the real world, due to some discrepancies between the diets of red grouper and its major competitors predicted by OSMOSE-WFS and the observed ones. Modifications in OSMOSE-WFS are suggested to reduce these discrepancies.

  13. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of TRAF6 in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Li, Xia; Xiao, Xi-Xi; Zhao, Fei; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2014-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a crucial signal transducer in both the TNFR superfamily and Toll-like receptor/interleukin 1R family. Although significant progress has been made in clarifying the role of TRAF6 in mammals, the function of TRAF6 in fish is still poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TRAF6 (EcTRAF6) cDNA, with an open reading frame of 1713bp encoding 570 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that EcTRAF6 contains the four characteristic domains conserved in the TRAF family, including an N-terminal RING finger, two zinc fingers, a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal MATH domain. Homology alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that EcTRAF6 shares high sequence identity with TRAF6 of other fish species. The EcTRAF6 gene contains seven exons and six introns, which is similar to the organization in ayu, but not in the common carp, human, or mouse (six exons and five introns). EcTRAF6 transcripts were broadly expressed in all tissues tested, and increased after infection with Cryptocaryon irritans. Intracellular localization showed EcTRAF6 was distributed mainly in the cytoplasm. Over-expression of wild type (WT) EcTRAF6, truncated forms of EcTRAF6, including ΔZinc finger 2 and ΔMATH, and a mutant of C78A activated NF-κB strongly in HEK293T cells; whereas truncations, including ΔRING, ΔZinc finger 1 and Δcoiled-coiled, and a mutant of K132R induced the activity of NF-κB slightly compared to WT EcTRAF6, implying the latter has a more crucial role in downstream signal transduction. Together, these results suggested EcTRAF6 functions like that of mammals to activate NF-κB, and it might have an important role in host defense against parasitic infections.

  14. Immunity to nervous necrosis virus infections of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) by vaccination with virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kebing; Zhu, Zhihuang; Ge, Hui; Zheng, Leyun; Huang, Zhongchi; Wu, Shuiqing

    2016-09-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is a kind of the betanodaviruses, which can cause viral nervous necrosis (VNN) and massive mortality in larval and juvenile stages of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Due to the lack of viral genomes, virus-like particles (VLPs) are considered as one of the most promising candidates in vaccine study to control this disease. In this study, a type of VLPs, which was engineered on the basis of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), was produced from prokaryotes. They possessed the similar structure and size to the native NNV. In addition, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing CpG motif was added in vaccines, and the expression patterns of several genes were analyzed after injecting with VLP and VLP with adjuvant (VA) to assess the regulation effect of vaccine for inducing immune responses. RT-PCR assays showed that six related genes in healthy tissues were ubiquitously expressed in all nine tested tissues. The vaccine alone was able to enhance the expression of genes, including MHCIa, MyD88, TLR3, TLR9 and TLR22 after vaccination, indicating that the vaccine was able to induce immune response in grouper. In liver, spleen and kidney, the gene expressions of VA group were all significantly higher than that of VLP group at 72 h post-stimulation, showing that the fish of VA challenge group obtained the longer-lasting protective immunity and resistance to pathogen challenge than that of VLP group. The data indicated that the efficacy of vaccine could be further enhanced by CpG ODN after vaccination and provided the reference for the development of future viral vaccine in grouper.

  15. Increase in estrogen signaling in the early brain of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Ganesan; Aruna, Adimoolam; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2013-02-01

    Despite neurosteroidogenic enzymes are playing important roles in the regulation of brain development and function, the potential link between brain and gonad by the action of steroid hormones during gonadal sex differentiation is still not clear in teleosts. In this mini-review, we summarized our understanding on the early brain development related to the synthesis of neurosteroids and receptor signaling during gonadal sex differentiation in protogynous orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides (functional females for the first 6 years of life and start to sex change around the age of 7 years) and protandrous black porgy (functional males for the first 2 years of life but begin to change sex during the third year). We found a similar profile in the increased expression of brain aromatase gene (aromatatse B or cyp19a1b), aromatase activity, estradiol (E(2)), and estrogen signaling in the brain of both grouper and black porgy fish during gonadal sex differentiation. In contrast to mammals, teleost fish Cyp19a1b expressed in a unique cell type, a radial glial cell, which is acted as progenitors in the brain of developing and adult fish. In agreement with these pioneer studies, we demonstrated that the grouper cyp19a1b/Cyp19a1b was expressed in radial glial cells. Further, in vivo data in the grouper brain showed that exogenous E(2) upregulated Cyp19a1b immunoreactivity (ir) in radial glial cells. These data suggest the possible roles of Cyp19a1b and E(2) in early brain development which is presumably related to gonadal sex differentiation.

  16. Molecular clone and characterization of c-Jun N-terminal kinases 2 from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-02-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is a multifunctional mitogen-activated protein kinases involving in cell differentiation and proliferation, apoptosis, immune response and inflammatory conditions. In this study, we reported a new JNK2 (Ec-JNK2) derived from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA of Ec-JNK2 was 1920 bp in size, containing a 174 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 483 bp 3'-UTR, and a 1263 bp open reading frame (ORF), which encoded a putative protein of 420 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence of Ec-JNK2 contained a conserved Thr-Pro-Tyr (TPY) motif in the domain of serine/threonine protein kinase (S-TKc). Ec-JNK2 has been found to involve in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Ec-JNK2 was localized in the cytoplasm of grouper spleen (GS) cells, and moved to the nucleus after infecting with SGIV. Ec-JNK2 distributed in all immune-related tissues examined. After challenging with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), SGIV and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C), the mRNA expression of Ec-JNK2 was significantly (P orange-spotted grouper. Over-expressing Ec-JNK2 in fathead minnow (FHM) cells increased the SGIV infection and replication, while over-expressing the dominant-negative Ec-JNK2Δ181-183 mutant decreased it. These results indicated that Ec-JNK2 could be an important molecule in the successful infection and evasion of SGIV.

  17. Ultrastructure of the anterior intestinal epithelia of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae under different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera-Tirol, Y H; Coloso, R M; Quinitio, G F; Ordonio-Aguilar, R; Laureta, L V

    2014-04-01

    Enterocytes of the anterior to midsection of the intestine in grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae were compared among different treatments: unfed to the point-of-no-return (PNR), fed natural food only, and co-fed natural food and artificial diet. On day 3, the nutritional condition of unfed grouper larvae regressed with its reduced enterocyte heights which were further degraded on day 4, the PNR, when all the enterocytes were in advanced stages of apoptosis. The apoptosis appeared to be internally directed via the mitochondria. Among day 3 fed larvae, enterocyte heights of those fed artificial diet did not differ from those fed natural food only. Dietary phospholipid deficiency was indicated in larvae co-fed artificial diet on day 3 with an unusually large chylomicron opening into the inter-enterocyte space, and on days 6 and 33 by intestinal steatosis. On day 19, scant to absent lipid droplets in enterocytes of larvae disclosed heightened nutritional requirement preparatory to metamorphosis. As observed in unfed day 3 and premetamorphic day 19 E. coioides, larvae undergoing critical periods and starvation during development employ apoptosis to dispose of degenerated enterocytes that are phagocytosed by adjacent healthy enterocytes without causing inflammatory distress. Upon metamorphosis, grouper larval gut develops better immunity fitness with eosinophilic granule cells observed in the intestinal epithelia of day 33 larvae. Future studies on grouper larval nutrition may consider the appropriate dietary phospholipid levels and larval competence to biosynthesize highly unsaturated fatty acid from linoleic acid vis-à-vis the use of plant ingredients in artificial diet formulations. In vivo challenge tests may validate appropriate dietary nutrient supplementation and lead to better feed formulation, matching the varying energetic demands and digestive capacities of developing E. coioides larvae.

  18. Dietary administration of sodium alginate ameliorated stress and promoted immune resistance of grouper Epinephelus coioides under cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Po; Lin, Yu-Hung; Chen, Min-Chieh; Cheng, Winton

    2017-06-01

    Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 0 (control, named C) and 1.0 g kg(-1) (named S) at a temperature of 28 °C for 12 days, were then further individually transferred to 28 (two groups named C-28 and S-28) or 20 °C (two groups named C-20 and S-20), and immune parameters and stress indexes were measured at the beginning and after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of exposure. Examination of immune parameters revealed that the alternative complement activity (ACH50), lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity, superoxide dismutase, and respiratory bursts significantly increased in groupers fed the sodium alginate-containing diet for 12 days, and were higher in the S-28 than those of the C-28 and S-20 groups, which were higher than those of the C-20 group from 6 to 48 h except for ACH50 at 48 h, respiratory bursts at 48 h, and lysozymes at 6 h. For the assessment of stress indicators, cortisol, glucose, and lactate levels of serum significantly decreased in grouper fed the sodium alginate-containing diet for 12 days, and were higher in the C-20 group than those of the C-28 and S-20 groups, which were higher than those of the S-20 group at 6-48 h. In another experiment, grouper fed the test diet for 12 days at a temperature of 28 °C were challenged with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida at a dose of 5 × 10(3) colony-forming units (cfu) (g fish)(-1), and then individually transferred to 28 or 20 °C. The survival rate of challenged fish of the C-28 group was significantly lower than those of challenged fish of the C-20 and S-28 groups, which were significantly lower than that of challenged fish of the S-20 group. All challenged fish of the S-20 group survived. Survival rates over 144 h were 30.0%, 70.0%, and 56.7% for the C-28, C-20, and S-28 groups, respectively. Our results indicated that dietary sodium alginate administration downregulated stress response indicators, enhanced immune responses, and prevented impacts of

  19. Identification of the Bcl-2 family protein gene BOK from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) involved in SGIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Yu, Dapeng; Wei, Shina; Tang, Jufen; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Qin, Qiwei; Jian, Jichang

    2016-05-01

    Apoptosis plays vital roles in many physiological process and immune response. BOK is one of the central regulators in apoptosis. In this study, a new BOK homolog (Ec-BOK) was cloned and characterized from Orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ec-BOK encoded a 210 amino acid peptides which shared 97% identity to Stegastes partitus BOK protein, contained four BH domains and one transmembrane region. Ec-BOK widely expressed in all analyzed tissues with the higher expressions in kidney and spleen. Its expression level was up-regulated after SGIV infection in vitro. Further analysis revealed that overexpression of Ec-BOK inhibited viral genes transcriptions and virus replication in fish cell. Our findings suggested that Ec-BOK might play a role in the immune response against virus.

  20. Functional analysis of an orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) interferon gene and characterisation of its expression in response to nodavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Young-Mao; Kuo, Cham-En; Chen, Guan-Ru; Kao, Yu-Ting; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Chris J; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2014-10-01

    We cloned and sequenced 2C I-IFN, a two-cysteine containing type I interferon (I-IFN) gene, in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNA has 769 base pairs, the protein has 172 amino acids, and the predicted signal peptide has 18 amino acids with two cysteines. This gene is similar to I-FNs from sea bass and other teleosts. 2C I-IFN has 5 exons and 4 introns, also similar to other teleost I-IFNs. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis indicated that expression is predominantly membrane-localized in healthy grouper, but has a zonal distribution in nodavirus-infected grouper. Grouper infected with nodavirus had elevated levels of 2C I-IFN at 72 h and Mx at days 6-7. Recombinant 2C I-IFN activated grouper Mx, leading to upregulated antiviral activity. The grouper Mx promoter was highly induced after treatment with recombinant 2C I-IFN. The present results suggest that expression of grouper 2C I-IFN may participate in the immunologic barrier function against nodavirus.

  1. Advances in the study on nutrient requirements of grouper (Epinephelus sp.): a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi; Liu, Yongjian; Mai, Kangsen; Tian, Lixia

    2005-04-01

    The paper reviews the recent advances in studying grouper nutrition requirement for the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly artificial diets. It consists of seven parts: protein and amino acid, lipid and essential fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, alternative protein source, broodstock and larval nutrition. The review provides some basic information for further investigation of nutrient requirements of groupers.

  2. Advances in the Study on Nutrient Requirements of Grouper (Epinephelus sp. ): a Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi; LIU Yongjian; MAI Kangsen; TIAN Lixia

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the recent advances in studying grouper nutrition requirement for the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly artificial diets. It consists of seven parts: protein and amino acid, lipid and essential fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, alternative protein source, broodstock and larval nutrition. The review provides some basic information for further investigation of nutrient requirements of groupers.

  3. Spatial dynamics of the red grouper Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae on the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. López-Rocha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial dynamics of the red grouper Epinephelus morio plays a fundamental role in the fishery management on the Campeche Bank, where it is overfished. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial dynamics of this population. We used a dynamic model of spatial distribution to estimate population movement rates between adjacent areas. The model was applied using information on catch per unit effort and length-frequency distributions for the Mexican mid-sized fleet that operated in the area in the period 1973-1977. These data were chosen to ensure that the information would reflect the condition of the resource before overfishing. It was possible to quantify the spatial dynamics of the red grouper and the results were consistent with previously known movement patterns. The results showed different movement rates and temporal patterns of movement for different population sectors. The spawning aggregations and the seasonal upwelling occurring in the eastern part of the Bank were considered as key factors influencing the pattern of population movements.

  4. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of Toll-like receptor 3 gene in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kebing; Ge, Hui; Lin, Qi; Wu, Jianshao; He, Libin; Fang, Qiongshan; Zhou, Chen; Sun, Minqiu; Huang, Zhongchi

    2013-09-15

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays an important role in activating innate immune responses during viral infection. In this report, TLR3 (EcTLR3) was characterized and analyzed for the first time in Epinephelus coioides. The full-length EcTLR3 cDNA is predicted to encode a 909 amino acid polypeptide that contains a signal peptide sequence, 18 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs, a transmembrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the EcTLR3 mRNA was much more abundant in the liver than in other immune organs, and that the expression levels were very low in hemocyte and muscle. During development of the grouper, the levels of EcTLR3 transcripts increased with age, with very low expression levels at the early stages of development. EcTLR3 mRNA levels were examined in the liver at different times after treatment with polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly I:C), and in nervous necrosis virus (NNV)-infected larval groupers. The results suggested that EcTLR3 plays an important role in a fish's defense against viral infection.

  5. Immune responses of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, against virus-like particles of betanodavirus produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Xiong; Jin, Bao-Lei; Xu, Yu; Huang, Li-Jie; Huang, Run-Qing; Zhang, Yong; Kwang, Jimmy; He, Jian-Guo; Xie, Jun-Feng

    2014-01-15

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a serious disease of cultured marine fish worldwide. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the good novel vaccine candidates to control this disease. Until now, betanodavirus vaccine studies mainly focused on the humoral immune response and mortality after virus challenge. However, little is known about the activation of genes responsible for cellular and innate immunity by vaccines. In the present study, VLPs of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV) were produced in prokaryotes and their ability to enter Asian sea bass cells was the same as native virus, suggesting that they possess a similar structure to OGNNV. VLPs immunogenicity was then determined by intramuscularly vaccinating Epinephelus coioides at different concentrations (1.5 or 15 μg g(-1) fish body weight, FBW) and immunizing frequencies (administration once, twice and thrice). A single vaccination with the dosage of 1.5 μg g(-1) FBW is enough to provoke high titer antibodies (average 3 fold higher than that of negative control) with strong neutralizing antibody titer as early as 1 week post immunization. Furthermore, quantitative PCR analysis revealed that eleven genes associated with humoral, cellular and innate immunities were up-regulated in the liver, spleen and head kidney at 12h post immunization, correlating with the early antibody response. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VLP vaccination induced humoral immune responses and activated genes associated with cellular and innate immunity against betanodavirus infection in orange-spotted grouper.

  6. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of neuropeptide Y in orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Li, Wensheng; Lin, Haoran

    2005-09-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding the neuropeptide Y (NPY) was cloned from the hypothalamus of orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends approaches. The NPY cDNA sequence is 688 bp long and has an open reading frame of 300 bp encoding prepro-NPY with 99 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences contain a 28-amino-acids signal peptide followed by a 36-amino-acids mature NPY peptide. mRNA expression of NPY was determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR followed by Southern blot analysis. NPY mRNA was expressed in olfactory bulb, telencephalon, pituitary, hypothalamus, optic tectum-thalamus, medulla oblongata, cerebellum and spinal cord. Low levels of NPY mRNA expression were found in retina, ovary and stomach, while much lower levels of expression were detected in liver, heart, gill, skin, anterior intestine, thymus and blood. No NPY mRNA expression was observed in unfertilized eggs, newly fertilized eggs, 16-cells stage and morula stage of the embryo and lower levels of expression were detected in the blastula, gastrula and neurula stages. It was highly expressed from lens formation stage to 52-day-old larval stage. NPY might be involved in the late embryonic and larval development of the orange spotted grouper.

  7. Investigating the origin of vagrant dusky groupers, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), in coastal waters of Réunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kerry; Crochelet, Estelle; Bloomer, Paulette; Hoareau, Thierry B

    2016-10-01

    Due to their geographic isolation, biotas of oceanic islands are likely influenced by episodic long distance dispersal events, but such observations are scarce. In June 2012, fishermen from Réunion Island caught an unknown specimen of grouper, identified as dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834). This was highly unexpected considering the large distance of its closest verified occurrence (South Africa, ∼2500km). To identify the origin of this specimen and the mechanisms driving this potential long distance colonization, we combined genetic analyses and hydrodynamic connectivity modeling approaches. Molecular markers and samples from various locations across the distribution range resulted in the identification of three putative source populations. The Réunion specimen clustered genetically with South Africa. The estimated spawning period in relation to the connectivity modeling of larvae showed no possible direct connection between South Africa and Réunion. However, connectivity was predicted through intermediate stepping stone populations likely located around the southern tip of Madagascar, where the occurrence of the species has yet to be verified. The results further highlight the potential role of the cyclone Bingiza (February 2011) in the connection between Madagascar and Réunion. This shows that cyclones may be an important driver in long distance colonization of oceanic islands.

  8. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of four isotypes of immunoglobulin light chain genes in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Chao-An; Lin, Chih-Hung; Lee, Chiou-Yueh; Tseng, Shih-Jou; Tzeng, Chyng-Shyan; Chang, Chi-Yao

    2013-03-01

    To date, many immunoglobulin (Ig) genes have been identified in diverse teleost species, but the contributions of different types of light chain (IgL) to the immune response remain unclear. Screening of a stimulated kidney cDNA library from orange-spotted grouper (Osg, Epinephelus coioides) resulted in the identification of 26 full Ig light chain (OsgIgL) coding sequences. These 26 OsgIgLs encoded peptides from 235 to 248 amino acid residues and could be grouped into five variable (V(L)) and four constant (C(L)) isotypes. The C(L) regions contained three conserved cysteine residues that may participate in intra- or inter-chain disulfide bond formation. The four C(L) isotypes could be sub-grouped into two serological types: κ (C(L)-I, C(L)-II and C(L)-III) and σ (C(L)-IV), by phylogenetic analysis. The OsgIgL genes were found to be expressed in various tissues, with greatest levels of expression observed in the head-kidney and spleen. The major expression type was C(L)-I, which comprised 92% and 91% of total OsgIgL gene expression in the head-kidney and spleen, respectively. Transcription of all four C(L) isotypes was differentially affected in response to various immunostimulators, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C and grouper iridovirus (GIV). Induction of OsgIgL genes in response to immunostimulators was particularly dramatic in the spleen, suggesting this organ holds particular importance for the regulation of OsgIgL expression. Furthermore, vaccination of grouper with formalin-inactivated GIV also induced differential patterns of expression in all four OsgIgL isotypes. In summary, the significant and diverse patterns of transcriptional induction observed for OsgIgL isotypes in the spleen and head-kidney imply that each isotype may have unique roles in the immune response.

  9. Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) toll-like receptor 22: molecular characterization, expression pattern and pertinent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Lu, Dan-qi; Hou, Qing-hua; Li, Shui-sheng; Liu, Xiao-chun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Hao-ran

    2012-09-01

    The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an important gene family in host innate immunologic surveillance. The TLR22 gene is an essential member of the TLRs that is only found in aquatic animals and has been detected in some bony fish. Here, a TLR22 homolog, EcTLR22, was characterized in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) via homology cloning. The 3321 bp full-length cDNA sequence of EcTLR22 was obtained, which included an open reading frame of 2880 bp encoding a putative peptide of 960 amino acids containing three highly typical domains with the characteristics of TLR family members. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcTLR22 showed a relatively high similarity to flounder TLR22. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper TLR22 sequence was clustered with those of Perciforme, such as flounder and croaker. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed broad expression of EcTLR22, with relatively high expression detected in the head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and heart of orange-spotted grouper. After injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, there was significant up-regulation of the expression of EcTLR22 in the spleen. In evaluating unstimulated/stimulated head kidney leukocytes and spleen leukocytes, a significant increase in EcTLR22 mRNA expression was detected, which implied a sensitive immune response. Furthermore, four important molecules for signal transduction, MyD88, TRIF, TNF-α and IRF3, were chosen to analyze the role of the EcTLR22 signaling pathway in anti-pathogen responses. Upon LPS or Poly I:C challenge, expression of the four genes was induced, with an increasing tendency detected in head kidney leukocytes, suggesting that the four genes might work with EcTLR22 in host defense against pathogenic microbes.

  10. JNK1 derived from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, involving in the evasion and infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglan eGuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK regulates cellular responses to various extracellular stimuli, environmental stresses, pathogen infections, and apoptotic agents. Here, a JNK1, Ec-JNK1, was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ec-JNK1 has been found involving in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV and SGIV-induced apoptosis in vitro. SGIV infection activated Ec-JNK1, of which phosphorylation of motif TPY is crucial for its activity. Over-expressing Ec-JNK1 phosphorylated transcription factors c-Jun and promoted the infection and replication of SGIV, while partial inhibition of the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 showed the opposite effects by over-expressing the dominant-negative EcJNK1-△183-185 mutant. Interestingly, SGIV enhanced the viral infectivity by activating Ec-JNK1 which in turn drastically inhibited the antiviral responses of type 1 IFN, indicating that Ec-JNK1 could be involved in blocking IFN signaling during SGIV infection. In addition, Ec-JNK1 enhanced the activation of AP-1, p53 and NF-κB, and resulted in increasing the levels of SGIV-induced cell death. The caspase 3-dependent activation correlated with the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 and contributed to SGIV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, SGIV modulated the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 to inactivate the antiviral signaling, enhance the SGIV-induced apoptosis and activate transcription factors for efficient infection and replication. The positive cooperativity molecular mechanism mediated by Ec-JNK1 contributes to the successful evasion and infection of iridovirus pathogenesis.

  11. JNK1 Derived from Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, Involving in the Evasion and Infection of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhou, Yongcan; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates cellular responses to various extracellular stimuli, environmental stresses, pathogen infections, and apoptotic agents. Here, a JNK1, Ec-JNK1, was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ec-JNK1 has been found involving in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and SGIV-induced apoptosis in vitro. SGIV infection activated Ec-JNK1, of which phosphorylation of motif TPY is crucial for its activity. Over-expressing Ec-JNK1 phosphorylated transcription factors c-Jun and promoted the infection and replication of SGIV, while partial inhibition of the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 showed the opposite effects by over-expressing the dominant-negative EcJNK1-Δ183-185 mutant. Interestingly, SGIV enhanced the viral infectivity by activating Ec-JNK1 which in turn drastically inhibited the antiviral responses of type 1 IFN, indicating that Ec-JNK1 could be involved in blocking IFN signaling during SGIV infection. In addition, Ec-JNK1 enhanced the activation of AP-1, p53, and NF-κB, and resulted in increasing the levels of SGIV-induced cell death. The caspase 3-dependent activation correlated with the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 and contributed to SGIV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, SGIV modulated the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 to inactivate the antiviral signaling, enhance the SGIV-induced apoptosis and activate transcription factors for efficient infection and replication. The "positive cooperativity" molecular mechanism mediated by Ec-JNK1 contributes to the successful evasion and infection of iridovirus pathogenesis.

  12. Identification and characterization of three TLR1 subfamily members from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Xu, Dong-Dong; Li, Xia; Mo, Ze-Quan; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Li, An-Xing; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play important roles in host defense against pathogen infection, are the most intensively studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we identified three novel TLR1 subfamily members, including TLR1 (EcTLR1b), TLR2 (EcTLR2b) and TLR14 (EcTLR14), from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b displayed low sequence identity with the previously reported grouper TLR1 (EcTLR1a) and TLR2 (EcTLR2a), respectively. The open reading frames (ORFs) of EcTLR1b, EcTLR2b and EcTLR14 contain 2484 bp, 2394 bp and 2640 bp, which encode the corresponding 827 amino acids (aa), 797 aa and 879 aa, respectively. All three TLRs have leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains (including an LRR-NT (except for EcTLR1b), several LRR motifs and an LRR-CT), a trans-membrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The TIR domains of the three TLRs exhibited conserved boxes, namely box1, box2 and box3, and their 3D models were similar to those of human TLR1 or TLR2. Sequence alignment demonstrated that the TIR domains of the three TLRs shared higher sequence identity with those of other species than the full-length receptors. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EcTLR1s and EcTLR2s are characterized by their differing evolutionary status, whereas EcTLR14 was found to be in the same group as other piscine TLR14/18s. The three TLRs were ubiquitously expressed in seven tested tissues of healthy groupers, although their expression profiles were different. Post Cryptocaryon irritans infection, TLR1s expression was up-regulated in the gills. The expression of TLR2b was mainly increased in the spleen, but decreased in the gills, which was similar to the expression pattern of TLR2a post C. irritans infection. Unlike EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b, however, the grouper TLR14 transcript was substantially induced in both tissues post challenge. These findings may be helpful in understanding the innate immune mechanism of host

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of two types of IκBα orthologues in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ren; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Guan, Liya; Wei, Shina; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-05-01

    Inhibitors of kappa B (IκBs) are the members of primary regulators of NF-κB, which can inhibit NF-κB activity by blocking the NF-κB in an inactive state in the cytoplasm. In this study, two types of IκBα orthologues (EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB) from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, were cloned and characterized. EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB encoded putative proteins containing 308 and 318 amino acids, which shared 59% and 53% identity to IκBαA and IκBαB of Danio rerio, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that both EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB contained a conserved degradation motif DSGLDS in the N-terminal region and a PEST sequence in the C-terminal region. In addition, EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB contained 5 and 6 ankyrin repeats, respectively. The genomic DNA of EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB consisted of 6 exons and 5 introns. Both of their transcripts were widely distributed in different tissues, and the expression levels were different in response to various stimuli, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Vibrio alginolyticus and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Dual-luciferase reporter assay suggested that both EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB were able to inhibit Ecc-Rel and Ecp65 induced NF-κB promoter activity in grouper spleen (GS) cells. Subcellular localization analysis showed that EcIκBαB was present predominantly in the cytoplasm, while EcIκBαA was distributed throughout both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Furthermore, overexpression of EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB in GS cells inhibited the viral gene transcriptions of MCP, ORF019 and ORF162 of SGIV. Taken together, our findings suggested that both EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB were involved in grouper innate immunity against virus.

  14. Dietary supplementation of Pediococcus pentosaceus enhances innate immunity, physiological health and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2014-08-01

    Groupers (Epinephelus spp.) are economically important fish species in Southeast Asian aquaculture. Vibriosis caused by Vibro spp. is one of the severe bacterial diseases that devastate the grouper aquaculture industry. Probiotics have been reported to show the potential to enhance fish immunity and to antagonize pathogens. In our previous study, a lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus pentosaceus strain 4012 (LAB4012), isolated from cobia intestine, protects cobia from photobacteriosis after a 2-week feeding. In this study, we examined the potential of LAB4012 to be a probiotic for the orange-spotted grouper through feeding, thus to guard against vibriosis. In vitro, LAB4012 culture supernatant with low pH suppressed the growth of Vibrio anguillarum, and lactic acid in the metabolite of LAB4012 appeared to be the major factor to the growth inhibition of V. anguillarum. In vivo, the challenge test showed that the cumulative mortality of the LAB4012-fed groupers was significantly lower than that of the control fish after V. anguillarum infection. Supplementation of LAB4012 in commercial diet not only enhanced the growth rate and erythrocyte numbers of the groupers, but also regulated the gene expression of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines. One day post-infection of V. anguillarum, the leukocyte numbers in the peripheral blood and the phagocytic activity of the head-kidney phagocytes in the LAB4012-fed groupers were found significantly increased, when compared with those without LAB4012-feeding. These results suggested that LAB4012 can be a dietary probiotic for groupers in modulating the immunity and protecting the groupers from V. anguillarum infection.

  15. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of spexin in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Qiongyu; Xiao, Ling; Chen, Huapu; Li, Guangli; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    Spexin is a newly discovered neuropeptide in vertebrates. Comprehensive comparative studies are required to unveil its biological functions. In order to ascertain the neuroendocrine function of spexin in orange-spotted grouper, its full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences were cloned and analyzed. Sequence analyses showed that the spexin gene structure is composed of six exons and five introns, and the amino acids of mature peptide (spexin-14) in grouper are identical to that of other fish. Tissue expression analysis found that grouper spexin is highly expressed in the brain, liver and ovary. Real time-PCR analysis demonstrated that the hypothalamic expression of spexin declined gradually during the ovarian development, and was up-regulated by food deprivation. Intraperitoneal administration of spexin-14 peptides to grouper significantly elevated the mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin (pomc) and suppressed the orexin expression in the hypothalamus, but could not change the hypothalamic expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone 1 (gnrh1). Both in vivo and in vitro administration of spexin could not significantly influence the expression of follicle-stimulating hormone β (fshβ) and luteinizing hormone β (lhβ) in the pituitary with the exception of an inhibition of gh expression. Our data suggested that the spexin has a significant role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in orange-spotted grouper.

  16. Cathepsin L in the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides: molecular cloning and gene expression after a Vibrio anguillarum challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing-Zhen; Rao, Ying-Zhu; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2012-12-01

    The orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, is an important fish maricultured in many Asian countries. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of cathepsin L, an immunity related gene of fishes, was isolated from E. coioides using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It is 1,443 bp in length, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,011 bp. The open reading frame encoded a preproprotein of 336 amino acids (aa), which consisted of a signal peptide of 16 aa, a proregion peptide of 98 aa and a mature peptide of 222 aa. The preproprotein contained an oxyanion hole (Gln), a catalytic triad formed by Cys, His and Asn, and the conserved ERWNIN, GNFD and GCNGG motifs, all characteristic of cathepsin L. Homology analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of E. coioides cathepsin L shared 80.1-94.8 % identity with those of reported fishes. Tissue-dependent mRNA expression analysis showed that the cathepsin L transcript was expressed in all the examined tissues of the healthy E. coioides, being highest in the liver and moderate in the heart, gonad and intestine. After Vibrio anguillarum stimulation, the mRNA expression of cathepsin L in E. coioides was significantly increased in the skin, fin, gills, liver, blood, spleen, head kidney and intestine, with the highest observed in the spleen (10.6-fold) at 12 h post-injection and the next in blood (7.5-fold) at 8 h post-injection. These results provided initial information for further studies on the physiological and immunological roles of the cathepsin L gene in the orange-spotted grouper.

  17. Application of biomarkers in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) to assess chromium pollution in the Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Parvin, E-mail: parvin.sadeghi@gmail.com [Marine Biology Department, Marine Science Faculty, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazerouni, Faranak [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Savari, Ahmad; Movahedinia, Abdolali; Safahieh, Alireza [Marine Biology Department, Marine and Oceanic Science Faculty, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ajdari, Daniel [Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In the present study plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) hormone and kidney histological changes were assessed as biomarkers to evaluate the chromium pollution in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) obtained from different areas in Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman. Chemical analyses included the evaluation of chromium in the fish kidney tissue and sediment. The highest and lowest concentrations of chromium were measured in the kidney of fish and sediment collected from Konarak (47.53 ± 1.23 and 110 ± 1.4 μg g{sup –1}) and the mouth of Chabahar Bay (3.43 ± 1.31 and 13.5 ± 3.23 μg g{sup –1}), respectively. There was significant difference (P < 0.05) of EPO plasma levels between Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations with the mouth of Chabahar Bay as the cleanest station. Reduction of Bowman's space, occlusion of the tubule lumen, leukocytes infiltration, melanomacrophage centers aggregation, nuclear vacuolation, nuclei hypertrophy of tubule cells, necrosis of the tubules, lifting of the tubular basement membrane and dilatation of glomerular capillaries were the most alterations observed in the kidney. The HAI values of Epaulet grouper from Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations were significantly higher than other stations (P < 0.05). It was concluded that selected biomarkers as a first investigation could be useful tools to environmental biomonitoring programs. - Highlights: • Plasma EPO level and kidney HAI were assessed as Cr biomarkers in E. stoliczkae. • Chromium was measured in the sediment and kidney of E. stoliczkae in the Gulf of Oman. • Highest Cr concentration was in the sediment and E. stoliczkae kidney from Konarak. • The analyzed biomarkers in E. stoliczkae are suitable to monitor Cr pollution.

  18. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge.

  19. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2009-09-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (approximately 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) analyzing available catch records and 2) interviewing veteran fishermen (local ecological knowledge) from two traditional landing sites: Dzilam de Bravo and Puerto Progreso. Historic fishery records from two fishing cooperatives were analyzed in order to elucidate the current situation and offer viable alternatives for conservation and management. Catches have decreased severely. Local knowledge obtained from fishermen represented a very important source of information for reconstructing the fisheries history of this species. Conservation measures that incorporate regional and international regulations on critically endangered fish species are suggested.

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of a C-type lectin-like protein from orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, H; Wei, J; Wei, S; Yan, Y; Huang, Y; Huang, X; Zhou, S; Zhou, Y; Qin, Q

    2014-02-01

    A C-type lectin-like protein (Ec-CTLP) was cloned from the grouper Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA of Ec-CTLP was composed of 905 bp with a 522 bp open reading frame that encodes a 174-residue protein. The putative amino acid sequence of Ec-CTLP contains a signal peptide of 19 residues at the N-terminus and a CLECT domain from Cys43 to Arg169 and a conserved imperfect WND (Trp-Asn-Asp) motif. The homologous identity of deduced amino acid sequences is from 32 to 42% with other fishes. The expression of Ec-CTLP was differently upregulated in E. coioides spleen (germline stem) cells after being challenged at 16 and 4° C. Intracellular localization revealed that Ec-CTLP was distributed only in the cytoplasm. Recombinant Ec-CTLP (rEc-CTLP) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified for mouse Mus musculus anti-Ec-CTLP serum preparation. The rEc-CTLP fusion protein does not possess haemagglutinating activity, but improves survival from frozen bacteria. The survival of bacteria (including gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus) was positively correlated with the concentration of the rEc-CTLP. These findings can provide clues to help understand the probable C-type lectin in marine fish innate immunity.

  1. Dietary onion and ginger enhance growth, hemato-immunological responses, and disease resistance in brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane S. Apines-Amar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week (September to December 2009 feeding trial was conducted to evaluate theimmunostimulatory effects of different substances administered orally through the diet in the brownmarbledgrouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Five experimental diets containing either onion, ginger, β–glucan, or vitamin C and a control diet (without immunostimulants were fed to the fish weighing about44 g for 12 weeks. Onion-fed fish showed significantly increased weight gain, hematocrit, and total Igcompared to the control group; however, leukocyte differential count and ROS production wereunaffected. Ginger-fed fish likewise significantly increased total Ig, ROS production and lysozymeactivity. However, it did not affect growth and hematocrit value. β-glucan significantly increased growthand total Ig but had no effect on the other parameters. Vitamin C significantly increased hematocrit, totalIg and ROS production but did not increase growth. Upon challenge with a bacterial pathogen Vibrioharveyi, mortality was significantly reduced in the onion, ginger and vitamin C-fed fish but not in the β–glucan-fed fish. This study demonstrated that onion and ginger could positively affect the innate immuneresponses and protect grouper against Vibrio harveyi infection.

  2. Four species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the camouflage grouper Epinephelus polyphekadion (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2011-05-01

    Gill diplectanid monogeneans from the camouflage grouper Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker) collected in the coral reef lagoon of New Caledonia, South Pacific, comprise four species. Very few monogeneans were found in most fish examined. Pseudorhabdosynochus dionysos n. sp. has a sclerotised vagina with a robust trumpet, a robust primary canal and two chambers of similar size; it is close to P. bacchus Sigura, Chauvet & Justine, 2007. P. viscosus n. sp. has a sclerotised vagina with a robust trumpet, long primary canal with an extremely thin wall and two small chambers, and a male quadriloculate organ with a characteristic thickening at the extremity of its cone. P. crassus n. sp., the most abundant species, has a sclerotised vagina with a thin-walled trumpet, thin-walled primary canal which is always coiled anteriorly and two small chambers. P. huitoe Justine, 2007, P. manifestus Justine & Sigura, 2007 and P. crassus have very similar sclerotised vaginae; however, species of this 'huitoe complex' can be distinguished by measurements of the haptoral hard parts. A few diplectanid specimens found in a single specimen of E. polyphekadion were attributed to P. huitoe, a species originally described from E. maculatus (Bloch) and also rarely found in E. cyanopodus Richardson in New Caledonia; specimens from these three fish species are morphologically indistinguishable.

  3. Genetic variation in the mitochondrial genome of the giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790 and its application for the identification of broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng S. Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers are ideal for the validation of maternal inheritance and the identification of brood-stock in aquaculture breeding programs. The complete mitochondrial genomes of 11 species of grouper are currently available at the GenBank. This study was directed towards the characterization of mtDNA loci which can be applied for identification of interspecific F1 hybrids developed from Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus lanceolatus in aquaculture breeding programs. DNA was extracted from the fin clip of one specimen of E. lanceolatus which the source of sperm for the artificial spawning of the interspecific F1 hybrid E. fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus. Specific primers were designed to amplify the DNA after comparative analysis of the mtDNA genomes available at the GenBank. The primers were applied to test for cross-amplification in F1 hybrids as well as in the maternal parent E. fuscoguttatus (Forsskål, 1775 and the genetically related species Epinephelus coioides and Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes, 1828. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the Malaysian variety of E. lanceolatus exhibited variation at 11 of the 13 ORFs when compared to the variety from Taiwan. A distinct segmented duplication was observed in the D-loop region which was determined to be unique to the E. lanceolatus specimen obtained from Sabah, Malaysia. Cross amplification of mtDNA loci in the groupers E. fuscoguttatus, E. coioides, E. corallicola and the F1 hybrid of E. fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus revealed distinct profiles for each of the species with a clear indication that mtDNA were inherited from the maternal parent of the F1 hybrid.. mtDNA loci can be applied by fish breeders to determine interspecific hybridization events.

  4. A new host record of Sphaerospora epinepheli (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) occurring on orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides from Thailand: epidemiology, histopathology and phylogenetic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-taynapun, Kittichon; Chirapongsatonkul, Nion; Maneesaay, Phudit; Itami, Toshiaki; Tantikitti, Chutima

    2012-09-10

    In 1991, the first record of Sphaerospora epinepheli was described as a kidney parasite of wild and cultured malabar grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, along coastlines of Thailand, the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea. However, the present study detected high infection of this parasite in kidney renal tubes of orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, collected from Andaman Sea. The highest infection rate of 36.82% was observed during the rainy season in 2009 in Phang-Nga Bay, in the north of Andaman Sea, which is an important grouper production site in Thailand. The biological and histopathological data of the parasite in this new host record are presented. Species classification is described based on morphological data of mature spore and molecular analysis of myxosporean 18S rDNA phylogeny including that of S. epinepheli which infected E. malabaricus. The genetic position of this parasite found in two host species was also studied. The phylogenetic tree analysis of small-subunit rDNA sequences of S. epinepheli from both infected hosts was constructed using two algorithms, maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). They were placed in the clustered basal sphaerosporid clade that contain four long SSU rDNA sphaerosporid species including Sphaerospora truttae, Sphaerospora elegans, Sphaerospora ranae, Sphaerospora fugu and Bipteria formosa with strong bootstrap supports. Histopathologically, renal intratubular myxosporean spores were associated with tubulonephosis, tubular necrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis and mimic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. This myxosporean parasite appears to be a significant pathogen on the basis of pathological changes in the renal tubules and is highly distributed in orange-spotted grouper.

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization of one key molecule of teleost innate immunity from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides): serum amyloid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingguang; Guo, Minglan; Ji, Huasong; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-01-01

    The orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), a favorite marine food fish, is widely cultured in China and Southeast Asian countries. However, little is known about its acute phase response (APR) caused by viral diseases. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute phase protein (APP). In this study, a new SAA homologous (EcSAA) gene was cloned from grouper, E. coioides, by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. The full-length cDNA sequence of SAA was 508 bp and contained a 363 bp open reading frame (ORF) coding for a protein of 121 aa. Similar to other fish known SAA genes, the EcSAA gene contained four exons and three introns. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EcSAA mRNA is predominately expressed in liver and gill of grouper. Furthermore, the expression of EcSAA was differentially up-regulated in liver after infection with Staphyloccocus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Recombinant EcSAA (rEcSAA) was expressed in Escherichia BL21 (DE3) and purified for mouse anti-EcSAA serum preparation. The rEcSAA fusion protein was demonstrated to bind to all tested bacteria and yeast, and inhibit the replication of SGIV. Overexpression of EcSAA in grouper spleen (GS) cells could also inhibit the replication of SGIV. These results suggest that EcSAA may be an important molecule in the innate immunity of grouper.

  6. Innate immune responses and efficacy of using mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) on orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Huang, Shih-Ling; Chen, Sherwin; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2013-07-01

    This study attempts to describe the effects of innate immunity responses and field application of mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) in cultured orange-sported grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Chemical analysis for MBG showed that the mixture contains 34.06% of macro-molecular polymers with bio-active linkage such as 3-; 3,4- and 4,6-glucopyranosyl and 6-linked galactopyranosyl residues. Study performed on the innate immunity showed that oral ingestion of MBG at 1.0 g and 2.0 g per kilogram of feed levels may significantly enhance the lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity, phagocytic activity and respiration burst of the experimental groupers. Observation on the experimental challenge of pathogen showed that uses of MBG at 0.1% and 0.2% levels in feed might significantly enhance the protection of grouper against Vibrio alginolyticus. Field trials performed on short and long-term culture showed that feeding of diet containing 0.1% or 0.2% of MBG may significantly enhance the survival of cultured groupers up to 16% when compared with those obtained from controls.

  7. FERMENTED BLOOD MEAL USE FOR TIGER GROUPER, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus GROW-OUT DIET

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    Usman Usman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to evaluate the optimal level of fermented blood meal used in grow-out diets for tiger grouper, as an alternative protein source to fish meal. Juvenile tiger grouper, initial weight 31.1 ± 2.1 g, were stocked into 1 m x 1 m x 2 m floating net cages at 20 fish cage-1. The treatment applied was isoprotein and isocaloric diets formulated to contain fermented blood meal (FBM of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% replacement of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to the fish twice a day to satiation for 20 weeks. Based on the Tukey test, the fish fed 0%–15.0% FBM demonstrated similar performance (P>0.05 to those fed the control diet (FBM0 in terms of specific growth rate, weight gain, and feed and protein efficiency. Specific growth rate, weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency of the fish fed 22.5%–30.5% FBM were significantly lower (P<0.05 than those of the fish fed control diet (FBM0. However, there was a significant culvilinier decliner in overall fish performance with increasing inclusion of FPM and most notable for weight gain, feed efficiency and feed consumption. Based on regression analysis, the asymptote where fish growth deteriorates as a function of FBM inclusion was determined to be 8.9%. Tiger grouper diets incorporating up to 9% FBM as fish meal replacement had no adverse affects on fish growth and survival.

  8. Characterization and expression analysis of an allograft inflammatory factor-1 homologue in yellow grouper (Epinephelus awoara)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; SHI Dawei; WU Xinzhong

    2008-01-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein involved in iullammatory response-related dis-eases in mammals.Previously an identified AIF-1 gene was simply reported in yellow grouper.The characterization of AIF-1 gene and its expression at the gene and protein level are further described.Yellow grouper AIF-1 is composed of 147 amino acids,and 64% ~ 84% identical to other homologues.Basal level AIF-I mRNA expression was noted in spleen,anterior kid-ney and kidney,using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).After stimulation of LPS,the AIF-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in tissues examined:spleen,anterior kidney,kidney,heart and liver,but not in muscle.The re-combinant AIF-1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli,and then purified for the development of antiserum.Western blotting analysis revealed a band with a molecular mass of about 17 ku.

  9. Soluble interleukin-1 receptor, a potential negative regulator of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides interleukin-1 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D Q; Yao, M; Yi, S B; Li, Y W; Liu, X C; Zhang, Y; Lin, H R

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the cDNA sequence encoding interleukin-1 (Il-1) receptor-like protein of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides was obtained. The newly identified sequence was named soluble type I Il-1 receptor (sIl-1rI) owing to its structural composition, which had two Ig-like domains, lack of transmembrane region and the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain, similar to the brown rat Rattus norvegicus soluble Il-1rI. In addition, sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that E. coioides sequence had a closer relationship with Il-1rI than Il-1rII. Real-time PCR revealed that sil-1rI mRNA expression presented a process of decrease, restoration and increase in Cryptocaryon irritans-infected E. coioides. The negative correlation between Il-1β and sil-1rI mRNA in C. irritans-infected head-kidney implied the potential negative regulatory role of sil-1rI in E. coioides Il-1 system. The leucocytes incubated with lipopolysaccharide or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid exhibited different expression profiles of sil-1rI. Recombinant Il-1β (rIl-1β) protein was capable of inducing sil-1rI mRNA under the concentration of 100 ng ml(-1) , suggesting that high dosage or excess Il-1β would stimulate the expression of sil-1rI to maintain the homoeostasis of E. coioides Il-1 system. For the first time, the role of teleost Il-1rI in parasite infection has been identified, and soluble Il-1r was found in fish.

  10. Connectivity of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus Quoyanus) in a marine reserve in the Great Keppel Island Group

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Salamah, Manalle

    2014-12-01

    With a dramatic decrease of biodiversity as a result of the increase in exploitation of marine ecosystems, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) serves as an important means of protecting those resources. Although there is support for the effectiveness of these MPAs and MPA networks, there is room for improvement in terms of MPA management and design. For example, a better understanding of the dispersal dynamics of targeted species across these MPAs will serve as a more accurate means of reserve as well as fisheries management. While there have been many methods used to determine the larval dispersal of a certain species, parentage analysis is becoming the most robust. In this thesis, I attempt to determine the patterns of self-recruitment and larval dispersal of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus quoyanus) in one focal marine reserve within the Great Keppel Island group through the method of parentage. For this, I developed 14 microsatellite markers and with those, genotyped 610 adults as well as 478 juveniles from the study site. These genotypes allowed me to assign offspring to their potential parents, which then allowed me to measure the self-recruitment, local retention as well as larval dispersal percentages of this species from and within the reserve. My results indicate that there is 32% local retention to the reserve while 68% of the assigned juveniles were dispersed to other areas (4% of which dispersed to another reserve). Previous studies conducted in the same area showed higher reserve self-recruitment rates for both Plectropomus maculatus (~30%) and Lutjanus carponotatus (64%) despite their similar life history traits. The results from this study add to the growing evidence that dispersal patterns cannot be generalized across marine systems or even between species within a single system.

  11. Artificial Spawning Behavior and Development of Eggs, Larvae and Juveniles of the Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Youn; Cho, Jae Kwon; Son, Maeng Hyun; Kim, Kyong Min; Han, Kyeong Ho; Park, Jae Min

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the egg development in red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaaraand the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles, and to obtain data for taxonomic research. This study was conducted in June 2013, and 50 male and female fish were used for the study. One hundred μg/kg of LHRHa was injected into the body of the fish for inducing spawning, and the fish were kept in a small-sized fish holder (2×2×2 m). Eggs were colorless transparent free pelagic eggs, 0.71-0.77 mm large (mean 0.74±0.02 mm, n=30), and had an oil globule. Hatching started within 27 h after fertilization. Pre-larvae that emerged just after hatching were 2.02-2.17 mm in total length (mean 2.10±0.11 mm), their mouth and anus were not opened yet, and the whole body was covered with a membrane fin. Post-larvae that emerged 15 days post hatching were 3.88-4.07 mm in total length (mean 3.98±0.13 mm), and had a ventral fin with two rays and a caudal fin with eight rays. Juveniles that were formed at 55 d post hatching, were 31.9-35.2 mm in total length (mean 33.6±2.33 mm), with red color deposited over the entire body, and black chromophores deposited in a spotted pattern. The number of fin rays, body color, and shape were the same as that in the adult fish.

  12. Cytoplasmic localization of Lrh-1 down-regulates ovarian follicular cyp19a1a expression in a teleost, the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Qiongyou; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2014-08-01

    Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is a conserved member of the NR5A subfamily in vertebrates and a potential regulator of estrogen synthesis in the ovarian granulosa cells. An Lrh-1 homologue was obtained from the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides that contains the conserved structural features of NR5A and is phylogenetically closely related to NR5A2. The expression of the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 is tissue-specific with relatively higher levels in the liver and ovary. The immunoreactive signals for Lrh-1 and Cyp19a1a were present in the ovarian follicular cells and germ cells. In the ovarian follicular cells, Lrh-1 was present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and colocalized with Cyp19a1a. The expression levels of both increased during vitellogenesis whereas only Cyp19a1a dramatically decreased toward maturation when Lrh-1 was localized almost exclusively to the cytoplasm of the follicular cells. The orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 could up-regulate cyp19a1a transcription in vitro via the two conserved Ftz-f1 sites in cyp19a1a promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 could bind cyp19a1a promoter in vivo with a higher abundance in the vitellogenic ovary, whereas the binding was dramatically decreased in the mature ovary. Taken together, the results of present study demonstrate that Lrh-1 plays an important role in up-regulating cyp19a1a gene in the ovarian follicular cells during vitellogenesis, and the sequestration of Lrh-1 to the cytoplasm may down-regulate cyp19a1a expression in the mature ovary. This mechanism for modifying transcriptional roles of the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 may shed new light on the regulation of Cyp19a1 expression in other vertebrates as well.

  13. Genetic variation and balancing selection at MHC class II exon 2 in cultured stocks and wild populations of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Z N; Yang, S; Fan, B; Wang, L; Lin, H R

    2012-11-12

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play vital roles in triggering adaptive immune responses and are considered the most variable molecules in vertebrates. Recently, many studies have focused on the polymorphism and evolution mode of MHC in both model and non-model organisms. Here, we analyzed the MHC class II exon 2-encoding β chain in comparison with the mitochondrial Cytb gene and our previously published microsatellite data set in three cultured stocks and four wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in order to investigate its genetic variation and mechanism of evolution. We detected one to four alleles in one individual, suggesting that at least two loci exist in the orange-spotted grouper, as well as a particularly high level of allelic diversity at the MHC loci. Furthermore, the cultured stocks exhibited reduced allelic diversity compared to the wild counterparts. We found evidence of balancing selection at MHC class II exon 2, and codon sites under positive selection were largely correspondent to the protein-binding region. In addition, MHC class II exon 2 revealed significant differences between population differentiation patterns from the neutral mitochondrial Cytb and microsatellites, which may indicate local adaptation at MHC loci in orange-spotted grouper originating from the South China Sea and Southeast Asia.

  14. Identification and characterization of TRP14, a thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingguang; Ji, Huasong; Guo, Minglan; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-11-01

    Thioredoxin (abbreviated as Trx) is an important ubiquitous disulfide reductase, which can protect organisms against various oxidative stresses. In the present study, a thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa (named as Ec-TRP14) was identified from the marine fish grouper, Epinephelus coioides by RACE PCR. The full-length cDNA of Ec-TRP14 was comprised of 1066 bp with a 372 bp open reading frame that encodes a putative protein of 123 amino acids. Similar to most TRP14s, Ec-TRP14 contained the conserved motif C-P-D-C. Ec-TRP14 mRNA is predominately expressed in liver, brain and muscle. The expression of Ec-TRP14 was up-regulated in the liver of grouper challenged with SGIV. Ec-TRP14 was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the rEc-Ec-TRP14 fusion protein was demonstrated to possess the antioxidant activity. The grouper spleen (GS) cells were treated with a high concentration of rEc-TRP14 (8.3 μg/ml), which significantly enhanced cells viability under damage caused by viral infection. These results together indicated that Ec-TRP14 could function as an important antioxidant in a physiological context, and might be involved in the responses to viral challenge.

  15. Molecular cloning of the insulin-like growth factor 3 and difference in the expression of igf genes in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huirong; Chen, Huapu; Zhao, Huihong; Liu, Li; Xie, Zhenzhen; Xiao, Ling; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (Igf) is the key regulator for development, growth, and reproduction. In most vertebrate species, the Igf family has two forms: Igf1 and Igf2. A novel form of Igf, termed Igf3, was recently discovered in fish. In the present study, we isolated igf3 from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The orange-spotted grouper igf3 consisted of a full-length cDNA of 1014 nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) of 597 bp, encoding for proteins of 199 amino acid residues in length. Tissue distribution analysis showed that igf1 widely expressed with the highest expression in the pituitary and liver. igf2 was expressed highly in all the tissues except the olfactory bulb, while igf3 showed the highest expression in the ovary, and moderate expression in brain areas. The expression profiles of three igf genes during the ovarian development and growth hormone (Gh) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment were also investigated. Three igf genes exhibited different expression patterns during the ovarian development, and showed different responses to the Gh and hCG treatments, appearing to play distinct roles in ovarian development. The present study provides further evidence for the existence of an intraovarian Igf system in orange-spotted grouper.

  16. Reproductive Biology and Fishery-Related Characteristics of the Malabar Grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus Caught in the Coastal Waters of Mafia Island, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Gaspare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology and fishery-related characteristics of the Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801 specimens were investigated. The size of females ranged from 25 to 113 cm total length (LT, with 50% sexually mature at 79 cm LT, and the males (97 cm to 114 cm LT were larger than the females. Due to the sex ratios and size distribution of the sample, it appeared that the groupers change sex between 97 and 113 cm LT. However, the gonadal histology data lacked specimens in the transitional stage. The spawning peak occurred in November, as defined by the presence of ripe females, and the spawning season lasted from September to February. The size of the fish correlated positively with the water depth at capture, which is also related to oxygen levels in deep water being more favourable for larger fish. Larger specimens (>100 cm LT were targeted by fishers between December and February, when the northeast monsoon coincides with calmer weather and the spawning season. Fishers were interviewed, and observations were made on fishing gear, vessels, and grounds. There was no indication that small-scale fishers targeted spawning aggregations; therefore, fisheries independent research is recommended in order to verify the time, location, and behaviour of the spawning of Malabar groupers for management and conservation purposes.

  17. Non-lethal approach identifies variability of δ15N values in the fin rays of Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara

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    Orian E. Tzadik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, is critically endangered throughout its range but has begun to show initial signs of recovery in Florida state waters. As the population continues to rebound, researchers face a pressing need to fill the knowledge gaps about this iconic species. Here, we examined the δ15N isotopic records in fin rays collected from Atlantic Goliath Grouper, and related changes of isotopic ratios over time to life history characteristics. Fin-ray analysis was used as a non-lethal technique to sample individuals from two locations at similar latitudes from the west and east coasts of Florida, USA. δ15N data were acquired by mechanically separating the annuli of each fin ray and then analyzing the material in an Irradiance Elemental Analyzer Mass Spectrometer. The δ15N values were consistent among individuals within populations from each coast of Florida, and mirrored the expected changes over the lives of the fish. Overall, differences were found between δ15N values at juvenile life history phases versus adult phases, but the patterns associated with these differences were unique to each coastal group. We demonstrated, for the first time, that δ15N values from fin rays can be used to assess the life histories of Atlantic Goliath Grouper. The non-lethal strategies outlined here can be used to acquire information essential to the management of species of concern, such as those that are threatened or endangered.

  18. Non-lethal approach identifies variability of δ15N values in the fin rays of Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Ethan A.; Hollander, David J.; Koenig, Christopher C.; Stallings, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, is critically endangered throughout its range but has begun to show initial signs of recovery in Florida state waters. As the population continues to rebound, researchers face a pressing need to fill the knowledge gaps about this iconic species. Here, we examined the δ15N isotopic records in fin rays collected from Atlantic Goliath Grouper, and related changes of isotopic ratios over time to life history characteristics. Fin-ray analysis was used as a non-lethal technique to sample individuals from two locations at similar latitudes from the west and east coasts of Florida, USA. δ15N data were acquired by mechanically separating the annuli of each fin ray and then analyzing the material in an Irradiance Elemental Analyzer Mass Spectrometer. The δ15N values were consistent among individuals within populations from each coast of Florida, and mirrored the expected changes over the lives of the fish. Overall, differences were found between δ15N values at juvenile life history phases versus adult phases, but the patterns associated with these differences were unique to each coastal group. We demonstrated, for the first time, that δ15N values from fin rays can be used to assess the life histories of Atlantic Goliath Grouper. The non-lethal strategies outlined here can be used to acquire information essential to the management of species of concern, such as those that are threatened or endangered. PMID:26082864

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Perciformes, Serranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huirong; Xie, Zhenzhen; Li, Shuisheng; Wu, Xichao; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of Epinephelus coioides in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,458 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. All of them are encoded on the heavy strand except ND6 and 8 tRNA genes on the light strand. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 28.88% of G, 28.75% of T, 26.58% of A and 15.80% of C. All the protein-coding genes share ATG initiation codon except ATP6 with CTG and COXI with GTG, and four types of inferred termination codons are T (ND2, COXII, ND3, ND4 and Cytb), TA (COXIII), TAA (ND1, ATP8, ND4L, ND5, ATP6 and COXI) and TAG (ND6). There are 10 intergenic spacers, 5 gene overlaps and no tandem repeat sequence. Gene arrangement and distribution are consistent with the typical vertebrates.

  20. cDNA cloning and expression of a collectin from red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiwen; DING Shaoxiong; WANG Ying; MAO Yong; SU Yongquan; WANG Jun

    2009-01-01

    Lectins play a crucial role in the innate immunity of invertebrates and vertebrates by recognizing and disposing of pathogens. We obtained the complete cDNA of a C-type lectin (EALec1) from Epinephelus akaara using RACE. The complete EALec1 cDNA sequence was 827 bp. The 5-UTR and 3-UTR were 28 bp and 151 bp, respectively, in length. The sequence also contained a polyadenylation signal AATAAA and a poly(A) tail. The EALec1 cDNA encodes polypeptides with 215 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 31 amino acids. The protein has a cysteine-rich region at the N terminal, a collagenous region characterized by G-X-Y repeats, a neck region, and a typical carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), indicating that EALec1 is a collectin. The key recognition positions of this CRD are EPD, isolated for the first time in fish. These are likely the interim types, between mannan-binding lectin and galactose-binding lectin. We evaluated the expression pattern of EALec1 in 12 different tissues using RT-PCR. EALec1 was expressed in all tissues, though at different levels. In addition, we inserted EALec1 into an expression vector (pET-28a) for transformation into the BL21 engineering bacteria. Based on enzyme digestion and sequencing of the positive clone, we successfully constructed the EALec1 recombinant expression vector.

  1. cDNA cloning and expression of a collectin from red-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus akaara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Ding, Shaoxiong; Wang, Ying; Mao, Yong; Su, Yongquan; Wang, Jun

    2009-09-01

    Lectins play a crucial role in the innate immunity of invertebrates and vertebrates by recognizing and disposing of pathogens. We obtained the complete cDNA of a C-type lectin (EALec1) from Epinephelus akaara using RACE. The complete EALec1 cDNA sequence was 827 bp. The 5-UTR and 3-UTR were 28 bp and 151 bp, respectively, in length. The sequence also contained a polyadenylation signal AATAAA and a poly(A) tail. The EALec1 cDNA encodes polypeptides with 215 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 31 amino acids. The protein has a cysteine-rich region at the N terminal, a collagenous region characterized by G-X-Y repeats, a neck region, and a typical carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), indicating that EALec1 is a collectin. The key recognition positions of this CRD are EPD, isolated for the first time in fish. These are likely the interim types, between mannan-binding lectin and galactose-binding lectin. We evaluated the expression pattern of EALec1 in 12 different tissues using RT-PCR. EALec1 was expressed in all tissues, though at different levels. In addition, we inserted EALec1 into an expression vector (pET-28a) for transformation into the BL21 engineering bacteria. Based on enzyme digestion and sequencing of the positive clone, we successfully constructed the EALec1 recombinant expression vector.

  2. Bioactive potency of epidermal mucus extracts from greasy grouper, Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal, 1775

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    Ganesh Manikantan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the bio-potency of epidermal mucus from Epinephelus tauvina. Methods: Mucus was extracted with acidic, organic and aqueous solvents. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and fatty acid content of mucus extracts were quantified by UV-spectrophotometer, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometer, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was tested against five human and fish pathogens by using agar well diffusion method. The molecular weight of peptides was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The haemolytic activity of extracts was tested against chick, goat, cow and human red blood cell. Results: Protein contributed with maximum of 26.25% in crude mucus. Arginine was recorded maximum of (133.9 nmol/mL in crude mucus. 2,4,6-Decatrienoic acid and bis (a-chloroethyl sulfone were confirmed in organic extract. The antimicrobial activity of acidic extract was significant. Among the human pathogens, maximum zone of inhibition [(26.0 ± 0.3 mm] was observed against Proteus mirabilis. Whereas, among fish pathogens maximum zone of inhibition [(25.0 ± 0.1 mm] was observed against Vibrio parahemolyticus. The activity of other two extracts was not remarkable. The molecular weight of peptides ranged from 115.5– 37.1 kDa in acidic extract was determined. Chicken and goat blood were found to be highly vulnerable to the lysis. Conclusions: The whole mucus could be a promising source with numerous bioactivepotency. Consequently, this preliminary information suggested that mucus is a source of novel antimicrobial agents for fish and human health related applications.

  3. Bioactive potency of epidermal mucus extracts from greasy grouper,Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal, 1775)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganesh Manikantan; Somasundarannair Lyla; Syed Ajmal Khan; Packiaraj Vijayanand; George Edward Gnana Jothi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the bio-potency of epidermal mucus fromEpinephelus tauvina. Methods: Mucus was extracted with acidic, organic and aqueous solvents. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and fatty acid content of mucus extracts were quantified by UV-spectrophotometer, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was tested against five human and fish pathogens by using agar well diffusion method. The molecular weight of peptides was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The haemolytic activity of extracts was tested against chick, goat, cow and human red blood cell. Results:Protein contributed with maximum of 26.25% in crude mucus. Arginine was recorded maximum of (133.9 nmol/mL) in crude mucus. 2,4,6-Decatrienoic acid and bis (a-chloroethyl) sulfone were confirmed in organic extract. The antimicrobial activity of acidic extract was significant. Among the human pathogens, maximum zone of inhibition [(26.0 ± 0.3) mm] was observed againstProteus mirabilis. Whereas, among fish pathogens maximum zone of inhibition [(25.0 ± 0.1) mm] was observed againstVibrio parahemolyticus. The activity of other two extracts was not remarkable. The molecular weight of peptides ranged from 115.5–37.1 kDa in acidic extract was determined. Chicken and goat blood were found to be highly vulnerable to the lysis. Conclusions: The whole mucus could be a promising source with numerous bioactive- potency. Consequently, this preliminary information suggested that mucus is a source of novel antimicrobial agents for fish and human health related applications.

  4. Day-night and reproductive cycle profiles of melatonin receptor, kiss, and gnrh expression in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ke; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2013-07-01

    It is suggested that the MT1 melatonin receptor mediates the effects of melatonin on reproduction in rodents. Three melatonin receptor types, MT1, MT2, and Mel1c, have been identified in fish. To understand the potential roles of each type of melatonin receptor on reproduction, we explored the day-night and reproductive cycle profiles of melatonin receptor, kiss, and gnrh expression in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). cDNAs encoding melatonin receptors (MT1, MT2, and Mel1c) were first isolated from the brain of the orange-spotted grouper. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of MT1 and MT2 were higher in most of the brain areas and pituitary, while mel1c mRNA was mainly distributed in some peripheral tissues and the pituitary. The expression levels of MT1 were much higher than those of MT2 and mel1c in most of the brain regions, and the day-night expression variations of MT1 were counter to those of kiss2 and gnrh1. Reproductive cycle variations in MT1 daytime expression were different from those for kiss2 and gnrh1, and contrary to ovarian fecundity. Our results suggest that MT1 may modulate gnrh1 expression through kiss2, or may directly influence it. Together, these signal cascades may regulate the seasonal breeding of the orange-spotted grouper. As the day-length variations were consistent with the ovarian fecundity variation observed during the reproductive cycle, we infer that photoperiod affects ovarian development of the orange-spotted grouper through MT1.

  5. Characterization and expression analysis of Calmodulin (CaM) in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in response to Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Xie, Fu-Xing; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus containing the highly toxic extracellular product is one of the most serious threats to grouper survival and its minimum lethal dose is approximately 500 CFU/g fish body weight in grouper. To study the toxic effects of V. alginolyticus on the immune system in teleost, Calmodulin (CaM), an important molecular indicator gene, was cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The full-length Ec-CaM consisted of a 5'-UTR of 103 bp, an ORF of 450 bp and a 3'-UTR of 104 bp. The Ec-CaM gene encoded a protein of 149 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 16.4 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 3.93. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that Ec-CaM contained four highly conserved EF-hand domains known to be critical for the function of CaM. Ec-CaM was widely expressed and the highest expression level was observed in liver. Following V. alginolyticus challenge, a sharp increase level of respiratory burst activity and apoptosis ratio were observed. Further analyses of CaM expression and p53 expression in liver, kidney and spleen by qRT-PCR demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of CaM and p53 were observed in the vibrio challenge group. Western blotting analysis confirmed that the Ec-CaM protein was strongly induced in liver at 12 h post-injection, while a sharp increase of p53 protein expression was observed at 24 h post-injection. These results showed CaM expression serving as a potential molecular indicator may help to assess the toxicological effects of V. alginolyticus on the ROS generation and apoptotic process in grouper.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of PTEN in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Xie, Ren-Chong; Xie, Fu-Xing; Kong, Jing-Rong; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Huang, Di; Sun, Zuo-Ming; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Cong

    2016-11-01

    PTEN is a key tumor suppressor gene that can play a regulatory role in the cellular proliferation, survival and apoptosis. In this study, the full-length PTEN (EcPTEN) was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 745 bp, an ORF of 1269 bp and a 3'UTR of 106 bp. The EcPTEN gene encoded a polypeptide of 422 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 49.14 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.34. The deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that EcPTEN comprised the conserved residues and the characteristic domains known to the critical functionality of PTEN. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that EcPTEN mRNA was broadly expressed in all the examined tissues, while the highest expression level was observed in liver, followed by the expression in blood, kidney, spleen, heart, gill, muscle and intestine. The groupers challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a sharp increase of EcPTEN mRNA expression in immune tissues. In addition, western blotting analysis confirmed that the up-regulation of EcPTEN protein expression was steadily induced in liver. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that EcPTEN was localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Overexpression of EcPTEN can activate the apoptotic cascade and abrogate NF-kB, AP-1, Stat3 and Myc promoter activity in Hela cells. These results indicated that EcPTEN harboring highly-conserved domains with a close sequence similarity to those of PTP superfamily may disrupt the mammalian signalings and play a regulatory role in the apoptotic process.

  7. Optimum temperature for the growth performance of juvenile orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides H.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiangzhi; Xie, Shouqi; Su, Yongquan; Cui, Yibo

    2008-02-01

    Effects of water temperature (17, 21, 25, 30 and 35°C) and body size (14.75-281.41 g initial body weight) on food consumption, growth, feed conversion, and dry matter content in orange-spotted grouper fed to satiation were investigated. The combined effect of temperature ( T, °C) and body weight ( W, g) on maximum food consumption ( C max, g/day) was described as: ln C max=-7.411+0.828 ln W+0.317 T-0.004 7 T 2, and the optimum feeding temperature was 33.9°C. The combined effect of temperature and body weight on growth ( G) was described as: ln G=-4.461-0.208ln W+0.394 T-0.006 3 T 2. The optimum growth temperature was 31.4°C, whereas overall growth rates were high at 25, 30 and 35 °C. Feed conversion efficiencies ( FCE, %), increasing first and then decreasing with increasing temperature, averaged from 1.8 to 2.1 in terms of dry weight of food fish. The optimum temperature for FCE tended to be lower than that for growth or feeding. Dry matter content increased with both increasing water temperature (17, 25, 30 and 35°C) and body weight, and the combined effect of temperature and body weight on dry matter content ( DM, %) was described as: ln DM=3.232+0.01 4 ln W-0.004 4 T+0.001 2 Tln W.

  8. THE DIGESTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT OF THE TIGER GROUPER Epinephelus fuscoguttatus LARVAE TREATED WITH THYROXINE HORMONE

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    Ahmad Muzaki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroxin administration in tiger grouper larval rearing was conducted to determine its effect on development of digestive tract of the larvae. Newly hatched larvae were treated with 0 mg/L (control, 0.1 mg/L, and 0.2 mg/L of thyroxin for 2 hours in a 30 L tank before were transferred into a 1 m3 rearing tank. Samples were collected daily until 10 DAH and every 3 days until 40 DAH. Development of digestive tract was observed using histological method. For all treatments, the digestive tract was the same on 1 DAH and 2 DAH. The digestive tract of 1 DAH larvae was still closed and still in the form of a simple tube. The mouth, buccopharynx, liver, pancreas, and rectum were found on 2 DAH. On 3 DAH, the esophagus, stomach, intestines, and anus started to develop. At this stage, the digestive tract of larvae treated with and without thyroxin started to become distinguishable. Several goblet cells were noticed in the rectum of the treated larvae but not in the control. Digestive tract developed earlier in treated larvae compared to the control group, such as appearance of tongue, gill raker, fundic, and cardiac stomach development, formation of pharyngeal tooth, and gastric gland. Metamorphosis of larvae into juvenile on treated larvae occurred than that the control larvae earlier.

  9. Optimum temperature for the growth performance of juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides H.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiangzhi; XIE Shouqi; SU Yongquan; CUI Yibo

    2008-01-01

    Effects of water temperature (17,21,25,30 and 35℃) and body size (14.75-281.41 g initial body weight) on food consumption,growth,feed conversion,and dry matter content in orange-spotted grouper fed to satiation were investigated.The combined effect of temperature (T,℃) and body weight (W, g) on maximum food consumption (Cmax,g/day) was described as:InCmax=-7.411+0.828 InW+0.317T-0.004 7T2,and the optimum feeding temperature was 33.9℃.The combined effect of temperature and body weight on growth (G) was described as: InG=-4.461-0.208lnW+0.394T-0.006 3T2.The optimum growth temperature was 31.4℃,whereas overall growth rates were high at 25,30 and 35℃.Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE,%),increasing first and then decreasing with increasing temperature,averaged from 1.8 to 2.1 in terms of dry weight of food fish.The optimum temperature for FCE tended to be lower than that for growth or feeding.Dry matter content increased with both increasing water temperature (17,25,30 and 35℃) and body weight,and the combined effect of temperature and body weight on dry matter content (DM,%) was described as:InDM =3.232+0.01 4 lnW-0.004 4T+0.001 2TlnW.

  10. Molecular Cloning and mRNA Profile of Insulin-like Growth Factor Type 1 Receptor in Orange-spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Mei KUANG; Wen-Sheng LI; Hao-Ran LIN

    2005-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR) belongs to the tyrosine kinase (TK)receptor family. Besides being mitogenic, IGF-IR plays a crucial role in cell survival, transformation and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. In this study, we cloned the cDNA from the hypothalamus of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the receptor comprises 1413 amino acid residues. It contains cysteine-rich domains in its α-subunit, and a conserved transmembrane domain and TK domains in its β-subunit. Comparison of the amino acid sequence with those of other species showed that the grouper IGF-IR shares 90.2%, 89.6%, 71.9% and 72% similarity with the IGF-IR of the Japanese flounder, turbot, zebrafish-a and zebrafish-b, respectively. When compared with its mammalian homologue, grouper IGF-IR contains a large insertion at its C-terminus. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that the grouper IGF-IR belongs to the b-type IGF-IRs and has a higher similarity with flounder and turbot IGF-IR, and a lower similarity (<70%) with human, mouse and avian IGF-IR. Grouper IGF-IR transcripts were detected in the brain, peripheral tissues, embryos and early development larvae by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. It was observed that IGF-IR mRNA expression was greater in the brain than in peripheral tissues. The level of IGF-IR mRNA expression was much higher in retina, gonad, skeletal muscle and gill tissues than in liver, heart and thymus tissues. The expression of IGF-IR can be visualized as a ubiquitous signalin unfertilized eggs, embryos and early development larvae. The distribution pattern of IGF-IR mRNA in grouper development suggests that IGF-IR plays an important role in the embryo and early larval development stages.

  11. Gonapodasmius epinepheli observed in cage cultured orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides in Southern Thailand: geographical distribution of parasite and host response

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    Kidchakan Supamattaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Gonapodasmius epinepheli Abdul-Salam, Sreelatha & Farah, 1990, a didymozoid trematode, was found in orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides, Hamilton, 1822 cultured in cages in Southern Thailand, both on the east coast (Gulf of Thailand and the west coast (Indian Ocean. The parasite encysted on the primary lamellae of the gills. Histological sections revealed that larvae were primarily embedded underneath the gill epithelium and eggs of the parasite were distributed in some organs such as gill epithelium, heart and macrophage centers in the head kidney. Pathological changes and host response were shown mainly on gill lamellae, e.g. reduction and destruction of secondary lamellae. Prevalence of parasite and its life cycle are discussed in this report.

  12. In vivo treatment of the gill monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis (Monogenea, Diplectanidae on orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides cultured in the Philippines

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    Erlinda R. Cruz-Lacierda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The gill monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis has been consistently observed oncultured orange spotted-grouper (Epinephelus coioides fingerlings. The tolerance level of E. coioides toformalin (H2CO solution and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, two of the chemicals most commonly used totreat ectoparasites, was determined. The computed 3h and 6h LC10 of formalin were 322 mg L-1 and 275mg L-1 while the 9h LC10 and LC50 of H2O2 were 255 and 298 mg L-1, respectively, at 28oC. The efficacyof freshwater, hypersalinity, formalin and H2O2 bath treatment against P. lantauensis was determined invivo. Hydrogen peroxide at 200 mg L-1 for 1h was effective in eliminating P. lantauensis on E. coioidesfingerlings with no apparent adverse effect on the host fish.

  13. Collaborative approach in the study of the reproductive biology of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Perciformes: Serranidae = Abordagem colaborativa no estudo da biologia reprodutiva da garoupa verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Perciformes: Serranidae

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    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the reproductive biology of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus were investigated using a collaborative methodology. 193 specimens of dusky groupers were obtained in collaboration with fish market personnel in the city of São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Fish market staff were trained and encouraged to collect biological material required for reproductive studies, giving access to many specimens which otherwise would have been unavailable. E. marginatus was found to reproduce in early summer, spawning between November and December. Females reachedsexual maturity at approximately 460 mm total length. Sampled males ranged from 900-1000 mm and females from 300-960 mm in total length. No transitional (i.e. sex changing males were observed. The regression equation for the relationship between total length (TL (mm and total weight (TW (g was TW = 4.4x10-5TL2.8. Suggestions to improve the performance of future collaborative sampling projects are discussed.Diversos aspectos da biologia reprodutiva da garoupa verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus foram abordados através de uma metodologia colaborativa. Ao todo, 193 exemplares da garoupa verdadeira foram obtidas em peixarias colaboradoras no município de São Francisco do Sul, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os funcionários das peixarias foram treinados e incentivados a realizar a coleta de todo material biológico necessário para estudos reprodutivos, possibilitando o acesso a um grande número de vísceras que teriam de outra maneira sido dispensadas. Epinephelus marginatus esteve em atividade reprodutiva no inicio do verão, com desova provável entre novembro e dezembro. Fêmeas atingiram a maturidade sexual com aproximadamente 460 mm de comprimento total. Machos variaram de 900mm a 1000 mm e fêmeas de 300 mm a 960 mm. Não foram observados machos em transição sexual. A equação de regressão da relação entre o comprimento total (CT (mm e

  14. Diet enriched with mushroom Phellinus linteus extract enhances the growth, innate immune response, and disease resistance of kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against vibriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with Phellinus linteus fed for 30 days was investigated in grouper Epinephelus bruneus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio carchariae; infected and treated fish had a significantly higher percent weight gain and feed efficiency. In groups fed with enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum and V. harveyi the mortality rate declined with a consequent rise in survival rate than with other pathogens. On the other hand, in groups fed with P. linteus enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum, V. harveyi, and V. alginolyticus the cellular and humoral immune responses, such as the alternative complement activity (ACH(50)), serum lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity (PA), phagocytic index (PI) significantly higher than in the control group. The respiratory bursts (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were found significantly enhanced when the groups fed with enriched diet against V. anguillarum and V. harveyi. The results reveal that kelp grouper fed for 30 days with P. linteus enriched diet had higher cellular and humoral immune response and disease protection from vibriosis than the group fed on basal diet with the protection linked to stimulation of immune system.

  15. Expression and functional characterization of a gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19) from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhao, Zhe; Zhu, Xinping; Chen, Kunci; Zhang, Qiya

    2013-01-01

    GRIM-19 is a nuclear encoded subunit of complex I that has been implicated in apoptosis. The protein participates in multiple functions including the innate immune response. GRIM-19 has been studied in humans and other mammals; however, fish GRIM-19 has not been well characterized. In this study, a new GRIM-19 gene, EcGRIM-19, was isolated from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) cDNA library, which was constructed following LPS treatment. EcGRIM-19 is a 582-bp gene that encodes a 144-amino acid protein. The gene is a true ortholog of mammalian GRIM-19. EcGRIM-19 exhibits ubiquitous and constitutive expression in the different tissues of the orange-spotted grouper. The expression levels of EcGRIM-19 are altered in the gill, spleen, kidney and liver after induction with LPS. The subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that the EcGRIM-19 protein is localized predominantly in the mitochondria. In addition, amino acids 30-50 of the protein are responsible for the mitochondrial localization of EcGRIM-19. The caspase assay demonstrated that the overexpression of GRIM-19 enhanced the cellular sensitivity to interferon(IFN)-β- and retinoic acid (RA)-induced death in HeLa cells. The data presented in this study are important for further understanding the EcGRIM-19 gene function in fish.

  16. Molecular characterization of two trypsinogens in the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and their expression in tissues during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chen, Ya-Huei; Shiu, Ya-Li

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we cloned two trypsinogens of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and analyzed their structure, expression, and activity. Full-length trypsinogen complementary (c)DNAs, named T1 and T2, were 900 and 875 nucleotides, and translated 242 and 244 deduced amino acid peptides, respectively. Both trypsinogens contained highly conserved residues essential for serine protease catalytic and conformational maintenance. Results from isoelectric and phylogenetic analyses suggested that both trypsinogens were grouped into trypsinogen group I. Both trypsinogens had similar expression patterns of negative relationship with body weight; expression was first detected at 1 day post-hatching (DPH) and exhibited steady-state expression during early development at 1-25 DPH. Both expression and activity levels significantly increased after 30 DPH due to metamorphosis. Grouper larval development is very slow with insignificant changes in total length and body weight before 8 DPH. The contribution of live food to an increase in the trypsin activity profile may explain their importance in food digestion and survival of larvae during early larval development.

  17. Administration of recombinant Reishi immunomodulatory protein (rLZ-8) diet enhances innate immune responses and elicits protection against nervous necrosis virus in grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Sheu, Fuu; Lee, Guo-Chi; Tsai, Ming-Wei; Hung, Chih-Liang; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection during larvae and juvenile stage in grouper (Epinephelus coioides) has caused severe economic losses in the aquaculture industry in Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of recombinant Reishi protein, rLZ-8, on the innate immune responses and the viral resisting ability in fish. Groupers were fed with rLZ-8 supplemented diet (1.25-37.5 mg (rLZ-8)/kg(diet)), and the cytokine gene expression, innate immune responses, and survival rate after NNV challenge were examined. The fish fed with rLZ-8 diet showed 6- to 11-fold upregulated TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression, along with significant increased respiratory burst and phagocytic activity. Moreover, feeding the fish with 37.5 mg/kg rLZ-8 diet elicited significant improvement in post viral challenge survival rate (85.7%). These discoveries indicated that rLZ-8 could be utilized as an ant-pathogen immunostimulant, and provided a new candidate to fight against NNV infection in fish.

  18. The bioactivity of teleost IL-6: IL-6 protein in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) induces Th2 cell differentiation pathway and antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Han-Tso; Foung, Yi-Fan; Han-You Lin, John

    2012-10-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a protein secreted by T cells and macrophages and plays an important role in immune response. IL-6 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of T cells, and elicits immunoglobulin production in B cells. In this study, the cDNA il-6 (gil-6) sequence of the orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was obtained. The deduced IL-6 (gIL-6) protein comprised 223 amino acids, the sequence shared approximately 30% similarity with mammalian IL-6, and between 47% and 69% similarity with other available teleost IL-6. The protein comprises the signal peptide, the IL-6 family signature, and conserved amino acid residues found in IL-6 sequences of other teleost. In order to understand the bioactivity and influence of gIL-6 on humoral immune response, recombinant gIL-6 (rgIL-6) synthesized by prokaryotes was injected into orange spotted groupers, and the immune-related gene expression at various times in various organs was observed. Our results revealed that the Th1 specific transcription factor t-bet was down-regulated and Th2 specific transcription factors gata3, and c-maf were up-regulated in immune organs, following IL-6 stimulation. Additionally, higher levels of igm mRNA and translated protein were detected in rgIL-6 stimulated fish. These results indicate that IL-6 in groupers regulates the differentiation of naїve T helper cells into Th2 cells and elicits the production of antibodies.

  19. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of tumor suppressor protein p53 from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides in response to temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zeng-Hua; Liu, Yu-Feng; Luo, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Chu-Xian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2013-11-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a critical component of cell cycle checkpoint responses. It upregulates the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in response to DNA damage and other cellular perturbations, and promotes apoptosis when DNA repair pathways are overwhelmed. In the present study, the cDNA of p53 from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (Ec-p53) was cloned by the combination of homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of Ec-p53 was of 1921 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 42.3 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.0. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays revealed that Ec-p53 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues but with high levels in intestine and liver of the orange-spotted grouper. In addition, we measured the DNA damage and apoptosis in the blood cells and the percentage of dead and damaged blood cells. Our results suggest that oxidative stress and DNA damage occurred in grouper in conditions where the temperature was 15 ± 0.5 °C. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and western blot confirmed that low temperature stress induced upregulation of Ec-p53 in the mRNA and protein levels. These results suggest that low temperature-induced oxidative stress may cause DNA damage or apoptosis, and cooperatively stimulate the expression of Ec-p53, which plays a critical role in immune defense and antioxidant responses.

  20. Diagnosis of nervous necrosis virus in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, by a rapid and convenient RT-PCR method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Yinnan; LIN Kebing; CHEN Xinhua; AO Jingqun

    2013-01-01

    Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) causes high mortality in marine fish, especially in the grouper, worldwide and in China. Since there is no effective vaccine or drug to deal with VNN, early detection and prevention is important to block its outbreak. In this study, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed for the rapid, convenient, and sensitive detection of the VNN pathogen, nervous necro-sis virus (NNV ), in the grouper. The whole process was completed within 3.5 h from the RNA extraction to PCR product visualization. The detection limit of this method was 200 copies of NNV RNA standard, which corresponded to 200 copies of virus particles. This RT-PCR method was specific to the NNV detection with no cross-reactivity to other fish viral disease pathogens, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV ), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV ), spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV ), epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV ), and large yellow croaker iridovirus (LYCIV ). With this method, the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) fry from hatcheries with or without incidence of the VN-N epidemic in Fujian Province were detected. The results showed that all or 93%of the fry from the two hatcheries with incidence of the epidemic were diagnosed as positive, while 40%or 25%of fry from the t-wo hatcheries without the VNN epidemic were also detected as NNV positive, indicating that this RT-PCR method can be used for rapid, sensitive detection of NNV infection and applied in the VNN epidemic alert.

  1. FEEDING INCIDENCE, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE IN THE EARLY STAGE OF THE RED-SPOTTED GROUPER, Epinephelus akaara, IN RELATION TO TANK COLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Setiadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara, is one of marine fish species targeted for mariculture in Japan. The artificial mass seedling production of these species has been largely successful. However, the survival is still unstable. The effect of tank colors on the feeding incidence, feeding proportion, growth and survival rates in the early stage of the red-spotted grouper were examined. The results showed the feeding incidence, feeding proportion, growth, and survival rates at different tank colors were highly significantly different (P<0.001. Post hoc multiple comparisons based on Tukey’s test showed significant differences (P<0.05 regarding feeding incidence between yellow (70.45% compared to white (55.83%, black (48.42%, green (41.67%, blue (35.17%, and red (32.50%. The highest feeding proportion (number of rotifer in the stomach/larvae was found at yellow (5.62, followed by white (2.47, black (1.97, green (1.92, blue (1.71, and red (1.28. The specific growth rate showed significant differences (P<0.05 were found at yellow (2.14% and white (1.84% compared to black (1.46%, green (1.20%, blue (1.15%, and red (1.13%. The survival rate at yellow color (1.22% was the highest, followed by white (1.09%, black (0.79%, green (0.57%, blue (0.38%, and red (0.37%. Yellow was suitable as tank wall color for rearing of red-spotted grouper larvae.

  2. c-Jun N-terminal kinases 3 (JNK3) from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, inhibiting the replication of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and SGIV-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-12-01

    C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), a subgroup of serine-threonine protein kinases that activated by phosphorylation, are involve in physiological and pathophysiological processes. JNK3 is one of JNK proteins involved in JNK3 signaling transduction. In the present study, two JNK3 isoforms, Ec-JNK3 X1 and Ec-JNK3 X2, were cloned from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Both Ec-JNK3 X1 and Ec-JNK3 X2 were mainly expressed in liver, gill, skin, brain and muscle of juvenile grouper. The relative expression of Ec-JNK3 X2 mRNA was much higher in muscle and gill than that of Ec-JNK3 X1. Isoform-specific immune response to challenges was revealed by the expression profiles in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that JNK3 was localized in the cytoplasm of grouper spleen (GS) cells and shown immune response to SGIV infection in vitro. Over-expressing Ec-JNK3 X1 and/or Ec-JNK3 X2 inhibited the SGIV infection and replication and the SGIV-induced apoptosis. To achieve the antiviral and anti-apoptosis activities, JNK3 promoted the activation of genes ISRE and type I IFN in the antiviral IFN signaling pathway, and inhibited the activation of transcription factors NF-κB and p53 relating to apoptosis, respectively. Ec-JNK3 X2 showed stronger activities in antivirus and anti-apoptosis than that of Ec-JNK3 X1. Our results not only define the characterization of JNK3 but also reveal new immune functions and the molecular mechanisms of JNK3 on iridoviruses infection and the virus-induced apoptosis.

  3. Production of recombinant orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in single-chain form and dimer form by Pichia pastoris and their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yanhong; Tang, Zhiguo; Mao, Jiewei; Kuang, Zhonglei; Qin, Chaobin; Li, Wensheng

    2012-09-01

    FSH is a key regulator of steroidogenesis and gonadal growth in teleosts. However, function of FSH is elusive in grouper due to the lack of purified and native FSH. In the present study, we reported production of bioactive orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) FSH in dimer form and single-chain form by Pichia pastoris. Dimer form of recombinant grouper FSH (rgFSHba) was accomplished by co-expressing mature FSHb-subunit and a-subunit genes. Fusion of mature FSHb-subunit and a-subunit genes together linking with a polypeptide (4×(Gly-Ser)-Gly-Thr) gene generated single-chain form of recombinant grouper FSH (rgFSHb-a). Recombinant grouper common α-subunit (rgCga) and FSHb-subunit (rgFSHb) were also separately produced. Recombinant proteins were verified by Western blot and mass spectrometry assays, and characterized by deglycosylation analysis. Deglycosylation assay suggested that glycosylation of recombinant FSH mainly occurred on common a-subunit. Bioactivities of recombinant proteins were initially evaluated by activating grouper FSH receptor, and further demonstrated by incubating ovarian fragments of adult grouper and intraperitoneal injection in juvenile female grouper. Two forms of recombinant FSH presented similar biological activities of activating FSH receptor and stimulating in vitro testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E2) secretion, though the dimer form functioned slightly weaker than the single-chain form. However, injections of rgFSHb-a or rgFSHba could significantly increase serum T and E2 levels, induce early ovarian development, reduce hypothalamic gnrh1 mRNA level, and increase hypothalamic cyp19a1b mRNA level. Data in this study suggested that recombinant gonadotropin could be produced in dimer form or single-chain form by P. pastoris, and FSH could regulate steroidogenesis and early ovarian development in juvenile grouper.

  4. Identification of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) interferon regulatory factor 3 involved in antiviral immune response against fish RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; OuYang, Zhengliang; Wei, Shina; Wei, Jingguang; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-02-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is an important transcription factor which regulates the expression of interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) following virus recognition. In this study, a novel IRF3 gene was cloned from grouper Epinephelus coioides (EcIRF3) and its effects against Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was investigated. The full-length of EcIRF3 cDNA was composed of 2513 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 458 amino acids which shared 82% identity with European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). EcIRF3 contained three conserved domains including a DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IRF associated domain (IAD) and a serine-rich domain. Expression profile analysis revealed that EcIRF3 was abundant in head kidney, kidney, spleen and gill. Upon different stimuli in vitro, the transcript of EcIRF3 was significantly up-regulated after RGNNV infection or treatment with polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). During SGIV infection, the increase of the EcIRF3 transcription was only detected at the late stage, suggesting that EcIRF3 was differently regulated by different stimuli. Immune fluorescence assay indicated that the fluorescence signal of EcIRF3 was increased significantly after infection with RGNNV or treatment with poly I:C, but moderately at the late stage of SGIV infection. Reporter gene assay showed that EcIRF3 activated zebrafish type I IFN and type III IFN promoter in vitro. The viral gene transcription and virus production of RGNNV were significantly decreased in EcIRF3 overexpressing cells. However, the ectopic expression of EcIRF3 did not affect the gene transcription and virus production of SGIV. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of type I IFN and IFN-inducible genes (MxI, ISG15 and ISG56) were increased in RGNNV infected EcIRF3 overexpressing cells compared to empty vector transfected cells. Together, our results demonstrated that IFN immune response mediated by grouper IRF3 was

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new G-type lysozyme gene (Ec-lysG) in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Wei, Jingguang; Li, Pengfei; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-10-01

    Lysozyme acts as an innate immunity molecule against pathogen infection. In this study, a new G-type lysozyme gene with a typical G-type lysozyme domain (designated as Ec-lysG) was cloned and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-lysG cDNA contains 1419 bp and encodes a 256-residue protein containing a 25-residue signal peptide at the N-terminus. BLAST analysis reveals Ec-lysG shares 64% identity with Siniperca chuatsi, but 63% to another reported G-type lysozyme from orange-spotted grouper (OSG-lysG). The genomic DNA of Ec-lysG contains four exons and three introns, with a total length of 2062 bp. An amino acid sequence alignment showed that Ec-lysG shares the fundamental structural features of G-type lysozyme, including the catalytic residues, substrate binding sites, and soluble lytic transglycosylase domain. Quantitative PCR showed that Ec-lysG transcript is most abundant in the head kidney, and less abundant in the heart. The expression of Ec-lysG was differentially upregulated in the head kidney after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). A subcellular localization analysis showed that Ec-lysG is distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm. Recombinant Ec-lysG (rEc-lysG) has optimal activity at pH 7.5 and 35°C. rEc-lysG showed lytic activities against Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus iniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus lysodeikticus, and the Gram-negative bacterium V. alginolyticus. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that rEc-lysG acts on M. lysodeikticus cell walls. The overexpression of Ec-lysG in grouper cells did not significantly delay the occurrence of the cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by SGIV, and did not inhibit viral gene transcription. In conclusion, Ec-lysG might be a potent antibacterial protein, with a role in innate immunity.

  6. Prosorhynchus maternus sp. n. (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from the Malabar grouper Epinephelus malabaricus (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2006-09-01

    A new species, Prosorhynchus maternus sp. n., is described from the serranid fish Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch et Schneider) in the waters off New Caledonia. It belongs to a group of Prosorhynchus species from serranids in which the uterus is restricted to the postovarian region. Its distinguishing features include the vitellarium relatively distant from the rhynchus, the cirrus-sac relatively distant from the posterior testis, the distinctly pre-equatorial mouth and several other somatic ratios. New records of Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio et Manter, 1968 from Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson) and Prosorhynchoides lamprelli Bott et Cribb, 2005 from Caranx papuensis Alleyne et Macleay off New Caledonia are also included.

  7. Immunocytochemical Study on Blood and Organ Suspension of Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Infected with Field Isolate of Viral Nervous Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artanti Tri Lestari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One potential marine cultures that have been developed and started to show the international market is grouper. Grouper culture can not be separated from factors that can affect disease and thwart cultivation. One of the diseases that has been reported by researchers is viral nervous necrosis (VNN causing mass mortality in fish, especially grouper larvae and juvenile stadia. Laboratory of Balai KIPM kelas l Denpasar develop rapid diagnostic techniques, precise and accurate test using immunocytochemistry of blood and organs as one of the initial inspection. Tiger grouper sized 150-300 g as much as 50 and acclimatized, then 10 fishes used as controls, 40 fishes were injected with inoculum VNN 101.5 reared without water replacement cycle for ten days. Clinical observation and organ sampling performed 12 hours post-infection and consecutive every 12 hours. Blood samples and organs were collected for immunocytochemical (streptavidin-biotin and a confirmatory test using RT - PCR using kit IQ -2000 VNN. Immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR showed positive results against VNN blood smears and suspensions organs of grouper fish with 24 hours post-infection . Based on the test results, the immunocytochemistry test on the blood and organ suspensions can be used as a detection technique VNN which is rapid, precise and accurate.

  8. Development of Pedigree Classification Using Microsatellite and Mitochondrial Markers for Giant Grouper Broodstock (Epinephelus lanceolatus Management in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Che Kuo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most giant groupers in the market are derived from inbred stock. Inbreeding can cause trait depression, compromising the animals’ fitness and disease resistance, obligating farmers to apply increased amounts of drugs. In order to solve this problem, a pedigree classification method is needed. Here, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were used as genetic markers to analyze the genetic relationships among giant grouper broodstocks. The 776-bp fragment of high polymorphic mitochondrial D-loop sequence was selected for measuring sibling relatedness. In a sample of 118 giant groupers, 42 haplotypes were categorized, with nucleotide diversity (π of 0.00773 and haplotype diversity (HD of 0.983. Furthermore, microsatellites were used for investigation of parentage. Six out of 33 microsatellite loci were selected as markers based on having a high number of alleles and compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Microsatellite profiles based on these loci provide high variability with low combined non-exclusion probability, permitting practical use in aquaculture. The method described here could be used to improve grouper broodstock management and lower the chances of inbreeding. This approach is expected to lead to production of higher quality groupers with higher disease resistance, thereby reducing the need for drug application.

  9. Development of pedigree classification using microsatellite and mitochondrial markers for Giant grouper broodstock (Epinephelus lanceolatus) management in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Chua, Chee Shin; Wang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Young-Mao; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2014-04-30

    Most giant groupers in the market are derived from inbred stock. Inbreeding can cause trait depression, compromising the animals' fitness and disease resistance, obligating farmers to apply increased amounts of drugs. In order to solve this problem, a pedigree classification method is needed. Here, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were used as genetic markers to analyze the genetic relationships among giant grouper broodstocks. The 776-bp fragment of high polymorphic mitochondrial D-loop sequence was selected for measuring sibling relatedness. In a sample of 118 giant groupers, 42 haplotypes were categorized, with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.00773 and haplotype diversity (HD) of 0.983. Furthermore, microsatellites were used for investigation of parentage. Six out of 33 microsatellite loci were selected as markers based on having a high number of alleles and compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Microsatellite profiles based on these loci provide high variability with low combined non-exclusion probability, permitting practical use in aquaculture. The method described here could be used to improve grouper broodstock management and lower the chances of inbreeding. This approach is expected to lead to production of higher quality groupers with higher disease resistance, thereby reducing the need for drug application.

  10. Molecular cloning of glucose transporter 1 in grouper Epinephelus coioides and effects of an acute hyperglycemia stress on its expression and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Liqiao; Tan, Beiping

    2017-02-01

    The glucose transporter family proteins play pivotal roles in glucose metabolism. In this study, we successfully cloned the orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) glucose transporter 1 (EcGlut1) gene (GenBank accession: JQ623903). The full-length EcGlut1 cDNA was 2126 bp with a 1476 bp ORF, a 437bp5'-UTR and 223bp3'-UTR. EcGlut1 is predicted to encode a 491 amino acid protein with a MW of 53.9 kDa, a pI of 8.66 and a Pfam domain. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that EcGlut1 was evolutionally conserved between fishes with 80-89 % amino acid identities. EcGlut1 was expressed predominantly in heart and liver and at lower levels in muscle, intestine, stomach and brain. We also investigated the effect of acute hyperglycemia stress on EcGlut1 expression. In glucose tolerance test, changes in EcGlut1 mRNA expression in response to glucose injection and glucose metabolism-related indictors were assessed at the same time. Glucose injection significantly suppressed EcGlut1 mRNA expression in liver at 12 h and in brain at 24 h postinjection (P < 0.05). EcGlut1 mRNA levels in heart were increased at 6 h (P < 0.05). Plasma glucose level increased significantly and reached its maximum at 3 h postinjection (P < 0.05). The spatiotemporal expression of EcGlut1 and glucose metabolism suggested that orange spotted grouper might rely on fat anabolism to reduce acute hyperglycemia stress and the delayed transcription of EcGlut1 gene might be one reason for glucose intolerance in E. coioides.

  11. Effects of small peptides, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on growth performance, digestive enzymes, and oxidative stress in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, juveniles reared in artificial seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yongzhou; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaopu; Long, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    Aquaculture production efficiency may increase by using feed additives. This study investigated the effects of diff erent dietary additives [w/w: 2% small peptides, 0.01% probiotics (Bacillus licheniformis) and 0.2% prebiotics (inulin)] on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and oxidative stress in juvenile Epinephelus coioides reared in artificial seawater of two salt concentrations (13.5 vs. 28.5). Weight gain rate was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides, B. licheniformis, inulin, or synbiotics than that in fish fed the basal diet; the greatest weight gain rate was found in fish fed the small peptide treatment [56.0% higher than basal diet]. Higher feed efficiency was detected in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides than that of fish in the other dietary treatments. Total protease activity in the stomach and intestines was highest in fish fed the small peptide-treated diet, whereas lipase activity was highest in those fed synbiotics (combination of Bacillus licheniformis and inulin) than that in fish fed the other treatments. Antioxidant enzyme (total superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde content were higher in fish receiving the dietary supplements and maintained in artificial seawater containing 13.5 salinity compared with those in the control (28.5). Hepatic catalase activity in grouper fed the diets with small peptides or synbiotics decreased significantly compared with that in control fish. Overall, the three types of additives improved growth rate of juvenile grouper and digestive enzymes activities to varying degrees but did not effectively improve antioxidant capacity under low-salinity stress conditions.

  12. Effects of small peptides, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on growth performance, digestive enzymes, and oxidative stress in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, juveniles reared in artificial seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yongzhou; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaopu; Long, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture production efficiency may increase by using feed additives. This study investigated the effects of different dietary additives [w/w: 2% small peptides, 0.01% probiotics ( Bacillus licheniformis) and 0.2% prebiotics (inulin)] on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and oxidative stress in juvenile Epinephelus coioides reared in artificial seawater of two salt concentrations (13.5 vs. 28.5). Weight gain rate was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides, B. licheniformis, inulin, or synbiotics than that in fish fed the basal diet; the greatest weight gain rate was found in fish fed the small peptide treatment [56.0% higher than basal diet]. Higher feed efficiency was detected in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides than that of fish in the other dietary treatments. Total protease activity in the stomach and intestines was highest in fish fed the small peptide-treated diet, whereas lipase activity was highest in those fed synbiotics (combination of Bacillus licheniformis and inulin) than that in fish fed the other treatments. Antioxidant enzyme (total superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde content were higher in fish receiving the dietary supplements and maintained in artificial seawater containing 13.5 salinity compared with those in the control (28.5). Hepatic catalase activity in grouper fed the diets with small peptides or synbiotics decreased significantly compared with that in control fish. Overall, the three types of additives improved growth rate of juvenile grouper and digestive enzymes activities to varying degrees but did not effectively improve antioxidant capacity under low-salinity stress conditions.

  13. Molecular identification of GnIH/GnIHR signal and its reproductive function in protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Qi, Xin; Guo, Yin; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2015-05-15

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and its receptor (GnIHR) play an important role in reproduction regulation in birds, mammals and some teleost species. In protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), the GnIH/GnIHR signaling pathway and its reproductive function have not been addressed yet. In this study, GnIH and GnIHR in orange-spotted grouper were characterized. gGnIH possessed three putative peptides (gGnIH-I, -II, -III), while gGnIHR showed the characteristics of G protein-coupled receptor and was clustered with GPR147. Functional assays demonstrated that three synthetic gGnIH peptides significantly decreased the forskolin-induced CRE promoter activity, but only gGnIH-I could significantly decrease SRE promoter activity in COS-7 cells transfected with gGnIHR. During the process of ovarian differentiation and development, gGnIH mRNA level in hypothalamus was low at the gonadal primordium stage with gonia, then increased significantly at the early differentiated gonad with primary growth oocytes, while decreased significantly at the developing gonads with cortical-alveolus and vitellogenic stage oocytes. During MT-induced sex reversal, gGnIH mRNA level in hypothalamus increased significantly when the fish completely reversed from female to male. However, gGnIHR mRNA level in pituitary decreased significantly in intersex and completely reversed male fish. Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of three gGnIH peptides significantly decreased GnRH1 mRNA levels in hypothalamus, and gGnIH-II significantly inhibited synthesis of LHβ in pituitary. In summary, we firstly identified the GnIH/GnIHR signal in protogynous orange-spotted grouper, which might be involved in the regulation of the reproductive function of sex differentiation, gonadal development and sex reversal via regulating the synthesis of both GnRH and GtH.

  14. Effects of cysteamine on mRNA levels of growth hormone and its receptors and growth in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Xilan; Lin, Haoran

    2013-06-01

    Effects of cysteamine (CS) on growth hormone (GH) mRNA, two types of growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNAs and growth rate in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were investigated. CS could cause a modification in the structure of somatostatin, which is the most important neuroendocrine inhibitor of basal and stimulated growth hormone synthesis and release, and renders it nonimmunoreactive probably through interaction with the disulfide bonds. In the present study, cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) enhanced the level of pituitary GH mRNA in a dose-dependent manner through attenuating or deleting the inhibiting action of somatostatin on GH mRNA expression. CSH at relatively low doses (from 1 to 3 mg/g diet) enhanced the levels of two types of GHR mRNAs in dose-dependent manner, whereas the stimulation induced by CSH declined from the peak at higher dose of CSH (4 mg/g diet). It might be attributed to the variation in GH-induced up-regulation of GHRs at different doses of GH. Feeding of CSH could induce remarkable enhancement of growth rate in orange-spotted grouper. In addition, the stimulatory effect of CSH could be potentiated by the additive effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog (LHRH-A). Compared with individual treatments, combined feeding of CSH and LHRH-A caused more efficient elevation of growth rate after 8 weeks of feeding. CSH and LHRH-A individually and in combination remarkably increased the levels of GH and GHR mRNAs compared with the control. The combined administration of CSH and LHRH-A in diet was most effective to enhance the level of GH and GHR1 mRNA. The morphological characteristics of the experimental fish were evaluated. Compared with control, the ratios of muscle RNA/DNA, condition factors (CF) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were significantly enhanced in the treated groups, while the highest values were observed in the combined treatment. All the results suggested that CSH (1-3 mg/g diet) is an effective

  15. Mercury and histopathology of the vulnerable goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, in U.S. waters: a multi-tissue approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Douglas H; Sonne, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Goliath grouper have undergone significant global population declines with potential biological extinction for some subpopulations. Although overfishing and habitat loss are important drivers of these declines, the negative effects of contaminants may also play a role. The life history patterns of goliath grouper may make this species especially prone to exposure to contaminants and may exacerbate bioaccumulation of toxic substances, including mercury, which has documented detrimental health effects. Therefore, we analyzed mercury (in muscle, liver, kidney, gonad, and brain tissue) and the histology of key organs (liver, kidney and gill tissue) in 56 goliath groupers from U.S. waters. Total mercury concentration was greatest in liver tissue, followed by kidney, muscle, gonad, and brain. Maximum mercury concentration ranged from 22.68 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.89 μg/g in brain tissue. Mean mercury concentration ranged from 2.87 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.37 μg/g in brain tissue with a mean of 0.63 μg/g in muscle. Mean mercury concentrations observed in goliath grouper from U.S. waters were within the range known to cause direct health effects in fish after long-term exposure. The lesions and histological changes observed in the liver, kidney, and gills of goliath groupers were similar to those found in other fish following laboratory mercury-exposure trials and to those found in mercury-contaminated fish in wild populations carrying similar or even lower concentrations. We suggest that exposure to mercury and other environmental influences such as pathogens and reduced temperatures could be co-factors in the histological effects or anomalies observed in the present study, and resulting stresses may be involved in the observed population declines in the species.

  16. Prosorhynchus maternus sp n. (Digenea : Bucephalidae) from the Malabar grouper Epinephelus malabaricus (Perciformes : Serranidae) off New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, R A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2006-01-01

    A new species, Prosorhynchus maternus sp. n., is described from the serranid fish Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch et Schneider) in the waters off New Caledonia. It belongs to a group of Prosorhynchus species from serranids in which the uterus is restricted to the postovarian region. Its distinguishing features include the vitellarium relatively distant from the rhynchus, the cirrus-sac relatively distant from the posterior testis, the distinctly pre-equatorial mouth and several other somatic r...

  17. Molecular and morphometric characteristics of Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the gallbladder of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides from the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Lamjed; Al-Qahtani, Hussain A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2015-01-01

    Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. was found to infect the gallbladder of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides located off the Saudi Arabian coast of the Arabian Gulf. The infection was reported as a free-floating spore in the bile, and pseudoplasmodia were not observed. Mature spores were crescent-shaped and measured on average 7 μm in length and 16 μm in thickness. The polar capsule, meanwhile, had length to width measurements of 4 μm and 3 μm on average. A periodical survey was conducted throughout a sampling period between December 2012 and December 2013, with the results showing that the parasite was present throughout the year with a mean prevalence of 32.6%. The objective of this study was to characterize this new species based on its morphological and molecular differences from previously described species. Molecular analysis based on the partial sequence of the SSU rDNA gene, showed the highest similarity (97.8%) to Ceratomyxa buri, reported in the cultured yellow tail Seriola quinqueradiata in Japan. Indeed, C. buri and the new species described here formed an individual cluster with a high degree of bootstrap support. This is the first reported species of genus Ceratomyxa from the Arabian Gulf fishes off Saudi Arabia.

  18. GHRH, PRP-PACAP and GHRHR Target Sequencing via an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine Reveals an Association with Growth in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xia, Junhong; Yang, Sen; Li, Mingming; You, Xinxin; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2015-11-02

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and the receptor, GHRHR, constitute important components of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis and act on the downstream growth hormone (GH). PACAP-related peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PRP-PACAP) is a paralog of GHRH. These genes all play key roles in development and growth patterns. To improve the quality of cultured fish strains, natural genetic variation must be examined and understood. A mixed linear model has been widely used in association mapping, taking the population structures and pairwise kinship patterns into consideration. In this study, a mass cross population of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was examined. These candidate genes were found to harbor low nucleotide diversity (θw from 0.00154 to 0.00388) and linkage disequilibrium levels (delay of 50% within 2 kbp). Association mapping was employed, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (KR269823.1:g.475A>C and KR269823.1:g.2143T>C) were found to be associated with growth (false discovery rate Q C was also found via haplotype-based association (p < 0.05). The identified associations offer new insights into gene functions, and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be used for breeding purposes.

  19. Genetic Analyses and Simulations of Larval Dispersal Reveal Distinct Populations and Directional Connectivity across the Range of the Hawaiian Grouper (Epinephelus quernus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malia Ana J. Rivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of ecological and genetic data to study patterns of biological connectivity can aid in ecosystem-based management. Here we investigated connectivity of the Hawaiian grouper Epinephelus quernus, a species of management concern within the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI, by comparing genetic analyses with simulated larval dispersal patterns across the species range in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Johnston Atoll. Larval simulations revealed higher dispersal from the MHI to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI than in the opposite direction and evidence for a dispersal corridor between Johnston and the middle of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Genetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region sequences and microsatellites revealed relatively high connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago, with the exception of genetically distinct populations and higher mtDNA diversity in the mid-Archipelago. These analyses support the preservation of the mid-archipelago as a source of genetic diversity and a region of connectivity with locations outside the Hawaiian Archipelago. Additionally, our evidence for directional dispersal away from the MHI lends caution to any management decisions that would rely on the NWHI replenishing depleted MHI stocks.

  20. GHRH, PRP-PACAP and GHRHR Target Sequencing via an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine Reveals an Association with Growth in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH and the receptor, GHRHR, constitute important components of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis and act on the downstream growth hormone (GH. PACAP-related peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PRP-PACAP is a paralog of GHRH. These genes all play key roles in development and growth patterns. To improve the quality of cultured fish strains, natural genetic variation must be examined and understood. A mixed linear model has been widely used in association mapping, taking the population structures and pairwise kinship patterns into consideration. In this study, a mass cross population of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides was examined. These candidate genes were found to harbor low nucleotide diversity (θw from 0.00154 to 0.00388 and linkage disequilibrium levels (delay of 50% within 2 kbp. Association mapping was employed, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (KR269823.1:g.475A>C and KR269823.1:g.2143T>C were found to be associated with growth (false discovery rate Q < 0.05, explaining 9.0%–17.0% of the phenotypic variance. The association of KR269823.1:g.2143T>C was also found via haplotype-based association (p < 0.05. The identified associations offer new insights into gene functions, and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may be used for breeding purposes.

  1. Effects of a recombinant complement component C3b functional fragment α2MR (α2-macroglobulin receptor) additive on the immune response of juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the exposure to cold shock challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-08-01

    The effects of Ec-α2MR (Epinephelus coiodes-α2-macroglobulin receptor) on growth performance, enzymatic activity, respiratory burst, MDA level, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging percentage and immune-related gene expressions of the juvenile orange-spotted grouper were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with α2MR additive was used to feed the orange-spotted grouper for six weeks. Although a slight increase was observed in the specific growth rate, survival rate and weight gain, no significance was observed among different group. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to cold stress. Respiratory burst activity and MDA level decreased significantly in α2MR additive group by comparing with the control and additive control group, while a sharp increase of ACP activity, ALP activity, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radial scavenging percentage was observed in α2MR additive group. qRT-PCR analyses confirmed that the up-regulated mRNA expressions of C3, TNF1, TNF2, IL-6, CTL, LysC, SOD1 and SOD2 were observed in α2MR additive group at 20 °C. These results showed that α2MR additive may moderate the immune response in grouper following cold shock challenge.

  2. Formation of diploid and triploid hybrid groupers (hybridization of Epinephelus coioides ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂) and their 5S gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Qin, Qinbo; Yang, Huirong; Li, Shuisheng; Hu, Chaoqun; Wang, Yude; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Shaojun; Lin, Haoran

    2016-10-07

    Interspecies hybridization is widely used to achieve heterosis or hybrid vigor, which has been observed and harnessed by breeders for centuries. Natural allopolyploid hybrids generally exhibit more superior heterosis than both the diploid progenies and their parental species. However, polyploid formation processes have been long ignored, the genetic basis of heterosis in polyploids remains elusive. In the present study, triploid hybrids had been demonstrated to contain two sets of chromosomes from mother species and one set from father species. Cellular polyploidization process in the embryos had been traced. The triploid hybrids might be formed by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the second meiosis stage. Four spindle centers were observed in anaphase stage of the first cell division. Three spindle centers were observed in side of cell plate after the first cell division. The 5S rDNA genes of four types of groupers were cloned and analyzed. The diploid and triploid hybrids had been proved to contain the tandem chimera structures which were recombined by maternal and paternal monomer units. The results indicated that genome re-fusion had occurred in the hybrid progenies. To further elucidate the genetic patterns of diploid and triploid hybrids, fluorescence chromosome location had been carried out, maternal 5S gene (M-386) were used as the probe. The triploid hybrids contained fewer fluorescence loci numbers than the maternal species. The results indicated that participation of paternal 5S gene in the triploid hybrid genome had degraded the match rates of M-386 probe. Our study is the first to investigate the cellular formation processes of natural allopolyploids in hybrid fish, the cellular polyploidization process may be caused by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the meiosis, and our results will provide the molecular basis of hybrid vigor in interspecies hybridization.

  3. Polymorphisms of Leptin-b Gene Associated with Growth Traits in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, leptin has been demonstrated to perform important roles in many physiological activities and to influence development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. However, in fish, its function is still unclear. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, have been identified in the orange-spotted grouper. In the present study, the polymorphisms in the leptin-b gene of the orange-spotted grouper were detected, and the relation between these polymorphisms and 12 growth traits were analyzed. Six polymorphisms (including 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.149G>A in exon 1, 2 SNPs (c.181A>G, c.193G>A in intron 1, and 1 SNP (c.360C>T in exon 2 were identified and genotyped from 200 different individuals. The results revealed that the SNP c.149G>A was significantly associated with growth traits, that the heterozygous mutation genotype GA having negative effects on growth traits. However, the other five SNPs (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.181A>G, c.193G>A, c.360C>T did not show significant associations with all the growth traits. Compared with our findings in leptin-a gene, the results suggested that the leptin-a hormone has more important physiological effects in fish bodies than the leptin-b type. Moreover, leptin genes were supposed to be one class of major candidate genes of regulating growth traits in the orange-spotted grouper.

  4. Polymorphisms of leptin-b gene associated with growth traits in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai; Wei, Yun; Meng, Zining; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaochun; Guo, Liang; Luo, Jian; Chen, Guohua; Lin, Haoran

    2014-07-07

    In mammals, leptin has been demonstrated to perform important roles in many physiological activities and to influence development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. However, in fish, its function is still unclear. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, have been identified in the orange-spotted grouper. In the present study, the polymorphisms in the leptin-b gene of the orange-spotted grouper were detected, and the relation between these polymorphisms and 12 growth traits were analyzed. Six polymorphisms (including 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.149G>A) in exon 1, 2 SNPs (c.181A>G, c.193G>A) in intron 1, and 1 SNP (c.360C>T) in exon 2) were identified and genotyped from 200 different individuals. The results revealed that the SNP c.149G>A was significantly associated with growth traits, that the heterozygous mutation genotype GA having negative effects on growth traits. However, the other five SNPs (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.181A>G, c.193G>A, c.360C>T) did not show significant associations with all the growth traits. Compared with our findings in leptin-a gene, the results suggested that the leptin-a hormone has more important physiological effects in fish bodies than the leptin-b type. Moreover, leptin genes were supposed to be one class of major candidate genes of regulating growth traits in the orange-spotted grouper.

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profiles of multiple leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixian; Chen, Huapu; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shuisheng; Lu, Danqi; Zhang, Haifa; Meng, Zining; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2013-01-15

    Leptin plays key roles in body weight regulation, energy metabolism, food intake, reproduction and immunity in mammals. However, its function in teleosts is still unclear. In the present study, two leptin genes (gLepA and gLepB) and one leptin receptor gene (gLepR) were cloned and characterized in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNAs of gLepA and gLepB were 671 bp and 684 bp in length, encoding for proteins of 161 amino acid (aa) and 158 aa, respectively. The three-dimensional (3D) structures modeling of gLepA and gLepB showed strong conservation of tertiary structure with that of other vertebrates. The total length of gLepR cDNA was 4242 bp, encoding a protein of 1169 aa which contained all functionally important domains conserved among vertebrate LEPR. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gLepA was highly expressed in cerebellum, liver and ovary, while gLepB mRNA abundantly in the brain regions, as well as in the ovary with some extend. The gLepR was mainly expressed in kidney, head kidney and most of brain regions. Analysis of expression profiles of gLep and gLepR genes during the embryonic stages showed that high expression of gLepR was observed in the brain vesicle stage, while neither gLepA nor gLepB mRNA was detected during different embryonic stages. Finally, fasting and refeeding experiments were carried out to investigate the possible function of leptin genes in food intake and energy metabolism, and the results showed that a significant increase of gLepA expression in the liver was induced by food deprivation in both short-term (7 days) and long-term (3 weeks) fasting and gLepA mRNA upregulation was eliminated after refeeding, while gLepB wasn't detected in the liver of grouper during fasting. No significant differences in hypothalamic leptin and leptin receptor expression were found during short-term fasting and refeeding. Hepatic expression of gLepA mRNA increased significantly 9h after a single meal. These results suggested g

  6. Nucleic acids digestion by enzymes in the stomach of snakehead (Channa argus) and banded grouper (Epinephelus awoara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Pan, Xiaoming; Wu, Wei; Cao, Minjie; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2017-02-01

    Dietary nucleic acids (NAs) were important nutrients. However, the digestion of NAs in stomach has not been studied. In this study, the digestion of NAs by enzymes from fish stomach was investigated. The snakehead pepsins (SP) which were the main enzymes in stomach were extracted and purified. The purity of SP was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and HPLC. The snakehead pepsin 2 (SP2) which was the main component in the extracts was used for investigating the protein and NAs digestion activity. SP2 could digest NAs, including λ DNA and salmon sperm DNA. Interestingly, the digestion could be inhibited by treatment of alkaline solution at pH 8.0 and pepstatin A, and the digestion could happen either in the presence or absence of hemoglobin (Hb) and BSA as the protein substrates. Similarly, the stomach enzymes of banded grouper also showed the NAs digestion activity. NAs could be digested by the stomach enzymes of snakehead and banded grouper. It may be helpful for understanding both animal nutrition and NAs metabolic pathway.

  7. Dietary administration of sodium alginate and kappa-carrageenan enhances the innate immune response of brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2008-02-15

    Brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus which had been fed diets containing sodium alginate and kappa (kappa)-carrageenan at 5, 10 and 20gkg(-1), respectively after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 14 weeks were examined for survival, growth, innate cellular and humoral responses as compared to the fish that fed control non-supplemented diet. Survival was 100% for the fish that fed all diets after 14 weeks and no significant difference in growth was observed among seven diets. The fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1), and fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) over 2-8 weeks showed significantly increased leucocyte count, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and phagocytic index, The fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 5gkg(-1), and fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) over 2-8 weeks showed significantly increased alternative complement activity (ACH50) and lysozyme activity. In another experiment, E. fuscoguttatus, which had been fed control diet, and all diets containing sodium alginate, and kappa-carrageenan after 14 weeks were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 5.0x10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) fish(-1) and then placed in seawater of 34 per thousand. The survival of fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1) and kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) was significantly higher than that of fish which fed the control diet over 96-168h. It was concluded that E. fuscoguttatus which fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1) or less, or fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) enhance the innate immunity, and increase the resistance from V. alginolyticus infection.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA evidences reflect an incipient population structure in Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, Epinephelidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnio S. Damasceno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic goliath grouper is a critically endangered species that inhabits estuarine and reef environments and is threatened primarily by fishing activities and habitat destruction. Despite the urgent need for protection, its genetic conservation status remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gene flow among the populations of the species along the coast of Brazil based on the control region of the mitochondrial DNA. The results indicate low haplotype diversity (0.40-0.86 and very low nucleotide diversity (0.1-0.5%. They also show that the genetic diversity of the species varies considerably along the coast and that this finding may be especially important for the identification of priority areas for its conservation. The population analyses indicate a low but significant degree of genetic structuring (ΦST =0.111, probably due to the occurrence of rare haplotypes at some locations, although the genetic differentiation between sites was not correlated with geographic distance (r=0.0501; p=0.7719, and the shared haplotypes indicate that gene flow occurs among all locations along the Brazilian coast. The results of the pairwise FST indicate a high degree of genetic differentiation between locations. The incipient population structuring detected in the present study is not related systematically to the geological or physical features of the Brazilian coast. The complex interaction of fluctuations in sea level, marine currents, and the reproductive characteristics of the species hampers the identification of the specific role of each of these processes in the gene flow dynamics of the population units of the Atlantic goliath grouper. The low overall levels of genetic diversity, the pairwise FST values and the significant population structuring among groups (ΦCT identified in the present study all reinforce the critically endangered status of the species and are inconsistent with the presence of a single, panmictic

  9. [Cloning and promoter analysis of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone Ⅱ in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yu-Shan; Zhu, Zuo-Yan; Hu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproduction in all vertebrates. We first cloned the cDNA and genomic DNA sequences coding for GnRHⅡ gene in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelis coioides), an economically important marine fish, and then cloned its promoter sequence. The region responsible for the cell-specific expression of GnRHⅡ was located between -2005 bp to -956 bp from the translation start site. GnRHⅡ promoter driven EGFP expression in transgenic zebrafish showed that GnRHⅡ-positive neurons were primarily located in the midbrain and in the eyes. Our results provide an improved understanding of the regulatory mechanism and function of GnRHⅡ of E. coioides.

  10. Corticosteroid biosynthesis in vitro by testes of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after 17alpha-methyltestosterone-induced sex inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S T; Lam, T J; Tan, C H

    2000-11-01

    This study reports the unique compartmentalization of cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol biosynthesis in vitro from [(3)H]17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17P) in testicular tissues of groupers after sex inversion induced by 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT). Before MT implantation, the ovarian tissues produced only nonpolar metabolites. Following sex inversion some 6 months later, synthesis of these nonpolar metabolites was not detectable. Instead, cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol, with yields of about 3% and 14%, respectively, were synthesized together with two other polar metabolites. The corticosteroids and polar metabolites were distinctly nondetectable in ovarian tissues of the control fish throughout the experiment. While the significance of this testicular synthesis of corticosteroids is presently unclear, it could be related to the increased energy demands arising from the reorganization of gonadal tissues during sex inversion.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol and behaviour of its metabolite florfenicol amine in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J-B; Huang, D-R; Zhong, M; Liu, P; Dong, J-D

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacokinetics and elimination of florfenicol and florfenicol amine in grouper held in sea water at 23.3 ± 0.8 °C were studied using HPLC method after they were given a single peroral dose of florfenicol at 24 mg kg(-1) body weight. Florfenicol was rapidly absorbed from intestine and distributed extensively to all the tissues examined. The maximum concentrations (Cmax , μg g(-1) or μg mL(-1) ) in plasma and tissues were observed at 2-6 h (the time to reach maximum concentration, Tmax ) except for bile (Tmax  = 24 h) and were in the order of intestine (52.02 ± 25.07) > bile (49.41 ± 28.16) > gill (45.12 ± 11.10) > plasma (28.28 ± 5.43) > liver (21.97 ± 12.08) > muscle (21.63 ± 6.12) > kidney (20.88 ± 11.28) > skin (19.10 ± 5.88). The drug distribution level was higher in plasma than in extravascular tissues except for bile, based on the ratios of the area under concentration-time curve between tissue and plasma (AUCtissue/plasma ). The elimination of florfenicol was rapid in fish, and the corresponding half-lives (T1/2β ) in the order of magnitude were bile (13.92 h) > muscle or liver (12.31 h) > skin (11.77 h) > plasma (11.57) > gill (11.04 h) > intestine (10.55 h) > kidney (10.05 h). The delayed Tmax , lower Cmax and longer T1/2β for florfenicol amine compared with florfenicol were measured in grouper.

  12. Trypanosoma epinepheli n. sp. (Kinetoplastida) from a farmed marine fish in China, the brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Jiang, Jingzhe; Guo, Zhixun; Liu, Guangfeng; Xu, Liwen

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in farmed Epinephelus fuscoguttatus in Xincun Bay, province of Hainan, South China Sea. The infected fish showed loss of appetite, lethargy, emaciation, severe anemia, and splenomegaly. Light and scanning electron microscopic examination of bloodstream trypomastigotes revealed morphological features typical for small-sized marine fish trypanosomes. The trypanosome possesses a short body length (mean 22.3 μm, range 17.6-25.9 μm) and narrow body width (mean1.7 μm, range 1.3-2.0 μm), a central nucleus, a narrow but distinct undulating membrane, and a relatively long free flagellum (mean 10.1 μm, range 7.4-13.3 μm). The kinetoplast is situated at approximately one quarter of body length from posterior extremity. The division process of this trypanosome was observed in the peripheral blood of the host, and occurred by transverse constriction at a point between the kinetoplasts. Comparison of the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) sequences revealed that the trypanosome from E. fuscoguttatus showed 93.4-97.1% identity with the available sequences from Trypanosoma spp. from other piscine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of an aquatic clade, and the present trypanosome grouped with other marine fish trypanosomes, in a subclade together with Trypanosoma senegalense. Based on the differences in morphological characteristics, host species, and molecular data, the trypanosome infecting E. fuscoguttatus is considered to be a new species, for which we propose the name Trypanosoma epinepheli n. sp.

  13. Spawning aggregation of white-streaked grouper Epinephelus ongus: spatial distribution and annual variation in the fish density within a spawning ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taku; Kawabata, Yuuki; Okuyama, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    White-streaked grouper (Epinephelus ongus) is an important fisheries target and forms spawning aggregations at particular spawning grounds. The aims of the present study were to investigate the ecological characteristics of annual spawning aggregations such as (1) spatial variations in the density of E. ongus at the spawning ground, (2) the relationship between fish density and environmental variables, (3) inter-annual variations in the spawning aggregation, (4) the proportion of males to females at the spawning ground for several days pre—and post-spawning and (5) the relationship between male density and female density at the protected spawning ground, based on observations over five years at an Okinawan coral reef. Although the protected spawning ground area was large (ca. 2,500 m × 700 m), high density of E. ongus (over 25 individuals per 100 m2) was found in a limited area (within c.a. 750 m × 50 m). Current velocity and coverage of rocks had significant positive effects on the spatial distribution of E. ongus at the spawning ground. Inter-annual variation in the degree of aggregation was found and this variation was explained by the annual variation of mean seawater temperature during 40 days before the spawning day. The male–female ratio (male:female) at the spawning ground was ca. 3:1 for three years (May 2012, May 2014 and May 2015) whereas >13:1 for one year (May 2013). Significant positive relationships between male density and female density were found at the aggregation sites. It is suggested that E. ongus use aggregation sites with greater current velocity to reduce the risk of egg predation and seawater temperature is one of the main factors that is responsible for determining the degree of aggregation. It is also suggested that females possibly select sites with a greater density of males and this selection behavior might be the reason why females arrived at the spawning ground after the arrival of the males. For effective management of

  14. Anatomia e histologia gastrintestinal da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4462 Dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae gastrintestinal anatomy and histology - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4462

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A garoupa-verdadeira (Epinephelus marginatus é uma espécie de serranídeo com grande importância ecológica e boas perspectivas para o cultivo. A investigação da morfologia do trato digestório, associada à atividade alimentar, é fundamental para a compreensão da biologia dessa espécie e premissa básica para pesquisas sobre requerimentos nutricionais, desenvolvimento de rações e práticas adequadas de manejo alimentar. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia e, por meio da microscopia de luz, as variações histológicas ao longo do tubo digestório de juvenis de Epinephelus marginatus, correlacionando a histologia de cada seguimento com as respectivas funções e o hábito alimentar. Verificou-se que essa espécie possui elevado número de tipos celulares ao longo do tubo digestório que estão intimamente relacionados com a resposta imunológica inata e adaptativa, permitindo o hábito alimentar detritívoro.The dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus is a serranida species with great ecological importance and good perspectives for rearing. The investigation of the digestive tract morphology associated to the feeding activity is essential for the understanding of the biology of this species and a basic premise for research on feed requirements, feed development and appropriate feeding methods. The present study describes the anatomy and histological variations along the digestive tract of Epinephelus marginatus juveniles associating the histology with function and feeding habit. It was verified that this species possesses a high number of different cellular types along the digestive tube intimately related with the innate and adaptative immunological responses.

  15. Occurrence of three red listed species of Epinephelus (Perciformes: Serranidae on Digha coast, India

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    P. Yennawar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine efforts to maintain diversity in the public aquarium of the Marine Aquarium & regional Center, Digha, of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI, the authors encountered three more species of the Genus Epinephelus which after thorough literature survey were found to be not reported earlier from this area though listed in IUCN Red list of threatened fauna. Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822 Orange Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790 Brindle Grouper and Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842 Striped Grouper are the first time reports from Digha Coast.

  16. 斜带石斑鱼MyD88基因的克隆与表达%Cloning and Expression of MyD88 Gene in Orange-spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦友传; 高谦; 昌明先; 罗廷荣

    2011-01-01

    The full cDNA sequence of myeloid differentiation factor 88(MyD88) in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides,designated as EcMyD88,has been isolated by using RACE-PCR method.The EcMyD88 consisted of 1 795 bp,including an 870 bp open reading frame%本研究运用RACE-PCR技术获得斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)髓样分化因子88(myeloid differentiation factor 88,MyD88)基因,并对该基因进行生物信息学和表达模式分析。研究结果表明1795bp的cDNA全长序列,包括ORF 870 bp、5'UTR 243 bp和3'UTR 682 bp,3'UTR存在1个多聚腺苷酸加尾信号(AATAAA)和两个mRNA不稳定基序(ATTTA)。SMART软件预测该蛋白N端和C端分别存在死亡结构域和TIR结构

  17. Monogeneans of the speckled blue grouper, Epinephelus cyanopodus (Perciformes, Serranidae), from off New Caledonia, with a description of four new species of Pseudorhabdosynochus and one new species of Laticola (Monogenea : Diplectanidae), and evidence of monogenean faunal changes according to the size of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sigura, A.; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2008-01-01

    Nine species were identified among 1500 monogeneans collected on the gills of 17 speckled blue groupers, Epinephelus cyanopodus, caught off New Caledonia, South Pacific. A new method for describing squamodiscs in tables is proposed. Diplectanids included one new species of Laticola, which was the most abundant species, and six species of Pseudorhabdosynochus, including four new species, which were differentiated mainly on the basis of morphology of the sclerotised vagina. Laticola cyanus n. s...

  18. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Liu, Hankui; Meng, Zining; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Haifa; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-04-06

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish.

  19. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq, and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1 including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1 that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish.

  20. Molecular characterization of the GHRH/GHRH-R and its effect on GH synthesis and release in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuehua; Yan, Aifen; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2012-10-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that stimulates growth hormone (GH) synthesis and secretion in the pituitary gland. In this paper, the full-length cDNAs of orange-spotted grouper GHRH and its receptor (GHRH-R) were cloned. The grouper GHRH cDNA is 713 bp in length and encodes a 141-aa precursor that includes an 18-aa signal peptide, a 27-aa mature GHRH mature peptide and a 47-aa carboxyl terminus. The grouper GHRH-R cDNA sequence is 1495 bp in length, encoding a 422-aa receptor with seven transmembrane domains. Tissue distribution analyses showed that both GHRH and GHRH-R mRNAs were predominantly expressed in the brain, while the GHRH-R mRNA was also abundantly detected in the pituitary gland. Both GHRH and GHRH-R mRNAs were expressed throughout embryonic development from the multi-cell stage to the newly hatched larvae stage, and the highest GHRH and GHRH-R expressions appeared at the brain vesicle stage and the heart stage, respectively. In vitro studies performed on the grouper pituitary primary cells showed that a synthetic grouper GHRH-NH(2) increased both GH mRNA expression and GH protein release in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these results suggest that the newly obtained grouper GHRH was able to stimulate GH synthesis and release, similar to its mammalian counterparts.

  1. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides Between and Within Cultured Stocks and Wild Populations Inferred from Microsatellite DNA Analysis

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    Haoran Lin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we employed microsatellite DNA markers to analyze the genetic diversity and differentiation between and within cultured stocks and wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper originating from the South China Sea and Southeast Asia. Compared to wild populations, genetic changes including reduced genetic diversity and significant differentiation have taken place in cultured grouper stocks, as shown by allele richness and heterozygosity studies, pairwise Fst, structure, molecular variance analysis, as well as multidimensional scaling analysis. Although two geographically adjacent orange-spotted grouper populations in China showed negligible genetic divergence, significant population differentiation was observed in wild grouper populations distributed in a wide geographical area from China, through Malaysia to Indonesia. However, the Mantel test rejected the isolation-by-distance model of genetic structure, which indicated the genetic differentiation among the populations could result from the co-effects of various factors, such as historical dispersal, local environment, ocean currents, river flows and island blocks. Our results demonstrated that microsatellite markers could be suitable not only for genetic monitoring cultured stocks but also for revealing the population structuring of wild orange-spotted grouper populations. Meanwhile, our study provided important information for breeding programs, management of cultured stocks and conservation of wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper.

  2. Growth, feed intake and immune responses of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to low infectious doses of ectoparasite (Cryptocaryon irritans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Dan, Xue-Ming; Sun, Peng; Shi, Zhao-Hong; Gao, Quan-Xin; Peng, Shi-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of low-dose Cryptocaryon irritans infection on growth, feeding and antiparasitic immunity of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 5500 theronts/fish (Group I, 1/10 of 96 h LC50) or 11,000 theronts/fish (Group II) to infect E. coioides weighing 38 g on average at week 0, 2 and 4, respectively. Food consumption was recorded daily; the fish were weighed weekly; serum immobilizing titer (SIT), and acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lysozyme (LZM) activity were recorded every 2 weeks; the fish were treated with lethal dose (70,000 theronts/fish) of C. irritans in the 8th week and death number were recorded. The result shows that in the 1st week after the first infection, the fish's weight gain (WG), length gain (LG), and specific growth rate (SGR) dropped as parasite dose increased, and WG, SGR values were negative; while, after the 2nd and the 3rd infection, no significant differences were detected among the three groups. These results indicated that the 1st infection affected the fish most, while the following infections were protected by some immunity. In the 3rd, 7th, and 8th week, condition factor (CF) increased with the increased infectious dose, indicating that the parasite affected body length more than body weight. As the experiment went on, accumulated food consumption (AFC) of all three groups steadily grew (control > Group I > Group II). But on the 2nd day after the first infection, daily food consumption (DFC) of Group I and II significantly dropped, the decline of Group II was greater than that of Group I, DFC recovered in the following week, with Group I earlier than Group II. After the 2nd infection, DFC of Group I and II dropped again, Group II still dropped more than Group I, and both groups recovered on the 3rd day after infection. The 3rd infection caused no significant difference in week food consumption (WFC). These

  3. Dietary sodium alginate administration affects fingerling growth and resistance to Streptococcus sp. and iridovirus, and juvenile non-specific immune responses of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Chang, Chen-An; Chang, Chi-Yao; Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton

    2008-07-01

    The percent weight gain (PWG) and feeding efficiency (FE) of fingerling orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, fed diets containing sodium alginate at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) were calculated on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th weeks after feeding. Survival rates of the fingerling grouper against Streptococcus sp. and an iridovirus, and non-specific immune parameters such as alternative complement activity (ACH50), lysozyme activity, natural haemagglutination activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and phagocytic activity of juvenile grouper were also determined when the fish were fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 g kg(-1). The PWG and FE of fish were better when the fish were fed diets containing sodium alginate at 1.0, and 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1), respectively. The PWG and FE of fish fed the 0, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) sodium alginate-containing diets after 8 weeks were 271.0%, 454.4% and 327.8%, and 0.61, 0.72 and 0.68, respectively. Fish fed a diet containing sodium alginate at the level of 2.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate than those fed the control diet after challenge with Streptococcus sp. and an iridovirus causing an increase of survival rate by 25.0% and 16.7%, respectively, compared to the control group. The ACH(50) level of fish fed the sodium alginate-containing diets at 2.0 g kg(-1) was significantly higher than those fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) sodium alginate diet and control diet after 12 days, and had increased to 1.9-fold, compared to those fed the control diet. The lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity, respiratory bursts, and SOD level of fish fed the sodium alginate-containing diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after 12 days, and had increased to 1.97- and 1.68-fold, 1.35- and 1.50-fold, 1.63- and 1.81-fold, and 1.23- and 1.31-fold, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet. We therefore recommend dietary sodium alginate

  4. Effects of Different Salinities on Growth and Physiology of Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides%不同盐度对斜带石斑鱼幼鱼生长和生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素久; 张海发; 赵俊; 杨宇晴; 杨少森

    2011-01-01

    Effects of different salinities on growth and physiology of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) reared in recirculating systems was studied. Juvenile orange-spotted groupers, with initial weight 56 ± 7.2 g (mean ± standard error, and the same below) at five different levels of salinity (6, 12, 18, 24 and 30) for 65 days. The special growth rate (SGR) of the grouper at salinity of 12 and 18 was 0.80 ± 0.05 %/d and 0.77 ± 0.07 %/d, respectively, and were significantly higher compared to other groups (P 0.05). The Na+-K+-ATPase activity in gill of the grouper reared at salinity 12 was significantly lower than other groups (P 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity in blood at salinity 12 and 18 were significantly higher than other groups (P> 0.05). Farming economics could be improved by rearing orange-spotted grouper at lower salinities, with respect to growth rate, food conversion and physiology.%设置6、12、18、24、30等5个盐度梯度,在循环水养殖条件下饲养体质量56±7.2g(平均值±标准差,下同)、的斜带石斑鱼幼鱼65d,研究工厂化养殖条件下,盐度对斜带石斑鱼幼鱼生长、渗透压调节、消化酶活性等的影响.结果表明:盐度12和18组的特定生长率分别为(0.80±0.05)%/d(0.77±0.07)%/d,显著高于其他盐度组(P<0.05),且两者的特定生长率差异不显著(P>0.05);盐度12和18组饵料系数分别为1.20±0.08、1.16±0.03,显著低于其余盐度组(P<0.05),两者的饵料系数差异不显著(P>0.05);鳃丝Na+-K+-ATP酶活性在盐度12时最低;消化酶活性在盐度24时最高;血清中谷草转氨酶(GOT)活性在盐度6时活性最高,其余盐度组之间差异不显著(P>0.05);盐度12与18组血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和溶菌酶(lysozyme)活性显著高于其他组(P<0.05).综合各盐度条件下的生长、饵料转化、生理变化情况,适当降低盐度可提高斜带石斑鱼养殖效益.

  5. Controle de Neobenedenia melleni (MacCallum, 1927 (Monogenea: Capsalidae em garoupa-verdadeira, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, cultivada em tanques-rede Control of Neobenedenia melleni (MacCallum, 1927 (Monogenea: Capsalidae in dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, reared in floating net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomes Sanches

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico precoce de patologias no meio aquático constitui-se em uma necessidade vital para o sucesso dos cultivos. Considerados como parasitos oportunistas, surtos de infestação de monogenóides capsalídeos podem ocasionar mortalidades massivas gerando enormes prejuízos nos cultivos. Exemplares de garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, com peso médio de 142,74 ± 38,65 g, apresentaram recusa da alimentação e sintomas como o escurecimento do corpo, natação errática, opacidade dos olhos, exoftalmia e hemorragias em diversas áreas do corpo. Alguns peixes apresentavam lesões no globo ocular e cegueira. Após análises dos peixes foi identificada a ocorrência do parasito Neobenedenia melleni. Este trabalho teve por objetivo testar o efeito de diferentes tratamentos por imersão em diferentes concentrações de formalina e água doce na erradicação de monogenoides capsalideos na garoupa-verdadeira. Foram testados três tratamentos em forma de banhos: T1 (água doce por 10 minutos; T2 (formalina: 1:2.000 por 10 minutos e T3: (formalina: 1:4.000 por 10 minutos. Os tratamentos foram avaliados através de raspado de tecido epitelial, montados entre lâminas e lamínulas e observado ao microscópio de luz. Observou-se que nas condições testadas o T1 e o T2 foram eficientes na eliminação dos monogenóides capsalídeos na garoupa-verdadeira.The precocious diagnosis of pathologies in the aquatic way is constituted in a vital need for the success of the cultivations. Considered as parasites opportunists, infestations of monogeneans capsalides can cause missal mortalities resulting in enormous damages in the cultivations. Juveniles of dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, with medium weight of 142.74 ± 38.65 g, presented refusal of the feeding and symptoms as the darkening of the body, erratic swimming, opacity of the eyes and hemorrhages in several areas of the body. Some fishes presented lesions in the

  6. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Leptin-a Gene and Associations with Growth Traits in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Lin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a multifunctional protein involved in processes such as body weight regulation, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite regulation. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, were previously detected in the orange-spotted grouper. In this study, we cloned the full-length open reading frame (ORF of the leptin-a gene in the orange-spotted grouper, searched for polymorphisms, and performed association analyses between these polymorphisms and seven growth traits. Six polymorphisms, consisting of 2 SNPs in intron 1 (c.182T > G, c.183G > T and 4 SNPs in exon 2 (c.339C > G, c.345C > T, c.447G > A, c.531C > T, were identified and genotyped in 200 individuals. The c.182T > G and c.183G > T polymorphisms showed complete linkage and were analyzed together. Association analyses revealed that the c.182 + 183TG > GT polymorphism was significantly associated with body weight (BWT and body width (BWH, with the AB (TG/GT genotype showing positive effects on growth traits. Additionally, the SNP c.447G > A was significantly associated with BWT, BWH, overall length (OL, trunk width (TW, and head length (HL, with the GA genotype displaying positive effects on growth traits. The c.531C > T SNP showed a close association between the TT genotype and decreased growth. Our results demonstrate that several polymorphisms in the leptin-a gene are associated with growth traits and can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS in orange-spotted grouper populations.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the leptin-a gene and associations with growth traits in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun; Huang, Hai; Meng, Zining; Zhang, Yong; Luo, Jian; Chen, Guohua; Lin, Haoran

    2013-04-22

    Leptin is a multifunctional protein involved in processes such as body weight regulation, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite regulation. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, were previously detected in the orange-spotted grouper. In this study, we cloned the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of the leptin-a gene in the orange-spotted grouper, searched for polymorphisms, and performed association analyses between these polymorphisms and seven growth traits. Six polymorphisms, consisting of 2 SNPs in intron 1 (c.182T > G, c.183G > T) and 4 SNPs in exon 2 (c.339C > G, c.345C > T, c.447G > A, c.531C > T), were identified and genotyped in 200 individuals. The c.182T > G and c.183G > T polymorphisms showed complete linkage and were analyzed together. Association analyses revealed that the c.182 + 183TG > GT polymorphism was significantly associated with body weight (BWT) and body width (BWH), with the AB (TG/GT) genotype showing positive effects on growth traits. Additionally, the SNP c.447G > A was significantly associated with BWT, BWH, overall length (OL), trunk width (TW), and head length (HL), with the GA genotype displaying positive effects on growth traits. The c.531C > T SNP showed a close association between the TT genotype and decreased growth. Our results demonstrate that several polymorphisms in the leptin-a gene are associated with growth traits and can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in orange-spotted grouper populations.

  8. Requirement of dietary arginine for juvenile orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides%斜带石斑鱼幼鱼的饲料精氨酸需求量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩凤禄; 张琴; 黄国强; 迟淑艳; 谭北平; 董晓慧; 杨奇慧; 刘泓宇; 章双

    2016-01-01

    通过配制7种含不同水平精氨酸(2.13%、2.42%、2.71%、2.95%、3.20%、3.48%、3.74%干物质)的等氮、等脂的实验饲料,研究精氨酸对斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)幼鱼生长、饲料利用和血清一氧化氮合酶等的影响。每组设3个重复,每个重复30尾鱼(7.52±0.02g),饲喂8周。结果显示,饲料精氨酸水平对各组存活率无显著影响(P>0.05);精氨酸水平为2.95%的斜带石斑鱼获得最大增重率和特定生长率,显著高于其他各组(P0.05). However, the weight gain rate and specific growth rate were significantly higher in the 2.95% arginine group than in the other groups (P<0.05). The feed coefficient of the fish fed 2.95% arginine was significantly lower than that of the fish fed 2.13%, 2.42%, or 2.71% arginine (P<0.05). The whole-body protein of the fish fed 3.20% arginine was signifi-cantly higher than that of the fish fed 2.13% arginine (P<0.05). Serum glucose tended to decrease as dietary ar-ginine increased, and was significantly higher in the fish fed 2.13% or 2.42% arginine than in those of the other groups (P<0.05). Total protein and total nitric oxide synthase were significantly higher in the sera of fish fed 2.95% arginine than those in the sera of fish in the other groups (P<0.05). These results indicate that dietary ar-ginine not only promotes growth and body protein synthesis, but also improves the immunity of the grouper. A quadratic regression analysis of the specific growth rate against dietary arginine indicated that the optimum argin-ine level for the maximum growth of the juvenile grouper is 3.06%, corresponding to 6.07% of dietary protein on a dry weight basis.

  9. Orexin-A stimulates the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in the liver of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Sun, Caiyun; Wang, Bin; Yan, Peipei; Wu, Amin; Yang, Guokun; Li, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the central regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wake cycle and other physiological functions. Orexin-A can regulate energy metabolism and increase glucose uptake, suggesting a role in glucose metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of orexin-A on GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels and the intracellular signaling mechanisms mediating orexin-A activity in the hepatocytes of grouper. Our results demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A increased the expression of GLUT4 in the liver, and this effect was significantly enhanced by co-injection of glucose. Treatment of primary cultured hepatocytes with either orexin-A or glucose alone had no effect on the expression of GLUT4, while co-treatment with orexin-A and glucose significantly increased the expression of GLUT4. This stimulatory effect was partially blocked by inhibitors to ERK1/2, JNK or p38 MAPK and was further blocked by an orexin receptor antagonist, which indicates that orexin-A could stimulate the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in primary hepatocytes via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 signaling. Our results suggest that orexin-A could play a pivotal role in stimulating glucose utilization in grouper, for a long-term goal, which might be useful in reducing costs in the aquaculture industry.

  10. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz-Sørensen, Molly; Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001) with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone

  11. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Buchholz-Sørensen

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2, which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41 and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001 with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries

  12. 斜带石斑鱼MyD88基因的克隆与表达%Cloning and Expression of MyD88 Gene in Orange-spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦友传; 高谦; 昌明先; 罗廷荣

    2011-01-01

    本研究运用RACE-PCR技术获得斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)髓样分化因子88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88,MyD88)基因,并对该基因进行生物信息学和表达模式分析.研究结果表明1 795 bp的cDNA全长序列,包括ORF 870 bp、5' UTR 243 bp和3' UTR 682 bp,3' UTR存在1个多聚腺苷酸加尾信号(AATAAA)和两个mRNA不稳定基序(ATTTA).SMART软件预测该蛋白N端和C端分别存在死亡结构域和TIR结构域(Toll/IL-1 receptor homology domain,TIR);与其它脊椎动物MyD88的序列同一性达57.1%~78.7%;用NJ法构建的系统进化树中,斜带石斑鱼MyD88和其它已报导的鱼类MyD88聚为一枝.qPCR检测结果显示MyD88基因mRNA主要表达于肝脏、脾脏、头肾和胸腺等组织.本研究为进一步探讨MyD88在斜带石斑鱼TLR信号传导中的作用奠定基础.%The full cDNA sequence of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides, designated as EcMyD88, has been isolated by using RACE-PCR method. The EcMyD88 consisted of 1 795 bp, including an 870 bp open reading frame (ORF), a 243 bp 5’ UTR and a 682 bp 3’ UTR. The 3’ UTR contained a polyadenylation-tailed signal (AATAAA) and 2 mRNA instable motifs (ATTTA). The EcMyD88 protein comprised a death domain on N terminal and a TIR domain on C terminal by using SMART program. Putative amino acid sequence of EcMyD88 shared 57.1%~78.7% identity with its counterparts from other vertebrates. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by using neighbor-joining method which revealed that EcMyD88 was clustered with MyD88 from other teleost fish reported previously. The transcription of EcMyD88 was examined by real-time quantitative PCR, and its mRNA was mainly expressed in liver, spleen, thymus and head kidney. This study will lay a foundation for further exploring the role of MyD88 in the TLR signalling in Epinephelus coioides.

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of PPAR gamma in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengwei; Huang, Youhua; Xie, Fuxing; Huang, Xiaohong; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Weina; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-04-01

    PPAR gamma was a key nuclear receptor, playing an important role in the immune defense and the anti-inflammatory mechanism. In this study, the full-length PPAR gamma (EcPPAR gamma) was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 133 bp, an ORF of 1602 bp and a 3'UTR of 26 bp besides the poly (A) tail. The EcPPAR gamma gene encoded a protein of 533 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 60.02 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.26. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that EcPPAR gamma consisted of the conserved residues and the domains known to be critical for the PPAR gamma function. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EcPPAR gamma transcript was expressed in all the examined tissue, while the strong expression was observed in intestine, followed by the expression in liver, gill, spleen heart, kidney and muscle. Vibrio challenge could stimulate the inflammatory response in grouper and induce a sharp increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, while the up-regulation of vibrio-induced inflammation could also increase the non-specific immune defense. The groupers challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a sharp increase of EcPPAR gamma transcript in immune tissues. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that EcPPAR gamma was distributed in the nucleus. Furthermore, overexpression of EcPPAR gamma could down-regulated the expression of IL1b, IL6, TNF1 and TNF2. In addition, the administration of PPAR gamma antagonist, GW9662, could up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including IL1b, IL6, TNF1 and TNF2. Together, these results indicated that EcPPAR gamma serving as a negative regulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines may play an important role in the immune defense against vibrio-induced inflammation in grouper.

  14. Modulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide on a DNA vaccine against nervous necrosis virus in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiang-Peng; Peng, Ran-Hong; Chiou, Pinwen P

    2015-08-01

    We report the development of a DNA vaccine pcMGNNV2 against nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a leading cause of mass mortality in grouper larvae. In addition, the modulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist, on the DNA vaccine was evaluated. The DNA vaccine alone elicited the production of NNV-specific antibodies, indicating that the vaccine was capable of triggering adaptive humoral response. Furthermore, significant induction of TLR9, Mx and IL-1β was observed in the spleen on day 7 post-vaccination, supporting that the vaccine could trigger TLR9 signaling. The incorporation of CpG ODN at high dose did not significantly affect the level of NNV-specific antibodies, but was able to moderately enhance the expression of Mx and IL-1β on day 7, indicating its ability in modulating innate response. After challenge with NNV, the vaccine alone enhanced the survival rate in infected larvae at both 1 and 2 weeks post-vaccination. The combination of CpG ODN further increased the survival rate at week 1 but not week 2. Interestingly, at week 2 the ODN appeared to induce a Th1-like response, as indicated by upregulation of T-bet (a Th1 marker) and downregulation of GATA-3 (a Th2 marker). Thus, the results suggest that the boosted Th1 response by CpG ODN does not augment the protection efficacy of pcMGNNV2 vaccine. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of a successful DNA vaccine against NNV in grouper.

  15. Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization and Nutritional Regulation of the Putative Elongase Elovl5 in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Li

    Full Text Available The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs are widely studied in fish species, as fish are the main source of n-3 LC-PUFAs for human beings. In the present study, a putative gene for elovl5, which encodes a key enzyme involved in LC-PUFA synthesis, was cloned and functionally characterized, and its transcription in response to dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure was investigated. Moreover, cell transfection and luciferase assays were used to explore the mechanism underlying the regulation of elovl5. The full-length cDNA of elovl5 was 1242 bp (excluding the polyA tail, including an 885 bp coding region encoding a 295 amino acid protein that possesses all of the characteristic features of elovl proteins. Functional characterization of heterologously expressed grouper Elovl5 indicated that it effectively elongates both C18 (18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3 and C20 (20:4n-6 and C20:5n-3 PUFAs, but not the C22 substrates. The expression of elovl5 was significantly affected by dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure: a high n-3 LC-PUFA level repressed the expression of elovl5 by slightly down-regulating the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1 and liver X receptor (LXR α, which are major regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Promoter studies showed that grouper elovl5 reporter activity was induced by over-expression of LXRα but not SREBP-1. This finding suggests that elovl5 is a direct target of LXRα, which is involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs via transcriptional regulation of elovl5. These findings may contribute to a further understanding of the mechanism underlying the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in marine fish species.

  16. Protective immunity of orange-spotted grouper(Epinephelus coioids) against a nervous necrosis virus isolated from China, and determination of the complete sequences of the virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoyan; WENG Shaoping; CHEN Shengping; CHEN Zhaoming; HE Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the sequence and analysis of genome from the orange-spotted nervous necrosis virus(OGNNV), China strain, a pair of special primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequences of RNA2 from OGNNV. The major capsid protein(MCP)gene of OGNNV was cloned by means of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)and ligated into the pET32a expression plasmid. The MCP gene of OGNNV was 1 017 bases, encoded a protein of 338 amino acid with a molecular mass of 37.1 kDa. Recombinant protein with a molecular mass of 57.4 kDa was expressed in E.coli BL21(DE3). Vaccine was prepared from the recombinant protein expressed in recombinant cells. The juvenile orange-spotted groupers (8 cm in average length) were immunized by intraperitoneal injection. Group A was challenged with infected tissue filtrates 25 d post-vaccination. The mortality in the vaccined group (A1, 30%) was a little higher than the unvaccined group (B2, 27.8%). Group B was challenged after three vaccine injections. The mortality in the vaccined group (B1, 16.7%) was lower than the unvaccined group (B2, 27.8%), And the relative percentage survival (RPS) value of vaccined group, compared with the unvaccined group, was 40%. The anti-recombinant protein sera with a 1∶100 dilution were mixed with double volume of infected tissue filtrates and incubated at 4 ℃ for 12 h and then intramuscularly injected into the juvenile orange-spotted grouper. Treatment of infected tissue filtrates with anti-recombinant protein serum resulted in a significantly lower mortality of fish (Group C1, mortality of 18.18%), compared with the fish (Group C2, mortality of 40%) which received infected tissue filtrates treated with control serum. Results implied the potential use of the capsid protein in immunization against OGNNV.

  17. Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization and Nutritional Regulation of the Putative Elongase Elovl5 in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songlin; Yuan, Yuhui; Wang, Tianjiao; Xu, Wei; Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are widely studied in fish species, as fish are the main source of n-3 LC-PUFAs for human beings. In the present study, a putative gene for elovl5, which encodes a key enzyme involved in LC-PUFA synthesis, was cloned and functionally characterized, and its transcription in response to dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure was investigated. Moreover, cell transfection and luciferase assays were used to explore the mechanism underlying the regulation of elovl5. The full-length cDNA of elovl5 was 1242 bp (excluding the polyA tail), including an 885 bp coding region encoding a 295 amino acid protein that possesses all of the characteristic features of elovl proteins. Functional characterization of heterologously expressed grouper Elovl5 indicated that it effectively elongates both C18 (18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3) and C20 (20:4n-6 and C20:5n-3) PUFAs, but not the C22 substrates. The expression of elovl5 was significantly affected by dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure: a high n-3 LC-PUFA level repressed the expression of elovl5 by slightly down-regulating the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 and liver X receptor (LXR) α, which are major regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Promoter studies showed that grouper elovl5 reporter activity was induced by over-expression of LXRα but not SREBP-1. This finding suggests that elovl5 is a direct target of LXRα, which is involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs via transcriptional regulation of elovl5. These findings may contribute to a further understanding of the mechanism underlying the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in marine fish species.

  18. EFFECTS OF CYSTEAMINE ON mRNA LEVELS OF GROWTH HORMONE AND ITS RECEPTORS IN ORANGE-SPOTTED GROUPER EPINEPHELUS COIOIDES%半胱胺对斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)生长激素及其受体mRNA水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云; 蔡生力

    2011-01-01

    In present research, we found that cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) administrated in diet could significantly enhance growth of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. Both CSH administrated through diet and injection could enhance the levels of growth hormone (GH) mRNA and two types of growth hormone receptors (GHR) mRNA in or- ange-spotted grouper in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, changes of the levels of two GHRs mRNA induced by the injection of CSH at different doses/hours were investigated. Injection of CSH at 20 gg/g b.w. could only enhance gGHR2 mRNA level significantly; in contrast the medium dose of CSH (50gg/g b.w.) could significantly enhance two types of GHR mRNA levels. Furthermore, two hours after injection of CSH at 50gg/g b.w., the levels of two GHR mRNA were increased significantly and gGHR2 mRNA level was much higher than that of gGHR1, gGHR2 mRNA level reached maximum 6 hours after injection, while gGHR1 got to the peak value 12 hours after injection. So, gGHR2 seemed more sensitive to the stimulation induced by the injection of CSH.%以海水硬骨鱼类斜带石斑鱼为研究对象,通过投喂和腹腔注射半胱胺盐酸盐(CSH),研究半胱胺对斜带石斑鱼生长激素(GH)及其受体(GHR)mRNA水平的影响,以初步揭示半胱胺促进斜带石斑鱼生长的作用机理。结果表明,长期投喂CSH可以显著提高斜带石斑鱼的相对体重增长率。投喂和腹腔注射不同剂量的CSH均能明显促进斜带石斑鱼脑垂体GHmRNA水平及肝脏2种gGHRmRNA水平,且促进效果与CSH浓度呈剂量依存关系。本研究还就CSH对斜带石斑鱼2种不同类型GHR作用的剂量效应和时间效应进行了初步探讨。通过注射不同剂量

  19. Sexual Fate Reprogramming in the Steroid-Induced Bi-Directional Sex Change in the Protogynous Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan-Chung; Tey, Wei-Guan; Li, Hau-Wen; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Androgen administration has been widely used for masculinization in fish. The mechanism of the sex change in sexual fate regulation is not clear. Oral administration or pellet implantation was applied. We orally applied an aromatase inhibitor (AI, to decrease estrogen levels) and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, to increase androgen levels) to induce masculinization to clarify the mechanism of the sex change in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper. After 3 mo of AI/MT administration, male characteristics were observed in the female-to-male sex change fish. These male characteristics included increased plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), decreased estradiol (E2) levels, increased male-related gene (dmrt1, sox9, and cyp11b2) expression, and decreased female-related gene (figla, foxl2, and cyp19a1a) expression. However, the reduced male characteristics and male-to-female sex change occurred after AI/MT-termination in the AI- and MT-induced maleness. Furthermore, the MT-induced oocyte-depleted follicle cells (from MT-implantation) had increased proliferating activity, and the sexual fate in a portion of female gonadal soma cells was altered to male function during the female-to-male sex change. In contrast, the gonadal soma cells were not proliferative during the early process of the male-to-female sex change. Additionally, the male gonadal soma cells did not alter to female function during the male-to-female sex change in the AI/MT-terminated fish. After MT termination in the male-to-female sex-changed fish, the differentiated male germ cells showed increased proliferating activities together with dormancy and did not show characteristics of both sexes in the early germ cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate for the first time in a single species that the mechanism involved in the replacement of soma cells is different between the female-to-male and male-to-female sex change processes in grouper. These results also demonstrate that sexual fate determination

  20. Sexual Fate Reprogramming in the Steroid-Induced Bi-Directional Sex Change in the Protogynous Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Chung Wu

    Full Text Available Androgen administration has been widely used for masculinization in fish. The mechanism of the sex change in sexual fate regulation is not clear. Oral administration or pellet implantation was applied. We orally applied an aromatase inhibitor (AI, to decrease estrogen levels and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, to increase androgen levels to induce masculinization to clarify the mechanism of the sex change in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper. After 3 mo of AI/MT administration, male characteristics were observed in the female-to-male sex change fish. These male characteristics included increased plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT, decreased estradiol (E2 levels, increased male-related gene (dmrt1, sox9, and cyp11b2 expression, and decreased female-related gene (figla, foxl2, and cyp19a1a expression. However, the reduced male characteristics and male-to-female sex change occurred after AI/MT-termination in the AI- and MT-induced maleness. Furthermore, the MT-induced oocyte-depleted follicle cells (from MT-implantation had increased proliferating activity, and the sexual fate in a portion of female gonadal soma cells was altered to male function during the female-to-male sex change. In contrast, the gonadal soma cells were not proliferative during the early process of the male-to-female sex change. Additionally, the male gonadal soma cells did not alter to female function during the male-to-female sex change in the AI/MT-terminated fish. After MT termination in the male-to-female sex-changed fish, the differentiated male germ cells showed increased proliferating activities together with dormancy and did not show characteristics of both sexes in the early germ cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate for the first time in a single species that the mechanism involved in the replacement of soma cells is different between the female-to-male and male-to-female sex change processes in grouper. These results also demonstrate that sexual fate

  1. Molecular identification of StAR and 3βHSD1 and characterization in response to GnIH stimulation in protogynous hermaphroditic grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Qi, Xin; Tang, Haipei; Guo, Yin; Li, Shuisheng; Li, Gaofei; Yang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Haifa; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2017-04-01

    Gonadal steroids are critical factors in reproduction and sex reverse process. StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), transferring the cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner membrane, is the rate-limiting factor of steroidogenesis. 3βHSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase), converting Δ5-steroids into Δ4-steroids, is an important oxidoreductase in steroidogenesis. In the present study, StAR and 3βHSD1 were cloned and characterized from protogynous orange-spotted grouper. StAR cDNA contains an 861bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted protein of 286 amino acids, and the ORF of 3βHSD1 was 1125bp, encoding a predicted protein of 374 amino acids. The transcript of StAR was mainly expressed in gonad, while 3βHSD1 mRNA was predominantly detected in brain and gonad. In the previous study, we found the expression of GnIH mRNA level in male, as well as in 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT)-induced male fish was significantly higher than in female fish, this indicating that GnIH/GnIHR signaling might be involved in the regulation of sex reversal and male maintenance. In order to figure out the function of GnIH in steroidogenesis, the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1 regulated by GnIH was examined. In vitro study showed that treatment of cultured ovary fragments with gGnIH peptides significantly stimulated the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1. In addition, the mRNA levels of StAR and 3βHSD1 were significantly increased after intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) with gGnIH peptides. Moreover, during MT-induced sex change from female to male, the levels of StAR mRNA significantly increased by 5.2, 24.8 and 353.5 folds, and that of 3βHSD1 mRNA by 3.5, 32.5 and 55.4 folds at the 2nd, 4th and 6th week after MT implantation, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that GnIH may be involved in the regulation of sex reversal or male maintenance by stimulating the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1 in protogynous grouper.

  2. 激素诱导斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)雄性化的研究%MASCULINIZATION INDUCED BY ANDROGEN IN ORANGE-SPOTTED GROUPER EPINEPHELUS COIOIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文; 杨宪宽; 徐新; 肖玲; 李水生; 赵会宏; 张海发; 张勇; 林浩然

    2014-01-01

    石斑鱼属雌雄同体雌性先成熟鱼类,低龄鱼卵巢先成熟,表现为雌性,高龄鱼才性转变为雄性.本实验通过持续跟踪取样,分析了人工养殖条件下斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)在36月龄内的性腺发育过程,发现其性分化完成后,雌性卵巢在9月龄后开始发育.因此,采取投喂含有雄激素甲基睾酮(MT)饲料的方法,可以在石斑鱼卵巢发育之前,成功诱导8月龄的斜带石斑鱼幼鱼向雄性方向发育.结果表明,以MT 10mg/kg饲料的剂量投喂3个月能够有效诱导卵巢未发育的幼鱼往雄性方向发育;但停止投喂MT后,幼鱼精巢又开始出现退化,不会继续往雄性方向发展,而转变为雌性.以上结果表明,斜带石斑鱼性别决定和分化除了受遗传因子和内分泌调控外,还受到年龄、体型和群体、环境等因子的影响,人工投喂MT激素的作用并不能从根本上影响石斑鱼幼鱼的性腺发育的方向,只有在持续剂量的MT激素诱导下,石斑鱼幼鱼才能发育为成熟的雄鱼.

  3. 斜带石斑鱼 IFN-γ基因的克隆与表达分析%Molecular characterization and expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贝; 陈善楠; 黄文树; 聂品

    2013-01-01

       IFN-γ在天然免疫和适应性免疫应答中均发挥着重要的作用.由于低等脊椎动物 IFN-γ与哺乳动物 IFN-γ相似性非常低,硬骨鱼类的 IFN-γ近年来才得到鉴定.本研究报道了斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)的 IFN-γ基因,并对其表达进行了分析.斜带石斑鱼 IFN-γ cDNA 全长为867 bp,编码200个氨基酸.其基因组全长为5104 bp,由4个外显子、3个内含子组成.氨基酸序列比对显示斜带石斑鱼 IFN-γ与高等脊椎动物 IFN-γ的序列相似性较低,仅为32.5%~39%,与其他硬骨鱼类的 IFN-γ相似性为38.0%~68.5%.序列分析结果显示,斜带石斑鱼 IFN-γ分子 C末端中存在 IFN-γ的特征序列以及核定位基序.二级结构分析结果显示斜带石斑鱼 IFN-γ序列中包含6个α螺旋结构,其排列与高等脊椎动物的 IFN-γ类似.应用荧光定量 PCR 检测了 IFN-γ基因在 Poly I:C 诱导后的表达变化.发现在肾、脾、鳃、头肾、皮肤和胸腺组织中, Poly I:C 能显著诱导 IFN-γ的表达,在胸腺中上调倍数最高,其次为头肾、脾、肾、皮肤和鳃,而在脑和心脏组织中没有显著变化.据此推测, IFN-γ在斜带石斑鱼抵抗病毒感染的过程中起有十分重要的作用.%IFN-γ is a typeⅡinterferon that plays an important role in both innate and cell-mediated immune re-sponses. Because of the low similarity with their mammalian homologues, IFN-γ in teleost fish has only recently been identified. In this study, the cDNA sequence encoding the IFN-γ molecule was cloned from the or-ange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and its gene organization was revealed. Its expression in response to Poly I:C stimulation was also examined. The IFN-γ cDNA sequence consists of 867 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 200 amino acids. The gene is 5-kb long and contains four exons, which are comparable in size with IFN-γ genes in other vertebrates. This IFN-γ was only 32.5%−39% similar to its

  4. OBSERVATION ON SKELETAL DEFORMITY IN HATCHERY-REARED RED SPOTTED GROUPER, Epinephelus akaara (Temmick et Schlegel FROM LARVAL TO JUVENILE STAGE

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    Eri Setiadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal deformity is a significant problem in fish culture. The skeletal deformities in red spotted grouper from yolk-sac to juvenile stages were examined through clearing and staining of the cartilage and bone using Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. The overall results showed that the pattern of incidence of deformities showed an increase from preflexion to juvenile stages. The rate of deformities based on ten elements of bone from preflexion to juvenile stages were as follows: vertebral (42.6%—9.0%, dorsal proximal radials (4.8%—25.2%, neural spine (0%—8.4%, haemal spine (0%—6.8%, hypural (1.3%—5.4%, anal proximal radials (0%—5.4%, epural (1.3%—4.9%, arypural (2.0%—4.5%, lower jaw (1.3%—2.5%, and upper jaw (0%. Vertebral and dorsal proximal radials were recognized as the most susceptible parts to deformation. The main types of bone deformity were lordosis, scoliosis, fusion, shortening, branching, supernumerary elements, and saddleback syndrome. Development of saddleback syndrome was detected initially in preflexion stage, which was accompanied by deformity of the neural spines, dorsal proximal radials, and disposition of the distal radials and dorsal spines in later life stages. The skeletal deformity encountered during the larval rearing period could be caused by water surface tension.

  5. Molecular cloning of NCCRP-1 gene from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and characterization of NCCRP-1(+) cells post Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xia-Zi; Li, Yan-Wei; Mai, Yong-Zhan; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Nonspecific cytotoxic cells (NCCs) are an important cytotoxic cell population in the innate teleost immune system. The receptor designated "NCC receptor protein 1" (NCCRP-1) has been reported to be involved in the recognition and activation of NCCs. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Epinephelus coioides NCCRP-1 (ecnccrp-1) was cloned. The open reading frame (ORF) of ecnccrp-1 is 699 bp, encoding a 232 amino acid protein that includes proline-rich motifs at the N-terminus and is related to the F-box associated family. Although a bioinformatics analysis showed that EcNCCRP-1 had no signal peptide or transmembrane helices, a polyclonal antibody directed against recombinant EcNCCRP-1 efficiently labeled a membrane protein in the head kidney, detected with Western blot analysis, which indicated that the protein localized to the cell surface. RT-PCR showed that the constitutive expression of ecnccrp-1 was higher in the lymphoid organs, such as the trunk kidney, spleen, head kidney, and thymus, and lower in brain, heart, fat, liver, muscle, and skin. After infection with Cryptocaryon irritans, the transcription of ecnccrp-1 was analyzed at the infected sites (skin and gills) and in the systemic immune organs (head kidney and spleen). At the infected sites, especially the skin, ecnccrp-1 expression was upregulated at 6h post infection, reaching peak expression on day 3 post the primary infection. However, the expression patterns differed in the systemic immune organs. In the spleen, ecnccrp-1 was gradually increased in the early infection period and decreased sharply on day 3 post the primary infection, whereas in the head kidney, the transcription of ecnccrp-1 was depressed during almost the whole course of infection. An immunohistochemical analysis showed that EcNCCRP-1(+) cells accumulated at the sites of infection with C. irritans. These results suggested that NCCs were involved in the process of C. irritans infection in E. coioides.

  6. 饲料中锌含量对斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)生长、饲料效率、矿物质含量和体组成的影响%EFFECT OF DIETARY ZINC ON GROWTH, FEED EFFICIENCY, MINERAL CONTENT AND BODY COMPOSITION OF JUVENILE GROUPER EPINEPHELUS COIOIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶超霞; 刘永坚; 田丽霞; 周立斌; 阳会军; 梁桂英

    2013-01-01

    以ZnSO4·7H2O为锌源,用锌添加量为0、20、40、60、80和100mg/kg的实验饲料投喂斜带石斑鱼12周,研究其对斜带石斑鱼生长、饲料效率、矿物质含量和体组成的影响.结果表明,各实验组的增重率,饲料效率,存活率和全鱼、脊椎骨、鳞片的锌含量无显著差异.全鱼、脊椎骨和鳞片的锰含量均随着饲料中锌的添加而降低,锰和锌存在明显的拮抗关系.全鱼的铁含量随着饲料中锌的添加而降低.全鱼、脊椎骨和鳞片的钙、磷、镁含量均不受饲料中锌含量的影响.饲料中添加锌对全鱼水分、灰分,肌肉水分、脂肪,形态学指标,红细胞比容和血红蛋白含量没有显著影响.饲料中不添加锌时,全鱼的蛋白、脂肪和肌肉的蛋白、灰分含量较低.实验结果表明基础饲料中33mg/kg的锌已经满足斜带石斑鱼生长的需求,能使鱼体锌达到饱和.%This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary zinc on growth, mineral concentration and body composition of juvenile grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Six diets were prepared by supplementing a casein-gelatin-based diet with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and l00mg/kg zinc from ZnSO4·7H2O. The analyzed zinc contents of the diets were 33, 64, 98, 123, 163, 190mg/kg respectively. Grouper with an initial weight of (8.5±0.1)g were fed to satiation for 12 weeks. Growth, feed efficiency, survival, zinc concentrations of whole body, vertebrae and scale were not significantly affected by dietary zinc supplements. Manganese concentrations of whole body, vertebrae and scale were all significantly deceased by dietary zinc supplements. Whole body ferrum decreased with increasing dietary zinc. Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations of whole body, vertebrae and scale were not significantly affected by dietary zinc supplements. Dietary zinc concentration had no significant effect on whole body moisture and ash, muscle moisture and lipid, morphological and

  7. Levels of genetic diversity and taxonomic status of Epinephelus species in United Arab Emirates fish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, Remi N; Dieng, Mame M; Vaughan, Grace O; Burt, John A; Idaghdour, Youssef

    2016-04-30

    Understanding the patterns of genetic diversity of fish species is essential for marine conservation and management. This is particularly important in the Arabian Gulf where marine life is subject to extreme environmental conditions that could impact genetic diversity. Here we assess genetic diversity of the most commercially important fish in the United Arab Emirates; groupers (Epinephelus spp.). Sequencing of 973 bp mitochondrial DNA from 140 tissue samples collected in four main fish markets revealed 58 haplotypes clustered within three groups. Data analysis revealed the presence of three distinct Epinephelus species being marketed as one species (hammour): Epinephelus coioides, Epinephelus areolatus and Epinephelus bleekeri. We report species-specific genetic markers and demonstrate that all three species exhibit relatively low levels of genetic variation, reflecting the effect of overfishing and environmental pressures. In light of the genetic evidence presented here, conservation and management of groupers in the UAE warrant the implementation of species-specific measures.

  8. 斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)两种催乳素受体基因的cDNA克隆和mRNA表达分析%cDNAs CLONING AND mRNA EXPRESSION OF TWO PROLACTIN RECEPTORS IN ORANGE-SPOTTED GROUPER EPINEPHELUS COIOIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 马细兰; 陈勇智; 李水生; 陈华谱; 刘晓春; 林浩然

    2012-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) has many important physiological roles in the control of growth, osmoregulation and reproduction, which is mediated by prolactin receptor (PRLR). In this study, two cDNAs encoding PRLR were isolated from the gill of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. The two cDNAs, one consisting of 1947bp and the other of 1749bp, encoding for putative 649- and 487-amino acid PRLR (designated PRLR1 and PRLR2, respectively), shared 40.4% identity in deduced amino acid sequence. PRLR1 and PRLR2 showed the conserved structural characteristics of PRLR family, including the WS motif, the box1 region, extracellular cysteine residues and intracellular tyrosine residues. However, there were differences of structural features between the two receptors as well. PRLR1 has 13 intracellular tyrosine residues while PRLR2 only has 8. The structural discrepancies thus undoubtedly indicated the distinct biological functions of PRLR1 and PRLR2. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that both PRLR1 and PRLR2 mRNAs were presented in all tissues tested and expressed extremely highly in gill, kidney and intestine, lowly in pituitary and hypothalamus. The expressions of PRLR1 and PRLR2 in different embryo developmental stages were also detected by real-time PCR. The strongest signal was detected in the fertilized egg stage for PRLR1, while in the stage of optic vesicle and smoite formation for PRLR2. The expression level of PRLR2 is much higher than PRLR1 in all stages examined except in the fertilized egg stage. The expression distinction of PRLR1 and PRLR2 suggested that they may play different roles during early development of orange-spotted grouper.%采用RT-PCR方法克隆了斜带石斑鱼两种催乳素受体(Prolactin receptor,PRLR)的cDNA序列,序列分析表明:PRLR1开放阅读框为1947bp,共编码649个氨基酸,PRLR2开放阅读框为1749bp,共编码487个氨基酸,PRLR1与PRLR2的氨基酸同源性为40.4%。用Real-time RT-PCR方法研究了PRLR1

  9. Toxic Effects of Cupric Acetate and Avermectins on Orange Spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides%乙酸铜和阿维菌素对斜带石斑幼鱼毒性效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程敏红; 杨小立; 庞强; 黄建荣; 黎祖福

    2014-01-01

    In this study ,the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) ,superoxide dismutase (SOD) ,and aspartate transaminase (GOT ) and glutathione (GSH ) content were studied in liver of orange spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides exposed to cupric acetate and Avermectins at various concentrations to evaluate acute toxicity of cupric acetate and Avermectins .The results showed that the 24 h LC50 and 48 h LC50 were 103 .51 mg/L and 50 .86 mg/L in cupric acetate and 0 .02543 mg/L and 0 .01726 mg/L in Avermectins , with safe concentration of 3 .684 mg/L for cupric acetate and 0 .00239 mg/L for Avermectins .Cupric acetate and Avermectins stress resulted in significant changes in AChE ,SOD ,and GOT activities in liver (P0 .05) ,but higher than that in the control group in 96 h cupric acetate exposure (P< 0 .05) .There were significantly lower liver GSH contents in 2 .5μg/L ,4 .25μg/L ,7 .25 μg/L and 12 .25 μg/L Avermectins groups than that in the control group . The findings indicate that cupric acetate and Avermectins stress affect AChE , SOD and GOT activities and GSH content ,and that biological effects of pesticides on orange spotted grouper are reflected in changes in activities of AChE ,SOD and GOT and GSH content .%采用静水生物法,研究了乙酸铜和阿维菌素对斜带石斑鱼的急性毒性并进行安全评价;依据急性试验结果,设计一系列质量浓度梯度进行暴露试验,探讨了乙酸铜和阿维菌素暴露对斜带石斑鱼肝脏中乙酰胆碱酯酶、超氧化物歧化酶、谷草转氨酶活性和谷胱甘肽含量的毒性影响。试验结果表明,乙酸铜和阿维菌素对斜带石斑鱼的24 h半致死质量浓度、48 h半致死质量浓度分别为103.51、50.86 mg/L和0.02543、0.01726 mg/L ,安全质量浓度分别为3.684 mg/L和0.00239 mg/L ;除阿维菌素对谷草转氨酶作用不明显外,乙酸铜和阿维菌素胁迫均引起肝脏乙酰胆碱酯酶、超氧化物歧化酶和谷草转

  10. 谷氨酰胺对点带石斑鱼免疫细胞免疫力的影响%Effects of Glutamine on Immune Responses of Immunocytes in Grouper Epinephelus malabaricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程镇燕; 李建; 雷五长; 于宏; 王庆奎; 郭永军; 乔秀亭

    2014-01-01

    将从平均体质量400 g的点带石斑鱼中肾分离出的白细胞培养在添加0、0.5、1、2 mmol/L 谷氨酰胺的培养基中2、6、12、24 h后,测定白细胞的吞噬和呼吸爆发活力,结果发现,添加谷氨酰胺后白细胞的吞噬和呼吸爆发活力显著提高,随着培养时间的延长,吞噬和呼吸爆发活力进一步提高,最高值均在培养12 h后的1 mmol/L组。在培养12、24 h后测定了白细胞的增殖能力,发现培养12 h后,添加谷氨酰胺的各组增殖效果明显优于未添加谷氨酰胺组(对照组)( P<0.05),但添加谷氨酰胺的各组之间差异不显著(P>0.05),最高值在1 mmol/L组;培养48 h后,除2 mmol/L组外,其他处理组的增殖效果均下降。白细胞对迟钝爱德华氏菌杀菌率变化趋势与吞噬活力相符,1、2 mmol/L 组杀菌率显著高于对照组(P<0.05),而0.5 mmol/L组与对照组之间差异不显著(P>0.05)。试验结果表明,谷氨酰胺是石斑鱼有效的免疫增强剂,在培养基中添加1 mmol/L 谷氨酰胺培养12 h效果最佳。%An ivitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of glutamine (0 ,0 .5 ,1 ,2 mmol/L) on immune responses of kidney leukocytes in grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) .After the leukocytes were cultured primarily in 2 ,6 ,12 ,24 h ,the phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of leukocytes were determined ,respectively .Phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of leukocytes were significantly enhanced with glutamine supplemented into the culture medium ,and increased further with the increasing culture time .The peak was occurred in 1 mmol/L glutamine group 12 h after incubation .The proliferation of leukocytes was determined 12 and 24 h after incubation in medium supplemented with glutamine .After 12 h incubation ,the proliferation effects in the groups supplemented with glutamine were significantly im-proved compared with

  11. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsky Delane C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae; specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937 Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record; Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis

  12. 斜带石斑鱼神经坏死病毒基因组RNA1和RNA2序列测定及分析%Sequences of RNA1 and RNA2 from Orange-spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioids ) Nervous Necrosis Virus, China Strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓艳; 翁少萍; 吕玲; 黄剑南; 殷志新; 何建国

    2005-01-01

    根据GenBank数据库公布的鱼类神经坏死病毒(nervous necrosis virus,NNV)同源序列设计了7对特异性引物,采用RT-PCR方法扩增出目的片断,将PCR产物测序和分析.斜带石斑鱼Epinephelus coioides神经坏死病毒(orange-spotted NNV,OGNNV)基因组由两个片断(RNA1和RNA2)组成,RNA1由3 103个核苷酸组成,含有一个开放阅读框,编码982个氨基酸;RNA2由1 433个核苷酸组成,含有一个开放阅读框,编码338个氨基酸.OGNNV基因组与新加坡GGNNV(greasy grouper NNV)的基因组有高度的相似性.分析病毒的RNA2序列发现:OGNNV与DGNNV(dragon grouper NNV)、RGNNV(redspotted NNV)和GGNNV的亲缘关系很近,并且具有相同的中和位点;分析病毒的RNA1序列,发现在OGNNV的RNA1序列中同样可以找到依赖RNA的RNA聚合酶的6个模序(motif).根据同源性比较和系统进化分析,OGNNV属于RGNNV血清型的成员.

  13. 鲑点石斑鱼皮肤抗菌活性蛋白的纯化及抗菌活性%Purification and Antimicrobial Activity of Antimicrobial Protein from Brown-spotted Grouper, Epinephelus fario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英霞; 邹瑗徽; 满初日嘎; 周永灿; 王世峰

    2008-01-01

    近年来在多种生物体中都发现有抗菌活性蛋白和多肽.由于其具有生物化学多样性,抗病毒、微生物、真菌、原生动物、肿瘤,促进伤口愈合等生物学活性,而引起研究者的极大兴趣.抗菌活性蛋白和多肽在动物的先天免疫中具有重要作用,它们直接作用于细菌,并将其杀死.鲑点石斑鱼(Epinephelus fario)是中国南方水产养殖中重要的海水鱼.近年来,由于细菌和病毒引发的病害造成鲑点石斑鱼大量死亡,但其抗菌活性蛋白及多肽目前还未见报道.本研究发现鲑点石斑鱼皮肤具有抗菌活性成分,鲑点石斑鱼皮肤匀浆物经胰蛋白酶水解后抗菌活性丧失,说明该活性是由蛋白质引起的.经离子交换层析及凝胶过滤层析,从鲑点石斑鱼皮肤中分离纯化到抗菌活性蛋白(Efap).SDS-PAGE显示,Efap为单链蛋白,分子量约41 kD.该成分能同时抑制革兰氏阳性菌,如金黄色葡萄球菌、滕黄微球菌、枯草牙胞杆菌和革兰氏阴性菌,如溶藻弧菌、副溶血弧菌、河流弧菌、多杀性巴氏杆菌、嗜水气单胞菌、大肠杆菌和铜绿假单胞菌.革兰氏阴性菌中,溶藻弧菌、副溶血弧菌、河流弧菌和多杀性巴氏杆菌对Efap较敏感,MIC20 mol/L.另外,Efap显示出较强的抗金黄色匍萄球菌的活性,MIC为5-10 mol/L.Efap的广谱抗菌性,说明其在鲑点石斑鱼免疫防御中具有一定的作用.%Antimicrobial proteins and peptides had been found from a wide variety of organisms in the last few years. These molecules have attracted much research interest because of their biochemical diversity, broad specificity on anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungi, anti-protozoan parasites, anti-tumoural, and wound-healing effects. Antimicrobiai proteins and peptides play key roles in innate immunity. They interact directly with bacteria and kill them. The brown-spotted grouper, Epinephelusfario, is an important marine fish cultured in southern

  14. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of Epinephelus bruneus and Epinephelus moara (Perciformes, Epinephelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglan Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae, commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs and localization of 18S rDNA. The heterochromatin (interstitial C-bands and distribution pattern of telomere (TTAGGGn in E. bruneus revealed the chromosomal rearrangements and different karyotypic evolutionary characteristics compared to those in E. moara. The cytogenetic data suggested that the lineages of E. bruneus and E. moara were recently derived within the genus Epinephelus, and E. moara exhibited more plesiomorphic features than E. bruneus. All results confirmed that E. moara, which has long been considered a synonym of E. bruneus, is a distinct species in the family Epinephelidae. In addition, molecular cytogenetic analyses are useful in species differentiation and phylogenetic reconstruction in groupers.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Transforming Growth Factor-β1(TGF-β1)from Orange-Spotted Grouper(Epinephelus coioides)%斜带石斑鱼转化生长因子β1(TGF-β1)基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平海林; 吴金英; 徐胜威; 胡开顺; 段志刚

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a highly conserved pleiotropic cytokine.In this study, we presented the bioinformatics analysis of TGF-β1 full-length cDNA sequences from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).The full length cDNA is 2477 bp, which contains an ORF of 1161 bp, encoding a 386 amino acids protein.Real-time PCR results showed that TGF-β1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in the kidney, followed by head kidney and spleen of the healthy orange-spotted grouper.The expression of TGF-β1 in isolated headkidney lymphocytes was up-regulated treated with PolyI: C or ConA, and peaked at 4 hours after stimulation.Lymphocytes groups which were treated with PolyI: C had little TGF-β1 expression after 16 and 24 hours, while the expression of TGF-β1 was significantly higher than the control groups during the whole experimental processing time treated with ConA.In conclusion, we found the structure and expression pattern of grouper TGF-β1 was similar to those of other fish.%转化生长因子β1(TG-β1)是一种高度保守的多效细胞因子.通过分子克隆得到了斜带石斑鱼Epi nephelus coioidesTGF-β1 cDNA全长序列,全长为2477 bp,开放阅读框为116lbp,编码一种含386个氨基酸的多肽.ReMtime PCR分析表明,TGF-β1基因在健康斜带石斑鱼所取组织中均有表达,肾脏中表达最高,其次是头肾和脾脏.用PolyI:C或ConA刺激斜带石斑鱼头肾淋巴细胞,TGF-β1表达量明显上升,且在刺激4 h后达到最高值.用PolyI:C刺激16、24 h后,TGF-β1几乎不表达,而用ConA刺激实验组,TGF-β1表达量一直高于对照组.结果说明,斜带石斑鱼TGF-β1基因结构和表达特征与其他硬骨鱼类具有高度相似性.

  16. Biology of the Graysby, Epinephelus cruentatus, of the coral reef of Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, W.P.

    1979-01-01

    Epinephelus (Cephalopholis) cruentatus (Lacépède, 1802) [Petrometopon cruentatum], the Graysby, is one of the most common groupers on the coral reef at the southwest coast of Curaçao. They are very abundant at a depth from 7½ to 9 m. A second, lower maximum in their vertical distribution is found at

  17. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism: molecular characterization and hypothalamic mRNA response to energy status and neuropeptide Y treatment in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiguo; Sun, Caiyun; Yan, Aifen; Wu, Shuge; Qin, Chaobin; Zhang, Yanhong; Li, Wensheng

    2013-08-25

    As in mammals, fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays diverse and vital roles in regulating food intake in fish. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the effect of FA metabolism on food intake is linked to changes in the level of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus of the rainbow trout. In mammals, the evidence suggests that FA metabolism regulates feeding via hypothalamic NPY. NPY is therefore considered an important factor that mediates the modulation of food intake by FA metabolism in vertebrates. The stimulatory effect of NPY on food intake is well known. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of NPY on FA metabolism in the hypothalamus has not been examined. In this study, we cloned the cDNA of four key enzymes involved in FA metabolism and assessed the effect of energy status and NPY on their mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of grouper. The full-length cDNAs of UCP2 and CPT1a and the partial coding sequence (CDS) of ACC1 and FAS were isolated from the grouper hypothalamus. These genes are expressed in the hypothalamus and during the organogenetic stage of embryogenesis. A feeding rhythm study showed that the hypothalamic expression level of NPY and CPT1a was highly correlated with feeding rhythm. Long-term fasting was found to significantly induce the hypothalamic mRNA expression of NPY, CPT1a and UCP2. An in vitro study demonstrated that NPY strongly stimulated CPT1a and UCP2 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest that these four genes related to FA metabolism may play a role in regulating food intake in grouper and, that NPY modulates FA metabolism in the grouper hypothalamus. This study showed, for the first time in vertebrates, the effect of NPY on the gene expression of FA metabolism-related enzymes.

  18. Molecular identification of an androgen receptor and its changes in mRNA levels during 17α-methyltestosterone-induced sex reversal in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Haifa; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Danqi; Lin, Haoran

    2012-09-01

    Androgens play a crucial role in sex differentiation, sexual maturation, and spermatogenesis in vertebrates. The action of androgens is mediated via androgen receptors (ARs). The present study reports the cloning of the cDNA sequence of the ar in the orange-spotted grouper, with high expression in testis and relatively low in subdivision of brain areas. The cDNA sequence of ar was 2358 bp, encoding a protein of 759 amino acids (aa). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ar cDNA sequence was closely related to that of threespot wrasse (Halichoeres trimaculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) arβ. As deduced from the phylogenetic tree and the high amino acid identity with the ARβ subtype of other teleosts, grouper ar seems to be more closely related to the beta than the alpha subtype cloned to date. In the first week after 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) implantation, the transcript levels of ar in the hypothalamus declined significantly, and consistently stayed at low level expression to the second week, but increased back to the control levels in the third and fourth week. In the gonad, the mRNA expression of ar was not changed in the first week compared with the control, but increased significantly in the second week, consistently reached the highest level in the third week, dropped slightly but still higher than that of the control in the fourth week. The expression pattern of ar in hypothalamus and gonad during MT-induced sex reversal suggests the involvement of ar in regulating this process in the orange-spotted grouper. The present study provides the data of the changes in the mRNA levels of ar during MT-induced sex reversal in detail to help understand the complicated signals under sex reversal.

  19. 蛋氨酸钴对珍珠龙胆石斑鱼幼鱼生长、矿物元素沉积及肝脏酶活力的影响%Effects of dietary cobalt methionine on growth performance, mineral deposition, and hepatic enzyme activities in juvenile pearl gentian grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂ ×E. fuscoguttatus♀)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云; 王际英; 李宝山; 乔洪金; 柳旭东; 郝甜甜; 王晓艳

    2016-01-01

    在基础饲料中添加不同梯度的蛋氨酸钴(CoMet),制成钴含量分别为0.30 mg/kg、1.75 mg/kg、3.42 mg/kg、6.73 mg/kg、12.56 mg/kg、25.50 mg/kg的6组实验饲料(记作D1、D2、D3、D4、D5、D6组),饲喂初始体重(60.02±0.42) g的珍珠龙胆石斑鱼(Epinephelus lanceolatu♂×E. fuscoguttatus♀)幼鱼8周,研究蛋氨酸钴对其生长、矿物元素沉积和肝脏酶活力的影响。结果表明,随饲料中蛋氨酸钴含量的增加,实验鱼增重率(WGR)和特定生长率(SGR)均先升后降, D3组显著高于其他组(P0.05);粗蛋白含量呈降低的趋势, D5、D6组显著低于D1~D4组(P0.05);粗脂肪含量先降后升, D4组显著低于其他组(P0.05)。本实验条件下,以SGR为评价指标,经折线回归分析,珍珠龙胆石斑鱼幼鱼对钴的最适需求量为3.25 mg/kg,即53.28 mg(CoMet)/kg(饲料)。%Cobalt (Co) is one of the essential elements for fish, with various biological functions, including in growth promotion, blood production, reproduction, and immunity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary cobalt me-thionine (CoMet) on growth performance, mineral deposition, and hepatic enzyme activities in the juvenile pearl gen-tian grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂ ×E. fuscoguttatus♀). Six extruded isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (51% crude protein and 13% crude lipid) were formulated by supplementing the basal diet with CoMet, providing actual Co contents of 0.30, 1.75, 3.42, 6.73, 12.56, or 25.50 mg/kg diet, which were fed to groups designated D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and D6, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 20 juveniles (initial weight, 60.02±0.42 g). The experiment was conducted for 8 weeks in plastic cylindrical tanks in an indoor recirculated feeding system. The weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of the juveniles both increased and then decreased with higher CoMet levels, and both were significantly higher in the D3 group than in

  20. Homologues of sox8 and sox10 in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: sequences, expression patterns, and their effects on cyp19a1a promoter activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiongyou; Lu, Huijie; Zhang, Lihong; Xie, Jun; Shen, Wenying; Zhang, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Sox8 and Sox10 are members of group E Sox proteins involved in a wide range of developmental processes including sex determination and neurogenesis in vertebrates. The orange-spotted grouper sox8a and sox10a homologues were isolated and characterized in the present study. Both sox8a and sox10a genes contain three exons and two introns, and encode putative proteins with typical structures of group E Sox. Sox8a was expressed in diverse tissues including the central nervous system and some peripheral tissues. In contrast, sox10a mRNA was detected primarily in the central nervous system. During embryogenesis, sox8a mRNA seemed to be de novo synthesized in the embryos from otic vesicle stage. However, sox10a mRNA was only detectable in juvenile fish 35 days post hatching and thereafter. The mRNA levels of sox8a in the gonads were not significantly different among ovarian developmental stages but increased in the testis. In vitro transfection assays showed that the Sox10a but not Sox8a up-regulated cyp19a1a promoter activities. Taken together, these results suggested that the sox8a may play roles in diverse tissues and during embryogenesis, whereas sox10a may be mainly involved in the neural regulation of juvenile and adult fish, and that certain Sox homologues may regulate the orange-spotted grouper cyp19a1a promoter.

  1. Cloning and promoter analysis of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone Ⅱ in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)%斜带石斑鱼(Epmephelus coioides)GnRH Ⅱ基因的克隆及启动子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈戟; 罗余山; 朱作言; 胡炜

    2013-01-01

    促性腺激素释放激素(Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone,GnRH)是调控脊椎动物生殖的关键因子之一.文章克隆了经济鱼类斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)GnRHⅡ基因的cDNA、基因组序列及其启动子,发现GnRHⅡ基因启动子中与组织特异性表达相关的区域位于距转录起始点上游-2005 bp~-956 bp之间.以GnRHⅡ启动子驱动绿色荧光蛋白在斑马鱼胚胎中表达的结果显示,GnRH Ⅱ神经元主要分布在中脑附近和眼部.文章为深入了解GnRHⅡ基因表达的调控机制及GnRH-Ⅱ基因的功能提供了基础信息.%Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproduction in all vertebrates.We first cloned the eDNA and genomic DNA sequences coding for GnRHⅡ gene in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelis coioides),an economically important marine fish,and then cloned its promoter sequence.The region responsible for the cell-specific expression of GnRH-Ⅱ was located between-2005 bp to-956 bp from the translation start site.GnRHⅡ promoter driven EGFP expression in transgenic zebrafish showed that GnRH Ⅱ-positive neurons were primarily located in the midbrain and in the eyes.Our results provide an improved understanding of the regulatory mechanism and function of GnRH Ⅱ ofE.coioides.

  2. 斜带石斑鱼仔鱼变态过程中甲状腺的发育变化%THE DEVELOPMENT OF THYROID OF ORANGE-SPOTTED GROUPER (EPINEPHELUS COIOIDES) LARVAE DURING METAMORPHOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐啸尘; 刘晓春; 林浩然

    2010-01-01

    @@ 斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)鲈形目,鳍科,石斑鱼属,为暖水性中下层鱼类,是我国南方沿海重要的经济养殖鱼类.长期以来,许多海水鱼仔稚鱼培育阶段的一大难题是成活率低~([1]).目前斜带石斑鱼的大规模苗种培育仍未很好解决,仔鱼经历第二背鳍棘从生长到吸收的变态过程时死亡率很高.

  3. The impact of Nassau grouper size and abundance on scuba diver site selection and MPA economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Since many fisheries are size-selective, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is expected to increase both the average size and abundance of exploited species, such as the valuable but vulnerable Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus ). Increases in mean size and/or abundance of

  4. The impact of Nassau grouper size and abundance on scuba diver site selection and MPA economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Since many fisheries are size-selective, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is expected to increase both the average size and abundance of exploited species, such as the valuable but vulnerable Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus ). Increases in mean size and/or abundance of protec

  5. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus’ revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus’ within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001) with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus’ within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus’ within Malta’s Fisheries

  6. Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin β-Chain cDNA from Orange-spotted Grouper(Epinephelus coioides)%斜带石斑β-珠蛋白cDNA的克隆和序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷志新; 何建国

    2003-01-01

    从斜带石斑Epinephelus coioides白细胞cDNA文库随机挑取噬菌斑,做为模板,用λTriplEx 5'3'长距离插入子筛选引物,进行插入片断的PCR扩增,并进行表达序列探针(ESTs)测定.从中克隆到了血红蛋白β亚基cDNA.cDNA包含长达444 bp的开放阅读框,编码147个氨基酸的多肽.用www.expasy.ch网站的compute pI/MW程序计算其可能的相对分子质量为16 544,等电点为6.95.其氨基酸序列与草鱼β-珠蛋白Ⅲ的同源性最高,为73.0%.在远端和近端的与血红素结合的组氨酸都是保守的.另外,与其它鱼类及蛙、鸡和人的β-珠蛋白比较,在血红素结合区及亚基结合区的氨基酸残基均是高度保守的.

  7. Molecular characterization of IgM, IgZ and IgD heavy chain genes in orange-spotted grouper(Epinephelus coioides)%斜带石斑鱼IgM、IgZ和IgD重链基因的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贝; 陈善楠; 徐镇; 聂品

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the membrane-bound immunoglobulin M (mIgM), mIgD and secretory IgZ (sIgZ) have been identified by using RACE-PCR from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The mIgM and sIgZ are comparable with their counterparts in other teleost in terms of their heavy chain cDNA sequences and gene structures. The constant region of the mlgM had three CH domains, i.e., CHI, CH2, CH3, and two transmembrane domains, TM1 and TM2. The TM1 exon is spliced into the regular donor site at the 3' terminus of the CH3 domain. When comparing the amino acid sequence of mlgM with those in teleost fish, it is found that the grouper mIgM CH region shares highest identity with that in the Oliver flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), with CHI, CH2, CH3 having 53% - 78% identity with those in the flounder, respectively. The complete transcript of the grouper mIgD contains 3 375 bp, including a 3 006 bp open reading frame, and the constant region of the mIgD consists serially of a μl domain, seven 8 domains (81 to 87), and a TM region. The degree of amino acid sequence identity, in domain-by-domain comparison with other teleost fishes, reveals an overall higher identity between the IgD in the grouper and that in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), with 81 to 87 having 75.5%, 75.8%, 65.4%, 76.6%, 88.1%, 90.6%, 82.8% identity, and the transmembrane domain having 82.7% identity, respectively. The sIgZ has a four exon structure in genome, with the introns being 222, 129, and 458 bp in length, respectively. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed to examine the expressions of IgZ, IgM, and IgD in various organs / tissues of the grouper. Transcripts encoding the mIgM were detected in all examined samples. IgD was mainly detected in pronephros, kidney, spleen and thymus, with week expression in intestine. IgZ was expressed in lymphoid tissues such as pronephros, kidney and spleen, with relatively low expression detected in gills, thymus and heart.%应用RACE方法获得斜

  8. 饲料中大豆卵磷脂/鱼油比例对斜带石斑鱼稚鱼生长发育及肠道组织的影响%Influence of Different Dietary Soybean Lecithin /Fish Oil Ratios on Growth Performance and Histology of Juvenile Grouper Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯煜; 吴小易; 陈国华; 王珺; 李伟峰; 朱仙龙

    2013-01-01

    Four formulated microdiets supplemented with different soybean lecithin / fish oil (SL/FO) ratios:Diet 1 (0%/22%),Diet 2 (5%/14%),Diet 3 (10%/8%) and Diet 4 (15%/7%) were fed to 40-day-old juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides after hatching.Each experimental diet was distributed in triplicate tanks.The survival,feed efficiency,growth performance and intestine histology of the grouper juveniles were monitored after a 40-day growth trial.Results showed that different dietary SL/FO ratios significantly affected the growth and survival (P ≤0.05) of the grouper juveniles.The juveniles fed Diet 3 (10%/8%,SL/FO) and Diet 4 (15/7,SL/FO) gave significantly higher weight gain (WG) than those fed Diet 1 (0%/22%,SL/FO).The juveniles fed Diet1 (0%/22%,SL/FO) had obviously lower whole body lipid content than those fed other diets (P≤0.05),but had significantly higher whole body protein content than those fed other diets (P < O.05).For all treatments no significant differences were observed in feed efficiency (FE),hepatosomatic index (HSI),viscerosomatic index (VSI) and condition factor (CF),specific growth rate (SGR),feed intake (FI),protein efficiency ratio (PER),and final body weight (FBW).Increase in dietary soybean lecithin/fish oil (SL/FO) ratio reduced lipid droplets in intestine enterocytes of grouper juvenile.It is concluded that the grouper juvenile microdiets should have a high dietary soybean lecithin/fish oil ratio (15%/7%).%为探讨饲料中不同大豆卵磷脂/鱼油比例对斜带石斑鱼稚鱼成活率、生长行为、饲料利用以及肠道组织学的影响,本实验设计了4种添加不同大豆卵磷脂/鱼油比率的微颗粒饲料:0%/22%(饲料1),5%/14%(饲料2),10%/8%(饲料3)以及15%/7%(饲料4),饲喂斜带石斑鱼稚鱼.每种实验饲料均设3个平行.试验持续40 d.结果表明,饲料中不同大豆卵磷脂/鱼油比例对斜带石斑鱼稚鱼生长以

  9. Occurrence of a nematode Philometra (Costa,1845 in the ovaries of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 in southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periyasamy Selvakumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of philometrid nematode, Philometra spp. infected in the ovaries of Epinephelus malabaricus (E. malabaricus from southeast coast of India. Methods: Totally 4801 fishes were collected from Mandabam, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari. The normal and infected ovaries were carefully removed from dissected fishes and the prevalence of nematode infection for each fish was examined. Then the nematode were carefully removed and washed in a 0.6% saline solution and fixed in 70% ethanol. Representative nematodes were cleaned with glycerin and fixed in a solution of 95% glacial acitic acid and 5% formalin for identification under light microscopy. Results: Of which 16.8%, 16.2% and 14.7% parasitic prevalence was observed from Mandabam, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari respectively. The intensity of parasitic worms per fish varied from 1 to 8 with an average of 6.33±0.84. Nematode length varies from 7-22 mm with in average of (18.70±4.57 mm. The average length and weight of E. malabaricus were (332.950 ±77.792 mm and (513.30±169.46 g respectively. Conclusions: It can be assumed that females of this nematode are unable to attain gravidity in this host species, and consequently, E. malabaricus does not serve as the true definitive host of Philometra spp. Prevalence of infection and intensity of the nematode are highly effected by sucking blood, causing atrophy of developing ova in the ovary, fibrosis of ovarian tissue, increasing granulocytes and haemorrhages, and thus negatively affecting the reproduction of some species of E. malabaricus.

  10. Occurrence of a nematode Philometra (Costa,1845) in the ovaries of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) in southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periyasamy Selvakumar; Alagarsamy Sakthivel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of philometrid nematode, Philometra spp. infected in the ovaries of Epinephelus malabaricus (E. malabaricus) from southeast coast of India. Methods: Totally 4801 fishes were collected from Mandabam, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari. The normal and infected ovaries were carefully removed from dissected fishes and the prevalence of nematode infection for each fish was examined. Then the nematode were carefully removed and washed in a 0.6% saline solution and fixed in 70% ethanol. Representative nematodes were cleaned with glycerin and fixed in a solution of 95% glacial acitic acid and 5% formalin for identification under light microscopy. Results: Of which 16.8%, 16.2% and 14.7% parasitic prevalence was observed from Mandabam, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari respectively. The intensity of parasitic worms per fish varied from 1 to 8 with an average of 6.33±0.84. Nematode length varies from 7-22 mm with in average of (18.70±4.57) mm. The average length and weight of E. malabaricus were (332.950±77.792) mm and (513.30±169.46) g respectively. Conclusions: It can be assumed that females of this nematode are unable to attain gravidity in this host species, and consequently, E. malabaricus does not serve as the true definitive host of Philometra spp. Prevalence of infection and intensity of the nematode are highly effected by sucking blood, causing atrophy of developing ova in the ovary, fibrosis of ovarian tissue, increasing granulocytes and haemorrhages, and thus negatively affecting the reproduction of some species of E. malabaricus.

  11. 斜带石斑鱼三丁基锡结合蛋白基因的克隆与分析%Molecular cloning and analyzing of tributyltin-binding protein in orange-spotted grouper(Epinephelus coioides)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦光; 梁旭方; 郁颖; 李观贵; 李光照

    2010-01-01

    采用RT-PCR和RACE方法获得了斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)三丁基锡结合蛋白(tributyltin-binding protein,TBT-bp)肝脏基因的cDNA全长序列.TBT-bp基因cDNA序列全长836 bp,含696 bp的开放阅读框,编码231个氨基酸.虽然编码蛋白序列与牙鲆(Paralichthys olivaceus)和底鳉(Fundulus heteroclitus)TBT-bp2序列同源性不高(分别为52%、20%),但是保守的信号肽序列结构与二级结构分析提示它们属于同一蛋白家族.系统树分析表明,此次克隆得到的斜带石斑鱼三丁基锡结合蛋白基因cDNA序列属于2型三丁基锡结合蛋白(tributyltin-binding protein type2,TBT-bp2).斜带石斑鱼TBT-bp基因cDNA全序列的获得为海水养殖鱼类中三丁基锡的去毒代谢相关分子机理研究奠定了基础,对今后进一步进行种苗育苗的研发,并以此为依据提高其人工育苗及仔鱼成活率有重要意义.

  12. 斜带石斑鱼Frizzled 4基因的克隆及表达分析%Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Frizzled 4 in Orange-spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华谱; 洪广; 邓思平; 朱春华; 李广丽; 陈燕; 黄海; 李水生

    2016-01-01

    利用同源克隆和RACE的方法,从斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)卵巢中克隆了Frizzled4(gFZD4)的全长cDNA序列.gFZD4的cDNA序列全长2 033bp,其中开放阅读框1 596bp、编码531个氨基酸.氨基酸序列比对和系统树分析显示,gFZD4的结构十分保守,斜带石斑鱼与鲈形目罗非鱼的亲缘关系最近.RT-PCR分析表明,gFZD4基因在斜带石斑鱼组织中广泛表达,其中脑、肾脏、心脏和腮组织的表达量较高.荧光定量PCR检测结果显示,gFZD4基因的表达水平在胚胎发育的早期较低、在桑葚期显著升高、在囊胚期最高,其后除了肌节形成期外均基本与桑葚期的表达水平相似;gFZD4基因在卵巢发育过程中表达水平较低,而在性逆转的精巢发育过程中表达水平显著升高,表明gFZD4介导的Wnt信号通路在石斑鱼的性逆转过程中可能发挥了重要作用.

  13. Effects of thyroxine on metamorphosis of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) larvae%甲状腺素对斜带石斑鱼仔鱼变态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐啸尘; 刘晓春; 林浩然; 张海发; 刘付永忠

    2006-01-01

    用甲状腺素(Thyroxine,T4)处理斜带石斑鱼Epinephelus coioides仔鱼,研究T4对仔鱼变态的影响.仔鱼在变态前期和变态高峰期,用0.01mg·L-1T4处理7d后仔鱼完成变态,用0.10mg·L-1T4处理4d后仔鱼完成变态,用1.00mg·L-1T4处理3d后仔鱼完成变态,对照组仔鱼在实验期间未能完成变态.用0.01mg·L-1T4处理变态高峰期仔鱼其存活率明显提高和全长增长明显变慢,但对变态前期仔鱼无影响;用0.10和1.00mg·L-1T4处理变态前期和变态高峰期仔鱼,其存活率显著降低和全长增长明显变慢.结果表明,在变态高峰期用0.01mg·L-1T4处理仔鱼能加速它的变态并提高其存活率.

  14. Gene cloning and expression of Inertleukin-8(IL-8) from Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)%斜带石斑鱼白细胞介素8基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡云凤; 孙军; 林小涛; 梁卉

    2010-01-01

    为了研究斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)白细胞介素8(IL-8)的结构和功能,本实验对其基因序列进行了克隆和分析. 运用RACE-PCR方法,从斜带石斑鱼总RNA反转录cDNA库中获得了961 bp 长的cDNA全序列. 同时利用RT-PCR 技术,检测了微壁溶球菌诱导前后该基因在斜带石斑鱼体内不同组织之间的表达差异. 结果表明,斜带石斑鱼IL-8cDNA序列包含235 bp 的5′非编码区,438 bp的3′端非编码区和288 bp 的开放阅读框,编码95个氨基酸. 未诱导前,斜带石斑鱼IL-8基因主要在心、头肾、脾和肝脏中表达,在鳃和肠中量表达,在胃、肌和皮中几乎没有表达;诱导后,IL-8基因强烈表达于所有取样器官. 所获得的斜带石斑鱼IL-8基因是一种与炎症作用有关的CXC亚族趋化性因子.

  15. 斜带石斑鱼GtHRs在卵巢发育过程中的表达模式%Expression profiles of gonadotropin receptors during ovary devel-opment in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪松; 刘晓春; 张勇; 李水生; 陈华谱; 林浩然

    2012-01-01

      对斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)卵巢进行组织学分析,根据卵母细胞的发育阶段将卵巢发育划分为7个时期(I-VII),检测斜带石斑鱼不同发育时期卵巢中两种促性腺激素受体(gonadotropin receptors, GtHRs),即卵泡刺激素受体(follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, FSHR)和促黄体素受体(luteinizing hormone receptor, LHR)的mRNA水平,同步分析下游卵巢型芳香化酶基因(Cyp19a)的表达模式。实时荧光定量PCR (Real-time PCR)结果显示, FSHR的mRNA水平在I、 II时期的卵巢中较低,在III时期开始上调,在IV、V时期显著升高,在VI时期显著下降。相比之下, LHR的转录水平在卵巢发育早期(I-IV)表达较低,在V时期开始有所升高,在VI时期达到峰值。卵巢内Cyp19a的mRNA在 I−III时期保持较低水平,在IV、V时期的表达显著增强,在VI时期表达明显减弱。在卵巢发育过程中, Cyp19a的整体表达模式与FSHR较为相似。上述结果表明,斜带石斑鱼FSHR和LHR均参与了卵巢发育的调控,但在不同发育时期功能不同。在卵巢发育过程中, FSHR 可能是介导 Cyp19a 正调控的主要因子。本研究旨为阐明斜带石斑鱼GtH/GtHR信号系统在生殖调控过程中的作用提供基础依据。%10.3724/SP.J.1118.2012.00915

  16. 斜带石斑鱼胸腺的显微和超微结构%Microstructure and ultrastructure of the thymus of orange-spotted groupers Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金英; 林浩然

    2008-01-01

    本文通过解剖及组织切片技术、光学显微镜、透射和扫描电子显微镜技术,对斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)胸腺器官组织进行了观察研究.结果表明:斜带石斑鱼胸腺实质主要由胸腺细胞(淋巴细胞)和网状上皮细胞构成.鱼体从Ⅰ龄之后,其胸腺发生明显的变化,与幼鱼有所不同,主要是胸腺可明显区分为三个区域:胸腺外皮质区、内皮质区和髓质区.外皮质区主要由网状上皮细胞、黏液细胞、成纤维细胞和少量淋巴细胞构成,细胞排列疏松;内皮质区主要由密集的淋巴细胞和网状上皮细胞组成,以含有大量的淋巴细胞为特征;髓质区主要由淋巴细胞和较多的网状上皮细胞构成,总体特征是淋巴细胞数量比内皮质区的少,且细胞排列较疏松.外皮质区、内皮质区相当于高等脊椎动物的皮质;髓质区相当于高等脊椎动物的髓质.髓质区之下有结缔组织,在Ⅱ龄以上的成体出现胸腺小体 (Hassall's corpuscles)或类似胸腺小体的结构,而且随着年龄的增加,胸腺外皮质区增厚,结缔组织增加,还表现在内皮质区和髓质区组织逐渐萎缩变薄,胸腺的细胞组成类型和淋巴细胞数量上有所变化等等.这些现象在Ⅱ龄鱼开始出现,即胸腺呈现退化迹象,在Ⅲ龄以上鱼体呈现明显的退化和萎缩.胸腺表面扫描电镜结果表明:其上皮细胞表面具有微嵴以及由微嵴组成的指纹状结构,有一些微孔分布.透射和断面扫描电镜的结果进一步表明:胸腺组织内的细胞成分复杂,除了淋巴细胞和网状上皮细胞外,还具有巨噬细胞、肥大细胞、肌样细胞、浆细胞、指状镶嵌细胞和纤维细胞等.

  17. Dietary Lipid Requirements of Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in Juvenile and Grow Out Stages%幼鱼和养成阶段斜带石斑鱼对饲料中脂肪的需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓慧; 杨俊江; 谭北平; 杨奇慧; 迟淑艳; 刘泓宇

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the dietary lipid requirements of grouper in two growth stages ( juvenile and grow out stages) . Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated with five lipid levels (7.07%, 9.92%, 12.92%, 15.95% and 19.04%), which were regulated by fish oil. Fish with the body weight of 9.1 g (juvenile stage) were fed the 5 diets for 8 weeks, and fish with the body weight of 102.6 g ( grow out stage) were fed the 5 diets for 10 weeks. In the same growth stage, each diet had 3 replicates, and each replicate in juvenile and grow out stages had 25 and 20 fish, respectively. The results showed as follows:1) with the dietary lipid level increasing, the weight gain rate ( WGR) , specific growth rate ( SGR) , protein efficiency rate ( PER) , condition factor ( CF) and viscerasomatic index ( VSI) of fish in juvenile and grow out stages were firstly increased and then decreased, while the feed conversion ratio ( FCR) showed an opposite trend, and all of them obtained the extreme when dietary lipid level was 12.92%. 2) With the dietary lipid lev-el increasing, the content of crude protein in whole body of fish in juvenile and grow out stages was gradually decreased, the content of crude lipid in whole body and muscle was gradually increased, and the content of moisture in whole body and muscle had no significant difference ( P>0.05) , while the other indices in whole body and muscle had no regular changes. 3) With the dietary lipid level increasing, the contents of plasma total protein ( TP) and low density lipoprotein ( LDLC) of fish in juvenile and grow out stages were gradually de-creased, while the content of plasma high density lipoprotein ( HDLC) was gradually increased. The contents of plasma triglyceride ( TG) and total cholesterol ( CHOL) of fish in juvenile and grow out stages had linear or curvilinear relationships with dietary lipid level, repectively. 4) With the dietary lipid level increasing, the ac-tivities of liver hepaticlipase

  18. 斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)MHC Ⅱα基因的克隆及表达分析%cDNA cloning and expression analysis of MHC Ⅱα from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡佳; 李楠; 蒋一男; 张念之; 鲁义善; 吴灶和; 夏春; 简纪常

    2015-01-01

    利用RACE PCR克隆了斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)主要组织相容性复合体Ⅱα(MHC Ⅱα)基因,并通过荧光定量PCR分析了该基因在健康鱼体中的组织分布以及在溶藻弧菌(Vibro alginolyticus)感染后在不同组织中的表达变化.斜带石斑鱼MHCⅡα cDNA全长为2127bp,其中5'非翻译区为834bp,开放阅读框为714bp,3'非翻译区为579bp,编码237个氨基酸,其推导的氨基酸序列包含信号肽、α1及α2功能区、跨膜区、连接肽和胞浆区.荧光定量PCR结果表明,斜带石斑鱼MHC Ⅱα基因在鳃、头肾、肝、体肾、脑、脾和肠中表达量较高,在心脏、皮肤和肌肉中的表达量较低,并且溶藻弧菌(Vibro algi-nolyticus)感染后在脾、肠、头肾、和体肾中的表达显著上调,分别为对照组的9.5倍、4.3倍、3.4倍及1.9倍.上述结果表明斜带石斑鱼MHCⅡα在抗溶藻弧菌感染的免疫反应中可能发挥重要作用,这对进一步了解石斑鱼抗菌免疫反应具有参考意义.

  19. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures r...

  20. Spatial and temporal characteristics of grouper spawning aggregations in marine protected areas in Palau, western Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2011-04-01

    In Palau, Ngerumekaol and Ebiil Channels are spawning aggregation sites that have been protected from fishing since 1976 and 2000, respectively. Groupers and other targeted fisheries species were monitored monthly over a 1.5 year period at these two spawning aggregations and two nearby exploited reference sites where grouper formerly aggregated to spawn. At the protected aggregation sites, three grouper species ( Plectropomus areolatus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, and Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) accounted for 78% of the abundance and 85% of the biomass of all resource species surveyed but comprised <1% of the total abundance and biomass at reference sites not protected from fishing that formally harbored spawning aggregations. Abundance and biomass of grouper species pooled were 54% and 72% higher, respectively, at Ngerumekaol compared to Ebiil. Comparisons with data from the same locations in 1995-1996 showed order of magnitude declines in abundance of E. polyphekadion at both locations. The lower numbers of E. fuscoguttatus and the near absence of E. polyphekadion at Ebiil may reflect the effects of previous and current overexploitation.

  1. MKK7 confers different activities to viral infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and nervous necrosis virus (NNV) in grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (MKK7) is one of the major stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)-activating kinases in response to environmental or physiological stimuli. Here a MKK7 named as Ec-MKK7 was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA of Ec-MKK7 was 1853 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1272 bp encoding a putative protein of 423 amino acids. A characteristic S-K-A-K-T motif was contained in the domain of dual-specificity protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (PKc_MKK7). Intracellular localization showed that Ec-MKK7 was localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of grouper spleen (GS) and/or grouper brain (EAGB) cells. Moreover, Ec-MKK7 was universally expressed in all examined tissues and showed expression modulation to challenges of lipopolysacchride (LPS), Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) in vivo. A gene targeting strategy over-expressing Ec-MKK7 was performed to examine the activities of MKK7 to viral infection in vitro. Our data showed that Ec-MKK7 was involved in the evasion and replication of SGIV but played an antiviral role to the infection of nervous necrosis virus (NNV). All results demonstrated that Ec-MKK7 could play important roles in grouper innate immunity and show distinct functions on virus infection.

  2. Ecology and conservation of dusky grouper (Epinephelidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vinicius Condini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus has a broad global distribution and is currently listed as an endangered species at the IUCN Red List. This species has large commercial and ecological importance, but only at the last decade the first studies were carried out on its bioecology at its southernmost distribution limit in Southwestern Atlantic. This region is largely formed by sand bottoms, where the occurrence of reefs and rocks are scarce. Rocky bottoms occur in the neritic region (along 20 to 30 m isobaths and in the jetties in the littoral region, and in both areas the dusky grouper occur frequently. Our studies showed that immature individuals (mean: 4 yrs of dusky groupers inhabiting rocky jetties in the littoral region represents an important economical incoming for artisanal fishermen, whereas adults (mean: 8 yrs are mostly caught at offshore banks 15-25 m deep by coastal fisheries. Microscopic analyses of gonads of littoral and neritic individuals suggest that the littoral region is a growing nursery area and the neritic is a reproductive site. Feeding ecology studies based on stomach content and stable isotopes showed that the species has an important role as top predators in both regions. Future studies on the residence time of immature individuals in the littoral using telemetry are fundamental to further understand the ecology of this endangered species in the Southwestern Atlantic and to help its fishing management and conservation.

  3. Anesthesia of Epinephelus marginatus with essential oil of Aloysia polystachya: an approach on blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARINE O. FOGLIARINI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the anesthetic potential of the essential oil (EO of Aloysia polystachya in juveniles of dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus. Fish were exposed to different concentrations of EO of A. polystachya to evaluate time of induction and recovery from anesthesia. In the second experiment, fish were divided into four groups: control, ethanol and 50 or 300 µL L−1 EO of A. polystachya, and each group was submitted to induction for 3.5 min and recovery for 5 or 10 min. The blood gases and glucose levels showed alterations as a function of the recovery times, but Na+ and K+ levels did not show any alteration. In conclusion, the EO from leaves of A. polystachya is an effective anesthetic for dusky grouper, because anesthesia was reached within the recommended time at EO concentrations of 300 and 400 µL L−1. However, most evaluated blood parameters showed compensatory responses due to EO exposure.

  4. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26324735

  5. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-11-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  6. Effects of Dietary Choline Content on Growth Performance, Body Composition, and Choline Content and Lipid Metabolism Enzyme Activities in Liver of Orange-Spotted Grouper ( Epinephelus coioides)%饲料胆碱含量对斜带石斑鱼生长性能、体成分、肝脏胆碱含量及脂肪代谢酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃笛根; 董晓慧; 谭北平; 杨奇慧; 迟淑艳; 刘泓宇; 章双; 陈效儒

    2015-01-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary choline content on growth performance, body composition, and choline content and lipid metabolism enzyme activities in liver of orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides) . Choline chloride was added to the basal diet to formulate six experi-mental diets with the adding levels were 0, 680, 1 361, 2 041, 2 721 and 4 082 mg/kg, which contained 8.1 (control), 602.5, 1 119.0, 1 511.5, 1 970.0 and 4 029.0 mg/kg (all were measured values) choline, re-spectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to three replicates and each replicate had 20 fish [ average body weight of (87.85±0.04) g]. Results showed that the maximum specific growth rate and protein efficiency rate and minimum feed conversion ratio were reached at 1 119.0 mg/kg group. Survival rate in control group was significantly lower than that in other groups ( P0.05), and ether extract content of whole-body in 4 029.0 mg/kg group was significantly higher than that in control group ( P0.05). The choline content in liver was progressively increased and then leveled off with the increasing of dietary cho-line content and a maximum value was occurred in 1 511.5 mg/kg group (P0.05) . Base on the specific growth rate and liver choline content as evaluation indexes, the choline requirement for orange-spotted grouper determined by broken-line model a-nalysis is 1 093. 7 and 1 579.7 mg/kg diet, respectively.%本试验旨在研究饲料胆碱含量对斜带石斑鱼生长性能、体成分、肝脏胆碱含量及脂肪代谢酶活性的影响,并确定斜带石斑鱼对饲料中胆碱的需要量. 在基础饲料中分别添加0、680、1 361、2 041、2 721和4 082 mg/kg的氯化胆碱,配制6种试验饲料,试验饲料中胆碱实际含量分别为8.1(对照)、602.5、1 119.0、1 511.5、1 970.0和4 029.0 mg/kg,投喂360尾平均体重为(87.85±0.04) g的斜带石斑鱼10周. 每种饲料设3个重复,每个重复放养20尾鱼.

  7. Comparative Transcriptomic Study of Muscle Provides New Insights into the Growth Superiority of a Novel Grouper Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Huang, Yu; Hu, Guojun; Zhang, Xinhui; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Guo, Chuanyu; Tang, Zhujing; Li, Xiaofeng; You, Xinxin; Lin, Haoran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Grouper (Epinephelus spp.) is a group of fish species with great economic importance in Asian countries. A novel hybrid grouper, generated by us and called the Hulong grouper (Hyb), has better growth performance than its parents, E. fuscoguttatus (Efu, ♀) and E. lanceolatus (Ela, ♂). We previously reported that the GH/IGF (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor) system in the brain and liver contributed to the superior growth of the Hyb. In this study, using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we analyzed RNA expression levels of comprehensive genes in the muscle of the hybrid and its parents. Our data showed that genes involved in glycolysis and calcium signaling in addition to troponins are up-regulated in the Hyb. The results suggested that the activity of the upstream GH/IGF system in the brain and liver, along with the up-regulated glycolytic genes as well as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and troponins related to the calcium signaling pathway in muscle, led to enhanced growth in the hybrid grouper. Muscle contraction inducing growth could be the major contributor to the growth superiority in our novel hybrid grouper, which may be a common mechanism for hybrid superiority in fishes.

  8. Large outbreaks of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-07-11

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100-200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1-2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  9. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management

    KAUST Repository

    Waldie, Peter A.

    2016-03-09

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small—the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km2. This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km2 using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km2 no-take LMMA to 1–2 km2 would protect approximately 30–50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools.

  10. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, Peter A; Almany, Glenn R; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H; Hamilton, Richard J; Potuku, Tapas; Priest, Mark A; Rhodes, Kevin L; Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small-the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km(2). This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km(2) using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km(2) no-take LMMA to 1-2 km(2) would protect approximately 30-50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools.

  11. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  12. Antiviral function of grouper MDA5 against iridovirus and nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Ying; Yang, Min; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is a critical member of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family which can recognize viral RNA and enhances antiviral response in host cells. In this study, a MDA5 homolog from orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcMDA5) was cloned, and its roles on grouper virus infection were characterized. The full-length EcMDA5 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 982 amino acids with 74% identity with MDA5 homolog from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that EcMDA5 contained three functional domains: two caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARDs), a DEAD box helicase-like (DExDc) domain, a helicase superfamily C-terminal domain (HELICc), and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Upon challenge with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), the transcript of EcMDA5 was significantly up-regulated especially at the early stage post-injection. Under fluorescence microscopy, we observed that EcMDA5 mostly localized in the cytoplasm of grouper spleen (GS) cells. Interestingly, during virus infection, the distribution pattern of EcMDA5 was significantly altered in SGIV infected cells, but not in red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infected cells, suggested that EcMDA5 might interact with viral proteins during SGIV infection. The ectopic expression of EcMDA5 in vitro obviously delayed virus infection induced cytopathic effect (CPE) progression and significantly inhibited viral gene transcription of RGNNV and SGIV. Moreover, overexpression of EcMDA5 not only significantly increased interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activities in a dose dependent manner, but also enhanced the expression of IRF3, IRF7 and TRAF6. In addition, the transcription level of the proinflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were differently altered by EcMDA5 overexpression during SGIV or

  13. Sperm cryopreservation in different grouper subspecies and application in interspecific hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q H; Xiao, Z Z; Wang, X Y; Xu, S H; Guan, S G; Xu, C A; Zhang, H S; Li, J

    2016-05-01

    The present study established and confirmed an efficient technology for groupers: giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus, orange-spotted grouper E. coioides, seven-band grouper, E. septemfasciatus, and kelp grouper E. moara sperm cryopreservation and successfully applied the cryopreserved E. lanceolatus sperm into interspecific hybridization with E. coioides. For both E. lanceolatus and E. coioides, the best motility of postthaw sperm were achieved using 6% to 10% DMSO, 6% to 16% propylene glycol, and 6% ethylene glycol as cryoprotectants. Furthermore, we have successfully applied this method into the other two species of E. septemfasciatus (74.56 ± 5.45%) and E. moara (71.67 ± 5.10%) sperm cryopreservation and obtained high motility, respectively. Computer-assisted sperm motion analysis showed that the postthaw sperm of the four species of grouper could keep 30 to 35 minutes motile state in nature seawater. And the freezing-thawing process decreased the sperm motility, speed, and longevity but did not significantly change the sperm movement pattern, and the progressive linear motion still was the dominant movement pattern. For the four species of grouper, the ultrastructural analysis showed 70% to 80% of the spermatozoa had intact morphology with a little of swelling; 20% to 30% were damaged, such as swelling or rupture of head, midpiece, and tail region; and 10% to 20% were severely damaged. Whereas, by the microscopic observation, more than 90% of the postthaw sperm presented normal morphology. In the artificial insemination and hybridization experiment, high fertilization rates and hatching rates were achieved when using 10% DMSO (88.7 ± 5.3%, 85.3 ± 7.4%) and 10% propylene glycol (86.8 ± 3.3%, 83.1 ± 6.6%), with no significant difference in comparison with control (92.2 ± 1.4%, 87.9 ± 4.2%). In addition, we found the embryos from postthaw sperm of E. lanceolatus and E. coioides eggs developed and grew normally as reported in previous

  14. Genetic structure and geographic subdivision of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in coastal waters of Southeast China%中国东南近海斜带石斑鱼群体的地理分化和遗传结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登玉; 丁少雄; 郭丰; 王军; 苏永全; 方琼珊; 王涵生

    2008-01-01

    以来自3个地区55尾斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)为研究对象,通过测定和分析长度为492bp的线粒体细胞色素b的部分基因序列,确定了10种单倍型和8个多态位点.结果表明各地理群体多态性均较低,并且单倍型在群体间分布不均,台湾群体多态性最高,海南群体次之,广东群体最低.各群体内Tajima's D测验结果不显著(P>0.10),符合中性突变,即群体大小维持稳定并未出现扩张和持续增长.各群体间均呈现显著的遗传分化和较低基因流水平.单倍型网络关系图也表明地区间的地理分化和单起源多分支的格局,分析形成原因可能是偶然事件中个体的长距离迁移和群体的瓶颈效应.

  15. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Alpha and Rho-Class GST Genes in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)%斜带石斑鱼alpha型与rho型GST基因cDNA全序列的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永乐; 梁旭方; 林群; 李光照; 李观贵; 王琳

    2008-01-01

    为从分子水平上研究Ⅱ相去毒酶谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(Glutathione S-transferase,GST)在斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)等海水鱼类机体内代谢去毒过程中的作用及机制,采用RT-PCR及RACE法,分离、克隆得到斜带石斑鱼肝脏alpha-GST(GSTA)、rho-GST(GSTR)基因cDNA全序列.序列分析结果表明,斜带石斑鱼肝脏GSTA基因cDNA全长1008bp,编码223个氨基酸;GSTR基因cDNA全长1002bp,编码225个氨基酸.构建系统进化树发现,斜带石斑鱼与鲤鱼、斑马鱼GSTA氨基酸同源性较高,而GSTR为鱼类所特有并共同占据进化树上独立的分枝,与大鼠、小鼠、人等哺乳动物GST现有所有类型同源性均较低.

  16. Construction and Protection Evaluation of DNA Vaccine of Vibrio harveyi GST Genes on Orange-spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)%哈维氏弧菌GST核酸疫苗制备及其对斜带石斑鱼的免疫保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海阳; 黄郁葱; 丁燏; 朱帆; 简纪常; 吴灶和

    2014-01-01

    通过同源引物从致病性哈维氏弧菌(Vibrio harveyi)ZJ0603基因组中克隆GST的开放阅读框(ORF),构建真核表达质粒pcDNA-GST.大量抽提重组质粒后,于背鳍基部肌肉注射重组质粒免疫斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides),分析重组质粒的免疫效果.通过核酸水平检测重组质粒在鱼体肝、肌肉、头肾和脾脏组织的分布;用ELISA法检测鱼体血清的抗体水平,用Western-blot检测目的蛋白的表达情况.结果表明:该序列全长615 bp;免疫7d后,鱼体中均有质粒分布;斜带石斑鱼血清中产生抗GST的高效抗体(1:4096);相应的目的蛋白也在鱼体中成功表达.攻毒后,疫苗免疫保护率达80%,表明GST可作为防治哈维氏弧菌病有效候选抗原.

  17. Groupers on the edge: Shelf edge spawning habitat in and around marine reserves of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, F.C.; Scanlon, K.M.; Koenig, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Gulf of Mexico contains some of the most diverse and productive marine habitat in the United States. Much of this habitat, located on the shelf edge in depths of 50 to 120 m, supports spawning for many economically important species, including groupers. Here, we couple acoustic surveys with georeferenced videography to describe the primary spatial and geologic features of spawning aggregation sites for four economically important species: gag (Mycteroperca microlepis), scamp (M. phenax), red grouper (Epinephelus morio), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), with notes on fish distribution and abundance and spawning activities. We provide information on movement patterns of reef fish determined using acoustic telemetry. Finally, we discuss the possible coupling of geomorphology with hydrographic features to influence the overall productivity of the region and the importance of spatial fishery management in sustaining that productivity. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  18. 重组斜带石斑鱼生长激素及其抗血清在放射免疫测定中的应用%Application of the recombinant growth hormone and its antibody in the development of radioimmunoassay in the orange-spotted grouper(Epinephelus coioides)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉雪琴; 李文笙; 林浩然

    2003-01-01

    将斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)生长激素成熟多肽cDNA序列克隆到质粒pRSET,与6x组氨酸等原核编码序列融合获得重组质粒pRGH6,转入大肠杆菌BL21(DE3),获得高效表达,表达量占细菌总蛋白的43%.免疫印迹证明表达产物为含斜带石斑鱼生长激素的融合蛋白,Ni2+亲合层析柱纯化融合蛋白,以此为抗原免疫家兔制备特异性的抗血清.以纯化的重组生长激素和特异性的抗血清建立斜带石斑鱼生长激素的放射免疫测定法,该方法的灵敏度、特异性和重复性均达到测定血液生长激素的水平.研究了多巴胺的受体激动剂阿扑吗啡对静态孵育斜带石斑鱼脑垂体碎片释放生长激素的影响,结果表明,阿扑吗啡能以剂量依存方式促进斜带石斑鱼垂体释放生长激素.

  19. Studies on the pathogenic bacterium of ulcer disease in Epinephelus awoara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the cause of the acute mortality of cage-cultured Epinephelus awoara in the Tong'an Bay of Xiamen, China during the summer of 2002. Predominant bacteria strain TS-628 was isolated from the diseased grouper. The virulence test confirmed that TS-628 was the pathogenic bacterium. Biochemical characteristics of the isolates were determined using the automatic bacterial identification system and standard tube tests. To further confirm the identification, a 1 121 bp 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate was amplified by PCR, which had been deposited into Genbank (accession number: AY747308). According to the biochemical characteristics and by comparing the 16S rRNA gene homology of the isolate, the pathogenic bacterium was identified as Vibrio harveyi. Drug sensitivity tests showed that this pathogenic bacterium was sensitive to 16 antibacterials, especially to chloramphenicol and actinospectacin, but completely resistant to antibacterials likes vancomycin, penicillin, lincomycin, and so on.

  20. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Farmer

    Full Text Available There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional

  1. Microsatellite Analyses of Wild Population and Cultivation Artificial Propagation Population in Orange-Spotted GrouperEpinephelus coioides) in the South China Sea%南海斜带石斑鱼野生群体与人工繁殖群体的微卫星分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆剑; 黄宗文; 陈国华; 王珺; 杨薇; 郭仁湘

    2011-01-01

    为了评估我国斜带石斑鱼野生群体与人工繁殖群体的种质现状,采用19个微卫星标记对斜带石斑鱼南海野生群体和海南人工繁殖群体进行遗传多样性研究。结果显示,在野生和人工繁殖群体中,19个基因座位的有效等位基因数(Ne)分别为1.135 0~4.516 2和1.00 0~3.982 7;群体平均观测杂合度(Ho)分别为0.706 1和0.687 5;群体平均期望杂合度(He)分别为0.480 3和0.421 5;多态信息含量(PIC)分别为0.547 5和0.493 0;2个群体间的遗传相似系数(Gst)为0.97%Microsatellite makers were used to evaluate genetic variations of Orange-Spotted Grouper(Epinephelus coioides) in the South China Sea wild population and the Hainan cultivation artificial propagation population,and 48 individuals in each stock were assessed at 19 SSR loci.The result showed that the wild population(WP) and cultivation artificial propagation population(CP),the number of effective alleles(Ne) were 1.135 0—4.516 2 and 1.00 0—3.982 7 respectively;values of mean observed heterozygosity(Ho) were 0.7061 and 0.687 5 respectively;expected heterozygosity(He) was 0.480 3 and 0.421 5 respectively;polymorphic information content(PIC) were 0.547 5 and 0.493 0 respectively;genetic similarity coefficient(Gst),genetic differentiation coefficient(Fst) and genetic distance(D) between WP and CP were 0.979 4,0.015 7 and 0.020 8 respectively.These genetic parameters suggested that the genetic variations in the South China Sea wild population of E.coioides were well conserved and the genetic differentiation and degradation were not obvious in Hainan cultivation artificial propagation population.

  2. 斜带石斑鱼胰蛋白酶原和淀粉酶全长cDNA的克隆与序列分析%Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of pancreatic trypsinogen and amylase from orange-spotted grouper(Epinephelus coioides)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永乐; 梁旭方; 王琳; 李观贵; 刘秀霞; 王云新; 张海发

    2010-01-01

    采用RT-PCR及RACE法从斜带石斑鱼Epinephelus coioides肝胰脏克隆得到胰蛋白酶原(trypsinogen,TRY)与淀粉酶(amylase,AMY)基因cDNA全序列.斜带石斑鱼肝胰脏TRY基因cDNA全长911 bp,其中5非翻译区(5'-UTR)为55bp,3'-UTR为127bp,开放阅读框(ORF)为729bp,编码242个氨基酸,包含所有丝氨酸蛋白酶中共有的高度保守的催化活性中心.序列一致性分析发现,斜带石斑鱼与牙鲆Paralichthys olivaceus、金头鲷Sparus aurata、鳎Solea senegalensis、石鲽Pleuronectes bicoloratus的TRY序列相似性高达86.8%-89.70%,与人Homo sapiens小鼠Mus musculus、斑马鱼Danio rerio的TRY相似性较低为59.9%-64.5%.斜带石斑鱼AMY基因cDNA全长1657bp,其中5'-UTR为41bp,3'-UTR为77 bp,ORF为1539bp,编码512个氨基酸,包含与哺乳动物α-AMY二级结构相似的8个α旋和8个β折叠.序列一致性分析发现,斜带石斑鱼与澳洲肺鱼Neoceratodus forsteri、美洲拟鲽Limanda americanus、大西洋鲑Salmo salar、斑马鱼AMY基因序列相似性高达82.4%-91.8%,与人、小鼠、鸡G.Gallus的AMY基因相似性较低为70.1%-72.3%.斜带石斑鱼TRY和AMY基因cDNA全序列的成功克隆为进一步研究其表达调控机理及研发有效提高其表达水平的饲料添加剂奠定基础.

  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of hepatic lipase (HL) and liportein lipase (LPL) gene in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)%斜带石斑鱼肝脂酶和脂蛋白脂酶基因克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永乐; 梁旭方; 李观贵; 王琳; 黄志东

    2010-01-01

    为从分子水平研究海水鱼类肝脂酶(hepatic lipase,HL)和脂蛋白脂酶(liportein lipase,LPL)基因在脂质代谢过程中的作用及其分子系统进化地位,采用RT-PCR及RACE法从斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)肝脏克隆得到HL、LPL基因cDNA全序列.克隆获得斜带石斑鱼肝脏HL基因cDNA全长2 261 bp,其中5′非翻译区(5′-UTR)为186 bp,3′-UTR为590 bp,开放阅读框(ORF)为1 485 bp,编码494个氨基酸;LPL基因cDNA全长2 191 bp,其中5′-UTR为 144 bp,3′-UTR为 499 bp,ORF为1 548 bp,编码515个氨基酸.序列同源性分析表明,斜带石斑鱼HL、LPL基因与哺乳动物同源性均低于真骨鱼类罗非鱼、斑鳢和真鲷等,这与其亲缘远近关系相一致,表明HL、LPL在进化过程中都相对保守.构建系统发生树显示,斜带石斑鱼HL、LPL基因氨基酸序列与大口黑鲈、真鲷等共同占据进化树上独立的分枝,与较为原始的硬骨鱼类中华鲟在进化树上距离较远.本实验对斜带石斑鱼HL、LPL基因同源性、系统进化地位的研究,为进一步研究海水鱼类脂代谢调控机制,预防鱼类脂代谢疾病奠定了基础.

  4. Molecular cloning and analysis of fatty acid desaturase and elongase genes in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus scoioides)%斜带石斑鱼脂肪酸去饱和酶和延长酶基因全长cDNA序列的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李观贵; 梁旭方; 何珊; 郁颖; 陈晓艳; 黄柏炎; 程龙球

    2009-01-01

    利用逆转录聚合酶链式反应(reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction,RT-PCR)和cDNA末端快速扩增(rapid-amplification of cDNA ends,RACE)方法获得斜带石斑鱼Epinephelus coioides肝脏中控制高不饱和脂肪酸合成的脂肪酸去饱和酶(fatty acid desaturase,FAD)和脂肪酸延长酶(fatty acid elongase,ELO)基因的全长cDNA序列.结果表明,FAD基因的全长cDNA序列长1979 bp.含1338 bp的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),编码445个氨基酸.编码的蛋白序列含有FAD全部的特征结构区,包括3个组氨酸簇、2个跨膜区和1个细胞色素b5结构域,与金头鲷Sparus aurata、大麻哈鱼Oncorhynchus keta、鲤鱼Cyprinus carpio和斑马鱼Danio rerio FAD的氨基酸同源性为66.5%-90.8%.二级结构分析显示其以螺旋和β折叠为主,系统进化分析表明其与金头鲷和欧洲鲈鱼的亲缘关系最近.ELO基因的全长cDNA序列1228 bp,含有885 bp的开放阅读框,编码294个氨基酸.该蛋白序列含有单一的氧化还原中心组氨酸簇、内质网停留信号和多个跨膜区等ELO特征结构区,与金头鲷、大麻哈鱼、尼罗罗非鱼Oreochromis niloticus和斑马鱼ELO的氨基酸同源性为71.1%-85.7%.蛋白二级结构预测表明其含有丰富的螺旋和β折叠结构,系统树分析显示其与金头鲷亲缘关系最近.斜带石斑鱼FAD和ELO全长cDNA序列的获得,为今后进一步研究其高不饱和脂肪酸合成途径奠定基础.

  5. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  6. AKTIVITAS ENZIM PROTEASE DAN KONDISI PENCERNAAN DI USUS IKAN KERAPU MACAM (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus SETELAH PEMBERIAN PAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Yamin

    2016-11-01

    Aims of the research are to figure out proteolitic activities and intestinal digestibility on tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus after feeding. The research was carried out on Research Institute for Coastal Aquaculture (RICA floating net cages at Awarange Bay, Barru Regency, South Sulawesi.The fish has 200 ± 10 g on size and relatively same on age of 6 months. Seven floating net cages of 1x1x1.2 m3 were used to rearing fish with random position for each sampling. The fish fed with 45% protein of moist pellet ad satiation. Sampling was carried out at 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 after fed. Preparation and analysis of protease enzyme activity collected after grouper was killed. Protease activity was analyzed by modification of Bergmeyer methods. Result of enzyme analysis show that 18 and 21 hours after fed has the highest activities i.e. 13.04 μ/mL and 13.3 μ/mL respectively, and 9 hours after fed has the lowest activities i.e. 5.83 μ/mL. Result of liquid presentation of intestinal shows fluctuation in every time of sampling. The highest presentation of liquid was at 9 hours after fed of 76% and the lowest was 6 hours after fed of 53%.

  7. 不同蛋白与脂肪日投喂水平对斜带石斑鱼生长的影响%Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on the Growth of Orange-spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仙龙; 吴小易; 李伟峰; 王珺; 陈国华

    2015-01-01

    研究了不同蛋白(48%,43%,38%)与脂肪(12%,10%,8%)日投喂水平对斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)生长、饲料利用、组织学及相关血液生化指标的影响.结果表明:下午投喂不同蛋白含量或脂肪含量的饲料对斜带石斑鱼增重率、饲料效率、肥满度、肝体比和肠体比无显著影响.下午投喂高蛋白低脂肪(HP-LL)饲料的实验鱼的蛋白质效率[(1.39±0.23)%]显著低于低蛋白高脂肪饲料(LP-HL)组[(1.81±0.30)%];HP-LL饲料组全鱼的脂肪含量[(59.6±4.6)g·kg-1]显著低于其他各实验组;投喂高蛋白中脂肪(HP-ML)饲料组全鱼的蛋白[(170.9±1.5)g·kg-1]及肌肉蛋白[(215.9±3.9) g·kg-1]含量显著高于其他实验组;HP-LL饲料组斜带石斑鱼血液的谷丙转氨酶、白蛋白,总蛋白水平,显著低于投喂高蛋白高脂肪(HP-HL)组和HP-ML饲料组;HP-LL组实验鱼肝脏葡萄糖六磷酸脱氢酶活性显著高于其他组;LP-HL饲料组实验鱼的肝脏异柠檬酸脱氢酶活性最高;各饲料组间的肝细胞数目无显著差异;LP-HL和HP-LL组肝脏细胞出现最多空泡和脂肪变性.综上所述,在上午保持饲料营养水平不变的情况下,下午投喂低蛋白水平(43%或38%)或者低脂肪水平(10%或8%)的饲料不会影响斜带石斑鱼的生长.

  8. Distinct functions of neuromedin u and neuromedin s in orange-spotted grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuisheng; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Qiongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Chen, Huapu; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-10-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) and neuromedin S (NMS) play inhibitory roles in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals. However, their functions are not clearly established in teleost fish. In the present study, nmu and nms homologs were identified in several fish species. Subsequently, their cDNA sequences were cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper Nmu proprotein contains a 21-amino acid mature Nmu peptide (Nmu-21). The Nms proprotein lost the typical mature Nms peptide, but it retains a putative 34-amino acid peptide (Nmsrp). In situ hybridization revealed that nmu- and nms-expressing cells are mainly localized in the hypothalamic regions associated with appetite regulation. Food deprivation decreased the hypothalamic nmu mRNA levels but induced an increase of nms mRNA levels. Periprandial expression analysis showed that hypothalamic expression of nmu increased significantly at 3 h post-feeding, while nms expression was elevated at the normal feeding time. I.p. injection of synthetic Nmu-21 peptide suppressed the hypothalamic neuropeptide y (npy) expression, while Nmsrp administration significantly increased the expression of npy and orexin in orange-spotted grouper. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of LH beta subunit (lhβ) and gh in the pituitary were significantly down-regulated after Nmu-21 peptide administration, while Nmsrp was able to significantly stimulate the expression of FSH beta subunit (fshβ), prolactin (prl), and somatolaction (sl). Our results indicate that nmu and nms possess distinct neuroendocrine functions and pituitary functions in the orange spotted grouper.

  9. PENGGUNAAN TEPUNG SILASE USUS AYAM DALAM PAKAN PEMBESARAN IKAN KERAPU MACAN, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmansyah Rachmansyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Substitusi tepung ikan dengan tepung silase usus ayam dalam pakan telah dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi respon pakan terhadap keragaan biologi ikan kerapu macan, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Ikan uji diberi pakan yang mengandung tepung silase usus ayam pada level 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, dan 20% sebagai pengganti tepung ikan dan dibuat dalam bentuk pelet basah. Pakan diberikan secara at satiation dua kali sehari selama masa pemeliharaan 20 minggu di keramba jaring apung berukuran 1 x 1 x 2 m. Penggantian tepung ikan dengan tepung silase usus ayam sampai 20% atau setara dengan 39% protein tepung ikan tidak berpengaruh nyata bila dibandingkan dengan perlakuan kontrol terhadap keragaan biologi ikan kerapu. Diduga tepung silase usus ayam cukup memadai sebagai pengganti tepung ikan dengan kadar lebih dari 20% dalam pakan pembesaran ikan kerapu macan jika asam amino methionine dan lysine ditambahkan ke dalam pakan. Feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with poultry offal silage meal (POSM in diet on biological performance of tiger grouper. Dietary inclusion level of PSOM at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% substitution of fish meal were compared with the fish meal based control diet (0% PSOM. Fish were fed diets (moist pellet at satiation two times daily for 20 weeks rearing at a floating net cage of 1 x 1 x 2 m. The result showed that replacement of fish meal with POSM up to 20% or equivalent to 39% fish meal protein were not significantly different (P>0.05 compared with control diet on all of the biological performance of tiger grouper. From the result, we expected that POSM is suitable as a partial replacement of fish meal more then 20% in tiger grouper diet if methionine and lysine are added.

  10. Kebutuhan Vitamin C Untuk Pertumbuhan dan Meningkatkan Ketahanan Benih Kerapu Macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian untuk mengetahui kebutuhan vitamin C untuk pertumbuhan dan ketahanan benih ikan kerapu macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus telah dilakukan, menggunakan 18 buah bak polikarbonat volume 100 liter yang dilengkapi dengan sistem air mengalir dan aerasi. Benih kerapu macan dengan bobot rata-rata 23,0 ± 0,1 gram ditebar dalam bak penelitian dengan kepadatan 12 ekor per bak. Ikan diberi pakan penelitian 2 kali sehari pada level satiasi selama 13 minggu. Pakan penelitian diformulasi dengan kandungan nutrien yang sama kecuali kandungan vitamin C. Pada formula pakan ditambahkan vitamin C (L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate Magnesium, APM dengan dosis berbeda, yaitu 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, dan 250 mg/kg pakan. Pakan dibuat dalam bentuk pelet dan dikeringkan menggunakan freeze dryer. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 6 perlakuan beda kandungan vitamin C dalam pakan dan setiap perlakuan terdiri atas 3 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan tanpa penambahan vitamin C pertumbuhannya, kadar hemoglobin dan hematokrit darah, aktivitas fagositik, dan indeks fagositiknya adalah paling rendah dibandingkan dengan kelompok ikan lainnya. Dari hasil ini disimpulkan bahwa diperlukan penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 30 mg/kg pakan untuk pertumbuhan ikan yang baik dan penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 60—120 mg/kg pakan untuk kesehatan ikan kerapu macan. The experiment to determine dietary vitamin C requirement for good growth of tiger grouper has been conducted in 18 polycarbonate tanks, 100 liters volume. Each tank is equipped with flow-through water system. Twelve juvenile of tiger grouper (23.0 ± 0.1 gram in body weight, which were produced in hatchery, were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. Fish fed by experimental diets twice everyday at satiation level for 13 weeks. Experimental diets were formulated to contain the same level of nutrients (protein, lipid, and energy, except for vitamin C. Graded level of

  11. Spawning aggregations of three protogynous groupers in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuz-Sulub, A; Brulé, T

    2015-01-01

    Spawning aggregations of red hind Epinephelus guttatus, tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were identified at two coral-reef systems: Arrecife Alacranes (emergent bank reef) and Bajos del Norte (submerged bank reef) on the continental shelf of the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche Bank), Mexico. At both reefs, E. guttatus forms large spawning aggregations between February and March. At Bajos del Norte, M. tigris reproduces in a small, low-density aggregation in May, while M. venenosa aggregates at high densities for spawning between March and May. Multi-species use of an aggregation site by E. guttatus and M. venenosa was observed at Bajos del Norte. The identified spawning aggregations are apparently stable in location over time, and all three species were commonly observed to spawn within 1 week following the full moon. Development and survival of the larvae spawned in these aggregations are probably aided by a seasonal (spring-summer) upwelling in the north-east Campeche Bank. A permanent area closure at Bajos del Norte, currently outside any specific fisheries management area or regulations, would provide protection needed for the spawning aggregations of these three species.

  12. Analisa ekonomi usaha pendederan kerapu macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus dan kerapu lumpur (Epinephelus coioides dalam tambak di Kabupaten Bireuen Provinsi Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farok Afero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presented an economic analysis of nursery operation for tiger and green grouper with different production scales. The result highlighted small scale nursery of tiger grouper with a 3 year projected both positive cumulative cash flows and NPV. Small scale of green grouper highlighted both positive cumulative cash flow and NPV, also IRR and B/C higher than the medium and large scale. Medium scale of tiger grouper generated both positive cumulative cash flow and NPV. In addition, medium scale of tiger grouper generated IRR and B/C higher than small and large scale. Medium scale of green grouper generated IRR and B/C higher than large scale. The results of the financial analysis indicated the income of large scale of tiger grouper higher than medium scale, but the ratio benefit of medium scale higher than large scale. Small scale of green grouper indicated ratio benefit higher than medium and large scale. The sensitivity analysis showed decreased survival rate to 60% affects a negative contribution to the NPV, IRR and B/C on a large scale of green grouper. On the other side, small scale of green grouper obtained higher profit ratio despite a decline in survival rate, an increase in seed costs and falling seed prices. This suggests that small scale of green grouper not affected to volatility of the main variable costs.

  13. Monogeneans from Epinephelus chlorostigma (Val.) (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia, with the description of three new species of diplectanids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Henry, Emilie

    2010-10-01

    Gill monogeneans from the brownspotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Val.) collected in deep water off the coral barrier reef of New Caledonia, South Pacific, comprise seven species. These include the ancyrocephalid Haliotrema sp., the capsalid Allobenedenia cf. epinepheli Yamaguti, 1968, and five diplectanids, namely Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1938), reported in a previous paper, P. cyanopodus Sigura & Justine, 2008 and P. podocyanus Sigura & Justine, 2008, two species originally described from E. cyanopodus Richardson, P. stigmosus n. sp., P. exoticoides n. sp. and Diplectanum femineum n. sp. P. stigmosus is characterised by a sclerotised vagina with a straight primary canal, large ovoid primary chamber and spherical secondary chamber. P. exoticoides is a highly aberrant species, with a thick-walled male quadriloculate organ and a discoid sclerotised vagina with an exceptional structure. Interestingly, P. exoticoides resembles P. exoticus Sigura & Justine, 2008, a species from E. cyanopodus, and P. stigmosus resembles P. cyanopodus and P. podocyanus, also both from E. cyanopodus, suggesting close relationships between the diplectanid faunae of these two fish species. D. femineum belongs to a group of diplectanids, provisionally classified as 'Diplectanum' Diesing, 1858, which all share a small funnel-shaped male copulatory organ. In contrast to other members of this group which have no sclerotised vagina, D. femineum has a sclerotised vagina with the same organisation as those of species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958. This suggests that the species of 'Diplectanum' from groupers are closer to Pseudorhabdosynochus than suggested by the structure of the male organs.

  14. Probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 shapes the intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Ling; Xia, Han-Qin; Ye, Yi-Dan; Zou, Wen-Chao; Sun, Yun-Zhang

    2014-09-30

    The health benefits of probiotics are thought to occur, at least in part, through an improved intestinal microbial balance in fish, although the molecular mechanisms whereby probiotics modulate the intestinal microbiota by means of activation of mucosal immunity are rarely explored. In this study, the effects of viable and heat-inactivated probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 on the intestinal dominant microbial community and mucosal immune gene expression were evaluated. The fish were fed for 60 d with 3 different diets: control (without probiotic), and diets T1 and T2 supplemented with 1.0 × 10⁸ cells g⁻¹ viable and heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5, respectively. Upregulated expression of TLR1, TLR2 and IL-8, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the viable probiotic, while elevated expression of TLR2, IL-8 and TGF-β1, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5. The induced activation of intestinal mucosal immunity, especially the enhanced expression of antibacterial epinecidin-1, was consistent with the microbial data showing that several potentially pathogenic bacterial species such as Psychroserpens burtonensis and Pantoea agglomerans were suppressed by both the viable and heat-inactivated probiotic B. pumilus SE5. These results lay the foundation for future studies on the molecular interactions between probiotics, intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in fish.

  15. The ups and downs of coral reef fishes: the genetic characteristics of a formerly severely overfished but currently recovering Nassau grouper fish spawning aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A. M.; Feldheim, K. A.; Nemeth, R.; Kadison, E.; Blondeau, J.; Semmens, B. X.; Shivji, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    The Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus) has sustained large declines across its distribution, including extirpation of many of its fish spawning aggregations (FSAs). Within US Virgin Islands (USVI) waters, Nassau grouper FSAs were overfished until their disappearance in the 1970s and 1980s. In the early 2000s, however, Nassau grouper were found gathering at Grammanik Bank, USVI, a mesophotic coral reef adjacent to one of the extinct aggregation sites, and regulatory protective measures were implemented to protect this fledgling FSA. The population genetic dynamics of this rapid FSA deterioration followed by protection-facilitated, incipient recovery are unknown. We addressed two objectives: (1) we explored which factors (i.e., local vs. external recruitment) might be key in shaping the USVI FSA recovery; and (2) we examined the consequences of severe past overfishing on this FSA's current genetic status. We genotyped individuals (15 microsatellites) from the USVI FSA comprising three successive spawning years (2008-2010), as well as individuals from a much larger, presumably less impacted, Nassau grouper FSA in the Cayman Islands, to assess their comparative population dynamics. No population structure was detected between the USVI and Cayman FSAs ( F ST = -0.0004); however, a temporally waning, genetic bottleneck signal was detected in the USVI FSA. Parentage analysis failed to identify any parent-offspring matches between USVI FSA adults and nearby juveniles, and relatedness analysis showed low levels of genetic relatedness among USVI FSA individuals. Genetic diversity across USVI FSA temporal collections was relatively high, and no marked differences were found between the USVI and Cayman FSAs. These collective results suggest that external recruitment is an important driver of the USVI FSA recovery. Furthermore, despite an apparent genetic bottleneck, the genetic diversity of USVI Nassau grouper has not been severely compromised. Our findings also provide a

  16. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) based identification of genes and expression analysis of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) from Epinephelus bruneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Ju-Sang; Kim, Man-Chul; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus, is an economically important intensively cultured species in Southeast Asia. Despite the insatiable demand its large-scale production has been hindered by problems associated with water quality, nutrition, and diseases especially due to increased rearing density. It is generally accepted that in fish both innate and adaptive immune system provide protection from diseases. In the present study a cDNA library of Streptococcus iniae-challenged kelp grouper was constructed to identify the genes that reveal molecular mechanism, physiological functions, and gene expression in different tissues using expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and RT-PCR strategy. Of a total of 2170 ESTs examined 279 (12.9%) were identified as contig and 860 (39.6%) as singletons. A total of 190 important immune and enzyme related genes (16.7%) were identified in both contig and singletons. The key immune molecules identified comprise complement factors, chemotaxin, chemokine, Fas ligand, ferritins, hepcidin, lysozyme c, MHC, and TLR which are involved in the innate or adaptive immune system. Among the genes a full-length cDNA of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (EbLECT2) with 540 base pair (bp) was identified; it consists of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 17 bp, a 3'-UTR of 76 bp, and a stop codon TAA in 3'-UTR. The EbLECT2 is an important molecule in the innate immunity. It is a multifunctional protein involved in cell growth, differentiation, and autoimmunity. The open reading frame (ORF) of the EbLECT2 encodes with 155 amino acid (aa) residues with a predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point (pI) of 17 kDa and 9, respectively. The close phylogenetic relationship of EbLECT2 shares the highest similarity with the already reported LECT2 from Epinephelus coioides (96%) and Epinephelus akaara (94%). EbLECT2 mRNA was expressed predominantly in liver, spleen, and kidney while the expression was moderate in gills, heart, and muscle in E. bruneus after

  17. Grouper TRIM13 exerts negative regulation of antiviral immune response against nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youhua; Yang, Min; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-08-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins have attracted particular attention to their multiple functions in different biological processes. TRIM13, a member of the TRIM family, is a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase which plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes including cell death, cancer and antiviral immunity. In this study, a TRIM13 homolog from orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides (EcTRIM13) was cloned and characterized. The full-length of EcTRIM13 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 399 amino acids which shared 81% identity with TRIM13 homolog from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Amino acid alignment analysis showed that EcTRIM13 contained conserved RING finger and B-box domain. Expression patterns analysis indicated that EcTRIM13 was abundant in liver, spleen, kidney, intestine and gill. Moreover, the transcript of EcTRIM13 in grouper spleen was differently regulated after injection with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Under fluorescence microscopy, we observed the tubular structure in wild type EcTRIM13 transfected cells, but the RING domain mutant resulted in the fluorescence distribution was changed and the bright punctate fluorescence was evenly situated throughout the cytoplasm, suggesting that the RING domain was essential for its accurate localization. Overexpression of EcTRIM13 in vitro obviously increased the replication of red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), and the enhancing effect of EcTRIM13 on virus replication was affected by the RING domain. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of EcTRIM13 not only negatively regulated the interferon promoter activity induced by interferon regulator factor (IRF) 3, IRF7, and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), but also decreased the expression of several interferon related factors. In addition, the overexpression of EcTRIM13 also differently regulated the transcription of pro

  18. MANAJEMEN PAKAN INDUK KERAPU MACAN, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus UNTUK PENINGKATAN PEMIJAHAN DAN KUALITAS TELUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Setiadharma

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to know the effect of different management in rearing spawning and eggs quality of grouper broodstock, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Twelve fish total length 50.20—82.50 cm and 3.50—12.00 kg in body weight consisted, eight females and four males were reared in three 30 m³ concrete tanks and fed with experimental diet. Two treatments were (A Fed+ (Vitamin E,C, and vitamin mix and (B Feed. The result of the experiment showed that fish in treatment A gave better results in terms of eggs quality, stage of reproduction, and spawning of 11 times in April to November with fecundity of 18,492,000; hatching rate of 75.00%—92.00% and SAI of larvae 3.80—5.68; composed to 7 times of spawn with fecundity of 10,390,000; hatching rate of 50.00%—75.00% and Survival Activity Index of larvae (SAI 0.28—4.90 for treatment B. Gonad of development during the experiment showed egg diameter of 110—520 mm.

  19. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Vibrio harveyi pcFlaA DNA vaccine in Epinephelus awoara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yingxue; SU Yongquan; WANG Shifeng; YAN Qingpi

    2009-01-01

    The FlaA gene from Vibrio harveyi, with a short nucleotide sequence encoding the Flag marker, was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+) (designated as pcFlaA). Ninety grouper (Epinephelus awoara) were separated into three equal size groups. An experimental group was immunized with pcFlaA, Control I group was immunized with the vector pcDNA3.1(+), and Control II group was immunized with PBS. The expression of pcFlaA mRNA and protein was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. We also evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of pcFlaA against V. harveyi by measuring the lymphocyte proliferation response and serum levels of specific antibody and conducting a bacterial challenge test. We successfully transfected the fish muscle with pcFlaA. The pcFlaA mRNA and protein was expressed in the muscle cells for up to one month following injection. The proliferation response of lymphocytes in fish immunized with pcFlaA was significantly higher than in control group II. Furthermore, the immunized fish generated specific antibody. The vaccination also resulted in significantly higher survival during the bacterial challenge test.

  20. Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    This discussion of Costa Rica focuses on: geography, people and history, government, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Costa Rica. In 1985 the population totaled 2.6 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 15.2/1000; life expectancy is 67.5 years for men and 71.9 years for women. Costa Rica, the 2nd smallest Central American country, is located in a narrow strip between Panama and Nicaragua. Costa Ricans are overwhelmingly of European descent. Although preominantly Spanish, there also are many Costa Ricans of German, Dutch, and Swiss origin. The indigenous Indian population numbers about 20,000, 20% fewer than inhabited Costa Rica when the Spanish first settled in 1522. Blacks, descendants of 19th century Jamaican immigrant workers, constitute a significant English-speaking minority of 30,000. Costa Rica is a democratic republic with a strong systems of checks and balances. The president and 57 legislative assembly deputies are elected for 4-year terms. Costa Rica's political system has contrasted with that of its neighbors. The nation has steadily developed and maintained democratic institutions and an orderly, constitutional process of government succession. Costa Rica faces severe challenges to its economic stability, although traditionally it is one of the strongest nations in the region. Increases in government spending in the late 1970s and higher world prices for coffee and other important Costa Rican exports stimulated the economy, creating inflationary pressure. The government is pursuing a course of disciplined management. The country is an outsponken and active member of the international community. The cordial relationship between Costa Rica and the US is based on mutual respect for democratic traditions, common goals, and a relationship free from serious political disagreement.

  1. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild and cultivated giant grouper in the South China Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QING WANG; XIANG WANG; ZHENZHEN XIE; YIQ ILI; LING XIAO; CHENG PENG; HAIFA ZHANG; SHUISHENG LI; YONG ZHANG; HAORAN LIN

    2016-06-01

    The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a coral fish with high commercial value in Southeast Asia. In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the South China Sea. A total of 390 alleles at 11 microsatellite loci were detected in 130 individuals from five different populations. The expected heterozygosity varied from 0.131 to 0.855 with a mean value of 0.623 and the observed heterozygosity varied from 0.145 to 0.869 with a mean value of 0.379. The allelic richness and heterozygosity studies revealed that the genetic diversity of the cultured population was significantly reduced when compared with that of the wild population. The Fis,pairwise Fst values, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), three- dimensional factorial correspondence analysis and structure analysis revealed significant population differentiation between the cultured stocks and the wild populations, among the three cultured populations and between the two wild populations. These differences may be caused by random genetic drift, the effects of artificial selection and founder effects. Our results will be useful in the management of cultured stocks and conservation of wild populations of the giant group

  2. KANIBALISME PADA YUWANA IKAN KERAPU MACAN (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus DALAM KONDISI PEMELIHARAAN SECARA TERKONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Setiadi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Ikan kerapu macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus merupakan ikan yang memiliki nilai ekonomi penting sebagai komoditas ekspor dan telah berhasil dibudidayakan di Indonesia. Kendala yang dihadapi dalam budi daya ikan tersebut yaitu masih tingginya tingkat kanibalisme pada pemeliharaan secara intensif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui frekuensi gigitan, menelan, dan mortalitas pada pemeliharaan yuwana ikan kerapu macan dan upaya pengendaliannya. Penelitian ini terdiri atas dua tahap, yaitu penelitian variasi ukuran yang dipuasakan (Penelitian I dan variasi ukuran dengan kepadatan jembret yang berbeda (Penelitian II terhadap terjadinya kanibalisme, seperti frekuensi gigitan, menelan, dan mortalitas telah dilakukan. Ukuran yuwana kerapu macan yang digunakan sebagai hewan uji terdiri atas tiga ukuran, yaitu ukuran kecil, sedang, dan besar. Hasil penelitian I menunjukkan bahwa ada perbedaan (P<0,0001 di antara perlakuan terhadap frekuensi gigitan, menelan, dan mortalitas. Penelitian II menunjukkan juga adanya perbedaan (P<0,0006 di antara perlakuan terhadap frekuensi gigitan, menelan dan mortalitas. Kepadatan jembret 1.000 individu/L dapat mengurangi kanibalisme. Tiger grouper, E. fusoguttatus is one of the marine finfish species have a high economic value as an export commodity in Indonesia. Mass production of this species has largely been successful in Indonesia. However, cannibalism is a main problem can be reduced mass production during in an intensive culture system. The aim of this experiment is to examine frequency of bitting and swallowing, mortality, and its control. This experiment was focused on size variation and mysid density that affect on frequency of bitting, frequency of swallowing, and mortality. The fry of tiger grouper used in this experiment was consisted of three sizes (small, medium, and big. Two kinds of experiments were set up namely size variation and starvation (experiment I and size variation and mysid density

  3. 石斑鱼β-防御素的酵母表达及其产物抗菌活性分析%THE YEAST EXPRESSION OF GROUPER β-DEFENSIN AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE RECOMBINANT PROTEIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金俊琰; 周莉; 桂建芳

    2011-01-01

    防御素是一类阳离子抗菌肽.研究从石斑鱼垂体SMART cDNA文库中扩增出129 bp石斑鱼β-防御素成熟肽序列,将其克隆到毕赤酵母表达载体pPCIZαA中,构建了石斑鱼β-防御素的真核表达载体,电击转化毕赤酵母GS115.Western Blot分析表明石斑鱼β-防御素在酵母菌中获得了表达.体外抗菌实验表明纯化的重组蛋白具有抑制大肠杆菌以及嗜水气单胞菌的作用,但是对革兰氏阳性菌,如金黄色葡萄球菌和藤黄微球菌的生长没有抑制作用.实验结果表明酵母表达的石斑鱼β-防御素能够特异地抑制革兰氏阴性菌的生长.%Defensin, a small cationic peptide, is an antimicrobial peptide, exhibit broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. They spread widely in plants, invertebrate and vertebrate animals, which can rapidly kill bacteria, fungi and viruses etc. Bacteria and viruses limited the production of grouper (Epinephelus coioides). In this study, we cloned grouper P-defensin open reading frame, to express in the Pichia pastoris, and detect the bioactive of recombinant protein against bacteria. First, grouper P-defensin cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from pituitary cDNA library of a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper. The 129 bp DNA fragment encoding mature grouper P-defensin peptide was subcloned into vector PMD18-T, then inserted into the yeast expression vector pPClZaA and transfected into Pichia pastoris GS115 expression host by electroporation. The genome of Pichia pastoris clone was extracted as template for screened the positive clone by using PCR. After grouper p-defensin was secreted by GS 115 by small-scale culture, the recombinant grouper P-defensin was induced by methanol for large scale. The supernatant was collected in 24h, 48h and 72h post induction for the recombinant protein detection. Subsequently, the grouper p-defensin peptide was detected in the supernatant of transfected yeast by Western Blot

  4. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-25

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.

  5. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid Epinephelus moara♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus♂, and phylogenetic analysis in subfamily epinephelinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengtao; Wei, Min; Zhu, Ying; Guo, Hua; Chen, Songlin; Yang, Guanpin

    2017-06-01

    This study presents the complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid Epinephelus moara♀× Epinephelus lanceolatus♂. The genome is 16886 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a light-strand replication origin and a control region. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of 13 conserved protein-coding genes using the maximum likelihood method indicated that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited. This study presents genomic data for studying phylogenetic relationships and breeding of hybrid Epinephelinae.

  6. Fish and fisher behaviour influence the vulnerability of groupers (Epinephelidae) to fishing at a multispecies spawning aggregation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Graham, N. A. J.; Cinner, J. E.; Almany, G. R.; Waldie, P.

    2015-06-01

    Targeted fishing of spawning aggregations is a major contributor to extinction risk in numerous species of grouper (Epinephelidae). Marine reserves are often used to protect spawning aggregation sites, including multispecies sites shared by several species of grouper. However, marine reserves may be biologically, socioeconomically or culturally unviable in some fisheries, and alternative management actions must be explored. Implementing effective management actions that control rather than prohibit fishing requires an improved understanding of how species vary in their vulnerability to fishing gears and respond to changes in fishing effort. To estimate sources of variability in vulnerability to fishing (i.e. catchability), catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and other fisheries data were collected in parallel with underwater visual census-derived estimates of aggregation size at a multispecies spawning site of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and E. polyphekadion. Despite having similar abundances, E. polyphekadion was eightfold more vulnerable to capture by hook-and-line gear, clearly outcompeting its congener for bait. Contrasting with the common assumption of a proportional relationship, the CPUE of both species was unrelated to the size of their respective aggregations. Moreover, the CPUE of each species was unrelated to hook size and depth fished. However, E. polyphekadion CPUE declined as the density of fishing effort increased at the site, with gear saturation identified as the likely mechanism for this effect. E. fuscoguttatus CPUE was negatively related to the size of aggregations formed by its congener, stemming from the superior competitiveness and therefore higher selectivity of the gear for E. polyphekadion. Our findings demonstrate that CPUE is an unreliable indicator of spawning aggregation status. The other sources of variation in CPUE that we identify have implications for gear-based management, which must be based on understanding of gear selectivity for

  7. 77 FR 42688 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Snapper-Grouper Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... 17B to the FMP (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010). Since then, golden tilefish have been assessed... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-BC03 Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Snapper-Grouper Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine...

  8. Analisa ekonomi usaha pendederan kerapu macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus dan kerapu lumpur (Epinephelus coioides dalam tambak di Kabupaten Bireuen Provinsi Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farok Afero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study presented an economic analysis of nursery operation for tiger and green grouper with different production scales. The result highlighted small scale nursery of tiger grouper with a 3 year projected both positive cumulative cash flows and NPV. Small scale of green grouper highlighted both positive cumulative cash flow and NPV, also IRR and B/C higher than the medium and large scale. Medium scale of tiger grouper generated both positive cumulative cash flow and NPV. In addition, medium scale of tiger grouper generated IRR and B/C higher than small and large scale. Medium scale of green grouper generated IRR and B/C higher than large scale. The results of the financial analysis indicated the income of large scale of tiger grouper higher than medium scale, but the ratio benefit of medium scale higher than large scale. Small scale of green grouper indicated ratio benefit higher than medium and large scale. The sensitivity analysis showed decreased survival rate to 60% affects a negative contribution to the NPV, IRR and B/C on a large scale of green grouper. On the other side, small scale of green grouper obtained higher profit ratio despite a decline in survival rate, an increase in seed costs and falling seed prices. This suggests that small scale of green grouper not affected to volatility of the main variable costs. Keywords: Nursery; tiger grouper; green grouper; production scale Abstrak. Penelitian ini menyajikan analisa ekonomi pendederan kerapu macan dan lumpur dengan skala produksi yang berbeda. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa budidaya kerapu macan dalam skala kecil, dengan proyeksi 3 tahun menghasilkan arus kas kumulatif dan NPV positif. Sedangkan pendederan kerapu lumpur skala kecil menunjukkan arus kas kumulatif dan NPV positif, IRR dan B/C yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan pendederan skala menengah dan besar. Pendederan kerapu macan skala menengah menghasilkan aliran kas dan NPV positif. Selain itu, pendederan kerapu

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of the coat protein gene of nervous necrosis virus in Epinephelus coioides%斜带石斑神经坏死病毒外壳蛋白基因克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓艳; 黄剑南; 吕玲; 翁少萍; 何建国

    2004-01-01

    从患病毒性神经坏死病的斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioids)的头部提取总RNA,根据已发表的神经坏死病毒外壳蛋白基因设计引物进行RT-PCR扩增,得到预期大小的基因片段.将此基因片段转入pET载体进行序列测定和分析,结果表明:编码斜带石斑神经坏死病毒(Orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus,OGNNV)外壳蛋白基因的阅读框核苷酸数为1017bp,编码338个氨基酸;基因的核苷酸序列与野田村病毒科(Nodaviridae)的几种病毒的外壳蛋白基因序列比较结果显示,该病毒与β野田村病毒属(Betanodavirus)中的赤点石斑神经坏死病毒(red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus,RGNNV)的同源性最高(99%),说明该病毒株是RGNNV血清型的成员.

  10. Application of the minute monogonont rotifer proales similis de Beauchamp in larval rearing of seven-band grouper epinephelus septemfasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In comparison to the rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis, the euryhaline rotifer Proales similis has a much smaller body size (83μm in length and 40μm in width), and it may be applicable as live food for rearing marine fish larvae with a very small mouth size. A mass culture technique of P. similis was recently established, and it has already been confirmed that marine fish larvae could ingest P. similis. In the present study, we further investigated the use of P. similis as an initial food by o...

  11. The historical biogeography of groupers: Clade diversification patterns and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ka Yan; Craig, Matthew Thomas; Choat, John Howard; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Groupers (family Epinephelidae) are a clade of species-rich, biologically diverse reef fishes. Given their ecological variability and widespread distribution across ocean basins, it is important to scrutinize their evolutionary history that underlies present day distributions. This study investigated the patterns and processes by which grouper biodiversity has been generated and what factors have influenced their present day distributions. We reconstructed a robust, time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of Epinephelidae with comprehensive (∼87%) species sampling, whereby diversification rates were estimated and ancestral ranges were reconstructed. Our results indicate that groupers originated in what is now the East Atlantic during the mid-Eocene and diverged successively to form six strongly supported main clades. These clades differ in age (late Oligocene to mid-Miocene), geographic origin (West Atlantic to West Indo-Pacific) and temporal-spatial diversification pattern, ranging from constant rates of diversification to episodes of rapid radiation. Overall, divergence within certain biogeographic regions was most prevalent in groupers, while vicariant divergences were more common in Tropical Atlantic and East Pacific groupers. Our findings reveal that both biological and geographical factors have driven grouper diversification. They also underscore the importance of scrutinizing group-specific patterns to better understand reef fish evolution.

  12. 75 FR 62762 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Assessment of Snapper Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Economic Assessment of Snapper Grouper Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean AGENCY: National Oceanic and... demographic, cultural, economic, and social information about the snapper-grouper fisheries in the...

  13. Epinecidin-1, an antimicrobial peptide from fish (Epinephelus coioides) which has an antitumor effect like lytic peptides in human fibrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Ju; Chien, Yi-Lun; Pan, Chia-Yu; Lin, Tai-Lang; Chen, Jyh-Yih; Chiu, Shu-Jun; Hui, Cho-Fat

    2009-02-01

    Epinecidin-1, a synthetic 21-mer antimicrobial peptide originally identified from grouper (Epinephelus coioides), specifically exhibited high antimicrobial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the current study we report on the in vitro cytotoxicity of the peptide, an important factor before it can be considered for further applications in cancer therapy. The cytotoxicity of epinecidin-1 was investigated against several cancer cells (A549, HA59T/VGH, HeLa, HepG2, HT1080, RAW264.7, and U937) and normal cells (AML-12, NIH3T3, and WS-1) with the MTT assay, and the inhibition of cancer cell growth was confirmed by a soft agar assay and scanning electron microscopy. However, cell variations were detected with AO/EtBr staining, while apoptosis and necrosis gene expressions in HT1080 cells after treatment with the epinecidin-1 peptide and Nec-1 showed that epinecidin-1 had an anti-necrosis function in HT1080 cells. The data presented here indicate that epinecidin-1 has in vitro antitumor activity against the HT1080 cell line, and functions like lytic peptides. In addition, our results suggest that epinecidin-1 may prove to be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for human fibrosarcoma cells in the future.

  14. PERKEMBANGAN AWAL LARVA KERAPU KERTANG (Epinephelus lanceolatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2016-11-01

    conducted in 500 L tank with recirculation (close system facilities. Morphological data showed that the total length of larvae on D-1 was 2.48 mm, became 3.17 mm on D-8 and grew faster to reach 10.75 mm on D-19. The volume of yolk on D-1 was 150.3 x 10-4 mm3 and was absorbed 42,61% on D-3 and finished on D-4. Oil globule on D-1 was 41.9 x 10-4 mm3 and still remained 0.34 x 10-4 mm3 on D-6. The mouth width of larval was 200  μm on D-2 and able to catch and feed rotifer in line with eye pigmentation where started from D-2 (in the afternoon and became completed on D-3 early morning. The flexion point was on D-8 with faster growth with curve at y= 0.6747x–2.5508 afterward. Based on this result, there are some key points, first feeding for king grouper larvae might start on late D-2, and on D-8 larval feed should be changed with bigger size and more nutritious feed.

  15. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luffel, Mark [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Gurung, Topraj [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rossignac, Jarek [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU)

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  16. 两种杂交石斑鱼子一代杂种优势的微卫星标记分析%SSR analysis of the heterosis in the two grouper hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翰林; 张勇; 齐鑫; 张海发; 张磊; 王乐; 蒙子宁; 刘晓春; 林浩然

    2012-01-01

    使用6对微卫星引物对两种杂交子一代(青龙斑和虎龙斑)及其亲本(斜带石斑鱼、棕点石斑鱼和鞍带石斑鱼)共5个群体进行微卫星分析,计算等位基因频率、有效等位基因数、基因杂合度、多态信息含量、相似指数和Nei氏遗传距离.结果显示,在5种石斑鱼中,棕点石斑鱼的平均有效等位基因数最大(6.849 3),最小的是鞍带石斑鱼(2.608 6).6对微卫星引物在这5个群体中具有丰富的多态性,平均多态信息含量(PIC)分别为0.6667、0.751 3、0.441 9、0.6640、0.5426.在平均观测杂合度(Ho)中,虎龙斑和青龙斑的最高均为0.9400,鞍带石斑鱼的最低为0.508 3.遗传距离和遗传相似率结果显示,青龙斑和虎龙斑均与父本鞍带石斑鱼的亲缘关系较近.杂交子一代群体的等位基因基本来自父母本群体双方,可推断杂交子一代的遗传物质来自父母双方,属两性融合生殖,是真正意义上的杂交种.杂交后代的遗传变异水平明显增强,这是杂种优势得以形成的重要遗传物质基础.%The marine grouper species are considered high value food fish in Southeast Asia. Aimed to get some new types of grouper, we have successfully cross-bred three species of grouper. The hybrid grouper was produced by fertilising the eggs of the orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides) , tiger grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) with the sperm of the giant grouper (E. lanceolatus) through the in vitro fertilisation technique. The hybrids combine morphological features of the two parent species. And they are healthy and growing well in sea cages and the finding will be good news for the aquaculture industry. The genetic diversity among orange-spotted grouper, tiger grouper, giant grouper and their hybrid F, generation population(Qinglong grouper and Hulong grouper) were tested by 6 microsatellite loci. The gene frequency, effective number of alleles(Ae), observed heterozygosity (Ho) .polymorphism

  17. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chun Chuang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, such as pleurocidin (PLE, play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH. In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLG polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles, 3.21–6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%–83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05, nested design long-lasting GAPDH-specific immunity (serum titers and lymphocyte proliferation than PLG-encapsulated rGAPDH (PLG-rGAPDH microparticles. After an experimental challenge of V. harveyi, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05, chi-square test than that induced by PLG-rGAPDH microparticles (67%. In conclusion, PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles.

  18. Immune responses and immune-related gene expression profile in orange-spotted grouper after immunization with Cryptocaryon irritans vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Xue-Ming; Zhang, Tuan-Wei; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, An-Xing

    2013-03-01

    In order to elucidate the immune-protective mechanisms of inactivated Cryptocaryon irritans vaccine, different doses of C. irritans theronts were used to immunize orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). We measured serum immobilization titer, blood leukocyte respiratory burst activity, serum alternative complement activity, and serum lysozyme activity weekly. In addition, the expression levels of immune-related genes such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), major histocompatibility complexes I and II (MHC I and II), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were determined in spleen and gills. The results showed that the immobilization titer, respiratory burst activity, and alternative complement activity of immunized fish were significantly increased, and the levels of the last two immune parameters in the high-dose vaccine group were significantly higher than in the low-dose vaccine group. Serum lysozyme activity in the high-dose vaccine group was significantly higher than in the PBS control group. Vaccination also regulated host immune-related gene expression. For example, at 2- and 3- weeks post immunization, IL-1β expression in the high-dose vaccine group spleen was significantly increased. At 4-weeks post immunization, the fish were challenged with a lethal dose of parasite, and the survival rates of high-dose vaccine group, low-dose vaccine group, PBS control group, and adjuvant control group were 80%, 40%, 0%, and 10% respectively. These results demonstrate that inactivated C. irritans vaccination improves specific and nonspecific immune responses in fish, enhancing their anti-parasite ability. These effects are vaccine antigen dose-dependent.

  19. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Werner Hackradt

    Full Text Available Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  20. Analysis of Genetic Variability of mtDNA CO I Genes between two grouper hybrids and their parents%两种杂交石斑鱼子一代及其亲本的线粒体COⅠ基因遗传变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翰林; 杨森; 高川; 张磊; 张海发; 李水生; 张勇; 蒙子宁; 刘晓春; 林浩然

    2012-01-01

    对两种杂交石斑鱼子一代(青龙斑和虎龙斑)及其亲本(斜带石斑鱼、棕点石斑鱼和鞍带石斑鱼)的线粒体DNA细胞色素氧化酶Ⅰ(COⅠ)基因序列进行了测序分析。在15个样本中,同源序列片段(1551bp)中共检测到9个单倍型和249个核苷酸多态位点。序列差异分析和遗传距离比较结果显示,核苷酸序列同源性在88.1%-100%之间,无明显遗传分化。虎龙斑的2个COⅠ基因单倍型与母本棕点石斑鱼单倍型的同源性为99%和100%,而与父本鞍带石斑鱼的同源性均为88.1%。青龙斑的2个单倍型与母本斜带石斑鱼的3个单倍型的同源性在99.7%-100%之间,而与父本鞍带石斑鱼的同源性分别为89.3%和89.4%,结果表明两种杂交子一代在线粒体DNACOⅠ基因上严格遵循母性遗传规律。%In order to identify the phylogenetic relationship among two grouper hybrids ( Qinglong grouper and Hulong grouper) and their parents ( Epinephelus coioides 9, Epinephelus coioides ♀ and E. lanceolatus ♂ ), their mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO I ) gene fragments were amplified by PCR, and the 1551 base-pair nucleotide sequences of CO I were examined. The results show that all 15 sequences are grouped into 9 haplotypes and 249 nucleotide polymorphic loci in CO I gene fragments. Sequence divergences and genetic distance analysis showed all the groupers shared 88.1% to 100% similarities in nucleotide sequence, indicating there is no significant genetic difference among these groupers. The two CO I haplotypes of Hulong grouper showed 99% and 100% similarities with the haplotype of the female parent E. fuscoguttatus, respectively, but only 88.1% similarity with the male parent E. lanceolatus. The two CO I haplotypes in Qinglong grouper had similarities of 99.7% to 100% with the three haplotypes of the female parent E. coioides, and only of 89.3% and 89.4% with the male

  1. ASPECTS OF LEOPARD CORAL GROUPER (Plectropomus leopardus REPRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Andamari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Leopard coral grouper, Plectropomus leopardus is one of the most economically important finfish fish in Indonesia and the demand for the grouper is rapidly increasing in Asia and the Pacific. Grouper exports from Bali were 1,613 mt in 2001, 2,082 mt in 2002 and 2,861 mt in 2003. Understanding the reproductive biology of fishes is an important component in developing mariculture and in the management of capture fisheries. This study reports on the reproductive biology of 86 coral groupers collected from various locations in Indonesia. The length and weight of these fish were recorded and related to gonad development. There was a strong relationship between length and weight; weight being proportional to the length raised to the power (b value 3.2. As the value of b was greater than 3, this suggests that growth is allometric. Histological analysis 73% of the fish were immature, 19% were in transition from females to males, only 4% were male, and only 2 fish (2% had mature gonads: these were female. The sex of 2 fish could not be determined. From these data it can be seen that the leopard coralgrouper has asynchronous gonad development. The two fish that were mature contained 343,980 and 429,259 oocytes and three distinct sizes of oocytes could be found. This suggests that the grouper is a multiple spawner. If fish are required for brood stock, this study has shown that only those with a length greater than 35 cm in standard length should be taken from the wild.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF CRUDE RECOMBINANT VIRAL PROTEIN VACCINES AGAINST GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV ON HUMPBACK GROUPER (Cromileptes altivelis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Mahardika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Megalocytivirus cause serious mass mortality in marine fish in South East Asian countries. The aim of this study was to produce recombinant of GSDIV capsid protein and its protection to humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis against grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV. A major capsid protein (MCP was selected for use as a crude subunit vaccines. This gene target (MCP was inserted to the protein expression system vector of pET SUMO and cloned in cells bacteria Escherichia coli strain BL-21. The MCP was succeded to be induced using 1 mM of IPTG. Results of protein analysis using MALDI TOF-TOF indicated that the MCP has measurement of 49.566 kDa with PI index of 6.00, and contained 453 amino acids. BLAST homology analysis exhibited that the amino acid sequence of the MCP showed high similarity with MCP of Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV. E. coli expressing MCP protein was inactivated using 0.03% formalin overnight and washed using PBS. The inactivated E. coli as a crude subunit vaccine was then injected intramuscularly to humpback grouper juveniles. Subsequently, the juveniles were challenged tested with GSDIV. The juveniles vaccinated with the MCP recombinant bacteria showed significantly higher survival rates than control those vaccinated with PBS. Thus, the MCP fusion protein is considered as a potential vaccine against GSDIV infections in grouper.

  3. Spotlight: Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    3.5 million people lived in Costa Rica as of mid-1997. There were 24 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, respectively, contributing to the annual natural increase rate of 2.0%. Each woman in Costa Rica bears an average of 2.8 children during her reproductive lifespan and men and women were expected to live for 73 and 78 years, respectively. Costa Rica's low infant mortality rate and high literacy and life expectancy rates set it apart from the rest of Central America. Costa Rica is also the only country in the region which maintains no standing army. About 96% of the population is White or Mestizo, 3% is Black, and 1% is indigenous Indian. More than half of the country lives in San Jose and its metropolitan area, 6% of the country's total land area. Unemployment has run near 5% over the past 2 years, but much of the labor force is underemployed. Costa Rica's economy depends upon tourism and agricultural exports such as coffee, beef, and bananas. A large Intel factory opened in 1997. The government and Costa Rican environmentalists are planning a joint campaign to reconvert 80% of Costa Rica's pasture back to forest and tree crops. About 20% of the government's budget is spent upon education and the 93% literacy rate is the highest in the region. Government health services provide low-cost contraceptives to more than 75% of users and 75% of women use some form of family planning.

  4. 75 FR 10693 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic (FMP). The FMP was prepared by...

  5. 75 FR 51001 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper and Grouper Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., and South Atlantic; Snapper and Grouper Off the Southern Atlantic States AGENCY: National Marine... catch and discard mortality within the South Atlantic commercial hook-and-line snapper-grouper fishery... CFR 622 implementing the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South...

  6. 75 FR 18427 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY...-5308, e-mail Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Fishery of...

  7. 77 FR 65356 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ..., Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic (Amendment 18B) for review, approval... endorsement program for the commercial golden tilefish component of the snapper- grouper fishery;...

  8. 77 FR 8749 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY...-824- 5305, email: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper...

  9. 77 FR 53776 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Accountability Measures and Commercial Closures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Region FMP published March 16, 2010 (77 FR 15916). In part, the final rule for the Comprehensive ACL... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC132 Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Accountability Measures and Commercial Closures for Two Snapper-Grouper...

  10. Supplementation of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Feed Induced Non-Specific Immune Response of Tiger Grouper (SUPLEMENTASI BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT PADA PAKAN MERANGSANG TANGGAP KEBAL NON SPESIFIK IKAN KERAPU MACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursyirwani .

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have an ability to enhance innate responses in fish. The aim of this studywas to study the effect of three LAB isolates (Kerapu Situbondo Usus: KSBU 12C, KSBU 5Da, and KSBU9 on non-specific immune responses of tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. The fish were fed dietsupplemented with each of the bacterial isolates at final concentration of 108 CFU mL-1 twice every day.The haematology parameters (haematocrit, leucocyte count, heterophils/neutrophils, monocytes,lymphocytes, phagocytic activity and total LAB were measured every seven days. After 28 days, the fishwere challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus. During the feeding period, the haematocrit values of fish fed withLAB isolates were higher than those of control group, and values ranged from 24.67±8.33 % to 40.50±7.09%. The leucocyte counts increased, mainly after being challenged with V. alginolyticus, and the valuesranged from 40.33 ±6.03 × 1000 cell mL-1 to 139.33±15.57 × 1000 cell mL-1. With the exception oflymphocytes, proportion of heterophils and monocytes, and phagocytic activity were higher in fish fed withLAB isolates than those of control. The presence of LAB in the gastrointestinal tract of fish fed with LABresulted in higher haematology parameters and phagocytic activity in comparison to fish fed control diet.In conclusion, supplementation of LAB in diet could enhance non-specific immune response of tiger grouper.

  11. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  12. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  13. DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV INFECTED HUMPBACK GROUPER Cromileptes altivelis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Mastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Megalocytivirus infection has been known to produce formation of inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs on internals organs of fish predominantly on spleen and kidney. Megalocytivirus that infected grouper is known as Grouper Sleepy Disease Iridovirus (GSDIV. This study was conducted to answer the effect of entry sites of GSDIV on distribution of enlarged cells formed on the internal organs of humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis. Enlarged cells were observed histologically under the light microscope on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, intestine, muscle and brain. Entry sites were designated to intramuscularly injection, intraperitoneally injection, dipped gill and inoculum added feed. Enlarged cells were formed on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, muscle, except on intestine and brain. All the entry sites resulted in formation of enlarged cells on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, heart. Spleen and head kidney were the most frequent observed organ. These results suggested that distribution of enlarged cells were not affected by the entry site of GSDIV.

  14. Costa Rica. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C; Adams, J

    1985-05-01

    Costa Rica's demographic and economic characteristics are highlighted. Costa Rica's demographic situation is unique in certain respects. Between the late 1950s and the late 1970s, the total fertility rate declined from about 7 to 4 and then stabilized instead of continuing to decline to 2 as expected. This is especially surprising since the level of contraceptive use is similar to that of most European countries. Approximately 2/3 of all couples practice contraception. It is possible that the rate will slowly decline to the expected level, but a delayed decline will ultimately produce a much larger population than initially expected. The demographic situation in Costa Rica is being carefully monitored for insights which might be useful in predicting future fertility patterns in other developing countries. The government of Costa Rica recognizes that family planning is a necessary component of maternal and child health care; however, most family planning services are provided by private organizations. In 1982, population size was 2.6 million, the crude birth rate was 30.7, the crude death rate was 3.9, infant mortality was 19.3, and the rate of natural increase was 2.7%. The population is predominantly Spanish, and the indigenous population totals only 20,000. 48% of the population is urban. Costa Rica has a relatively stable deomocratic government. It relationshiops with other countries are generally peaceful, but tensions between Nicaragua and Costa Rica are increasing. The country's economic situation deteriorated in recent years due primarily to a decline in the price of coffee, the country's principle export commodity. The trade deficit increased markedly, unemployment increased, and income fell sharply. The economic slowdown is now showing signs of a reversal. In 1983 exports, consisting primarily of coffee, bananas, beef, sugar, cane and cacao, totalled US$871 million, and imports, consisting mainly of manufactured goods and equipment, chemicals, fuel, food

  15. Mario Costa tarantino napoletano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular and the aristocr......Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular...

  16. 臭氧对斜带石斑鱼胚胎发育和初孵仔鱼的毒性效应%The toxic effects of ozone on the embryonic development and post-embryonic larvae of Epinephelus coioide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锦滨; 钟声平; 张钰霆; 郭书林; 陈信忠; 毛勇; 苏永全; 王军

    2014-01-01

    Epinephelus coioide is one of the most important seawater fish that cultured in China. In recent years, with the breakthrough of grouper artificial seedling rearing, the farming scale of grouper has expanded rapidly, and the gross of cultured grouper reached 59 534 tons in 2011. The effective prevention and control of virus, vibrio, and the effective treatment for harmful water quality factors is the key link in grouper artificial seedling rearing. In traditional pond farming mode, strong oxidizers, such as chloride, iodine and potassium permanganate, have played a significant role in disease prevention and water treatment. In recent years, flatfish industrial farming system, as a mature mode, has been driving the technology intergration of grouper recirculating aquiculture system. The solid oxidants mentioned above were greatly limited in the advanced farming mode, while ozone, a kind of gas disinfectant, not only can remove toxic substance such as nitrite, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia nitrogen and killed pathogenic bacteria effectively, but also will not cause secondary pollution, has been widely applied in water treatment of recirculating aquiculture system in the European Union, the United States, Japan and other developed countries. Although the efficiency and stability of ozone disinfection was widely recognized, its security, especially its toxic effects on the cultured livestock, cannot be ignored. In order to evaluate the ozone disinfection and the potential toxicity of ozone to E. coioide, the efficiency of ozone at two kind of concentration (0.05 mg/L and 0.30 mg/L) on water treatment, such as removing vibrio and nitrite, was as-sessed. Furthermore, using the zygote of E. coioide as material, the toxic effects of ozone on the embryonic develop-ment and post-embryonic larvae were discussed. Our results demonstrated that the efficiency of ozone on water treat-ment was favorable, when the concentration of ozone reached 0.30 mg/L, the removal rate of nitrite

  17. Some helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravec, F.; Vidal-Martínez, V.M.; Aguirre-Macedo, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Moravec, F., V.M. Vidal-Martinez & M.L. Aguirre-Macedo, 1995. Some helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 72: 55-68. One nematode species, Hysterothylacium eurycheilum, the acanthocephalan Gorgorhynchus

  18. Expression and Purification of Major Capsid Protein of Orange-spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus%斜带石斑鱼神经坏死病毒主衣壳蛋白的原核表达与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓艳; 翁少萍; 殷志新; 何建国

    2005-01-01

    将含有斜带石斑鱼Epinephelus coioides神经坏死病毒(orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus,OGNNV)主衣壳蛋白(major capsid protein, MCP)基因的重组表达质粒载体pET32a-MCP转化到大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中进行融合表达,经SDS-PAGE分析和Western-blot鉴定,证实了重组大肠杆菌融合表达了斜带石斑鱼神经坏死病毒主衣壳蛋白.表达的融合蛋白主要以不可溶的包涵体形式存在,提取的包涵体中融合蛋白含量占60%以上,经柱层析纯化蛋白,纯化度达90%以上.

  19. Variación espacial de larvas de lutjánidos y serránidos en la Plataforma de Yucatán Spatial variation of Snapper and Grouper larvae in Yucatan Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Falfán-Vázquez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar la abundancia y distribución de los serránidos y lutjánidos en la Península de Yucatán. Se analizaron 45 muestras de ictioplancton colectadas durante una campaña oceanográfica (Yucatán03-A en el mes de septiembre del 2003, los arrastres fueron superficiales con una red tipo Bongo. Un total de 3,963 organismos fueron colectados, pertenecientes a 50 familias, tres (Carangidae, Gobiidae y Clupeidae representaron más del 50% de la densidad. Las familias Lutjanidae y Serranidae estuvieron dentro de las nueve más abundantes con una densidad total de 713.8 ±60 org./100 m³. Serranidae estuvo representada por especies de los géneros Anthias, Diplectrum, Liopropoma, Serranus y Epinephelus fulvus, mientras que Lutjanidae por Lutjanus analis, L. campechanus, L. griseus y L. synagris. La especie con mayor densidad fue L. synagris, representando el 28.9% del material revisado, seguida de E. fulvus, L. analis y L. campechanus. El análisis de agrupación de las estaciones permitió identificar tres zonas oceanográficas a nivel horizontal: Oeste, Centro y Surgencia (en el este. Las larvas de serránidos se distribuyeron principalmente en la zona Centro, mientras que las de los lutjánidos en el este de la plataforma de Yucatán, sugiriéndose que los desoves de peces de estas familias ocurren en distintas zonas de la plataforma, evitando así la competencia por el alimento en sus primeras etapas larvarias. La corriente de Yucatán provoca un transporte de Ekman que produce un afloramiento que genera un incremento de fitoplancton, zooplancton e ictioplancton que favorece el reclutamiento de los peces, un rápido crecimiento y disminución de su estadio larval.The objective was to analyze the abundance and distribution of snappers and groupers in the Yucatan shelf. We analyzed forty-five samples of ichthyoplankton that were taken from oceanographic research (Yucatan03-A during September 2003. Superficial tows were made with

  20. Peperitas en Costa Rica Costa Rican peperites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe petrográfica y genéticamente, una serie de hallazgos de peperitas como ejemplos de coexistencia espacial y temporal del magmatismo con la sedimentación en Costa Rica. Los casos se presentan en complejos ígneos básicos (ofiolitas variando desde mezclas incompletas (megabloques de radiolaritas con diabasas en el Complejo de Nicoya hasta mezclas completas en varios grados de calizas pelágicas del Maastrictiano-Paleoceno (Formación Golfito o del Paleoceno con basaltos (Subcomplejo Quepos o Formación Tulín para dar peperitas brechoides y bulbosas. Dentro del arco Oligo-Mioceno, se tienen ejemplos a lo largo de la cordillera de Talamanca y sus estribaciones, así como en las llanuras de Sarapiquí, representados por peperitas brechoides, fluidales y bulbosas en cuerpos de lava latiandesíticos (Formación Pacacua o chimeneas peperíticas brechoides en ignimbritas (Miembro Mata de Limón, o posibles peperitas brechoides en los depósitos de flujos de lava del prospecto minero de Crucitas (Formación Cureña, o simples posibles peperitas brechoides en flujos de lava andesíticas (Formación Pacacua en Talamanca, o como brechas hidroclásticas con fragmentos de composición dacítica de Carbonal en Guanacaste, justamente entre las playas Cabuyal y Naranjo. Todas ellas serían los equivalentes proximales del vulcanismo explosivo, efusivo y subvolcánico (domos endógenos y criptodomos y su concomitancia con la sedimentación fluvial. En el Cuaternario, un ejemplo se da en la base de la Formación Tiribí al contacto con el lacustre de Palmares. Se incluyen en el presente trabajo, además, casos posibles o potenciales. Se espera que la descripción e interpretación de este tipo de rocas ayude a su identificación en otras regiones de Costa Rica y Centroamérica en general, así como una fuente potencial para la prospección de metales valiosos.This paper describes petrographically and genetically, a number of

  1. The Importance of Mathematical Models to Scientific Discovery: A Case Study on the Feeding Mechanism of the Goliath Grouper "Epinephelus itajara"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Daniel; Jones, Leslie; Helminski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The use of collaborative problem solving within mathematics education is imperative in this day and age of integrative science. The formation of interdisciplinary teams of mathematicians and scientists to investigate crucial problems is on the rise, as greater insight can be gained from an interdisciplinary perspective. Mathematical modelling, in…

  2. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of complement component C8 beta in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengwei; Xie, Fuxing; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-03-10

    Complement component C8 beta was a key molecule in the complement system, mediating the MAC formation and the bacterial lysis. In this study, the full-length C8 beta (EcC8 beta) was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 25 bp, an ORF of 1764 bp and a 3'UTR of 198 bp. The EcC8 beta gene encoded a protein of 587 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 65.87 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.35. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that EcC8 beta consisted of the conserved residues and the domains known to be critical for C8 beta function. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EcC8 beta transcript was expressed in all the examined tissues, while the strong expression was observed in the liver. In addition, complement C3 was the central molecule in the complement system, converging the upstream complement signals and mediating the MAC assembly pathway, while C8 beta was indispensable for active MAC formation. Following the Vibrio challenge, the increased expression of EcC3 transcript and EcC8 beta transcript was observed in the liver and kidney. These results indicated that EcC8 beta may be an important immune-related gene, playing an important role in the immune defense against the bacterial infection via the complement pathway.

  3. Differential involvement of signaling pathways in the regulation of growth hormone release by somatostatin and growth hormone-releasing hormone in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Qin, Chaobin; Zhang, Cong; Jia, Jirong; Sun, Caiyun; Li, Wensheng

    2014-02-15

    Somatostatin is the most effective inhibitor of GH release, and GHRH was recently identified as one of the primary GH-releasing factors in teleosts. In this study, we analyzed the possible intracellular transduction pathways that are involved in the mechanisms induced by SRIF and GHRH to regulate GH release. Using a pharmacological approach, the blockade of the PLC/IP/PKC pathway reversed the SRIF-induced inhibition of GH release but did not affect the GHRH-induced stimulation of GH release. Furthermore, SRIF reduced the GH release induced by two PKC activators. Inhibitors of the AC/cAMP/PKA pathway reversed both the SRIF- and GHRH-induced effects on GH release. Moreover, the GH release evoked by forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP were completely abolished by SRIF. The blockade of the NOS/NO pathway attenuated the GHRH-induced GH release but had minimal effects on the inhibitory actions of SRIF. In addition, inhibitors of the sGC/cGMP pathway did not modify the SRIF- or GHRH-induced regulation of GH release. Taken together, these findings indicate that the SRIF-induced inhibition of GH release is mediated by both the PLC/IP/PKC and the AC/cAMP/PKA pathways and not by the NOS/NO/sGC/cGMP pathway. In contrast, the GHRH-induced stimulation of GH secretion is mediated by both the AC/cAMP/PKA and the NOS/NO pathways and is independent of the sGC/cGMP pathway and the PLC/IP/PKC system.

  4. A study on the karyotype, Ag-NORs and C-banding in Epinephelus bleekeri%布氏石斑鱼的染色体核型、银染和C-带

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡岩; 周永灿; 谢瑞敏; 谢珍玉; 冯永勤; 王世锋

    2012-01-01

    Epinephelus bleekeri is important in commercial fisheries of tropical and subtropical seas. It has been broadly cultured in many Asian countries, such as China, Japan, Vietnam and Malaysia.Despite many studies on its culture techniques, the detailed cytogenetic data of this species is still lacking. To add E. bleekeri cytogenetic data and lay the foundation for grouper chromosome evolution and breeding studies, the karyotype of E. bleekeri was studied in this paper using multiple methods, including Giemsa staining, Ag-NORs and C-banding. The following results were obtained: E. bleekeri had a diploid chromosome number of 48 and its karyotype formula was 48t, NF=48, and sex chromosome was not observed; the constitutive heterochromatin was observed at the centromeric region on most chromosomes; but only a single pair of NORs was detected at the paracentromeric region of chromosome pair No.24. Based upon above results, it is concluded that E. bleekeri was relatively primitive among genus Epinephelus.%为了补充布氏石斑鱼细胞遗传学数据,并为石斑鱼染色体进化研究以及石斑鱼遗传育种等工作奠定基础,实验利用Giemsa染色、C-带和Ag-NORs方法对布氏石斑鱼的染色体核型以及异染色质和具有转录活性的核仁组织区在染色体上的分布位置和数量进行了研究.结果表明,布氏石斑鱼二倍体染色体数目为48,其染色体组由48条端部着丝粒染色体组成,绝大多数染色体的着丝粒位置呈异染色质带,仅在第24对染色体靠近着丝粒的位置检测到银染带,以上结果均表明,布氏石斑鱼属于较为原始的类群.

  5. A standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm for grouper fish feed formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2016-10-01

    Malaysia is one of the major producer countries for fishery production due to its location in the equatorial environment. Grouper fish is one of the potential markets in contributing to the income of the country due to its desirable taste, high demand and high price. However, the demand of grouper fish is still insufficient from the wild catch. Therefore, there is a need to farm grouper fish to cater to the market demand. In order to farm grouper fish, there is a need to have prior knowledge of the proper nutrients needed because there is no exact data available. Therefore, in this study, primary data and secondary data are collected even though there is a limitation of related papers and 30 samples are investigated by using standard deviation selection in Evolutionary algorithm. Thus, this study would unlock frontiers for an extensive research in respect of grouper fish feed formulation. Results shown that the fitness of standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm is applicable. The feasible and low fitness, quick solution can be obtained. These fitness can be further predicted to minimize cost in farming grouper fish.

  6. Induction and recovery of morphofunctional changes in the intestine of juvenile carnivorous fish (Epinephelus coioides) upon exposure to foodborne benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, Bonny B.H. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wong, Chris K.C. [Department of Biology, Baptist University of Hong Kong, Waterloo Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Woo, N.Y.S. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Au, Doris W.T. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhdwtau@cityu.edu.hk

    2007-05-15

    The sublethal toxicity of dietary benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P, on fish growth and intestinal morphofunctional changes [as measured by epithelial turnover, cell proliferation, hyperplasia, de novo crypt formation and protein absorption efficiency (i.e. expression of proton/peptide co-transporter, PepT-1, on the mucosal brush border)] were studied for the carnivorous orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Juvenile fish were force-fed daily with pellets containing environmentally realistic concentrations of B[a]P (dissolved in corn oil) at 0.25 {mu}g/g body weight (low-dose) and 12.5 {mu}g/g body weight (high-dose) for 4 weeks, followed by a control diet for a further 4 weeks to assess recovery. Although growth inhibition was observed in fish treated with high-dose B[a]P during the exposure period, no mortality was observed throughout the 8-week experiment. Significant hyperplasia of basal enterocytes of mucosal folds was detected shortly after 3-day exposure to the high-dose B[a]P. Moreover, a faster epithelial turnover was measured in the high-dose B[a]P exposed fish at exposure week 1, which was followed by an increase of basal cell proliferation and a reduction of PepT-1 expression at exposure week 2. The formation of de novo crypts, resemblance to the cancer predisposition syndrome 'juvenile polyposis', was significantly higher in the intestine of high-dose treated fish as compared to the control at exposure week 2 and onwards. Abnormal cytoplasmic extrusions were frequently observed in mucosal folds of high-dose fish at exposure week 4. In the low-dose treatment group, only the expression of PepT-1 was significantly reduced at exposure week 2 and an early adaptive response was observed at exposure week 4. Despite all these intestinal disturbances were reversible in fish upon the abatement to dietary B[a]P (within 1-4 weeks), environmental realistic levels of foodborne B[a]P could induce sublethal toxicity to E. coioides, and probably impose potential

  7. Seismological programs in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, W.; Spall, Henry

    1983-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970's, a series of programs in seismology were initiated by different Costa Rican institutions, and some of these programs are still in the process of development. The institutions are Insituto Costaricense de Electricidad (ICE)- The Costa Rica Institute of Electricity

  8. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Valdivia-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein concentrate (PC was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts, and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials.

  9. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecante, A.; Granados-Navarrete, S.; Martínez-García, C.

    2016-01-01

    A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. PMID:27597950

  10. Edge detection of red hind grouper vocalizations in the littorals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Littoral regions typically present to passive sensors as a high noise acoustic environment, particularly with respect to port and harbor regions where tidal variation, often characterized as pink, mixes with reverberation from on-shore business and commercial shipping, often characterized as white. Some fish in these regions, in particular epiphenalius Guttatus or more commonly the red hind grouper, emit relatively narrowband tones in low frequencies to communicate with other fish in such regions. The impact of anthropogenic noise sources on the red Hind and other fish is a topical area of interest for wildlife fisheries, private sportsmen and military offices that is not considered here; the fact that fish species continue to populate and communicate in these regions in the presence of high noise content lends some study to the signal content and modeling of a potential biologically inspired receiver structure.

  11. 75 FR 62488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... (ACLs), and accountability measures (AMs) for eight snapper- grouper species undergoing overfishing.... This proposed rule is intended to address overfishing of eight snapper-grouper species while..., FMPs for the fisheries determined by the Secretary to be subject to overfishing must establish...

  12. 75 FR 76873 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Council is exploring, through Amendment 22 to the Snapper- Grouper FMP, alternative strategies for... the proposed area closure could push effort inshore or offshore and thus negatively impact juvenile... exploring through draft Amendment 22 to the Snapper-Grouper FMP, alternative strategies for managing red...

  13. 76 FR 12882 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY..., fax: 727-824-5308, e-mail: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-...

  14. 78 FR 76285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery in the South Atlantic Region (74 FR 1621, January 13, 2009) and... Regulatory Amendment 17 was published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2013 (78 FR 72867) and requested..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the South Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment...

  15. 78 FR 10102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Office of the Federal Register. As implemented by the final rule for Regulatory Amendment 12 (77 FR 61295..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery includes golden tilefish in the South Atlantic and...

  16. 77 FR 11477 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... ACLs were implemented through Amendment 17B to the FMP (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010), before black..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... Snapper- Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP) for review, approval, and implementation...

  17. 76 FR 23930 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Snapper and Gag Commercial Trip Limits Amendment 17B to the FMP (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010), recently... Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Snapper...) to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region...

  18. 78 FR 46923 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... (76 FR 101). The NOI listed several options the Council could consider when addressing long-term..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the South Atlantic States; Amendment 22 AGENCY... broadened scope of Amendment 22 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery in the...

  19. 76 FR 78879 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... (December 30, 2010, 75 FR 82280). This ACL prohibits all harvest and possession of speckled hind and warsaw..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Snapper... Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP), as prepared by the...

  20. 78 FR 57337 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ..., 2011, NMFS published a notice of agency action (76 FR 78245) designating the South Atlantic Council as..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP) for review, approval,...

  1. 76 FR 5325 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... snapper-grouper fishery of October 14, 2005 (70 FR 60058; October 14, 2005), was almost five years old..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Control.... SUMMARY: NMFS announces that it is establishing a new control date to control future access to the...

  2. 78 FR 72868 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... bass commercial and recreational ACLs were increased through Regulatory Amendment 19 to the FMP (78 FR..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the South Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 16... Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (Regulatory Amendment 16). Regulatory Amendment...

  3. QUANTITATIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM HUMPBACK GROUPER, Cromileptes altivelis INFECTED WITH GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Mastuti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathognomonic sign of grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV was proposed to be the formation of enlarged cells and necrotic cells, in which under electron microscope, it is revealed to be the inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs and necrotic cells containing GSDIV viral particles. Spleen and kidney tissues are the major sites for formation of enlarged cells. This paper described the result of histopatological analysis of enlarged cells found in the spleen and kidney of moribund fish after GSDIV challenge. A pathogenicity test was conducted on fish stocked in two tanks for infected groups and the other two tanks for uninfected control groups (15 fish per tank. The infected groups were injected intramuscularly with 0.1 ml of the viral inoculum. The uninfected groups were injected with the same amount of EMEM-2. The GSDIV-infected humpback grouper began to die after 6 days post infection and all died after 7 dpi, excluding one fish which had survived until the end of experimental infection periods (93% to 100% mortality. All of the diseased fish showed massive formation of enlarged cells in their spleen, head kidney and trunk kidney. The largest number of enlarged cells was observed on head kidneys and subsequently followed by spleens, trunk kidney (2.0-200.3/field of view. This result suggested that the number of enlarged cells in the affected organs was not the direct factor that led to the mortality of fish.

  4. REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS OF CULTURED HUMPBACK GROUPER (Cromileptes altivelis FOR SUPPORTING SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Budi Moria Sembiring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis has been successfully spawned in 2000 by IMRAD (Institute of Mariculture Research and Development and there are already the third generation (F3 currently. The reproductive aspects need to be studied to support the success of seed production. Humpback grouper reared in floating cage (F1 and F3 had matured (gonad stage 4 while F2 fish reared in concrete tanks has spawned. Gonadal maturity stage of 38 fishes from first generation (F1 and 35 fishes from the third generation were observed in June 2013 and compared to gonadal maturity stage of 18 fishes from the second generation observed in June 2009. Samples were measured in total length and body weight and gonads were taken for histology preparation to determine gonadal maturity stage and the sex. From the histological observation of the gonads, it showed that all female humpback grouper were in early maturity stage (stage I and II with gonadal maturity index between 0.12% and 5.45%. Further, it was observed that the same gonad was found in different maturity stage and concluded that humpback groupers were multiple spawners (asynchronous. By determining gonadal maturity level, it was also known the minimum size for grouper ready to spawn.

  5. null Irazu, Costa Rica Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Located 25 km from San Jose, Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and also has the country's earliest historic eruption (1772).

  6. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Valdivia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other predators are controlling the abundance of exotic lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles on Caribbean coral reefs. We assessed the relationship between the biomass of lionfish and native predators at 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions while taking into consideration several cofactors that may affect fish abundance, including among others, proxies for fishing pressure and habitat structural complexity. Our results indicate that the abundance of lionfish, large-bodied grouper and other predators were not negatively related. Lionfish abundance was instead controlled by several physical site characteristics, and possibly by culling. Taken together, our results suggest that managers cannot rely on current native grouper populations to control the lionfish invasion.

  7. Biodiversidad en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Wenker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentación (en español Con una naturaleza rica y diversificada, Costa Rica se presenta hoy en día como un país modelo a nivel mundial por lo que a preservación del medio ambiente y de la biodiversidad se refiere. Tatiana Wenker elaboró una documentación audiovisuel variada que aborda la problemática mundial de preservación del medio ambiente, poniendo de relieve las iniciativas costarricenses sobre el particular. Nos lleva a uno de los parques naturales más grandes de América Central y a l...

  8. Costa Rica saves infants’ lives

    OpenAIRE

    ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    1988-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1988 Costa Rica covers an area of about 50 000 square kilometres. Approximately half of its 2.5 million inhabitants live in rural areas. The economy is based on exports of tropical products, predominantly coffee and bananas. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$ 1020. The country is more developed socially than economically. The increased life expectancy seen ...

  9. Preliminary Study on the Hybrid Red-spotted Grouper(Epinephelus akaara)♂× Orange-spotted Grouper(Epinephelus coioides)♀%赤点石斑鱼♂与斜带石斑鱼♀杂交的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘付永忠; 赵会宏; 刘晓春; 林浩然; 黄国光; 张海发; 王云新

    2007-01-01

    叙述了4批赤点石斑鱼♂与斜带石斑鱼♀杂交的初步结果.用人工授精的方法可以取得杂交受精卵,受精卵的受精率、孵化率和仔鱼的畸形率与雌鱼的卵质有关;杂交组与对照组的斜带石斑鱼相比,受精率、孵化率和畸形率无显著差异,但发育速度较快;杂交组仔鱼与对照组仔鱼在孵化后11 d内的生长速度差异不显著,但12 d后杂交组仔鱼增长显著;杂交组仔鱼的不投饵活力系数SAI和育苗成活率较对照组显著高,初步表现出杂交的优势.

  10. Adhesion mechanisms of Vibrio fluvialis to skin mucus of Epinephelus awoara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢庆枇; 赵敏慧; 王晓露; 邹文政; 陈昌生

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio fluvialis incubated in trypticase soy broth(TSB)showed stronger adhesion to the skin mucus of Epinephelus awoara than V.fluvialis grown on trypticase soy agar(TSA),and this bacterial adhesion was assessed in terms of saturation kinetics.Treating bacteria with antibody against O-antigens resulted in significantly reduced bacterial adhesion.In the early growth stage,the adhering bacteria numbers increased with incubation time,peaked at 24 h,and then dropped sharply.Prior heat treatment of the mucus at ...

  11. Costa Ricat vapustavad ekspresidendi kuriteod / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Riikide Organisatsiooni juhiks vannutatud Costa Rica endine president Miguel Angel Rodriguez leiti olevat süüdi korruptiivsetes tehingutes. Teisigi Costa Rica endisi presidente on süüdistatud korruptsioonis

  12. Costa Ricat vapustavad ekspresidendi kuriteod / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Riikide Organisatsiooni juhiks vannutatud Costa Rica endine president Miguel Angel Rodriguez leiti olevat süüdi korruptiivsetes tehingutes. Teisigi Costa Rica endisi presidente on süüdistatud korruptsioonis

  13. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquette, Catherine M.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  14. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Marquette

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  15. de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arellano Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al estudio simultáneo de elementos ontológicos y metodológicos comprometidos con el conocimiento de la organización sociotécnica de la investigación científica universitaria. Se trata de la presentación de un análisis asistido informáticamente de bases de datos que genera mapas, de los que se pueden intelegir organización de relaciones heterogéneas de propiedades científico-técnicas y sociales contenidas en las fuentes de información, que son simultáneamente cuantitativas y cualitativas. Para ilustrar lo anterior, realizamos un estudio de caso analizando informáticamente las bases de datos de los proyectos de investigación en ciencias básicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica entre 1977 y 2005.

  16. 78 FR 36113 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... unnecessary negative socio-economic impacts to participants in the snapper-grouper fishery and fishing... environmental assessment, regulatory impact review, Regulatory Flexibility Act analysis, and fishery impact... would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. The...

  17. Utilization of seagrass habitats by juvenile groupers and snappers in Banten Bay, Banten Province, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuraini, S.; Carballo, E.C.; Densen, van W.L.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Lindeboom, H.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Coastal development in Banten Bay, Indonesia, decreased seagrass coverage to only 1.5% of its surface area. We investigated the importance of seagrass as habitat for juvenile groupers (Serranidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae), by performing beam trawl hauls on a weekly basis in two seagrass locations a

  18. Age, growth, and natural mortality of yellowfin grouper (Mycteroperca venenosa) from the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Jennifer C.; Carr, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Ages of yellowfin grouper (n = 306) from the southeastern United States coast from 1979–2014 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming January–June (peaking in February–March). Yellowfin grouper ranged in age from 3 to 31 years; the largest fish measured 1,000 mm fork length (FL). Body size relationships for yellowfin grouper were: W = 1.22 × 10−5 FL3.03 (n = 229, r2 = 0.92); TL = 1.06 FL − 14.53 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99); and FL = 0.93 TL + 18.63 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99), where W = whole weight in grams, FL in mm, and TL = total length in mm. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 958 (1 − e−0.11(t+2.94)) (n = 306). The point estimate of natural mortality for yellowfin grouper was M = 0.14, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.59 to 0.17 for ages 1–31. PMID:26244111

  19. RING domain is essential for the antiviral activity of TRIM25 from orange spotted grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Min; Zhou, Sheng; Qin, Qiwei; Huang, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25) has been demonstrated to exert crucial roles in the regulation of innate immune signaling. However, the roles of fish TRIM25 in antiviral immune response still remained uncertain. Here, a novel fish TRIM25 gene from orange spotted grouper (EcTRIM25) was cloned and its roles in grouper virus infection were elucidated. EcTRIM25 encoded a 734-aa protein which shared 68% identity to large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Amino acid alignment showed that EcTRIM25 contained three conserved domains, including a RING-finger domain, a B box/coiled-coil domain and a SPRY domain. In healthy grouper, the transcript of EcTRIM25 was predominantly detected in skin, spleen and intestine. After stimulation with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or poly I:C, the relative expression of EcTRIM25 in grouper spleen was significantly increased at the early stage of injection. Subcellular localization analysis showed that EcTRIM25 distributed throughout the cytoplasm in grouper cells. Notably, the deletion RING domain affected its accurate localization and displayed microtubule like structures or bright aggregates in GS cells. After incubation with SGIV or red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), overexpression of full length of EcTRIM25 in vitro significantly decreased the viral gene transcription of SGIV and RGNNV. Consistently, the deletion of RING domain obviously affected the inhibitory effect of EcTRIM25. Furthermore, overexpression of EcTRIM25 significantly increased the expression level of interferon related signaling molecules, including interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3, interferon-induced 35-kDa protein (IFP35), MXI, IRF7 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), suggesting that the positive regulation of interferon immune response by EcTRIM25 might affected RGNNV replication directly. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pro-inflammation cytokines were differently regulated by the ectopic expression of EcTRIM25

  20. Costa Rica; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews economic developments in Costa Rica during 1995–97. Costa Rica faced a slump in economic activity in 1995–96 following a sharp deterioration in the public finances and higher inflation associated with the 1993–94 political–economic cycle. To avert a balance-of-payments crisis in early 1995, the authorities increased interest rates, imposed temporary import surcharges, and raised excise taxes, while tightening expenditure and shifting some outlays to 1996. The econom...

  1. ACOSO LABORAL EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    VARGAS MORÚA, ELIZARDA

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo constituye un análisis descriptivo de las resoluciones judiciales de Costa Rica respecto al acoso laboral. De acuerdo con el Sistema Costarricense de Información Jurídica son 23 resoluciones clasificadas bajo el tema de “acoso laboral” relativas a procesos iniciados desde el año 1998 al presente. También se analiza la información suministrada por el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de las denuncias que se tramitaron por la vía administrativa. Aunque el ordenamiento costa...

  2. Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación inicial del grupo de profesionales en educación, exige hoy más que nunca de servicios efectivos de Orientación en la comunidad universitaria, puesto que los cambios económicos, las transformaciones sociales, las demandas del mercado de trabajo y los requerimientos de las profesiones, plantean un futuro difícil para la población estudiantil universitaria. Ante esta realidad, se realizó una investigación para dar respuesta al siguiente problema. De acuerdo con las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela de Formación Docente de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ¿qué necesidades de orientación se encuentran asociadas a su formación inicial para enfrentar constructivamente los cambios, demandas y desafíos del Sistema Educativo Costarricense? El paradigma de investigación utilizado comprende la investigación social cualitativa. Para aplicar esta metodología se utilizó como técnica de recolección de la información, los grupos de discusión y el análisis de contingencias como técnica de análisis de la información. El logro de los objetivos de la investigación permitió identificar las siguientes necesidades de orientación en la población estudiada: autoafirmación profesional, habilidades de vida y madurez vocacional.

  3. The dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azofeifa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A five-years long study aiming to describe the basic genetic epidemiology of the dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica recruited 31 patients with clinical symptoms of DMD/BMD at the National Children’s Hospital (HNN. This center is the obligate reference hospital of the national health system for genetic diseases, however, the geographic origin of the patients, a low percentage of deletions and a high proportion of de novo mutations found among them indicate that a significant ascertainment bias impedes a substantial scientific approach to confront and alleviate the problems posed by these severe diseases in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 485- 490. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Un estudio de cinco años tendiente a describir la epidemiología genética básica de las distrofinopatías en Costa Rica detectó 31 pacientes con sintomatología de DMD o de BMD en el Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN, el centro de referencia del sistema nacional de salud para enefrmedades hereditarias, sin embargo, la distribución geográfica de los pacientes, un bajo porcentaje de deleciones y una muy elevada proporción de mutaciones de novo indican que un significante sesgo de averiguación impide el estudio científico de riguroso tendiente a disminuir el impacto de estas enfermedades en Costa Rica.

  4. 甲状腺素对斜带石斑鱼卵黄囊期仔鱼生长发育的影响%Effect of Thyroxine on Growth and Development of Epinephelus coioides Yolk-sac Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐啸尘; 周歧存; 丁燏; 张海发; 王云新

    2011-01-01

    用4种不同浓度的甲状腺素(T4)分别浸泡斜带石斑鱼卵黄囊期仔鱼,研究T4对仔鱼发育、生长和存活的影响.结果表明,在孵化后24h内,T4对仔鱼发育的促进作用不明显;在孵化24h后,T4对仔鱼消化道的发育有促进作用.在孵化后72h,0.01 mg·L-1 T4处理组仔鱼小肠管径、直肠管径、全长与对照组相比差异均不明显;0.10 mg·L-1和1.00 mg·L-1 T4处理组仔鱼小肠和直肠管径显著比对照组大(P<0.01),1.00mg·L-1 T4处理组仔鱼全长显著比对照组短(P<0.01),而0.10 mg·L-1处理组仔鱼全长与对照组相比无明显差异(P>0.05).在孵化后第8天,0.10 mg·L-1 T4处理组仔鱼存活率明显比对照组高(P<0.01),而0.01 mg·L-1 T4组和1.00mg·L-l T4组与对照组之间存活率差异不明显(P>0.05).结果提示0.10mg.L-1 T4处理能促进斜带石斑鱼卵黄囊期仔鱼的消化道发育并提高其存活率.%The effect of four doses of thyroxine (T4) on orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)yolk-sac larvae was studied. The effect of T4 on larval development was not obvious within 24 hourspost-hatching (hph). However, the advancement in development of gut was induced by T4 treatmentafter 24 hph. The differences between the control and 0.01 mg · L-1 T4 groups were not observed at 72hph. Compared with the control, the diameter of larval intestine and rectum in both 0.10 mg · L-1 and1.00 mg · L-1 T4 groups were obviously longer at 72 hph(P < 0.01), however, the larval total length in1.00 mg · L-1 T4 groups was obviously shorter(P < 0.01), while the larval total length were notsignificantly affected by 0.10 mg · L-1 T4 treatment(P > 0.05). The rate of survival in 0.10 mg · L-1 T4groups was obviously higher than that in the control by 8 days post-hatching(P < 0.01), while that ineither 0.01 mg · L-1 groups or 1.00 mg · L-1 T4 groups was not(P > 0.05). The results indicated that 0.10mg · L-1 T4 treatment could

  5. Negative regulation of the antiviral response by grouper LGP2 against fish viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yepin; Huang, Youhua; Yang, Ying; Wang, Shaowen; Yang, Min; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), a member of RIG-I like receptor (RLR) family, plays crucial roles in modulating cellular antiviral response during viral infection. However, the detailed roles of LGP2 in different virus infection were controversial up to now. Here, we cloned a LGP2 gene from orange-spotted grouper (EcLGP2) and investigated its roles in response to grouper virus infection. EcLGP2 encoded a 678-aa protein which shared 83% identity to sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicas). Amino acid alignment showed that EcLGP2 contained three conserved domains, including a DEAD/DEAH box helicase domain, a helicase superfamily C-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain of RIG-I. In healthy grouper, the transcript of EcLGP2 could be predominantly detected in kidney, gill, fin, spleen and skin. Subcellular localization analysis showed that EcLGP2 distributed throughout the cytoplasm in grouper cells. Notably, the intracellular distribution of EcLGP2 was altered at the late stage of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infection, but remained unchanged during red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection. Moreover, overexpression of EcLGP2 in vitro significantly enhanced the viral replication of SGIV and RGNNV, evidenced by the acceleration of CPE occurrence and the up-regulation of the viral gene transcription or protein synthesis. Further studies indicated that overexpression of EcLGP2 decreased the expression level of interferon related molecules or effectors, including IRF3, IRF7, ISG15, IFP35, MXI, MXII, and MDA5, suggesting that the negative feedback of interferon immune response by EcLGP2 might contribute to the enhancement of RGNNV infection. Moreover, the expression levels of pro-inflammation cytokines, including IL-8 and TNFα were significantly decreased, but that of IL-6 was increased by the ectopic expression of EcLGP2. Thus, our results will contribute greatly to understanding the roles of fish LGP2 in innate immune response during

  6. Age, growth, and reproductive aspects of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Seyboth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper, Mycteroperca marginata, is an important commercial marine fish that is currently considered an endangered species worldwide and listed as overexploited in Brazil. Although its reproductive biology has been studied elsewhere, no information is available for populations in its southernmost distribution limit on the Brazilian coast. The present work investigates age structure, growth and reproduction of individuals inhabiting a pair of rocky jetties, about 4.5 km long each, located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon in the municipality of Rio Grande, in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. A total of 130 individuals obtained between February 2007 and May 2009 were analyzed, with total length ranging from 260 to 800 mm. The growth coefficient found in the present study (K: 0.069 was lower than values reported for dusky grouper populations from the Mediterranean Sea (0.087 and southeast Africa (0.09. This difference could be related to higher average water temperatures in these regions compared to the current study site or due to poorer habitat quality in terms of the shelters available for dusky grouper individuals to establish their territories. Microscopic ovarian analyses of individuals during three years of sampling revealed only the occurrence of immature and resting females. The absence of ripe or post-spawning individuals, associated with low GSI values (A garoupa-verdadeira, Mycteroperca marginata, é uma espécie de importância comercial que atualmente é considerada como ameaçada mundialmente e sobre-explotada no Brasil. Embora sua biologia reprodutiva tenha sido estudada em outras regiões, nenhuma informação está disponível sobre populações que habitam o extremo sul da sua distribuição na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho investiga a estrutura de idade, crescimento e reprodução de indivíduos que habitam dois molhes de pedra, com cerca de 4,5 km de extensão cada, localizados na desembocadura da laguna dos Patos

  7. Primeros estudios en la Reproducción del mero rojo Epinephelus morio bajo condiciones controladas

    OpenAIRE

    Durruty Lagunes, Claudia Verónica

    2014-01-01

    [spa] El mero rojo Epinephelus morio es una especie hermafrodita protógino en peligro de extinción en el Sureste del Golfo de México y Caribe mexicanos debido a la pesca. La reversión sexual es una práctica común en acuicultura para la obtención de machos de pequeña talla para resolver la reproducción en cautividad. Se utilizaron implantes silásticos de 17 alfa metiltestosterona (MT) (2.5 mg kg-1) y Testosterona (T) (1.0 mg kg-1) para determinar mejor esteroide para la reversión sexual de hem...

  8. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  9. residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Herring

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  10. Jubilados en la costa alicantina

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Cascales, Rosario Isabel; Ribera Domene, Dolores; Reig Ferrer, Abilio

    1997-01-01

    La costa alicantina es uno de los lugares del mundo donde reside el mayor porcentaje de personas mayores en relación a la población total; encontramos en ella jubilados autóctonos, jubilados de otras regiones españolas con un clima menos benigno, y jubilados extranjeros procedentes en su mayoría de los países europeos.

  11. Interspecific communicative and coordinated hunting between groupers and giant moray eels in the Red Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Bshary

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific group hunting has received considerable attention because of the close links between cooperative behaviour and its cognitive demands. Accordingly, comparisons between species have focused on behaviours that can potentially distinguish between the different levels of cognitive complexity involved, such as "intentional" communication between partners in order to initiate a joint hunt, the adoption of different roles during a joint hunt (whether consistently or alternately, and the level of food sharing following a successful hunt. Here we report field observations from the Red Sea on the highly coordinated and communicative interspecific hunting between the grouper, Plectropomus pessuliferus, and the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus. We provide evidence of the following: (1 associations are nonrandom, (2 groupers signal to moray eels in order to initiate joint searching and recruit moray eels to prey hiding places, (3 signalling is dependent on grouper hunger level, and (4 both partners benefit from the association. The benefits of joint hunting appear to be due to complementary hunting skills, reflecting the evolved strategies of each species, rather than individual role specialisation during joint hunts. In addition, the partner species that catches a prey item swallows it whole immediately, making aggressive monopolisation of a carcass impossible. We propose that the potential for monopolisation of carcasses by one partner species represents the main constraint on the evolution of interspecific cooperative hunting for most potentially suitable predator combinations.

  12. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  13. Negative regulation of the innate antiviral immune response by TRIM62 from orange spotted grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Zhou, Sheng; Wang, Shaowen; Yang, Min; Qin, Qiwei; Huang, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    Increased reports uncovered that mammalian tripartite motif-containing 62 (TRIM62) exerts crucial roles in cancer and innate immune response. However, the roles of fish TRIM62 in antiviral immune response remained uncertain. In this study, a TRIM62 gene was cloned from orange spotted grouper (EcTRIM62) and its roles in grouper RNA virus infection was elucidated in vitro. EcTRIM62 shared 99% and 83% identity to bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) and human (Homo sapiens), respectively. Sequence alignment indicated that EcTRIM62 contained three domains, including a RING-finger domain, a B-box domain and a SPRY domain. In healthy grouper, the transcript of EcTRIM62 was predominantly detected in brain and liver, followed by heart, skin, spleen, fin, gill, intestine, and stomach. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that bright fluorescence spots were observed in the cytoplasm of EcTRIM62-transfected grouper spleen (GS) cells. During red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis (RGNNV) infection, overexpression of EcTRIM62 significantly enhanced the severity of CPE and increased viral gene transcriptions. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of EcTRIM62 significantly decreased the transcription level of interferon signaling molecules, including interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF7, interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), myxovirus resistance gene MXI, and MXII, suggesting that the negative regulation of interferon immune response by EcTRIM62 might directly contributed to its enhancing effect on RGNNV replication. Furthermore, our results also demonstrated that overexpression of EcTRIM62 was able to differently regulate the expression levels of pro-inflammation cytokines. In addition, we found the ectopic expression of EcTIRM62 negatively regulated MDA5-, but not mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA)-induced interferon immune response. Further studies showed that the deletion of RING domain and SPRY domain

  14. Feeding habits and growth characteristics of larval, juvenile, and young F1 of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (♀) × E. lanceolatus (♂)%棕点石斑鱼(♀)×鞍带石斑鱼(♂)杂交F1仔、稚、幼鱼的摄食与生长特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于欢欢; 李炎璐; 陈超; 孔祥迪; 张廷廷; 刘莉; 徐万土; 庞尊方; 李文升

    2015-01-01

    采用生态学方法,观察分析了人工育苗条件下棕点石斑鱼(Epinephelus fuscoguttatus,♀)×鞍带石斑鱼(Epinephelus lanceolatus,♂)杂交F1仔、稚、幼鱼的摄食习性和生长特性。结果表明,在水温29~30℃,盐度为29~30时,其杂交F1仔鱼3天开口摄食,开口饵料为ss型褶皱臂尾轮虫(Brachionus plicatilis),随后饵料系列为L型褶皱臂尾轮虫、卤虫无节幼体(Artemia salina)、卤虫(Artemia)和配合饵料;6日龄仔鱼的摄食率为92.31%,7~9日龄以后仔鱼的饱食率大都达到90%~100%;随着仔稚幼鱼的生长发育,其饱食时间逐渐缩短,消化时间逐渐增加。杂交F1仔稚鱼的摄食高峰都出现在白天,仔稚鱼夜间几乎不摄食,属白天摄食型。此外,仔、稚、幼鱼纯体重(W)与摄食量(Y)的关系为 Y=0.2078W–3.3738,全长(L)与日龄(X)的关系为 L=2.3159e0.0595X,纯体重(W)与日龄(X)的关系为W=0.0748e0.2021X,全长(L)与纯体重(W)的关系为W=0.0045L3.3775,口裂宽(Y)与日龄(X)的关系为Y=1.9687e0.0605X。由此可知杂交F1仔、稚、幼鱼的生长属于均匀生长型。%Nutrition is an important factor that restricts the normal growth of fish fry. In the nutrition transition period or feeding conversion process, it is crucial that the larval, juvenile, and young fish have access to adequate nutrition. Groupers are ferocious, carnivorous marine fish;if food supply is not sufficient, they feed on their own larvae and juveniles, and breeding efforts undergo substantial loss. In this research, we studied the feeding habits and growth characteristics of larval, juvenile, and young fish of the F1 generation of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus(♀) × E. lanceolatus (♂) cross using artificial ecological methods. The larvae were fed when their mouths opened, and samples selected from the breeding pool every afternoon after the larvae were fed. We sampled every day before the larvae were 10 days old;then, we sampled every 2 days. Each sample

  15. Discursos literarios en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pacheco Solórzano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El título del presente artículo es pretencioso, “Discursos literarios en Costa Rica”. Sin embargo, se trata de mostrar que hay referentes históricos y literarios que son consulta obligada para las investigaciones en el campo de la literatura como Historia de la literatura costarricense (Abelardo Bonilla; el papel de la imprenta en Costa Rica, el Archivo Nacional y el texto del maestro Álvaro Quesada Soto Uno y los otros. Así, esta primera parte se subtitula como Tradición histórica y literaria. La segunda parte se ha titulado Espejo de las vanguardias, que da cuenta de los principales movimientos vanguardistas de Europa y de América Latina y su influencia en el discurso literario costarricense. Un tercer subtítulo, Renovación discursiva, presenta una heterogeneidad de voces literarias posvanguardista e incorporación de la literatura gótica y de ciencia ficción en la producción literariacostarricense de nuestros días.

  16. The Karyotypes,C-banding Patterns and AgNORs of Epinephelus malabaricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Jixing(邹记兴); Hu Chaoqun; Xiang Wenzhou; Yu Qixing; Zhou Fei

    2004-01-01

    The chromosome specimens of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) are obtained from metaphase of kindney cell by vivi-injection of PHA and culture of colchicines, hypatoic-air drying technique, and then by studying their Giemsa stain, C-bands and AgNORs. The results are as follows: (1)E. malabaricus has a diploid chromosome number of 48 and its karyotype formula is 48t, NF=48, sex chromosome is not found. (2) There is a pair of chromosomes with secondary constriction near the centromere of chromosome t24. (3) 1~4 nucleoli appear in the nucleus of interphase, 55% nuclei has 1 nucleolus and only 2% for 4 nucleoli. (4) AgNORs appear in the chromosome t24 of 50% metaphase, sometimes in the chromosome t5, but not in other chromosomes. (5) The AgNORs polymorphisms are individually specific, 1~4 pairs of the number, and the frequency of 4 AgNORs are lowest. (6) The secondary constrictions and positive C-bands are coincident, close to the centromere of the chromosome, and mass constrictive heterochromatins appear in that region. (7) All the centromeres of chromosomes are darkly stained C-bands, and the whole arm of chromosome t24 and its centromere are same positive C-bands. (8) The evolutive regulation of the karyotype and the developing mechanism of AgNORs and C-bands are discussed.

  17. Substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal in humpback Grouper, Cromileptes altivelis juvenile diets supplemented with phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Syah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean meal in diet on growth of humpback grouper. Fifteen cages of 1 x 1 x 1.2 m3 each stocked with 16 humpback grouper juveniles (61.3 ± 0.4 g/pc were set up randomly in seawater. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily for 112 days. The control diet contained 61.9% fishmeal (63.34% crude protein. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (4.7 kcal/g feed diets supplemented with commercial phytase “Rhonozyme-P” at 0.075% were formulated to contain different levels (8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% soybean meal (43.65% crude protein as a partial replacement for fishmeal. These diets contained total phosphorus levels between 3.6—4.5 (±0.4 % and 0.7—1.5 (±0.04 % available phosphorus. Replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal (8 to 32% replacement was not significantly different (P>0.05 to the control diet on daily growth rate (DGR, food conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, and daily food consumption (DFC. However, the dietary levels of soybean meal significantly affected (P<0.05 whole body protein and phosphorus retention (Table 1. These data suggest that addition of phytase in diets could improve protein and phosphorus availability and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loading in the environment. Phytase can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly feed for humpback grouper. Based on P loading, supplementation of phytase enable up to 24% fishmeal replacement with soybean meal.

  18. 77 FR 59129 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-AY74 Fisheries of the Caribbean... and imported groupers, snappers, and other fish. Further, most of the important inputs (e.g., fuel... Rico, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Virgin Islands. Dated: September 20, 2012. Alan...

  19. 76 FR 61285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... reduce overfishing of the South Atlantic black sea bass resource. DATES: This rule is effective October 4... overfishing and prevent overfishing from occurring. AMs are management controls to prevent ACLs from being... ACLs for eight snapper-grouper species in the FMP that are undergoing overfishing, including black...

  20. 75 FR 57734 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ...-grouper species, eight of which are undergoing overfishing; specify recreational and commercial... procedure. The actions contained in Amendment 17B are intended to address overfishing of eight snapper... stock or stock complex in an FMP is undergoing overfishing, the FMP must establish by 2010 a...

  1. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... conditions, various species of reef fish and live rock in Federal waters off North Carolina. The specimens... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral...

  2. A record of an adult Warsaw grouper, Hyporthodus nigritus (Perciformes: Ephinephelidae), in a deep reef of the Colombian Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Bustos Montes, Diana; Viaña Tous, Jorge; Acero-P., Arturo; Pardo, Elkin R.; Garrido, Manuel; Rueda, Mario; Alonso, David

    2013-01-01

    The Warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) has been reported from the western Atlantic between Massachusetts (United States) and Mexico, including a few South American reports to Brasil. In Colombia a juvenile specimen was reported from nearby Cartagena in 2003. Herein, we report an adult fish caught near to deep-water reefs in the Golfo de Morrosquillo, Colombian Caribbean.

  3. 77 FR 61559 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Nassau Grouper as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Randall, 1993; Foley et al., 2007). Nassau grouper are generally found near high-relief coral reefs and... population to coral reef area (rather than population size) to give an overall decline figure. This method... threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of habitat or range; overutilization for commercial...

  4. 78 FR 31511 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... also applies in the South Atlantic on board a vessel for which a valid Federal commercial or charter... provide socio-economic benefits to snapper-grouper fishermen and communities that utilize the snapper... not distinguish charter vessels from headboats but an estimated 75 headboats are believed to possess...

  5. 75 FR 60009 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure of the July- December 2010 Commercial Sector for Vermilion Snapper in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial sector for vermilion snapper in the...

  6. 77 FR 1908 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... Amendment (Comprehensive ACL Amendment) published on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74757), and would implement an... Comprehensive ACL Amendment on December 30, 2011 (76 FR 82264) to implement the revised wreckfish ABC and ACL of..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States;...

  7. 75 FR 11068 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial fishery for vermilion snapper in the... snapper resource. DATES: This rule is effective 12:01 a.m., local time, March 19, 2010, through June...

  8. 78 FR 50394 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... supplemental NOI to Amendment 22, published at 78 FR 46923, August 2, 2013, should be submitted on or before...Marie.Eich@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-18676, appearing on page 46924, in the..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the South Atlantic States; Amendment 22;...

  9. 78 FR 72867 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ..., queen snapper, and silk snapper) beyond a depth of 240 ft (73 m) (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010...) harvest prohibition on six deep-water snapper-grouper species (77 FR 27374, May 10, 2012) and concluded... prohibited (74 FR 1621, January 13, 2009). The intent of the eight MPAs is to protect long-lived, deep-...

  10. 78 FR 49183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... 15 and requested public comments (78 FR 31511). The proposed rule and the regulatory amendment... small business size standards for several industries effective July 22, 2013 (78 FR 37398). The rule..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic...

  11. 76 FR 68310 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...), and (b)(2); Sec. 622.8(a)(6); and Sec. 622.18(b)(1)(ii) published at 74 FR 58902 (November 16, 2009... CONTACT: Kate Michie, telephone: (727) 824- 5305. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On November 16, 2009 (74 FR... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern...

  12. 76 FR 12605 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... On December 30, 2010, a final rule was published to implement Amendment 17B (75 FR 82280). That final..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... the final rule that implemented Amendment 17B to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the...

  13. 76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial sector for vermilion snapper in the... snapper resource. DATES: This rule is effective 12:01 a.m., local time, March 10, 2011, until 12:01...

  14. 77 FR 56563 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Reopening of the 2012 Commercial Sector for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ..., 2012, and closed the commercial sector for yellowtail snapper on that date (77 FR 53776, September 4... (77 FR 15916). In part, the final rule for the Comprehensive ACL Amendment specified ACLs and AMs for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC229 Snapper-Grouper Fishery...

  15. 76 FR 59063 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 34892). This trip limit, specified in 50 CFR 622.44(c)(6), remains in effect until the..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial sector for vermilion snapper in...

  16. 77 FR 11775 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial sector for vermilion snapper in the... snapper resource. DATES: This rule is effective 12:01 a.m., local time, February 29, 2012, until 12:01...

  17. 76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-AY10 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States;...

  18. 77 FR 50672 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... 18A, implemented through final rulemaking on July 1, 2012, (77 FR 32408, June 1, 2012), included a... the establishment of an endorsement program. The proposed rule for Amendment 18A (77 FR 06991, March..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic...

  19. 78 FR 61939 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    ... Office of the Federal Register, as implemented by the final rule for Regulatory Amendment 18 (78 FR 47574..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... trip limit for vermilion snapper in or from the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the South Atlantic...

  20. 76 FR 23205 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... FR 12883, March 9, 2011). However, based on current statistics, NMFS has determined that only 83..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Reopening of the Commercial Sector for Vermilion Snapper in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  1. 75 FR 49447 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... snapper, as well as other management measures that will help rebuild the stock. Management Measures... management decisions and would likely contribute to improved management of the stock. Rebuilding Plan The... to implement Amendment 17A to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of...

  2. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits tha...

  3. Costa Rica saves infants' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1988-01-01

    Even though Costa Rica is underdeveloped economically, life expectancy has been increasing over the past decade and the illiteracy rate was only 7% in 1984. Infant mortality rates have plummeted since 1972 when the 1st national health plan and social security were instituted (pre-1972: 2.3% annual reduction in infant mortality; 1972-1980: 13% decline annually). Decreased risk in the 1st postnatal month of life was responsible for 34% of the decrease from 1972-1980. Control of disease, especially diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, accounted for most of the decline (51%). Immunizations accounted for 8%, prevention of infectious diseases for 10%, control of malnutrition for 5%, and control of death due to premature birth for 14% of the decrease in mortality. Infant death due to pregnancy and delivery complications and congenital defects did not decrease during this period. Socioeconomic conditions normally influence survival rates strongly, but socioeconomic change in Costa Rica during 1970-1980 accounted for only 1/3 of the reduction in infant mortality. These improvements included an increase in the number of educated women, economic growth and decline in fertility (a decrease from 7.6 to 3.4 births between 1960-1980). The majority of the reduction stemmed from utilization of family planning techniques and the reduction of health risk factors. By 1980, the health program initiated in the 1970's provided primary care to 60% of the population, immunized 95% of the children against poliomyelitis, diptheria, pertussis, tetanus, and measles, and by 1984, provided almost all households with a sewage system. Analyses of the impact of socioeconomic development, fertility regulation, hospital care, outpatient services, and primary health care on infant mortality showed that, before 1970, those areas with better economies had a lower mortality rate, and after 1970, the economy and mortality rate had become independent variables. Furthermore, the introduction of health

  4. Characterization of the VP39 envelope protein from Singapore grouper iridovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglian; Zhou, Sheng; Xia, Liqun; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Cao, Jianhao; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-12-01

    Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is a major pathogen that causes heavy economic losses to the grouper aquaculture industry in China and Southeast Asian countries. In the present study, a viral envelope protein, VP39, encoded by SGIV ORF39L, was identified and characterized. SGIV ORF39L was found in all sequenced iridoviruses and is now considered to be a core gene of the family Iridoviridae. ORF39L was classified as a late gene during in vitro infection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and a drug inhibition analysis. An indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that the VP39 protein was confined to the cytoplasm, especially at viral assembly sites. Western blot and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry analyses suggested that VP39 is an envelope protein. Immunogold electron microscopy further confirmed that VP39 is a viral envelope protein. Furthermore, a mouse anti-VP39 polyclonal antibody exhibited SGIV-neutralizing activity in vitro, suggesting that VP39 is involved in SGIV infection. Taken together, the current data suggest that VP39 represents a conserved envelope protein of iridoviruses that contributes to viral infection.

  5. In situ observation data from the grouper roi (Cephalopholis argus) removal project in West Hawaii from 2010-2011 (NODC Accession 0082197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ observations of the introduced predatory grouper roi (Cephalopholis argus) were taken within the coral reef ecosystem of Puako, northwest side of the Island...

  6. Physico-Chemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Roe Protein Concentrates from Cyprinus carpio and Epinephelus tauvina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galla Narsing Rao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Roe protein concentrates prepared from Cyprinus carpio (CRPC and Epinephelus tauvina (ERPC were investigated for physico-chemical characteristics, functional properties and antioxidant activity. Cyprinus and Epinephelus roes yielded 19.5% and 21.5% of protein concentrates possessing 70.71% and 85.9% protein, respectively. Moisture sorption isotherms of roe protein concentrates indicated the non-hygroscopic nature of CRPC with initial moisture content (IMC of 8%, which equilibrated at 63% RH and hygroscopic nature of ERPC with IMC of 4.9%, which equilibrated at 42% RH. Water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, foam capacity and lower foam stability and emulsifying capacity were found in ERPC than in CRPC respectively. Maximum solubility of protein was 17.79% and 16.89% at pH 12, observed in CRPC and ERPC respectively. Higher buffer capacity was observed in both roe protein concentrates in alkali medium. Antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher, and ferric reducing power was observed to be lower in ERPC.

  7. The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles and copper sulphate on juvenile Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Long, Xiaohua; Cheng, Yongzhou; Liu, Zhaopu; Yan, Shaohua

    2014-07-01

    Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) were widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. In this study the effects of Cu-NPs and soluble Cu were investigated on juvenile Epinephelus coioides. The fish were exposed in triplicate to control, 20 or 100μgCuL(-1) as either copper sulphate (CuSO4) or Cu-NPs in a semi-static aqueous culture for 25 days. The growth parameters were significantly lower at 100μgCuL(-1) as CuSO4 or Cu-NPs treatment compared to control. Time-dependent Cu accumulation in all tissues increased with increasing the Cu dose. The percentage of total Cu found in remaining tissues (head, bones, fins, etc.) decreased more in the CuSO4 than Cu-NPs treatment after 25 days, but increased in all other tissues (especially in liver). Compared with the control, either Cu-NPs or CuSO4 induced higher malonaldehyde concentration in tissues by overwhelming total superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, but the opposite results were recorded for the brain. With increasing the CuSO4 or Cu-NPs dose, apoptosis was exacerbated in the liver and gills, more so by CuSO4 than Cu-NPs. Overall, these findings showed that Cu-NPs had the toxic effects similar to dissolved Cu; hence, Cu-NPs need to be included in the assessment of toxicological impacts in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary Experiment on Artificial Seed Rearing of Malabar Grouper Epinephelus malabaricus in Outdoor Earthen Pond%室外土池点带石斑鱼人工育苗初步试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 王维娜; 朱行超; 王谋炳

    2007-01-01

    利用经过简单改造的养虾土池进行点带石斑鱼的人工育苗试验.先在池中建立起稳定的生态系统,然后进行受精卵的孵化和鱼苗培育.400万粒受精卵的孵化率为66.3%,培育出全长在2.5 cm以上的稚鱼9.63万尾,育苗成活率为3.63%.结果表明:利用室外土池进行点带石斑鱼的生态育苗是可行的,是值得进一步研究的石斑鱼育苗新技术.

  9. 斜带石斑鱼阿片黑素促皮质素原全长cDNA克隆及序列分析%CLONING AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN (POMC) IN ORANGE-SPOTTED GROUPER,EPINEPHELUS COIOIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张为民; 张利红; 马广智; 张勇

    2003-01-01

    通过构建斜带石斑鱼垂体cDNA文库和随机测序,克隆了其阿片黑素促皮质素原(Proopiomelanocortin, POMC)全长cDNA.斜带石斑鱼POMC全长cDNA为863bp(含Poly(A)),编码的POMC多肽前体为219aa.氨基酸序列比较分析表明:斜带石斑鱼POMC前体包含有促肾上腺皮质激素(Adrenocorticotropin, ACTH),α-促黑素(α-melanocyte stimulating hormone,α-MSH),β-促黑素(β-MSH),γ-促脂素(γ-lipotrophic hormone, γ-LPH),β-内啡肽(β-endorphin)等,但缺失了γ-促黑素(γ-MSH)和大部分连接区.斜带石斑鱼POMC与哺乳动物POMC的同源性为39%-42%左右,与鸟类的同源性为42%左右,与两栖类的同源性为36%-41%,与其他鱼类POMC的同源性为38%-77%.斜带石斑鱼和罗非鱼的POMC的ACTH功能区都为40个氨基酸残基,而其他脊椎动物为39个氨基酸残基.

  10. The antagonistic property of lactic acid bacteria derived from Orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides) larvae%鱼源乳酸菌的抑菌特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红玲; 孙云章; 叶继丹; 常建波; 陈政强

    2008-01-01

    采用体外试验研究了3株从斜带石斑鱼仔鱼体内分离的乳酸菌其产酸能力及抑菌特性.结果表明:菌株EA-1和Y1B-3产乳酸的速度和pH值下降速度较快,培养后期乳酸含量显著高于Y4-2(P<0.05).3株乳酸菌对致病性哈维氏弧菌和溶藻弧菌均有不同程度的抑制作用,但乳酸对三株乳酸菌的抑菌活性没有影响,提示3株乳酸菌均能产生乳酸以外的抑菌物质.三株乳酸菌的抑菌物质具有一定的热稳定性,经60℃和80℃热处理后保留70%以上的抑菌活性,但经100℃高温处理失去抑菌活性.3株乳酸菌产生的抑菌物质对胰蛋白酶敏感,在偏中性条件下抑菌活性较高.

  11. Biological characteristics of two lactic acid bacteria from orange-spotted grouper(Epinephelus coioides)larvae%2株鱼源乳酸菌的生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红玲; 孙云章; 叶继丹; 常建波; 陈政强; 林文燕

    2008-01-01

    [目的]研究2株鱼源乳酸菌的生物学特性,为石斑鱼高效益生菌株的筛选提供试验依据.[方法] 体外检测乳酸菌EA-1和Y4-2产乳酸及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的能力,以及2菌株对不同pH值、胆盐、胃蛋白酶和高温的耐受能力.[结果] 菌株EA-1和Y4-2均具有较强的产乳酸能力,培养液中的乳酸含量在96 h内随培养时间延长呈上升趋势,EA-1产乳酸速度相对较快.菌株EA-1和Y4-2均能在培养24 h后产生活性稳定的SOD,培养48 h后EA-1产生的SOD活性显著高于Y4-2(P<0.05).菌株EA-1和Y4-2 经pH 2.5~4.5处理4 h后存活数维持在106 mL-1以上,菌株Y4-2对pH 1.5低酸环境的耐受能力强于EA-1.2菌株在1 g/L胆盐质量浓度下存活数均较高;胆盐质量浓度达到2 g/L时,EA-1和Y4-2的存活数可维持在105 mL-1以上,提示2菌株对≤2 g/L的胆盐具有一定的耐受性.经4~10 g/L的蛋白酶处理30 min后,EA-1和Y4-2的存活数均维持在106 mL-1以上.经60 ℃处理30 min后EA-1和Y4-2的存活数均维持在106 mL-1以上, Y4-2对80 ℃高温的耐受能力较EA-1强,说明EA-1和Y4-2有一定的热耐受性.[结论] EA-1和Y4-2产乳酸和SOD能力均较强,且对低pH值、高胆盐、胃蛋白酶和高温具有一定的耐受能力.

  12. 斜带石斑鱼种苗转饵模式研究%Weaning of Orange-spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Larvae by Means of Different Feeding Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晖; 陈刚; 孙坤刚

    2016-01-01

    对36日龄平均体质量(0.21±0.01)g的斜带石斑鱼种苗的转饵模式进行研究.设计5种转饵模式:转饵1组前10 d投喂生物饵料,然后转投配合饲料;转饵2、转饵3和转饵4组前10 d进行联合投喂(转饵2:25%配合饲料+75%生物饵料;转饵3:50%配合饲料+50%生物饵料;转饵4:75%配合饲料+25%生物饵料),然后转投配合饲料;转饵5组直接投喂配合饲料;转饵试验至种苗60日龄结束.试验结果表明,由于鱼体长度变异系数显著高于其他各组(P<0.05),转饵4组试验鱼死亡率最高,而其他各组之间差异不显著(P>0.05);试验结束时,转饵1组试验鱼体质量和质量增加率最低,显著低于其他各组(P<0.05),而转饵2组又显著低于转饵4和转饵5组(P<0.05);转饵1组种苗36-45日龄的特定生长率显著低于其他各组(P<0.05),而46-60日龄的特定生长率显著高于其他各组(P<0.05).转饵试验结束后,各组种苗全鱼水分和粗蛋白含量差异不显著(P>0.05),转饵5组种苗全鱼粗脂肪含量显著低于其他各组(P<0.05).综合比较各项指标,转饵3的模式种苗质量增加率较高而死亡率较低,是本研究中效果较好的转饵模式.

  13. 斜带石斑鱼3种致病性弧菌的分子生物学鉴定%Molecular classification of three kinds of pathogenic Vibrios in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁求; 白俊杰; 吴淑勤; 劳海华; 石存斌; 潘厚军; 叶星; 简清

    2005-01-01

    从患病斜带石斑鱼分离到3株病原菌EcGS020802、EcGS021001、EcGS020801,经常规生理生化鉴定均属于弧菌属的种类.为了进一步确定其分类地位,测定了3株病原菌的16S rRNA和HSP60(heat shock protein,HSP60)基因部分序列.16S rRNA基因系统进化分析表明,3株病原菌与哈维氏弧菌、溶藻弧菌、副溶血弧菌亲缘关系较近,相互之间同源性均大于98.6%,差异不明显.HSP60基因序列分析表明,菌株EcGS020802、EcGS021001、EcGS020801 HSP60基因序列分别与哈维氏弧菌(AF230934)、溶藻弧菌(AF230931)、副溶血弧菌(AF230951)HSP60基因的同源性最高,依次为95.7%、99.8%和99.8%,而与其它弧菌HSP60基因的同源性均低于90.6%,3株病原菌相互之间的同源性低于91.0%.HSP60基因构建的系统进化树表明,EcGS020802、EcGS021001、EcGS020801分别与Vibrio harveyi、Vibrio alginolyticus、Vibrio parahaemolyticus聚类.综合上述结果,菌株EcGS020802、EcGS021001、EcGS020801可分别鉴定为哈维氏弧菌、溶藻弧菌、副溶血弧菌.结果表明,HSP60基因比16S rRNA基因更适合用于海水鱼致病性弧菌种间的分类研究.

  14. 斜带石斑鱼淋巴器官个体发育的组织学%Ontogeny of lymphoid organs in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金英; 林浩然

    2003-01-01

    本文应用连续组织切片技术和组织学观察,对出膜后l~60天的斜带石斑鱼(Epznephelus coioides)各期仔鱼、稚鱼和幼鱼的淋巴器官组织进行了研究,描述了淋巴器官的个体发育过程和组织学结构特征.研究表明:实验水温为22.0~27.8℃时,孵化后第10天出现头肾原基.头肾原基由未分化的造血干细胞组成.随着鱼体的生长,头肾原基的造血干细胞很快分化成不同类型的细胞;头肾主要由网状内皮系统支持下的淋巴造血组织构成.第11天出现脾脏原基.脾脏原基由造血细胞组成,淋巴化速度相对较慢.脾脏在整个发育过程中,红细胞和类红细胞占优势,没有红髓和白髓之分.第13天出现胸腺原基.胸腺发育速度较快,是明显的淋巴器官.胸腺主要由胸腺细胞(淋巴细胞)和上皮细胞组成,外区和内区没有明显的界限,但很容易区分.胸腺外被单层的上皮细胞层与咽腔相隔,保持浅表的位置,并且在整个发育过程中,胸腺与头肾是独立分开的.免疫器官原基出现顺序是头肾、脾脏和胸腺;而免疫器官淋巴化的顺序是胸腺,头肾和脾脏.和其它硬骨鱼类一样,斜带石斑鱼在早期发育阶段,淋巴器官的发育较迟,出现相对滞后的现象[动物学报49(6):819~828,2003].

  15. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of (B-cell lymphoma-2 associated X protein) Bax in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Sun, Zuo-Ming; Xie, Fu-Xing; Kong, Jing-Rong; Liu, Yuan; Cheng, Chang-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Bax is a pro-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 like superfamily, playing an important role in regulating the apoptosis. In this study, the full-length Bax (EcBax) was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 64 bp, an ORF of 579 bp and a 3'UTR of 1021 bp. The EcBax gene encoded a polypeptide of 192 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 21.55 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.75. The deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that EcBax comprised the conserved residues and the characteristic domains known to the critical function of Bax. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that EcBax mRNA was broadly expressed in all of the examined tissues, while the highest expression level was observed in blood, followed by the expression in liver, gill, spleen, kidney, heart, muscle and intestine. A sharp increase of EcBax expression was observed in the vibrio challenge group by comparing with those in the control. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that EcBax was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. EcBax exerted a regulatory role in modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, promoting the cytochrome c release, and then activating the downstream caspase signaling. Moreover, the overexpression of EcBax can decrease the cell viability and antagonize NF-kB, AP-1, Stat3 promoter activity in Hela cells. These results indicate that EcBax containing the conserved domain of pro-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family may disrupt the mammalian signaling and play a regulative role in the apoptotic process.

  16. 斜带石斑鱼PACAP的原核表达及活性分析%The prokaryotic expression and biological activity of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in groupers Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江湧; 李文笙; 林浩然

    2005-01-01

    自1989年从绵羊下丘脑提取物发现垂体腺苷酸环化酶激活多肽(Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide,PACAP)以来(Miyata et al.,1989),已证明它能促进垂体激素释放,同时还具有神经递质、神经调质和神经营养等作用,使对PACAP的研究成为十分活跃的领域。PACAP属于血管活性肠肽(VIP)-胰高血糖素-生长激素释放因子-分泌素家族(Campbell and Scanes,1992)成员,已鉴别出包含27和38个氨基酸两种类型。对原索动物(McRory et al.,1997)、两栖类(蛙)(Alexandre et al.,2000)、爬行类(蜥蜴)(Pohland Wank,1998)、鸟类(鸡)(McRory et al.,1997),啮齿类(鼠)(Ghatei et al.,1993)等脊椎动物PACAP的研究多集中在结构与进化方面,对功能了解甚少。

  17. Mesotelioma pleural en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Maineri-Hidalgo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El mesotelioma es una neoplasia originada en las membranas serosas que tapizan las cavidades celómicas y recubren las vísceras que contienen, cuyo desarrollo se ha relacionado con la exposición al asbesto. El presente estudio describe las características de los casos de mesotelioma pleural diagnosticados en los 3 hospitales nacionales de adultos de Costa Rica. Se revisaron los archivos de patología de los 3 hospitales nacionales generales del Seguro Social de Costa Rica y se encontraron 29 casos reportados de mesotelioma pleural, durante el período comprendido entre 1972 y 2002. Se estimó una tasa para 2002, de 1 caso por cada 2 millones de habitantes. Quince casos estudiados fueron mujeres y 14, hombres, con una edad promedio de 54 años. La presentación clínica fue, en 20 casos, derrame pleural, y los síntomas más frecuentes fueron disnea, dolor torácico, tos, fiebre y deterioro del estado general. La enfermedad se detectó en todos los pacientes por radiografía de tórax y el método para obtener la muestra para diagnóstico histológico, en 15 casos, fue la toracotomía; en 8, la biopsia pleural; en 4, la toracoscopía, y en 2, la autopsia. En 5 casos la biopsia pleural fue reportada inicialmente como adenocarcinoma. El diagnóstico histológico fue de mesoteliomas fibrosos en 16, (10 malignos y 6 benignos; 11 mesoteliomas epiteliales, todos malignos, y 2 mesoteliomas mixtos malignos. El tratamiento en los casos benignos fue cirugía y ninguno recidivó. Dos casos de mesoteliomas malignos se resecaron, uno de ellos con una neumonectomía extrapleural con pericardiectomía y resección del diafragma, pero la supervivencia no fue mejor que del resto de los malignos, ya que ningún caso superó los 6 meses. La quimioterapia y la radioterapia tampoco demostraron mejorar significativamente la evolución de la enfermedad.

  18. Two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Mycteroperca spp. (Serranidae) in the North-West Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2016-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from two species of Mycteroperca Gill (Serranidae), marine perciform fishes, in coastal waters off Florida, USA: Philometra deburonae n. sp. from the inner side of operculum of the yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa (L.) and P. incognita n. sp. from the ovary of the gag M. microlepis (Goode & Bean). Philometra deburonae n. sp. is mainly characterised by the body length of males (1.90-2.38 mm), the length of the spicules (78-84 µm) and gubernaculum (54 µm) and the presence of small outer cephalic papillae, a pair of fairly large caudal projections and the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly beyond the nerve-ring in subgravid females. Philometra incognita n. sp. is distinguished by the caudal mound consisting of two lateral reniform parts widely separated dorsally from each other, the absence of a pair of large papillae situated posteriorly to the cloaca, the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum plus the lengths of the spicules (117-141 µm) and gubernaculum (60-81 µm) in the male, the absence of caudal projections and the comparatively large larvae in the uterus (660-675 µm long) of the gravid female, as well as, the body length of both males (2.45-3.11 mm) and gravid females (120-180 mm). The present descriptions of an additional two new philometrids increases the number of recorded nominal species of Philometra parasitising groupers (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico to nine.

  19. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie M. Castillo S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de detección y de atención temprana a nivel institucional, en lo que respecta a la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social como ente responsable de llevar a cabo los mismos. El adecuado conocimiento y uso de los programas pretende una disminución en la morbimortalidad de la misma,y su aplicación se hace obligatoria para el manejo de pacientes en atención primaria.

  20. Monitoraggio del relitto della nave Costa Concordia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Toppi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In seguito al disastro della Costa Concordia, le autorità locali e la Protezione Civile, che guidarono le operazioni di salvataggio, contattano il topografo Mauro Alessandroni e gli conferiscono l’incarico di monitorare gli eventuali movimenti della nave, per garantire l’incolumità delle squadre di soccorso durante la ricerca di superstiti intrappolati nel relitto.Costa Concordia wreck monitoringIn the aftermath of the Costa Concordia disaster, local authoritiesand the Civil Protection, leading the rescue operation,contacted the surveyor Mauro Alessandroni to monitor anymovement of the ship, to ensure the safety of teams assistanceduring the search for survivors trapped in the wreck.

  1. Analysis of RAPD and mitochondrial Cyt b gene sequences of three cultured stocks of Epinephelus coioides from Guangdong Province%广东沿海3个斜带石斑鱼养殖群体的RAPD和线粒体Cytb基因序列变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴汉; 郭梁; 李明明; 蒙子宁; 林浩然

    2014-01-01

    Epinephelus coioides is an important mariculture commercial fish in South China. In recent years,due to excessive fishing and rapid expansion of artificial breeding,the natural resources of E. coioides have declined and their genetic diversity has decreased. We applied random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD)and mitochondrial cytochrome b(Cyt b)gene sequences analyzing technique to three cultured stocks of E. coioides sampled from Huizhou,Shenzhen and Zhanjiang. The main results show that:1)RAPD analysis might be more sensitive than mitochondrial Cyt b gene sequence to reveal genetic variations of E. coioides;2)Compared with the other reported groupers,the genetic diversity of E. coioides might be affected by overfishing and aquaculture. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 40. 57% according to RAPD analysis;3)The genetic identity was 0. 967 1 ~ 0. 980 8 according to RAPD analysis and the nu-cleotide diversity of Cyt b was only 0. 003 8. Small differentiation and similar genetic background were observed among E. coioides stocks. Furthermore,we explored the characteristics of mitochondrial Cyt b of E. coioides and put forward some suggestions and coun-termeasures for protecting genetic diversity of E. coioides.%斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)为中国南方重要的海水增养殖经济鱼类,但过度捕捞和人工养殖的快速扩张导致了其自然资源衰退和遗传多样性降低。文章采用随机扩增多态 DNA(RAPD)和线粒体细胞色素 b(Cyt b)基因序列分析方法,对惠州、深圳和湛江3个斜带石斑鱼养殖群体进行了遗传多样性状况和遗传差异的研究。结果表明:1)相比较于线粒体 Cyt b 基因序列分析,RAPD 技术在研究斜带石斑鱼种内遗传变异方面具有更高的灵敏性和多态性;2)相比较于其他已经报道的石斑鱼类,斜带石斑鱼的遗传多样性较低,RAPD 检测到的多态位点百分率(P)为40.57%,究其原因,可能是受过

  2. A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Schoelinck

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets.We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods.Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously. Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific.The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since

  3. Mesotelioma pleural en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Maineri-Hidalgo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El mesotelioma es una neoplasia originada en las membranas serosas que tapizan las cavidades celómicas y recubren las vísceras que contienen, cuyo desarrollo se ha relacionado con la exposición al asbesto. El presente estudio describe las características de los casos de mesotelioma pleural diagnosticados en los 3 hospitales nacionales de adultos de Costa Rica. Se revisaron los archivos de patología de los 3 hospitales nacionales generales del Seguro Social de Costa Rica y se encontraron 29 casos reportados de mesotelioma pleural, durante el período comprendido entre 1972 y 2002. Se estimó una tasa para 2002, de 1 caso por cada 2 millones de habitantes. Quince casos estudiados fueron mujeres y 14, hombres, con una edad promedio de 54 años. La presentación clínica fue, en 20 casos, derrame pleural, y los síntomas más frecuentes fueron disnea, dolor torácico, tos, fiebre y deterioro del estado general. La enfermedad se detectó en todos los pacientes por radiografía de tórax y el método para obtener la muestra para diagnóstico histológico, en 15 casos, fue la toracotomía; en 8, la biopsia pleural; en 4, la toracoscopía, y en 2, la autopsia. En 5 casos la biopsia pleural fue reportada inicialmente como adenocarcinoma. El diagnóstico histológico fue de mesoteliomas fibrosos en 16, (10 malignos y 6 benignos; 11 mesoteliomas epiteliales, todos malignos, y 2 mesoteliomas mixtos malignos. El tratamiento en los casos benignos fue cirugía y ninguno recidivó. Dos casos de mesoteliomas malignos se resecaron, uno de ellos con una neumonectomía extrapleural con pericardiectomía y resección del diafragma, pero la supervivencia no fue mejor que del resto de los malignos, ya que ningún caso superó los 6 meses. La quimioterapia y la radioterapia tampoco demostraron mejorar significativamente la evolución de la enfermedad.After reviewing the pathology service archives of the 3 national general hospitals of the Costarrican Social

  4. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  5. UII and UT in grouper: cloning and effects on the transcription of hormones related to growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caiyun; Duan, Da; Li, Bo; Qin, Chaobin; Jia, Jirong; Wang, Bin; Dong, Haiyan; Li, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Urotensin II (UII) is a cyclic peptide that was originally extracted from the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) of fish. UII is well known to exhibit cardiovascular, ventilatory, and motor effects in vertebrates. Studies have reported that UII exerts mitogenic effects and can act as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor in mammals. However, similar information in fish is limited. In this study, the full-length cDNAs of UII and its receptor (UT) were cloned and characterized in the orange-spotted grouper. UII and UT were expressed ubiquitously in various tissues in grouper, and particularly high levels were observed in the CNSS, CNS, and ovary. A functional study showed that UT was coupled with intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in HEK293 cells. Studies carried out using i.p. injections of UII in grouper showed the following: i) in the hypothalamus, UII can significantly stimulate the mRNA expression of ghrh and simultaneously inhibit the mRNA expression of somatostatin 1 (ss1) and ss2 3 h after injection; ii) in the pituitary, UII also significantly induced the mRNA expression of gh 6 and 12  h after injection; and iii) in the liver, the mRNA expression levels of ghr1/ghr2 and igf1/igf2 were markedly increased 12 and 3  h after the i.p. injection of UII respectively. These results collectively indicate that the UII/UT system may play a role in the promotion of the growth of the orange-spotted grouper.

  6. Selection and characterization of novel DNA aptamers specifically recognized by Singapore grouper iridovirus-infected fish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Wei, Shina; Zhou, Lingli; Yang, Min; Yu, Yepin; Wei, Jingguang; Jiang, Guohua; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-11-01

    Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is a major viral pathogen of grouper aquaculture, and has caused heavy economic losses in China and South-east Asia. In this study, we generated four ssDNA aptamers against SGIV-infected grouper spleen (GS) cells using SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology. Four aptamers exhibited high affinity to SGIV-infected GS cells, in particular the Q2 aptamer. Q2 had a binding affinity of 12.09 nM, the highest of the four aptamers. These aptamers also recognized SGIV-infected tissues with high levels of specificity. Protease treatment and flow cytometry analysis of SGIV-infected cells revealed that the target molecules of the Q3, Q4 and Q5 aptamers were trypsin-sensitive proteins, whilst the target molecules of Q2 might be membrane lipids or surface proteins that were not trypsin-sensitive. The generated aptamers appeared to inhibit SGIV infection in vitro. Aptamer Q2 conferred the highest levels of protection against SGIV and was able to inhibit SGIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Q2 was efficiently internalized by SGIV-infected GS cells and localized at the viral assembly sites. Our results demonstrated that the four novel aptamers we generated were specific for SGIV-infected cells and could potentially be applied as rapid molecular diagnostic test reagents or therapeutic drugs targeting SGIV.

  7. Metates and Hallucinogens in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Jones

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Metates are grinding stones on which corn and other substances are ground with hand-held stones called manos. A clue that grinding stones were associated with mushroom rituals is, for example, provided by a tripod metate from NW Costa Rica belonging to the period of the 2nd or 3rd century AD.

  8. Entrevista com Horácio Costa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geylson Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2012v1n29p213   Entrevista com Horácio Costa a respeito da tradução do poeta José Gorostiza e de outras questões da tradução da literatura mexicana no Brasil.

  9. Mujer inmigrante: de Nicaragua a Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo analiza el proceso migratorio de la mujer nicaragüense en Costa Rica. Se hace un recuentohistórico del fenómeno migratorio femenino nicaragüense; así como expone el caso de la inmigración enla región pacífica, del país.

  10. Musgos de Costa Rica : nuevos registros

    OpenAIRE

    Arrocha, Clotilde

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of mosses are reported as new to Costa Rica, five of those are new to Central America. These are: Paraleucobryum albicans (Schwaegr.) Loeske, Philonotis elongata (Dism.) Crum & Steere, Leskeodon cubensis (Mitt.) Thér., Hookeriopsis dimorpha (C.M.) Broth. and Isopterygium machrisianum (Crum) Irel.

  11. 一例引起青石斑鱼严重死亡的病因探讨%On the Pathogeny Causing Serious Mortality of Epinephelus Awoara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪彦忄音; 许斌福; 林天龙; 郭果为

    2001-01-01

    In a case of virus, bacteria and parasites infection causing serious mortality of Epinephelus awoara cultured in net pens at Luoyuan, Fujian province, a kind of virus found in the spleen was considered as the main factor of the mortality. Under the electronic microscope, the virus is a polyhedron with a hexagonal section. The diameter of the polyhedron is about 200 nm. The appearance is similar to Iridovirus and Siniperca chuastsi virus. This is the first report of the infection of this kind of virus that causes serious mortality of Epinephelus awoara.%在福建罗源一例寄生虫、细菌、病毒综合感染引起的青石斑鱼Epinephelus awoara严重死亡的病例中,发现一种寄生于病鱼脾脏的病毒可能是引起死亡的主要致病因子.经电镜观察,这种病毒粒子为多面球状体,其平面观为六角形,大小约200 nm,类似于真鲷虹彩病毒(Iridovirus)和鳜病毒(Siniperca chuastsi virus).青石斑鱼感染该病毒而引起严重死亡的病例目前尚未见报导.

  12. 促性腺激素释放激素及多巴胺对斜带石斑鱼生长激素分泌及其mRNA表达的调控%Stimulatory effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and dopamine on growth hormone release and growth hormone mRNA expression in Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉雪琴; 李文笙; 林浩然

    2004-01-01

    研究斜带石斑鱼生长激素分泌及其mRNA表达的调控规律对于性别分化的控制、临床药物的选择,以及石斑鱼的增养殖等均具有重要的理论意义和实践意义.本文应用静态孵育系统,采用放射免疫测定法和化学发光液相杂交实验,研究GnRH和DA对斜带石斑鱼GH分泌、GH mRNA合成的调控作用.100 nmol/L sGnRH作用斜带石斑鱼脑垂体碎片1~24 h,明显促进GH的释放和GH mRNA的合成,并具有时间依存性;10 nmol/L~1μmol/L sGnRH作用1 h能明显促进斜带石斑鱼脑垂体释放GH,促进GH mRNA的合成,表现出明显的剂量效应.100 nmol/L、1μmol/L mGnRH作用1 h以一定的剂量依存方式促进GH的释放、促进GH mRNA的合成,但mGnRH的效应比相应剂量的sGnRH的作用弱.APO为DA受体的非选择性激动剂,不同剂量APO对斜带石斑鱼脑垂体碎片的作用结果显示,10 nmol/L~lμmol/L APO以剂量依存方式促进斜带石斑鱼脑垂体碎片释放GH、促进GH mRNA的合成;1μmol/L APO作用12 h以上明显促进GH的释放和GH mRNA的合成,并随时间的延长而增加.与sGnRH对斜带石斑鱼GH释放、GH mRNA合成的作用相比,APO的作用较弱.本文研究结果证实GnRH和DA能促进斜带石斑鱼脑垂体GH释放和GH mRNA合成.%Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and dopamine (DA) can stimulate growth hormone (GH) release, but their effects on GH mRNA synthesis are controversial and deficient in fish. Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) is a hermaphroditic marine fish with sex reversal. Few data are available concerning the regulation of GH in grouper. In the present study, the effects of GnRH and DA on GH release and GH mRNA expression were determined using pituitary fragments of orange-spotted grouper under static culture conditions. After incubation from 1 h to 24 h, salmon GnRH (sGnRH, 100 nmol/L) stimulated the release of GH and increased the level of GH mRNA time-dependently. The minimum duration of s

  13. Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Johnston

    Full Text Available The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles, which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species.

  14. LANDSLIDES CAUSED BY THE CINCHONA, COSTA RICA EARTHQUAKE OF 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Barrantes-Castillo, Gustavo; Jiménez-Campos, Cristina; Ocón-García, María José

    2014-01-01

    On January 8, 2009, an earthquake in Costa Rica caused many landslides, resulting in severe environmental and social damage. The cloudiness of the affected area allowed only approximate mapping of area. Collaboration between the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) and the School of Geographic Sciences at National University of Costa Rica (UNA) made it possible to take a detailed inventory of the landslides through image analysis via Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). A compre...

  15. Planning for tourism in Costa Smeralda

    OpenAIRE

    Cappai, Alesandra

    2012-01-01

    Studying tourism planning means understanding and assuming that tourism is not just a flux of tourists who move without leaving a trace, but a motor that physically transforms the territory due to the need to build infrastructure and tourist accommodation like hotels, second homes, attractions etc, which have contributed to major changes in previously untouched territories. Among them, the Costa Smeralda resort represents the most iconic and best known tourist destination of Sardinia. In...

  16. Biovisualizador: Visualizando los anfibios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Hernández Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Biovisualizador es una novedosa herramienta con una interfaz tridimensional, orientada al público en general, para presentar información sobre especies de Costa Rica mediante el uso de árboles de conos. El Biovisualizador es producto de investigaciones llevadas a cabo conjuntamente en el (ITCR Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica y en el (INBio Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, dentro del marco de la cátedra UNESCO en Bioinformática, en el tema específico de diseño de interfaces tridimensionales para visualización científica. En este artículo se describe la herramienta en función de una aplicación particular que consiste en un ambiente tridimensional interactivo para visualizar y hacer informes sobre todos los anfibios de Costa Rica.

  17. Dispersal of grouper larvae drives local resource sharing in a coral reef fishery

    KAUST Repository

    Almany, Glenn R.

    2013-04-01

    In many tropical nations, fisheries management requires a community-based approach because small customary marine tenure areas define the spatial scale of management [1]. However, the fate of larvae originating from a community\\'s tenure is unknown, and thus the degree to which a community can expect their management actions to replenish the fisheries within their tenure is unclear [2, 3]. Furthermore, whether and how much larval dispersal links tenure areas can provide a strong basis for cooperative management [4, 5]. Using genetic parentage analysis, we measured larval dispersal from a single, managed spawning aggregation of squaretail coral grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) and determined its contribution to fisheries replenishment within five community tenure areas up to 33 km from the aggregation at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. Within the community tenure area containing the aggregation, 17%-25% of juveniles were produced by the aggregation. In four adjacent tenure areas, 6%-17% of juveniles were from the aggregation. Larval dispersal kernels predict that 50% of larvae settled within 14 km of the aggregation. These results strongly suggest that both local and cooperative management actions can provide fisheries benefits to communities over small spatial scales. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Dispersal of grouper larvae drives local resource sharing in a coral reef fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R; Hamilton, Richard J; Bode, Michael; Matawai, Manuai; Potuku, Tapas; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Planes, Serge; Berumen, Michael L; Rhodes, Kevin L; Thorrold, Simon R; Russ, Garry R; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-08

    In many tropical nations, fisheries management requires a community-based approach because small customary marine tenure areas define the spatial scale of management [1]. However, the fate of larvae originating from a community's tenure is unknown, and thus the degree to which a community can expect their management actions to replenish the fisheries within their tenure is unclear [2, 3]. Furthermore, whether and how much larval dispersal links tenure areas can provide a strong basis for cooperative management [4, 5]. Using genetic parentage analysis, we measured larval dispersal from a single, managed spawning aggregation of squaretail coral grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) and determined its contribution to fisheries replenishment within five community tenure areas up to 33 km from the aggregation at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. Within the community tenure area containing the aggregation, 17%-25% of juveniles were produced by the aggregation. In four adjacent tenure areas, 6%-17% of juveniles were from the aggregation. Larval dispersal kernels predict that 50% of larvae settled within 14 km of the aggregation. These results strongly suggest that both local and cooperative management actions can provide fisheries benefits to communities over small spatial scales.

  19. MS2Grouper: Group Assessment and Synthetic Replacement of Duplicate Proteomic Tandem Mass Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabb, Dave L [ORNL; Thompson, Melissa R [ORNL; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics experiments require the collection of thousands of tandem mass spectra; these sets of data will continue to grow as new instruments become available that can scan at even higher rates. Such data contain substantial amounts of redundancy with spectra from a particular peptide being acquired many times during a single LC-MS/MS experiment. In this article, we present MS2Grouper, an algorithm that detects spectral duplication, assesses groups of related spectra, and replaces these groups with synthetic representative spectra. Errors in detecting spectral similarity are corrected using a paraclique criterion -- spectra are only assessed as groups if they are part of a clique of at least three completely interrelated spectra or are subsequently added to such cliques by being similar to all but one of the clique members. A greedy algorithm constructs a representative spectrum for each group by iteratively removing the tallest peaks from the spectral collection and matching to peaks in the other spectra. This strategy is shown to be effective in reducing spectral counts by up to 20% in LC-MS/MS datasets from protein standard mixtures and proteomes, reducing database search times without a concomitant reduction in identified peptides.

  20. 中药和泰药提取物对褐点石斑鱼的免疫效果%Natural Immunostimulants from Chinese herbal Medicine and Thai Medicine for Brown Spotted Grouper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴小连; Jumroensri Thawonsuwan; 李宏; Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit; 王世锋; 郭伟良; 周永灿; 谢珍玉

    2012-01-01

    采用酒精萃取法,从8种中药和2种泰药中提取了有效成分,并通过氮蓝四唑(NBT)还原法检测了褐点石斑鱼(Epinephelus fuscoguttatus)白细胞产生氧负离子能力的强弱和吞噬活性,开展了以上药物对褐点石斑鱼的免疫效果研究.白细胞氧负离子检测的结果表明:当药物萃取物质量浓度为10 g·L-1时,香菇组(C4)的免疫效果最好;当药物萃取物质量浓度为5g·L-1时,所有实验组的免疫效果均不明显;当药物萃取物质量浓度为2.5 g·L-1和1.25g·L-1时,黄芪组(C3)、香菇组(C4)、红参组(C5)和复方1组(C7)的免疫效果最为突出:而当药物萃取物质量浓度为0.625 g·L-1时,黄芪组(C3)、杜仲组(C2)和姜黄组(T1)的免疫效果最为突出.白细胞吞噬活性的检测结果表明:红参组(C5)、香菇组(C4)、黄芪组(C3)及复方1组(C7)这4个试验组的白细胞吞噬活性极显著高于对照组(P<0.01).因此认为:红参、香菇、黄芪及生脉玉屏风散这4种药物的萃取物能明显提高褐点石斑鱼的非特异性免疫力,这为今后开展褐点石斑鱼的新型安全的免疫增加剂的研究奠定了良好基础.%In our report, ethyl alcohol extraction method were performed to extract active ingredients from eight kinds of Chinese herb medicine ( Epimedium herb (Epimedium sagittatum) , Eucommia bark (Eucommia ud-moides), Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus), Lentinan (Lentinus edodes) , Radix ginseng rubra (Pa-nax ginseng) , Five leaf Gynostemma herb (Gyrwstemma pentaphyllum), compound 1 (Shengmai Yu Ping Feng San) , and compound2 (Shi Quail Da Bu Tang) ) and two kinds of Thai medicine (Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Fahtalaijons (Andrographis paniculata) ); tetrazolium ( NBT) reduction methods were performed to determine the production of superoxide anion and phagocytic activity of its white blood cell and analyze its immune effects for brown-spotted groupe (Epinephelus fuscoglltalus). The results indicated

  1. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Glugea arabica n. sp. (Microsporidia), infecting the marine fish Epinephelus polyphekadion from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carlos; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Rocha, Sónia; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Casal, Graça

    2016-02-01

    A new microsporidian species, Glugea arabica n. sp., is reported infecting the intestinal wall of the marine teleost Epinephelus polyphekadion (=microdon) collected from the Red Sea coast off Saudi Arabia, and described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. Spherical blackish xenomas formed parasitophorous vacuoles completely packed with several parasitic developmental stages, including spores. The nuclei were monokaryotic in all developmental stages. Spores were ellipsoidal to pyriform and measured 6.3 ± 0.3 (5.9-6.6) μm in length and 3.3 ± 0.4 (2.9-3.7) μm in width. A lamellar polaroplast surrounded the uncoiled portion of the polar filament, which extended into the spore's posterior pole and formed 27-29 coils organized in three or four rows. The posterior vacuole, located at the spore's posterior pole, appeared surrounded by the polar filament coils and displayed an irregular matrix composed of light material, in which was located the posterosome. Molecular analysis of the rRNA genes, including the ITS region, was performed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methodologies. The ultrastructural features observed, in combination with the molecular data analysed, suggests the parasite to be a new species of the genus Glugea.

  2. 褐点石斑鱼(Epinephelus tauvina)仔鱼的饲养和发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建权

    1980-01-01

    褐点石斑鱼(Epinephelus tauvina)在驯养条件下自然产卵。从孵化后的仔鱼养殖到变态期,投喂的饵科为轮虫、海水丰年虫(Artemia nauplii)、挠足类和碎虾肉。文章对褐点石斑鱼从孵化到变态的各发育期作了描述。孵化时仔鱼的全长为2.25毫米,长到第五十天达31.40毫米。据观察,有二个死亡高峰期:第一次在第四、五天间、即刚开始摄食时,对摄食轮虫不适合;第二次在第二十四~三十五天间、即从摄食海水丰年虫(Artemia nauplii)到摄食挠足类这一转变期间。

  3. [Fatty acid profile of mero (Epinephelus morio) raw and processed oil captured in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira; González-Barrios, Gisela; Acereto-Escoffié, Pablo; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-11-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids are of current interest for their potential to reduce cardiovascular disease, the first cause of death worldwide. By its content of essential fatty acids, fish is one of the food products most in demand among the population. One of the most popular processes for fish consumption in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico is frying. However, studies show that frying food causes changes in the composition generating trans fatty acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile of Mero (Epinephelus morio) crude and processed with different types of commercial oil. The results showed a fat content in raw E. morio of 1.68%. The percentage of oil extracted and absorbed by the product to be fried with corn oil, sunflower/canola, soybean and safflower was found in a range of 2.3-3.93 and 26.95-57.25%, respectively. The lipid profile obtained by GC-MS suggested the formation of trans fatty acids by isomerization and effect of temperature frying. However essential fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids were absorbed by E. morio being fried in sunflower oil and safflower/ canola, respectively.

  4. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  5. Institutional analysis of marine reserves and fisheries governance policy experiments : a case study of Nassau grouper conservation in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management; marine reserves; marine protected areas; social capital; institutional analysis; Turks and Caicos Islands; Nassau grouper Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of ha

  6. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Víctor Hugo Alvarado; Mynor Mora; María Laura Arias; Norman Rojas; Carolina Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los perfiles de resistencia de cepas de S. aureus aisladas de quesos, producidos en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica y de un centro hospitalario de la misma región. Materiales y Métodos...

  7. Mixed Culture of Litopenaeus vannamei and Epinephelus malabaricus and Its Effects%凡纳滨对虾与点带石斑鱼的混养模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嘉晨; 刘建勇; 袁瑞鹏; 胡志国; 尤王海

    2015-01-01

    对凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)与点带石斑鱼(Epinephelus malabaricus)进行90 d 的混养试验,研究点带石斑鱼混养密度、规格对凡纳滨对虾生长、成活率和产量的影响。结果表明,点带石斑鱼混养密度、规格均对凡纳滨对虾生长、成活率和平均产量的影响有统计学意义(P <0.05)。在混养密度相同的条件下,混养小规格点带石斑鱼的凡纳滨对虾成活率比混养大规格点带石斑鱼提高15.1%~23.2%,平均产量比混养大规格点带石斑鱼提高19.0%~40.6%。随着点带石斑鱼混养密度增加,凡纳滨对虾成活率和平均产量呈下降趋势。小规格点带石斑鱼混养密度分别为0.4•尾 m-2时,凡纳滨对虾成活率和平均产量最高,分别为66.25%%±7.24%、(1181.0±101.8)kg,较单一养殖凡纳滨对虾成活率提高5.46%,平均产量提高16.2%;大规格点带石斑鱼混养密度为0.2尾•m-2时,凡纳滨对虾成活率和平均产量最高,分别为(52.04±6.11)%、(959.8±89.1)kg,但较单一养殖凡纳滨对虾成活率下降8.75%,平均产量下降5.88%%Experiment on polyculture of Litopenaeus vannamei with Epinephelus malabaricus has been conducted for 90 days so as to study the influence of polyculture density and size of Epinephelus malabaricus on the growth, survival rate and yield of Litopenaeus vannamei. The results show that polyculture density and size of Epinephelus malabaricus have great effect on the growth, survival rate and yield of Litopenaeus vannamei (P < 0.05). The yield and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei which are cultivated with Epinephelus malabaricus on a small scale are higher than the yield and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei cultivated with Epinephelus malabaricus on a large scale by 15.1% - 23.2% and 19.0% - 40.6% under the same polyculture density. The yield and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei have reduced with the increase of

  8. Edificio Playa, en la Costa del Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, Fernando

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available This apartment block has been built on the Costa del Sol, in Almeria, only a few metres from the seashore. It is meant to provide the following facilities. Changing rooms for bathers, and a night club, in the basement. Restaurant and bar on the ground floor. Twelve living apartments on the six standard floor levels; two apartments per storey. Porter's house in the attic. As the foundations are in the sand, and the building is exposed to strong coastal winds, the structural design has, as interesting features, the foundation ribbed slab and the transversal portal frames, which are W shaped on the ground level. This arrangement makes the edifice look lighter and it acquires a more dynamic plasticity.En la Costa del Sol de Almería y a muy pocos metros de la orilla del mar, se ha construido este edificio de apartamentos. Su programa es el siguiente: casetas de baño y sala de fiestas, en sótano; restaurante-bar, en planta baja; doce viviendas, en las seis plantas tipo, con dos viviendas por planta; y vivienda del portero en ático. Cimentado sobre arena y expuesto a los fuertes vientos que azotan la costa, la solución estructural ofrece el interés de su tipo de cimentación por placa nervada, y de sus pórticos transversales que en planta baja adoptan forma de W, con lo que el edificio adquiere un aspecto de mayor ligereza y de dinamismo plástico.

  9. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    KAUST Repository

    Payet, Samuel D.

    2016-08-05

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  10. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Samuel D.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; DiBattista, Joseph D.; Newman, Stephen J.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-12-01

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor.

  11. Examining Social Adaptations in a Volatile Landscape in Northern Mongolia via the Agent-Based Model Ger Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Clark

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environment of the mountain-steppe-taiga of northern Mongolia is often characterized as marginal because of the high altitude, highly variable precipitation levels, low winter temperatures, and periodic droughts coupled with severe winter storms (known as dzuds. Despite these conditions, herders have inhabited this landscape for thousands of years, and hunter-gatherer-fishers before that. One way in which the risks associated with such a challenging and variable landscape are mitigated is through social networks and inter-family cooperation. We present an agent-based simulation, Ger Grouper, to examine how households have mitigated these risks through cooperation. The Ger Grouper simulation takes into account locational decisions of households, looks at fission/fusion dynamics of households and how those relate to environmental pressures, and assesses how degrees of relatedness can influence sharing of resources during harsh winters. This model, coupled with the traditional archaeological and ethnographic methods, helps shed light on the links between early Mongolian pastoralist adaptations and the environment. While preliminary results are promising, it is hoped that further development of this model will be able to characterize changing land-use patterns as social and political networks developed.

  12. Entrevista com Alberto da Costa e Silva

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Eliane Veras; Mutzenberg,Remo

    2014-01-01

    Alberto da Costa e Silva é membro da Academia Brasileira de Letras, escritor, historiador e diplomata, Doutor Honoris Causa em Letras pela Universidade Obafemi Awolowo (ex-Universidade de Ifé), da Nigéria, em 1986, e em História pela Universidade Federal Fluminense em 2009. Como diplomata, entre outras atividades, representou o Brasil em numerosas reuniões internacionais, tendo sido delegado do Brasil na reunião da Comissão Econômica das Nações Unidas para a África, em Adis Abeba, em 1961. Fo...

  13. Litispendencia internacional y costas del proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FRANCISCO CARRILLO POZO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The decision on costs of proceedings in cases of international lis pendens can not be an automatic result of the application of the rule that costs follow the event, but must take into account the regulatory environment in which it arises, because there are so many rules on lis pendens as disciplines on international jurisdiction. La condena en costas en los casos de litispendencia internacional no puede ser resultado automático del criterio del vencimiento, sino que debe tener en cuenta el ámbito normativo en el que se plantea, porque existen tantas reglas sobre litispendencia como disciplinas sobre competencia judicial internacional.

  14. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gaby Dolz; Leyda Ábrego; Luis E Romero; Liliana Campos-Calderón; Laura Bouza-Mora; Ana E Jiménez-Rocha

    2013-01-01

    La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Vete...

  15. HISTOLOGICAL AND ENZYME HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE TRANSITIONALGONADS OF GIANT GROUPER E. tauvina (PERCIFORMSSERRANIDAE) FROM THE ARABIAN GULF COAST OF SAUDI ARABIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Ahmed Obaid Al-kaabi

    2010-01-01

    The present work was carried out using twenty mature Epinephelus tauvina (Perciforms: Serranidae) collected from Arabian Gulf coast at Dammam City. Fishes of this species are known to undergo sex change during certain stage of their life cycle. Histological and enzyme histochemical studies were performed on gonads of the collected fishes. The examination of the gonads of E. tauvina revealed the presence of three developmental phases during the sex change process. These were: Female, early tra...

  16. (ananas comosus l. en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L. en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en el mes de marzo del 2006, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña ubicadas en tres provincias de Costa Rica. Se realizaron levantamientos de arvenses presentes en cada finca; se describen también las prácticas de manejo que se usan para el control de estas arvenses. Se encontraron 58 especies de arvenses distribuidas en 19 familias botánicas. Se analizó el uso de herbicidas y ciclos de aplicación utilizados para el control de malezas y desecación de residuos de cosecha. Se consideró urgente el desarrollo de alternativas para el control de arvenses y el manejo de los residuos de cosecha en piña.

  17. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, M., E-mail: mauisoiso@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica (Costa Rica); Santos, F., E-mail: fsantosg@gmail.com [Departamento de Control de Calidad y Protección Radiológica, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS) (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica’s adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  18. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Dolz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Veterinaria. A continuación se brinda una revisión sobre los hallazgos obtenidos en investigaciones realizadas en el país para determinar la presencia y distribución de Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Costa Rica. Ehrlichia canis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en el país y es la especie predominante en perros y garrapatas (Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adicionalmente, se ha detectado, aunque en menor porcentaje, la presencia de Anaplasma platys y Anaplsma phagocytophilum en perros y sus garrapatas. También se ha determinado la presencia de A. phagocytophilum en un venado cola blanca, y de E. canis en humanos donadores de bancos de sangre mediante técnica serológica y molecular.

  19. LA DEUDA PUBLICA INTERNA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Conejo Fernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El déficit fiscal es una de las variables macroeconómicas que ha adquirido mayor importancia desde la década de los años ochenta y particularmente en los años noventa, en la economía costarricense. Una consecuencia directa de la existencia de déficits fiscales sostenidos es la acumulación de una deuda pública creciente.Antes de los años ochenta el déficit fiscal en Costa Rica se cubrió fundamentalmente con deduda externa; la cual era de fácil acceso en los mercados financieros internacionales, ante la existencia de una sobre oferta de fondos prestables, generado por los petrodólares. Sin embargo, con la crisis económica que experimentó Costa Rica en los primeros años de la década pasada y con el endurecimiento del acceso al financiamiento externo, el país empezó a recurrir cada vez con más frecuencia al endeudamiento interno.

  20. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  1. Biological characteristics and culture technique of Epinephelus coioides%斜带石斑鱼的生物学特性及养殖技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林超辉

    2007-01-01

    斜带石斑鱼(俗称老虎斑)(Epinephelus coioides)属于鳕科(Serrarildae),石斑鱼属(Epinephelus),英文名为orange-spotted grouper,近两三年取代点带石斑鱼(Epinephelus mabarieus)成为台湾、广东、福建、海南四省的重要养殖鱼类。由于其肉质鲜美、营养丰富、抗逆性强、生长快、体色艳丽,市场价格高且稳定,已越来越受到消费者和养殖者的青睐。近几年来,菲律宾、台湾、香港和我国南方沿海养殖斜带石斑鱼迅速发展,已经成为石斑鱼中的佼佼者。

  2. Integrated transcriptome, proteome and physiology analysis of Epinephelus coioides after exposure to copper nanoparticles or copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Long, Xiaohua; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yuanrui; Liu, Zhaopu; Han, Shiqun; Yan, Shaohua

    2017-03-01

    Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) are components in numerous commercial products, but little is known about the mechanisms of their toxicity to marine fish. Here, we investigated physiology, transcriptome and proteome in Epinephelus coioides after exposure to Cu as Cu-NPs or copper sulfate (CuSO4). Aggregation, oxidation and dissolution of Cu-NPs occurred after suspension in seawater within 24 h. Cu-NPs had similar types of the histology and hematological effects as CuSO4 on E. coioides, but toxicity of Cu-NPs seems more severe than that of CuSO4. Venn diagram analyses revealed 1428 and 2239 genes with significantly altered regulation in, respectively, CuSO4 and Cu-NPs treatments; of these, 911 genes were common to both treatments. A total of 354 and 140 proteins with significantly altered regulation were identified in, respectively, CuSO4 and Cu-NPs treatments; of these, 75 proteins were common to both treatments. A total of 11,417 transcripts and 3210 proteins were assigned to gene ontology terms, clusters of orthologous groups and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. Correlation analysis of gene and protein expressions revealed that 21 differentially expressed proteins had their regulation changed in the same direction in both Cu-NPs and CuSO4 treatments. Those genes and proteins could be used as targets for subsequent analysis, regardless of the Cu form. Among those proteins, one of the most notable changes was in proteins related to lipid transport and metabolism. This study provides an enhanced understanding of E. coioides responses to Cu-NPs or CuSO4.

  3. Erosión en las costas de Costa Rica, un problema de todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizano Rodríguez, Omar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un análisis de las causas que provocan cambios en el mar y por ende producen erosión a nivel general y en las costas costarricenses, como lo es el cambio climático, el fenómeno de El Niño, mal manejo de cuencas hidrográficas, entre otros. Describe las principales evidencias que han encontrado en las playas del Pacifico y del Mar Caribe del país. Expone una serie de conclusiones It presents an analysis of the causes that provoke changes in the sea and cause general erosion and in the Costa Rican coasts, such as the climate change, El Niño phenomenon, and bad administration of the watersheds, among others. It describes the main evidences found at the Pacific beaches and the Caribbean ocean of the country. It presents a series of conclusions

  4. Historia de la dermatología en Costa Rica History of dermatology in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Jaramillo Antillón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En la historia de la medicina, la dermatología tiene grandes contribuciones, sin embargo, para nuestro país existen pocos datos que documenten los apartes de estos excelentes dermatólogos en la salud pública costarricense. Se realizó este estudio, con el objetivo de presentar una revisión histórica del desarrollo de la dermatología en Costa Rica. Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron entrevistas personales y a familiares de los que se mencionan en el documento. Se revisaron memorias de congresos y publicaciones de revistas nacionales e internacionales. Resultados: La dermatología clínica en Costa Rica,se inició en el Hospital San Juan de Dios. El Dr. Emilio Echeverría y Aguilar fue el primer dermatólogo en Costa Rica. El que más influencia tuvo en el desarrollo de la dermatología tropical fue el Dr. Antonio Peña Chavarría. El Dr. Julio César Ovares Arias se destacó como primer Presidente del Colegio de Médicos y Cirujano y primer Director Médico de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social. El Dr. Elfrén Solano Aguilar fue el primer profesor de dermatología, en la Universidad de Costa Rica. El Dr. Orlando Jaramillo Antillón creó el primer programa de posgrado en dermatología. Conclusiones: La dermatología ha cambiado mucho, se inició luchando contra las enfermedades tropicales y nutricionales, actualmente luchamos con el alarmante aumento del cáncer de la piel, enfermedades autoinmunes, síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y enfermedades iatrogénicas medicamentosas. Hemos aprendido de aquellos que nos precedieron en esta especialidad y debemos aprender para poder practicar la ciencia y el arte de la dermatología modernaIntroduction: Throughout medical history, dermatology has made great contributions, although for our country there is little data concerning the contributions made by the excellent dermatologists in Costa Rican public health care. Materials and methods: In order to obtain this

  5. Catalog of crater lakes from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Mora-Amador, R.; González, G.

    2010-12-01

    Costa Rica has a diversity of volcanic crater lakes that can be classified into two groups: hot and cold lakes. The country contains at least 5% of the world's hot lakes. Costa Rica has 2 hot hyperacidic lakes, both of them on active volcanoes, the Rincón de la Vieja (38.0°C, pH = 0 - 1) and the Poás Laguna Caliente (36.1°C - 56°C, pH = 0.55 - 0.74), nowadays the Poás hot lake is the most active crater lake in the world, with more than 200 eruptions only on 2010. One of the most studied cold crater lakes is Irazú (13°C, pH = 3.5), that used to contain bubbling and clear areas of upwelling involving CO2 liberation and subaqueous fumaroles with temperatures up to 50°C, but since 2005 the lake presents an important descend until April 2010 when it disappeared. On February 9, 2003, Irazú's lake underwent a drastic change of color, from clear green to mustard with reddish loops, similar to the color of the waters of Lake Nyos after the gas burst of August 1986. Other studied cold lakes include Botos, Chato, and Tenorio, all at the summit of Quaternary volcanoes as well as Barva and Danta, located in recent pyroclastic cones. Some cold lakes are located in Holocene maar-type explosion craters, among them are Congo, Bosque Alegre, Hule, and Río Cuarto. These last two have undergone repeated rapid reddish color changes over the last 10 years, in association with fish kills and the liberation of apparently sulfurous scents. On March 2010, University of Costa Rica was the host of the 7th Workshop on Volcanic Lakes, part of the Commission of Volcanic Lakes of the IAVCEI, 51 participants from 14 countries attended the workshop; they presented 27 talks and 17 posters, also they visited and sample 4 of the lakes mentioned above (Botos, Irazú, Río Cuarto and Hule). Level of Study: 1: few or no data, 2: regular, 3: acceptable

  6. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  7. LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Armijo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica.This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.

  8. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Álvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Zambrano, Maria L.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Estévez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guatemala and Costa Rica, respectively. Sequencing of gltA fragments identified R. felis genotype URRWXCal2 in samples from both countries, and genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. This is the first report of R. felis in Guatemala and of genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. The extensive presence of this pathogen in countries of Central America stresses the need for increased awareness and diagnosis. PMID:22665618

  9. The 2008 Trade Fairs of China in Costa Rica Opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 Trade Fairs of the People's Republic of China in Costa Rica, host-ed by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, opened grandly on September 11 local time in San Jose International Confer-ence Center.

  10. Costa Rican data synthesis indicates oil, gas potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrientos, J.; Bottazzi, G.; Fernandez, A.; Barboza, G. [Ministry of Environment and Energy, San Jose (Costa Rica). Hydrocarbons Directorate

    1997-05-12

    The hydrocarbon exploration data base in Costa Rica, gathered through various recent periods, indicates promising hydrocarbon potential in the country. During 1980--94, Recope SA, the state petroleum company, performed a series of studies to evaluate the petroleum potential in the whole Costa Rican territory. As a first step, the information compiled during previous studies was re-evaluated, and later new information was collected with the aid of foreign governments and cooperating institutions. A new exploratory era began with the Costa Rican Congress` approval in 1994 of the Hydrocarbon Law, which allows private companies to participate in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This article brings together some highlights about Costa Rica oil potential and gives basic information on future hydrocarbon exploration and development under the regulation of the new Hydrocarbon Law.

  11. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  12. Young Costa Ricans and refugees working together for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque Echeverri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When given the opportunity, young people can work effectively together to promote local integration. A new Network of Young People Without Borders is undertaking a variety of sensitisation and integration activities in Costa Rica.

  13. El arrecife coralino de Punta Cocles, costa Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Fernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe al arrecife de Punta Cocles (Limón, Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen por medio de un muestreo con nueve transectos, paralelos a la costa y por observaciones directas durante buceos a pulmón entre los meses de setiembre y noviembre del 2002. Este arrecife consta aproximadamente de 10.5 hectáreas, en las que se identifican 13 especies de corales, 39 de macroalgas, dos de pastos marinos, dos de zoántidos, una anémona, un coralimorfario y una esponja. Se observa un incremento en la cobertura de corales vivos (16% con respecto a otros años (5% en 1985, y 13.2% en 1995, y una baja cobertura de coral muerto (0.2%. Las macroalgas presentan la cobertura más alta (59%, particularmente las algas pardas con una distribución en parches de Sargassum y Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta constituye una nueva adición para la flora ficológica de Costa Rica. El arrecife de Punta Cocles, funciona como un refugio para los organismos, debido a la ausencia de centros de población y desembocaduras de los ríos, además, del tipo de formación costera, lo que se ve favorecido por la conciencia ambiental que viven cerca del arrecifeThis paper describes the Punta Cocles reef (Limón, Costa Rica. Data were obtained by sampling nine transects along the coast and observations done by skin diving between September and November of 2002. This reef consist of 10.5 hectares, where 13 species of corals, 39 of macroalgae, two of seagrasses, two of zoantids, one anemone, one corallimorpharian, and one sponge were identified. Life coral coverage (16%, was higher than in other years (5% for 1985, and 13.2% for 1995, and death coral coverage was very low (0.2%. Macroalgae have the highest coverage (59%, particularly brown algae with a patchy distribution of Sargassum and Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta is added to the list of marine flora of Costa Rica. The Punta Cocles reef works as a refuge for organisms, because there are no towns

  14. [The bathymetry of Coco's Island, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizano, O G

    2001-12-01

    The bathymetry of Coco's Island (UNESCO Natural and Cultural World Patrimony), located approximately 500 km from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is not well known. It has a high marine biodiversity and also represents a meeting site for many species traveling throughout the Pacific Ocean. The insular shelf is irregular in extension and also in bathymetric features. The northeast limit is defined by the 109.8-128.1 m contours (60-70 fathoms) while the 183 m contour (100 fathoms) practically defines the rest of the island, from which the depth gradient is steep. The maximum extension is to the northeast with a longitude of 13 km. In this context the present limits of the marine park (5 km), are insufficient to protect the whole insular shelf. Current regulation should be modified to prevent fishing activities less than 15 km from the Island.

  15. Perfil de salud ocupacional Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Costa Rica limita al norte con Nicaragua, al sur con Panamá, al oeste con el Océano Pacífico y al este con el Mar Caribe. Su población es de 4 614 489 personas y el 2,4% está compuesta por 8 grupos étnicos que hablan 6 idiomas indígenas. La densidad poblacional es de 84,2 habitantes por km2, siendo la tercera de Centroamérica. Su población urbana representa un 63,5%, con una tasa de migración de 1,1 por mil habitantes, lo que corresponde a la segunda más baja de la región, por encima de Panam...

  16. Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Arias M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica es un análisis crítico del desarrollo agrícola de Costa Rica de los últimos 25 años. La diversificación agrícola que promovió Costa Rica en la década de los ochenta, permitió ampliar la oferta exportable y reducir la vulnerabilidad de la dependencia económica de productos tradicionales, como café y banano. Los retos de la economía global y el establecimiento de tratados comerciales con muchos países, hacen necesario que el país promueva en el sector agrícola la exportación con mayor valor agregado, para lo cual es necesario una modernización y reconversión productiva, ya que el modelo actual está agotado. Debemos mejorar sustancialmente los bienes y servicios que ofrecemos; para este propósito, algunos aspectos como la imagen de marca del país con tradición democrática, respeto a los derechos laborales, así como las buenas prácticas de manejo ambiental, deben publicitarse. Como una herramienta clave para la incorporación de mayor valor agregado a nuestra producción agrícola, debemos promover la inversión en investigación y desarrollo, que históricamente ha sido escasa (0,4% del PIB. En vista de que el Estado Costarricense ha demostrado una incapacidad crónica para impulsar la ciencia y la tecnología como una herramienta para nuestro desarrollo, se propone un estímulo a la inversión privada y el fortalecimiento de una alianza con el Estado y las universidades. Se analiza la conveniencia del fortalecimiento de la autosuficiencia alimentaria y de que las empresas pequeñas y medianas jueguen un papel más activo en la agro-exportación. Respecto a los tratados comerciales que se han venido negociando, se considera la conveniencia para el país, ya que son instrumentos para integrar nuestro quehacer económico a nivel mundial, y nuestro deber es el de luchar para que el sector agropecuario tenga oportunidad de subsistir competitivamente según esas nuevas reglas y

  17. Polio Crisis in Costa Rica: Lessons Learned and Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioconda Vargas-Morúa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation shows some of the consequences of the polio crisis in Costa Rica during the 1950’s, in order to preserve certain attitudes of Costa Ricans back then that are worth remembering: simplicity, solidarity and gratefulness. Hand in hand with highly service-oriented men and women, the country overcame the crisis and built one of the most iconic hospitals in Costa Rica: the National Children’s Hospital. It is worth rescuing the lessons learned and applying them to current times. This historical text was created based on the stories told by people who lived during the times of the crisis, on a 1956 notebook, on documents from the National Archive and the National Health and Social Security Library (BINASSS, for its name in Spanish, the Costa Rican Social Security System (CCSS, for its name in Spanish, Dr. Rodolfo Álvaro Murillo, and San Juan de Dios Hospital.  National and international newspapers were also reviewed. The consulted material confirms how the work of Costa Ricans, led by committed and service-oriented individuals, allowed for the construction of the National Children’s Hospital to take place -an institution that has served the Costa Rican people for fifty years. Costa Ricans also succeeded in eradicating polio long before several other countries around the world. The reactions of people in the 1950’s are lessons of solidarity and humanity that should not be forgotten; they should be remembered in order to value team work over individual work and make sure, no matter what our role in society is, to always stand by common well-being, as mid-century Costa Ricans did by overcoming their personal limitations and acting for the benefit of society.

  18. Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez; Fernando Garc\\u00EDa-Santamar\\u00EDa

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la ...

  19. Principios generales de UNIDROIT. El caso de costa rica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Pérez, Jorge Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The article will discuss aspects related to UNIDROIT’s principles within the respective juridical framework and the acceptance that these principles have had in Costa Rica during this introductory and consolidation phase. Se indicará lo relativo a los principios UNIDROIT en el marcojurídico respetivo y la recepción que ha tenido Costa Rica a estosprincipios, en esta fase de introducción y consolidación.

  20. Developmental Enamel Lesions, classification in Costa Rican Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Knudsen, Gina; Berrocal Salazar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to diagnose and classify developmental enamel lesions in patients examined at the School of Dentistry of the University of Costa Rica and the community of Llano Grande, Cartago. A total of 15 children (age range 9-17) and 2 adults from Costa Rican families were recruited. General medical and dental histories were elicited. Clinical examination was undertaken; dental radiographs and clinical photographs were obtained. Dental defects were classified according to po...

  1. Femicidio en Costa Rica: balance mortal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carcedo Cabañas

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Para muchas mujeres y niñas la familia es el grupo social más violento y el hogar el lugar más peligroso. Si se compara los soldados americanos muertos en la guerra de Vietnam 57685, contra mas de 70000 mujeres asesinadas en los hogares de Vietnam en el mismo periodo se comprende la magnitud de lo que estamos hablando. En Costa Rica, país de paz, de las mujeres que han acudido a pedir ayuda a CEFEMINA, 15% han sido atacadas con armas de fuego, 31 % con arma blanca, 24% con otros objetos. El riesgo de muerte es parte de la vivencia cotidiana de muchas mujeres, 58% han sentido peligro de morir en manos de su agresor, 47% han pensado suicidarse, 48% ha tenido que dejar su hogar por miedo de morir. En el presente estudio se detectan 44 homicidios de mujeres (Femicidio, que no aparecen en los anuarios del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, haciendo del subregistro de agresiones otra forma de hacer violencia contra las mujeres.For many women and young girls, the family circle is the most violent and harmful enviroment to be in. Contrasting more than 70000 women died in their own homes to the 57685 american soldiers who died in Vietnan during the war, we realize this is a big issue. In Costa Rica, land of peace, from all the women to go to CEFEMINA for help, 15% were harmed with gums, 31 % with knifes, 24% with others objects. The risk of dying is part of the daily life of many women, 58% have felt the danger of dying in the hands of their aggressor, 47% consider suicide, 48% have lo leave their homes from fear of dying. In this study we detect 44 cases of homicide of women (Femicide which were not inciuded in the yearbook of the Organismo de lnvestigacion Judicial, thus, making this subregistry, another way to make violence against women.

  2. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-05-19

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  3. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagang Tu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  4. [Species identification of grouper and snapper in Taiwan Strait using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and lab-on-a-chip system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangya; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Weiling; Xu, Dunming; Zhou, Yu

    2011-07-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and lab-on-a-chip system were used to identify grouper and snapper species in Taiwan Strait. A fragment of 464 bp length of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was amplified by PCR and the products were digested with restriction enzymes Dde I , Hae III and NLa III, individually. The fragments generated after digestion were further resolved on the DNA Chip. Eight grouper species and five snapper species were successfully identified. The results demonstrated that PCR-RFLP analysis and lab-on-a-chip system provide a fast, easy, automated, and reliable analysis approach. This approach is potential for the purpose of fish adulteration control.

  5. Glaucoma in Costa Rica: Initial approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chavarría-Soley

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. So far six loci (GLC1A-GLC1F and two genes (TIGR/MYOC and OPTN are involved in the development of juvenile (JOAG and adult onset or chronic primary open angle glaucoma (COAG, while two loci (GLC3A,GLC3B and one gene (CYP1B1 are known for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Here we summarize the results of the first genetic studies of glaucoma in Costa Rica. Nine families: 1 with JOAG, 1 with PCG and 7 with COAG were screened for mutations at the known genes. A10 bp duplication, 1546-1555dupTCATGCCACC, at the CYP1B1 gene, causes, in homozygous state, glaucoma in the consanguineous PCG family. This mutation has been found in different countries and generates an early stop codon that termitates protein synthesis 140 amino acids earlier than the normal allele. In exon 1 of the TIGR/MYOC the innocuous Arg76Lys variant was found in two of the COAG families. In the OPTN gene two variants in the coding region (Thr34Thr, Met 98Lys and 7 intronic changes were found in other Costa Rican glaucoma patients. One of the COAG families was chosen for a genome scan with 379 microsatellite markers and linkage analysis. LOD scores "suggestive" of linkage were obtained for several chromosomal regions. Evidence indicates that hereditary glaucoma in Costa Rica is highly heterogeneous and that further studies in the country will probably disclose some up to now unknown genes responsible for the disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 507-520. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El glaucoma es la segunda causa de ceguera irreversible en el mundo. El componente genético de algunos de los distintos tipos ha sido demostrado: seis loci (GLC1A-GLC1F y dos genes (TIGR/MYOC y OPTN se conocen, hasta ahora, como responsables de la aparición de glaucomas primarios de ángulo abierto tanto del tipo juvenil (JOAG como de l tipo de adultos (COAG. Además, dos

  6. Florecimientos de dinoflagelados nocivos en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribelle Vargas Montero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1979 se han reportado florecimientos de especies de microalgas nocivas (FAN en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, reconociéndose hasta el 2005 al menos 13 taxa de dinoflagelados. En años recientes estos fenómenos se han intensificado tanto espacial como temporalmente, produciéndose discoloraciones casi ininterrumpidas que se extienden por toda la costa produciendo mortalidad de peces y fetidez en el agua. Tales FAN masivos se iniciaron con Pyrodinium bahamense en el 2000, quien perduró por más de un año y en el cual se observaron morfotipos correspondientes a las dos variedades de la especie, coexistiendo junto a Gymnodinium catenatum y ocasionando serios casos de Intoxicación Paralizante por Consumo de Mariscos (IPM. Posteriormente, de septiembre del 2003 hasta junio del 2004, Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides produjo discoloraciones en toda la costa Pacífica, seguidas por manchas extensas de Akasiwo sanguinea y Gymnodinium instriatum. El evento más reciente se observó en junio del 2005 cuando Alexandrium monilatum produjo extensas discoloraciones con cadenas formadas por más de 100 células. Los FAN de dinoflagelados ahora son comunes en las costas de Costa Rica, posiblemente como resultado de las condiciones ambientales actuales que favorecen la proliferación masiva de especies invasivas (agresivas, las cuales incluso pueden afectar otros sitios del Pacífico americano como es el caso de P. bahamense var. compressum que puede desplazarse hasta México, a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico centroamericano a través de la Corriente Costera de Costa Rica y la Corriente Occidental Mexicana.Since 1979 has been reported harmful microalgae blooms (HAB on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, it was identified until 2005 at least 13 taxa of dinoflagellates. In recent years these phenomena have intensified both spatially and temporarily, discolorations occur almost uninterrupted; they are distributed for months and which extend along the

  7. Birthspacing and fertility decline in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Gómez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste trabajo utiliza datos de las Encuestas Comparativas de Fecundidad de América Latina, así como de la Encuesta Mundial de Fecundidad para estudiar las tendencias y diferenciales en el espaciamiento de los nacimientos entre las mujeres alguna vez casadas en Costa Rica durante el período 1945-1974. Una buena parte de la atención se pone en el ritmo de la fecundidad en las etapas umbral, temprana y tardía de la disminución de la fecundidad que este país experimentó durante los años sesenta y principios de los setenta. Los resultados muestran bastante similitud en el tempo de la reproducción en los diferentes niveles paridez y áreas geográficas. Sin embargo, un análisis de las variables del entorno que afectan espaciamiento de los nacimientos muestra diferencias entre las zonas urbanas y rurales. Por último, se postula que el reciente estancamiento en las tasas de período puede ser una consecuencia de los cambios en el tempo de construcción de la familia, con mujeres de baja paridez que postergan los nacimientos, lo que contrarresta las tendencias de descenso que generan las mujeres de mayor paridez quienes aún pueden estar restringiendo su reproducción.ABSTRACTThis paper uses data from the Latin American Comparative Fertility Surveys as well as from the World Fertility Survey to study trends and differentials in birthspacing among ever married women in Costa Rica during the period 1945-1974. A good deal of attention is placed on the pace of fertility in threshold, early and late stages of the fertility decline that this country experienced during the sixties and early seventies. The results show a good deal of similarity in the tempo of reproduction across parities and geographical areas.However, an analysis of the background variables affecting birthspacing shows differences between urban and rural zones. Finally, it is postulated that the recent plateau in period rates may be a consequence of changes in the tempo of

  8. El primer equipo interdisciplinario de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo David Navarro Villalobos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El abuso sexual es un conjunto de actitudes de un sujeto que realiza en detrimento de otro, generalmente menor, para su autosatisfacción. Las estadísticas de los diferentes países apuntan a que se está convirtiendo en una epidemia que nos está asfixiando. La prevención de la revictimización, una política establecida en el Poder Judicial de Costa Rica desde hace más de diez años, dio como fruto la conformación de los equipos interdisciplinarios. Al inicio, estos abarcaron una serie de disciplinas tan disímiles entre sí, que comprendían tanto el derecho, como la medicina, la psicología, el trabajo social y la psiquiatría. Con el paso de los años los equipos se fueron reduciendo hasta quedar conformados por el psicólogo, el trabajador social y el médico forense, que asiste a una reunión semanal con ellos y en donde se discuten las diferentes conclusiones de las tres disciplinas. Hoy en día son equipos establecidos prácticamente en todas las cabeceras de provincia de nuestro país con funciones periciales muy específicas en el tratamiento legal de las causas de los delitos sexuales.Sexual Abuse is series of actitudes of a subject, Which he realize in detriment of other, usually younger, for his self satisfaction. The statistics of differents countries shows that this issue is torning into epidemics amounts ant its suffocating us. Prevention in revictimation is a policy established in Costa Rica for over a decade and for this we has had form interdisciplinary teams. In early times those temas had a lot of uncompatible disciplines soch as team is formed by only three members: the forensic doctor, the psychologist and the social worker, ehom attent to a weekly metting to analize the different conclusions of each especiallist. Actually there are teams established in almost all head of province in our country with percial function well established in the legal treatment of the causes of these crimes.

  9. 斜带石斑鱼TLR3基因的克隆及其在刺激隐核虫感染时的表达分析%MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A TLR3 FROM EPINEPHELUS COIOIDES INFECTED WITH CRYPTOCARYON IRRITANS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔玮; 李言伟; 李安兴

    2012-01-01

    TLR3(Toll like receptor 3)是Toll 样受体家族的重要成员,通过识别病原相关分子模式,诱导宿主天然免疫应答.研究从斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)中克隆得到TLR3 cDNA 序列,全长为2937 bp,包括107bp 的5′非编码区、100 bp 的3′非编码区和编码909 个氨基酸的2730 bp 的开放阅读框.TLR3 全长氨基酸序列包含1 个信号肽、18 个富含亮氨酸的重复序列(Leucine-rich Repeat LRR)、1 个跨膜结构域和1 个胞内TIR结构域(IL-R1 homologous region).同源比对显示,斜带石斑鱼TLR3 与其他已报道硬骨鱼类的TLR3 具有较高的同源性(52%-67%).组织表达分析显示,TLR3 在健康斜带石斑鱼的组织中具有较广的表达分布,其中在前脑、体肾和脾脏中表达量较高.刺激隐核虫(Cryptocaryon irritans)感染斜带石斑鱼后:在皮肤中TLR3的表达量呈现先降低后升高的趋势,从感染后第7 天开始上调,并在第10 天达到高峰;而在脾脏中,TLR3的表达量在感染6h 时就显著上调并达到峰值.结果表明斜带石斑鱼TLR3 在抗刺激隐核虫的免疫应答过程中可能发挥重要作用.%Toll-like receptor (TLR), one family of I type trans-membrane protein, is a kind of well-studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognizing pathogen-association molecular patterns (PAMPs). Mammalian TLR3 is best-known for its recognition of pathogen dsRNA and triggering various innate immune responses against virus infection. In contrast to mammalian TLR3, piscine TLR3 can detect not only virus but also bacterial PAMPs. However, whether piscine TLR3 also involved in host anti-parasite immunity is still poorly understood. In the present study, we first cloned an Epinephelus coioides TLR3 (EcTLR3) cDNA sequence by homology cloning and RACE technique. The full length of EcTLR3 was 2937 bp including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 107 bp, a 3'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 100 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of

  10. The shallow-water fish assemblage of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica: structure and patterns in an isolated, predator-dominated ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Ballesteros, Enric; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Bolaños, Allan; Sala, Enric

    2012-01-01

    Fishes at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, were surveyed as part of a larger scientific expedition to the area in September 2009. The average total biomass of nearshore fishes was 7.8 tonnes per ha, among the largest observed in the tropics, with apex predators such as sharks, jacks, and groupers accounting for nearly 40% of the total biomass. The abundance of reef and pelagic sharks, particularly large aggregations of threatened species such as the scalloped hammerhead shark (up to 42 hammerheads ha-1) and large schools of jacks and snappers show the capacity for high biomass in unfished ecosystems in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. However, the abundance of hammerhead and reef whitetip sharks appears to have been declining since the late 1990s, and likely causes may include increasing fishing pressure on sharks in the region and illegal fishing inside the Park. One Galapagos shark tagged on September 20, 2009 in the Isla del Coco National Park moved 255km southeast towards Malpelo Island in Colombia, when it stopped transmitting. These results contribute to the evidence that sharks conduct large-scale movements between marine protected areas (Isla del Coco, Malpelo, Galápagos) in the Eastern tropical Pacific and emphasize the need for regional-scale management. More than half of the species and 90% of the individuals observed were endemic to the tropical eastern Pacific. These high biomass and endemicity values highlight the uniqueness of the fish assemblage at Isla del Coco and its importance as a global biodiversity hotspot.

  11. The shallow-water fish assemblage of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica: structure and patterns in an isolated, predator-dominated ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Friedlander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fishes at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, were surveyed as part of a larger scientific expedition to the area in September 2009. The average total biomass of nearshore fishes was 7.8 tonnes per ha, among the largest observed in the tropics, with apex predators such as sharks, jacks, and groupers accounting for nearly 40% of the total biomass. The abundance of reef and pelagic sharks, particularly large aggregations of threatened species such as the scalloped hammerhead shark (up to 42 hammerheads ha-1 and large schools of jacks and snappers show the capacity for high biomass in unfished ecosystems in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. However, the abundance of hammerhead and reef whitetip sharks appears to have been declining since the late 1990s, and likely causes may include increasing fishing pressure on sharks in the region and illegal fishing inside the Park. One Galapagos shark tagged on September 20, 2009 in the Isla del Coco National Park moved 255km southeast towards Malpelo Island in Colombia, when it stopped transmitting. These results contribute to the evidence that sharks conduct large-scale movements between marine protected areas (Isla del Coco, Malpelo, Galápagos in the Eastern tropical Pacific and emphasize the need for regional-scale management. More than half of the species and 90% of the individuals observed were endemic to the tropical eastern Pacific. These high biomass and endemicity values highlight the uniqueness of the fish assemblage at Isla del Coco and its importance as a global biodiversity hotspot.

  12. Costa rican international cooperative biodiversity group: using insects and other arthropods in biodiversity prospecting

    OpenAIRE

    Sittenfeld-Appel, Ana; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Jiménez, Allan; Hurtado, Priscilla; Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Guerrero-Bermúdez, Olga Marta; Mora, María Auxiliadora; Rojas, Miguel; Blanco, Roger; Alvarado, Eugenio; Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, José María; Janzen, Daniel Hunt

    1999-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica. Facultad de Microbiología. Departmento Parasitología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto Clodomiro Picado, 1999. Este documento es privado debido a limitaciones de derechos de autor. This paper describes the Costa Rican International Collaborative Biodiversity Group (ICBG), which was designed to introduce insects and other arthropods as a source of pharmaceutical compounds, and to generate knowledge and...

  13. Single-beam acoustic seabed classification in coral reef environments with application to the assessment of grouper and snapper habitat in the upper Florida Keys, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Arthur C. R.

    A single-beam acoustic seabed classification system was used to map coral reef environments in the upper Florida Keys, USA, and the Bahamas. The system consisted of two components, both produced by the Quester Tangent Corporation. A QTCView Series V, operating with a 50 kHz sounder, was used for data acquisition, and IMPACT software was used for data processing and classification. First, methodological aspects of system performance were evaluated. Second, the system was applied to the assessment of grouper and snapper habitat. Two methodological properties were explored: transferability (i.e. mapping the same classes at multiple sites) and reproducibility (i.e. surveying one site multiple times). The transferability results showed that a two-class scheme of hard bottom and sediment could be mapped at four sites with overall accuracy ranging from 73% to 86%. The locations of most misclassified echoes had one of two characteristics: a thin sediment veneer overlying hard bottom or within-footprint relief on the order of 0.5 m or greater. Reproducibility experiments showed that consistency of acoustic classes between repeat transects over the same area on different days varied, for the most part, between 50% and 65%. Consistency increased to between 78% and 92% when clustering was limited to two acoustic classes, to between approximately 70% and 100% when only echoes acquired within two degrees of nadir in the pitch direction were used, and to between 81% and 87% when a limited set of features was used for classification. The assessment of grouper and snapper habitat addressed the question whether areas of high fish abundance were associated with characteristic acoustic or geomorphological signatures. The results showed, first, that the hard bottom/sediment classification scheme was a useful first step for stratifying survey areas to increase efficiency of grouper census efforts. Second, an index of acoustic variability complemented the hard bottom

  14. Analysis of the impact of harmonic interference circuit Costas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Shakhtarin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of influence of harmonic interference on the phase error in the Costas circuit is carried out. Differential equations of the circuit are obtained. Are obtained in the zero and first approximation the equations of the phase error for the Costas circuit. The simulation in MatLab environment of phase error introduced by the Costas circuit in the first approximation and the graphs of this error is carried out. On the basis of mathematical model, by the phase error counts were obtained graphs of probability density functions of the signal errors introduced by the model. A simulation model of the Costas circuit in the Simulink environment is given. In the simulation model, by the phase error counts in MatLab, were obtained graphs of probability density functions of the signal error due to the simulation model. The comparison of the obtained results of the Costas circuit analysis obtained by mathematical modeling of the phase error equation in the first approximation with simulation results in Simulink environment shows that the results of mathematical modeling rather accurately coincide with the simulation results. On the basis of simulation were obtained the graphs of the average time before mistracking for various values of the interference to signal ratio

  15. los parques nacionales de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poas es el más visitado de Costa Rica, dado su fácil acceso, cercanía relativa a los grandes centros de población del país y buenas carreteras. Entre Marzo y Abril del 2006 producto de unas erupciones intra-cratéricas el parque tuvo que ser cerrado por tres semanas. El estudio reportado estima el impacto económico del cierre del parque en los negocios que sirven a los turistas en las comunidades vecinas, durante las tres semanas que el parque permaneció cerrado. Los resultados presentados son producto de un censo económico efectuado a los 28 negocios directamente afectados. Esta clase de información y metodología permite a las comunidades que pasará en términos de impacto económico en pequeñas comunidades y así evitar frustraciones en las mismas en materia de beneficios económicos esperados y no materializados.

  16. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  17. Diabetes mellitus neonatal en Costa Rica

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    Francis Ruiz-Salazar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes mellitus neonatal es un raro desorden metabólico usualmente desarrollado en las primeras 6 semanas de vida, secundario a un grupo de mutaciones y defectos del desarrollo pancreático que puede desembocar en una catástrofe clínica si no se identifica tempranamente; se divide en una variante transitoria y una permanente, siendo la primera la más frecuente, con cerca de un 60% de los casos. El manejo inicial de ambas variantes es la insulinoterapia intensiva, que en la variante transitoria puede suspenderse usualmente en los primeros meses de vida. El síndrome de disregulación inmunológica, poliendocrinopatía y enteropatía ligada a X (IPEX por sus siglas en inglés, es una causa extremadamente rara de la variante permanente, casi siempre mortal, caracterizada por un inmunocompromiso severo, enteropatía, diabetes y dermatitis. En el estudio se describen 4 casos de diabetes mellitus neonatal diagnosticados en el Hospital Nacional de Niños de San José, Costa Rica: 2 correspondientes a una diabetes mellitus neonatal transitoria, 2 a una diabetes mellitus neonatal permanente y 1 de ellos correspondiente a un síndrome de IPEX.

  18. Cultivo protegido de hortalizas en Costa Rica

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    Carlos Ramírez Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La horticultura en Costa Rica se ha desarrollado principalmente a campo abierto y se ha concentrado en el Valle Central donde predominan las actividades de expansión urbanística y comercial. Muchos de los problemas asociados a la producción hortícola se centran en la alta presencia de plagas y enfermedades que obligan al productor a utilizar plaguicidas químicos con consecuencias nocivas para el ambiente: la horticultura a campo abierto se vuelve muy contaminante e insostenible. Una alternativa productiva pueden ser los sistemas de cultivos protegidos, en los que se usan estructuras, materiales y equipo; posibilitan la producción de hortalizas en climas adversos y facilitan el control de plagas y enfermedades. Estos sistemas se han usado ampliamente a nivel mundial con gran éxito, pero a nivel del trópico es necesaria la investigación en este campo con el objetivo de implementar o modificar el sistema para que favorezca la producción sostenible de hortalizas.

  19. Personality Traits Change in Adulthood: Reply to Costa and McCrae (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Walton, Kate E.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In a response to comments by P. T. Costa, Jr., and R. R. McCrae on the current authors' original article, the authors show that Costa and McCrae's writings on personality suggest a belief in immutability of personality traits. The authors agree with Costa and McCrae that new personality trait models that provide an accurate lower order structure…

  20. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems: Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, G. W. S. V.

    A case study of Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia, an Open University school with a distance learning system, is presented. Areas of discussion include characteristics of the country, the educational system of Costa Rica, and the university. Specific topics include: the physical setting of Costa Rica; the population; the economy;…

  1. Notes on Costa Rican Pterichis (Orchidaceae) – new taxa and additions to national orchid flora

    OpenAIRE

    Kolanowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the orchid genus Pterichis, P. herrerae, and a new variety of P. habenarioides, P. habenarioides var. costaricensis, are described and illustrated based on Costa Rican material. Information about new Costa Rican records of P. pauciflora and P. parvifolia is provided. An updated key to Costa Rican species of Pterichis is presented.

  2. Muertes relacionadas con cocaina en Costa Rica durante 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alfaro Albertazzi

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de cocaína en Costa Rica es un problema creciente y muchas de lasmuertes pueden ser causadas por situaciones en las cuales la droga está involucrada. En este estudio todas las autopsias médico legales hechas en 1996 en este país fueron analizadas con el objeto de determinar la mortalidad y por lo tanto el impacto que ella genera en la sociedad costarricense.The cocaine consumption in Costa Rica is a growing problem and a lot of deaths can be caused by the situations in wich the drug is involved. In this study all the medicolegal autopsies done in 1996 in this country were analized to figure out the mortality and therefore, the impact it generates in Costa Rican society.

  3. Newton da Costa and the school of Curitiba

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    Artibano Micali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to report on the beginning of the publications of Newton da Costa outside Brazil. Two mathematicians played an important role in this beginning: Marcel Guillaume from the University of Clermont-Ferrand and Paul Dedecker from the Universities of Lille and Liège. At the same time we recall the role played by Newton da Costa and Jayme Machado Cardoso in the development of what we call here the School of Curitiba [Escola de Curitiba]. Paraconsistent logic was initiated in this school under the influence of Newton da Costa. As another contribution of this school we mention the development of the theory of quasigroups; Jayme Machado Cardoso's name has been given, by Sade, to some particular objects which are now called Cardoso quasigroups.

  4. bajo el bosque en Costa Rica. 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ocampo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La ipecacuana o raicilla, hierba nativa de América, es la única planta medicinal del trópico húmedo de Costa Rica cultivada bajo el bosque. Es cultivada en la región Huetar Norte, limítrofe con Nicaragua; la raíz seca de ipecacuana se ha comercializado en Costa Rica como materia prima para la industria farmacéutica internacional desde principios del siglo XX. De acuerdo con las estadísticas oficiales, las exportaciones de raicilla desde Costa Rica en los últimos 20 años han significado un promedio de 64 t año-1. Este trabajo resume actividades relacionadas con la descripción y cultivo de la planta, así como algunos de los aspectos agroecológicos de su cultivo.

  5. Intoxicación por estricnina en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Grettchen Flores Sandí

    1995-01-01

    La estricnina es un alcaloide de origen vegetal, de efecto convulsivante el cual ha sido usado en Costa Rica como plaguicida y rodenticida y también como adulterante de drogas de abuso. Su utilización terapéutica ha sido rechazada. La intoxicación por este tóxico es rara debido al uso actualmente restringido en Costa Rica para la eliminación de perros callejeros por personal de salud. La sintomatología, primordialmente neurológica y cardiorrespiratoria, es de diagnostico clínico y de laborato...

  6. SOLID WASTE RECYCLIN IN COSTA RICA: BALANCE AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol, Rosendo; Solano, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Reciclaje en Costa Rica: Balance y perspectivas.Este artículo explora las realidades del reciclaje en Costa Rica, así como su evolución es los últimos años. Se concentra en evaluar los flujos de materiales y los aspectos económicos de dos productos: papel y vidrio. Brevemente evalúa los mismos aspectos para el plástico y el acero. Muestra las siguientes tazas de recuperación: Para papel el 22,22% y para el vidrio 15.5%. Hay tres factores que dificultan el mejoramiento de estas tasas de recupe...

  7. Fecundidad y uso de anticonceptivo en Costa Rica, 1987

    OpenAIRE

    Oberle, Mark W.; Sosa, Doris; Madrigal Pana, Johnny; Becker, Stan; Morris, Leo; ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    1989-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1989 La prevalencia de anticonceptivos en Costa Rica es una de las más altas de América Latina: el 70 por ciento de las mujeres actualmente casadas utilizan algún método anticonceptivo. Los diferenciales en el uso de anticonceptivos en función del nivel educativo y entre las zonas rurales y urbanas resultan en efecto muy reducidos en comparación con otros países latinoamericanos. Si bien los niveles de...

  8. Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae hydroids from Costa Rica (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmo, Francisco; Vargas, Rita

    2002-06-01

    This paper is the first taxonomic account of the hydroid orders Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae from the Caribbean and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens are currently stored at the reference collection of the Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Sixteen hydroid species are recorded: Eudendrium carneum, Pennaria disticha, Acryptolaria longitheca, Plumularia floridana, Halopteris polymorpha, Aglaophenia dubia, Aglaophenia latecarinata, Lytocarpia tridentata, Macrorhynchia phillipina, Macrorhynchia sp., Clytia gracilis, Cnidoscyphus marginatus, Thyroscyphus ramosus, Dynamena disticha, Sertularella diaphana, and Tridentata distans. An extensive synonymy has been given for each species. A simplified taxonomic key is included, and illustrations and descriptions are provided for each species.

  9. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández; Ana Maricela Carballo Alfaro

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo) en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: “Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable” La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos ...

  10. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández; Ana Maricela Carballo Alfaro

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo) en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: “Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable” La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos ...

  11. Hemoglobinopatías poco comunes en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Entre las hemoglobinopatías poco comunes detectadas en Costa Rica se encuentran las de cadenas alfa, beta y delta. Dentro de ellas se destaca en particular la Hb Cubujuquí como una variante hemoglobínica no descrita hasta el momento. Existe una asociación entre los diversos síndromes talasémicos y sus combinaciones con hemoglobinas anormales presentes en nuestra población. Among the rare hemoglobinopathies found in Costa Riea are those of the Alfa, Beta, and Delta chains. Among these, Hb C...

  12. Panbiogeographical analysis of Costa Rican freshwater fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Herrera-Vásquez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Track analysis and Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE were performed to analyze the distribution pattern of Costa Rican freshwater fishes. A basic matrix (presence/absence was prepared using the distribution of 77 freshwater fish. The data were analyzed with CLIQUE software in order to find generalized tracks (cliques. Data also were analyzed with the software NONA and Winclada version 1.00.08 in order to perform the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE. Fourteen equally probable cliques were found with 31 species in each and the intersection of the amount was selected as a generalized track dividing the country in two main zones: Atlantic slope from Matina to Lake Nicaragua and Pacific slope from the Coto River to the basin of the Tempisque River connected with some branches oriented to the central part of the country. PAE analysis found ten cladogram areas (72 steps, CI=0.45, RI=0.64, using the "strict consensus option" two grouping zones were identified: Atlantic slope and Pacific slope. Both PAE and Track Analysis show the division of the two slopes and the orientation of the generalized track suggests new biogeographical evidence on the influence of both old and new southern elements to explain the migrations of freshwater fish into Central America during two different geological events. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 165-170. Epub 2008 March 31.Con el objetivo de analizar el patrón de distribución de peces de agua dulce d