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Sample records for group-based treatment quit

  1. Quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, C D; Ginsberg, D; Hall, S M

    1985-01-01

    Four factors which influence smoking treatment outcome are identified: environmental variables, client characteristics, process variables, and specific treatment approaches. Important environmental factors are stress and social support. Of client characteristics, sex is the best predictor of treatment success. Men are more likely to quit and maintain abstinence than women. However, the majority of women alter their smoking habits during pregnancy. Low-income persons and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among subjects in treatment studies and have larger percentages of smokers in the population at large. Extraverted smokers are more likely to begin to smoke and have difficulty quitting. Also, the more anxious, poorly adjusted smoker has more trouble quitting than the less troubled smoker. The higher the client's sense of self-efficacy, the better the chance of that person entering treatment and doing well. Furthermore, smokers who take in lower levels of nicotine are more successful at quitting. Many process questions are suggested. Few have been approached empirically. The effectiveness of ex-smokers as therapists in smoking cessation programs has not been systematically investigated, even though the smoking history of therapists is a question frequently asked by clients. We suggest that the skill and empathy of group leaders is more important than smoking history. Smoking therapists should be aware of nonspecific treatment factors such as positive expectations, social reinforcement, and self-disclosure which may have a powerful influence on the efficacy of smoking treatment. Specific treatment approaches were classified into three categories: low-contact approaches, including educational, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches; psychological treatments; and pharmacological treatment. Education, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches are thought to be accretively effective when the large size of the audience is considered. Also, innovative

  2. Barriers to Quitting Smoking Among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A; Cassidy, Rachel N; Murphy, Cara M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2016-05-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n=184 and 340). Both components (general barriers, weight concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; weight concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD.

  3. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  4. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get free help with quitting by calling 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669) ... Kreyòl Ayisyen Deutsch 日本語 فارسی English A Federal Government website managed by the U.S. Department of Health ...

  5. "It's not like a fat camp" - A focus group study of adolescents' experiences on group-based obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Anna; Abildsnes, Eirik; Mildestvedt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents' and young adults' motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. We identified four major themes: 1) motivation, 2) body experience and self-image, 3) relationships and sense of belonging, and 4) the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends.

  6. Craving to quit: psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A; Elwafi, Hani M; Davis, Jake H

    2013-06-01

    Humans suffer heavily from substance use disorders and other addictions. Despite much effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms of the addictive process, treatment strategies have remained suboptimal over the past several decades. Mindfulness training, which is based on ancient Buddhist models of human suffering, has recently shown preliminary efficacy in treating addictions. These early models show remarkable similarity to current models of the addictive process, especially in their overlap with operant conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement). Further, they may provide explanatory power for the mechanisms of mindfulness training, including its effects on core addictive elements, such as craving, and the underlying neurobiological processes that may be active therein. In this review, using smoking as an example, we will highlight similarities between ancient and modern views of the addictive process, review studies of mindfulness training for addictions and their effects on craving and other components of this process, and discuss recent neuroimaging findings that may inform our understanding of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness training. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Craving to Quit: psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A.; Elwafi, Hani M.; Davis, Jake H.

    2012-01-01

    Humans suffer heavily from substance use disorders and other addictions. Despite much effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms of the addictive process, treatment strategies have remained sub-optimal over the past several decades. Mindfulness training, which is based on ancient Buddhist models of human suffering, has recently shown preliminary efficacy in treating addictions. Interestingly, these early models show remarkable similarity to current models of the addictive process, especially in their overlap with operant conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement). Further, they may provide explanatory power for the mechanisms of mindfulness training, including its effects on core addictive elements, such as craving, and the underlying neurobiological processes that may be active therein. In this review, using smoking as an example, we will highlight similarities between ancient and modern views of the addictive process, review studies of mindfulness training for addictions and their effects on craving and other components of this process, and discuss recent neuroimaging findings that may inform our understanding of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness training. PMID:22642859

  8. Childhood Obesity: Concept, Feasibility, and Interim Results of a Local Group-Based, Long-Term Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Corina; Kokocinski, Kathrin; Lederer, Peter; Dotsch, Jorg; Rascher, Wolfgang; Knerr, Ina

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors performed a group-based program for obese children and adolescents in Bavaria, Germany to enable them to establish a health-oriented lifestyle and to reduce overweight. The authors compared this program with a control approach based on the patients' own initiative. Design: This is a controlled clinical trial. Setting: A…

  9. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  10. [Effectiveness of smoking cessation in group-based behavioral treatment in association to health status and motivation of participants--own research findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broszkiewicz, Marzenna; Drygas, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of behavioral treatments compare favorably with the pharmacotherapies and community-based interventions. Group-based behavioral programs have been scientifically proven as the effective smoking cessation intervention. Aim of the study was identifying predictors of the efficacy of smoking cessation in health factors: health status and motivation and doctor's advice. Program is a multicomponent group-based behavioral intervention with the elements recommended by the US Public Health Service as the most effective. 517 smokers were included into the program in the outpatient clinic setting in years 2001-2007. A point prevalence abstinence (PPA) was estimated by self-reported smoking cessation. Three homogeneous groups of patients according to their status health were established: participants with tobacco-related diseases n = 182, with psychiatric disorders n = 101 and healthy ones n = 150. 59.6% of participants stopped smoking during four-week program. Program was effective in smoking cessation both for sick and healthy participants. Motivational factors, among others health motivation did not distinguish for whole population as well as for participants with tobacco-related diseases. Lack of doctor's advice increased efficacy of smoking cessation both for the whole population and for group with tobacco-related diseases. Nor health status and motivation neither doctor's advice were predictors of behavioral group-based treatment for tobacco smokers.

  11. Pressure ulcer prevalence and barriers to treatment after spinal cord injury: comparisons of four groups based on race-ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Lisa K; Krause, James S

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of pressure ulcer (PU) and barriers to treatment in the event of PU development as a function of race-ethnicity in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Interview data were collected from three rehabilitation hospitals each of which was designated as a model SCI system of care by the United States Department of Education. There were 475 participants with similar portions of each racial-ethnic group (African-American n = 121, American-Indian n = 105, Caucasians n = 127, Hispanics n = 122). The lowest prevalence rates for pressure ulcers were reported by Hispanics followed by Caucasians. Logistic regression revealed racial-ethnic differences in the odds of developing a PU within the past 12 months. Social support and injury severity were also associated with risk of PU while age, gender, years since injury, and education were not. Significant racial-ethnic differences were also observed in 5 of 9 barriers to the treatment of PUs. Results suggest that variability in social support and barriers to treatment may contribute to the racial-ethnic differences in prevalence rates for PU that were observed. Future research in this area could lead to the development of strategies to enhance prevention and treatment targeted at the elimination of any racial-ethnic disparities.

  12. A group-based approach to stabilisation and symptom management in a phased treatment model for refugees and asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. A. Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatised asylum seekers and refugees may present with significant and complex mental health problems as a result of prolonged, extreme, and multiple traumatic events. This is further complicated by ongoing complex social circumstances. Concepts: In our work at the Traumatic Stress Clinic (TSC, the understanding afforded by the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD together with the related notion of a phased treatment model, provides a useful framework for organising our work with this population. Clinical Applications: An explication of complex PTSD as it applies to our client group is presented, followed by a description of our phased treatment model and an outline of the core principles, which guide our clinical approach. Our symptom management and stabilisation groups have been developed and refined over time and draw on techniques from a variety of cognitive behavioural therapies. These are described in some detail with illustrative clinical case vignettes. Conclusion: This paper concludes with some reflections on the challenges inherent to working with this complex client group.

  13. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems with ...

  14. The effects of a group based stress treatment program (the Kalmia concept) targeting stress reduction and return to work. A randomized, wait-list controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Friebel, Lene; Ladegaard, Yun Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a group based multidisciplinary stress treatment program on reductions in symptom levels and the return to work (RTW) rate. Methods General practitioners referred 199 patients with persistent work related stress symptoms......%) and the WLCG (24%). Conclusion The stress treatment program significantly reduced symptom levels and increased the RTW rate in the IG compared to the TAUCG and the WLCG. ISRCTN52839015...... to the project. The inclusion criteria included being employed and being on sick leave. Using a randomized wait- list control design, the participants were randomized into three groups: the intervention group (IG, 70 participants) was treated using the Stress Therapy Concept of Kalmia, which consists...

  15. Guide to Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for help. You’ll find this information here. Overcoming Tobacco Addiction Remember, tobacco addiction is both mental and physical. For most people, the best way to quit will be some combination of medicine, a method to change personal habits, and emotional support. Deciding to Quit ...

  16. Group Based Interference Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yanjun; Chen, Rui; Yao, Junliang

    2010-01-01

    in $K$-user single-input single-output (SISO) frequency selective fading interference channels, it is shown that the achievable multiplexing gain is almost surely $K/2$ by using interference alignment (IA). However when the signaling dimensions is limited, allocating all the resource to all the users simultaneously is not optimal. According to this problem, a group based interference alignment (GIA) scheme is proposed and a search algorithm is designed to get the group patterns and the resource allocation among them. Analysis results show that our proposed scheme achieves a higher multiplexing gain when the resource is limited.

  17. Do counselor techniques predict quitting during smoking cessation treatment? A component analysis of telephone-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L; Mercer, Laina D; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2014-10-01

    No studies to date have examined the effect of counselor techniques on smoking cessation over the course of treatment. To address this gap, we examined the degree to which the use of specific Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) counseling techniques in a given session predicted smoking cessation reported at the next session. The data came from the ACT arm of a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered smoking cessation intervention. Trained raters coded 139 counseling sessions across 44 participants. The openness, awareness and activation components of the ACT model were rated for each telephone counseling session. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the predictive relationship between each component during any given telephone session and smoking cessation at the following telephone session. For every 1-unit increase in counselors' use of openness and awareness techniques there were 42% and 52% decreases in the odds of smoking at the next counseling session, respectively. However, there was no significant predictive relationship between counselors' use of activation techniques and smoking cessation. Overall, results highlight the theoretical and clinical value of examining therapists' techniques as predictors of outcome during the course of treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. “It’s not like a fat camp” — A focus group study of adolescents’ experiences on group-based obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Engström

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents’ and young adults’ motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. Methods: In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. Results: We identified four major themes: 1 motivation, 2 body experience and self-image, 3 relationships and sense of belonging, and 4 the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Conclusion: Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends.

  19. Group-Based Compassion-Focused Therapy as an Adjunct to Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison Catherine; Wisniewski, Lucene; Martin-Wagar, Caitlin; Hoffman, Ellen

    2016-05-30

    The current study sought to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a compassion-focused therapy (CFT) group as an adjunct to evidence-based outpatient treatment for eating disorders, and to examine its preliminary efficacy relative to treatment as usual (TAU). Twenty-two outpatients with various types of eating disorders were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of TAU (n = 11) or TAU plus weekly CFT groups adapted for an eating disorder population (CFT + TAU; n = 11). Participants in both conditions completed measures of self-compassion, fears of compassion, shame and eating disorder pathology at baseline, week 4, week 8 and week 12. Additionally, participants receiving the CFT group completed measures assessing acceptability and feasibility of the group. Results indicated that the CFT group demonstrated strong acceptability; attendance was high and the group retained over 80% of participants. Participants rated the group positively and indicated they would be very likely to recommend it to peers with similar symptoms. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that compared to the TAU condition, the CFT + TAU condition yielded greater improvements in self-compassion, fears of self-compassion, fears of receiving compassion, shame and eating disorder pathology over the 12 weeks. Results suggest that group-based CFT, offered in conjunction with evidence-based outpatient TAU for eating disorders, may be an acceptable, feasible and efficacious intervention. Furthermore, eating disorder patients appear to see benefit in, and observe gains from, working on the CFT goals of overcoming fears of compassion, developing more self-compassion and accessing more compassion from others. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Making a Quit Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your quit plan. Be healthier Be healthier Save money Save money Smell better Smell better My loved ones My ... songs, plan a movie night with friends, or save up your cigarette money for a special treat when you reach a ...

  1. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom-Daly Ursula M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cancer diagnosis is 2.9 times more likely to occur during the adolescent and young adult years than in younger children. This spike in incidence coincides with a life stage characterised by psychological vulnerability as young people strive to attain numerous, critical developmental milestones. The distress young people experience after cancer treatment seriously jeopardises their ability to move into well-functioning adulthood. Methods/Design This article presents the protocol of the Recapture Life study, a phase II three-arm randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a new intervention in reducing distress and improving quality of life for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. The novel intervention, “ReCaPTure LiFe” will be compared to a both a wait-list, and a peer-support group control. Ninety young people aged 15–25 years who have completed cancer treatment in the past 1–6 months will be recruited from hospitals around Australia. Those randomised to receive Recapture Life will participate in six, weekly, 90-minute online group sessions led by a psychologist, involving peer-discussion around cognitive-behavioural coping skills (including: behavioural activation, thought challenging, communication and assertiveness skills training, problem-solving and goal-setting. Participants randomised to the peer-support group control will receive non-directive peer support delivered in an identical manner. Participants will complete psychosocial measures at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention. The primary outcome will be quality of life. Secondary outcomes will include depression, anxiety, stress, family functioning, coping, and cancer-related identity. Discussion This article reviews the empirical rationale for using group-based, online cognitive-behavioural therapy in young people after cancer treatment. The potential challenges of delivering skills

  2. Quit Smoking: 3 Tools to Help You Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 3 Tools to Help You Quit Past Issues / ... triggers head on You can prepare to quit smoking by thinking of ways to avoid some triggers ...

  3. A qualitative exploration of the reasons for the discontinuation of smoking cessation treatment among Quit Smoking Clinics' defaulters and health care providers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei Lin; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2013-01-01

    Treatment default among the smokers hinders the effectiveness of the delivery of cessation services. While many studies have predicted the defaulters' characteristics, the reasons why these smokers dropped out and continued smoking are seldom explored. This study examined the barriers encountered by such smokers and their respective health care providers (HCPs) in relation to the discontinuation of cessation treatment. From May 2010 to March 2011, 15 current adult smokers and 9 HCPs from 2 Quit Smoking Clinics (QSCs) in the Melaka Tengah District, Malacca, Malaysia were interviewed on smoking, cessation, and the QSC. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were subsequently translated into English and analyzed using thematic analysis. The barriers encountered were categorized as Individual- and Clinic-level. Both smokers and HCPs acknowledged that the smokers' low intrinsic motivation was the individual-level barrier. The clinic-level barriers were the mismatched perceptions of smokers and HCPs regarding the HCPs' roles, skills, and attitudes, as well as the availability and efficacy of smoking cessation aids (SCAs). While the smokers viewed the program as not helpful, the HCPs cited the lack of organizational support as their main barrier. The reasons for treatment default centered on the overall dissatisfaction with the treatment (due to the program, HCP, and SCA factors) combined with the smokers' low intrinsic motivation. Optimizing the interplay of the extrinsic motivational cues, such as the HCP and SCA factors, would complement the smoker's low intrinsic motivation and thus encourage treatment retention. However, it is necessary to strike a balance between the individual smoker's needs and the availability of organizational support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older ... may wonder if it’s too late to quit smoking. Or you may ask yourself if it’s even ...

  5. Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation: rationale, study design and participant characteristics of the Quitting-in-Balance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Ernestine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it reduces weight gain and weight concerns, improves affect, and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cigarette craving. Studies have shown that the practice of yoga improves weight control, and reduces perceived stress and negative affect. Yoga practice also includes regulation of breathing and focused attention, both of which may enhance stress reduction and improve mood and well-being and may improve cessation outcomes. Methods/Design This pilot efficacy study is designed to examine the rates of cessation among women randomized to either a novel, 8-week Yoga plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT smoking cessation intervention versus a Wellness program plus the same CBT smoking cessation intervention. Outcome measures include 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment, 3 and 6 months follow up and potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy. Other assessments include measures of mindfulness, spirituality, depressive symptoms, anxiety and perceived health (SF-36. Discussion Innovative treatments are needed that address barriers to successful smoking cessation among men and women. The design chosen for this study will allow us to explore potential mediators of intervention efficacy so that we may better understand the mechanism(s by which yoga may act as an effective complementary treatment for smoking cessation. If shown to be effective, yoga can offer an alternative to traditional exercise for reducing negative symptoms that often accompany smoking cessation and predict relapse to smoking among recent quitters. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials NCT00492310

  6. Predictors of quit attempts and abstinence among smokers not currently interested in quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Rates of quitting smoking remain stagnant, and thus it is becoming increasingly important to identify determinants of successful quitting behavior. The primary purpose of the current study was to examine predictors of quit attempts and 7-day point prevalence abstinence in a large nationally based sample. The study population consisted exclusively of smokers with minimal interest in quitting in the immediate future, for whom the need to identify facilitating factors of cessation is highly significant. Participants consisted of 849 smokers participating in a nationwide population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) to promote quit attempts and cessation; all participants were not currently interested in cessation. After adjusting for treatment group, and using a multivariate logistic approach, a combination of motivational and self-efficacy variables consistently predicted quit attempts, regardless of how quit attempts were defined (i.e., any self-defined vs. 24 hr). Additionally, a greater number of previous quit attempts significantly predicted making future quit attempts. In terms of achieving short-term abstinence, regardless of whether analyses were restricted to individuals who made prior quit attempts or not, self-efficacy emerged as the only significant consistent predictor. Unlike previous studies, we did not find strong evidence suggesting unique predictors for making a quit attempt compared with achieving abstinence. Our findings demonstrate that even among smokers not currently interested in quitting, self-efficacy and motivation are key factors in the cessation process. Overall, the findings have important implications, as they highlight factors to target for future treatment.

  7. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be viewed at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse. ...

  8. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be viewed at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse. ...

  9. Eyelid Malignancies- Always Quite Challenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Arumugham

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of eyelid cancers are quite challenging. Eyelid tumours are relatively rare diverse group of diseases varied in their presentation and extent. Many benign tumours and inflammatory conditions quite frequently masquerade eyelid cancers. Eyelid cancers are not single entity but comprise a wide range of tumours with extremes of tumour biology from indolent to very aggressive histopathologic types. Compromise on aesthetics and eyelids’ indispensable function of protecting the eyes during management, may lead to untoward cosmetic disfigurement and loss of vision. On the other hand, inadequate cancer clearance will also be vision threatening and life threatening due to loco regional recurrence and metastasis. To strike an optimal balance is a challenging task, to achieve ‘cancer cure’ with maximum preservation of function and cosmetics. In addition, the integration of other modalities of treatment, judicious selection and their sequencing require multidisciplinary discussion and joint management by different specialists. We are presenting four case scenarios, we met with in our teaching hospital with reference to literature review to emphasize that eyelid malignancies are not always simple with respect to diagnosis and management. PMID:28511494

  10. How Can I Quit Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How Can I Quit Smoking? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Can I Quit Smoking? A A A What's in this article? Where ... becoming tobacco-free. Many people don't quit smoking because they think it's too hard, and it's ...

  11. Processes of change in psychological flexibility in an interdisciplinary group-based treatment for chronic pain based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Lance M; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Olga

    2011-04-01

    There are now numerous studies of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for chronic pain. These studies provide growing support for the efficacy and effectiveness of ACT in this context as well as for the role of ACT-specific therapeutic processes, particularly those underlying psychological flexibility. The purpose of the present study was to continue to build on this work with a broader focus on these processes, including acceptance of pain, general psychological acceptance, mindfulness, and values-based action. Participants included 168 patients who completed an ACT-based treatment for chronic pain and a three-month follow-up. Following treatment and at follow-up, participants reported significantly reduced levels of depression, pain-related anxiety, physical and psychosocial disability, medical visits, and pain intensity in comparison to the start of treatment. They also showed significant increases in each of the processes of psychological flexibility. Most uncontrolled effect sizes were medium or large at the follow-up. In correlation analyses changes in the four processes measures generally were significantly related to changes in the measures of depression, anxiety, and disability. In regression analyses the combined processes were related to changes in outcomes above and beyond change in pain intensity. Although in some ways preliminary, these results specifically support the unique role of general psychological acceptance in relation to improvements achieved by treatment participants. The current study clarifies potential processes of change in treatment for chronic pain, particularly those aiming to enhance psychological flexibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of a group based stress treatment program (the Kalmia concept) targeting stress reduction and return to work. A randomized, wait-list controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Friebel, Lene; Ladegaard, Yun Katrine

    2012-01-01

    of an integrative approach of group psychotherapy for 2.5 hours per week and Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) with mindfulness meditation for 1.5 hours per week, which runs in a parallel process supplemented with workplace dialogue; the treatment-as-usual control group (TAUCG, 71 participants), who received 12...... consultations with a psychologist; and the wait-listed control group (WLCG, 58 participants). Treatment in the IG and the TAUCG lasted 10 and 12 weeks, respectively. Results Reductions in symptom levels (as measured by scores on the SCL92) were significantly larger in the IG (Cohen�s d= 0.73) and TAUCG compared...

  13. Quits, layoffs, and job destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W; Broersma, L

    2003-01-01

    We examine the quit-layoff distinction and its implications for job destruction from the employer's perspective. Using a set of panel data of Dutch firms, we get the following results. First, in addition to layoffs, quits contribute to the speed of downward adjustment of labour. Second, about 22% of

  14. A controlled trial of a Quit and Win contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Warnick, Todd A; Chirila, Costel; Rasnake, Robert T; Paul, Todd P; Christie, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a state-of-the-art Quit and Win contest on tobacco quit rates at 3, 6, and 12 months after the 30-day quit period. Quasi-experimental with a volunteer sample of 494 Quit and Win contest registrants (treatment group) and 512 randomly selected tobacco users not exposed to the promotional media campaign (control group). Intervention included a 30-day quit period to be eligible for large cash prizes; provider advice via weekly mailings; online and telephone quit assistance; media campaign; and community support. Community-based intervention in Kentucky. A total of 1006 adult tobacco users. Quit rates were measured using 7-day point prevalence for tobacco use. Urine cotinine measurements confirmed self-reported quitting. Treatment group participants were significantly more likely than controls to experience quitting during the 1-year follow-up, as determined by both self-report and urine confirmation. After adjusting for baseline differences in demographics, tobacco use, and stage of change, those in the treatment group had 2.6 times the odds of reporting quitting in the postintervention period and 5.3 times the odds of experiencing quitting confirmed by urine cotinine, relative to controls. Women, minorities, and low-income tobacco users had equal odds of quitting as men, whites, and those with higher incomes. That the contest was minimally intensive and yielded a relatively high, quit rate demonstrates the potential effectiveness of the intervention.

  15. Quit Smoking: Latest NIH Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Latest NIH Research Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... with chest X-rays. Clinical Trials Related to Smoking Clinical trials are scientific studies that try to ...

  16. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help you or a loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse. ... 770 views 1:35 Let's quit abusing drug users - Duration: 19:02. TEDMED 216,321 views 19: ...

  17. Knowledge about health effects of cigarette smoking and quitting among Italian university students: the importance of teaching nicotine dependence and treatment in the medical curriculum.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Caterina Grassi; Massimo Baraldo; Christian Chiamulera; Franco Culasso; Tobias Raupach; Ferketich, Amy K.; Carlo Patrono; Paolo Nencini

    2014-01-01

    Aims of the study were to compare medical students (MS) to non-MS with respect to their knowledge of smoking and to investigate the effect of a short educational intervention on MS knowledge. MS (n = 962) and students of architecture and law (n = 229) were asked to complete a 60-item questionnaire addressing knowledge of smoking epidemiology and health effects ("Score 1"), and effectiveness of cessation treatments ("Score 2"). Upon completion of questionnaire, fourth year MS received a lectur...

  18. Knowledge about health effects of cigarette smoking and quitting among Italian university students: the importance of teaching nicotine dependence and treatment in the medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Maria Caterina; Baraldo, Massimo; Chiamulera, Christian; Culasso, Franco; Raupach, Tobias; Ferketich, Amy K; Patrono, Carlo; Nencini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Aims of the study were to compare medical students (MS) to non-MS with respect to their knowledge of smoking and to investigate the effect of a short educational intervention on MS knowledge. MS (n = 962) and students of architecture and law (n = 229) were asked to complete a 60-item questionnaire addressing knowledge of smoking epidemiology and health effects ("Score 1"), and effectiveness of cessation treatments ("Score 2"). Upon completion of questionnaire, fourth year MS received a lecture on tobacco dependence. These students were asked to complete the same questionnaire one and two years later. Mean values for Score 1 were 48.9 ± 11.5% in MS and 40.5 ± 11.4% in non-MS (P lecture in year 4 scored higher than students who had not attended the lecture. Significant differences were noted one but not two years after the educational intervention. In conclusion, MS know slightly more about smoking-related diseases and methods to achieve cessation than nonmedical students; a short educational intervention was associated with better knowledge one year later, but the effect was moderate and short-lived.

  19. Knowledge about Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking and Quitting among Italian University Students: The Importance of Teaching Nicotine Dependence and Treatment in the Medical Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caterina Grassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study were to compare medical students (MS to non-MS with respect to their knowledge of smoking and to investigate the effect of a short educational intervention on MS knowledge. MS (n=962 and students of architecture and law (n=229 were asked to complete a 60-item questionnaire addressing knowledge of smoking epidemiology and health effects (“Score 1”, and effectiveness of cessation treatments (“Score 2”. Upon completion of questionnaire, fourth year MS received a lecture on tobacco dependence. These students were asked to complete the same questionnaire one and two years later. Mean values for Score 1 were 48.9±11.5% in MS and 40.5±11.4% in non-MS (P<0.001; d=0.69. Respective values for Score 2 were 48.1±10.8% and 42.6±10.6% (P<0.001; d=0.50. Fifth year students who had attended the lecture in year 4 scored higher than students who had not attended the lecture. Significant differences were noted one but not two years after the educational intervention. In conclusion, MS know slightly more about smoking-related diseases and methods to achieve cessation than nonmedical students; a short educational intervention was associated with better knowledge one year later, but the effect was moderate and short-lived.

  20. Quit Smoking: 5 Steps to START

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 5 Steps to START Past Issues / Winter 2011 ... a part of every successful plan to quit smoking: S et a quit date. T ell family, friends, ...

  1. Smoking - Medicines to Help You Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Smoking - Medicines To Help You Quit Share Tweet Linkedin ... associated with the use of the medicine. Quit Smoking Tips Quit Smoking… for yourself and for those ...

  2. Quitting Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephen; Malarcher, Ann; Schauer, Gillian; Asman, Kat; Jamal, Ahmed

    2017-01-06

    Quitting cigarette smoking benefits smokers at any age (1). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration-approved medications increase quit rates (1-3). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 objectives of increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who attempt to quit smoking cigarettes to ≥80.0% (TU-4.1), and increasing recent smoking cessation success to ≥8.0% (TU-5.1),* CDC assessed national estimates of cessation behaviors among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). During 2015, 68.0% of adult smokers wanted to stop smoking, 55.4% made a past-year quit attempt, 7.4% recently quit smoking, 57.2% had been advised by a health professional to quit, and 31.2% used cessation counseling and/or medication when trying to quit. During 2000-2015, increases occurred in the proportion of smokers who reported a past-year quit attempt, recently quit smoking, were advised to quit by a health professional, and used cessation counseling and/or medication (psmoking. As of 2015, 59.1% of adults who had ever smoked had quit. To further increase cessation, health care providers can consistently identify smokers, advise them to quit, and offer them cessation treatments (2-4). In addition, health insurers can increase cessation by covering and promoting evidence-based cessation treatments and removing barriers to treatment access (2,4-6).

  3. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  4. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  5. Randomised controlled trial evaluation of Tweet2Quit: a social network quit-smoking intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, Cornelia; Delucchi, Kevin; Lakon, Cynthia M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated a novel Twitter-delivered intervention for smoking cessation, Tweet2Quit, which sends daily, automated communications to small, private, self-help groups to encourage high-quality, online, peer-to-peer discussions. A 2-group randomised controlled trial assessed the net benefit of adding a Tweet2Quit support group to a usual care control condition of nicotine patches and a cessation website. Participants were 160 smokers (4 cohorts of 40/cohort), aged 18-59 years, who intended to quit smoking, used Facebook daily, texted weekly, and had mobile phones with unlimited texting. All participants received 56 days of nicotine patches, emails with links to the smokefree.gov cessation website, and instructions to set a quit date within 7 days. Additionally, Tweet2Quit participants were enrolled in 20-person, 100-day Twitter groups, and received daily discussion topics via Twitter, and daily engagement feedback via text. The primary outcome was sustained abstinence at 7, 30 and 60 days post-quit date. Participants (mean age 35.7 years, 26.3% male, 31.2% college degree, 88.7% Caucasian) averaged 18.0 (SD=8.2) cigarettes per day and 16.8 (SD=9.8) years of smoking. Participants randomised to Tweet2Quit averaged 58.8 tweets/participant and the average tweeting duration was 47.4 days/participant. Tweet2Quit doubled sustained abstinence out to 60 days follow-up (40.0%, 26/65) versus control (20.0%, 14/70), OR=2.67, CI 1.19 to 5.99, p=0.017. Tweeting via phone predicted tweet volume, and tweet volume predicted sustained abstinence (p<0.001). The daily autocommunications caused tweeting spikes accounting for 24.0% of tweets. Tweet2Quit was engaging and doubled sustained abstinence. Its low cost and scalability makes it viable as a global cessation treatment. NCT01602536. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160106.html Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works Nicotine patches, Zyban helped 4 out ... of nicotine patches or the drug Zyban helps pregnant women quit smoking before and after they give birth, a new ...

  7. Predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.; West, R.; de Vries, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite their positive motivation to quit, many smokers do not attempt to quit or relapse soon after their quit attempt. This study investigated the predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit smoking. Methods: We conducted secondary data ana

  8. Phylogenetic invariants for group-based models

    CERN Document Server

    Donten-Bury, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate properties of algebraic varieties representing group-based phylogenetic models. We give the (first) example of a nonnormal general group-based model for an abelian group. Following Kaie Kubjas we also determine some invariants of group-based models showing that the associated varieties do not have to be deformation equivalent. We propose a method of generating many phylogenetic invariants and in particular we show that our approach gives the whole ideal of the claw tree for 3-Kimura model under the assumption of the conjecture of Sturmfels and Sullivant. This, combined with the results of Sturmfels and Sullivant, would enable to determine all phylogenetic invariants for any tree for 3-Kimura model and possibly for other group-based models.

  9. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  10. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  11. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like ... out signals to direct your actions and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes ...

  12. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be viewed at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topi... ...

  13. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  14. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  15. QuitNowTXT Text Messaging Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Overview: The QuitNowTXT text messaging program is designed as a resource that can be adapted to specific contexts including those outside the United States and in...

  16. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ... 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control ...

  17. Why Is It So Hard to Quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to quit? It’s hard to tackle the physical addiction to nicotine . Cigarettes contain nicotine, a highly addictive ... a support group can give you comfort and positive reinforcement. Cut back on caffeine . Caffeine is a ...

  18. [Quitting the tobacco habit in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A; Hernández, I; Alvarez-Dardet, C

    1991-06-29

    The tendencies in the cessation from smoking and their determinants provide useful information to developed preventive policies and to predict the evolution of diseases associated with cigarette consumption. Spain is one of the European countries with more prevalent smoking habits in the general population, and thus the study of factors determining cessation from smoking is particularly relevant. The socioeconomic, demographic and health-related variables associated with the cessation from smoking were evaluated using the data bank from the National Health Survey carried out by the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo in 1987, which includes interviews to 29,647 individuals above 16 years of age. The data were analyzed by the calculation of the quit ratio standardized for age. The quit ratio is influenced by age and sex; it is higher among women and it increases with age. The results are questionable regarding the relation with educational level, family income and occupation. The smokers of less than 10 or more than 25 cigarettes/day are those with a higher quit ratio. The quit ratio is also higher in individuals with health problems, a higher rate of use of health services and in those without usual alcohol consumption. The profile of the individuals who quit smoking in Spain has specific features when compared with other countries, particularly regarding the higher quit rate among women and the lack of a linear correlation with indicators of socioeconomic level.

  19. Life gain in Italian smokers who quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzi, Laura; Falcone, Franco; Carreras, Giulia; Pistelli, Francesco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Martini, Andrea; Viegi, Giovanni

    2014-02-26

    This study aims to estimate the number of life years gained with quitting smoking in Italian smokers of both sexes, by number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day) and age at cessation. All-cause mortality tables by age, sex and smoking status were computed, based on Italian smoking data, and the survival curves of former and current smokers were compared. The more cig/day a man/woman smokes, and the younger his/her age of quitting smoking, the more years of life he/she gains with cessation. In fact, cessation at age 30, 40, 50, or 60 years gained, respectively, about 7, 7, 6, or 5, and 5, 5, 4, or 3 years of life, respectively, for men and women that smoked 10-19 cig/day. The gain in life years was higher for heavy smokers (9 years for >20 cig/day) and lower for light smokers (4 years for 1-9 cig/day). Consistently with prospective studies conducted worldwide, quitting smoking increases life expectancy regardless of age, gender and number of cig/day. The estimates of the number of years of life that could be gained by quitting smoking, when computed specifically for a single smoker, could be used by physicians and health professionals to promote a quit attempt.

  20. Talking about Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers’ Quit Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on two quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relationship between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected prior to the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3277 adult Philadelphian smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants three months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors, and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns. PMID:26147367

  1. Talking About Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers' Quit Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy S L; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on 2 quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relation between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected before the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3,277 adult Philadelphia smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants 3 months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and the indirect effects of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns.

  2. Did Nixon quit before he resigned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. Beckmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available On August 9, 1974, Richard M. Nixon formally resigned the presidency; however, folklore hints Nixon informally quit fulfilling his duties well before then. As Watergate became less “a third rate burglary” than “high crimes and misdemeanors,” rumors of President Nixon’s wallowing, wandering, drinking, and mumbling swirled. Yet evidence for such assertions has been thin, and prevailing scholarship offers compelling reasons to believe Nixon’s institutional protocols overrode his individual proclivities. This study offers a new, systematic look at Nixon’s presidency by coding his public events and private interactions with top government officials during every day of his presidency. Contrary to our expectations, the results corroborate the rumors: Richard Nixon effectively quit being president well before he resigned the presidency. In fact, it turns out there was a defining moment when Nixon disengaged from his administration: on December 6, 1973, the day Gerald Ford was confirmed as Vice President.

  3. Nicotine Therapy Sampling to Induce Quit Attempts Among Smokers Unmotivated to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J.; Hughes, John R.; Gray, Kevin M.; Wahlquist, Amy E.; Saladin, Michael E.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rates of smoking cessation have not changed in a decade, accentuating the need for novel approaches to prompt quit attempts. Methods Within a nationwide randomized clinical trial (N=849) to induce further quit attempts and cessation, smokers currently unmotivated to quit were randomized to a practice quit attempt (PQA) alone or to nicotine replacement therapy (hereafter referred to as nicotine therapy), sampling within the context of a PQA. Following a 6-week intervention period, participants were followed up for 6 months to assess outcomes. The PQA intervention was designed to increase motivation, confidence, and coping skills. The combination of a PQA plus nicotine therapy sampling added samples of nicotine lozenges to enhance attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and to promote the use of additional cessation resources. Primary outcomes included the incidence of any ever occurring self-defined quit attempt and 24-hour quit attempt. Secondary measures included 7-day point prevalence abstinence at any time during the study (ie, floating abstinence) and at the final follow-up assessment. Results Compared with PQA intervention, nicotine therapy sampling was associated with a significantly higher incidence of any quit attempt (49% vs 40%; relative risk [RR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1–1.4) and any 24-hour quit attempt (43% vs 34%; 1.3; 1.1–1.5). Nicotine therapy sampling was marginally more likely to promote floating abstinence (19% vs 15%; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0–1.7); 6-month point prevalence abstinence rates were no different between groups (16% vs 14%; 1.2; 0.9–1.6). Conclusion Nicotine therapy sampling during a PQA represents a novel strategy to motivate smokers to make a quit attempt. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00706979 PMID:22123796

  4. Nicotine therapy sampling to induce quit attempts among smokers unmotivated to quit: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Hughes, John R; Gray, Kevin M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Saladin, Michael E; Alberg, Anthony J

    2011-11-28

    Rates of smoking cessation have not changed in a decade, accentuating the need for novel approaches to prompt quit attempts. Within a nationwide randomized clinical trial (N = 849) to induce further quit attempts and cessation, smokers currently unmotivated to quit were randomized to a practice quit attempt (PQA) alone or to nicotine replacement therapy (hereafter referred to as nicotine therapy), sampling within the context of a PQA. Following a 6-week intervention period, participants were followed up for 6 months to assess outcomes. The PQA intervention was designed to increase motivation, confidence, and coping skills. The combination of a PQA plus nicotine therapy sampling added samples of nicotine lozenges to enhance attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and to promote the use of additional cessation resources. Primary outcomes included the incidence of any ever occurring self-defined quit attempt and 24-hour quit attempt. Secondary measures included 7-day point prevalence abstinence at any time during the study (ie, floating abstinence) and at the final follow-up assessment. Compared with PQA intervention, nicotine therapy sampling was associated with a significantly higher incidence of any quit attempt (49% vs 40%; relative risk [RR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4) and any 24-hour quit attempt (43% vs 34%; 1.3; 1.1-1.5). Nicotine therapy sampling was marginally more likely to promote floating abstinence (19% vs 15%; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7); 6-month point prevalence abstinence rates were no different between groups (16% vs 14%; 1.2; 0.9-1.6). Nicotine therapy sampling during a PQA represents a novel strategy to motivate smokers to make a quit attempt. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00706979.

  5. Can initial perceptions about quitting predict smoking cessation among Malaysian smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Masilamani, Retneswari; Ming, Moy Foong; Koh, David; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking may be important factors in successful treatment. This study examined the association between initial perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking and outcomes during a two month smoking cessation attempt. Participants (n = 185) were treatment-seeking smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia. They received structured behavioral therapy and free Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT). Prior to treatment, a 12 item Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PRBQ) was administered. This was used to assess the smoker's initial perceptions during their quit attempt. Participants were re-contacted at the end of two months to determine their smoking status. The results show participants intending to quit demonstrated a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting smoking than the risks of quitting. Those with a higher education level had a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting (p = 0.02). PRBQ items, such as perceived risks of quitting (ie weight gain, negative affect, social ostracism, loss of enjoyment and craving) were not associated with abstinence at two months. However, those who perceived a benefit of higher physical attraction post-cessation were less likely to have stopped smoking at two months (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.08-0.45). Other perceived benefits at baseline, such as health, general well-being, self-esteem, finances and social approval, were not associated with smoking cessation at two months. The results suggest that in our study population, smokers' baseline perceptions of the benefits of cessation of smoking prior to therapy are not associated with quit results at two months. Counseling patients regarding the advantages and disadvantages of quitting may have changed their perceptions during quitting process and should be further explored in future studies.

  6. Dependence and motivation to stop smoking as predictors of success of a quit attempt among smokers seeking help to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael; Kakar, Geetanjali; Hajek, Peter; West, Robert

    2016-02-01

    It is not known how well motivation to stop smoking predicts abstinence in a clinical sample relative to the most widely used measure of cigarette dependence. A secondary analysis was conducted from a trial with 864 smokers making quit attempt. Fagerström Test of Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), and motivation to stop smoking (composite of determination to quit and importance of quitting) were measured at baseline. Continuous smoking abstinence, validated by expired-air carbon monoxide, was assessed at 4weeks, 6months and 12months post-quit date. FTCD, HSI, non-HSI items in FTCD, and motivation were assessed as predictors of abstinence. In multiple-logistic regressions, controlling for age, gender and medication use, lower scores for FTCD, HSI and non-HSI all significantly predicted abstinence at all follow-ups, while motivation did not predict abstinence at any time. Likelihood ratio tests showed that the FTCD contributed most to the model at 4weeks and 6months; at 12months FTCD and non-HSI equally contributed most to the model. At 4weeks and 6months, predictions were improved by combining HSI and non-HSI components, compared with using these components alone. Cigarette dependence, measured by the FTCD, or by its HSI or non-HSI components, predicts both short-term and medium-term outcomes of attempts to stop smoking in treatment-seeking smokers involved in a clinical trial, whereas strength of motivation to stop predicts neither. Both the HSI and non-HSI components may be considered as briefer alternatives to the full FTCD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and abstinence maintenance among treated Spanish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Del Río, Elena Fernández; Martínez, Úrsula; Brandon, Thomas H; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-02-01

    Although quitting motivation predicts smoking cessation, there have been inconsistent findings regarding motivation predicting long-term maintenance of abstinence. Moreover, most such research has been conducted in North America and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to examine motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and of abstinence maintenance in a Spanish sample. The sample comprised 286 Spanish smokers undergoing psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Motivation to quit was assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment with the Readiness to Quit Ladder. Abstinence post-treatment and at 6month follow-up was biochemically verified. Participants with higher levels of pre-treatment and post-treatment motivation were more likely to be abstinent at the end of the treatment (OR=1.36) and at 6month follow-up (OR=4.88). Among abstainers at the end of the treatment (61.9%), higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment predicted maintaining abstinence at 6months (OR=2.83). Furthermore, participants who failed to quit smoking reported higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment than they had pretreatment (pMotivation to quit smoking predicted short and long-term cessation, and also predicted long-term maintenance of abstinence. These results have implications for understanding motivational processes of smoking cessation in general, while extending research to Spanish smokers. They may also help in the design of cessation and relapse-prevention interventions. Specifically, the results suggest that motivational enhancement is important throughout the cessation and maintenance periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Network Applications for Group-Based Learning: Is More Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Jan; Collis, Betty; Jones, Val

    2003-01-01

    Group-based learning is being introduced into many settings in higher education. Is this a sustainable development with respect to the resources required? Under what conditions can group-based learning be applied successfully in distance education and in increasingly flexible campus-based learning? Can networked support facilitate and enrich…

  9. Successful Quitting (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-12

    Quitting smoking is a major challenge for many people. Seeking help and using proven techniques can improve your chances of quitting for good. In this podcast, Steve Babb discusses ways to successfully quit smoking.  Created: 1/12/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/12/2017.

  10. What characterises smokers who quit without using help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang;

    2015-01-01

    regression analysis. RESULTS: Quitting unaided was reported by 63%. Adjusted analyses showed that men were more likely to quit unaided than women, and younger compared with older were more likely to quit unaided (eg, OR among women age 45-59 versus age 14-29 were 0.18, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.20). Additionally...

  11. Cigarette smoking in pregnant substance users: Association with substance use and desire to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is prevalent in pregnant substance users but receives low priority in substance use disorder treatment. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of a randomized, multisite trial with 200 pregnant substance users, 145 (72.5%) of whom smoked at baseline. As predicted: (1) smokers had significantly greater substance use; (2) approximately half of smokers wanted to quit; and (3) smokers with a quit goal had significantly greater self-efficacy and lower perceived difficulty of quitting. Smoking may be associated with more severe substance use in pregnant substance-using patients, half of whom may be interested in smoking-cessation interventions.

  12. Reported planning before and after quitting and quit success: retrospective data from the ITC 4-Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, James; Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Planning before quitting smoking is widely believed to be beneficial and is usually recommended in cessation counseling, but there is little evidence on the efficacy of specific planning activities. Using data from 1140 respondents who reported quit attempts at Wave 8 of the ITC 4-Country Survey, we analyzed use of 8 specific planning strategies before (5) and after (3) implementation of a quit attempt, in relation to cessation outcomes, delay in implementation of the attempt, and recent quitting history. Most participants reported some planning both before and after quitting, even among those reporting quitting 'spontaneously.' Younger smokers, those who cut down before quitting, and users of stop-smoking medication were more likely to report planning. Those who planned prequit were also more likely to plan postquit. Unexpectedly, we found no clear benefit of planning on short-term (1 month) cessation outcomes, whereas one prequit strategy (practicing not smoking) was negatively related to outcome. There was evidence for a predicted moderating effect of recent quitting experience on planning for the prequit task 'practice replacement strategies.' This predicted quit success among those with multiple quit attempts in the past year, but failure among those without. This finding suggests that the quality of planning may be critical. More research, particularly on the moderating effect of quit experience, and where measures of planning are collected before outcomes become evident, is needed before clear recommendations can be made on the utility of various forms of planning for the success of quit attempts.

  13. Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2017-09-20

    Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlates of smoking quit attempts: Florida Tobacco Callback Survey, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietz Noella

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The public health burden of tobacco-associated diseases in the USA remains high, in part because many people's attempts to quit are unsuccessful. This study examined factors associated with having lifetime or recent attempts to quit smoking among current smokers, based on a telephone survey of Florida adults. Methods Data from the 2007 telephone-based Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and its follow-up survey, the Tobacco Callback Survey, were used to assess determinants of having ever attempted to quit smoking and attempted to quit smoking in the past 12 months. All analyses were conducted using SAS. Results Among 3,560 current smokers, 41.5% reported having tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months while 83.4% reported having ever tried to quit. Having a history of a tobacco-related medical condition was significantly associated with both recent (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 1.41 [Confidence Interval 1.19–1.65] and lifetime quit attempts (AOR 1.43 [1.15–1.79]. Greater nicotine dependence and being advised by a physician to quit smoking were also positively associated with lifetime quit attempts. Receipt of healthcare provider advice to quit smoking in the past 12 months and a strong belief that quitting following a long history of regular smoking would not result in health benefits and belief that there are health benefits to quitting smoking were associated with lifetime quit attempts. Conclusion Targeted smoking cessation interventions are needed for smokers with selected medical conditions and with high nicotine dependence. The importance of physician advice in encouraging individuals to quit is further highlighted.

  15. Point Groups Based on Methane and Adamantane (Td) Skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shinsaku

    1986-01-01

    Describes a procedure for constructing point groups based on the symmetric parent molecules of methane and adamantane. Intended for use in teaching concepts such as subgroups and cosets to beginners in group theory. (TW)

  16. On the way of tobacco quitting: A VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Gérard Vaillant; Christian Ben lakhdar; Thérèse Lebrun

    2011-01-01

    In order to describe the process of tobacco quitting, we perform a VAR model and causality tests both on the monthly sales of tobacco products and nicotine dependence drugs in France, for the period going from February 2004 to April 2009. According to the path of tobacco quitting found out, it results that an upward harmonization of tax policy on the different tobacco products could accelerate the tobacco quitting process.

  17. A Decision Tree Approach for Predicting Smokers' Quit Intentions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Ding; Susan Bedingfield; Chung-Hsing Yeh; Ron Borland; David Young; Jian-Ying Zhang; Sonja Petrovic-Lazarevic; Ken Coghill

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a decision tree approach for predicting smokers'quit intentions using the data from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Three rule-based classification models are generated from three data sets using attributes in relation to demographics, warning labels, and smokers' beliefs. Both demographic attributes and warning label attributes are important in predicting smokers' quit intentions. The model's ability to predict smokers' quit intentions is enhanced, if the attributes regarding smokers' internal motivation and beliefs about quitting are included.

  18. Quit Behavior and the Role of Job Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Gielen (Anne); K. Tatsiramos (Konstantinos)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractJob protection reduces job turnover by changing firms’ hiring and firing decisions. Yet the effect of job protection on workers’ quit decisions and post-quit outcomes is still unknown. We present the first evidence using individual panel data from 12 European countries, which differ both

  19. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  20. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.

  1. Reducing Social Loafing in Group-Based Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Social loafing in group-based projects is a common problem for college teachers. This problem has received great attention, including a Quick Fix article by Stevens (2007), whose recommendations remain useful today, particularly the mechanism for peer evaluations--a key strategy for reducing social loafing. Since the publication of Stevens's…

  2. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E; Behm, Frédérique M; Drgon, Tomas; Johnson, Catherine; Uhl, George R

    2010-01-01

    Improving and targeting nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are cost-effective strategies for reducing adverse health consequences for smokers. Treatment studies document the efficacy of precessation NRT and support important roles for level of nicotine dependence and precessation smoking reduction in successful quitting. However, prior work has not identified the optimal precessation dose or means for personalizing NRT. Genome-wide association has identified groups of genomic markers associated with successful quitting, allowing us to develop a v1.0 "quit-success" genotype score. We now report influences of v1.0 quit-success genotype score, level of dependence and precessation smoking reduction in a smoking cessation trial that examined effects of 21 versus 42 mg/24 h precessation NRT. Four hundred seventy-nine smokers were randomized to 21 or 42 mg NRT, initiated 2 wks prior to target quit dates. We monitored self-reported abstinence and end-expired air carbon monoxide (CO). Genotyping used Affymetrix arrays (Santa Clara, CA, USA). The primary outcome was 10-wk continuous smoking abstinence. NRT dose, level of nicotine dependence and genotype scores displayed significant interactive effects on successful quitting. Successful abstinence also was predicted by CO reductions during precessation NRT. These results document ways in which smoking cessation strategies can be personalized based on levels of nicotine dependence, genotype scores and CO monitoring. These assessments, taken together, can help match most smokers with optimal NRT doses and help rapidly identify some who may be better treated using other methods.

  3. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Yzer, M.C.; Willemsen, M.C.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the

  4. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Putte; M.C. Yzer; M.C. Willemsen; G.J. de Bruijn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the t

  5. [The effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on decreasing the level of aggression in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Zeynep; Gökçakan, Dan Zafer

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on the level aggression in adolescents. The study included 23 students from Nezihe Yalvac Anatolian Vocational High School of Hotel Management and Tourism that had high aggression scores. Eleven of the participants (6 female, 5 male) constituted the experimental group and 12 (6 male, 6 female) were in the control group. The 34-item Aggression Scale was used to measure level of aggression. We utilized mixed pattern design including experiment-control, pre-test and post test and follow up. The experimental group participated in group-based psychodrama therapy once a week for 90 minutes, for 14 weeks in total. The Aggression Scale was administered to the experimental and control groups before and after treatment; it was additionally administered to the experimental group 16 weeks after treatment. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA and dependent samples t tests. Our analysis shows that group-based psychodrama had an effect on the experimental group in terms of total aggression, anger, hostility, and indirect aggression scores (F=65.109, F=20.175, F=18.593, F=40.987, respectively, P<.001). There was no effect of the group-based treatment on verbal or physical aggression scores. Follow-up indicated that the effect of the therapy was still measureable 16 weeks after the cessation of the therapy. Results of the present study indicate that group-based psychodrama therapy decreased the level of aggression in the experimental group. Current findings are discussed with reference to the literature. Recommendations for further research and for psychiatric counselors are provided.

  6. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? : A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, mea

  7. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazici AB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Bulent Yazici,1 Hilal Uslu Yuvaci,2 Esra Yazici,3 Ebru Halimoglu Caliskan,4 Arif Serhan Cevrioglu,2 Atila Erol3 1Department of Psychiatry, Training and Research Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 3Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey Background: Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant.  Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy.  Method: This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results: The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively, alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively, and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively. Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion: Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic

  8. Dynamics of Job Quitting among High Educated Female Former Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Seno Aditya Utama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of highly educated woman workers increased in recent year, but job quitting and woman career discontinuity was still high; it was related to working inequalities and work-family issues. The current study investigates the antecedent of woman job quitting decision, career aspiration, spouse and supervisor support. Individual in-depth interviews investigated the 12 highly educated ex-employee mothers. The findings were spouse support on woman job quitting, children care orientation, supervisor retention effort, current positive evaluation and unintended future career.

  9. Dynamics of Job Quitting among High Educated Female Former Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Seno Aditya Utama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of highly educated woman workers increased in recent year, but job quitting and woman career discontinuity was still high; it was related to working inequalities and work-family issues. The current study investigates the antecedent of woman job quitting decision, career aspiration, spouse and supervisor support. Individual in-depth interviews investigated the 12 highly educated ex-employee mothers. The findings were spouse support on woman job quitting, children care orientation, supervisor retention effort, current positive evaluation and unintended future career.

  10. Cleaners' experiences with group-based workplace physical training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Lasse; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how work-site health promotion intervention, by involving group-based physical coordination training, may increase participants’ social awareness of new ways to use the body. Purpose: We investigated cleaners’ experiences with a one-year health promotion intervention...... involving group-based physical coordination training (PCT) during working hours. Design: We conducted a qualitative evaluation using method triangulation; continuous unfocused participant observation during the whole intervention, semi-structured focus group interview, and individual written evaluations one...... for implementation seem to be important for sustained effects of health-promotion interventions in the workplace. Originality: The social character of the physical training facilitated a community of practice, which potentially supported the learning of new competencies, and how to improve the organization...

  11. Personality traits and group-based information behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. The relationship between hypothesised behaviour resulting from a personality test and actual information behaviour resulting from a group-based assignment process is addressed in this paper. Methods. Three voluntary groups of ten librarianship and information science students were...... but there were also deviations, which were found that seemed to be related to the group-work context. The importance of studying personality traits in context has further been confirmed....

  12. An Event Grouping Based Algorithm for University Course Timetabling Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Kralev, Velin; Kraleva, Radoslava; Yurukov, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study of an event grouping based algorithm for a university course timetabling problem. Several publications which discuss the problem and some approaches for its solution are analyzed. The grouping of events in groups with an equal number of events in each group is not applicable to all input data sets. For this reason, a universal approach to all possible groupings of events in commensurate in size groups is proposed here. Also, an implementation of an algorithm base...

  13. Personality traits and group-based information behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. The relationship between hypothesised behaviour resulting from a personality test and actual information behaviour resulting from a group-based assignment process is addressed in this paper. Methods. Three voluntary groups of ten librarianship and information science students were....... Information behaviour associated with personality traits was identified, but the presence of personality effects tended to vary with the perceived presence of the social context. Conclusions. Some matches were identified between group members' personality traits and their actual information behaviour...

  14. An Event Grouping Based Algorithm for University Course Timetabling Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Kralev, Velin; Kraleva, Radoslava; Yurukov, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study of an event grouping based algorithm for a university course timetabling problem. Several publications which discuss the problem and some approaches for its solution are analyzed. The grouping of events in groups with an equal number of events in each group is not applicable to all input data sets. For this reason, a universal approach to all possible groupings of events in commensurate in size groups is proposed here. Also, an implementation of an algorithm base...

  15. Intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anecia Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: For a higher education institution (HEI to maintain a long-term trajectory of excellence, a strong focus on retaining a younger generation of skilled academics is needed.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics in HEIs.Motivation for the study: Higher education institutions are more dependent on the abilities and commitment of their staff than most other organisations. More than 4000 academics will retire and need to be replaced by 2018, providing justification for the study of intention to quit of academics.Research design, approach and method: An ex post facto quantitative research design was followed. Academics at six HEIs in South Africa were sampled. Measurement instruments included abridged versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Arnold and Feldman Intention to Quit Scale, Job Descriptive Scale and Chew’s reward scale.Main findings: Employee engagement, job satisfaction, remuneration, reward, recognition and transformational leadership were significantly related to intention to quit. In the partial model, three of these variables explained 45% of the variance in intention to quit. Partial least square path modelling revealed that employee engagement and job satisfaction have significant negative impacts on intention to quit.Practical/managerial implications: The findings serve as input for the development of efficacious strategies to retain Generation Y academics at HEIs in South Africa.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to our knowledge of intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics. It provides evidence of the complexity and inter-relatedness of variables in the phenomenological network of intention to quit.

  16. HD DVD:“I Quit!”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扁毅

    2008-01-01

    美国有一档娱乐体育节目叫WWE——美国职业摔跤,受到广大摔跤爱好者的追捧,而其中有一种比赛就被命名为 I Quit Match,没有任何规则,直到对方自己口中说出"I Quit"为止。

  17. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  18. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2014-12-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, measured by asking people how they feel "as a group member" but without specifying an object for these emotions, have been conceptualized as reflecting appraisals of group concerns. In contrast, we propose that general group emotions are best seen as emotions about belonging to a group. In two studies, general group emotions were closely related to emotions that are explicitly measured as belonging emotions. Two further studies showed that general group emotions were not related to appraisals of immediate group concerns, whereas group-based emotions were. We argue for more specificity regarding the group-level aspects of emotion that are tapped by emotion measures.

  19. The effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Abbas; Dashtgard, Ali; Moghadam, Zahra Emami

    2014-01-01

    Background: Addiction, especially addiction quitting, has been the main problem of health systems of many countries in recent years. High percentage of addiction recurrence (more than 80%) indicates that the nature and therapeutic method of addiction have not been recognized and it demands more efforts in this field. Thus, the present study was conducted with an aim to examine the effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to Imam Reza...

  20. Why Don’t Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers’ Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Morphett

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker’s addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual’s situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers’ views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers’ attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences.

  1. Why Don't Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-10

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker's addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual's situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers' views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers' attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences.

  2. Successful and unsuccessful cannabis quitters: Comparing group characteristics and quitting strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooke Sally E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve treatments for cannabis use disorder, a better understanding of factors associated with successful quitting is required. Method This study examined differences between successful (n = 87 and unsuccessful (n = 78 cannabis quitters. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing demographic, mental health, and cannabis-related variables, as well as quitting strategies during their most recent quit attempt. Results Eighteen strategies derived from cognitive behavioral therapy were entered into a principal components analysis. The analysis yielded four components, representing (1 Stimulus Removal, (2 Motivation Enhancement, (3 (lack of Distraction, and (4 (lack of Coping. Between groups comparisons showed that unsuccessful quitters scored significantly higher on Motivation Enhancement and (lack of Coping. This may indicate that unsuccessful quitters focus on the desire to quit, but do not sufficiently plan strategies for coping. Unsuccessful quitters also had significantly more symptoms of depression and stress; less education; lower exposure to formal treatment; higher day-to-day exposure to other cannabis users; and higher cannabis dependence scores. Conclusions The findings suggest that coping, environmental modification, and co-morbid mental health problems may be important factors to emphasize in treatments for cannabis use disorder.

  3. The Quit Benefits Model: a Markov model for assessing the health benefits and health care cost savings of quitting smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley Susan F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the lack of comprehensive information about the health and economic benefits of quitting smoking for Australians, we developed the Quit Benefits Model (QBM. Methods The QBM is a Markov model, programmed in TreeAge, that assesses the consequences of quitting in terms of cases avoided of the four most common smoking-associated diseases, deaths avoided, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs and health care costs saved (in Australian dollars, A$. Quitting outcomes can be assessed for males and females in 14 five year age-groups from 15–19 to 80–84 years. Exponential models, based on data from large case-control and cohort studies, were developed to estimate the decline over time after quitting in the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, stroke, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and death. Australian data for the year 2001 were sourced for disease incidence and mortality and health care costs. Utility of life estimates were sourced from an international registry and a meta analysis. In this paper, outcomes are reported for simulated subjects followed up for ten years after quitting smoking. Life-years, QALYs and costs were estimated with 0%, 3% and 5% per annum discount rates. Summary results are presented for a group of 1,000 simulated quitters chosen at random from the Australian population of smokers aged between 15 and 74. Results For every 1,000 males chosen at random from the reference population who quit smoking, there is a an average saving in the first ten years following quitting of A$408,000 in health care costs associated with AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke, and a corresponding saving of A$328,000 for every 1,000 female quitters. The average saving per 1,000 random quitters is A$373,000. Overall 40 of these quitters will be spared a diagnosis of AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke in the first ten years following quitting, with an estimated saving of 47 life-years and

  4. Assessment of different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health systems play key roles in identifying tobacco users and providing evidence-based care to help them quit. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran in order to identify those that are most appropriate for the country health system. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, a random sample of all quit centers at the country level was used to obtain a representative sample. Patients completed the self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: A total of 1063 smokers returned completed survey questionnaires. The most frequently used methods were Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT and combination therapy (NRT and Counseling with 228 and 163 individuals reporting these respectively. The least used methods were hypnotism (n = 8 and the quit and win (n = 17. The methods which gained the maximum scores were respectively the combined method, personal and Champix with means of 21.4, 20.4 and 18.4. The minimum scores were for e-cigarettes, hypnotism and education with means of 12.8, 11 and 10.8, respectively. There were significant differences in mean scores based on different cities and different methods. Conclusions: According to smokers′ selection the combined therapy, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods for quit smoking and these methods could be much more considered in the country health system.

  5. Finding human promoter groups based on DNA physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Hongya; Yan, Hong

    2009-10-01

    DNA rigidity is an important physical property originating from the DNA three-dimensional structure. Although the general DNA rigidity patterns in human promoters have been investigated, their distinct roles in transcription are largely unknown. In this paper, we discover four highly distinct human promoter groups based on similarity of their rigidity profiles. First, we find that all promoter groups conserve relatively rigid DNAs at the canonical TATA box [a consensus TATA(A/T)A(A/T) sequence] position, which are important physical signals in binding transcription factors. Second, we find that the genes activated by each group of promoters share significant biological functions based on their gene ontology annotations. Finally, we find that these human promoter groups correlate with the tissue-specific gene expression.

  6. Finding human promoter groups based on DNA physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Hongya; Yan, Hong

    2009-10-01

    DNA rigidity is an important physical property originating from the DNA three-dimensional structure. Although the general DNA rigidity patterns in human promoters have been investigated, their distinct roles in transcription are largely unknown. In this paper, we discover four highly distinct human promoter groups based on similarity of their rigidity profiles. First, we find that all promoter groups conserve relatively rigid DNAs at the canonical TATA box [a consensus TATA(A/T)A(A/T) sequence] position, which are important physical signals in binding transcription factors. Second, we find that the genes activated by each group of promoters share significant biological functions based on their gene ontology annotations. Finally, we find that these human promoter groups correlate with the tissue-specific gene expression.

  7. The efficacy of nicotine patches to help adolescents quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Although the percentage adolescent smokers in the Netherlands has gradually decreased over the past years, the number of daily smokers is still increasing rapidly, from 12% of 16-year-olds to 27% of 19-year-olds. Adolescents often make quit attempts within a very short period after taking up smoking

  8. The Incidence of Unemployment: Identifying Quits and Layoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    1997-01-01

    We analyse what determines the incidence of unemployment among Danish employees by estimation of a logit model for becoming unemployed. Our data is incomplete in the sense that we do not observe whether a transition was caused by the person quitting or being laid off, so we apply the EM-algorithm...

  9. The efficacy of nicotine patches to help adolescents quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Although the percentage adolescent smokers in the Netherlands has gradually decreased over the past years, the number of daily smokers is still increasing rapidly, from 12% of 16-year-olds to 27% of 19-year-olds. Adolescents often make quit attempts within a very short period after taking up

  10. Evaluating the effect of access to free medication to quit smoking: a clinical trial testing the role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Cropsey, Karen L; Wahlquist, Amy E; Gray, Kevin M; Silvestri, Gerard A; Cummings, K Michael; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Although the majority of smokers are ambivalent about quitting, few treatments specifically target smokers lacking motivation to quit in the near future. Most existing interventions are instead predicated on the belief that active treatments should only be distributed to smokers interested in quitting, a largely untested assumption. In the current clinical trial (N = 157), motivated smokers wanting to quit in the next 30 days were given a 2-week nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sample and a referral to a quitline (Group MNQ), while unmotivated smokers were randomized to receive the same treatment (Group UNQ) or a quitline referral only (Group UQ). Participants were tracked via telephone for 3 months to assess quitting behaviors and smoking reduction. Groups significantly differed across all comparisons with regard to incidence of any quit attempt (MNQ: 77%, UNQ: 40%, UQ: 18%, p < .05) and any 24-hr quit attempts (62%, 32%, 16%, p < .05). Clinically meaningful differences emerged in the rates of floating (19%, 17%, 6%) and point prevalence abstinence (17%, 15%, 5%). Compared to participants in Group UQ (11%), a greater proportion of participants in Group MNQ (48%, p = .01) and Group UNQ (31%, p = .01) reduced their daily cigarette consumption by at least half. Proxy measures of cessation readiness (e.g., motivation) favored participants receiving active forms of treatment. Providing NRT samples engaged both motivated and unmotivated smokers into the quitting process and produced positive changes in smoking outcomes. This suggests that motivation should not be considered a necessary precondition to receiving treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Use of varenicline for 4 weeks before quitting smoking: decrease in ad lib smoking and increase in smoking cessation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; McRobbie, Hayden J; Myers, Katie E; Stapleton, John; Dhanji, Al-Rehan

    2011-04-25

    The use of varenicline tartrate alleviates postquit withdrawal discomfort, but it also seems to reduce the "reward" associated with smoking. The current treatment schedule, which commences 1 week before quitting, relies primarily on the first mechanism. We set out to determine whether increasing the prequit medication period renders cigarettes less satisfying and facilitates quitting. One hundred one smokers attending a stop-smoking clinic in London, United Kingdom, were randomly allocated to receive varenicline for 4 weeks before the target quit date (TQD) or to receive placebo for 3 weeks before the TQD, followed by varenicline for 1 week before the TQD. In both groups, standard varenicline treatment was given for 3 months after the TQD. Measures included smoking satisfaction and smoke intake before quitting, urges to smoke and withdrawal discomfort after quitting, and sustained abstinence from the TQD to 3 months. Varenicline preloading reduced prequit enjoyment of smoking (P = .004) and smoke intake (P lib smoking and enhance 12-week quit rates. Current treatment schedules may lead to suboptimal treatment results. Trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to corroborate these findings. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00789074.

  12. Possible causes of quitting smoking among women in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko, Ksenia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey completed in 2010 in Ukraine, 28,8% (about 11,5 million of adults aged 15 years and older are current smokers. Among women, prevalence of current smoking is 11,2%, which is considerably less than among men (50%. The goal of the study was to reveal the determinants of quitting smoking among women.METHODS. The sample included 571 women, who were current or former daily smokers. Firstly, the bivariate analysis (cross-tabulation and chi-square test was conducted. Then, the significant determinants from bivariate analysis were included to binary logistic regression. The women’s smoking status (current daily smokers vs. former daily smokers was considered an outcome measure. Independent variables included education, age, occupation, income, religion, marital status, variation in prices for tobacco products, awareness of the negative consequences of smoking, permission to smoke at home, and whether the woman received an advice to quit smoking from a health worker.RESULTS. Bivariate analysis showed that there was statistically significant relationships with age, marital status, occupation, permission to smoke at home, having received information about the dangers of smoking from the radio, newspapers, and other sources. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the unemployed women and women from households where smoking was banned were more likely to quit smoking. Unmarried women were less likely to quit smoking than married.CONCLUSIONS. Quitting smoking among women was associated with being married, unemployed, and living in a home where smoking is banned. Major limitations of the study are the small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study; hence, the inerrant conclusions about cause-effect relationships are not possible. So, longitudinal study with larger sample could be a better future option.

  13. Group-based sparse representation for image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Debin; Gao, Wen

    2014-08-01

    Traditional patch-based sparse representation modeling of natural images usually suffer from two problems. First, it has to solve a large-scale optimization problem with high computational complexity in dictionary learning. Second, each patch is considered independently in dictionary learning and sparse coding, which ignores the relationship among patches, resulting in inaccurate sparse coding coefficients. In this paper, instead of using patch as the basic unit of sparse representation, we exploit the concept of group as the basic unit of sparse representation, which is composed of nonlocal patches with similar structures, and establish a novel sparse representation modeling of natural images, called group-based sparse representation (GSR). The proposed GSR is able to sparsely represent natural images in the domain of group, which enforces the intrinsic local sparsity and nonlocal self-similarity of images simultaneously in a unified framework. In addition, an effective self-adaptive dictionary learning method for each group with low complexity is designed, rather than dictionary learning from natural images. To make GSR tractable and robust, a split Bregman-based technique is developed to solve the proposed GSR-driven ℓ0 minimization problem for image restoration efficiently. Extensive experiments on image inpainting, image deblurring and image compressive sensing recovery manifest that the proposed GSR modeling outperforms many current state-of-the-art schemes in both peak signal-to-noise ratio and visual perception.

  14. Hardware Accelerators Targeting a Novel Group Based Packet Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet classification is a ubiquitous and key building block for many critical network devices. However, it remains as one of the main bottlenecks faced when designing fast network devices. In this paper, we propose a novel Group Based Search packet classification Algorithm (GBSA that is scalable, fast, and efficient. GBSA consumes an average of 0.4 megabytes of memory for a 10 k rule set. The worst-case classification time per packet is 2 microseconds, and the preprocessing speed is 3 M rules/second based on an Xeon processor operating at 3.4 GHz. When compared with other state-of-the-art classification techniques, the results showed that GBSA outperforms the competition with respect to speed, memory usage, and processing time. Moreover, GBSA is amenable to implementation in hardware. Three different hardware implementations are also presented in this paper including an Application Specific Instruction Set Processor (ASIP implementation and two pure Register-Transfer Level (RTL implementations based on Impulse-C and Handel-C flows, respectively. Speedups achieved with these hardware accelerators ranged from 9x to 18x compared with a pure software implementation running on an Xeon processor.

  15. A Decision Tree Approach for Predicting Smokers' Quit Intentions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Ding; Susan Bedingfield; Chung-Hsing Yeh; Ron Borland; David Young; Jian-Ying Zhang; Sonja Petrovic-Lazarevic; Ken Coghill

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a decision treeapproach for predicting smokers' quit intentions usingthe data from the International Tobacco Control FourCountry Survey. Three rule-based classification modelsare generated from three data sets using attributes inrelation to demographics, warning labels, and smokers'beliefs. Both demographic attributes and warning labelattributes are important in predicting smokers' quitintentions. The model's ability to predict smokers' quitintentions is enhanced, if the attributes regardingsmokers' internal motivation and beliefs about quittingare included.

  16. Prisoners and cigarettes or ‘imprisoned in cigarettes’? What helps prisoners quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Elias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was, despite the special characteristics of prisons, to identify the features which led prisoners who attended the Smoking Cessation Centre at the Kassavetia Detention Centre in Volos (region of Thessaly, in the central part of mainland Greece to quit smoking. Methods Personal interviews with 204 male prisoners irrespective of smoking habitus over the period June 2008 to December 2010 were obtained. Information about medical history, history of tobacco use and addiction to narcotic use was obtained and imprisonment status was recorded. Pharmaceutical treatment (Varenicline and counselling or only counselling were suggested as alternative strategies to them in order to help quit smoking. SPSS v15.0 software was employed, descriptive statistics were used, and a X2 independence test and Student’s t-test were performed. Results Of the sample examined, 75.5% (154 were smokers. They were mainly Greeks (51.5%, single (53.4% and had not gratuated from a high school (secondary education level (70.6%. 59.75% begun smoking early ( ≤14 years of age and 64.9% were highly addicted according to Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. 74% (114 of all smokers at the prison attended the Smoking Cessation Centre. Of them, 30.7% were able to quit smoking at 3 months but 1 year later there were 20.2% ex-smokers. The key characteristics of those who were able to be ex-smokers were a change in smoking habits (decreased compared to when free (p = .001, previous attempts to quit (while incarcerated and in general (p = .001, average dependence levels (p  Conclusions Average dependence, a past free of addictive substance abuse and a better environment of daily living for certain prisoners (as far as the number of cellmates was concerned had a catalytic impact on prisoners finally managed to quit smoking.

  17. [Home based and group based exercise programs in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, S; Costa, S; Mesquita, C; Duarte, J

    2016-01-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by inflammation of the joints of the spine and sacroiliac and to a lesser percentage of the peripheral joints. It is a debilitating condition which reduces quality of life in patients with AS. The practice of physical therapy is recommended as non-pharmacological treatment as well as the treatment and prevention of associated deformities. To collect and summarize the available evidence in scientific databases to realize the effectiveness of home based and group based programs in patients with AS. Systematic review, where articles for the study were collected from scientific database PubMed. We have found 65 articles with publication date between January 1, 2004 and January 31, 2014. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established to make the selection of articles to include in the study. All investigators provided their agreement in presencial meeting for a final selection, and at a later stage, the articles were read in full by the three investigators. The present systematic review includes eight randomized controlled trials. All articles show functional benefits in patients with AS subject to exercise programs in group based and / or home based. From the eight articles, 4 addressed programs conducted in home based context and 4 addressed in group based context programs. There appears to be evidence that the programs carried out based on group are more effective than those home based conducted in patients with AS. It was concluded also be advantageous to carry out home based exercise programs than the absence of any exercise program..

  18. Home based and group based exercise programs in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lopes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by inflammation of the joints of the spine and sacroiliac and to a lesser percentage of the peripheral joints. It is a debilitating condition which reduces quality of life in patients with AS. The practice of physical therapy is recommended as non-pharmacological treatment as well as the treatment and prevention of associated deformities. Objective: To collect and summarize the available evidence in scientific databases to realize the effectiveness of home based and group based programs in patients with AS. Methods: Systematic review, where articles for the study were collected from scientific database PubMed. We have found 65 articles with publication date between January 1, 2004 and January 31, 2014. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established to make the selection of articles to include in the study. All investigators provided their agreement in presencial meeting for a final selection, and at a later stage, the articles were read in full by the three investigators. Results: The present systematic review includes eight randomized controlled trials. All articles show functional benefits in patients with AS subject to exercise programs in group based and / or home based. From the eight articles, 4 addressed programs conducted in home based context and 4 addressed in group based context programs. Conclusion: There appears to be evidence that the programs carried out based on group are more effective than those home based conducted in patients with AS. It was concluded also be advantageous to carry out home based exercise programs than the absence of any exercise program.

  19. Gender Differences in Self-Conscious Emotions and Motivation to Quit Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Godinho, Alexandra; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2016-09-01

    Considerable gender differences have been previously noted in the prevalence, etiology, and clinical features of problem gambling. While differences in affective states between men and women in particular, may explain differential experiences in the process of gambling, the role of affect in motivations for quitting gambling and recovery has not been thoroughly explored. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences within a sample of problem gamblers motivated to quit with or without formal treatment, and further, to explore the interactions between gender, shame and guilt-proneness, and autonomous versus controlled reasons for change. Motivation for change and self-conscious emotional traits were analyzed for 207 adult problem gamblers with an interest in quitting or reducing their gambling (96.6 % not receiving treatment). Overall, gender differences were not observed in clinical and demographic characteristics. However, women exhibited greater shame [F(1,204) = 12.11, p = 0.001] and guilt proneness [F(1,204) = 14.16, p gambling severity, and the preparation stage of change; whereas controlled forms of motivation were significantly associated with higher shame-proneness and greater problem gambling severity. No gender effects were observed for either motivation for change. These findings suggest that the process of change can be different for shame-prone and guilt-prone problem gamblers, which may impact behavioral outcomes.

  20. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-04-30

    When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28-68 years; 9 males and 12 females) who quit unassisted within the past 6 months to 2 years. 12 participants had previous experience of using assistance to quit; 9 had never previously used assistance. Community, Australia. Along with previously identified barriers to use of cessation assistance (cost, access, lack of awareness or knowledge of assistance, including misperceptions about effectiveness or safety), our study produced new explanations of why smokers quit unassisted: (1) they prioritise lay knowledge gained directly from personal experiences and indirectly from others over professional or theoretical knowledge; (2) their evaluation of the costs and benefits of quitting unassisted versus those of using assistance favours quitting unassisted; (3) they believe quitting is their personal responsibility; and (4) they perceive quitting unassisted to be the 'right' or 'better' choice in terms of how this relates to their own self-identity or self-image. Deep-rooted personal and societal values such as independence, strength, autonomy and self-control appear to be influencing smokers' beliefs and decisions about quitting. The reasons for smokers' rejection of the conventional medical model for smoking cessation are complex and go beyond modifiable or correctable problems relating to misperceptions or treatment barriers. These findings suggest that GPs could recognise and respect smokers' reasons for rejecting assistance, validate and approve their choices, and modify brief interventions to support their preference

  1. Stress-related expectations about smoking cessation and future quit attempts and abstinence - a prospective study in daily smokers who wish to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Dalum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smokers who wish to quit may refrain from doing so if they expect to experience more stress after haven given up. We test if stress-related expectations about smoking cessation are associated with quit attempts and abstinence among smokers who are motivated to quit. The study included 1809 daily ...

  2. Evolution of Fairness in the Not Quite Ultimatum Game

    CERN Document Server

    Ichinose, Genki

    2014-01-01

    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is an economic game where two players decide how to split a certain amount of money. One player (proposer) makes only one offer to the other player (responder). If the responder accepts the offer, the money will be split between them accordingly, but if not, neither receives anything. Although making minimal offers and accepting any offers is the most rational choice in UG, human subjects tend to behave more fairly in experiments. Previous studies suggested that extra information such as reputation or empathy is needed for fairness to evolve in UG. Here we show that fairness can evolve without additional information if the game is probabilistic, which we call the Not Quite Ultimatum Game (NQUG). In NQUG, players make decisions probabilistically and may continue interactions when the offer is rejected. These simple extensions greatly promote evolution of fairness in both proposers' offers and responders' acceptance thresholds.

  3. Thoughts of Quitting General Surgery Residency: Factors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, David Nathan; Dattani, Sheev; Miller, Sarah; Hayes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Attrition rates in general surgery training are higher than other surgical disciplines. We sought to determine the prevalence with which Canadian general surgery residents consider leaving their training and the contributing factors. An anonymous survey was administered to all general surgery residents in Canada. Responses from residents who considered leaving their training were assessed for importance of contributing factors. The study was conducted at the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, a tertiary academic center. The response rate was approximately 34.0%. A minority (32.0%) reported very seriously or somewhat seriously considering leaving their training, whereas 35.2% casually considered doing so. Poor work-life balance in residency (38.9%) was the single-most important factor, whereas concern about future unemployment (16.7%) and poor future quality of life (15.7%) were next. Enjoyment of work (41.7%) was the most frequent mitigating factor. Harassment and intimidation were reported factors in 16.7%. On analysis, only intention to practice in a nonacademic setting approached significant association with thoughts of leaving (odds ratio = 1.92, CI = 0.99-3.74, p = 0.052). There was no association with sex, program, postgraduate year, relationship status, or subspecialty interest. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more thoughts of leaving with older age. Canadian general surgery residents appear less likely to seriously consider quitting than their American counterparts. Poor work-life balance in residency, fear of future unemployment, and anticipated poor future quality of life are significant contributors to thoughts of quitting. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle, and to assist residents in securing employment, may improve completion rates. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  5. Changes in threat-related cognitions and experiential avoidance in group-based transdiagnostic CBT for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Emmanuel P; Gorlick, Amanda; Castriotta, Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Group-based Transdiagnostic Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TCBT) for anxiety disorders aims to target common factors to produce beneficial effects on multiple anxiety disorders at once. While there is growing evidence that various anxiety disorders can be effectively treated by this approach, the common factors contributing to these treatment effects are not well delineated. In a sample of 48 Veterans who completed Group-based TCBT, the current study examined change in threat perception and change in experiential avoidance pre to post-treatment and as potential mediators of changes in negative affect and personalized fear ratings. Results indicated that both threat perception and experiential avoidance were significantly reduced during treatment. Additionally, reductions in both threat perception and experiential avoidance significantly predicted reductions in negative affect and fear ratings. When change in threat perception and change in experiential avoidance were examined simultaneously, both remained significant predictors of changes in negative affect though only experiential avoidance predicted changes in fear ratings. Thus, both reductions in threat perception and experiential avoidance may mediate the broad treatment effects observed in group-based TCBT. Directions for future research are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Transitions in Smokers' Social Networks After Quit Attempts: A Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Bethany C; Smith, Rachel A; Piper, Megan E; Roberts, Linda J; Baker, Timothy B

    2016-12-01

    Smokers' social networks vary in size, composition, and amount of exposure to smoking. The extent to which smokers' social networks change after a quit attempt is unknown, as is the relation between quitting success and later network changes. Unique types of social networks for 691 smokers enrolled in a smoking-cessation trial were identified based on network size, new network members, members' smoking habits, within network smoking, smoking buddies, and romantic partners' smoking. Latent transition analysis was used to identify the network classes and to predict transitions in class membership across 3 years from biochemically assessed smoking abstinence. Five network classes were identified: Immersed (large network, extensive smoking exposure including smoking buddies), Low Smoking Exposure (large network, minimal smoking exposure), Smoking Partner (small network, smoking exposure primarily from partner), Isolated (small network, minimal smoking exposure), and Distant Smoking Exposure (small network, considerable nonpartner smoking exposure). Abstinence at years 1 and 2 was associated with shifts in participants' social networks to less contact with smokers and larger networks in years 2 and 3. In the years following a smoking-cessation attempt, smokers' social networks changed, and abstinence status predicted these changes. Networks defined by high levels of exposure to smokers were especially associated with continued smoking. Abstinence, however, predicted transitions to larger social networks comprising less smoking exposure. These results support treatments that aim to reduce exposure to smoking cues and smokers, including partners who smoke. Prior research has shown that social network features predict the likelihood of subsequent smoking cessation. The current research illustrates how successful quitting predicts social network change over 3 years following a quit attempt. Specifically, abstinence predicts transitions to networks that are larger and afford

  7. Evolution of Fairness in the Not Quite Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Sayama, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is an economic game where two players (proposer and responder) decide how to split a certain amount of money. While traditional economic theories based on rational decision making predict that the proposer should make a minimal offer and the responder should accept it, human subjects tend to behave more fairly in UG. Previous studies suggested that extra information such as reputation, empathy, or spatial structure is needed for fairness to evolve in UG. Here we show that fairness can evolve without additional information if players make decisions probabilistically and may continue interactions when the offer is rejected, which we call the Not Quite Ultimatum Game (NQUG). Evolutionary simulations of NQUG showed that the probabilistic decision making contributes to the increase of proposers' offer amounts to avoid rejection, while the repetition of the game works to responders' advantage because they can wait until a good offer comes. These simple extensions greatly promote evolution of fairness in both proposers' offers and responders' acceptance thresholds.

  8. Is attributing smoking to genetic causes associated with a reduced probability of quit attempt success? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alison J; Aveyard, Paul; Guo, Boliang; Murphy, Michael; Brown, Karen; Marteau, Theresa M

    2007-10-01

    Pharmacogenetic smoking cessation interventions would involve smokers being given information about the influence of genes on their behaviour. However, attributing smoking to genetic causes may reduce perceived control over smoking, reducing quit attempt success. This study examines whether attributing smoking to genetic influences is associated with reduced quitting and whether this effect is mediated by perceived control over smoking. Cohort study. A total of 792 smokers, participating in a trial of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-assisted smoking cessation. Participants were informed that the trial investigated relationships between genetic markers and smoking behaviour, but personalized genetic feedback was not provided. Primary care in Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, UK. Perceived control over smoking and perceived importance of genetic factors in causing smoking assessed pre-quit; abstinence 4, 12, 26 and 52 weeks after the start of treatment. A total of 515 smokers (65.0%) viewed genetic factors as playing some role in causing their smoking. They had lower perceived control over smoking than smokers who viewed genetic factors as having no role in causing their smoking. Attributing smoking to genetic causes was not associated significantly with a lower probability of quit attempt success. Attributing smoking to genetic factors was associated with lower levels of perceived control over smoking but not lower quit rates. This suggests that learning of one's genetic predisposition to smoking during a pharmacogenetically tailored smoking cessation intervention may not deter quitting. Further research should examine whether the lack of impact of genetic attributions on quit attempt success is also found in smokers provided with personalized genetic feedback.

  9. Quitting activity and tobacco brand switching: findings from the ITC-4 Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Genevieve A; Swift, Elena; Partos, Timea; Borland, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Among Australian smokers, to examine associations between cigarette brand switching, quitting activity and possible causal directions by lagging the relationships in different directions. Current smokers from nine waves (2002 to early 2012) of the ITC-4 Country Survey Australian dataset were surveyed. Measures were brand switching, both brand family and product type (roll-your-own versus factory-made cigarettes) reported in adjacent waves, interest in quitting, recent quit attempts, and one month sustained abstinence. Switching at one interval was unrelated to concurrent quit interest. Quit interest predicted switching at the following interval, but the effect disappeared once subsequent quit attempts were controlled for. Recent quit attempts more strongly predicted switching at concurrent (OR 1.34, 95%CI=1.18-1.52, pbrand switching does not affect subsequent quitting. Brand switching does not appear to interfere with quitting. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Assessing the translational feasibility of pharmacological drug memory reconsolidation blockade with memantine in quitting smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ravi K; Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P; Lazzarino, Antonio I; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2015-09-01

    Preclinical reconsolidation research offers the first realistic opportunity to pharmacologically weaken the maladaptive memory structures that support relapse in drug addicts. N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism is a highly effective means of blocking drug memory reconsolidation. However, no research using this approach exists in human addicts. The objective of this study was to assess the potential and clinical outcomes of blocking the reconsolidation of cue-smoking memories with memantine in quitting smokers. Fifty-nine dependent and motivated to quit smokers were randomised to one of three groups receiving the following: (1) memantine with or (2) without reactivation of associative cue-smoking memories or (3) reactivation with placebo on their target quit day in a double-blind manner. Participants aimed to abstain from smoking for as long as possible. Levels of smoking and FTND score were assessed prior to intervention and up to a year later. Primary outcome was latency to relapse. Subjective craving measures and attentional bias to smoking cues were assessed in-lab. All study groups successfully reduced their smoking up to 3 months. Memantine in combination with smoking memory reactivation did not affect any measure of smoking outcome, reactivity or attention capture to smoking cues. Brief exposure to smoking cues with memantine did not appear to weaken these memory traces. These findings could be due to insufficient reconsolidation blockade by memantine or failure of exposure to smoking stimuli to destabilise smoking memories. Research assessing the treatment potential of reconsolidation blockade in human addicts should focus on identification of tolerable drugs that reliably block reward memory reconsolidation and retrieval procedures that reliably destabilise strongly trained memories.

  11. Age at quitting smoking as a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease incidence independent of smoking status, time since quitting and pack-years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walls Helen L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk prediction for CVD events has been shown to vary according to current smoking status, pack-years smoked over a lifetime, time since quitting and age at quitting. The latter two are closely and inversely related. It is not known whether the age at which one quits smoking is an additional important predictor of CVD events. The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of CVD events varied according to age at quitting after taking into account current smoking status, lifetime pack-years smoked and time since quitting. Findings We used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the risk of developing a first CVD event for a cohort of participants in the Framingham Offspring Heart Study who attended the fourth examination between ages 30 and 74 years and were free of CVD. Those who quit before the median age of 37 years had a risk of CVD incidence similar to those who were never smokers. The incorporation of age at quitting in the smoking variable resulted in better prediction than the model which had a simple current smoker/non-smoker measure and the one that incorporated both time since quitting and pack-years. These models demonstrated good discrimination, calibration and global fit. The risk among those quitting more than 5 years prior to the baseline exam and those whose age at quitting was prior to 44 years was similar to the risk among never smokers. However, the risk among those quitting less than 5 years prior to the baseline exam and those who continued to smoke until 44 years of age (or beyond was two and a half times higher than that of never smokers. Conclusions Age at quitting improves the prediction of risk of CVD incidence even after other smoking measures are taken into account. The clinical benefit of adding age at quitting to the model with other smoking measures may be greater than the associated costs. Thus, age at quitting should be considered in addition to smoking status, time since

  12. Estimating the probabilities of making a smoking quit attempt in Italy: stall in smoking cessation levels, 1986-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreras Giulia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No data on annual smoking cessation probability (i.e., the probability of successfully quit in a given year are available for Italy at a population level. Mathematical models typically used to estimate smoking cessation probabilities do not account for smoking relapse. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model to estimate annual quitting probabilities, taking into account smoking relapse and time since cessation. Methods We developed a dynamic model describing the evolution of current, former, and never smokers. We estimated probabilities of smoking cessation by fitting the model with observed smoking prevalence in Italy, 1986-2009. Results Annual cessation probabilities were higher than 5% only in elderly persons and in women aged Conclusions Over the last 20 years, cessation probabilities among Italian smokers, particularly for those aged 30-59 years, have been very low and stalled. Quitting in Italy is considered as a practicable strategy only by women in the age of pregnancy and by elderly persons, when it’s likely that symptoms of tobacco-related diseases have already appeared. In order to increase cessation probabilities, smoking cessation treatment policies (introducing total reimbursement of cessation treatments, with a further development of quitlines and smoking cessation services should be empowered and a country-wide mass media campaign targeting smokers aged 30-59 years and focusing on promotion of quitting should be implemented.

  13. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Ucinska Romana; Lewandowska Katarzyna; Jassem Ewa; Buczkowski Krzysztof; Sieminska Alicja; Chelminska Marta

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals ...

  14. A pilot evaluation of group-based programming offered at a Canadian outpatient adult eating disorders clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Neil, Brad A; Leung, Pauline; Nadkarni, Pallavi; Stubbs, Laura; Singh, Manya

    2016-10-01

    Eating disorder clinics across Canada place heavy reliance on group-based programming. However, little work has examined whether this modality of treatment is well-received by patients and results in clinical improvements. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate patient satisfaction and outcomes for group-based programming offered through an adult eating disorders clinic. Participants were 81 adults who met DSM-5 criteria for an eating disorder and participated in the study as part of the clinic's program evaluation. Participants received medical monitoring, psychiatric follow-up, adjunct nutrition and pre-psychological treatment, and participated in the clinic's core cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) group. Demographic information and weight were collected at intake. Participants also completed pre- and post-group programming measures of life satisfaction, depressive and anxiety symptoms, psychological symptoms of the eating disorder, and satisfaction with the programming. Participants' experienced a significant increase in satisfaction with life, and decreases in depressive symptoms and psychological symptoms of the eating disorder post-group. Adults endorsed feeling fairly satisfied with the group-based services provided. Results draw attention to the importance of program evaluation as an integral component of an adult outpatient eating disorder clinic by providing a voice for patients' views of the services received and program outcomes.

  15. Abstinence and Relapse Rates Following a College Campus-Based Quit & Win Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; An, Larry; Luo, Xianghua; Scherber, Robyn M.; Berg, Carla J.; Golden, Dave; Ehlinger, Edward P.; Murphy, Sharon E.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To conduct and evaluate Quit & Win contests at 2 2-year college and 2 4-year university campuses. Participants: During Spring semester, 2006, undergraduates (N = 588) interested in quitting smoking signed up for a Quit & Win 30-day cessation contest for a chance to win a lottery prize. Methods: Participants (N = 588) completed a…

  16. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129. However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  17. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Dodd, Michael D; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-06

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  18. Effects of varenicline versus transdermal nicotine replacement therapy on cigarette demand on quit day in individuals with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cara M; MacKillop, James; Martin, Rosemarie A; Tidey, Jennifer W; Colby, Suzanne M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2017-08-01

    Cigarette demand is a behavioral economic measure of the relative value of cigarettes. Decreasing the value of cigarette reinforcement may help with quitting smoking. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of initial use of varenicline (VAR) versus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on demand for cigarettes on quit day among smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) and to determine whether reduced demand was associated with subsequent abstinence from smoking at 1 and 3 months. Participants (N = 110) were randomized to double-blind, double-placebo conditions: VAR with placebo NRT or NRT with placebo capsules. The cigarette purchase task (CPT) was used to assess demand for cigarettes at baseline and on quit day, following a 1-week medication dose run-up/placebo capsule lead-in and first day use of the patch. Demand for cigarettes decreased from baseline to quit day without significant differences between medications. Reductions in CPT intensity (number of cigarettes that would be smoked if they were free) and CPT breakpoint (lowest price at which no cigarettes would be purchased) predicted greater likelihood of abstaining on quit day. Reduced intensity predicted length of abstinence at 1 and 3 months while reduced breakpoint predicted only 1 month length of abstinence. Initial therapeutic doses of VAR and NRT resulted in similar reductions in cigarette reinforcement. Larger initial reductions in demand on quit day were associated with early success with abstaining from cigarettes. Behavioral economic approaches may be useful for identifying individuals who benefit less from pharmacotherapy and may need additional treatment resources. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00756275.

  19. Group-based antenatal birth and parent preparation for improving birth outcomes and parenting resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg

    2013-01-01

    To examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of group based antenatal education for improving childbirth and parenting resources compared to auditorium based education.......To examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of group based antenatal education for improving childbirth and parenting resources compared to auditorium based education....

  20. Group-based compunction and anger: Their antecedents and consequences in relation to colonial conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, A.; Doosje, B.; Pires Valentim, J.

    2015-01-01

    Group-based emotions can be experienced by group members for the past misdeeds of their ingroup towards an outgroup.. The present study examines distinct antecedents and consequences of group-based compunction and anger in two countries with a history of colonization (Portugal, N = 280 and the Nethe

  1. Group-based Compunction and Anger: Their Antecedents and Consequences in Relation to Colonial Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-based emotions can be experienced by group members for the past misdeeds of their ingroup towards an outgroup.. The present study examines distinct antecedents and consequences of group-based compunction and anger in two countries with a history of colonization (Portugal, N = 280 and the Netherlands, N = 184. While previous research has focused mainly on ingroup-focused antecedents of group-based emotions, such as ingroup identification and perceptions of responsibility, our research also analyzed outgroup-focused variables, such as outgroup identification and meta-perceptions. Multiple group structural equation modeling showed that group-based compunction and group-based anger have similar antecedents (exonerating cognitions, collectivism, outgroup identification and meta-perceptions. Furthermore, the results showed that the two emotions have distinct but related consequences for the improvement of intergroup relations (compensation, subjective importance of discussing the past and forgiveness assignment.

  2. Together we cry: Social motives and preferences for group-based sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Roni; Halperin, Eran; Mannheim, Ittay; Tamir, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Group-based emotions play an important role in helping people feel that they belong to their group. People are motivated to belong, but does this mean that they actively try to experience group-based emotions to increase their sense of belonging? In this investigation, we propose that people may be motivated to experience even group-based emotions that are typically considered unpleasant to satisfy their need to belong. To test this hypothesis, we examined people's preferences for group-based sadness in the context of the Israeli National Memorial Day. In two correlational (Studies 1a and 1b) and two experimental (Studies 2 and 3) studies, we demonstrate that people with a stronger need to belong have a stronger preference to experience group-based sadness. This effect was mediated by the expectation that experiencing sadness would be socially beneficial (Studies 1 and 2). We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding motivated emotion regulation and intergroup relations.

  3. Online tobacco websites and online communities-who uses them and do users quit smoking? The quit-primo and national dental practice-based research network Hi-Quit studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Sadasivam, Rajani S; DeLaughter, Kathryn; Kamberi, Ariana; Volkman, Julie E; Cobb, Nathan; Gilbert, Gregg H; Ray, Midge N; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-12-01

    Online tobacco cessation communities are beneficial but underused. Our study examined whether, among smokers participating in a web-assisted tobacco intervention (Decide2quit.org), specific characteristics were associated with navigating to BecomeAnEx.org, an online cessation community, and with subsequent quit rates. Among smokers (N = 759) registered with Decide2quit.org, we identified visitors to BecomeAnEx.org, examining associations between smoker characteristics and likelihood of visiting. We then tested for associations between visits and 6-month cessation (point prevalence). We also tested for an interaction between use of other online support-seeking (Decide2quit.org tobacco cessation coaches), visiting, and 6-month cessation. One quarter (26.0 %; n = 197) of the smokers visited BecomeAnEx.org; less than one tenth (7.5 %; n = 57) registered to participate in the online forum. Visitors were more likely to be female (73.0 vs. 62.6 % of non-visitors, P Online cessation communities attract smokers with previous cessation website experience and recent quit attempts. Community visiting was not associated with quit rates in our study, but low use may have limited our power to detect differences. Further research should explore whether an additive effect can be achieved by offering community visitors support via online coaches.

  4. The Effectiveness of Abstinence-Based/Faith-Based Addiction Quitting Courses on General and Coping Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosin Nazari, Sh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: One of the influential elements in the life of an individual is his or her level of self efficacy. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses on general and coping self efficacy of the people who want to quit opium addiction through these courses in Tehran city. Method: In semi experimental research design 80 people who referred to abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses were selected by census method. General self efficacy questionnaire of Jerusalem and Schwartzer (1981 and coping self-efficacy questionnaire of Chesney (2006 administered among selected sample before and after treatment. Results: The results of paired t-test indicated that abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses have a significant influence on the skills of impeding negative thoughts and excitements and gaining friends’ and colleagues’ support. Conclusion: The findings of this research concur with the findings of similar researches, and indicated with appropriate strategies of training self-efficacy beliefs can be improved and boosted.

  5. Contrasting snus and NRT as methods to quit smoking. an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffels Janne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Snus is considerably less hazardous to health than cigarettes. Recent data from Scandinavia have indicated that many smokers use snus as a method for quitting smoking. Methods Data from five repeated cross-sectional surveys of Norwegian men and women aged 16-74 were pooled (N = 6 262. Respondents were asked about current and former smoking and snus use. Former daily smokers (N = 1219 and current daily smokers who had tried to quit at least once (N = 1118 were asked about the method they had used at their latest quit attempt and how many quit attempts they had made. Former smokers were also requested to report what year they had made their final quit attempt. Results Snus was the most common method used for quitting smoking among men, while NRT was most often used among women. Stratifying the data according to year of quitting smoking (1945-2007 indicated a significant increase in use of the methods for quitting asked about over time. Among men, this was largely due to an increase in the use of snus. Among male quitters under the age of 45 years, 45.8% of those who had used snus on their last attempt to quit were current non-smokers (OR = 1.61, CI 1.04-2.29, while 26,3% of those who had used NRT were current non-smokers. 59.6% of successful quitters and 19.5% of unsuccessful quitters who had used snus as a method for quitting smoking had continued to use snus on a daily basis after quitting. Conclusion Norwegian men frequently use snus as a method for quitting smoking whereas women are more likely to use NRT. The findings indicate that switching to snus can be an effective method for quitting smoking.

  6. The therapeutic armamentarium in migraine is quite elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelletti, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Global Burden of Disease 2010 study considers migraine as one of the most important noncommunicable diseases in the world, classifying it third in terms of global prevalence (14.70%): it sums up the 54.19% of all the years of life lived with disabilities caused by the rest of all neurological disorders. This Editorial provides an historical excursus of old and new-entry molecules in migraine therapeutic area. Drugs for acute treatment such as triptans date back to the early 1990s with the appearance of sumatriptan and the following six triptans in the years immediately after (zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, naratriptan, eletriptan, almotriptan, frovatriptan). Prophylaxis drugs, dedicated to patients with medium/high frequency of crises, show as last entries topiramate and botulinum toxin type A. The use of this preventative group, with its intrinsic limits, is mandatory to reduce the risk of migraine chronification, a highly harmful clinical phenomenon that produces as its natural consequence the medication overuse headache. The development of new acute and preventative compounds, such as 5HT (serotonin) 1F receptor (5-HT1F) agonist lasmiditan, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) peptide receptor antagonists, anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (LY2951742, ALD403, LBR101) and anti-CGRP-r monoclonal antibody (AMG334), is warranted and might be soon completed in order to offer new opportunities to migraine patients.

  7. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  8. Individual and group-based learning from complex cognitive tasks: Effects on retention and transfer efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Paas, F., & Kirschner, P. (2009). Individual and group-based learning from complex cognitive tasks: Effects on retention and transfer efficiency. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 306-314.

  9. Estimation of pyrethroid pesticide intake using regression modeling of food groups based on composite dietary samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population-based estimates of pesticide intake are needed to characterize exposure for particular demographic groups based on their dietary behaviors. Regression modeling performed on measurements of selected pesticides in composited duplicate diet samples allowed (1) estimation ...

  10. Estimation of pyrethroid pesticide intake using regression modeling of food groups based on composite dietary samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population-based estimates of pesticide intake are needed to characterize exposure for particular demographic groups based on their dietary behaviors. Regression...

  11. Exploring the barriers of quitting smoking during pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingall, G; Cropley, M.

    2010-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is widely known to increase health risks to the foetus, and understanding the quitting process during pregnancy is essential in order to realise national government targets. Qualitative studies have been used in order to gain a greater understanding of the quitting process and the objective of this systematic review was to examine and evaluate qualitative studies that have investigated the psychological and social factors around women attempting to quit smoking during...

  12. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranil Man Singh Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years and late adolescence (16–19 years. Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%. The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%. Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45. Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation.

  13. Utilization of group-based, community acupuncture clinics: a comparative study with a nationally representative sample of acupuncture users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Maria T; Tippens, Kimberly M; Connelly, Erin

    2012-06-01

    Acupuncture utilization in the United States has increased in recent years, but is less common among racial/ethnic minorities and those of low socioeconomic status. Group-based, community acupuncture is a delivery model gaining in popularity around the United States, due in part to low-cost treatments provided on a sliding-fee scale. Affordable, community-based acupuncture may increase access to health care at a time when increasing numbers of people are uninsured. To assess the population using local community acupuncture clinics, sociodemographic factors, health status, and utilization patterns compared to national acupuncture users were examined. Data were employed from (1) a cross-sectional survey of 478 clients of two community acupuncture clinics in Portland, Oregon and (2) a nationally representative sample of acupuncture users from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Portland community acupuncture clients were more homogeneous racially, had higher educational attainment, lower household income, and were more likely to receive 10 or more treatments in the past 12 months (odds ratio=5.39, 95% confidence interval=3.54, 8.22), compared to a nationally representative sample of U.S. acupuncture users. Self-reported health status and medical reasons for seeking acupuncture treatment were similar in both groups. Back pain (21%), joint pain (17%), and depression (13%) were the most common conditions for seeking treatment at community acupuncture clinics. Study findings suggest that local community acupuncture clinics reach individuals of a broad socioeconomic spectrum and may allow for increased frequency of treatment. Limited racial diversity among community acupuncture clients may reflect local demographics of Portland. In addition, exposure to and knowledge about acupuncture is likely to vary by race and ethnicity. Future studies should examine access, patient satisfaction, frequency of treatment, and clinical outcomes of group-based models of community

  14. Aiming at Tobacco Harm Reduction: A survey comparing smokers differing in readiness to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafidou Jasmin-Olga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greece has the highest smoking rates (in the 15-nation bloc in Europe. The purpose of this study was to investigate Greek smokers' intention and appraisal of capability to quit employing the theoretical frameworks of Decisional Balance (DB and Cognitive Dissonance (CD. Methods A cross-sectional study including 401 Greek habitual smokers (205 men and 195 women, falling into four groups according to their intention and self-appraised capability to quit smoking was carried out. Participants completed a questionnaire recording their attitude towards smoking, intention and self appraised capability to quit smoking, socio-demographic information, as well as a DB and a CD scale. Results The most numerous group of smokers (38% consisted of those who neither intended nor felt capable to quit and these smokers perceived more benefits of smoking than negatives. DB changed gradually according to smokers' "readiness" to quit: the more ready they felt to quit the less the pros of smoking outnumbered the cons. Regarding relief of CD, smokers who intended but did not feel capable to quit employed more "excuses" compared to those who felt capable. Additionally smokers with a past history of unsuccessful quit attempts employed fewer "excuses" even though they were more frequently found among those who intended but did not feel capable to quit. Conclusion Findings provide support for the DB theory. On the other hand, "excuses" do not appear to be extensively employed to reduce the conflict between smoking and concern for health. There is much heterogeneity regarding smokers' intention and appraised capability to quit, reflecting theoretical and methodological problems with the distinction among stages of change. Harm reduction programs and interventions designed to increase the implementation of smoking cessation should take into account the detrimental effect of past unsuccessful quit attempts.

  15. A tensorial approach to the inversion of group-based phylogenetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jeremy G; Jarvis, Peter D; Holland, Barbara R

    2014-12-04

    Hadamard conjugation is part of the standard mathematical armoury in the analysis of molecular phylogenetic methods. For group-based models, the approach provides a one-to-one correspondence between the so-called "edge length" and "sequence" spectrum on a phylogenetic tree. The Hadamard conjugation has been used in diverse phylogenetic applications not only for inference but also as an important conceptual tool for thinking about molecular data leading to generalizations beyond strictly tree-like evolutionary modelling. For general group-based models of phylogenetic branching processes, we reformulate the problem of constructing a one-one correspondence between pattern probabilities and edge parameters. This takes a classic result previously shown through use of Fourier analysis and presents it in the language of tensors and group representation theory. This derivation makes it clear why the inversion is possible, because, under their usual definition, group-based models are defined for abelian groups only. We provide an inversion of group-based phylogenetic models that can implemented using matrix multiplication between rectangular matrices indexed by ordered-partitions of varying sizes. Our approach provides additional context for the construction of phylogenetic probability distributions on network structures, and highlights the potential limitations of restricting to group-based models in this setting.

  16. Varenicline in prevention of relapse to smoking: effect of quit pattern on response to extended treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Peter; Tønnesen, Philip; Arteaga, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: While older behavioural and pharmacological approaches to preventing relapse to smoking show little efficacy, a recent randomized trial of an extended course of varenicline reported positive results. In this secondary analysis, trial data were examined to see whether smokers who manage to ac...

  17. Group-based trajectory modeling to assess adherence to biologics among patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yunfeng Li,1 Huanxue Zhou,2 Beilei Cai,1 Kristijan H Kahler,1 Haijun Tian,1 Susan Gabriel,1 Steve Arcona11Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2KMK Consulting Inc., Florham Park, NJ, USABackground: Proportion of days covered (PDC, a commonly used adherence metric, does not provide information about the longitudinal course of adherence to treatment over time. Group-based trajectory model (GBTM is an alternative method that overcomes this limitation.Methods: The statistical principles of GBTM and PDC were applied to assess adherence during a 12-month follow-up in psoriasis patients starting treatment with a biologic. The optimal GBTM model was determined on the basis of the balance between each model's Bayesian information criterion and the percentage of patients in the smallest group in each model. Variables potentially predictive of adherence were evaluated.Results: In all, 3,249 patients were included in the analysis. Four GBTM adherence groups were suggested by the optimal model, and patients were categorized as demonstrating continuously high adherence, high-then-low adherence, moderate-then-low adherence, or consistently moderate adherence during follow-up. For comparison, four PDC groups were constructed: PDC Group 4 (PDC ≥75%, PDC Group 3 (25%≤ PDC <50%, PDC Group 2 (PDC <25%, and PDC Group 1 (50%≤ PDC <75%. Our findings suggest that the majority of patients (97.9% from PDC Group 2 demonstrated moderate-then-low adherence, whereas 96.4% of patients from PDC Group 4 showed continuously high adherence. The remaining PDC-based categorizations did not capture patients with uniform adherence behavior based on GBTM. In PDC Group 3, 25.3%, 17.2%, and 57.5% of patients exhibited GBTM-defined consistently moderate adherence, moderate-then-low adherence, or high-then-low adherence, respectively. In PDC Group 1, 70.8%, 23.6%, and 5.7% of patients had consistently moderate adherence, high-then-low adherence, and

  18. Predictors of Successful Quitting among Thai Adult Smokers: Evidence from ITC-SEA (Thailand Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aree Jampaklay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia (ITC-SEA Thailand survey to explore patterns and predictors of successful quitting among Thai adult smokers as a function of time quit. A cohort of a representative sample of 2000 smokers was surveyed four times from 2005 to 2009. A sample of 1533 individuals provided data for at least one of the reported analyses. Over the four years of follow-up, 97% made attempts to quit. Outcomes were successful quitting/relapse: (a quit attempts of at least one month (short-term relapse, 43% (57% remaining quit; (b surviving at least six months (medium-term (31%; (c relapse between one and six months (45%; (d having continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (sustained abstinence (14%; and (e relapse from six months on (44% compared to those who continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (56%. Predictors for early relapse (<1 month differ from longer-term relapse. Age was associated with reduced relapse over all three periods, and was much stronger for longer periods of abstinence. Cigarette consumption predicted relapse for short and medium terms. Self-assessed addiction was predictive of early relapse, but reversed to predict abstinence beyond six months. Previous quit history of more than one week was predictive of early abstinence, but became unrelated subsequently. Self-efficacy was strongly predictive of abstinence in the first month but was associated with relapse thereafter. Some determinants of relapse change with time quit, but this may be in somewhat different to patterns found in the West.

  19. Evaluating user reputation in online rating systems via an iterative group-based ranking method

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Reputation is a valuable asset in online social lives and it has drawn increased attention. How to evaluate user reputation in online rating systems is especially significant due to the existence of spamming attacks. To address this issue, so far, a variety of methods have been proposed, including network-based methods, quality-based methods and group-based ranking method. In this paper, we propose an iterative group-based ranking (IGR) method by introducing an iterative reputation-allocation process into the original group-based ranking (GR) method. More specifically, users with higher reputation have higher weights in dominating the corresponding group sizes. The reputation of users and the corresponding group sizes are iteratively updated until they become stable. Results on two real data sets suggest that the proposed IGR method has better performance and its robustness is considerably improved comparing with the original GR method. Our work highlights the positive role of users' grouping behavior towards...

  20. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucinska Romana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. Results In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76% used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001, mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%. The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%, personal health problems (32% and social reasons (32%. However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3% abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. Conclusion The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is

  2. Working alliance and empathy as mediators of brief telephone counseling for cigarette smokers who are not ready to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, Elias M; Hughes, John R; Callas, Peter W; Solomon, Laura J

    2017-02-01

    Working alliance and empathy are believed to be important components of counseling, although few studies have empirically tested this. We recently conducted a randomized controlled trial in which brief motivational and reduction counseling failed to increase the number of participants who made a quit attempt (QA) in comparison to usual care (i.e., brief advice to quit). Our negative findings could have been due to nonspecific factors. This secondary analysis used a subset of participants (n = 347) to test (a) whether, in comparison to usual care, brief telephone-based motivational or reduction counseling predicted greater working alliance or empathy; (b) whether changes in these nonspecific factors predicted an increased probability of a QA at a 6-month follow-up; and (c) whether counseling affected the probability of a QA via working alliance or empathy (i.e., mediation). Findings were similar for both active counseling conditions (motivational and reduction) versus usual care. In comparison to usual care, active counseling predicted greater working alliance (p empathy (p empathy predicted a decreased probability of a QA (p empathy (p empathy had opposing effects on quitting. Our analyses illustrate how testing nonspecific factors as mediators can help explain why a treatment failed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Pre-quitting nicotine replacement therapy: Findings from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace-Bell Mark

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT while still smoking in the lead up to quitting could enhance success at quitting, one of the most cost-effective means of improving health, but little is known about its acceptability and tolerability. Aim To test the acceptability and tolerability of using NRT while smoking for two weeks before quitting, to inform a randomised controlled trial of pre-quitting NRT versus usual NRT-based quitting practice. Methods Prospective pragmatic uncontrolled clinic-based pilot study in which 14 adult smokers recruited from a smoking cessation clinic were prescribed nicotine patches or gum with follow up for two weeks. Data were collected on participants' concerns about smoking while using NRT, importance of quitting, urges to smoke, smoking behaviour, previous NRT use and the length of the pre-quitting period. Urine tests were collected weekly for cotinine, and participants recorded smoking activity and noted experiences and changes in their health in diaries. Results Only 21% of 14 participants expressed concerns about using NRT while smoking. All of the nine followed up used it as recommended, 56% of these reporting no unpleasant symptoms. Median urine cotinine levels declined over the two weeks. Urges to smoke averaged 1.8 on a 4-point scale. All participants decreased the number of cigarettes per day. Diary records showed wide variation in smoking and NRT use, with an increased sense of control and determination to quit. Conclusion Smokers using pre-quitting NRT over two weeks appeared to titrate nicotine levels and symptoms of toxicity were uncommon and of low intensity.

  5. Participants' evaluation of a group-based organisational assessment tool in Danish general practice: the Maturity Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Martin Sandberg; Edwards, Adrian; Eriksson, Tina

    2009-01-01

    The Maturity Matrix is a group-based formative self-evaluation tool aimed at assessing the degree of organisational development in general practice and providing a starting point for local quality improvement. Earlier studies of the Maturity Matrix have shown that participants find the method a useful way of assessing their practice's organisational development. However, little is known about participants' views on the resulting efforts to implement intended changes. To explore users' perspectives on the Maturity Matrix method, the facilitation process, and drivers and barriers for implementation of intended changes. Observation of two facilitated practice meetings, 17 semi-structured interviews with participating general practitioners (GPs) or their staff, and mapping of reasons for continuing or quitting the project. General practices in Denmark Main outcomes: Successful change was associated with: a clearly identified anchor person within the practice, a shared and regular meeting structure, and an external facilitator who provides support and counselling during the implementation process. Failure to implement change was associated with: a high patient-related workload, staff or GP turnover (that seemed to affect small practices more), no clearly identified anchor person or anchor persons who did not do anything, no continuous support from an external facilitator, and no formal commitment to working with agreed changes. Future attempts to improve the impact of the Maturity Matrix, and similar tools for quality improvement, could include: (a) attention to matters of variation caused by practice size, (b) systematic counselling on barriers to implementation and support to structure the change processes, (c) a commitment from participants that goes beyond participation in two-yearly assessments, and (d) an anchor person for each identified goal who takes on the responsibility for improvement in practice.

  6. Information Activities and Appropriation in Teacher Trainees' Digital, Group-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanell, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports results from an ethnographic study of teacher trainees' information activities in digital, group-based learning and their relation to the interplay between use and appropriation of digital tools and the learning environment. Method: The participants in the present study are 249 pre-school teacher trainees in…

  7. Student Perceptions of Group-Based Competitive Exercises in the Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kevin C.; Mody, Tina; Breen, Maureen P.

    2008-01-01

    A non-traditional teaching method that can operate as a vehicle for engaging students is group-based competitive exercises. These exercises combine cooperative learning with a competitive environment and may be employed to promote subject- and problem-based learning. Survey responses of college-level organic chemistry and biochemistry students…

  8. Web Environments for Group-Based Project Work in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, van Nico; Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education and describe two courses in which course-specific World Wide Web (Web) environments have evolved over a series of course sequences and are used both as tool environments for group-pro

  9. Personality Traits and Group-Based Information Behaviour: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldegard, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between hypothesised behaviour resulting from a personality test and actual information behaviour resulting from a group-based assignment process is addressed in this paper. Methods: Three voluntary groups of ten librarianship and information science students were followed during a project assignment. The long…

  10. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Program for Parents of Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhauf, Bettina; Buschmann, Anke; Soellner, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with dyslexia experience more parenting stress and depressive symptoms than other parents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a cognitive-behavioral group-based program for parents of dyslexic children on parenting stress levels, parent-child homework interactions and parental competencies. 39 children…

  11. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion : Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and oc

  12. Introducing group-based asynchronous learning to business education : Reflections on effective course design and delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Walker, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of virtual tools to student learning within full-time management programmes. More specifically, the paper focuses on asynchronous communication tools, considering the scope they offer for group-based collaborative learning outside the classroom. We report on the

  13. Evaluation of a group-based social skills training for children with problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.S.; Deković, M.; Prinzie, P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated a group-based training program in social skills targeting reduction of problem behaviors in N = 161 children between 7 and 13 years of age. The effects of the intervention were tested in a quasi-experimental study, with a follow-up assessment 12 months after an optional

  14. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion : Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and oc

  15. Introducing group-based asynchronous learning to business education : Reflections on effective course design and delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Walker, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of virtual tools to student learning within full-time management programmes. More specifically, the paper focuses on asynchronous communication tools, considering the scope they offer for group-based collaborative learning outside the classroom. We report on the

  16. When talking makes you feel like a group: The emergence of group-based emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzerbyt, Vincent; Kuppens, Toon; Mathieu, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Group-based emotions are emotional reactions to group concerns and have been shown to emerge when people appraise events while endorsing a specific social identity. Here we investigate whether discussing a group-relevant event with other group members affects emotional reactions in a similar way. In two experiments, we confronted participants with an unfair group-relevant event, while manipulating their social identity and whether they discussed the event or an unrelated topic. Our major finding is that having group members discuss the unfair group-relevant event led to emotions that were more negative than in the irrelevant discussion and comparable to those observed when social identity had been made salient explicitly beforehand. Moreover, it also generated group-based appraisals of injustice (Experiment 1) and group-based identity (Experiment 2). This research sheds new light not only on the consequences of within-group sharing of emotions for the unfolding of intergroup relations but also on the nature of group-based emotions.

  17. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Program for Parents of Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhauf, Bettina; Buschmann, Anke; Soellner, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with dyslexia experience more parenting stress and depressive symptoms than other parents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a cognitive-behavioral group-based program for parents of dyslexic children on parenting stress levels, parent-child homework interactions and parental competencies. 39 children…

  18. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion: Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examining group-based emotion regulation that integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation. This synergy expands intergroup emotion theory by facilitating further investigation of different goals (i.e., hedonic or instrumental) and strategies (e.g., situation selection and modification strategies) used to regulate group-based emotions. It also expands emotion regulation research by emphasizing the role of self-categorization (e.g., as an individual or a group member) in the emotional process. Finally, we discuss the promise of this theoretical synergy and suggest several directions for future research on group-based emotion regulation. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Quit4U: The Effectiveness of Combining Behavioural Support, Pharmacotherapy and Financial Incentives to Support Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormston, R.; van der Pol, M.; Ludbrook, A.; McConville, S.; Amos, A.

    2015-01-01

    The "quit4u" stop smoking service (SSS) was developed by National Health Service (NHS) Tayside for smokers in deprived areas of Dundee (UK). quit4u combined behavioural support and pharmacotherapy with financial incentives for each week that participants remained quit. A quasi-experimental study was undertaken with smokers using quit4u…

  20. Advice to Quit Smoking and Ratings of Health Care among Medicare Beneficiaries Aged 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor; Elliott, Marc N; Haas, Ann; Haviland, Amelia M; Orr, Nate; Shadel, William G; Ma, Sai; Friedberg, Mark W; Cleary, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    To examine the relationship between physician advice to quit smoking and patient care experiences. The 2012 Medicare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (MCAHPS) surveys. Fixed-effects linear regression models were used to analyze cross-sectional survey data, which included a nationally representative sample of 26,432 smokers aged 65+. Eleven of 12 patient experience measures were significantly more positive among smokers who were always advised to quit smoking than those advised to quit less frequently. There was an attenuated but still significant and positive association of advice to quit smoking with both physician rating and physician communication, after controlling for other measures of care experiences. Physician-provided cessation advice was associated with more positive patient assessments of their physicians. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Arab Americans: Application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamneh, Liqa; Essien, E James; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Abughosh, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs on the intention to quit water pipe smoking by using an observational, survey-based, cross-sectional study design with a convenient sample of Arab American adults in Houston, Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of intention to quit water pipe smoking in the next year. A total of 340 participants completed the survey. Behavioral evaluation, normative beliefs, and motivation to comply were significant predictors of an intention to quit water pipe smoking adjusting for age, gender, income, marital status, and education. Interventions and strategies that include these constructs will assist water pipe smokers in quitting.

  2. Smoking and Lung Cancer: It's Never Too Late To Quit | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Smoking and Lung Cancer: It's Never Too Late to Quit Past Issues / ... Table of Contents Because most people who get lung cancer were smokers, you may feel that doctors and ...

  3. Effectiveness of an Intervention to Teach Physicians How to Assist Patients to Quit Smoking in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Raul; Pérez Stable, Eliseo J; Kaplan, Celia P; Gregorich, Steven E; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Peña, Lorena; Alderete, Mariela; Schoj, Veronica; Alderete, Ethel

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated an intervention to teach physicians how to help their smoking patients quit compared to usual care in Argentina. Physicians were recruited from six clinical systems and randomized to intervention (didactic curriculum in two 3-hour sessions) or usual care. Smoking patients who saw participating physicians within 30 days of the intervention (index clinical visit) were randomly sampled and interviewed by telephone with follow-up surveys at months 6 and 12 after the index clinical visit. Outcomes were tobacco abstinence (main), quit attempt in the past month, use of medications to quit smoking, and cigarettes per day. Repeated measures on the same participants were accommodated via generalized linear mixed models. Two hundred fifty-four physicians were randomized; average age 44.5 years, 53% women and 12% smoked. Of 1378 smoking patients surveyed, 81% were women and 45% had more than 12 years of education. At 1 month, most patients (77%) reported daily smoking, 20% smoked some days and 3% had quit. Mean cigarettes smoked per day was 12.9 (SD = 8.8) and 49% were ready to quit within the year. Intention-to-treat analyses did not show significant group differences in quit rates at 12 months when assuming outcome response was missing at random (23% vs. 24.1%, P = .435). Using missing=smoking imputation rule, quit rates were not different at 12 months (15.6% vs. 16.4% P = .729). Motivated smokers were more likely to quit at 6 months (17.7% vs. 9.6%, P = .03). Training in tobacco cessation for physicians did not improve abstinence among their unselected smoking patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jaam, M.; Al-Marridi, W.; Fares, H.; Izham, M.; Kheir, N; Awaisu, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the perceptions and attitudes of waterpipe (shisha) smokers in Qatar regarding the health risks associated with addiction and to determine their intentions to quit. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 self-reported waterpipe smokers. Participants were approached in public places as well as in shisha cafes in Qatar. The questionnaire included items related to perception, attitude and intention to quit. Both descriptive and inferential statistics...

  5. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  6. Exploring the barriers of quitting smoking during pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingall, Georgina; Cropley, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is widely known to increase health risks to the foetus, and understanding the quitting process during pregnancy is essential in order to realise national government targets. Qualitative studies have been used in order to gain a greater understanding of the quitting process and the objective of this systematic review was to examine and evaluate qualitative studies that have investigated the psychological and social factors around women attempting to quit smoking during pregnancy. Electronic databases and journals were searched with seven articles included in this review. The findings demonstrated that women were aware of the health risks to the foetus associated with smoking; however knowledge of potential health risks was not sufficient to motivate them to quit. Several barriers to quitting were identified which included willpower, role, and meaning of smoking, issues with cessation provision, changes in relationship interactions, understanding of facts, changes in smell and taste and influence of family and friends. A further interesting finding was that cessation service provision by health professionals was viewed negatively by women. It was concluded that there is a shortage of qualitative studies that concentrate on the specific difficulties that pregnant women face when trying to quit smoking.

  7. Predictors of intention to quit waterpipe smoking: a survey of arab americans in houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamneh, Liqa; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Essien, E James; Abughosh, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe smoking has been described as "the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette." Both Middle Eastern ethnicity and having a friend of Middle Eastern ethnicity have been reported as significant predictors of waterpipe smoking. Addressing waterpipe smoking in this ethnic minority is essential to controlling this growing epidemic in the US. We investigated the predictors of an intention to quit waterpipe smoking by surveying 340 Arab American adults in the Houston area. Primary analyses were conducted using stepwise logistic regression. Only 27% of participants reported having an intention to quit waterpipe smoking. Intention to quit waterpipe smoking was significantly higher with history of cigar use, a prior attempt to quit, and not smoking when seriously ill and significantly lower with increasing age, medium cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among family, high cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among friends, longer duration of smoking sessions, and perceiving waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarettes. Educational programs that target Arab Americans in general, and specifically older adults, those who smoke waterpipe for more than 60 minutes, those whose family and friends approve waterpipe smoking, and those with no former attempts to quit, may be necessary to increase the intention to quit waterpipe smoking.

  8. Predictors of Intention to Quit Waterpipe Smoking: A Survey of Arab Americans in Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqa Athamneh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe smoking has been described as “the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette.” Both Middle Eastern ethnicity and having a friend of Middle Eastern ethnicity have been reported as significant predictors of waterpipe smoking. Addressing waterpipe smoking in this ethnic minority is essential to controlling this growing epidemic in the US. We investigated the predictors of an intention to quit waterpipe smoking by surveying 340 Arab American adults in the Houston area. Primary analyses were conducted using stepwise logistic regression. Only 27% of participants reported having an intention to quit waterpipe smoking. Intention to quit waterpipe smoking was significantly higher with history of cigar use, a prior attempt to quit, and not smoking when seriously ill and significantly lower with increasing age, medium cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among family, high cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among friends, longer duration of smoking sessions, and perceiving waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarettes. Educational programs that target Arab Americans in general, and specifically older adults, those who smoke waterpipe for more than 60 minutes, those whose family and friends approve waterpipe smoking, and those with no former attempts to quit, may be necessary to increase the intention to quit waterpipe smoking.

  9. The importance of social networks on smoking: perspectives of women who quit smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Stephanie N; Von Kohorn, Isabelle; Schulman-Green, Dena; Colson, Eve R

    2012-08-01

    While up to 45% of women quit smoking during pregnancy, nearly 80% return to smoking within a year after delivery. Interventions to prevent relapse have had limited success. The study objective was to understand what influences return to smoking after pregnancy among women who quit smoking during pregnancy, with a focus on the role of social networks. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews during the postpartum hospital stay with women who quit smoking while pregnant. Over 300 pages of transcripts were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common themes. Respondents [n = 24] were predominately white (63%), had at least some college education (54%) and a mean age of 26 years (range = 18-36). When reflecting on the experience of being a smoker who quit smoking during pregnancy, all participants emphasized the importance of their relationships with other smokers and the changes in these relationships that ensued once they quit smoking. Three common themes were: (1) being enmeshed in social networks with prominent smoking norms (2) being tempted to smoke by members of their social networks, and (3) changing relationships with the smokers in their social networks as a result of their non-smoking status. We found that women who quit smoking during pregnancy found themselves confronted by a change in their social network since most of those in their social network were smokers. For this reason, smoking cessation interventions may be most successful if they help women consider restructuring or reframing their social network.

  10. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. Objective To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. Methods We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Results Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one’s needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety

  11. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-03-10

    Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one's needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety. Results generally did not vary by stage of

  12. Aboriginal health workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2012-05-23

    Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal

  13. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  14. Uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context. After a presentation of the cognitive uncertainty dimension underlying Kuhlthau's ISP-model, uncertainty factors associated with personality, the work task situation and social......-dimensional phenomenon, which should not be studied out of context. On the other hand, this complexity of the uncertainty concept also represents a methodological and practical challenge to the researcher as well as the practioner....

  15. A Multistage Control Mechanism for Group-Based Machine-Type Communications in an LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When machine-type communication (MTC devices perform the long-term evolution (LTE attach procedure without bit rate limitations, they may produce congestion in the core network. To prevent this congestion, the LTE standard suggests using group-based policing to regulate the maximum bit rate of all traffic generated by a group of MTC devices. However, previous studies on the access point name-aggregate maximum bit rate based on group-based policing are relatively limited. This study proposes a multistage control (MSC mechanism to process the operations of maximum bit rate allocation based on resource-use information. For performance evaluation, this study uses a Markov chain with to analyze MTC application in a 3GPP network. Traffic flow simulations in an LTE system indicate that the MSC mechanism is an effective bandwidth allocation method in an LTE system with MTC devices. Experimental results show that the MSC mechanism achieves a throughput 22.5% higher than that of the LTE standard model using the group-based policing, and it achieves a lower delay time and greater long-term fairness as well.

  16. IMPACTS OF GROUP-BASED SIGNAL CONTROL POLICY ON DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTERSECTION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuang TANG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the typical stage-based policy commonly applied in Japan, the group-based control (often called movement-based in the traffic control industry in Japan refers to such a control pattern that the controller is capable of separately allocating time to each signal group instead of stage based on traffic demand. In order to investigate its applicability at signalized intersections in Japan, an intersection located in Yokkaichi City of Mie Prefecture was selected as an experimental application site by the Japan Universal Traffic Management Society (UTMS. Based on the data collected at the intersection before and after implementing the group-based control policy respectively, this study evaluated the impacts of such a policy on driver behavior and intersection safety. To specify those impacts, a few models utilizing cycle-based data were first developed to interpret the occurrence probability and rate of red-light-running (RLR. Furthermore, analyses were performed on the yellow-entry time (Ye of the last cleared vehicle and post encroachment time (PET during the phase switching. Conclusions supported that the group-based control policy, along with certain other factors, directly or indirectly influenced the RLR behavior of through and right-turn traffics. Meanwhile, it has potential safety benefits as well, indicated by the declined Ye and increased PET values.

  17. Beliefs and perceptions toward quitting waterpipe smoking among cafe waterpipe tobacco smokers in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Saif M; Marhoon, Zaid A; Whitford, David L

    2013-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of waterpipe smoking worldwide, but still a paucity of information on perceptions toward quitting waterpipe use. We set out to establish the beliefs and perceptions of café waterpipe smokers toward quitting waterpipe smoking in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A cross-sectional study. A random sample of 20 of 91 cafés serving waterpipe tobacco in Bahrain was taken. A questionnaire was administered in each café to 20 participants aged 18 and above. Three hundred eighty participants completed questionnaires from waterpipe smokers. Eighty-four percent of participants were Bahraini and 71% had a university degree. Mean age was 28.9 years. Average age of waterpipe smoking initiation was 20.3 years. The majority of waterpipe users chose flavored tobacco. Sixty-one percent smoked waterpipe tobacco daily with a mean smoking time of 2.6hr/day. Seventy-two percent considered waterpipe tobacco as harmful as or more harmful than cigarettes, but 67% considered cigarettes as more addictive. Eighty-two percent stated that they could quit waterpipe at any time, but only 40% were interested in quitting. Interest in quitting smoking was related to 4 variables: a physician mentioning the need to quit smoking, being non-Bahraini, having a family with a hostile attitude toward waterpipe smoking, and not considering oneself "hooked" on waterpipe tobacco. Waterpipe smokers in Bahrain cafés are frequent and high users. Health professionals must consider waterpipe smoking in all consultations and health promotion messages. A partnership between health professionals and disapproving members of families may be an effective strategy in encouraging waterpipe smokers to quit.

  18. Just blowing smoke? Social desirability and reporting of intentions to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Nelson, Wendy L

    2013-12-01

    Do cigarette smokers really want to quit smoking or do they simply say they do in order to placate others and avoid criticism? In surveys of smokers, stated quit intentions and reports of quit attempts may be biased by social desirability concerns. This makes it difficult to interpret large-scale state and national surveys of smoking behavior that collect data through telephone and face-to-face interviews, methods that tend to evoke high levels of socially desirable responding. The 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey used a dual-frame design to query smokers' quit intentions and past quit attempts in 1 of 2 ways: A self-administered mail survey (low pressure for socially desirable responding; n = 563), or an interviewer-administered telephone survey (high pressure for socially desirable responding; n = 499). Estimates derived from the 2 formats were compared to test for social desirability effects. In both survey modes, approximately two thirds of smokers reported seriously considering quitting in the next 6 months (mail: 64.9%; telephone: 68.9%), and approximately half reported making a quit attempt in the past year (mail: 54.9%; telephone: 52.3%). Neither difference approached significance in logistic regressions controlling for demographics (ps > .24). It appears that a large proportion of smokers in the United States aspire to live smoke-free lives and are not simply responding in a socially desirable manner to deflect criticism in an antismoking social climate. Future research should (1) replicate this study with greater statistical power, (2) examine the possible effects of survey context (e.g., health survey vs. smoking pleasure survey), and (3) explore survey mode effects in specific subpopulations.

  19. Foraging in groups affects giving-up densities: solo foragers quit sooner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthey, Alexandra J R; Banks, Peter B

    2015-07-01

    The giving-up density framework is an elegant and widely adopted mathematical approach to measuring animals' foraging decisions at non-replenishing artificial resource patches. Under this framework, an animal should "give up" when the benefits of foraging are outweighed by the costs (e.g., predation risk, energetic, and/or missed opportunity costs). However, animals of many species may forage in groups, and group size is expected to alter perceived predation risk and hence influence quitting decisions. Yet, most giving-up density studies assume either that individuals forage alone or that giving-up densities are not affected by group foraging. For animals that forage both alone and in groups, differences in giving-up densities due to group foraging rather than experimental variables may substantially alter interpretation. However, no research to date has directly investigated how group foraging affects the giving-up density. We used remote-sensing cameras to identify instances of group foraging in two species of Rattus across three giving-up density experiments to determine whether group foraging influences giving-up densities. Both Rattus species have been observed to vary between foraging alone and in groups. In all three experiments, solo foragers left higher giving-up densities on average than did group foragers. This result has important implications for studies using giving-up densities to investigate perceived risk, the energetic costs of searching, handling time, digestion, and missed opportunity costs, particularly if groups of animals are more likely to experience certain experimental treatments. It is critically important that future giving-up density studies consider the effects of group foraging.

  20. Evaluation of QuitNow Men: An Online, Men-Centered Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Paul; Mackay, Martha H; Stolp, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background Men continue to smoke cigarettes in greater numbers than women. There is growing evidence for the value of developing targeted, men-centered health promotion programs. However, few smoking cessation interventions have been designed for men. A gender-specific website, QuitNow Men, was developed based on focus group interview findings, stakeholder feedback, and evidence-based cessation strategies. The website was designed to incorporate a masculine look and feel through the use of images, direct language, and interactive content. Usability experts and end-users provided feedback on navigation and functionality of the website prior to pilot testing. Objectives The objectives of the pilot study were to describe (1) men’s use and evaluations of the interactive resources and information on the QuitNow Men website, and (2) the potential of QuitNow Men to engage men in reducing and quitting smoking. Methods A one-group, pretest-posttest study design was used. Men who were interested in quitting were recruited and invited to use the website over a 6-month period. Data were collected via online questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. A total of 117 men completed the baseline survey. Over half of those (67/117, 57.3%) completed both follow-up surveys. Results At baseline, participants (N=117) had been smoking for an average of 24 years (SD 12.1) and smoked on average 15 cigarettes a day (SD 7.4). The majority had not previously used a quit smoking website (103/117, 88.0%) or websites focused on men’s health (105/117, 89.7%). At the 6-month follow-up, the majority of men used the QuitNow Men website at least once (64/67, 96%). Among the 64 users, 29 (43%) reported using the website more than 6 times. The men using QuitNow Men agreed or strongly agreed that the website was easy to use (51/64, 80%), the design and images were appealing (42/64, 66%), they intended to continue to use the website (42/64, 66%), and that they would recommend Quit

  1. Targeting binge eating through components of dialectical behavior therapy: preliminary outcomes for individually supported diary card self-monitoring versus group-based DBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined two condensed adaptations of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for binge eating. Women with full- or sub-threshold variants of either binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to individually supported self-monitoring using adapted DBT diary cards (DC) or group-based DBT, each 15 sessions over 16 weeks. DC sessions focused on problem-solving diary card completion issues, praising diary card completion, and supporting nonjudgmental awareness of eating-related habits and urges, but not formally teaching DBT skills. Group-based DBT included eating mindfulness, progressing through graded exposure; mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills; and coaching calls between sessions. Both treatments evidenced large and significant improvements in binge eating, bulimic symptoms, and interoceptive awareness. For group-based DBT, ineffectiveness, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and perfectionism also decreased significantly, with medium to large effect sizes. For DC, results were not significant but large in effect size for body dissatisfaction and medium in effect size for ineffectiveness and drive for thinness. Retention for both treatments was higher than recent trends for eating disorder treatment in fee-for-service practice and for similar clinic settings, but favored DC, with the greater attrition of group-based DBT primarily attributed to its more intensive and time-consuming nature, and dropout overall associated with less pretreatment impairment and greater interoceptive awareness. This preliminary investigation suggests that with both abbreviated DBT-based treatments, substantial improvement in core binge eating symptoms is possible, enhancing potential avenues for implementation beyond more time-intensive DBT.

  2. Interactions Among Psychological Capital, Performance, Intention to Quit and Job Satisfaction: Moderating Effect of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Çetin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the effects of the psychological capital on job satisfaction, job performance and intention to quit and to determine the mediator and moderator roles of job satisfaction and gender in these relations. Focusing just the relations between variables, the data were collected with using survey method from 237 employees working different positions in a large scale private company in Ankara. The instruments were psychological capital scale (Luthans et al, 2007, job satisfaction scale (Hackman & Oldham, 1975, intention to quit scale (Mobley et al, 1978 and job performance ratings. Results showed that psychological capital has positive relations with job satisfaction and job performance, and negative relations with intention to quit; also job satisfaction has a mediator role in the relations between psychological capital and intention to quit. Moreover it was determined that gender has a moderator role in the relations of psychological capital- job satisfaction, and psychological capital-intention to quit. All these results were discussed in the light of previous findings.

  3. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaam, M; Al-Marridi, W; Fares, H; Izham, M; Kheir, N; Awaisu, A

    2016-03-21

    To evaluate the perceptions and attitudes of waterpipe (shisha) smokers in Qatar regarding the health risks associated with addiction and to determine their intentions to quit. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 self-reported waterpipe smokers. Participants were approached in public places as well as in shisha cafes in Qatar. The questionnaire included items related to perception, attitude and intention to quit. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were performed for data analyses, with P ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. About 44% of the respondents believed that waterpipe smoking was safer than cigarette smoking, and more than 70% would not mind if their children became involved in waterpipe smoking. More than half of the current smokers wanted to quit smoking shisha at some point, and 17% identified health concerns as the main motivating factor for their intention to quit. A large proportion of shisha smokers viewed shisha as a safer alternative to cigarettes, yet they admitted to intending to quit. These findings underscore the need to design educational interventions and awareness campaigns as well as impose stringent laws on waterpipe smoking in public places in Qatar.

  4. Characterising the Smoking Status and Quit Smoking Behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Maksimovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to characterise the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs in South Australia (SA, Australia; and identify the psychosocial, socio-demographic, and household smoking characteristics that distinguish smokers from quitters and never smokers. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was completed by AHWs in SA. Non-parametric statistics were used for inferential analyses. Eighty-five AHWs completed surveys representing a response rate of 63.0%. The prevalence of current smokers was 50.6%. Non-smokers (49.5% included quitters (22.4% and never smokers (27.1%. Smoking status did not differ by gender or geographic location. Of current smokers, 69.0% demonstrated a readiness to quit and 50.0% had made at least one quit attempt in the last 12 months. Compared to quitters and never smokers, current smokers expressed lower emotional wellbeing, and three times as many resided with another smoker. Quitters had the highest levels of perceived social support and part-time employment. A high proportion of AHWs who smoke desire, and are ready to quit. Individual, social and household factors differentiated smokers from non-smokers and quitters. Social support, and relationships and structures that favour social support, are implicated as necessary to enable AHWs who smoke to act on their desire to quit smoking.

  5. Blunted striatal response to monetary reward anticipation during smoking abstinence predicts lapse during a contingency-managed quit attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Maggie M.; Geier, Charles F.; Denlinger, Rachel; Forbes, Erika E.; Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse; McClernon, F.J.; Donny, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Tobacco smoking is associated with dysregulated reward processing within the striatum, characterized by hypersensitivity to smoking rewards and hyposensitivity to non-smoking rewards. This bias toward smoking reward at the expense of alternative rewards is further exacerbated by deprivation from smoking, which may contribute to difficulty maintaining abstinence during a quit attempt. Objective We examined whether abstinence-induced changes in striatal processing of rewards predicted lapse likelihood during a quit attempt supported by contingency management (CM), in which abstinence from smoking was reinforced with money. Methods Thirty-six non-treatment seeking smokers participated in two fMRI sessions, one following 24-hr abstinence and one following smoking as usual. During each scan, participants completed a rewarded guessing task designed to elicit striatal activation in which they could earn smoking and monetary rewards delivered after the scan. Participants then engaged in a 3-week CM-supported quit attempt. Results As previously reported, 24-hr abstinence was associated with increased striatal activation in anticipation of smoking reward and decreased activation in anticipation of monetary reward. Individuals exhibiting greater decrements in right striatal activation to monetary reward during abstinence (controlling for activation during non-abstinence) were more likely to lapse during CM (p<.05), even when controlling for other predictors of lapse outcome (e.g., craving); no association was seen for smoking reward. Conclusions These results are consistent with a growing number of studies indicating the specific importance of disrupted striatal processing of non-drug reward in nicotine dependence, and highlight the importance of individual differences in abstinence-induced deficits in striatal function for smoking cessation. PMID:26660448

  6. Smoking prevalence, readiness to quit and smoking cessation in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Degen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the interaction between smoking and the virus and the antiretroviral therapy, the excess health hazard due to smoking is higher in HIV+ patients than in the general population. International studies suggest a higher prevalence of smoking in HIV+ subjects compared to the general population. It was the aim of the study to assess prevalence of smoking, to analyze determinants of smoking, and to evaluate readiness to quit in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria. Material and Methods: Consecutive patients with positive tested HIV status, smokers and non-smokers, who are treated in seven different HIV care centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND, and stages of change by a standardized readiness to quit questionnaire. Self-reported smoking status was objectified by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Smokers who wanted to quit were offered a structured smoking cessation programme, and those who did not want to quit received a 1-minute consultation. After six months, the smoking status of all included subjects was reassessed. Results: A total of 447 patients were included; the response rate was 92%. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower age, male sex, lower educational level, and smoking of the partner were significantly associated with the smoking status. According to the FTND, 25.3% showed a low (0–2 points, 27.6 a moderate (3–4 points and 47.1% a high (5–10 points dependency. Regarding stages of change, 15.4% of the smokers were in the stadium precontemplation, 48.4 in contemplation, 15.4 in preparation and 10.0 in the stadium action. 11.0% were not assignable in any stadium. Higher education level and lower grade of dependency were significantly associated with the wish to quit smoking. Six months after the baseline examination, smoking cessation visits (at least

  7. Designing for interaction: Six steps to designing computer-supported group-based learning

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    At present, the design of computer-supported group-based learning (CS)GBL) is often based on subjective decisions regarding tasks, pedagogy and technology, or concepts such as ‘cooperative learning’ and ‘collaborative learning’. Critical review reveals these concepts as insufficiently substantial to serve as a basis for (CS)GBL design. Furthermore, the relationship between outcome and group interaction is rarely specified a priori. Thus, there is a need for a more systematic approach to desig...

  8. Psychiatric hospital nursing staff's experiences of participating in group-based clinical supervision:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Angel, Sanne; Traynor, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Group-based clinical supervision is commonly offered as a stress-reducing intervention in psychiatric settings, but nurses often feel ambivalent about participating. This study aimed at exploring psychiatric nurses' experiences of participating in groupbased supervision and identifying psychosocial...... reasons for their ambivalence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 psychiatric nurses at a Danish university hospital. The results indicated that participation in clinical supervision was difficult for the nurses because of an uncomfortable exposure to the professional community. The sense...... of exposure was caused by the particular interactional organisation during the sessions, which brought to light pre-existing but covert conflicts among the nurses....

  9. Multiclass Boosting with Adaptive Group-Based kNN and Its Application in Text Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei La

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AdaBoost is an excellent committee-based tool for classification. However, its effectiveness and efficiency in multiclass categorization face the challenges from methods based on support vector machine (SVM, neural networks (NN, naïve Bayes, and k-nearest neighbor (kNN. This paper uses a novel multi-class AdaBoost algorithm to avoid reducing the multi-class classification problem to multiple two-class classification problems. This novel method is more effective. In addition, it keeps the accuracy advantage of existing AdaBoost. An adaptive group-based kNN method is proposed in this paper to build more accurate weak classifiers and in this way control the number of basis classifiers in an acceptable range. To further enhance the performance, weak classifiers are combined into a strong classifier through a double iterative weighted way and construct an adaptive group-based kNN boosting algorithm (AGkNN-AdaBoost. We implement AGkNN-AdaBoost in a Chinese text categorization system. Experimental results showed that the classification algorithm proposed in this paper has better performance both in precision and recall than many other text categorization methods including traditional AdaBoost. In addition, the processing speed is significantly enhanced than original AdaBoost and many other classic categorization algorithms.

  10. Testing the effectiveness of group-based memory rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie A; Radford, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    Memory complaints are common after stroke, yet there have been very few studies of the outcome of memory rehabilitation in these patients. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new manualised, group-based memory training programme. Forty outpatients with a single-stroke history and ongoing memory complaints were enrolled. The six-week course involved education and strategy training and was evaluated using a wait-list crossover design, with three assessments conducted 12 weeks apart. Outcome measures included: tests of anterograde memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: RAVLT; Complex Figure Test) and prospective memory (Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test); the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire and self-report of number of strategies used. Significant training-related gains were found on RAVLT learning and delayed recall and on CAPM informant report. Lower baseline scores predicted greater gains for several outcome measures. Patients with higher IQ or level of education showed more gains in number of strategies used. Shorter time since onset was related to gains in prospective memory, but no other stroke-related variables influenced outcome. Our study provides evidence that a relatively brief, group-based training intervention can improve memory functioning in chronic stroke patients and clarified some of the baseline factors that influence outcome.

  11. Decentralized architecture for resource management of group-based distributed systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong ZHANG; Koji ZETTSU; Yutaka KIDAWARA; Yasushi KIYOKI

    2008-01-01

    As the development of hardware and software,large scale,flexible,distributed,secure and coordinated resource sharing has attracted much attention.One of the major challenges is to support distributed group-based resource management,e.g.interest-based organization,with resources/services classifiable.Although there have been some proposals to-address this challenge,they share the same weakness of using either severs or super peers to keep global knowledge,and win good search efficiency at the expenses of the system scalability.As a result,such designs can not keep both the search efficiency and system scalability.To that end,this paper proposes a group-based distributed architecture.It organizes the nodes inside the groups by Chord protocol,a classical Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology and it defines new communication protocol for nodes among different groups but removes servers/super peers for group management.Such a design keeps the resource classifiable property together with good system performance.The main characteristics of this architecture are highlighted by its convenience for group activity analysis,promising scalability,high search efficiency,as well as robustness.The experimental performance results presented in the paper demonstrate the efficiency of the design.

  12. A Human-Centric Approach To Group-Based Context-Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Ghadiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging need for qualitative approaches in context-aware information processing calls for proper modelling of context information and efficient handling of its inherent uncertainty resulted from human interpretation and usage. Many of the current approaches to context-awareness either lack a solid theoretical basis for modelling or ignore important requirements such as modularity, high-order uncertainty management and group-based context-awareness. Therefore, their real-world application and extendibility remains limited. In this paper, we present f-Context as a service-based contextawareness framework, based on language-action perspective (LAP theory for modelling. Then we identify some of the complex, informational parts of context which contain high-order uncertainties due to differences between members of the group in defining them. An agent-based perceptual computer architecture is proposed for implementing f-Context that uses computing with words (CWW for handling uncertainty. The feasibility of f-Context is analyzed using a realistic scenario involving a group of mobile users. We believe that the proposed approach can open the door to future research on context-awareness by offering a theoretical foundation based on human communication, and a service-based layered architecture which exploits CWW for context-aware, group-based and platform-independent access to information systems.

  13. Smoking Status and Intention to Quit: The Role of Affective Associations and Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how affective associations with smoking and outcome expectancies regarding smoking are related to smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Researchers and practitioners can draw on findings regarding affective associations and outcome expectancies to provide a further basis for smoking…

  14. Exploration of the Affecting Factors on the Quit Intentions of Online-Game Players in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online-games are products of hedonic information technology. Players’ addiction will lead to seriously negative consequences. That how to prevent online-game addiction exclusively becomes a problem concerned by whole society. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence factors and its mechanism that can weaken or even eliminate online-game addiction. On the basis of the theory of planned behaviour, anticipated guilt and past behaviour are introduced into the model to explain players’ quit intention of online-game. Data collected from 393 online-game players around China mainland indicate that negative attitude, negative-subjective norm and perceived behavioural control significantly affect the quit intention of online-game players, while the anticipated guilt plays a mediator role. Past behaviour can moderate the relations between the anticipated guilt and the quit intention of online-game players. The more the past game behaviour the player owns, the stronger the positive effects of anticipated guilt on game quit intention he/she will harbor. Conclusions are helpful to the intervention of player’s game behaviour and strengthen the self-control ability of players.

  15. Job Insecurity As Moderating Employee Engagement Toward Intention To Quit At Goverment Bank In Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Rusyandi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the importance of employee engagement and its relationship to employee intent to quit witch moderated by job insecurity on employees frontline state bank in Bandung City Indonesia. The method used is explanatory survey method that this study took a sample of the population with a questionnaire and interview techniques as the primary means of data collection. The subjects of the study were also as the unit of analysis in this study is the frontline employees teller and customer service that serve the general customers where the position is vulnerable to employee turnover whereas they are the spearhead or the forefront frontline that connects to the customers bank the customer . A randomly selected sample of 4 bank was used in this study. A total of 270 respondents participated. Data were analyzed using Smart PLS 2.0. The linear regression analysis indicated there was a significant strong and negative linear relationship between employee engagement level and employee intent to quit rate. The results of this research promote employee engagement is a significant negative effect amounted 4142 of the intention to quit while the variable job insecurity is not proven significantly. The conclusion from this study is that the employe engagement give significant influence on the intention to quit and variable job insecurity is not a variable moderation.

  16. High School Students Who Tried to Quit Smoking Cigarettes: United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarcher, A.; Jones, S. E.; Morris, E.; Kann, L.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, cigarette use is the leading cause of preventable death, and most adult smokers started before the age of 18 years. Nicotine dependence maintains tobacco use and makes quitting difficult. Despite their relatively short smoking histories, many adolescents who smoke are nicotine dependent, and such dependence can lead to daily…

  17. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadar Muhammad Masum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses’ demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses’ job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses’ job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service.

  18. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See; Wanke, Peter; Arslan, Özgün

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses' demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses' job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses' job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service.

  19. Employee perceptions of management relations as influences on job satisfaction and quit intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, S.; Sanders, K.; Bednall, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use a relational approach to investigate how employee perceptions of their relationships with three types of managers—senior, line, and human resource managers—are related to employees’ job satisfaction and intention to quit. Based on an employee survey (n = 1,533), and manager netw

  20. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See; Wanke, Peter; Arslan, Özgün

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses’ demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses’ job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses’ job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service. PMID:27168960

  1. Control perceptions moderate attitudinal and normative effects on intention to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with behavioral theory such as the theory of planned behavior, numerous studies on determinants of smoking cessation confirmed that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control each can correlate with intention to quit smoking. However, such main effect findings indicate additive

  2. Effects of Teachers' Organizational Justice Perceptions on Intention to Quit: Mediation Role of Organizational Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Ufuk; Sigri, Ünsal

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to discover the effects of teachers' organizational justice perceptions on intention to quit as well as the mediation role of teachers' organizational identification in this process. Interactions between research variables were measured using structural equation models. The sample used comprised teachers working at primary and…

  3. Principal Self-Efficacy: Relations with Burnout, Job Satisfaction and Motivation to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, burnout, job satisfaction and principals' motivation to quit. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a recently developed multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Burnout was measured by a modified version of the Maslach Burnout…

  4. Blogging to Quit Smoking: Sharing Stories from Women of Childbearing Years in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; Noormohamed, Aliya; Dragonetti, Rosa; Maher, Julie; Lessels, Christina; Selby, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which the pregnant or postpartum women, in the process of quitting smoking, felt that writing in a blog about their smoking cessation journeys helped them in their efforts to become or remain smoke free. Five women who blogged for Prevention of Gestational and Neonatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (a website designed to help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking) were interviewed about their experiences as bloggers. Participants were asked to complete an online survey, which had closed-ended questions regarding their sociodemographic and smoking characteristics. Once they completed the survey, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted over the phone. Findings suggest that blogging might combine several evidence-based behavioral strategies for tobacco cessation, such as journaling and getting support from others who use tobacco. Being part of a blogging community of women who have experienced or are experiencing similar challenges can be therapeutic and help women gain confidence in their ability to quit smoking. In conclusion, blogging may help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking by increasing their social support and promoting self-reflection.

  5. Latent interaction effects in the theory of planned behaviour applied to quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje Sommer; Hagtvet, Knut A; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2014-02-01

    This study applies three latent interaction models in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1988, Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press; Ajzen, 1991, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., 50, 179) to quitting smoking: (1) attitude × perceived behavioural control on intention; (2) subjective norms (SN) × attitude on intention; and (3) perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting behaviour. The data derive from a longitudinal Internet survey of 939 smokers aged 15-74 over a period of 4 months. Latent interaction effects were estimated using the double-mean-centred unconstrained approach (Lin et al., 2010, Struct. Equ. Modeling, 17, 374) in LISREL. Attitude × SN and attitude × perceived behavioural control both showed a significant interaction effect on intention. No significant interaction effect was found for perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting. The latent interaction approach is a useful method for investigating specific conditions between TPB components in the context of quitting behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Intentions to Quit Work among Care Staff Working in the Aged Care Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantzas, Gery C.; Mellor, David; McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya E.; Beaton, Paul; Mrkic, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The aged care industry experiences high rates of staff turnover. Staff turnover has significant implications for the quality of care provided to care recipients and the financial costs to care agencies. In this study, we applied a model of intention to quit to identify the contextual and personal factors that shape aged care…

  7. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layoun, Nelly; Salameh, Pascal; Waked, Mirna; Aoun Bacha, Z; Zeenny, Rony M; El Hitti, Eric; Godin, Isabelle; Dramaix, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to the textual warnings effects. A higher motivation to quit cigarette smoking was seen among the following groups of smokers: males (odds ratio [OR] =1.8, P=0.02), who had stopped smoking for at least 1 month during the last year due to textual warning (OR =2.79, Pshocking images on the pack (OR =1.95, P=0.004). Low-dependent smokers and highly motivated to quit smokers appeared to be more hypothetically susceptible to shocking pictorial warnings. Motivation to quit was associated with sensitivity to warnings, but not with the presence of all chronic respiratory symptoms.

  8. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layoun, Nelly; Salameh, Pascal; Waked, Mirna; Aoun Bacha, Z; Zeenny, Rony M; El Hitti, Eric; Godin, Isabelle; Dramaix, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to the textual warnings effects. A higher motivation to quit cigarette smoking was seen among the following groups of smokers: males (odds ratio [OR] =1.8, P=0.02), who had stopped smoking for at least 1 month during the last year due to textual warning (OR =2.79, Pmotivated to quit smokers appeared to be more hypothetically susceptible to shocking pictorial warnings. Motivation to quit was associated with sensitivity to warnings, but not with the presence of all chronic respiratory symptoms.

  9. The Communication of "Pure" Group-Based Anger Reduces Tendencies Toward Intergroup Conflict Because It Increases Out-Group Empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Postmes, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining

  10. The Communication of "Pure" Group-Based Anger Reduces Tendencies Toward Intergroup Conflict Because It Increases Out-Group Empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Postmes, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining

  11. The views and experiences of smokers who quit smoking unassisted. A systematic review of the qualitative evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Smith

    Full Text Available Unassisted cessation - quitting without pharmacological or professional support - is an enduring phenomenon. Unassisted cessation persists even in nations advanced in tobacco control where cessation assistance such as nicotine replacement therapy, the stop-smoking medications bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural assistance are readily available. We review the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of smokers who quit unassisted.We systematically searched for peer-reviewed qualitative studies reporting on smokers who quit unassisted. We identified 11 studies and used a technique based on Thomas and Harden's method of thematic synthesis to discern key themes relating to unassisted cessation, and to then group related themes into overarching concepts.The three concepts identified as important to smokers who quit unassisted were: motivation, willpower and commitment. Motivation, although widely reported, had only one clear meaning, that is 'the reason for quitting'. Willpower was perceived to be a method of quitting, a strategy to counteract cravings or urges, or a personal quality or trait fundamental to quitting success. Commitment was equated to seriousness or resoluteness, was perceived as key to successful quitting, and was often used to distinguish earlier failed quit attempts from the final successful quit attempt. Commitment had different dimensions. It appeared that commitment could be tentative or provisional, and also cumulative, that is, commitment could be built upon as the quit attempt progressed.A better understanding of what motivation, willpower and commitment mean from the smoker's perspective may provide new insights and direction for smoking cessation research and practice.

  12. Autobiographical narratives can be used with confidence to collect information about ex-smokers' reasons for quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuc, Alex; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark Barry; Ruiz, Jessica Joy; Voluse, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Although autobiographical narratives (ABNs) provide rich descriptions of how people change addictive behaviors, psychometric evaluations of such reports are rare. 27 ex-smokers who had quit for 1 to 5 years were interviewed twice about why they quit. Participants' ABN reasons for why they quit smoking were compared with their answers on the Reasons For Quitting (RFQ) scale and found to be similar. Ex-smokers' ABNs are reliably reported for number and types of reasons given for quitting. Reasons ex-smokers gave in their ABNs were similar to their RFQ subscale answers. ABNs, a qualitative measure of quitting smoking, captured more information about how people quit smoking than quantitative scales.

  13. Nicotine patches and quitline counseling to help hospitalized smokers stay quit: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummins Sharon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitalized smokers often quit smoking, voluntarily or involuntarily; most relapse soon after discharge. Extended follow-up counseling can help prevent relapse. However, it is difficult for hospitals to provide follow-up and smokers rarely leave the hospital with quitting aids (for example, nicotine patches. This study aims to test a practical model in which hospitals work with a state cessation quitline. Hospital staff briefly intervene with smokers at bedside and refer them to the quitline. Depending on assigned condition, smokers may receive nicotine patches at discharge or extended quitline telephone counseling post-discharge. This project establishes a practical model that lends itself to broader dissemination, while testing the effectiveness of the interventions in a rigorous randomized trial. Methods/design This randomized clinical trial (N = 1,640 tests the effect of two interventions on long-term quit rates of hospitalized smokers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The interventions are (1 nicotine patches (eight-week, step down program dispensed at discharge and (2 proactive telephone counseling provided by the state quitline after discharge. Subjects are randomly assigned into: usual care, nicotine patches, telephone counseling, or both patches and counseling. It is hypothesized that patches and counseling have independent effects and their combined effect is greater than either alone. The primary outcome measure is thirty-day abstinence at six months; a secondary outcome is biochemically validated smoking status. Cost-effectiveness analysis is conducted to compare each intervention condition (patch alone, counseling alone, and combined interventions against the usual care condition. Further, this study examines whether smokers’ medical diagnosis is a moderator of treatment effect. Generalized linear (binomial mixed models will be used to study the effect of treatment on abstinence rates. Clustering is accounted

  14. Nicotine patches and quitline counseling to help hospitalized smokers stay quit: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospitalized smokers often quit smoking, voluntarily or involuntarily; most relapse soon after discharge. Extended follow-up counseling can help prevent relapse. However, it is difficult for hospitals to provide follow-up and smokers rarely leave the hospital with quitting aids (for example, nicotine patches). This study aims to test a practical model in which hospitals work with a state cessation quitline. Hospital staff briefly intervene with smokers at bedside and refer them to the quitline. Depending on assigned condition, smokers may receive nicotine patches at discharge or extended quitline telephone counseling post-discharge. This project establishes a practical model that lends itself to broader dissemination, while testing the effectiveness of the interventions in a rigorous randomized trial. Methods/design This randomized clinical trial (N = 1,640) tests the effect of two interventions on long-term quit rates of hospitalized smokers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The interventions are (1) nicotine patches (eight-week, step down program) dispensed at discharge and (2) proactive telephone counseling provided by the state quitline after discharge. Subjects are randomly assigned into: usual care, nicotine patches, telephone counseling, or both patches and counseling. It is hypothesized that patches and counseling have independent effects and their combined effect is greater than either alone. The primary outcome measure is thirty-day abstinence at six months; a secondary outcome is biochemically validated smoking status. Cost-effectiveness analysis is conducted to compare each intervention condition (patch alone, counseling alone, and combined interventions) against the usual care condition. Further, this study examines whether smokers’ medical diagnosis is a moderator of treatment effect. Generalized linear (binomial) mixed models will be used to study the effect of treatment on abstinence rates. Clustering is accounted for with hospital

  15. Aspects of Nonabelian Group Based Cryptography: A Survey and Open Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Fine, Benjamin; Kahrobaei, Delaram; Rosenberger, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Most common public key cryptosystems and public key exchange protocols presently in use, such as the RSA algorithm, Diffie-Hellman, and elliptic curve methods are number theory based and hence depend on the structure of abelian groups. The strength of computing machinery has made these techniques theoretically susceptible to attack and hence recently there has been an active line of research to develop cryptosystems and key exchange protocols using noncommutative cryptographic platforms. This line of investigation has been given the broad title of noncommutative algebraic cryptography. This was initiated by two public key protocols that used the braid groups, one by Ko, Lee et.al.and one by Anshel, Anshel and Goldfeld. The study of these protocols and the group theory surrounding them has had a large effect on research in infinite group theory. In this paper we survey these noncommutative group based methods and discuss several ideas in abstract infinite group theory that have arisen from them. We then presen...

  16. Vicarious group-based rejection: creating a potentially dangerous mix of humiliation, powerlessness, and anger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinka M Veldhuis

    Full Text Available Rejection can convey that one is seen as inferior and not worth bothering with. Is it possible for people to feel vicariously rejected in this sense and have reactions that are similar to those following personal rejection, such as feeling humiliated, powerless, and angry? A study on personal rejection was followed by two main studies on vicarious group-based rejection. It was found that merely observing rejection of ingroup members can trigger feelings of humiliation that are equally intense as those experienced in response to personal rejection. Moreover, given that the rejection is explicit, vicariously experienced feelings of humiliation can be accompanied by powerlessness and anger. Potentially, this combination of emotions could be an important source of offensive action against rejecters.

  17. Uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context. After a presentation of the cognitive uncertainty dimension underlying Kuhlthau's ISP-model, uncertainty factors associated with personality, the work task situation and social...... members' experiences of uncertainty differ from the individual information seeker in Kuhlthau's ISP-model, and how this experience may be related to personal, work task and social factors. A number of methods have been employed to collect data on each group member during the assignment process......: a demographic survey, a personality test, 3 process surveys, 3 diaries and 3 interviews. It was found that group members' experiences of uncertainty did not correspond with the ISP-model in that other factors beyond the mere information searching process seemed to intermingle with the complex process...

  18. GBP-WAHSN: A Group-Based Protocol for Large Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaime Lloret; Miguel Garcia; Jesus Tomás; Fernando Boronat

    2008-01-01

    Grouping nodes gives better performance to the whole network by diminishing the average network delay and avoiding unnecessary message for warding and additional overhead. Many routing protocols for ad-hoc and sensor network shave been designed but none of them are based on groups. In this paper, we will start defining group-based topologies,and then we will show how some wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WAHSN) routing protocols perform when the nodes are arranged in groups. In our proposal connections between groups are established as a function of the proximity of the nodes and the neighbor's available capacity (based on the node's energy). We describe the architecture proposal, the messages that are needed for the proper operation and its mathematical description. We have also simulated how much time is needed to propagate information between groups. Finally, we will show a comparison with other architectures.

  19. A Human-Centric Approach to Group-Based Context-Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Ghadiri, Nasser; Ghasem-Aghaee, Nasser; Nematbakhsh, Mohammad A; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3104

    2011-01-01

    The emerging need for qualitative approaches in context-aware information processing calls for proper modeling of context information and efficient handling of its inherent uncertainty resulted from human interpretation and usage. Many of the current approaches to context-awareness either lack a solid theoretical basis for modeling or ignore important requirements such as modularity, high-order uncertainty management and group-based context-awareness. Therefore, their real-world application and extendability remains limited. In this paper, we present f-Context as a service-based context-awareness framework, based on language-action perspective (LAP) theory for modeling. Then we identify some of the complex, informational parts of context which contain high-order uncertainties due to differences between members of the group in defining them. An agent-based perceptual computer architecture is proposed for implementing f-Context that uses computing with words (CWW) for handling uncertainty. The feasibility of f-...

  20. Changes in Acceptance in a Low-Intensity, Group-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) Chronic Pain Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoff, John A; Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Burke, Anne L J; Connor, Jason P

    2016-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy has shown to be effective in chronic pain rehabilitation, and acceptance has been shown to be a key process of change. The influence of treatment dose on acceptance is not clear, and in particular, the effectiveness of a non-intensive treatment (acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) group program for chronic pain. The study sought to compare, at both groups and individual patient levels, changes in acceptance with changes observed in previous ACT studies. Seventy-one individuals with chronic pain commenced a 9-week ACT-based group program at an outpatient chronic pain service. In addition to acceptance, outcomes included the following: pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety, quality of life, and pain-related anxiety. To compare the current findings with previous research, effect sizes from seven studies were aggregated using the random-effects model to calculate benchmarks. Reliable change indices (RCIs) were applied to assess change on an individual patient-level. The ACT intervention achieved a statistically significant increase in acceptance and medium effect size (d = 0.54) at a group level. Change in acceptance was of a similar magnitude to that found in previous ACT studies that examined interventions with similar treatment hours (acceptance occurred in approximately one-third (37.2, 90% CI) of patients. Approximately three-quarters (74.3, 90% CI) demonstrated reliable change in at least one of the outcome measures. The low-intensity, group-based ACT intervention was effective at a group level and showed a similar magnitude of change in acceptance to previous ACT studies employing low-intensity interventions. Three-quarters of patients reported reliable change on at least one outcome measure.

  1. Group-based microfinance for collective empowerment: a systematic review of health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Lois; Pennington, Andy; Nayak, Shilpa; Sowden, Amanda; White, Martin; Whitehead, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    To assess the impact on health-related outcomes, of group microfinance schemes based on collective empowerment. We searched the databases Social Sciences Citation Index, Embase, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, PsycINFO, Social Policy & Practice and Conference Proceedings Citation Index for articles published between 1 January 1980 and 29 February 2016. Articles reporting on health impacts associated with group-based microfinance were included in a narrative synthesis. We identified one cluster-randomized control trial and 22 quasi-experimental studies. All of the included interventions targeted poor women living in low- or middle-income countries. Some included a health-promotion component. The results of the higher quality studies indicated an association between membership of a microfinance scheme and improvements in the health of women and their children. The observed improvements included reduced maternal and infant mortality, better sexual health and, in some cases, lower levels of interpersonal violence. According to the results of the few studies in which changes in empowerment were measured, membership of the relatively large and well-established microfinance schemes generally led to increased empowerment but this did not necessarily translate into improved health outcomes. Qualitative evidence suggested that increased empowerment may have contributed to observed improvements in contraceptive use and mental well-being and reductions in the risk of violence from an intimate partner. Membership of the larger, well-established group-based microfinance schemes is associated with improvements in some health outcomes. Future studies need to be designed to cope better with bias and to assess negative as well as positive social and health impacts.

  2. Group-based discrimination in judgments of moral purity-related behaviors: experimental and archival evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masicampo, E J; Barth, Maria; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of individuals' group membership can alter moral judgments of their behavior. We found that such moral judgments were amplified when judgers learned that a person belonged to a group shown to elicit disgust in others. When a person was labeled as obese, a hippie, or "trailer trash," people judged that person's behavior differently than when such descriptors were omitted: Virtuous behaviors were more highly praised, and moral violations were more severely criticized. Such group-based discrimination in moral judgment was specific to the domain of moral purity. Members of disgust-eliciting groups but not members of other minorities were the target of harsh judgments for purity violations (e.g., lewd behavior) but not for other violations (e.g., refusing to help others). The same pattern held true for virtuous behaviors, so that members of disgust-eliciting groups were more highly praised than others but only in the purity domain. Furthermore, group-based discrimination was mediated by feelings of disgust toward the target group but not by other emotions. Last, analysis of New York Police Department officers' encounters with suspected criminals revealed a similar pattern to that found in laboratory experiments. Police officers were increasingly likely to make an arrest or issue a summons as body mass index increased (i.e., as obesity rose) among people suspected of purity crimes (e.g., prostitution) but not of other crimes (e.g., burglary). Thus, moral judgments in the lab and in the real world exhibit patterns of discrimination that are both group and behavior specific.

  3. A Group-Based Yoga Therapy Intervention for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alison J.; Jenny, Hillary E.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Schembri, Michael; Subak, Leslee L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention for middle-aged and older women with urinary incontinence. Methods We conducted a pilot randomized trial of ambulatory women aged 40 years and older with stress, urgency, or mixed-type incontinence. Women were randomized to a 6-week yoga therapy program (N=10) consisting of twice weekly group classes and once weekly home practice or a waitlist control group (N=9). All participants also received written pamphlets about standard behavioral self-management strategies for incontinence. Changes in incontinence were assessed by 7-day voiding diaries. Results Mean (±SD) age was 61.4 (±8.2) years, and mean baseline frequency of incontinence was 2.5 (±1.3) episodes/day. After 6 weeks, total incontinence frequency decreased by 66% (1.8 [±0.9] fewer episodes/day) in the yoga therapy versus 13% (0.3 [±1.7] fewer episodes/day) in the control group (P=0.049). Participants in the yoga therapy group also reported an average 85% decrease in stress incontinence frequency (0.7 [±0.8] fewer episodes/day) compared to a 25% increase in controls (0.2 [± 1.1] more episodes/day) (P=0.039). No significant differences in reduction in urgency incontinence were detected between the yoga therapy versus control groups (1.0 [±1.0] versus 0.5 [±0.5] fewer episodes/day, P=0.20). All women starting the yoga therapy program completed at least 90% of group classes and practice sessions. Two participants in each group reported adverse events unrelated to the intervention. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention to improve urinary incontinence in women. PMID:24763156

  4. The role of pain in quitting among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Carrie J; Gritz, Ellen R; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Baum, George P; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2017-01-01

    Smoking rates among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS; PLWHA) are at least twice as high as rates in the general population. Consistent with the reciprocal model of pain and smoking, PLWHA with pain who smoke may use smoking as a means of coping with pain, thus presenting a potential barrier to quitting. The aim of this study is to better understand how pain relates to smoking cessation among 474 HIV-positive adults enrolled in a cell phone-delivered smoking cessation trial. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care (cessation advice and self-help materials) or 11 sessions of cell phone-delivered smoking cessation treatment. Pain, as assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), and point prevalence abstinence were collected at the 3-month treatment end and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Self-reported abstinence was biochemically verified by expired carbon monoxide (CO) level of <7 ppm. Using multilevel modeling for binary outcome data, the authors examined the relationship between pain and abstinence, from treatment end through the 12-month follow-up. Consistent with the authors' hypothesis, less pain was associated with greater likelihood of 24-hour (β = .01, t(651) = 2.53, P = .01) and 7-day (β = .01, t(651) = 2.35, P = .02) point prevalence abstinence, controlling for age, gender, baseline pain, nicotine dependence, and treatment group. No pain × treatment group interaction was observed. These results can help us to better identify PLWHA at greater risk for relapse in smoking cessation treatment. Future research may examine the effectiveness of more comprehensive smoking cessation treatment that incorporates aspects of pain management for PLWHA who smoke and have high pain and symptom burden.

  5. Creating a more quit-friendly national workforce? Individual layoff history and voluntary turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul R; Trevor, Charlie O; Feng, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Although Bureau of Labor Statistics data reveal that U.S. employers laid off over 30 million employees since 1994, virtually no research has addressed the behavior of layoff victims upon reemployment. In a first step, we investigate how layoffs shape voluntary turnover behavior in subsequent jobs. Utilizing a recently developed fixed effects specification of survival analysis, we find that a layoff history is positively associated with quit behavior. This effect is partially mediated by underemployment and job satisfaction in the postlayoff job. The remaining direct effect is consistent with the notion that layoffs produce a psychological spillover to postlayoff employment, which then manifests in quit behavior. We also find that layoff effects on turnover attenuate as an individual's layoffs accumulate and vary in magnitude according to the turnover "path" followed by the leaver.

  6. "After all - It doesn't kill you to quit smoking"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Background: A growing body of literature demonstrates internet-based smoking cessation interventions as a promising aid in helping people quit smoking. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these interventions influence the cessation process are still relatively unknown. Several studies have....... In addition, we examined if blogging could provide social support for people in a smoking cessation process. Method: The study was based on messages posted from 1 January 2012 to 29 February 2012 on the blog of the internet-based smoking cessation programme DDSP, operated by the Danish Cancer Society....... Conclusions: The blog offers a unique platform for informal conversations about quitting smoking and is important in providing social support to people in a smoking cessation process....

  7. Self-related neural response to tailored smoking-cessation messages predicts quitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hannah Faye; Ho, S. Shaun; Jasinska, Agnes J.; Polk, Thad A.; Welsh, Robert C.; Liberzon, Israel; Strecher, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    Although tailored health interventions can be more effective in eliciting positive behavior change then generic interventions, the underlying neural mechanisms are not yet understood. Ninety-one smokers participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session and a tailored smoking-cessation program. We found that increases in activations in self-related processing regions, particularly dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, to tailored messages predicted quitting during a 4-month follow-up. PMID:21358641

  8. Do commitment based human resource practices influence job embeddedness and intention to quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper provides evidence that commitment based human resource practices (CBHRP influence employees' turnover intentions by embedding newcomers more extensively into organisations. The study was conducted with 501 managers in 19 financial service organisations in India. Results reveal that CBHRP enable organisations to actively embed employees. The results also indicate that on-the-job embeddedness (on-the-JE is negatively related to turnover intentions and mediates relationships between CBHRP and employees' intention to quit.

  9. Electronic cigarette use is not associated with quitting of conventional cigarettes in youth smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William H; Wu, Yongda; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2017-07-01

    BackgroundTo investigate the association between electronic cigarette (e-cig) use and smoking cessation among smokers who called the Youth Quitline in Hong Kong.MethodsThis longitudinal study collected data on youth smokers' (N=189) use and perception of e-cigs, conventional cigarette smoking behavior, and sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. Self-reported past 7-day point prevalence of abstinence (PPA) was assessed in the 6-month telephone follow-up. Linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the association of e-cig use with quitting cigarette smoking and other cessation-related outcomes.ResultsE-cig users were younger, more addicted to nicotine, and less ready to quit (all Pcig users (13.4% vs. 20.8%) at follow-up. E-cig use was not associated with PPA at the 6-month follow-up (odds ratio (OR): 0.56, 95% CI: 0.24 to 1.35), but it was nonsignificantly related to more cessation attempts (raw coefficient (b): 1.26, 95% CI: -0.13 to 2.66). Among those who still smoked, e-cig use was nonsignificantly associated with intention to quit smoking (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.15 to 2.05), nicotine dependence (Fagerström score, b: 0.75, 95% CI: -0.39 to 1.90), and perceptions on quitting cigarette smoking.ConclusionE-cig use was not associated with successful smoking cessation among Youth Quitline smokers.

  10. The impact of minimum wages on quit, layoff and hiring rates

    OpenAIRE

    Brochu, Pierre; Green, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate differences in quit, layoff and hiring rates in high versus low minimum wage regimes using Canadian data spanning 1979 to 2008. The data include consistent questions on job tenure and reason for job separation for the whole period. Over the same time frame, there were over 140 minimum wage changes in Canada. We find that higher minimum wages are associated with lower hiring rates but also with lower job separation rates. Importantly, the reduced separation rates are due mainly ...

  11. Perceptions of drugs benefits and barriers to quit by undergraduate health students

    OpenAIRE

    HENRIQUÉZ, Patricia Cid; Carvalho,Ana Maria Pimenta

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have exposed the consumption of drugs by undergraduate students in the health area, who are supposed to be examples of behavior and health educators. This descriptive correlation study aimed to relate the benefits of tobacco consumption and barriers to quit according to the perception of undergraduate students. Eighty third-year students, in three different courses, answered a self-applied questionnaire. The studied variables were: consumption conditions, barriers and benefits...

  12. Efficacy of a smoking quit line in the military: baseline design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Phyllis A; Klesges, Robert C; Talcott, Gerald W; Debon, Margaret; Womack, Catherine; Thomas, Fridtjof; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann

    2012-09-01

    Thirty percent of all military personnel smoke cigarettes. Because of the negative health consequences and their impact on physical fitness, overall health, and military readiness, the Department of Defense has identified the reduction of tobacco use as a priority of US military forces. This study aims to evaluate the one-year efficacy of a proactive versus reactive smoking quit line in the US military with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in both groups. This paper reports on the baseline variables of the first 1000 participants randomized, the design, and proposed analysis of the randomized two-arm clinical trial "Efficacy of a Tobacco Quit Line in the Military". Participants are adult smokers who are Armed Forces Active Duty personnel, retirees, Reservist, National Guard and family member healthcare beneficiaries. All participants are randomized to either the Counselor Initiated (proactive) group, receiving 6 counseling sessions in addition to an 8-week supply of NRT, or the Self-Paced (reactive) group, in which they may call the quit line themselves to receive the same counseling sessions, in addition to a 2-week supply of NRT. The primary outcome measure of the study is self-reported smoking abstinence at 1-year follow-up. Results from this study will be the first to provide evidence for the efficacy of an intensive Counselor Initiated quit line with provided NRT in military personnel and could lead to dissemination throughout the US Air Force, the armed forces population as a whole and ultimately to civilian personnel that do not have ready access to preventive health services.

  13. Efficacy of a smoking quit line in the military: Baseline design and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Richey, Phyllis A.; Klesges, Robert C.; Talcott, Gerald W.; DeBon, Margaret; Womack, Catherine; Thomas, Fridtjof; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Thirty percent of all military personnel smoke cigarettes. Because of the negative health consequences and their impact on physical fitness, overall health, and military readiness, the Department of Defense has identified the reduction of tobacco use as a priority of US military forces. This study aims to evaluate the one-year efficacy of a proactive versus reactive smoking quit line in the US military with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in both groups. This paper reports on th...

  14. Does tobacco industry marketing of 'light' cigarettes give smokers a rationale for postponing quitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Emery, Sherry; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine further whether tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is perceived by smokers as a health claim. Smokers might view low tar/nicotine brands of cigarettes as a means to reduce the harm to their health from smoking and postpone quitting. Data were from smokers responding to a large, population-based survey of Californians' smoking behavior, conducted in 1996 (8,582 current smokers). Sixty percent of smokers thought the labels light and ultra-light referred to low tar/nicotine cigarettes, or otherwise implied a health claim. This percentage was higher for smokers of low tar/nicotine brands. Among smokers of regular brands, the more highly addicted, those who were trying unsuccessfully to quit, those who had cut consumption or thought about it, and those with health concerns were more likely to have considered switching. While some of these characteristics also were associated with smokers of low tar/nicotine brands, the associations were not as numerous or as strong. We conclude that some smokers appear to view low tar/nicotine brands as one short-term strategy to reduce the harm to their health from smoking without quitting. By implying reduced tar or nicotine exposure, tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is misleading smokers. The use of such labels should be regulated.

  15. Share2Quit: Online Social Network Peer Marketing of Tobacco Cessation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Cutrona, Sarah L; Luger, Tana M; Volz, Erik; Kinney, Rebecca; Rao, Sowmya R; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K

    2017-03-01

    Although technology-assisted tobacco interventions (TATIs) are effective, they are underused due to recruitment challenges. We tested whether we could successfully recruit smokers to a TATI using peer marketing through a social network (Facebook). We recruited smokers on Facebook using online advertisements. These recruited smokers (seeds) and subsequent waves of smokers (peer recruits) were provided the Share2Quit peer recruitment Facebook app and other tools. Smokers were incentivized for up to seven successful peer recruitments and had 30 days to recruit from date of registration. Successful peer recruitment was defined as a peer recruited smoker completing the registration on the TATI following a referral. Our primary questions were (1) whether smokers would recruit other smokers and (2) whether peer recruitment would extend the reach of the intervention to harder-to-reach groups, including those not ready to quit and minority smokers. Overall, 759 smokers were recruited (seeds: 190; peer recruits: 569). Fifteen percent (n = 117) of smokers successfully recruited their peers (seeds: 24.7%; peer recruits: 7.7%) leading to four recruitment waves. Compared to seeds, peer recruits were less likely to be ready to quit (peer recruits 74.2% vs. seeds 95.1%), more likely to be male (67.1% vs. 32.9%), and more likely to be African American (23.8% vs. 10.8%) (p marketing strategy. Smokers on Facebook were willing and able to recruit other smokers to a TATI, yielding a large and diverse population of smokers.

  16. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted.

  17. Illiteracy, ignorance, and willingness to quit smoking among villagers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavarasana, S; Gorty, P V; Allam, A

    1992-04-01

    During the field work to control oral cancer, difficulty in communication was encountered with illiterates. A study to define the role of illiteracy, ignorance and willingness to quit smoking among the villagers was undertaken in a rural area surrounding Doddipatla Village, A.P., India. Out of a total population of 3,550, 272 (7.7%) persons, mostly in the age range of 21-50 years, attended a cancer detection camp. There were 173 (63.6%) females and 99 (36.4%) males, among whom 66 (M53 + F13) were smokers; 36.4% of males and 63% of females were illiterate. Among the illiterates, it was observed that smoking rate was high (56%) and 47.7% were ignorant of health effects of smoking. The attitude of illiterate smokers was encouraging, as 83.6% were willing to quit smoking. Further research is necessary to design health education material for 413.5 million illiterates living in India (1991 Indian Census). A community health worker, trained in the use of mass media coupled with a person-to-person approach, may help the smoker to quit smoking.

  18. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Navneet; Shahab, Lion; Britton, John; Ratschen, Elena

    2013-05-03

    Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they 'ought' to quit as opposed to 'wanted' to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence

  19. TControl: A mobile app to follow up tobacco-quitting patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifarré, Marc; Carrera, Adrián; Vilaplana, Jordi; Cuadrado, Josep; Solsona, Sara; Abella, Francesc; Solsona, Francesc; Alves, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for a wide range of respiratory and circulatory diseases in active and passive smokers. Well-designed campaigns are raising awareness to the problem and an increasing number of smokers seeks medical assistance to quit their habit. In this context, there is the need to develop mHealth Apps that assist and manage large smoke quitting programs in efficient and economic ways. Our main objective is to develop an efficient and free mHealth app that facilitates the management of, and assistance to, people who want to quit smoking. As secondary objectives, our research also aims at estimating the economic effect of deploying that App in the public health system. Using JAVA and XML we develop and deploy a new free mHealth App for Android, called TControl (Tobacco-quitting Control). We deploy the App at the Tobacco Unit of the Santa Maria Hospital in Lleida and determine its stability by following the crashes of the App. We also use a survey to test usability of the app and differences in aptitude for using the App in a sample of 31 patients. Finally, we use mathematical models to estimate the economic effect of deploying TControl in the Catalan public health system. TControl keeps track of the smoke-quitting users, tracking their status, interpreting it, and offering advice and psychological support messages. The App also provides a bidirectional communication channel between patients and clinicians via mobile text messages. Additionally, registered patients have the option to interchange experiences with each other by chat. The App was found to be stable and to have high performances during startup and message sending. Our results suggest that age and gender have no statistically significant effect on patient aptitude for using TControl. Finally, we estimate that TControl could reduce costs for the Catalan public health system (CPHS) by up to € 400M in 10 years. TControl is a stable and well behaved App, typically operating near

  20. Group-based cognitive-behavioural anger management for people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Paul; Rose, John; Jahoda, Andrew; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Felce, David; Cohen, David; Macmahon, Pamela; Stimpson, Aimee; Rose, Nicola; Gillespie, David; Shead, Jennifer; Lammie, Claire; Woodgate, Christopher; Townson, Julia; Nuttall, Jacqueline; Hood, Kerenza

    2013-09-01

    Many people with intellectual disabilities find it hard to control their anger and this often leads to aggression which can have serious consequences, such as exclusion from mainstream services and the need for potentially more expensive emergency placements. To evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for anger management in people with intellectual disabilities. A cluster-randomised trial of group-based 12-week CBT, which took place in day services for people with intellectual disabilities and was delivered by care staff using a treatment manual. Participants were 179 service users identified as having problems with anger control randomly assigned to either anger management or treatment as usual. Assessments were conducted before the intervention, and at 16 weeks and 10 months after randomisation (trial registration: ISRCTN37509773). The intervention had only a small, and non-significant, effect on participants' reports of anger on the Provocation Index, the primary outcome measure (mean difference 2.8, 95% CI -1.7 to 7.4 at 10 months). However, keyworker Provocation Index ratings were significantly lower in both follow-up assessments, as were service-user ratings on another self-report anger measure based on personally salient triggers. Both service users and their keyworkers reported greater usage of anger coping skills at both follow-up assessments and keyworkers and home carers reported lower levels of challenging behaviour. The intervention was effective in improving anger control by people with intellectual disabilities. It provides evidence of the effectiveness of a CBT intervention for this client group and demonstrates that the staff who work with them can be trained and supervised to deliver such an intervention with reasonable fidelity.

  1. Atoning for Colonial Injustices: Group-Based Shame and Guilt Motivate Support for Reparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnifred R. Louis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the role of group-based shame and guilt in motivating citizens of ex-colonial countries to support restitution to former colonized groups which were the target of violence and oppression. Study 1 (N = 125 was conducted in Australia during the lead-up to the first official government apology to Aboriginal Australians. Among white Australians, guilt and shame were associated with attitudinal support for intergroup apology and victim compensation. However, only shame was associated with actual political behaviour (signing a petition in support of the apology. Study 2 (N = 181, conducted in Britain, focussed on Britain's violent mistreatment of the Kenyan population during decolonization. It tested a hypothesis that there are two forms of shame-essence shame and image shame-and demonstrated that image shame was associated with support for apology, whereas essence shame was associated with support for more substantial material and financial compensation. The findings are discussed in light of promoting restitution and reconciliation within nations with histories of colonial violence.

  2. The Visual Matrix Method: Imagery and Affect in a Group-Based Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Froggett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual matrix is a method for researching shared experience, stimulated by sensory material relevant to a research question. It is led by imagery, visualization and affect, which in the matrix take precedence over discourse. The method enables the symbolization of imaginative and emotional material, which might not otherwise be articulated and allows "unthought" dimensions of experience to emerge into consciousness in a participatory setting. We describe the process of the matrix with reference to the study "Public Art and Civic Engagement" (FROGGETT, MANLEY, ROY, PRIOR & DOHERTY, 2014 in which it was developed and tested. Subsequently, examples of its use in other contexts are provided. Both the matrix and post-matrix discussions are described, as is the interpretive process that follows. Theoretical sources are highlighted: its origins in social dreaming; the atemporal, associative nature of the thinking during and after the matrix which we describe through the Deleuzian idea of the rhizome; and the hermeneutic analysis which draws from object relations theory and the Lorenzerian tradition of scenic understanding. The matrix has been conceptualized as a "scenic rhizome" to account for its distinctive quality and hybrid origins in research practice. The scenic rhizome operates as a "third" between participants and the "objects" of contemplation. We suggest that some of the drawbacks of other group-based methods are avoided in the visual matrix—namely the tendency for inter-personal dynamics to dominate the event. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150369

  3. Towards Open-World Person Re-Identification by One-Shot Group-Based Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei-Shi; Gong, Shaogang; Xiang, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Solving the problem of matching people across non-overlapping multi-camera views, known as person re-identification (re-id), has received increasing interests in computer vision. In a real-world application scenario, a watch-list (gallery set) of a handful of known target people are provided with very few (in many cases only a single) image(s) (shots) per target. Existing re-id methods are largely unsuitable to address this open-world re-id challenge because they are designed for (1) a closed-world scenario where the gallery and probe sets are assumed to contain exactly the same people, (2) person-wise identification whereby the model attempts to verify exhaustively against each individual in the gallery set, and (3) learning a matching model using multi-shots. In this paper, a novel transfer local relative distance comparison (t-LRDC) model is formulated to address the open-world person re-identification problem by one-shot group-based verification. The model is designed to mine and transfer useful information from a labelled open-world non-target dataset. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms both non-transfer learning and existing transfer learning based re-id methods.

  4. Functional group based Ligand binding affinity scoring function at atomic environmental level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2009-01-01

    Use of knowledge based scoring function (KBSF) for virtual screening and molecular docking has become an established method for drug discovery. Lack of a precise and reliable free energy function that describes several interactions including water-mediated atomic interaction between amino-acid residues and ligand makes distance based statistical measure as the only alternative. Till now all the distance based scoring functions in KBSF arena use atom singularity concept, which neglects the environmental effect of the atom under consideration. We have developed a novel knowledge-based statistical energy function for protein-ligand complexes which takes atomic environment in to account hence functional group as a singular entity. The proposed knowledge based scoring function is fast, simple to construct, easy to use and moreover it tackle the existing problem of handling molecular orientation in active site pocket. We have designed and used Functional group based Ligand retrieval (FBLR) system which can identify and detect the orientation of functional groups in ligand. This decoy searching was used to build the above KBSF to quantify the activity and affinity of high resolution protein-ligand complexes. We have proposed the probable use of these decoys in molecular build-up as a de-novo drug designing approach. We have also discussed the possible use of the said KSBF in pharmacophore fragment detection and pseudo center based fragment alignment procedure. PMID:19255647

  5. Group-based strategy diffusion in multiplex networks with weighted values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianyong; Jiang, J. C.; Xiang, Leijun

    2017-03-01

    The information diffusion of multiplex social networks has received increasing interests in recent years. Actually, the multiplex networks are made of many communities, and it should be gotten more attention for the influences of community level diffusion, besides of individual level interactions. In view of this, this work explores strategy interactions and diffusion processes in multiplex networks with weighted values from a new perspective. Two different groups consisting of some agents with different influential strength are firstly built in each layer network, the authority and non-authority groups. The strategy interactions between different groups in intralayer and interlayer networks are performed to explore community level diffusion, by playing two classical strategy games, Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift Game. The impact forces from the different groups and the reactive forces from individual agents are simultaneously taken into account in intralayer and interlayer interactions. This paper reveals and explains the evolutions of cooperation diffusion and the influences of interlayer interaction tight degrees in multiplex networks with weighted values. Some thresholds of critical parameters of interaction degrees and games parameters settings are also discussed in group-based strategy diffusion.

  6. Late group-based rehabilitation has no advantages compared with supervised home-exercises after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Majbritt; Larsen, Kristian; Madsen, Inger Kirkegård;

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to test whether group-based rehabilitation focusing on strength training, education and self-management is more effective than individual, supervised home-training after fast-track total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......This study aimed to test whether group-based rehabilitation focusing on strength training, education and self-management is more effective than individual, supervised home-training after fast-track total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....

  7. The communication of "pure" group-based anger reduces tendencies toward intergroup conflict because it increases out-group empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H; Postmes, Tom

    2013-08-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining a positive long-term intergroup relationship, thereby increasing understanding for the situation (in contrast to the communication of the closely related emotion of contempt). Three experiments demonstrate that the communication of group-based anger indeed reduces destructive conflict intentions compared with (a) a control condition (Experiments 1-2), (b) the communication of group-based contempt (Experiment 2), and (c) the communication of a combination of group-based anger and contempt (Experiments 2-3). Moreover, results from all three experiments reveal that empathy mediated the positive effect of communicating "pure" group-based anger. We discuss the implications of these findings for the theory and practice of communicating emotions in intergroup conflicts.

  8. Project QUIT (Quit Using Drugs Intervention Trial): A randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based multi-component brief intervention to reduce risky drug use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Lillian; Andersen, Ronald M.; Afifi, Abdelmonem A.; Leake, Barbara D.; Arangua, Lisa; Vahidi, Mani; Singleton, Kyle; Yacenda-Murphy, Julia; Shoptaw, Steve; Fleming, Michael F.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the effect of a multi-component primary care (PC)-delivered BI for reducing risky drug use (RDU) among patients identified by screening. Design Multicenter single-blind two-arm randomized controlled trial of patients enrolled from February 2011 to November 2012 with 3-month follow-up. Randomization and allocation to trial group were computer-generated. Setting Primary care waiting rooms of 5 federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in Los Angeles County (LAC), USA. Participants 334 adult primary care patients (171 intervention; 163 control) with RDU scores (4–26) on the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) self-administered on tablet PCs; 261 (78%) completed follow-up. Mean age was 41.7 years; 63% were male; 38% were Caucasian. Intervention(s) and Measurement Intervention patients received brief (typically 3–4 minutes) clinician advice to quit/reduce their drug use reinforced by a video doctor message, health education booklet, and up to two 20–30 minute follow-up telephone drug use coaching sessions. Controls received usual care and cancer screening information. Primary outcome was patient self-reported use of highest scoring drug (HSD) at follow-up. Findings Intervention and control patients reported equivalent baseline HSD use; at follow-up, after adjustment for covariates in a linear regression model, intervention patients reported using their HSD an average of 2.21 fewer days in the previous month than controls (p0.10). Conclusions A clinician-delivered brief intervention with follow-up counseling calls may decrease drug use among risky users compared with usual care in low-income community health centers of Los Angeles County, USA. PMID:26471159

  9. MapMySmoke: feasibility of a new quit cigarette smoking mobile phone application using integrated geo-positioning technology, and motivational messaging within a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Kelsey, Thomas W; Marston, John; Samson, Kay; Humphris, Gerald W

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 11,000 people die in Scotland each year as a result of smoking-related causes. Quitting smoking is relatively easy; maintaining a quit attempt is a very difficult task with success rates for unaided quit attempts stubbornly remaining in the single digits. Pharmaceutical treatment can improve these rates by lowering the overall reward factor of nicotine. However, these and related nicotine replacement therapies do not operate on, or address, the spatial and contextual aspects of smoking behaviour. With the ubiquity of smartphones that can log spatial, quantitative and qualitative data related to smoking behaviour, there exists a person-centred clinical opportunity to support smokers attempting to quit by first understanding their smoking behaviour and subsequently sending them dynamic messages to encourage health behaviour change within a situational context. We have built a smartphone app-MapMySmoke-that works on Android and iOS platforms. The deployment of this app within a clinical National Health Service (NHS) setting has two distinct phases: (1) a 2-week logging phase where pre-quit patients log all of their smoking and craving events; and (2) a post-quit phase where users receive dynamic support messages and can continue to log craving events, and should they occur, relapse events. Following the initial logging phase, patients consult with their general practitioner (GP) or healthcare provider to review their smoking patterns and to outline a precise, individualised quit attempt plan. Our feasibility study consists of assessment of an initial app version during and after use by eight patients recruited from an NHS Fife GP practice. In addition to evaluation of the app as a potential smoking cessation aid, we have assessed the user experience, technological requirements and security of the data flow. In an initial feasibility study, we have deployed the app for a small number of patients within one GP practice in NHS Fife. We recruited eight

  10. Investigating the Effect of Emotional Intelligence on the Addiction Relapse after Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Raisjouyan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addiction is multi-dimensional medical problem and psychologic defects have a major role on its establishment. This study was designed to determine the effect of emotional quotient (EQ on the rate of addiction relapse after quitting. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study on 22 to 51 year old subjects who were being treated at chemical dependency rehabilitation centers in Mashhad, Iran, during December 2012 to May 2013. For assessment of EQ, the Persian version of Bar-On EQ questionnaire was employed at first visit of each patient. During the rehabilitation therapy, the subjects were visited monthly. The data of patients were collected during the first 6 months post-quitting. Results: One-hundred sixty subjects were studied which 87% of them were men. Mean (SD score of patients' EQ was 11.9 (2.8. The mean number of addiction relapses was 2.1 (2.8. Data analysis showed that there was a significant inverse correlation between EQ score and the number of relapses (r = -0.82, P = 0.05. In addition, it was found that the EQ score had a direct significant relationship with age (r = 0.33, P = 0.05. No significant correlation between type of abused substance and the number of relapses was found. Conclusion: EQ has a positive impact on preventing addiction relapse. Increasing EQ through educational programs can be used as a preventive measure for treating addict persons.   How to cite this article: Raisjouyan Z, Talebi M, Ghasimi Shahgaldi F, Abdollahian E. Investigating the Effect of Emotional Intelligence on the Addiction Relapse after Quitting. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3:27-30.

  11. VapeTracker: Tracking Vapor Consumption to Help E-cigarette Users Quit

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Abdallah El; Matviienko, Andrii; Feld, Yannick; Heuten, Wilko; Boll, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Despite current controversy over e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid, we present early work based on a web survey (N=249) that shows that some e-cigarette users (46.2%) want to quit altogether, and that behavioral feedback that can be tracked can fulfill that purpose. Based on our survey findings, we designed VapeTracker, an early prototype that can attach to any e-cigarette device to track vaping activity. We discuss our future research on vaping cessation, addressing how to improve our ...

  12. ATTITUDE TO HEALTH AND MOTIVATION TO QUIT SMOKING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chetverkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to study of features of the status of smoking in patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Degree of nicotine addiction, types of smoking behavior in various age groups of patients are determined. The interrelation at sick HOBL between motivation to refusal of smoking and the attitude towards health is analyzed. The directions of psychotherapeutic impacts for increase in efficiency of the techniques directed to refusal of smoking are offered.Objective  – to study the motivation to quit smoking and attitudes towards health in patients with COPD. Materials  and  methods. A questionnaire by D. Horney for determining the type of smoking behavior; Fagerstrem test for the determination of nicotine dependence; the questionnaire for determining the motivation to refuse to smoke; the questionnaire of N.E. Vodopyanova «Assessment of the level of satisfaction with the quality of life» (2005 and the methodology «Attitude to health» by R. A. Berezovsky.Results.  The average age for the entire sample of respondents was 65.3±7.6 years, the length of smoking in smokers was 33.5±14.3 years. The predominant type of smoking behavior in the survey sample was «Support». In patients with high motivation, the assessment of the level of satisfaction with the overall «quality of life index» (ICI was 26 points. In patients with low motivation to quit smoking, the mean value (ICR was 21.Conclusion. Patients with high motivation to quit smoking were older than patients with low motivation. A group of patients with COPD with high motivation to quit smoking was characterized mainly by low or medium degree of nicotine dependence; the dominant type of smoking behavior of them was «Support.» On the contrary, in the group of patients with low motivation, physical dependence on nicotine prevailed; the «thirst» was the dominant type of smoking behavior.

  13. The QUIT-PRIMO provider-patient Internet-delivered smoking cessation referral intervention: a cluster-randomized comparative effectiveness trial: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Daniel E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although screening for tobacco use is increasing with electronic health records and standard protocols, other tobacco-control activities, such as referral of patients to cessation resources, is quite low. In the QUIT-PRIMO study, an online referral portal will allow providers to enter smokers' email addresses into the system. Upon returning home, the smokers will receive automated emails providing education about tobacco cessation and encouragement to use the patient smoking cessation website (with interactive tools, educational resources, motivational email messages, secure messaging with a tobacco treatment specialist, and online support group. Methods The informatics system will be evaluated in a comparative effectiveness trial of 160 community-based primary care practices, cluster-randomized at the practice level. In the QUIT-PRIMO intervention, patients will be provided a paper information-prescription referral and then "e-referred" to the system. In the comparison group, patients will receive only the paper-based information-prescription referral with the website address. Once patients go to the website, they are subsequently randomized within practices to either a standard patient smoking cessation website or an augmented version with access to a tobacco treatment specialist online, motivational emails, and an online support group. We will compare intervention and control practice participation (referral rates and patient participation (proportion referred who go to the website. We will then compare the effectiveness of the standard and augmented patient websites. Discussion Our goal is to evaluate an integrated informatics solution to increase access to web-delivered smoking cessation support. We will analyze the impact of this integrated system in terms of process (provider e-referral and patient login and patient outcomes (six-month smoking cessation. Trial Registration Web-delivered Provider Intervention for

  14. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommelé, J.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Straaten, B. van; Wits, E.; Snelleman, M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or ‘pros and cons’) of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual

  15. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommelé, J.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Straaten, B. van; Wits, E.; Snelleman, M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or ‘pros and cons’) of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual

  16. Evidence of psychosocial and behavioral effects related to the intention to quit alcohol in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and factors that influenced certain subjects within a population-based sample of Korean drinkers to quit alcohol consumption (N = 8910). Explored were various factors of psychosocial behaviors such as socioeconomic reasons, health behavior, cues to action, and self-control related to the intentions of alcohol abstinence. Using path analysis, it was found that, for men, self-control (B = 0.51), health behavior (B = 0.78), and health literacy (B = 0.58) were positively associated with cues to action which in turn positively induced them to quit drinking. This pattern of results appeared to apply only to men and not to women. In conclusion, this study reveals that men who do not smoke, regularly exercise, have high self-control, and look for health information are likely to be active in acquiring cues for behavioral changes and making themselves motivated. However, conventions of alcohol consumption in the female population are more dependent on social factors in comparison to those of men.

  17. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Results: Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9% were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative was −21. Conclusion: Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  18. Leading-Brand Advertisement of Quitting Smoking Benefits for E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthi, Divya; Gall, Phillip A; Ayoub, Noel; Jackler, Robert K

    2016-11-01

    To provide regulators and the US Food and Drug Administration with a description of cessation-themed advertising among electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) brands. We performed a content analysis of 6 months (January through June 2015) of advertising by e-cigarette brands on their company-sponsored social media channels and blogs as well as user-generated content (testimonials) appearing within brand-sponsored Web sites. An explicit claim of cessation efficacy unambiguously states that e-cigarettes help in quitting smoking, and implicit claims use euphemisms such as "It works." We selected a cohort of 23 leading e-cigarette brands, either by their rank in advertising spending or their prevalence in Internet searches. Among leading e-cigarette brands, 22 of 23 used cessation-themed advertisements. Overall, 23% of the advertisements contained cessation claims, of which 18% were explicit and 82% were implicit. Among leading e-cigarette advertisers, cessation themes are prevalent with implicit messaging predominating over explicit quit claims. These results can help the Food and Drug Administration clarify whether tobacco products should be regulated as drugs with therapeutic purpose or as recreational products.

  19. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9%) were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative) was -21. Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  20. Relapse to smoking and postpartum weight retention among women who quit smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michele D; Cheng, Yu; Marcus, Marsha D; Kalarchian, Melissa A

    2012-02-01

    Postpartum weight retention contributes to obesity risk in women. Given that most women who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy will resume smoking within 6 months postpartum and that there is a robust association between smoking and weight, we sought to evaluate postpartum weight retention as a function of postpartum smoking status among women who had quit smoking during pregnancy. Women (N = 183) with biochemically confirmed cigarette abstinence at the end of pregnancy were recruited between February 2003 and November 2006. Women self-reported demographic information and weight before pregnancy. Smoking status and weight were documented at the end of pregnancy and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. Breastfeeding was reported at 6 weeks postpartum. Differences in weight retention by relapse status at each assessment were evaluated. To examine weight retention in the presence of conceptually relevant covariates, mixed models with log-transformed weight data were used. At 24 weeks postpartum, 34.6% of women remained abstinent. Women who remained abstinent throughout the 24-week period retained 4.7 ± 2.1 kg more than did women who had relapsed by 6 weeks postpartum, P = 0.03. This difference in postpartum weight retention was significant after controlling for relevant covariates (age, race, breastfeeding, and pregravid BMI). Resumption of smoking within the first 6 weeks following childbirth is associated with decreased postpartum weight retention, even after controlling for breastfeeding and pregravid weight. Interventions to sustain smoking abstinence postpartum might be enhanced by components designed to minimize weight retention.

  1. Home based and group based exercise programs in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Lopes; Sara Costa; Crisitina Mesquita; José Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by inflammation of the joints of the spine and sacroiliac and to a lesser percentage of the peripheral joints. It is a debilitating condition which reduces quality of life in patients with AS. The practice of physical therapy is recommended as non-pharmacological treatment as well as the treatment and prevention of associated deformities. Objective: To collect and summarize the available eviden...

  2. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layoun N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelly Layoun,1,2 Pascal Salameh,2,3 Mirna Waked,4 Z Aoun Bacha,5 Rony M Zeenny,6 Eric El Hitti,4 Isabelle Godin,1 Michèle Dramaix1 1Research Center in Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, UniversitéLibre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Doctoral School of Sciences and Technologies, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Pulmonology, St George Hospital University Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Pharmacy Practice Department, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Introduction: Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results: Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to

  3. A Text Message Delivered Smoking Cessation Intervention: The Initial Trial of TXT-2-Quit: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth; Heron, Kristin; Jennings, Ernestine; Morrow, Kathleen; Cobb, Victoria; Magee, Joshua; Fava, Joseph; Deutsch, Christopher; Foster, Robert

    2013-07-30

    Mobile technology offers the potential to deliver health-related interventions to individuals who would not otherwise present for in-person treatment. Text messaging (short message service, SMS), being the most ubiquitous form of mobile communication, is a promising method for reaching the most individuals. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a smoking cessation intervention program delivered through text messaging. Adult participants (N=60, age range 18-52 years) took part in a single individual smoking cessation counseling session, and were then randomly assigned to receive either daily non-smoking related text messages (control condition) or the TXT-2-Quit (TXT) intervention. TXT consisted of automated smoking cessation messages tailored to individual's stage of smoking cessation, specialized messages provided on-demand based on user requests for additional support, and a peer-to-peer social support network. Generalized estimating equation analysis was used to assess the primary outcome (7-day point-prevalence abstinence) using a 2 (treatment groups)×3 (time points) repeated measures design across three time points: 8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Smoking cessation results showed an overall significant group difference in 7-day point prevalence abstinence across all follow-up time points. Individuals given the TXT intervention, with higher odds of 7-day point prevalence abstinence for the TXT group compared to the Mojo group (OR=4.52, 95% CI=1.24, 16.53). However, individual comparisons at each time point did not show significant between-group differences, likely due to reduced statistical power. Intervention feasibility was greatly improved by switching from traditional face-to-face recruitment methods (4.7% yield) to an online/remote strategy (41.7% yield). Although this study was designed to develop and provide initial testing of the TXT-2-Quit system, these initial findings provide promising evidence

  4. Documenting organisational development in general practice using a group-based assessment method: the Maturity Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Tina; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Løgstrup, Louise; Buch, Martin Sandberg; Elwyn, Glyn; Edwards, Adrian

    2010-10-01

    The Maturity Matrix (MM) comprises a formative evaluation instrument for primary care practices to self-assess their degree of organisational development in a group setting, guided by an external facilitator. The practice teams discuss organisational development, score their own performance and set improvement goals for the following year. The objective of this project was to introduce a translated and culturally adapted version of the MM in Denmark, to test its feasibility, to promote and document organisational change in general practices and to analyse associations between the recorded change(s) and structural factors in practices and the factors associated with the MM process. MM was used by general practices in three counties in Denmark, in two assessment sessions 1 year apart. First rounds of MM visits were carried out in 2006-2007 in 60 practice teams (320 participants (163 GPs, 157 staff)) and the second round in 2007-2008. A total of 48 practice teams (228 participants (117 GPs; 111 staff) participated in both sessions. The MM sessions were the primary intervention. Moreover, in about half of the practices, the facilitator reminded practice teams of their goals by sending them the written report of the initial session and contacted the practices regularly by telephone reminding them of the goals they had set. Those practice teams had password-protected access to their own and benchmark data. Where the minimum possible is 0 and maximum possible is 8, the mean overall MM score increased from 4.4 to 5.3 (difference=0.9, 95%, CI 0.76 to 1.06) from first to second sessions, indicating that development had taken place as measured by this group-based self-evaluation method. There was some evidence that lower-scoring dimensions were prioritised and more limited evidence that the prioritisation and interventions between meetings were helpful to achieve changes. This study provides evidence that MM worked well in general practices in Denmark. Practice teams appeared

  5. Intention to quit among Indian tobacco users: Findings from International Tobacco Control Policy evaluation India pilot survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Surani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco users face barriers not just in quitting, but also in thinking about quitting. The aim of this study was to understand factors encouraging intention to quit from the 2006 International Tobacco Control Policy (TCP Evaluation India Pilot Study Survey. Materials and Methods: A total of 764 adult respondents from urban and rural areas of Maharashtra and Bihar were surveyed through face-to-face individual interviews, with a house-to-house approach. Dependent variable was "intention to quit tobacco." Independent variables were demographic variables, peer influence, damage perception, receiving advice to quit, and referral to cessation services by healthcare professionals and exposure to anti-tobacco messages. Logistic regression model was used with odds ratio adjusted for location, age, gender, and marital status for statistical analysis. Results: Of 493 tobacco users, 32.5% intended to quit. More numbers of users who were unaware about their friends′ tobacco use intended to quit compared to those who were aware (adjusted OR = 8.06, 95% CI = 4.58-14.19. Higher numbers of users who felt tobacco has damaged their health intended to quit compared to those who did not feel that way (adjusted OR = 5.62, 95% CI = 3.53-8.96. More numbers of users exposed to anti-tobacco messages in newspapers/magazines (adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.02-3.03, restaurants (adjusted OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37-4.46, radio (adjusted OR=4.84, 95% CI = 3.01-7.78, cinema halls (adjusted OR = 9.22, 95% CI = 5.31-15.75, and public transportation (adjusted OR = 10.58, 95% = 5.90-18.98 intended to quit compared to unexposed users. Conclusion: Anti-tobacco messages have positive influence on user′s intentions to quit.

  6. Organizational respect dampens the impact of group-based relative deprivation on willingness to protest pay cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Danny; Huo, Yuen J; Smith, Heather J

    2015-03-01

    Although group-based relative deprivation predicts people's willingness to protest unfair outcomes, perceiving that one's subgroup is respected increases employees' support for organizations. An integration of these perspectives suggests that subgroup respect will dampen the impact of group-based relative deprivation on workers' responses to unfair organizational outcomes. We examined this hypothesis among university faculty (N = 804) who underwent a system-wide pay cut. As expected, group-based relative deprivation predicted protest intentions. This relationship was, however, muted among those who believed university administrators treated their area of expertise (i.e., their subgroup) with a high (vs. low) level of respect. Moderated mediation analyses confirmed that group-based relative deprivation had a conditional indirect effect on protest intentions via participants' (dis)identification with their university at low to moderate, but not high, levels of subgroup respect. Our finding that satisfying relational needs can attenuate responses to group-based relative deprivation demonstrates the benefits of integrating insights from distinct research traditions. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Results from a Community-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for LGBT Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Li, Chien-Ching; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Tasker, Timothy B.; Cesario, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people's response to smoking cessation interventions. This descriptive study examined the benefits of a community-based, culturally tailored smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers. Methods. A total of N = 198 LGBT individuals recruited from clinical practice and community outreach participated in group-based treatment. Sessions were based on the American Lung Association's “Freedom from Smoking Program” (ALA-FFS) and were tailored to LGBT smokers' needs. Seven-day smoking point prevalence abstinence served as the primary outcome. Results. Participants (M age = 40.5) were mostly White (70.4%) and male (60.5%) and had at least a college degree (58.4%). Forty-four percent scored in the moderate range on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence pretreatment, and 42.4% completed treatment (≥75% sessions). Higher educational attainment and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were associated with treatment completion. Self-reported quit rates were 32.3% at posttreatment assessment. Treatment attendance (OR = 2.45), use of NRT (OR = 4.24), and lower nicotine dependency (OR = 0.73) were positively associated with quitting smoking. Conclusions. Results suggest the benefits of offering LGBT smokers culturally tailored smoking cessation treatments. Future research could improve outcomes by encouraging treatment attendance and promoting NRT uptake. PMID:23840237

  8. Results from a Community-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for LGBT Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia K. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT people’s response to smoking cessation interventions. This descriptive study examined the benefits of a community-based, culturally tailored smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers. Methods. A total of N=198 LGBT individuals recruited from clinical practice and community outreach participated in group-based treatment. Sessions were based on the American Lung Association’s “Freedom from Smoking Program” (ALA-FFS and were tailored to LGBT smokers’ needs. Seven-day smoking point prevalence abstinence served as the primary outcome. Results. Participants (M age = 40.5 were mostly White (70.4% and male (60.5% and had at least a college degree (58.4%. Forty-four percent scored in the moderate range on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence pretreatment, and 42.4% completed treatment (≥75% sessions. Higher educational attainment and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT were associated with treatment completion. Self-reported quit rates were 32.3% at posttreatment assessment. Treatment attendance (OR = 2.45, use of NRT (OR = 4.24, and lower nicotine dependency (OR = 0.73 were positively associated with quitting smoking. Conclusions. Results suggest the benefits of offering LGBT smokers culturally tailored smoking cessation treatments. Future research could improve outcomes by encouraging treatment attendance and promoting NRT uptake.

  9. Health evaluation of the 2nd International "Quit and Win" Antinicotine Campaign participants ten years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Alina; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Krakowiak, Jan; Rzeźnicki, Adam; Pikala, Małgorzata; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Drygas, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most often noticed types of negative behaviour among the Poles. In the work, the results of the health evaluation are presented of the participants of the 'Quit and Win' competition ten years after making a decision to refrain from smoking, also the dependency between this evaluation and behaviour connected with smoking among the people living in big cities and small towns and villages was analysed. Among the 648 respondents, majority, which is 302 people (46.6%) evaluated their health as good, 236 (36.4%) as average, and 76 of the questioned (11.7%) as very good, 29 people (4.5%) as bad, and 5 of the questioned (0.8%) as very bad. The respondents most often evaluated negatively their health in the group of the still smoking living in the big cities, and the least often in the group of the non-smokers living in small towns and villages.

  10. The Impact of Quitting Smoking on Weight Among Women Prisoners Participating in a Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Leslie A.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Villalobos, Gabrielle C.; Weaver, Michael F.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of smoking cessation on weight change in a population of women prisoners. Methods. Women prisoners (n = 360) enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention; 250 received a 10-week group intervention plus transdermal nicotine replacement. Results. Women who quit smoking had significant weight gain at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, with a net difference of 10 pounds between smokers and abstainers at 6 months. By the 12-month follow-up, weight gain decreased among abstainers. Conclusions. We are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate weight gain associated with smoking cessation among women prisoners. Smoking cessation interventions that address postcessation weight gain as a preventative measure may be beneficial in improving health and reducing the high prevalence of smoking in prisoner populations. PMID:20558806

  11. Use of research-based instructional strategies: how to avoid faculty quitting

    CERN Document Server

    Wieman, Carl; Gilley, Brett

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the teaching practices of faculty members who adopted research-based instructional strategies as part of the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative (CWSEI) at the University of British Columbia. Of the 70 that adopted such strategies with the support of the CWSEI program, only one subsequently stopped using these strategies. This is a tiny fraction of the 33% stopping rate for physics faculty in general [Henderson, Dancy, and Niewiadomska-Bugaj, PRST-PER, 8, 020104 (2012)]. Nearly all of these UBC faculty members who had an opportunity to subsequently use RBIS in other courses (without CWSEI support) did so. We offer possible explanations for the difference in quitting rates. The direct support of the faculty member by a trained science education specialist in the discipline during the initial implementation of the new strategies may be the most important factor.

  12. Does screening participation affect cigarette smokers’ decision to quit? A long-horizon panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bretteville-Jensen Anne Line

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Despite decades of intensive anti-tobacco initiatives, millions of people are still smoking. The health authorities are seeking new tools and extended knowledge. Screening programs may, in addition to the potential health benefits from early detection of smoking related diseases, also increase smoking cessation among participants. This study examines the effect of screening participation by comparing the smokers’ cessation hazard in screening years to nonscreening years. METHODS - All smokers (n=10,471 participated in a three-wave cardiovascular screening and were followed up over a maximum of 14 years. The panel was merged with administrative registers. We used a flexible discrete-time duration model to investigate the effect of the screening program while simultaneously accounting for the possible influence of personal characteristics, addiction indicators, economic factors, health status and health changes. Specifically, we examined and compared long-term smokers (LT; smoked ≥25 years with short-term (ST; smoked ≤ 5 years and medium-term (MT; smoked 10-20 years smokers. RESULTS - We found that 29% of LT smokers quitted smoking during the follow-up whereas 32% of MT and 48% of ST smokers reported the same. The screening participation years stood out as especially important for all groups. The impact of the first screening was particularly high, and for the first two screenings, the effect was higher for long-term smokers than for the smokers with shorter smoking careers. Receiving an abnormal test result was not associated with a significant increase in cessation hazard for any group of smokers. CONCLUSIONS - The substantial effect of being invited to and participating in a screening appears robust, and may prove useful when discussing future policies for smoking cessation. This paper suggests that further initiatives for consultations with health personnel, in this case through a screening program, could increase the

  13. Impact of Scottish smoke-free legislation on smoking quit attempts and prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. METHODS: We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT prescribed in Scotland in 2003-2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. RESULTS: NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001 higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001. Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July-September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001 more than expected from the underlying trend. CONCLUSIONS: Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support.

  14. Teaching high-school Geoscience through a group-based activity: the Geotrivia experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, Athanasia

    2015-04-01

    Geotrivia is an educational game which aims at the enhancement of geoscience teaching in secondary education, through an interactive group-based activity. As behavioural teaching methods no longer excite students in a multitask society, new approaches should be implemented to keep up with novel learning methodologies and team-based techniques. Thus, the main aim of the experiment was to come up with an alternative learning process on geology and geography in order to upgrade and attract more students to Geosciences. Geotrivia is based on the techniques of motivation (competition to be the winner) and enjoyable educational time (it is funny to play a game) in terms of team-based student collaboration. Pedagogical aims of Geotrivia consist of team-based work, independency, autonomy and initiative, active participation, student self-evaluation and metacognition. Geotrivia is a card game, consisting of about 150 playing cards, a whistle and an hourglass. Each playing card contains a geology- or geography-related question and the answer to the question is given in the lower part of the card. Class students are divided in about 4 groups of about 5 students each. The aim of each group is to collect as many cards as possible. The hourglass is flipped and a member of the team takes the pack of cards and uses it to ask questions to his team; the other members have to answer as many questions. The team wins a card when they give a correct answer. The game is played at the end of each curriculum unit; a comprehensive version of the game is held at end of the school year. Most -but not all- questions are based on the course syllabus, which deals with the geology and geography of Europe at junior high school level (e.g. what is the cause of high seismicity in Greece?). Accordingly, Geotrivia questions can be adjusted to each country school book of geology - geography at any grade. To evaluate the results of Geotrivia, we used the methodology of pretest and posttest, an

  15. Smoke-free air laws and quit attempts: Evidence for a moderating role of spontaneous self-affirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Parascandola, Mark; Harris, Peter R

    2015-09-01

    In addition to their primary goal of protecting nonsmokers from secondhand smoke, smoke-free air laws may also encourage intentions to quit smoking, quit attempts, and cessation among smokers. However, laws may not encourage quitting if smokers feel threatened by them and react defensively. This study examined whether spontaneous self-affirmation - the extent to which people think about their values or strengths when they feel threatened - may reduce smokers' reactance to smoke-free laws, enhancing the ability of the laws to encourage quitting. We linked state-level information on the comprehensiveness of U.S. smoke-free laws (compiled in January, 2013 by the American Lung Association) with data from a U.S. health survey (Health Information National Trends Survey) collected from September-December, 2013 (N = 345 current smokers; 587 former smokers). Smoke-free laws interacted with self-affirmation to predict quit attempts in the past year and intentions to quit in the next six months: Smokers higher in self-affirmation reported more quit attempts and quit intentions if they lived in states with more comprehensive smoke-free laws. There was some evidence of a "boomerang" effect (i.e., less likelihood of making a quit attempt) among smokers low in self-affirmation if living in states with more comprehensive smoke-free laws, but this effect was significant only among smokers extremely low in self-affirmation. For quit intentions, there was no evidence for a boomerang effect of smoke-free laws even among smokers extremely low in self-affirmation. More comprehensive smoke-free laws were not associated with smoking status (former vs. current smoker) or average amount smoked per day, nor did they interact with self-affirmation to predict these outcomes. The impact of smoke-free policies on quit attempts and quit intentions may be moderated by psychological characteristics such as the tendency to spontaneously self-affirm. Follow-ups should experimentally manipulate self

  16. Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safaa M. Raghab; Ahmed M. Abd El Meguid; Hala A. Hegazi

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper presents the results of the analyses of leachate treatment from the solid waste landfill located in Borg El Arab landfill in Alexandria using an aerobic treatment process which was applied...

  17. Revisiting Group-Based Technology Adoption as a Dynamic Process: The Role of Changing Attitude-Rationale Configurations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayerl, P.S.; Lauche, K.; Axtell, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we set out to better understand the dynamics behind group-based technology adoption by nvestigating the underlying mechanisms of changes in collective adoption decisions over time. Using a longitudinal multi-case study of production teams in the British oil and gas industry, we outli

  18. Amount and Timing of Group-Based Childcare from Birth and Cognitive Development at 51 Months: A UK Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jacqueline; Melhuish, Edward C.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether the amount and timing of group-based childcare between birth and 51 months were predictive of cognitive development at 51 months, taking into account other non-parental childcare, demographic characteristics, cognitive development at 18 months, sensitive parenting and a stimulating home environment. Children's…

  19. A shared past and a common future: the Portuguese colonial war and the dynamics of group-based guilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, A.; Valentim, J.; Doosje, B.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we examine feelings of group-based guilt among Portuguese people in relation to the Portuguese colonial war, and their consequences for social behaviour. Specifically, we focus on the way Portuguese university students identify with their national group and the outgroup and thei

  20. The Web as Process Tool and Product Environment for Group-Based Project Work in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine; van Diepen, Nico

    This paper discusses problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education, and describes two technical courses (i.e., courses in online learning and applications of business information technology) at the University of Twente (Netherlands) in which course-specific World Wide Web environments are…

  1. How Perspective-Taking Helps and Hinders Group-Based Guilt as a Function of Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zebel, Sven; Doosje, Bertjan; Spears, Russell

    2009-01-01

    In two studies we hypothesized that outgroup perspective-taking promotes group-based guilt among weakly identified perpetrator group members, but hinders it among higher identifiers. In Study 1, native Dutch participants (N = 153) confronted their group's past mistreatment of outgroups, while perspe

  2. The web as process tool and product environment for group-based project work in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine; Diepen, van Nico; Maurer, Hermann

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education, and describes two technical courses (i.e., courses in online learning and applications of business information technology) at the University of Twente (Netherlands) in whic

  3. Should Family and Friends Be Involved in Group-Based Rehabilitation Programs for Adults with Low Vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, G.; Saw, C.; Larizza, M.; Lamoureux, E.; Keeffe, J.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates the views of clients with low vision and vision rehabilitation professionals on the involvement of family and friends in group-based rehabilitation programs. Both groups outlined advantages and disadvantages to involving significant others, and it is essential that clients are given the choice. Future work is…

  4. A shared past and a common future: the Portuguese colonial war and the dynamics of group-based guilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, A.; Valentim, J.; Doosje, B.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we examine feelings of group-based guilt among Portuguese people in relation to the Portuguese colonial war, and their consequences for social behaviour. Specifically, we focus on the way Portuguese university students identify with their national group and the outgroup and thei

  5. Enacting Key Skills-Based Curricula in Secondary Education: Lessons from a Technology-Mediated, Group-Based Learning Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Keith; Conneely, Claire; Murchan, Damian; Tangney, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Bridge21 is an innovative approach to learning for secondary education that was originally conceptualised as part of a social outreach intervention in the authors' third-level institution whereby participants attended workshops at a dedicated learning space on campus focusing on a particular model of technology-mediated group-based learning. This…

  6. Revisiting group-based technology adoption as a dynamic process: The role of changing attitude-rationale configurations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayerl, P.S.; Lauche, K.; Axtell, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we set out to better understand the dynamics behind group-based technology adoption by nvestigating the underlying mechanisms of changes in collective adoption decisions over time. Using a longitudinal multi-case study of production teams in the British oil and gas industry, we

  7. Revisiting group-based technology adoption as a dynamic process: The role of changing attitude-rationale configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Bayerl (Saskia); K. Lauche (Kristina); Axtell, C. (Carolyn)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, we set out to better understand the dynamics behind group-based technology adoption by investigating the underlying mechanisms of changes in collective adoption decisions over time. Using a longitudinal multi-case study of production teams in the British oil and gas

  8. Promoting Child Development through Group-Based Parent Support within a Cash Transfer Program: Experimental Effects on Children's Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Knauer, Heather A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program ("Educación Inicial" - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program ("Prospera," originally 'Oportunidades" and "Progresa"). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in…

  9. Promoting Child Development through Group-Based Parent Support within a Cash Transfer Program: Experimental Effects on Children's Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Knauer, Heather A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program ("Educación Inicial" - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program ("Prospera," originally 'Oportunidades" and "Progresa"). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in…

  10. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBMT) of citations in scholarly literature: dynamic qualities of "transient" and "sticky knowledge claims"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2014-01-01

    Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) is applied to the citation curves of articles in six journals and to all citable items in a single field of science (virology, 24 journals) to distinguish among the developmental trajectories in subpopulations. Can citation patterns of highly-cited papers be

  11. Motivation to quit or reduce gambling: Associations between Self-Determination Theory and the Transtheoretical Model of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Godinho, Alexandra; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2016-01-01

    Motivation for change and recovery from addiction has been commonly assessed using the Transtheoretical Model's stages of change. Analogous to readiness for change, this measure of motivation may not recognize other elements of motivation relevant to successful change. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between stages of change and reasons for change according to the Self-Determination Theory among problem gamblers motivated to quit. Motivations for change were examined for 200 adult problem gamblers with intent to quit in the next 6 months (contemplation stage) or 30 days (preparation stage). Analyses revealed that higher autonomous motivation for quitting gambling predicted greater likelihood of being in the preparation stage, whereas those with higher external motivation for change were less likely to be farther along the stage of change continuum. The findings suggest that autonomous motivations relate to readiness for quitting gambling, and may predict successful resolution from problem gambling.

  12. 45 CFR 400.77 - Effect of quitting employment or failing or refusing to participate in required services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... receipt of refugee cash assistance, an employable recipient may not, without good cause, voluntarily quit... Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and...

  13. Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussman S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms, than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics. The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19% and contingency-based reinforcement (16% programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%. Computer-based (expert system programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate, as did school-based clinics (12%. There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs' evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting

  14. Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussman S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms, than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics. The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19% and contingency-based reinforcement (16% programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%. Computer-based (expert system programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate, as did school-based clinics (12%. There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs' evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting

  15. Intervening variables in group-based acceptance & commitment therapy for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberg, Trine; Hoffmann, Ditte; Jensen, Jens S; Frostholm, Lisbeth

    2017-05-01

    The present study is based on a previously reported successful randomized controlled trial (RCT) on Acceptance and Commitment Group therapy (ACT-G) for severe health anxiety (HA) and investigates intervening variables of ACT for HA. The process primarily targeted by ACT is psychological flexibility (PF). No randomized study has yet examined the possible intervening variables of ACT for HA. 126 patients diagnosed with severe HA were enrolled in the RCT of which 107 were included in the analyses. The outcome measure was illness worry (Whiteley Index) and included process variables were PF and facets of mindfulness. Statistically significant indirect effects (IE) of ACT-G on the outcome of illness worry 6 months after treatment were found for PF (IE = -5.5, BCa 99% CI -12.3;-1.2) and one mindfulness subscale, namely 'non-react' (IE = -6.5 BCa 99% CI -15.3: 1.0). In line with the ACT model of change, PF may have a small to moderate IE on decrease in illness worry. Of the mindfulness scales, only 'non-react' showed a significant IE. Although tentative, due to no active comparison control condition, these results support that PF is a intervening variable in ACT treatment aimed at reducing illness worry in patients with severe HA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use and Effectiveness of Quitlines for Smokers With Diabetes: Cessation and Weight Outcomes, Washington State Tobacco Quit Line, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Schauer, Gillian L.; Bush, Terry; Cerutti, Barbara; Mahoney, Lisa; Thompson, Juliet R; Zbikowski, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Having diabetes and smoking increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. However, cessation-related weight gain, a common side effect during quitting, can further complicate diabetes. Evidence-based telephone quitlines can support quitting but have not been studied adequately in populations with chronic diseases such as diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use and effectiveness of a tobacco quitline among tobacco users with diabetes. Cessation-related weight ...

  17. Is attributing smoking to genetic causes associated with a reduced probability of quit attempt success? A cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Alison J.; Aveyard, Paul; Guo, Boliang; Murphy, Michael; Brown, Karen; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims Pharmacogenetic smoking cessation interventions would involve smokers being given information about the influence of genes on their behaviour. However, attributing smoking to genetic causes may reduce perceived control over smoking, reducing quit attempt success. This study examines whether attributing smoking to genetic influences is associated with reduced quitting and whether this effect is mediated by perceived control over smoking. Design Cohort study. Participants A total of 792 sm...

  18. Encouraging smoking cessation during pregnancy in West Virginia: using Fax-to-Quit as a cessation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Cindy; Horn, Kimberly A; Anderson, Robert H; Chertok, Ilana; Danek, Robin L; Holmes, Alan; Adkins, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Despite known dangers of smoking, a majority of pregnant women continue to smoke or relapse following delivery. West Virginia women have high unmet needs for smoking cessation, and the prenatal period presents a critical and unique opportunity for education and quitting assistance. West Virginia's Fax-to-Quit program uses provider-faxed referrals to the Quitline to engage smokers and connect them with cessation services. A 12-month feasibility evaluation of this Fax-to-Quit program for pregnant women was conducted. In February 2009, providers and staff from three OB/GYN clinics in three adjoining West Virginia counties were recruited. All participating sites received an intensive half-day training program. Adult pregnant smokers receiving prenatal care in these OB/GYN clinic sites were eligible to participate. Recruitment sites screened pregnant women for smoking; assessed readiness-to-quit; and enrolled consenting participants in the Fax-to-Quit Program. The Quitline measured cessation attempts with six-month follow-up of enrolled participants. Between March-December 2009, 58 referrals were made at these OB/GYN clinic sites, with 15 women (25.9%) enrolling in Quitline services. These enrolled women account for approximately one-quarter of calls from pregnant smokers to the West Virginia Quitline in the past 12 months. Contact, communication, and cooperation with office staff were relevant and important to successful project implementation. Findings indicate that Fax-to-Quit is feasible to engage providers and pregnant smokers with the West Virginia Quitline. Successful referrals and enrollment demonstrate Fax-to-Quit may support cessation by increasing Quitline use and connecting pregnant women who smoke with quitting services through provider-faxed referrals to the West Virginia Quitline.

  19. The Views and Experiences of Smokers Who Quit Smoking Unassisted. A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrea L.; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M.; Becky Freeman; Simon Chapman

    2015-01-01

    Background Unassisted cessation – quitting without pharmacological or professional support – is an enduring phenomenon. Unassisted cessation persists even in nations advanced in tobacco control where cessation assistance such as nicotine replacement therapy, the stop-smoking medications bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural assistance are readily available. We review the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of smokers who quit unassisted. Method We systematically searched ...

  20. The effect of quitting smoking on the risk of unfavorable events after surgical treatment of oral potentially malignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladimirov, B S; Schiødt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if cessation of smoking after surgical excision of oral potentially malignant lesions in smokers reduced the risk of recurrences, development of new lesions or malignancies. 51 patients with oral leukoplakia or erythroplakia were included. They were daily...

  1. The Association of Spousal Smoking Status With the Ability to Quit Smoking: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Laura K.; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; Huxley, Rachel R.; Woodward, Mark; Koton, Silvia; Coresh, Josef; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Studies have shown that smoking status tends to be concordant within spouse pairs. This study aimed to estimate the association of spousal smoking status with quitting smoking in US adults. We analyzed data from 4,500 spouse pairs aged 45–64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort, sampled from 1986 to 1989 from 4 US communities and followed up every 3 years for a total of 9 years. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to calculate the odds ratio of quitting smoking given that one's spouse is a former smoker or a current smoker compared to a never smoker. Among men and women, being married to a current smoker decreased the odds of quitting smoking (for men, odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29, 0.46; for women, OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.68). Among women only, being married to a former smoker increased the odds of quitting smoking (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.53). In conclusion, spouses of current smokers are less likely to quit, whereas women married to former smokers are more likely to quit. Smoking cessation programs and clinical advice should consider targeting couples rather than individuals. PMID:24699782

  2. Socio-economic variations in tobacco consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: results from the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Kin, Foong; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2008-03-01

    Aim To examine the association of socio-economic position (education, income and employment status) with cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Design and setting The data were based on a survey of adult smokers conducted in early 2005 in Thailand and Malaysia as part of the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) project. Participants A total of 1846 men in Thailand and 1906 men in Malaysia. Measurement Participants were asked questions on daily cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit in face-to-face interviews. Findings Analyses were based on multivariate regression models that adjusted for all three socio-economic indicators. In Thailand, higher level of education was associated strongly with not having self-efficacy, associated weakly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, associated weakly with high cigarette consumption and was not associated with having an intention to quit. Being employed was associated strongly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption or self-efficacy. In Malaysia, higher level of education was not associated with any of the outcomes. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, and was not associated with the other outcomes. Being employed was associated moderately with higher cigarette consumption and was not associated with the other outcomes. Conclusion Socio-economic and cultural conditions, as well as tobacco control policies and tobacco industry activities, shape the determinants of smoking behaviour and beliefs. Existing knowledge from high-income countries about disparities in smoking should not be generalized readily to other countries.

  3. Tobacco Usage in Uttarakhand: A Dangerous Combination of High Prevalence, Widespread Ignorance, and Resistance to Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan John Grills

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly one-third of adults in India use tobacco, resulting in 1.2 million deaths. However, little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP related to smoking in the impoverished state of Uttarakhand. Methods. A cross-sectional epidemiological prevalence survey was undertaken. Multistage cluster sampling selected 20 villages and 50 households to survey from which 1853 people were interviewed. Tobacco prevalence and KAP were analyzed by income level, occupation, age, and sex. 95% confidence intervals were calculated using standard formulas and incorporating assumptions in relation to the clustering effect. Results. The overall prevalence of tobacco usage, defined using WHO criteria, was 38.9%. 93% of smokers and 86% of tobacco chewers were male. Prevalence of tobacco use, controlling for other factors, was associated with lower education, older age, and male sex. 97.6% of users and 98.1% of nonusers wanted less tobacco. Except for lung cancer (89% awareness, awareness of diseases caused by tobacco usage was low (cardiac: 67%; infertility: 32.5%; stroke: 40.5%. Conclusion. A dangerous combination of high tobacco usage prevalence, ignorance about its dangers, and few quit attempts being made suggests the need to develop effective and evidence based interventions to prevent a health and development disaster in Uttarakhand.

  4. The impact of including incentives and competition in a workplace smoking cessation program on quit rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, D M; Lee, J W; Hopp, J W; Emont, S L

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a multicomponent smoking cessation program supplemented by incentives and team competition. A quasi-experimental design was employed to compare the effectiveness of three different smoking cessation programs, each assigned to separate worksite. The study was conducted from 1990 to 1991 at three aerospace industry worksites in California. All employees who were current, regular tobacco users were eligible to participate in the program offered at their site. The multicomponent program included a self-help package, telephone counseling, and other elements. The incentive-competition program included the multicomponent program plus cash incentives and team competition for the first 5 months of the program. The traditional program offered a standard smoking cessation program. Self-reported questionnaires and carbon monoxide tests of tobacco use or abstinence were used over a 12-month period. The incentive-competition program had an abstinence rate of 41% at 6 months (n = 68), which was significantly better than the multicomponent program (23%, n = 81) or the traditional program (8%, n = 36). At 12 months, the quit rates for the incentive and multicomponent-programs were statistically indistinguishable (37% vs. 30%), but remained higher than the traditional program (11%). Chi-square tests, t-tests, and logistic regression were used to compare smoking abstinence across the three programs. Offering a multicomponent program with telephone counseling may be just as effective for long-term smoking cessation as such a program plus incentives and competition, and more effective than a traditional program.

  5. A feasibility study of brief group-based acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain in general practice: recruitment, attendance, and patient views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Lance M; Sato, Ayana; Wainwright, David; House, William; Taylor, Gordon J

    2014-07-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), a form of cognitive-behavioral therapy, may help meet a need for accessible and cost-effective treatments for chronic pain. ACT has a growing evidence base, but has not yet been tested within general practice settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a full-scale randomized controlled trial of ACT in general practice. A total of 481 potential participants with chronic pain identified from general practice in southwest England were invited into a treatment trial. Subsequently, 102 (21.2%) of those invited were screened, and 73 (71.6%) of those screened were allocated to ACT plus usual care or usual care alone. The ACT treatment included four, four-hour group-based sessions over two weeks. Twenty-six (70.3%) of the patients allocated to ACT attended three or four sessions. Those who received ACT rated it as credible in a short survey, with Mdn rating 7.0 on a 0-10 scale, across five credibility items. During a post-treatment interview considering 12 aspects of the study from invitation to treatment termination, a median of 79.2% of participants rated the aspects 'acceptable.' Qualitative data from the interviews showed a mixed picture of patient experiences, revealing possible tensions between patients' wishes to avoid discomfort and confusion, and treatment methods that explicitly ask patients to, in essence, 'live with' some discomfort and confusion. These data suggest that further study of ACT, as a treatment for chronic pain, is feasible in general practice and it may be possible to further optimize the treatment experience.

  6. The effects and costs of a group-based education programme for self-management of patients with Type 2 diabetes. A community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Tribler, Jane; Poulsen, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    pressure, female waist circumference, lipid profile, quality of life, physical activity and the patients' knowledge of diabetes whilst the number of visits to GPs declined. This study supports the use of an empowerment vision as a basis for an interdisciplinary group-based education programme......The worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes necessitates evidence-based self-management education programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and costs of an empowerment-based structured diabetes self-management education programme in an unselected group of patients with Type...... 2 diabetes. Seven hundred and two patients undergoing treatment by general practitioners (GPs) were included. The education comprised three modules over a 12-month period. It was based on the empowerment philosophy. The education followed a written curriculum, and the educators were given special...

  7. Associations between tobacco control mass media campaign expenditure and smoking prevalence and quitting in England: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Brown, Jamie

    2017-06-30

    It has been established that mass media campaigns can increase smoking cessation rates, but there is little direct evidence estimating associations between government expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns and smoking cessation. This study assessed the association over 8 years between mass media expenditure in England and quit attempts, smoking cessation and smoking prevalence. Autoregressive integrated moving average modelling with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) was applied to monthly estimates from the Smoking Toolkit Study between June 2008 and February 2016. We assessed the association between the trends in mass media expenditure and (1) quit attempts in the last two months, (2) quit success among those who attempted to quit and (3) smoking prevalence. Analyses were adjusted for trends in weekly spending on tobacco by smokers, tobacco control policies and the use of established aids to cessation. Monthly spending on mass media campaigns ranged from nothing to £2.4 million, with a mean of £465 054. An increase in mass media expenditure of 10% of the monthly average was associated with a 0.51% increase (of the average) in success rates of quit attempts (95% CI 0.10% to 0.91%, p=0.014). No clear association was detected between changes in mass media expenditure and changes in quit attempt prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -2.05% to 2.00%, p=0.979) or smoking prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -0.09% to 0.03%, p=0.299). Between 2008 and 2016, higher monthly expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns in England was associated with higher quit success rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Comparing group-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with enhanced usual care for adolescents with functional somatic syndromes: a study protocol for a randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallesøe, Karen Hansen; Schröder, Andreas; Wicksell, Rikard K; Fink, Per; Ørnbøl, Eva; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) are common in adolescents, characterised by severe disability and reduced quality of life. Behavioural treatments such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown promising results in children and adolescents with FSS, but has focused on specific syndromes such as functional pain. The current study will compare the efficacy of group-based ACT with that of enhanced usual care (EUC) in adolescents with a range of FSS operationalised by the unifying construct of multiorgan bodily distress syndrome (BDS). Methods and analysis A total of 120 adolescents aged 15–19 and diagnosed with multiorgan BDS, of at least 12 months duration, will be assessed and randomised to either: (1) EUC: a manualised consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and individualised treatment plan or (2) manualised ACT-based group therapy plus EUC. The ACT programme consists of 9 modules (ie, 27 hours) and 1 follow-up meeting (3 hours). The primary outcome is physical health, assessed by an Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) aggregate score 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include self-reported symptom severity, symptom interference, depression and anxiety, illness worry, perceived stress and global improvement; as well as objective physical activity and bodily stress response measured by heart rate variability, hair cortisol and inflammatory biomarkers. Process measures are illness perception, illness-related behaviour and psychological flexibility. Ethics and dissemination The study is conducted in accordance with Helsinki Declaration II. Approval has been obtained from the Science Ethics Committee of the Central Denmark Region and the Danish Data Protection. The results will be sought to be published according to the CONSORT statement in peer-reviewed journals. Discussion This is one of the first larger randomised clinical trials evaluating the effect of a group-based intervention for adolescents with a

  9. Review of Diagnosis-Related Group-Based Financing of Hospital Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Mihailovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, diagnosis-related group (DRG-based payment systems were gradually introduced in many countries. The main design characteristics of a DRG-based payment system are an exhaustive patient case classification system (ie, the system of diagnosis-related groupings and the payment formula, which is based on the base rate multiplied by a relative cost weight specific for each DRG. Cases within the same DRG code group are expected to undergo similar clinical evolution. Consecutively, they should incur the costs of diagnostics and treatment within a predefined scale. Such predictability was proven in a number of cost-of-illness studies conducted on major prosperity diseases alongside clinical trials on efficiency. This was the case with risky pregnancies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, depression, alcohol addiction, hepatitis, and cancer. This article presents experience of introduced DRG-based payments in countries of western and eastern Europe, Scandinavia, United States, Canada, and Australia. This article presents the results of few selected reviews and systematic reviews of the following evidence: published reports on health system reforms by World Health Organization, World Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Canadian Institute for Health Information, Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, and Centre for Health Economics University of York. Diverse payment systems have different strengths and weaknesses in relation to the various objectives. The advantages of the DRG payment system are reflected in the increased efficiency and transparency and reduced average length of stay. The disadvantage of DRG is creating financial incentives toward earlier hospital discharges. Occasionally, such polices are not in full accordance with the clinical benefit priorities.

  10. Supporting active learning in an undergraduate geotechnical engineering course using group-based audience response systems quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The use of audience response systems (ARSs) or 'clickers' in higher education has increased over the recent years, predominantly owing to their ability to actively engage students, for promoting individual and group learning, and for providing instantaneous feedback to students and teachers. This paper describes how group-based ARS quizzes have been integrated into an undergraduate civil engineering course on foundation design. Overall, the ARS summary quizzes were very well received by the students. Feedback obtained from the students indicates that the majority believed the group-based quizzes were useful activities, which helped to improve their understanding of course materials, encouraged self-assessment, and assisted preparation for their summative examination. Providing students with clickers does not, however, necessarily guarantee the class will be engaged with the activity. If an ARS activity is to be successful, careful planning and design must be carried out and modifications adopted where necessary, which should be informed by the literature and relevant student feedback.

  11. Attitudes of older adults in a group-based exercise program towards a blended intervention; a focus-group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Mehra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.

  12. A systematic review on research into the effectiveness of group-based sport and exercise programs designed for Indigenous adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressick, Elizabeth L; Gray, Marion A; Cole, Rachel L; Burkett, Brendan J

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate research into the effectiveness of group-based sport and exercise programs targeting Indigenous adults on anthropometric, physiological and quality of life outcomes. A systematic review with quality assessment of study design. A computer-based literature search of EBSCO, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Informit, Scopus, Web of Science, Medline, PubMed, Global Health, ProQuest and Discover databases was conducted. Methodological quality of individual articles was assessed using McMasters University Guidelines and Appraisal Forms for Critical Review for Quantitative Research. Results of the effectiveness of programs are then summarised. Six articles were identified with critical appraisal scores ranging from 6 to 12 (from a possible 15 points), with a mean score of 9.6. Five articles were of moderate to good quality. Significant improvements were observed in anthropometric, physiological and quality of life outcomes across all studies. Elements of successful group-based exercise and sport programs corresponded to global recommendations on physical activity for health for 18 to 64 year olds, and were implemented over a period of time ranging from 12 to 24 weeks to exhibit results, plus community consultation in developing programs and nutrition education. Group-based programs that include nutrition, exercise and/or sport components are effective in producing short to intermediate term health outcomes among Indigenous adults. Further high quality research, specifically on group-based modified sport programs for Indigenous adults that are culturally appropriate and aim to improve quality of life are needed. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contributions of a Group-Based Exercise Program for Coping with Fibromyalgia: A Qualitative Study Giving Voice to Female Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tortosa Martínez, Juan; Jennings, George; Sánchez, Elena S.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous quantitative studies have illustrated the potential usefulness of exercise programs for women with fibromyalgia. However, a deeper understanding of the physical and especially psychosocial benefits of exercise therapy from the subjective perspective of this population is still needed. This study was conducted with 25 women who had fibromyalgia and were participating in a nine-month, group-based exercise program. The aim was to provide an in-depth description and analysis of the perce...

  14. Understanding Group-based Learning in an Academic Context : Rwandan Students’ Reflections on Collaborative Writing and Peer Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Mutwarasibo, Faustin

    2013-01-01

    The overarching aim of the present thesis is to gain knowledge about how Rwandan university students understand and practice group-based learning. Specifically, this research takes a social constructivist perspective when examining how second year students within the area of Modern Languages reflect on collaborative writing and peer assessment as means to promote academic writing and active learning. Four studies make up this research. Thus, Study I examines how students carry out self-direct...

  15. Brief Advice on Smoking Reduction Versus Abrupt Quitting for Smoking Cessation in Chinese Smokers: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William H; Cheung, Yee Tak; Lam, Oi Bun; Wu, Yongda; Kwong, Antonio C; Lai, Vienna W; Chan, Sophia S; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-02-09

    To compare the efficacy of brief advice about cut-down-to-quit (CDTQ) with that of brief advice about quit immediately (QI), as delivered by trained volunteers, without the use of pharmacological therapy, to outreach-recruited Chinese smokers in Hong Kong who intend to quit smoking. Smokers (N = 1077) who enrolled in the Quit and Win Contest 2014 and intended to quit or reduce smoking were randomized in participation sessions to CDTQ (n = 559) and QI (n = 518) groups. Subjects in the CDTQ group received brief advice and a card about smoking reduction. Subjects in the QI group received brief advice and a leaflet about quitting smoking. All received a smoking cessation booklet and corresponding CDTQ or QI brief telephone advice at intervals of 1 week, 1 month, or 2 months. The primary outcomes were self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) at the 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. The secondary outcomes included abstinence rate as validated by biochemical tests, smoking reduction (≥50% reduction from baseline), and quit attempt (QA). The outcome assessors were blinded as to group assignment. By intention to treat, the QI and CDTQ groups showed similar results as regards (i) self-reported PPA (10.6% [95% CI 8.1%-13.6%] vs. 9.1% [95% CI 6.9%-11.8%]), (ii) validated abstinence rate (5.6% [3.8%-7.9%] vs. 5.4% [3.6%-7.6%]), and (iii) QA rate (59.2% [53.5%-64.8%] vs. 54.1% [48.7%-59.3%]) at 6-month. However, the CDTQ group showed a significantly higher reduction rate than the QI group (20.9% [CI 17.6%-24.5%] vs. 14.5% [11.6%-17.8%]). The overall intervention adherence was suboptimal (45.4%), particularly in the CDTQ group (42.3%). Self-efficacy as regards quitting of smoking was similar between the groups at 6 months. Brief advice on CDTQ and QI had similar short-term PPAs. Longer-term follow-up is needed to understand the latent effect of smoking reduction on abstinence. This is the first randomized controlled trial in ethnic Chinese smokers to evaluate the

  16. Self-Exempting Beliefs and Intention to Quit Smoking within a Socially Disadvantaged Australian Sample of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Twyman, Laura; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of beliefs used to rationalise smoking will have important implications for the content of anti-smoking programs targeted at socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, who show the lowest rates of cessation in the population. This study aimed to assess the types of self-exempting beliefs reported by a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers, and identify associations between these beliefs and other smoking-related factors with quit intentions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March-December 2012 with smokers seeking welfare assistance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia (n = 354; response rate 79%). Responses to a 16-item self-exempting beliefs scale and intention to quit, smoker identity, and enjoyment of smoking were assessed. Most participants earned smoking due to ubiquity of risk) and selected "skeptic" beliefs were endorsed by 25%-47% of the sample, indicating these smokers may not fully understand the extensive risks associated with smoking. Smokers with limited quit intentions held significantly stronger self-exempting beliefs than those contemplating or preparing to quit (all p smoking-related variables only "skeptic" beliefs were significantly associated with intention to quit (p = 0.02). Some of these beliefs are incorrect and could be addressed in anti-smoking campaigns.

  17. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kleinjan, Marloes; van Straaten, Barbara; Wits, Elske; Snelleman, Michelle; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-02-18

    In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.

  18. Gender differences in success at quitting smoking: Short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueta, Adriana; Nerín, Isabel; Gargallo, Pilar; Beamonte, Asunción

    2016-06-14

    Smoking cessation treatments are effective in men and women. However, possible sex-related differences in the outcome of these treatments remain a controversial topic. This study evaluated whether there were differences between men and women in the success of smoking cessation treatment, including gender-tailored components, in the short and long term (> 1 year). A telephone survey was carried out between September 2008 and June 2009 in smokers attended in a Smoking Cessation Clinic. All patients who have successfully completed treatment (3 months) were surveyed by telephone to determine their long-term abstinence. Those who remained abstinent were requested to attend the Smoking Cessation Clinic for biochemical validation (expired CO ≤10 ppm). The probability of remaining abstinent in the long-term was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The treatment success rate at 3-months was 41.3% (538/1302) with no differences by sex 89% (479/538) among those located in the telephonic follow-up study and 47.6% (256/479) were abstinent without differences by sex (p = .519); abstinence was validated with CO less than 10 ppm in 191 of the 256 (53.9% men and 46.1% women). In the survival analysis, the probability of men and women remaining abstinent in the long-term was not significant. There are no differences by sex in the outcome of smoking cessation treatment that included gender-tailored components in the short and long term (> 1 year).

  19. The effects of subanesthetic ketamine infusions on motivation to quit and cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent research volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakwar, Elias; Levin, Frances; Foltin, Richard W; Nunes, Edward V; Hart, Carl L

    2014-07-01

    Cocaine dependence involves problematic neuroadaptations that might be responsive to modulation of glutamatergic circuits. This investigation examined the effects of subanesthetic ketamine infusions on motivation for quitting cocaine and on cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent participants, 24 hours postinfusion. Eight volunteers with active DSM-IV cocaine dependence not seeking treatment or abstinence were entered into this crossover, double-blind trial. Three 52-min intravenous infusions were administered: ketamine (.41 mg/kg or .71 mg/kg) or lorazepam 2 mg, counterbalanced into three orderings in which ketamine .41 mg/kg always preceded the .71 mg/kg dose. Infusions were separated by 48 hours, and assessments occurred at baseline and at 24 hours postinfusion. Outcomes were change between postinfusion and preinfusion values for: 1) motivation to quit cocaine scores with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment; and 2) sums of visual analogue scale craving ratings administered during cue exposure. Compared with the active control lorazepam, a single ketamine infusion (.41 mg/kg) led to a mean 3.9-point gain in University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (p = .012), which corresponds to an approximately 60% increase over preceding values. There was a reduction of comparable magnitude in cue-induced craving (p = .012). A subsequent ketamine infusion (.71 mg/kg) led to further reductions in cue-induced craving compared with the control. Infusions were well-tolerated. Subanesthetic ketamine demonstrated promising effects on motivation to quit cocaine and on cue-induced craving, 24 hours postinfusion. Research is needed to expand on these preliminary results and to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention in clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell'Omo, Marco

    2015-08-13

    We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996-2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices' smoking behavior. It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: -1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and -3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  1. Smoking cessation in cardiac patients: the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-06-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac patients completed a baseline questionnaire (N = 245) assessing demographic characteristics, smoking behavior, intention, self-efficacy, relapse self-efficacy and action and coping plans. Six months later (N = 184) continued abstinence from smoking was assessed. Self-efficacy predicted intention to quit smoking and was an indirect predictor of continued abstinence, through intention. Intention to quit smoking and making action plans both directly influenced continued abstinence. Future interventions to facilitate smoking cessation in cardiac patients should put strong emphasis on enhancing self-efficacy and on making specific action plans to increase the likelihood of smoking cessation.

  2. Improving Web searches: case study of quit-smoking Web sites for teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Malcolm; Skinner, Harvey

    2003-11-14

    The Web has become an important and influential source of health information. With the vast number of Web sites on the Internet, users often resort to popular search sites when searching for information. However, little is known about the characteristics of Web sites returned by simple Web searches for information about smoking cessation for teenagers. To determine the characteristics of Web sites retrieved by search engines about smoking cessation for teenagers and how information quality correlates with the search ranking. The top 30 sites returned by 4 popular search sites in response to the search terms "teen quit smoking" were examined. The information relevance and quality characteristics of these sites were evaluated by 2 raters. Objective site characteristics were obtained using a page-analysis Web site. Only 14 of the 30 Web sites are of direct relevance to smoking cessation for teenagers. The readability of about two-thirds of the 14 sites is below an eighth-grade school level and they ranked significantly higher (Kendall rank correlation, tau = -0.39, P =.05) in search-site results than sites with readability above or equal to that grade level. Sites that ranked higher were significantly associated with the presence of e-mail address for contact (tau = -0.46, P =.01), annotated hyperlinks to external sites (tau = -0.39, P =.04), and the presence of meta description tag (tau = -0.48, P =.002). The median link density (number of external sites that have a link to that site) of the Web pages was 6 and the maximum was 735. A higher link density was significantly associated with a higher rank (tau = -0.58, P =.02). Using simple search terms on popular search sites to look for information on smoking cessation for teenagers resulted in less than half of the sites being of direct relevance. To improve search efficiency, users could supplement results obtained from simple Web searches with human-maintained Web directories and learn to refine their searches with

  3. Does Short Message Service Increase Adherence to Smoking Cessation Clinic Appointments and Quitting Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önür, Seda Tural; Uysal, Mehmet Atilla; İliaz, Sinem; Yurt, Sibel; Bahadır, Ayşe; Hattatoğlu, Didem Görgün; Ortaköylü, Mediha Gönenç; Bağcı, Belma Akbaba; Chousein, Efsun Gonca Uğur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using innovative and scientific methods increases the rate of quitting in smokers. Short message service (SMS) is a communication tool widely used and well integrated in many people’s daily lives. To increase adherence to appointments in smoking cessation clinics (SCC), it is thought that increased compliance could be achieved by falling outside the traditional methods. SMS has been shown to increase the compliance of patients with SCC appointments. Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of SMS in the compliance of patients with SCC follow-up visits and smoking cessation success. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Our study was a controlled, open, prospective study. We enrolled 436 cases applied to SCC of Yedikule Training and Research Hospital between 01.10.2013–30.06.2014 and agreed to follow-up with SMS. SMS was sent to the patients to remind them of appointments at the SCC and to query their smoking state. Results: Two hundred-and-eighty seven (65.8%) of the patients were male and 149 (34.2%) were female. The mean age was 45±12 years. In this study, 296 (67.9%) patients had graduated from primary school. Our patients’ smoking state was queried by telephone at the 6-month follow-up and we contacted 348 patients. According to this, 88 (25.3%) patients were not smoking, and 260 (74.7%) patients were smokers. Therefore, the smoking cessation rate was 24% (n=60) in patients who did not respond to SMS reminders at all, and 28.6% (n=28) in patients answering any SMS at least once (p=0.377). Smoking cessation rate of the patients invited by SMS but who did not attend any control visits was 19.1%, and it was 34.5% in patients coming to a control visit at least once. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). Conclusion: In our study, there was increased success of smoking cessation in patients coming to control visits. We think that this may result from the possibly increased compliance to SCC appointments following

  4. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  5. The efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Wu, Qiuxia; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Fengyu; Wang, Xuyi; Qi, Chang; He, Haoyu; Long, Jiang; Kelly, Brian C; Cohen, Joanna

    2016-08-19

    Considering the extreme shortage of smoking cessation services in China, and the acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions for quitting smoking in other countries, here we propose a study of "the efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China". The primary objective of this proposed project is to assess whether a program of widely accessed mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') will be effective at helping people in China who smoke, to quit. Based on the efficacy of previous studies in smoking cessation, we hypothesize that 'Happy Quit' will be an effective, feasible and affordable smoking cessation program in China. In this single-blind, randomized trial, undertaken in China, about 2000 smokers willing to make a quit attempt will be randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomization system that includes a minimization algorithm balancing for sex (male, female), age (19-34 or >34 years), educational level (≤ or >12 years), and Fagerstrom score for nicotine addiction (≤5, >5), to 'Happy Quit', comprising motivational messages and behavioral-change support, or to a control group that receives text messages unrelated to quitting. Messages will be developed to be suitable for Chinese. A pilot study will be conducted before the intervention to modify the library of messages and interventions. The primary outcome will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence. A secondary outcome will be point prevalence of abstinence. Abstinence will be assessed at six time points (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks post-intervention). A third outcome will be reductions in number of cigarettes smoked per day. The results will provide valuable insights into bridging the gap between need and services received for smoking cessation interventions and tobacco use prevention in China. It will also serve as mHealth model for extending the public

  6. Relationships among factual and perceived knowledge of harms of waterpipe tobacco, perceived risk, and desire to quit among college users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Eissenberg, Thomas; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Levy, Janet

    2014-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in the United States among college students. Through a web-based survey, we explored associations among factual and perceived knowledge, perceived risks and worry about harm and addiction, and desire to quit among 316 college waterpipe tobacco smoking users. Overall, factual knowledge of the harm of waterpipe tobacco smoking was poor, factual and perceived knowledge was weakly correlated, both forms of knowledge were related inconsistently to perceived risks and worry, and neither form of knowledge was associated with the desire to quit. Findings provide preliminary insights as to why knowledge gaps may not predict cessation among waterpipe users. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Motivating Latino Caregivers of Children with Asthma to Quit Smoking: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Novak, Scott P.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Becker, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with asthma onset and exacerbation. Latino children have higher rates of asthma morbidity than other groups. The current study compared the effectiveness of a newly developed smoking cessation treatment with existing clinical guidelines for smoking cessation. Method: Latino caregivers who smoked…

  8. Motivating Latino Caregivers of Children with Asthma to Quit Smoking: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Novak, Scott P.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Becker, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with asthma onset and exacerbation. Latino children have higher rates of asthma morbidity than other groups. The current study compared the effectiveness of a newly developed smoking cessation treatment with existing clinical guidelines for smoking cessation. Method: Latino caregivers who smoked…

  9. Analysis of activity in swine producers group based on agricultural producers association in Biała district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Knecht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of pigs producer groups formation in Poland is quite dynamic. Currently on the pork market 181 groups operate, which includes about 4000 swine producers. The aim of this study was to characterize the activities of the Agricultural Producers Association in Biała District. The research tool was a personal questionnaire and the research sample consisted of 30 farmers. It has been shown that after joining the producers group, the investigated households reported an increase in sales volume and improved the flock production parameters. Majority of the respondents were not satisfied with the cooperation with meat processing companies.

  10. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila El-Bassel

    Full Text Available IMPORTANCE: This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. OBJECTIVE: We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health among drug-involved women under community supervision. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION: We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1 a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH; (2 a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3 a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237 and 63% (n = 194 had multiple sex partners. RESULTS: Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18 and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest

  11. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical

  12. In the heat of the moment: Alcohol consumption and smoking lapse and relapse among adolescents who have quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zundert, R.M.P. van; Kuntsche, E.N.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study tested the co-occurrence of alcohol use and the first lapse and relapse into smoking among daily smoking adolescents who quit smoking. Methods: In this ecological momentary assessment study, participants completed web-based questionnaires three times a day during one we

  13. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  14. Effects of Mass Media Campaign Exposure Intensity and Durability on Quit Attempts in a Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M. A.; Spittal, M. J.; Yong, H-H.; Durkin, S. J.; Borland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which intensity and timing of televised anti-smoking advertising emphasizing the serious harms of smoking influences quit attempts. Methods: Using advertising gross rating points (GRPs), we estimated exposure to tobacco control and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising in the 3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 months…

  15. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: A focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bommelé (Jeroen); T.M. Schoenmakers (Tim); M. Kleinjan (Marloes); B. van Straaten (Barbara); E. Wits (Elske); M. Snelleman (Michelle); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to qui

  16. Racial Bias in the Manager-Employee Relationship: An Analysis of Quits, Dismissals, and Promotions at a Large Retail Firm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Laura; Levine, David I.; Leonard, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large U.S. retail firm, we examine how racial matches between managers and their employees affect rates of employee quits, dismissals, and promotions. We exploit changes in management at hundreds of stores to estimate hazard models with store fixed effects that control for all unobserved differences across store locations. We…

  17. Examining educational attainment, prepregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting as predictors of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas J; Redner, Ryan; Skelly, Joan M; Higgins, Stephen T

    2014-10-01

    We investigated three potential predictors (educational attainment, prepregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting [DD]) of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers. These predictors were examined alone and in combination with other potential predictors using study-intake assessments from controlled clinical trials examining the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Data from 349 pregnant women (231 continuing smokers and 118 spontaneous quitters) recruited from the greater Burlington, VT, area contributed to this secondary analysis, including psychiatric/sociodemographic characteristics, smoking characteristics, and performance on a computerized DD task. Educational attainment, smoking rate, and DD values were each significant predictors of spontaneous quitting in univariate analyses. A model examining those three predictors together retained educational attainment as a main effect and revealed a significant interaction of DD and smoking rate (i.e., DD was a significant predictor at lower but not higher smoking rates). A final model considering all potential predictors, included education, the interaction of DD and smoking rate, and five additional predictors (i.e., stress ratings, the belief that smoking during pregnancy will "greatly harm my baby," age of smoking initiation, marital status, and prior quit attempts during pregnancy). The study presented here contributes new knowledge on predictors of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers with substantive practical implications for reducing smoking during pregnancy.

  18. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  19. The Association between Cannabis Use and Motivation and Intentions to Quit Tobacco within a Sample of Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Bryant, Jamie; Oldmeadow, C.; Palazzi, K.; Guillaumier, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) describe concurrent and simultaneous tobacco and cannabis use and (ii) investigate the association between cannabis use and motivation and intentions to quit tobacco in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 and 2014 with current tobacco smokers receiving aid from…

  20. Protocol for a randomised pragmatic policy trial of nicotine products for quitting or long-term substitution in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Doug; Borland, Ron; Gartner, Coral

    2015-10-06

    Smoking is Australia's leading preventable cause of premature mortality and a major contributor to the national disease burden. If quit rates do not dramatically improve, then smoking will continue to be a major public health issue for decades to come. Harm-reduction approaches using novel nicotine products like e-cigarettes as long term replacements for smoking have the potential to improve quit rates. However, little research has assessed such approaches. Three-arm parallel-group pragmatic randomised controlled trial. People living in Australia who are at least 18 years old, smoke five or more cigarettes per day and are willing to try a sample of nicotine products. Participants are randomised to receive standard quit advice and medicinal nicotine (Condition A); quit or substitute advice and medicinal nicotine (Condition B); or quit or substitute advice and medicinal nicotine and e-cigarettes (Condition C). Participants choose which (if any) nicotine products to receive to try in a free sample pack followed by a two to three week free supply of their favourite product(s) and the option to purchase more at a discounted price. Follow-up surveys will assess nicotine product use and smoking. Continuous abstinence for at least 6 months. Target sample size: 1600 people (Condition A: 340; Condition B: 630; Condition C: 630) provides at least 80 % power at p = 0.05 to detect a 5 % difference in abstinence rates between each condition. This trial will provide data on tobacco harm-reduction approaches and in particular the use of e-cigarettes as a replacement for smoking. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612001210864. Date of registration: 15/11/2012.

  1. Facilitators of Attendance and Adherence to Group-Based Physical Activity for Older Adults: A Literature Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy-Vawdon, Cassandra J; Schwarzman, Joanna; Nolan, Genevieve; de Silva, Renee; Menzies, David; Smith, Ben J

    2017-05-22

    This review examines program features that influence attendance and adherence to group-based physical activity (PA) by older adults. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL plus, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published from 1995-2016. Quantitative and qualitative studies investigating factors related to PA group attendance or adherence by persons aged 55 years and over, were included. Searching yielded eight quantitative and 13 qualitative studies, from 2044 titles. Quantitative findings identified social factors, instructor characteristics, PA types, class duration and frequency, and perceived PA outcomes as important for attendance and adherence, whilst qualitative studies identified settings, leadership, PA types, observable benefits and social support factors. Studies were predominantly low- to moderate-quality. This review identified design and delivery considerations for group-based PA programs to inform best-practice frameworks and industry capacity-building. Future research should use longitudinal and mixed-methods designs to strengthen evidence about facilitators of program reach and engagement.

  2. Group-based trajectory models: a new approach to classifying and predicting long-term medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jessica M; Shrank, William H; Pakes, Juliana; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2013-09-01

    Classifying medication adherence is important for efficiently targeting adherence improvement interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a novel method, group-based trajectory models, for classifying patients by their long-term adherence. We identified patients who initiated a statin between June 1, 2006 and May 30, 2007 in prescription claims from CVS Caremark and evaluated adherence over the subsequent 15 months. We compared several adherence summary measures, including proportion of days covered (PDC) and trajectory models with 2-6 groups, with the observed adherence pattern, defined by monthly indicators of full adherence (defined as having ≥24 d covered of 30). We also compared the accuracy of adherence prediction based on patient characteristics when adherence was defined by either a trajectory model or PDC. In 264,789 statin initiators, the 6-group trajectory model summarized long-term adherence best (C=0.938), whereas PDC summarized less well (C=0.881). The accuracy of adherence predictions was similar whether adherence was classified by PDC or by trajectory model. Trajectory models summarized adherence patterns better than traditional approaches and were similarly predicted by covariates. Group-based trajectory models may facilitate targeting of interventions and may be useful to adjust for confounding by health-seeking behavior.

  3. The impact of covariance misspecification in group-based trajectory models for longitudinal data with non-stationary covariance structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher E; Glonek, Gary Fv; Giles, Lynne C

    2017-08-01

    One purpose of a longitudinal study is to gain a better understanding of how an outcome of interest changes among a given population over time. In what follows, a trajectory will be taken to mean the series of measurements of the outcome variable for an individual. Group-based trajectory modelling methods seek to identify subgroups of trajectories within a population, such that trajectories that are grouped together are more similar to each other than to trajectories in distinct groups. Group-based trajectory models generally assume a certain structure in the covariances between measurements, for example conditional independence, homogeneous variance between groups or stationary variance over time. Violations of these assumptions could be expected to result in poor model performance. We used simulation to investigate the effect of covariance misspecification on misclassification of trajectories in commonly used models under a range of scenarios. To do this we defined a measure of performance relative to the ideal Bayesian correct classification rate. We found that the more complex models generally performed better over a range of scenarios. In particular, incorrectly specified covariance matrices could significantly bias the results but using models with a correct but more complicated than necessary covariance matrix incurred little cost.

  4. Hierarchical Group Based Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement for Machine Type Communication in LTE and Future 5G Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probidita Roychoudhury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the exponential growth in the volume of wireless data communication among heterogeneous devices ranging from smart phones to tiny sensors across a wide range of applications, 3GPP LTE-A has standardized Machine Type Communication (MTC which allows communication between entities without any human intervention. The future 5G cellular networks also envisage massive deployment of MTC Devices (MTCDs which will increase the total number of connected devices hundredfold. This poses a huge challenge to the traditional cellular system processes, especially the traditional Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA mechanism currently used in LTE systems, as the signaling load caused by the increasingly large number of devices may have an adverse effect on the regular Human to Human (H2H traffic. A solution in the literature has been the use of group based architecture which, while addressing the authentication traffic, has their share of issues. This paper introduces Hierarchical Group based Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement (HGMAKA protocol to address those issues and also enables the small cell heterogeneous architecture in line with 5G networks to support MTC services. The aggregate Message Authentication Code based approach has been shown to be lightweight and significantly efficient in terms of resource usage compared to the existing protocols, while being robust to authentication message failures, and scalable to heterogeneous network architectures.

  5. Development and Pilot Study of Group-Based Dietary Self-Management Program for Community Dwellers with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfiza Ridwan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most countries worldwide, hypertension is considered as an important problem. Moreover, an increasing trend in the prevalence and incidence has been reported in most countries. This increasing trend requires an innovative approach to improve the lifestyle modification of hypertensive sufferers including their dietary behaviors. Objective: This developmental research aims to develop a program for improving the dietary behaviors of community dwellers with hypertension. Method: The process of this program development includes a literature review related to the self-management programs for hypertension, and dietary behavior outcomes, expert validation, and pilot testing. Result: The setting, strategies, duration, and outcome measurement from the literature review were taken into consideration to develop the new program. The newly developed group-based self-management program consists of: 1 the sharing and reflecting of individual current dietary behavior, 2 group educational session, 3 individual comparison of behavior and reflection of obstacles, 4 individual goal setting, and 5 follow up. In the educational session, the DASH eating plan is used as the reference as it is commonly used in studies about diet for hypertension. Key words: hypertension, self-management, group based program, dietary behaviors.

  6. Intergroup Consensus/Disagreement in Support of Group-Based Hierarchy: An Examination of Socio-Structural and Psycho-Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Pratto, Felicia; Johnson, Blair T.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis examined the extent to which socio-structural and psycho-cultural characteristics of societies correspond with how much gender and ethnic/racial groups differ on their support of group-based hierarchy. Robustly, women opposed group-based hierarchy more than men did, and members of lower power ethnic/racial groups opposed…

  7. When does anticipating group-based shame lead to lower ingroup favoritism? The role of status and status stability : The role of status and status stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepherd, L.; Spears, Russell; Manstead, A.S.R.

    2013-01-01

    In two studies we examined whether and when anticipated group-based shame leads to less ingroup favoritism on the part of members of high-status groups in stable hierarchies. In Study 1 (n = 195) we measured anticipated group-based shame and found that it only negatively predicted ingroup favoritism

  8. Developing a quit smoking website that is usable by people with severe mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Joelle C; Brunette, Mary F; McHugo, Gregory J; Devitt, Timothy S; Martin, Wendy M; Drake, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based treatments may be delivered in computerized, web-based formats. This strategy can deliver the intervention consistently with minimal treatment provider time and cost. However, standard web sites may not be usable by people with severe mental illnesses who may experience cognitive deficits and low computer experience. This manuscript reports on the iterative development and usability testing of a website designed to educate and motivate adults with severe mental illnesses to engage in smoking cessation activities. Three phases of semi-structured interviews were performed with participants after they used the program and combined with information from screen-recorded usability data. T-tests compared the differences between uses of the first computer program version and a later version. Iteratively conducted usability tests demonstrated an increased ease of use from the first to the last version of the website through significant improvement in the percentage of unproductive clicking along with fewer questions asked about how to use the program. The improvement in use of the website resulted from changes such as: integrating a mouse tutorial, increasing font sizes, and increasing button sizes. The website usability recommendations provide some guidelines for interventionists developing web tools for people who experience serious psychiatric disabilities. In general, insights from the study highlight the need for thoughtful design and usability testing when creating a website for people with severe mental illness.

  9. What do persons with mental illnesses need to quit smoking? Mental health consumer and provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Chad D; Waxmonsky, Jeanette A; May, Mandy G; Giese, Alexis A

    2009-01-01

    Forty-one percent (41%) of persons in the U.S. who reported having recent mental illnesses also smoke cigarettes. Tobacco use among this population is associated with up to 25 less years of life and excess medical comorbidity compared to the general population. While research demonstrates that tobacco interventions can be effective for persons with mental illnesses, they are not commonly utilized in clinical practice. The current study explored how to adapt evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions to meet the unique physiological, psychological, and social challenges facing persons with mental illnesses. Ten focus groups were conducted utilizing a semi-structured discussion; 5 for adult mental health consumers (n = 62) and 5 with mental health clinicians and administrators (n = 22). Content analysis was used to organize themes into categories. Five thematic categories were found: (1) Barriers to treatment, (2) Resources and infrastructure, (3) Negative influences on smoking behavior, (4) Knowledge deficits, and (5) Treatment needs. These findings are instructive in developing appropriate tobacco cessation services for this population. Specifically, these data have been incorporated into a mental health provider toolkit for smoking cessation and have informed the development of a tobacco cessation intervention study.

  10. Comparing group-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with enhanced usual care for adolescents with functional somatic syndromes: a study protocol for a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallesøe, Karen Hansen; Schröder, Andreas; Wicksell, Rikard K; Fink, Per; Ørnbøl, Eva; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-09-15

    Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) are common in adolescents, characterised by severe disability and reduced quality of life. Behavioural treatments such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown promising results in children and adolescents with FSS, but has focused on specific syndromes such as functional pain. The current study will compare the efficacy of group-based ACT with that of enhanced usual care (EUC) in adolescents with a range of FSS operationalised by the unifying construct of multiorgan bodily distress syndrome (BDS). A total of 120 adolescents aged 15-19 and diagnosed with multiorgan BDS, of at least 12 months duration, will be assessed and randomised to either: (1) EUC: a manualised consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and individualised treatment plan or (2) manualised ACT-based group therapy plus EUC. The ACT programme consists of 9 modules (ie, 27 hours) and 1 follow-up meeting (3 hours). The primary outcome is physical health, assessed by an Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) aggregate score 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include self-reported symptom severity, symptom interference, depression and anxiety, illness worry, perceived stress and global improvement; as well as objective physical activity and bodily stress response measured by heart rate variability, hair cortisol and inflammatory biomarkers. Process measures are illness perception, illness-related behaviour and psychological flexibility. The study is conducted in accordance with Helsinki Declaration II. Approval has been obtained from the Science Ethics Committee of the Central Denmark Region and the Danish Data Protection. The results will be sought to be published according to the CONSORT statement in peer-reviewed journals. This is one of the first larger randomised clinical trials evaluating the effect of a group-based intervention for adolescents with a range of severe FSS. NCT02346071; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ

  11. The Facebook Experiment: Quitting Facebook Leads to Higher Levels of Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromholt, Morten

    2016-11-01

    Most people use Facebook on a daily basis; few are aware of the consequences. Based on a 1-week experiment with 1,095 participants in late 2015 in Denmark, this study provides causal evidence that Facebook use affects our well-being negatively. By comparing the treatment group (participants who took a break from Facebook) with the control group (participants who kept using Facebook), it was demonstrated that taking a break from Facebook has positive effects on the two dimensions of well-being: our life satisfaction increases and our emotions become more positive. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that these effects were significantly greater for heavy Facebook users, passive Facebook users, and users who tend to envy others on Facebook.

  12. An ethnographic investigation of healthcare providers' approaches to facilitating person-centredness in group-based diabetes education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Hempler, Nana Folmann; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate approaches among healthcare providers (HCPs) that support or hinder person-centredness in group-based diabetes education programmes targeting persons with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Ethnographic fieldwork in a municipal and a hospital setting in Denmark. The two programmes incl......-centred approaches in a group context. CONCLUSION: Teacher-centredness undermined person-centredness because HCPs primarily delivered disease-specific recommendations, leading to biomedical information overload for participants....... on delivering disease-specific information. Communication was dialog based, but HCPs primarily asked closed-ended questions with one correct answer. Additional hindering approaches included ignoring participants with suboptimal health behaviours and a tendency to moralize that resulted in feelings of guilt...

  13. Application of group-based QSAR on 2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone for development of potent anti-diabetic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Prafulla; Kumbhar, Santosh; Phalle, Siddharth; Choudhari, Sujata; Desai, Sujit; Khare, Shivratna; Jadhav, Swapnil

    2017-01-01

    To identify the structural requirement for development of lead structures with PPAR gamma binding activity group based quantitative structure activity relationship (GQSAR) studies on 46 reported structures were carried out. The molecules in the current dataset were fragmented into seven functional groups fragments (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7). GQSAR models were derived using multiple linear regressions analysis. Four generated GQSAR models were selected based on the statistical significance of the model. It was found that the presence of smaller groups on fragment R7 and presence of lipophilic group at fragment R2 was conducive for PPAR gamma binding. Additionally, the existence of hydrogen bond acceptor at fragments R6 was fruitful PPAR gamma binding. The generated models provide a site-specific insight into the structural requirements PPAR γ binding which can be used to design and develop potent antidiabetic compounds.

  14. Group-based and personalized care in an age of genomic and evidence-based medicine: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglo, Koffi N

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the philosophical and moral foundations of group-based and individualized therapy in connection with population care equality. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently modified its public health policy by seeking to enhance the efficacy and equality of care through the approval of group-specific prescriptions and doses for some drugs. In the age of genomics, when individualization of care increasingly has become a major concern, investigating the relationship between population health, stratified medicine, and personalized therapy can improve our understanding of the ethical and biomedical implications of genomic medicine. I suggest that the need to optimize population health through population substructure-sensitive research and the need to individualize care through genetically targeted therapies are not necessarily incompatible. Accordingly, the article reconceptualizes a unified goal for modern scientific medicine in terms of individualized equal care.

  15. Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Predict Smoking Cessation: Moderating Effects of Experienced Failure to Control Smoking and Plans to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with high levels of experienced failure to control smoking, but only if they had a plan to quit. Because smoking cessation involves both controlled and automatic processes, interventions may need to consider attitude change interventions that focus on both implicit and explicit attitudes. PMID:21198227

  16. Psychological morbidity, job satisfaction and intentions to quit among teachers in private secondary schools in Edo-State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofili, A N; Usiholo, E A; Oronsaye, M O

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are an inseparable corner stone of the society and their satisfaction will affect the quality of service they render. Poor job satisfaction could result in job stress and this could affect their psychological health. This study aims to ascertain the level, causes of job dissatisfaction, intentions to quit and psychological morbidity among teachers in private secondary schools in a developing country. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers (392) in private secondary schools in Benin-City, Edo-State Nigeria, between June 2003 to November 2003. A total population of 400 teachers who had spent at least one year in the service were included in the study. The respondents completed a self-administered designed questionnaire and a standard instrument--The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) The response rate was 98%. Fifty-eight (14.8%) of the respondents had psychological morbidity (GHQ score of 4 and above). One hundred and seventy-eight (45.4%) teachers were very satisfied or satisfied with their jobs. A significant number (45.9%) of teachers would want to quit their jobs. The proportion of teachers with GHQ score 4 and above increased with the level of dissatisfaction but this was not found to be statistically significant. Poor salary was found to be the main cause of job dissatisfaction and major reason for wanting to quit the job. This study shows a low level of job satisfaction among Nigerian teachers. Poor salary was the major cause of job dissatisfaction and intention to quit. Further work need to be done to ascertain the association of psychological morbidity and job dissatisfaction.

  17. Tobacco retail availability and risk of relapse among smokers who make a quit attempt: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiton, Michael O; Mecredy, Graham; Cohen, Joanna

    2017-04-21

    The availability of tobacco is thought to influence smoking behaviour, but there are few longitudinal studies examining if the location and number of tobacco outlets has a prospective impact on smoking cessation. The Ontario Tobacco Survey, a population-representative sample of Ontario adult smokers who were followed every 6 months for up to 3 years, was linked with tobacco outlet location data from the Ontario Ministry of Health. Proximity (distance), threshold (at least one outlet within 500 m) and density (number of outlets within 500 m) with respect to a smokers' home were calculated among urban and suburban current smokers (n=2414). Quit attempts and risk of relapse were assessed using logistic regression and survival analysis, adjusted for neighbourhood effects and individual characteristics. Increased density of tobacco outlets was associated with decreased odds of making a quit attempt (OR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.85) in high-income neighbourhoods, but not in lower income ones. There was an increased risk of relapse among those who had at least one store within 500 m (HR: 1.41 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.88). Otherwise, there was no association of proximity with quit attempts or relapse. The existence of a tobacco retail outlet within walking distance from home was associated with difficulty in succeeding in a quit attempt, while the increased density of stores was associated with decreased attempts in higher income neighbourhoods. The availability of tobacco may influence tobacco use through multiple mechanisms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Physician's advice on quitting smoking in HIV and TB patients in south India: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S R; Pooranagangadevi, N; Rajendran, M; Mayer, K; Flanigan, T; Niaura, R; Balaguru, S; Venkatesan, P; Swaminathan, S

    2017-03-21

    Setting: National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Madurai, India. Objective: To determine the efficacy of physician's advice on quitting smoking compared with standard counselling in patients with tuberculosis (TB) and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Design/Methods: This was a clinical trial conducted in Madurai, south India, among 160 male patients (80 with TB and 80 with HIV), randomised and stratified by nicotine dependence (low/high according to the Fagerström scale), who received physician's advice with standard counselling or standard counselling alone for smoking cessation. Abstinence at 1 month was assessed by self-report and carbon monoxide breath analysis. Results: The patients' mean age was 39.4 years (SD 8.5). Overall, 35% of the patients had high nicotine dependence. Most patients (41%) smoked both cigarettes and bidis. In a combined analysis including both the HIV and the TB groups, quit rates were 41% of the 68 patients in the physician group and 35% of the 68 patients in the standard counselling arm. Conclusions: Physician's advice to quit smoking delivered to patients with TB or HIV is feasible and acceptable. Smoking cessation could easily be initiated in TB patients in programme settings. Future studies should assess long-term abstinence rates with a larger sample size to demonstrate the efficacy of physician's advice.

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15-0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74-8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49-17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30-9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46-7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Brath

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-1.00 and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15-0.79 were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74-8.07 and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49-17.17 were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30-9.05 and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46-7.94, were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99, with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits.

  1. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD. To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS compared to treatment as usual (TAU. It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  2. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder--study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA--net trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M; Cholemkery, Hannah; Elsuni, Leyla; Kroeger, Anne K; Bender, Stephan; Kunz, Cornelia Ursula; Kieser, Meinhard

    2013-01-07

    Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA-FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. The SOSTA - net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. ISRCTN94863788--SOSTA--net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  3. Individual differences in self-concept among smokers attempting to quit: Validation and predictive utility of measures of the smoker self-concept and abstainer self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, W G; Mermelstein, R

    1996-09-01

    We tested a theoretical model of individual differences in smoking cessation using a social-cognitive conception of the self-concept. We developed and validated measures of the smoker self-concept and the abstainer self-concept. Each scale was shown to have good internal reliability and construct validity and was distinct from other important predictive measures used in smoking research (e.g. Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, smoking rate, motivation, self-efficacy). Importantly, we demonstrated the predictive validity of the self-concept scales. The interaction of baseline measures of the smoker self-concept and abstainer self-concept predicted smoking status three months after treatment; subjects were most likely to be abstinent if they began treatment with a strong abstainer selfconcept and a weak smoker self-concept. This interaction held over and above baseline smoking rate, Fagerstrom Tolerance scores, and measures of motivation and self-efficacy to quit. The utility of social-cognitive individual difference models and potential patient-treatment matching interventions are discussed.

  4. Treating maladaptive grief and posttraumatic stress symptoms in orphaned children in Tanzania: group-based trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Karen; Dorsey, Shannon; Gong, Wenfeng; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel; Cohen, Judith A; Itemba, Dafrosa; Manongi, Rachel; Whetten, Kathryn

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to test the feasibility and child clinical outcomes for group-based trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) for orphaned children in Tanzania. There were 64 children with at least mild symptoms of grief and/or traumatic stress and their guardians who participated in this open trial. The TF-CBT for Child Traumatic Grief protocol was adapted for use with a group, resulting in 12 weekly sessions for children and guardians separately with conjoint activities and 3 individual visits with child and guardian. Using a task-sharing approach, the intervention was delivered by lay counselors with no prior mental health experience. Primary child outcomes assessed were symptoms of grief and posttraumatic stress (PTS); secondary outcomes included symptoms of depression and overall behavioral adjustment. All assessments were conducted pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3 and 12 months after the end of treatment. Results showed improved scores on all outcomes posttreatment, sustained at 3 and 12 months. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for baseline to posttreatment were 1.36 for child reported grief symptoms, 1.87 for child-reported PTS, and 1.15 for guardian report of child PTS.

  5. The effects and costs of a group-based education programme for self-management of patients with Type 2 diabetes. A community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsted, Stig; Tribler, Jane; Poulsen, Peter B; Snorgaard, Ole

    2012-10-01

    The worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes necessitates evidence-based self-management education programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and costs of an empowerment-based structured diabetes self-management education programme in an unselected group of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seven hundred and two patients undergoing treatment by general practitioners (GPs) were included. The education comprised three modules over a 12-month period. It was based on the empowerment philosophy. The education followed a written curriculum, and the educators were given special training in its use. Glycemic control (HbA1c) was found to improve from 7.34 ± 1.34 to 6.88 ± 1.09%, P education programme. Moreover, significant improvements were found in terms of fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, female waist circumference, lipid profile, quality of life, physical activity and the patients' knowledge of diabetes whilst the number of visits to GPs declined. This study supports the use of an empowerment vision as a basis for an interdisciplinary group-based education programme with individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the costs of implementing this education programme were found to be minimal.

  6. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes after participating in group based type 2 diabetes self-management educations: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit B Rise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. METHODS: Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. RESULTS: Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. CONCLUSION: Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared "not that scary" or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour.

  7. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes after participating in group based type 2 diabetes self-management educations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rise, Marit B; Pellerud, Anneli; Rygg, Lisbeth Ø; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared "not that scary" or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour.

  8. Project Exhale: preliminary evaluation of a tailored smoking cessation treatment for HIV-positive African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Conrad, Megan; Kuhns, Lisa; Vargas, Maria; King, Andrea C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of a culturally tailored smoking cessation intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers. Eligible smokers were enrolled in a seven-session group-based treatment combined with nicotine patch. The mean age of participants was M=46 years. The majority were daily smokers (71%), smoked a mentholated brand (80%), and averaged 8.6 (standard deviation [SD]=8.1) cigarettes per day. Baseline nicotine dependency scores (M=5.8) indicated a moderate to high degree of physical dependence. Of the 31 participants enrolled, the majority completed treatment (≥3 sessions; 68%), 1-month follow-up (74%), and 3-month follow-up (87%) interviews. Program acceptability scores were strong. However, adherence to the patch was low, with 39% reporting daily patch use. The majority of participants (80%, n=24) made a quit attempt. Furthermore, over the course of the intervention, smoking urge, cigarettes smoked, nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and depression scores all significantly decreased. Follow-up quit rates at 1 and 3 months ranged from 6% to 24%, with treatment completers having better outcomes. This first of its kind intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers was feasible, acceptable, and showed benefit for reducing smoking behaviors and depression scores. Smoking cessation outcomes were on par with other similar programs. A larger trial is needed to address limitations and to confirm benefits.

  9. From appetitive to aversive: motivational interviewing reverses the modulation of the startle reflex by tobacco cues in smokers not ready to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantiva, Carlos; Guerra, Pedro; Vila, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a treatment method that has proven effective for increasing motivation to change and decreasing the consumption of different drugs. However, the results of studies examining the impact of MI on tobacco consumption are contradictory. Moreover, evidence of the effectiveness of MI for modifying well-validated psychophysiological indices of motivational change is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to use the startle probe paradigm and self-report measures of motivational change to assess the effectiveness of MI, compared to Prescriptive Advice (PA) and no treatment, in a sample of 53 smokers (28 male) who were not ready to quit smoking. After the intervention, the MI group reported increased motivation to change compared to both the PA and control groups. MI participants also had a potentiated startle reflex in response to tobacco-related pictures compared to the other two groups. These findings provide evidence that MI reverses the underlying motivational system activated by tobacco related cues.

  10. UNSCHOOLING AND HOW I BECAME LIBERATED: THE TEENAGE LIBERATION HANDBOOK, QUITTING SCHOOL AND GETTING A REAL LIFE AND EDUCATION 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael JODAH 

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five years ago, Grace Llewellyn, a school teacher from Colorado, published The Teenage Liberation Handbook: How to Quit School and Get A Real Life and Education. As a teenager struggling with many issues, including bullying, social isolation and poverty, I concluded that school was largely contributing to my misery — thanks to this book, I finally had the clarity and courage to leave school. This is a retrospective and narrative inquiry on my experiences growing up and the book that has helped transform my life and the lives of other unschoolers. 

  11. The effects of midwives’ job satisfaction on burnout, intention to quit and turnover: a longitudinal study in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite working in a challenging environment plagued by persistent personnel shortages, public sector midwives in Senegal play a key role in tackling maternal mortality. A better understanding of how they are experiencing their work and how it is affecting them is needed in order to better address their needs and incite them to remain in their posts. This study aims to explore their job satisfaction and its effects on their burnout, intention to quit and professional mobility. Methods A cohort of 226 midwives from 22 hospitals across Senegal participated in this longitudinal study. Their job satisfaction was measured from December 2007 to February 2008 using a multifaceted instrument developed in West Africa. Three expected effects were measured two years later: burnout, intention to quit and turnover. Descriptive statistics were reported for the midwives who stayed and left their posts during the study period. A series of multiple regressions investigated the correlations between the nine facets of job satisfaction and each effect variable, while controlling for individual and institutional characteristics. Results Despite nearly two thirds (58.9%) of midwives reporting the intention to quit within a year (mainly to pursue new professional training), only 9% annual turnover was found in the study (41/226 over 2 years). Departures were largely voluntary (92%) and entirely domestic. Overall the midwives reported themselves moderately satisfied; least contented with their “remuneration” and “work environment” and most satisfied with the “morale” and “job security” facets of their work. On the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, very high levels of emotional exhaustion (80.0%) and depersonalization (57.8%) were reported, while levels of diminished personal accomplishment were low (12.4%). Burnout was identified in more than half of the sample (55%). Experiencing emotional exhaustion was inversely associated with

  12. The effects of midwives’ job satisfaction on burnout, intention to quit and turnover: a longitudinal study in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouleau Dominique

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite working in a challenging environment plagued by persistent personnel shortages, public sector midwives in Senegal play a key role in tackling maternal mortality. A better understanding of how they are experiencing their work and how it is affecting them is needed in order to better address their needs and incite them to remain in their posts. This study aims to explore their job satisfaction and its effects on their burnout, intention to quit and professional mobility. Methods A cohort of 226 midwives from 22 hospitals across Senegal participated in this longitudinal study. Their job satisfaction was measured from December 2007 to February 2008 using a multifaceted instrument developed in West Africa. Three expected effects were measured two years later: burnout, intention to quit and turnover. Descriptive statistics were reported for the midwives who stayed and left their posts during the study period. A series of multiple regressions investigated the correlations between the nine facets of job satisfaction and each effect variable, while controlling for individual and institutional characteristics. Results Despite nearly two thirds (58.9% of midwives reporting the intention to quit within a year (mainly to pursue new professional training, only 9% annual turnover was found in the study (41/226 over 2 years. Departures were largely voluntary (92% and entirely domestic. Overall the midwives reported themselves moderately satisfied; least contented with their “remuneration” and “work environment” and most satisfied with the “morale” and “job security” facets of their work. On the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, very high levels of emotional exhaustion (80.0% and depersonalization (57.8% were reported, while levels of diminished personal accomplishment were low (12.4%. Burnout was identified in more than half of the sample (55%. Experiencing emotional exhaustion was inversely

  13. The effects of midwives' job satisfaction on burnout, intention to quit and turnover: a longitudinal study in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Dominique; Fournier, Pierre; Philibert, Aline; Mbengue, Betty; Dumont, Alexandre

    2012-04-30

    Despite working in a challenging environment plagued by persistent personnel shortages, public sector midwives in Senegal play a key role in tackling maternal mortality. A better understanding of how they are experiencing their work and how it is affecting them is needed in order to better address their needs and incite them to remain in their posts. This study aims to explore their job satisfaction and its effects on their burnout, intention to quit and professional mobility. A cohort of 226 midwives from 22 hospitals across Senegal participated in this longitudinal study. Their job satisfaction was measured from December 2007 to February 2008 using a multifaceted instrument developed in West Africa. Three expected effects were measured two years later: burnout, intention to quit and turnover. Descriptive statistics were reported for the midwives who stayed and left their posts during the study period. A series of multiple regressions investigated the correlations between the nine facets of job satisfaction and each effect variable, while controlling for individual and institutional characteristics. Despite nearly two thirds (58.9%) of midwives reporting the intention to quit within a year (mainly to pursue new professional training), only 9% annual turnover was found in the study (41/226 over 2 years). Departures were largely voluntary (92%) and entirely domestic. Overall the midwives reported themselves moderately satisfied; least contented with their "remuneration" and "work environment" and most satisfied with the "morale" and "job security" facets of their work. On the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, very high levels of emotional exhaustion (80.0%) and depersonalization (57.8%) were reported, while levels of diminished personal accomplishment were low (12.4%). Burnout was identified in more than half of the sample (55%). Experiencing emotional exhaustion was inversely associated with "remuneration" and "task" satisfaction, actively job

  14. Job Satisfaction and Quit Intentions of Offshore Workers in the UK North Sea Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The North Sea oil and gas industry currently faces recruitment and retention difficulties due to a shortage of skilled workers. The vital contribution of this sector to the U.K. economy means it is crucial for companies to focus on retaining existing employees. One means of doing this is to improve the job satisfaction of workers. In this paper, we investigate the determinants of job satisfaction and intentions to quit within the U.K. North Sea oil and gas industry. We analyse the effect o...

  15. The Occupational Commitment and Intention to Quit of Practicing and Pre-Service Teachers: Influence of Self-Efficacy, Job Stress, and Teaching Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the occupational commitment and quitting intention of practicing and pre-service teachers. We used a cross-sectional survey design to examine the impact of teachers' self-efficacy, job stress, and contextual factors on occupational commitment and quitting intention of 434 practicing teachers and 379…

  16. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Aghazadeh, Sima; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai

    2016-07-19

    Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21-30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3%) agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6-12 months (odds ratio (OR) 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.651-6.248) and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475-4.584) were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  17. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21–30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3% agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6–12 months (odds ratio (OR 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.651–6.248 and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475–4.584 were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  18. “Hike up yer Skirt, and Quit.” What Motivates and Supports Smoking Cessation in Builders and Renovators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Bercovitz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction-related occupations have very high smoking prevalence rates and are an identified priority population for efforts to promote cessation. This study sought to identify the smoking cessation supports and services which best suited this workforce group, and to identify gaps in reach of preventive health services. We performed qualitative text analysis on pre-existing conversations about smoking cessation among workers in this sector. The material appeared on a discussion forum about residential construction from 1998 and 2011. Roughly 250 unique user names appeared in these discussions. The qualitative analysis addressed knowledge, motivation, environmental influences, and positive and negative experiences with supports for cessation. Self-identified smokers tended to want to quit and described little social value in smoking. Actual quit attempts were attributed to aging and tangible changes in health and fitness. Peer-to-peer social support for cessation was evident. Advice given was to avoid cigarettes and smokers, to focus on personal skills, personal commitment, and the benefits of cessation (beyond the harms from smoking. Many discussants had received medical support for cessation, but behavioural counselling services appeared underutilized. Our findings support efforts toward more complete bans on workplace smoking and increased promotion of available behavioural support services among dispersed blue-collar workers.

  19. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  20. A microbial functional group-based module for simulating methane production and consumption: Application to an incubated permafrost soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Elias, Dwayne A.; Graham, David E.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Carroll, Sue L.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-07-01

    Accurately estimating methane (CH4) flux in terrestrial ecosystems is critically important for investigating and predicting biogeochemistry-climate feedbacks. Improved simulations of CH4 flux require explicit representations of the microbial processes that account for CH4 dynamics. A microbial functional group-based module was developed, building on the decomposition subroutine of the Community Land Model 4.5. This module considers four key mechanisms for CH4 production and consumption: methanogenesis from acetate or from single-carbon compounds and CH4 oxidation using molecular oxygen or other inorganic electron acceptors. Four microbial functional groups perform these processes: acetoclastic methanogens, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, aerobic methanotrophs, and anaerobic methanotrophs. This module was used to simulate dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 concentrations from an incubation experiment with permafrost soils. The results show that the model captures the dynamics of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in microcosms with top soils, mineral layer soils, and permafrost soils under natural and saturated moisture conditions and three temperature conditions of -2°C, 3°C, and 5°C (R2 > 0.67 P temperature conditions. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the importance of acetic acid's direct contribution as substrate and indirect effects through pH feedback on CO2 and CH4 production and consumption. This study suggests that representing the microbial mechanisms is critical for modeling CH4 production and consumption; it is urgent to incorporate microbial mechanisms into Earth system models for better predicting trace gas dynamics and the behavior of the climate system.

  1. Not Quite There Yet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Despite China’s remarkable economic achievements, staggering trade volume and trillions of dollars in foreign exchange reserves, it remains a developing country. Zhou Shijian, Standing Councilor of the China Association of International Trade , and Wang Lijun, Associate Prof essor at the Capital University of Economics and Business, have tried to set the record straight and present a true picture of China’s curren t economic status in the global context. They believe that a developed China is still far from a reality. In explaining the gap caused by different economic measurement standards between China and the Western world , they note that China’s economic capacity as seen by others is somewhat exaggerated .

  2. SERIOUS ABOUT QUITTING?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Changing attitudes toward smoking is the key to stubbing out Chinese cigarettes Chang had her first drag on a cigarette as a 21-year-old student 20 years ago. As a journalism undergraduate at Shanghai-based Fudan University, smoking was considered progressive and rebellious for women back then, at least on campus. "I thought smoking was fun and found it very relaxing. I still feel the same today," said Chang, now

  3. QUIT, While Enjoying It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the 500 years'history of tobacco industry,for nearly 100 years,people launched campaign for tobacco control and for nearly 30 years'adoption of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT),RUYAN,tobacco control products invented and created in China has made remarkable record-setting progresses.

  4. Women who quit maquiladora work on the U.S.-Mexico border: assessing health, occupation, and social dimensions in two transnational electronics plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, S; Samuels, S; Ramirez, M

    1998-05-01

    This cohort study of 725 women examined the health, occupational, and social factors that contribute to quitting work in two transnational electronics maquiladoras (assembly plants) in Tijuana, Mexico. The estimated cumulative probabilities of quitting were 68% and 81% by 1 and 2 years of employment. After adjusting for other factors, women who had a history of smoking or surgery and those who returned to work after a paid leave due to illness were more likely to quit. In contrast, women with a history of chronic illness had lower quitting rates. The nationality of the company and the work shift also significantly influenced quitting rates, but demographic characteristics and health care visits did not have a significant effect. Women selectively leave maquiladora employment, often due to health-related events. The healthy worker effect is difficult to measure in a mobile population with high turnover.

  5. Smoking-cessation treatment utilization: The need for a consumer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul

    2010-03-01

    In the U.S., almost half of all smokers try to quit each year. Yet two thirds of those who try to quit do so without the benefit of effective treatments that are now available. To optimize the contribution to public health of treatment, a consumer-centered approach is needed. This involves understanding and addressing smokers' needs and concerns regarding treatment, and communicating effectively with smokers about the nature and value of available treatments. Consumer-oriented treatment offerings would also recognize the diversity of smokers and match it with diverse approaches to quitting. Increasing use of treatment is important to increasing quit rates.

  6. Analysis of the influencing factors of smoker's intention to quit smoking in the community%社区吸烟人群戒烟意愿影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱跃华; 徐玲英; 吴丽红; 李凡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the influencing factors of smoker's intention to quit smoking in community. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire was applied to investigate the smoker' s intention to quit smoking, involving the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, period of smoking, period of quitting smoking, reason for restarting smoking. Results A total of 809 smokers in two communities participated in the survey, of which 260 used to have intention to quit smoking, including 190 male smokers and 70 female smokers, with the average age of (31.67±5.64) years. The period of quitting smoking of the 260 smokers was 3-531 days, (48.42±54.89) d in average, 15 (5.8%) of which exceed 180 days. The main reasons for restarting smoking included friends' offer (98 cases, accounting for 37.6%) and work stress (93 cases, 35.8%). Other reasons were getting bored of work, social needs and all kinds of social pressures. According to the tobacco addiction level, it was found that the higher the tobacco addition level, the longer the period of quitting smoking (P<0.001). Correlation analysis showed a positive association between the tobacco addiction level and period of quitting smoking, number of complicated diseases. Conclusion To enhance success rate of quitting smoking, the community health service center needs to provide more publication & education on quitting smoking and more standardized diagnosis & treatment.%目的 分析影响社区吸烟人群戒烟意愿的因素.方法 横断面问卷调查,内容包括:Fagerstrom 尼 古丁依赖性评分表、吸烟时间、停止吸烟时间、再次吸烟原因等.结果 两个居民社区809 名吸烟者参加了调 查.曾经有戒烟意愿者260 人,其中男性190 人,女性70 人,年龄平均(31.67±5.64)岁.260 名吸烟者停止吸烟时 间3~531 d,超过180 d 仅15 人(占总人数的5.8%),平均(48.42±54.89)d.再次吸烟原因主要包括:朋友劝导98 人(37.6%)、工作紧张93 人(35.8%),其他原因包括工作无聊

  7. Prevalence and Frequency of mHealth and eHealth Use Among US and UK Smokers and Differences by Motivation to Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Tooley, Erin; Armitage, Christopher J; Wearden, Alison

    2015-07-04

    Both mHealth and eHealth interventions for smoking cessation are rapidly being developed and tested. There are no data on use of mHealth and eHealth technologies by smokers in general or by smokers who are not motivated to quit smoking. The aims of our study were to (1) assess technology use (eg, texting, social media, Internet) among smokers in the United States and United Kingdom, (2) examine whether technology use differs between smokers who are motivated to quit and smokers who are not motivated to quit, (3) examine previous use of technology to assist with smoking cessation, and (4) examine future intentions to use technology to assist with smoking cessation. Participants were 1000 adult smokers (54.90%, 549/1000 female; mean age 43.9, SD 15.5 years; US: n=500, UK: n=500) who were recruited via online representative sampling strategies. Data were collected online and included demographics, smoking history, and frequency and patterns of technology use. Among smokers in general, there was a high prevalence of mobile and smartphone ownership, sending and receiving texts, downloading and using apps, using Facebook, and visiting health-related websites. Smokers who were unmotivated to quit were significantly less likely to own a smartphone or handheld device that connects to the Internet than smokers motivated to quit. There was a significantly lower prevalence of sending text messages among US smokers unmotivated to quit (78.2%, 179/229) versus smokers motivated to quit (95.0%, 229/241), but no significant differences between the UK groups (motivated: 96.4%, 239/248; unmotivated: 94.9%, 223/235). Smokers unmotivated to quit in both countries were significantly less likely to use a handheld device to read email, play games, browse the Web, or visit health-related websites versus smokers motivated to quit. US smokers had a high prevalence of app downloads regardless of motivation to quit, but UK smokers who were motivated to quit had greater prevalence of app

  8. Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss: a group-based program for Emiratis in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiya A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amena Sadiya,1,* Sarah Abdi,1,* Salah Abusnana2 1Lifestyle Clinic, 2Research and Education Department, Rashid Center for Diabetes and Research, Ajman, United Arab Emirates *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss (LIFE-8 is developed as a structured, group-based weight management program for Emiratis with obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is a 3-month program followed by a 1-year follow-up. The results from the first 2 years are presented here to indicate the possibility of its further adaptation and implementation in this region. Methodology: We recruited 45 participants with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The LIFE-8 program was executed by incorporating dietary modification, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, aiming to achieve up to 5% weight loss. The outcomes included body weight, fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and nutritional knowledge at 3 months and 12 months. Results: We observed a reduction of 5.0% in body weight (4.8±2.8 kg; 95% CI 3.7–5.8, fat mass (–7.8%, P<0.01, and waist circumference (Δ=4±4 cm, P<0.01 in the completed participants (n=28. An improvement (P<0.05 in HbA1c (7.1%±1.0% vs 6.6%±0.7% and FBG (8.2±2.0 mmol/L vs 6.8±0.8 mmol/L was observed in participants with obesity and type 2 diabetes after the program. Increase in nutritional knowledge (<0.01 and overall evaluation of the program (9/10 was favorable. On 1-year follow-up, we found that the participants could sustain weight loss (–4.0%, while obese, type 2 diabetic participants sustained HbA1c (6.6%±0.7% vs 6.4%±0.7% and further improved (P<0.05 the level of FBG (6.8±0.8 mmol/L vs 6.7±0.4 mmol/L. Conclusion: LIFE-8 could be an effective, affordable, acceptable, and adaptable lifestyle intervention program for the prevention and management of diabetes in Emiratis. It was successful not

  9. Mitochondrial phylogeny of the Chrysisignita (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) species group based on simultaneous Bayesian alignment and phylogeny reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Villu; Saarma, Urmas

    2011-07-01

    The ignita species group within the genus Chrysis includes over 100 cuckoo wasp species, which all lead a parasitic lifestyle and exhibit very similar morphology. The lack of robust, diagnostic morphological characters has hindered phylogenetic reconstructions and contributed to frequent misidentification and inconsistent interpretations of species in this group. Therefore, molecular phylogenetic analysis is the most suitable approach for resolving the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group. We present a well-resolved phylogeny of the Chrysis ignita species group based on mitochondrial sequence data from 41 ingroup and six outgroup taxa. Although our emphasis was on European taxa, we included samples from most of the distribution range of the C. ignita species group to test for monophyly. We used a continuous mitochondrial DNA sequence consisting of 16S rRNA, tRNA(Val), 12S rRNA and ND4. The location of the ND4 gene at the 3' end of this continuous sequence, following 12S rRNA, represents a novel mitochondrial gene arrangement for insects. Due to difficulties in aligning rRNA genes, two different Bayesian approaches were employed to reconstruct phylogeny: (1) using a reduced data matrix including only those positions that could be aligned with confidence; or (2) using the full sequence dataset while estimating alignment and phylogeny simultaneously. In addition maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses were performed to test the robustness of the Bayesian approaches. Although all approaches yielded trees with similar topology, considerably more nodes were resolved with analyses using the full data matrix. Phylogenetic analysis supported the monophyly of the C. ignita species group and divided its species into well-supported clades. The resultant phylogeny was only partly in accordance with published subgroupings based on morphology. Our results suggest that several taxa currently treated as subspecies or names treated as synonyms may in fact constitute

  10. Weight Loss Maintenance for 2 Years after a 6-Month Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Education-Only and Group-Based Support in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Nakata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our previous study, a 6-month randomised controlled trial, demonstrated that a group-based support promoted weight loss as compared to an education-only intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss maintenance for 2 years. Methods: Originally, 188 overweight Japanese adults, aged 40-65 years, were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control, education-only or group-based support. After the 6-month intervention, 125 participants in the education-only and the group-based support groups were followed up for 2 years. The primary outcome was the amount of weight lost. The participants were retrospectively grouped into quartiles of percent weight loss for secondary analyses. Results: At the end of follow-up, the amount of weight lost in the education-only and the group-based support groups was the same (3.3 kg. Secondary analyses using data of those who completed the study (n = 100 revealed that the participants in the highest quartile of percent weight loss significantly increased their step counts and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared with the lowest quartile. No significant differences were observed in the energy intake among the four groups. Conclusion: The effects of group-based support disappear within 2 years. Increasing physical activity may be a crucial factor for successful maintenance of weight loss.

  11. Dealing with Past Colonial Conflicts: How Perceived Characteristics of the Victimized Outgroup Can Influence the Experience of Group-Based Guilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Zebel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An examination of potential outgroup-focused predictors of group-based guilt relating to past colonial conflicts involving Portugal and the Netherlands, specifically, the role of the perceptions of the ingroup towards the victimized outgroup, as well as on outgroup identification and meta-perceptions (i.e. the ingroup's beliefs regarding the outgroup's perceptions of it. Using Structural Equation Modeling in a Portuguese sample (N = 178 and a Dutch sample (N = 157, we found that the experience of group-based guilt due to colonial conflicts can be positively predicted by outgroup perceptions and outgroup identification (Dutch sample only. Meta-perceptions were a negative predictor of group-based guilt (Dutch sample only. Furthermore, our results show that group-based guilt is positively associated with compensatory behavioral intentions and perceived importance of remembering past colonial conflicts. Results point to the important role of outgroup-focused variables in shaping group-based guilt experiences relating to past conflicts between groups. The findings suggest possible avenues of further research and ways to improve intergroup relations following conflict.

  12. Masculinity and Fatherhood: New Fathers' Perceptions of Their Female Partners' Efforts to Assist Them to Reduce or Quit Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Health promotion initiatives to reduce smoking among parents have focused almost exclusively on women to support their cessation during pregnancy and postpartum, while overlooking the importance of fathers' smoking cessation. This study was a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 20 new and expectant fathers to identify how they perceived their female partners' efforts to assist them to reduce or quit smoking. Social constructionist gender frameworks were used to theorize and develop the findings. Three key themes were identified: support and autonomy in men's smoking cessation, perception of challenging men's freedom to smoke, and contempt for men's continued smoking. The findings suggest that shifts in masculinities as men take up fathering should be considered in designing smoking cessation interventions for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Recall of Anti-Tobacco Advertisements and Effects on Quitting Behavior: Results From the California Smokers Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Eric C.; Myers, Mark G.; Strong, David R.; Hofstetter, C. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether an anti-tobacco television advertisement called “Stages,” which depicted a woman giving a brief emotional narrative of her experiences with tobacco use, would be recalled more often and have a greater effect on smoking cessation than 3 other advertisements with different intended themes. Methods. Our data were derived from a sample of 2596 California adult smokers. We used multivariable log-binomial and modified Poisson regression models to calculate respondents’ probability of quitting as a result of advertisement recall. Results. More respondents recalled the “Stages” ad (58.5%) than the 3 other ads (23.1%, 23.4%, and 25.6%; P advertisements that depict visceral and personal messages may be recalled by a larger percentage of smokers and may have a greater impact on smoking cessation than other types of advertisements. PMID:25521871

  14. The preferential codon usages in variable and constant regions of immunoglobulin genes are quite distinct from each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, T; Hayashida, H; Yasunaga, T; Hasegawa, M

    1979-12-20

    The pattern of codon utilization in the variable and constant regions of immunoglobulin genes are compared. It is shown that, in these regions, codon utilizations are quite distinct from one another: For most degenerate codons, there is a selective bias that prefers C and/or G ending codons to U and/or A ending codons in the constant region compared with the bias in the variable region. This would strongly suggest that, in immunoglobulin genes, the bias in code word usage is determined by other factors than those concerning with the translational mechanism such as tRNA availability and codon-anticodon interaction. A possibility is also suggested that this differance of code word usage between them is due to the existence of secondary structure in the constant region but not in the variable region.

  15. Del Grabado Europeo a la Pintura Americana. La serie El Credo del pintor quiteño Miguel de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fajardo de Rueda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de dos series de grabados flamencos del siglo XVII sobre el tema El Credo, de los artistas Adrian Collaert (1560-1618 y Johan Sadeler (1550-1600, permiten confirmar la importante presencia de los grabados europeos en los talleres de pintura de la América Hispana y su influencia decisiva en la formación de nuestros artistas. Se analizan entonces bajo esta perspectiva, las once pinturas al óleo que conforman la Serie de los Artículos de El Credo, obra del pintor quiteño Miguel de Santiago (1603-1706 que se encuentran en la Catedral Primada de Bogotá desde la época colonial.

  16. Del Grabado Europeo a la Pintura Americana. La serie El Credo del pintor quiteño Miguel de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fajardo de Rueda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El hallazgo de dos series de grabados flamencos del siglo XVII sobre el tema El Credo, de los artistas Adrian Collaert (1560-1618 y Johan Sadeler (1550-1600, permiten confirmar la importante presencia de los grabados europeos en los talle - res de pintura de la América Hispana y su influencia decisiva en la formación de nuestros artistas. Se analizan entonces bajo esta perspectiva, las once pinturas al óleo que conforman la Serie de los Artículos de El Credo, obra del pintor quiteño Miguel de Santiago (1603-1706 que se encuentran en la Catedral Primada de Bogotá desde la época colonial.

  17. The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Thrasher, James F; Laux, Fritz L

    2014-12-01

    Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be exposed to more positive norms toward smoking and more cues to smoke. This study examines the relation between number of smoking friends and changes in number of smoking friends, and smoking cessation outcomes. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2002) and Wave 2 (2003) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project Four Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States (N = 6,321). Smokers with fewer smoking friends at Wave 1 were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 1 and were more likely to succeed in their attempts to quit at Wave 2. Compared with smokers who experienced no change in their number of smoking friends, smokers who lost smoking friends were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 2, attempt to quit between Wave 1 and Wave 2, and succeed in their quit attempts at Wave 2. Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be less likely to successfully quit. Quitting may be particularly unlikely among smokers who do not experience a loss in the number of smokers in their social context.

  18. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2012-02-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1-5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6-29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P < 0.001), smoking less for self-confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers.

  19. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2011-10-26

    Social and community service organisations (SCSOs) are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate). Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking) was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77%) and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2) lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8%) reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%), cash rewards (52%) and non-cash rewards (47%) for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%). Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  20. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and community service organisations (SCSOs are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Methods Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. Results A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate. Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77% and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2 lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8% reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%, cash rewards (52% and non-cash rewards (47% for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%. Conclusions Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  1. Comparison Between Individually and Group-Based Insulin Pump Initiation by Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstråle, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Depending on available resources, competencies, and pedagogic preference, initiation of insulin pump therapy can be performed on either an individual or a group basis. Here we compared the two models with respect to resources used. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) was used to compare initiating insulin pump treatment in groups (GT) to individual treatment (IT). Activities and cost drivers were identified, timed, or estimated at location. Medical quality and patient satisfaction were assumed to be noninferior and were not measured. GT was about 30% less time-consuming and 17% less cost driving per patient and activity compared to IT. As a batch driver (16 patients in one group) GT produced an upward jigsaw-shaped accumulative cost curve compared to the incremental increase incurred by IT. Taking the alternate cost for those not attending into account, and realizing the cost of opportunity gained, suggested that GT was cost neutral already when 5 of 16 patients attended, and that a second group could be initiated at no additional cost as the attendance rate reached 15:1. We found TDABC to be effective in comparing treatment alternatives, improving cost control and decision making. Everything else being equal, if the setup is available, our data suggest that initiating insulin pump treatment in groups is far more cost effective than on an individual basis and that TDABC may be used to find the balance point.

  2. Comparing group-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with enhanced usual care for adolescents with functional somatic syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Karen Hansen; Schröder, Andreas; Wicksell, Rikard K

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) are common in adolescents, characterised by severe disability and reduced quality of life. Behavioural treatments such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown promising results in children and adolescents with FSS, but has focused...... adolescents aged 15-19 and diagnosed with multiorgan BDS, of at least 12 months duration, will be assessed and randomised to either: (1) EUC: a manualised consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and individualised treatment plan or (2) manualised ACT-based group therapy plus EUC. The ACT...... programme consists of 9 modules (ie, 27 hours) and 1 follow-up meeting (3 hours). The primary outcome is physical health, assessed by an Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) aggregate score 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include self-reported symptom severity, symptom interference, depression...

  3. Using Behavioral Intervention Technologies to Help Low-Income and Latino Smokers Quit: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ricardo F; Bunge, Eduardo L; Barrera, Alinne Z; Wickham, Robert E; Lee, Jessica

    2016-06-14

    The Institute for International Internet Interventions for Health at Palo Alto University proposes to develop digital tools specifically to help low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers to quit. Individuals from lower-income countries and those with lower social status quit at lower rates than those from high-income countries and those with higher social status. We plan to launch a project designed to test whether a mobile-based digital intervention designed with systematic input from low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers from a public-sector health care system can significantly improve its acceptability, utilization, and effectiveness. Using human-centered development methods, we will involve low-income patients in the design of a Web app/text messaging tool. We will also use their input to improve our recruitment and dissemination strategies. We will iteratively develop versions of the digital interventions informed by our human-centered approach. The project involves three specific aims: (1) human-centered development of an English/Spanish smoking cessation web app, (2) improvement of dissemination strategies, and (3) evaluation of resulting smoking cessation web app. We will develop iterative versions of a digital smoking cessation tool that is highly responsive to the needs and preferences of the users. Input from participants will identify effective ways of reaching and encouraging low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers to use the digital smoking cessation interventions to be developed. This information will support ongoing dissemination and implementation efforts beyond the grant period. We will evaluate the effectiveness of the successive versions of the resulting stop smoking Web app by an online randomized controlled trial. Increased effectiveness will be defined as increased utilization of the Web app and higher abstinence rates than those obtained by a baseline usual care Web app. Recruitment will begin January 2016, the

  4. Once a week is not enough: Effects of a widely implemented group based exercise programme for older adults; a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Popkema, D.Y.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Greef, M. de; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of gymnastics on the health related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional status of independently living people, aged 65 to 80 years. Gymnastics formed part of the More Exercise for Seniors (MBvO in Dutch) programme, a group based exercise programme for older

  5. Once a week is not enough : effects of a widely implemented group based exercise programme for older adults; a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Popkema, D.Y.; Hopman-Rock, M.; de Greef, M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of gymnastics on the health related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional status of independently living people, aged 65 to 80 years. Gymnastics formed part of the More Exercise for Seniors (MBvO in Dutch) programme, a group based exercise programme for older

  6. Any of them will do: In-group identification, out-group entitativity, and gang membership as predictors of group-based retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Wenborne, Lisa; Peers, Madeline; Alleyne, Emma; Ellis, Kirsty

    2015-05-01

    In non-gang populations, the degree of identification with an in-group and perceptions of out-group entitativity, the perception of an out-group as bonded or unified, are important contributors to group-based aggression or vicarious retribution. The link between these factors and group-based aggression, however, has not been examined in the context of street gangs. The current study assessed the relationship among in-group identification, perceptions of out-group entitativity, and the willingness to retaliate against members of rival groups who did not themselves attack the in-group among juvenile gang and non-gang members in London. Our results showed the predicted membership (gang/non-gang) × in-group identification × entitativity interaction. Decomposition of the three-way interaction by membership revealed a significant identification × entitativity interaction for gang, but not for non-gang members. More specifically, gang members who identify more strongly with their gang and perceived a rival group as high on entitativity were more willing to retaliate against any of them. In addition, entitativity was a significant predictor of group-based aggression after controlling for gender, in-group identification, and gang membership. Our results are consistent with socio-psychological theories of group-based aggression and support the proposal that such theories are applicable for understanding gang-related violence. Aggr. Behav. 41:242-252, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen;

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits....

  8. Intergroup consensus/disagreement in support of group-based hierarchy: an examination of socio-structural and psycho-cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Pratto, Felicia; Johnson, Blair T

    2011-11-01

    A meta-analysis examined the extent to which socio-structural and psycho-cultural characteristics of societies correspond with how much gender and ethnic/racial groups differ on their support of group-based hierarchy. Robustly, women opposed group-based hierarchy more than men did, and members of lower power ethnic/racial groups opposed group-based hierarchy more than members of higher power ethnic/racial groups did. As predicted by social dominance theory, gender differences were larger, more stable, and less variable from sample to sample than differences between ethnic/racial groups. Subordinate gender and ethnic/racial group members disagreed more with dominants in their views of group-based hierarchy in societies that can be considered more liberal and modern (e.g., emphasizing individualism and change from traditions), as well as in societies that enjoyed greater gender equality. The relations between gender and ethnic/racial groups are discussed, and implications are developed for social dominance theory, social role theory, biosocial theory, social identity theory, system justification theory, realistic group conflict theory, and relative deprivation theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Can a Targeted, Group-Based CBT Intervention Reduce Depression and Anxiety and Improve Self-Concept in Primary-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Cunningham, Enda

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of a 10 session, group-based, early-intervention cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Connections) on anxiety, depression and self-concept in nine 8-11 year old pupils in Northern Ireland. The intervention was facilitated by a teacher, education welfare officer and two classroom assistants, with…

  10. Once a week is not enough : effects of a widely implemented group based exercise programme for older adults; a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Popkema, D.Y.; Hopman-Rock, M.; de Greef, M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of gymnastics on the health related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional status of independently living people, aged 65 to 80 years. Gymnastics formed part of the More Exercise for Seniors (MBvO in Dutch) programme, a group based exercise programme for older ad

  11. The Role of Trust in CenteringPregnancy : Building Interpersonal Trust Relationships in Group-Based Prenatal Care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kweekel, L.; Gerrits, T.; Rijnders, M.; Brown, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background CenteringPregnancy (CP) is a specific model of group-based prenatal care for women, implemented in 44 midwifery practices in The Netherlands since 2011. Women have evaluated CP positively, especially in terms of social support, and improvements have been made in birthweight and preterm-bi

  12. Dealing with past colonial conflicts: how perceived characteristics of the victimized outgroup can influence the experience of group-based guilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, A.; Doosje, B.; Pires Valentim, J.; Zebel, S.

    2010-01-01

    An examination of potential outgroup-focused predictors of group-based guilt relating to past colonial conflicts involving Portugal and the Netherlands, specifically, the role of the perceptions of the ingroup towards the victimized outgroup, as well as on outgroup identification and meta-perception

  13. Effectiveness of a group-based intervention to change medication beliefs and improve medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Ende, C.H. van den; Lankveld, W.G. van; Broeder, A.A. den; Hoogen, F.H. van den; Mosselaar, B. van de; Dulmen, S. van; Bemt, B.J. van den

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of a group-based intervention on the balance between necessity beliefs and concern beliefs about medication and on medication non-adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Non-adherent RA patients using disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMAR

  14. Intergroup Consensus/Disagreement in Support of Group Based Hierarchy: An Examination of Socio-Structural and Psycho-Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Pratto, Felicia; Johnson, Blair T.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis examined the extent to which socio-structural and psycho-cultural characteristics of societies correspond with how much gender and ethnic/racial groups differ on their support of group-based hierarchy. Robustly, women opposed group-based hierarchy more than men did and members of lower-power ethnic/racial groups opposed group-based hierarchy more than members of higher-power ethnic/racial groups. As predicted by social dominance theory, gender differences were larger, more stable, and less variable from sample to sample than differences between ethnic/racial groups. Subordinate gender and ethnic/racial group members disagreed more with dominants in their views of group-based hierarchy in societies that can be considered more liberal and modern (e.g., emphasizing individualism and change from traditions), as well as in societies that enjoyed greater gender equality. The relations between gender and ethnic/racial groups are discussed and implications are developed for social dominance theory, social role theory and biosocial theory, social identity theory, system justification theory, realistic group conflict theory and relative deprivation theory. PMID:22023142

  15. Impact of Participation in TimeSlips, a Creative Group-Based Storytelling Program, on Medical Student Attitudes toward Persons with Dementia: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R.; Stuckey, Heather L.; Dillon, Caroline F.; Whitehead, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether medical student participation in TimeSlips (TS), a creative group-based storytelling program, with persons affected by dementia would improve student attitudes toward this patient population. Design and Methods: Fifteen fourth-year medical students from Penn State College of Medicine participated in a month-long…

  16. Impact of Age at Smoking Initiation, Dosage, and Time Since Quitting on Cardiovascular Disease in African Americans and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R.; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Woodward, Mark; Alonso, Alvaro; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite reportedly having less tobacco exposure compared with whites, African Americans account for a disproportionate number of smoking-related deaths. The purpose of this study was to compare the prospective associations between smoking and cardiovascular risk in whites and African Americans. Smoking status was obtained on 14,200 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was ascertained from 1987 through 2007. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the CVD incidence associated with smoking behavior. Over 17 years’ follow-up, there were 2,777 cardiovascular events. In men, compared with never smoking, current smoking was independently associated with 67% (95% confidence interval (CI): 43, 95) and 72% (95% CI: 30, 126) greater risk of CVD in whites and African Americans, respectively. In women, the smoking-related cardiovascular risk was higher: 136% (95% CI: 88, 196) and 169% (95% CI: 126, 219) in African-American and white women, respectively. Early age at smoking initiation was independently associated with increased risk among all participants irrespective of race. Smoking cessation during follow-up was equally beneficial in both whites and African Americans. African Americans who smoke incur a similar level of cardiovascular risk as white smokers and would derive the same benefits from quitting as whites. PMID:22396389

  17. Improving ISR Radar Utilization (How I quit blaming the user and made the radar easier to use).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-08-01

    In modern multi - sensor multi - mode Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) platforms, the plethora of options available to a sensor/payload operator are quite large, leading to an over - worked operator often down - selecting to favorite sensors an d modes. For example, Full Motion Video (FMV) is justifiably a favorite sensor at the expense of radar modes, even if radar modes can offer unique and advantageous information. The challenge is then to increase the utilization of the radar modes in a man ner attractive to the sensor/payload operator. We propose that this is best accomplished by combining sensor modes and displays into 'super - modes'. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia Natio nal Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL850 00.

  18. A self-organizing model for task allocation via frequent task quitting and random walks in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian R

    2009-10-01

    Social insect colonies are able to quickly redistribute their thousands of workers between tasks that vary strongly in space and time. How individuals collectively track spatial variability is particularly puzzling because bees have access only to local information. This work presents and tests a model showing how honeybees solve their fundamental within-nest spatial task-allocation problem. The algorithm, which is self-organizing and derived from empirical studies, couples two processes with opposing effects. Frequent task quitting, followed by patrols, during which bees are insensitive to task stimuli, serves to randomize individual location throughout the nest without reference to variation in task demand, while a foraging-for-work-like mechanism provides the opposing force of localizing individuals to areas of high task demand. This simple model is shown to generate sophisticated patterns of task allocation. It allocates bees to tasks in proportion to their demand, independent of their spatial distribution in the nest, and also reallocates labor in response to temporal changes in task demand. Finally, the model shows that task-allocation patterns at the colony level do not reflect colonies allocating particular individuals to tasks. In contrast, they reflect a dynamic equilibrium of workers switching between tasks and locations in the nest.

  19. Construct and predictive validity of three measures of intention to quit smoking: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Karin; Candel, Math J J M; Nagelhout, Gera E; Brown, Jamie; van den Putte, Bas; Kotz, Daniel; Willemsen, Marc C; Fong, Geoffrey T; West, Robert; de Vries, Hein

    2017-05-03

    The aim of the study was to compare the construct validity and the predictive validity of three instruments to measure intention to quit smoking: a Stages of Change measure, the Motivation To Stop Scale (MTSS) and a Likert scale. We used the Theory of Planned Behaviour as theoretical framework. We used data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. We included smokers who participated in three consecutive survey waves (n=980). We measured attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control in 2012, intention to quit with three instruments in 2013, and having made a quit attempt in the last year in 2014. We conducted Structural Equation Modelling with three models for the instruments of intention separately, and with one model that included the three instruments simultaneously. All three instruments of intention were significantly and positively related to attitude and perceived behavioural control but none was related to subjective norm. All three instruments were significantly and positively related to making a quit attempt. The relation of the Likert scale with making a quit attempt (β=0.38) was somewhat stronger than that of the Stages of Change measure (β=0.35) and the MTSS (β=0.22). When entering the three instruments together into one model, only the Likert scale was significantly related to making a quit attempt. All three instruments showed reasonable construct validity and comparable predictive validity. Under the studied conditions, the Likert scale performed slightly better than the Stages of Change measure and the MTSS. An assessment of the Stages of Change, the Motivation To Stop Scale (MTSS) and a Likert scale showed comparable predictive and construct validity as measures for intention to quit smoking. All three instruments can be used in future research; however, under the studied theoretical framework, i.e. the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the Likert scale performed slightly better than the other two instruments.

  20. The effect of systematic clinical interventions with cigarette smokers on quit status and the rates of smoking-related primary care office visits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Land

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United States Public Health Service (USPHS Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA sites. An operational definition of "systems change" was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, p<.01. On average, the likelihood of quitting increased by 2.6% (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.1%-4.6% per occurrence of brief intervention. For patients with a recent history of current smoking whose home site experienced systems change, the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses decreased by 4.3% on an annualized basis after systems change occurred (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.5%-8.1%. There was no change in the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses following systems change among non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical practice data from HVMA suggest that a systems approach can lead to significant reductions in smoking prevalence and the rate of office visits for smoking-related diseases. Most comprehensive tobacco intervention strategies focus on the provider or the tobacco user, but these results argue that health systems should be included as an integral component of a comprehensive tobacco intervention strategy. The HVMA results also give us an indication of the potential health impacts when meaningful use core

  1. It is feasible and effective to help patients with severe mental disorders to quit smoking: An ecological pragmatic clinical trial with transdermal nicotine patches and varenicline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Portilla, Maria P; Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Sarramea, Fernando; Galvan, Gonzalo; Diaz-Mesa, Eva; Bobes-Bascaran, Teresa; Al-Halabi, Susana; Elizagarate, Edorta; Iglesias, Celso; Saiz Martínez, Pilar A; Bobes, Julio

    2016-10-01

    Despite the proven association between smoking and high rates of medical morbidity and reduced life expectancy in people with severe mental disorders (SMD), their smoking rates do not decline as they do in the general population. We carried out a non-randomized, open-label, prospective, 9-month follow-up multicentre trial to investigate the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of a 12-week smoking cessation programme for patients with SMD in the community under real-world clinical conditions. Eighty-two adult outpatients with schizophrenic/bipolar disorder smoking ≥15 cigarettes/day were assigned by shared decision between doctors and patients to transdermal nicotine patches (TNP) [36(46.2%)] or varenicline [39(50%)]. Short-term efficacy: The 12-week 7-day smoking cessation (self-reported cigarettes/day=0 and breath carbon monoxide levels≤9ppm) prevalence was 49.3%, without statistically significant differences between medications (TNP 50.0% vs varenicline 48.6%, chi-square=0.015, p=1.000). Long-term efficacy: At weeks 24 and 36, 41.3 and 37.3% of patients were abstinent, with no statistically significant differences between treatments. Safety and Tolerability: no patients made suicide attempts/required hospitalization. There was no worsening on the psychometric scales. Patients significantly increased weight [TNP 1.1(2.8) vs varenicline 2.5(3.3), p=0.063], without significant changes in vital signs/laboratory results, except significant decreases in alkaline phosphatase and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in the varenicline group. Patients under varenicline more frequently presented nausea/vomiting (p<0.0005), patients under TNP experienced skin reactions more frequently (p=0.002). Three patients under varenicline had elevated liver enzymes. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that in real-world clinical settings it is feasible and safe to help patients with stabilized severe mental disorders to quit smoking.

  2. Advancing cessation research by integrating EMA and geospatial methodologies: associations between tobacco retail outlets and real-time smoking urges during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Kellie L; Regan, Seann D; Nguyen, Nga; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Lam, Cho; Balis, David; Cuevas, Adolfo G; Cao, Yumei; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2014-05-01

    Residential tobacco retail outlet (TRO) density and proximity have been associated with smoking behaviors. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these relations and their potential relevance outside of the residential setting. This study integrates ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and geo-location tracking to explore real-time associations between exposure to TROs and smoking urges among 47 economically disadvantaged smokers in a cessation trial (59.6% female; 36.2% White). EMA data were collected for 1 week postquit via smartphone, which recorded smoking urge strength ≤ 4 random times daily along with real-time participant location data. For each assessment, the participants' proximity to the closest TRO and the density of TROs surrounding the participant were calculated. Linear mixed model regressions examined associations between TRO variables and smoking urges and whether relations varied based on participants' distance from their home. Covariates included sociodemographics, prequit tobacco dependence, treatment group, and daily smoking status. Main effects were nonsignificant; however, the interaction between TRO proximity and distance from home was considered significant (p = .056). Specifically, closer proximity to TROs was associated with stronger smoking urges ≤ 1 mile of home (p = .001) but not >1 mile from home (p = .307). Significant associations were attributable to assessments completed at participants' home addresses. All density analyses were nonsignificant. Technological challenges encountered in this study resulted in a significant amount of missing data, highlighting the preliminary nature of these findings and limiting the inferences that can be drawn. However, results suggest that closer residential proximity to tobacco outlets may trigger stronger urges to smoke among economically disadvantaged smokers trying to quit, perhaps due to enhanced cigarette availability and accessibility. Therefore, limiting

  3. 'It's quite hard to grasp the enormity of it': perceived needs of people upon diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, S; Carr, M; Hehir, M; Davis, B; Robertson, L; Cockshott, Z; Tipler, S; Hewlett, S

    2008-09-01

    The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) brings rapid pharmacological and multidisciplinary team interventions to address inflammatory processes and symptom management. However, people may also need support on the journey to self-management. The aim of this study was to explore what professional support patients feel they receive upon diagnosis, and what support they feel would be most helpful. Two focus groups comprised patients with at least five years'; disease duration (n = 7), and patients more recently diagnosed (5-18 months, n = 5). The latter had attended at least two appointments in a rheumatology nurse specialist clinic during the previous year, aimed at providing support upon diagnosis. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis to identify common issues regarding support needs, which were then grouped into themes. Interviewing and analysis was performed by researchers not involved in clinical care. Four overarching themes emerged. 'Information' was needed about the symptoms of RA, its management and personal outcome, while 'Support' related to emotional needs ('It's quite hard to grasp the enormity of it'). Information and Support overlapped, in that patients wanted someone to talk to, and to be listened to. These two themes were underpinned by issues of service delivery: 'Choice' (patient or professional to talk to, groups, one-to-one) and 'Involvement' (holistic care, partnership), which overlapped in terms of the opportunity to decide when and which interventions to access. People with RA report not only informational, but also emotional support needs at diagnosis. The potential for delivering emotional support to patients around the time of diagnosis warrants further exploration. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Obstacles to the implementation of evidence-based physiotherapy in practice: a focus group-based study in Belgium (Flanders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Hannes; Filip, Staes; Jo, Goedhuys; Bert, Aertgeerts

    2009-10-01

    Over the past few years concerns have been rising about the use of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP). We explored obstacles among Belgian physiotherapists to the implementation of EBP in clinical work. We used a qualitative research strategy based on five focus groups, organised between October 2004 and May 2005. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 43 participants from diverse geographical regions in Flanders, working in different settings and with a variety of interest and expertise in EBP. Data collection and analysis were concurrent and guided by "grounded theory approach." A problem tree was developed. Important obstacles to the implementation of EBP include physiotherapists' lack of autonomy and authority to decide on patients' treatments or to negotiate with government. In addition, the lack of evidence, inaccessibility and inapplicability of scientific evidence, the economic parameters influencing government and physicians, the expectations from patients and a lack of motivation hamper the implementation of EBP. The problem tree developed reveals direct links between the lack of autonomy from physiotherapists and the dominant position from physicians in the Belgian health care system, which further impacts the boundaries between both professions and the weight of physiotherapists in governmental advisory boards. Direct access to physiotherapy has not yet been considered in Belgium. However, it could have major advantages for physiotherapists who are in favour of a more autonomous, professional status.

  5. Design and develop a video conferencing framework for real-time telemedicine applications using secure group-based communication architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Kiah, M L; Al-Bakri, S H; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hussain, Muzammil

    2014-10-01

    One of the applications of modern technology in telemedicine is video conferencing. An alternative to traveling to attend a conference or meeting, video conferencing is becoming increasingly popular among hospitals. By using this technology, doctors can help patients who are unable to physically visit hospitals. Video conferencing particularly benefits patients from rural areas, where good doctors are not always available. Telemedicine has proven to be a blessing to patients who have no access to the best treatment. A telemedicine system consists of customized hardware and software at two locations, namely, at the patient's and the doctor's end. In such cases, the video streams of the conferencing parties may contain highly sensitive information. Thus, real-time data security is one of the most important requirements when designing video conferencing systems. This study proposes a secure framework for video conferencing systems and a complete management solution for secure video conferencing groups. Java Media Framework Application Programming Interface classes are used to design and test the proposed secure framework. Real-time Transport Protocol over User Datagram Protocol is used to transmit the encrypted audio and video streams, and RSA and AES algorithms are used to provide the required security services. Results show that the encryption algorithm insignificantly increases the video conferencing computation time.

  6. A new instrument to predict smoking cessation among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an observational longitudinal study of the Trying To Quit smoking questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Lena; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Törnkvist, Lena; Gilljam, Hans; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2016-04-14

    The Trying To Quit smoking questionnaire (TTQ), was developed to measure pressure-filled mental states, use of destructive pressure-relief strategies and ambivalent thoughts about quitting smoking among patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the TTQ (available in an extended and in a reduced version) can be used to predict smoking cessation outcomes in smokers with COPD. As higher TTQ scores indicate higher degree of psychological distress, we hypothesised that TTQ scores at baseline would be negatively correlated with the probability of making a quit attempt, reducing the intensity of smoking and achieving complete abstinence during the 3 months. Smokers with COPD were recruited during planned or unplanned visits to primary healthcare centres, and 109 completed the TTQ at baseline and 85% participated in the follow-up after 3 months. Logistic regression was used to measure the association between the original (19 items) and the brief (14 item) version of TTQ scores and three outcomes: making at least one quit attempt, reducing the intensity of smoking and achieving complete abstinence. In a primary analysis among all the participants higher total score in the original version of TTQ was significantly associated with a lower probability of quit attempts. In a secondary analysis of subgroups of patients classified according to their readiness to quit, high TTQ scores at baseline were associated with lower probability of complete abstinence among patients not ready to quit (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53-0.99). Among patients ready to quit, high score on pressure-filled mental states was associated with lower probability of quit attempts (OR=0.78; 95% CI=0.66-0.94) but with higher probability of reduced smoking (OR=1.32; 95% CI=1.05-1.66). Ambivalent thoughts were associated with lower probability of all outcomes, but estimates were not statistically significant. Destructive coping strategies were

  7. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.060-3.912; p < 0.05. The smokers who were always restricted to smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116–4.291; p < 0.05. This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  8. Demographic Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Motivation to Quit as Possible Determinants of Smoking Behaviors and Acceptability of Shocking Warnings in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper presents the final results of a cross-sectional study started in 2010. It compares the perceived efficacy of different types of tobacco health warning (texts versus shocking pictures to quit or reduce tobacco use. Methods. The study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Italy enrolled adults smokers. Administering a questionnaire demographic data, smokers behaviors were collected. Showing text and graphic warnings (the corpse of a smoker, diseased lungs, etc. the most perceived efficacy to reduce tobacco consumption or to encourage was quit. Results. 666 subjects were interviewed; 6% of responders referred that they stopped smoking at least one month due to the textual warnings. The 81% of the smokers perceived that the warnings with shocking pictures are more effective in reducing/quitting tobacco consumption than text-only warnings. The younger group (<45 years, who are more motivated to quit (Mondor’s score ≥ 12, and females showed a higher effectiveness of shocking warnings to reduce tobacco consumption of, 76%, 78%, and 43%, respectively with P<0.05. Conclusions. This study suggests that pictorial warnings on cigarette packages are more likely to be noticed and rated as effective by Italian smokers. Female and younger smokers appear to be more involved by shock images. The jarring warnings also appear to be supporting those who want to quit smoking. This type of supportive information in Italy may become increasingly important for helping smokers to change their behavior.

  9. Early results of pediatric appendicitis after adoption of diagnosis-related group-based payment system in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon SB

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Suk-Bae MoonDepartment of Surgery, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South KoreaPurpose: As an alternative to the existing fee-for-service (FFS system, a diagnosis-related group (DRG-based payment system has been suggested. The aim of this study was to investigate the early results of pediatric appendicitis treatment under the DRG system, focusing on health care expenditure and quality of health care services.Patients and methods: The medical records of 60 patients, 30 patients before (FFS group, and 30 patients after adoption of the DRG system (DRG, were reviewed retrospectively.Results: Mean hospital stay was shortened, but the complication and readmission rates did not worsen in the DRG. Overall health care expenditure and self-payment decreased from Korean Won (KRW 2,499,935 and KRW 985,540, respectively, in the FFS group to KRW 2,386,552 and KRW 492,920, respectively, in the DRG. The insurer’s payment increased from KRW 1,514,395 in the FFS group to KRW 1,893,632 in the DRG. For patients in the DRG, calculation by the DRG system yielded greater overall expenditure (KRW 2,020,209 vs KRW 2,386,552 but lower self-payment (KRW 577,803 vs KRW 492,920 than calculation by the FFS system.Conclusion: The DRG system worked well in pediatric patients with acute appendicitis in terms of cost-effectiveness over the short term. The gradual burden on the national health insurance fund should be taken into consideration.Keywords: appendicitis, child, fee-for-service plans, diagnosis-related groups, quality of health care, health care expenditures

  10. Using intervention mapping to develop a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self management of osteoarthritis and low back pain (SOLAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, D.A.; Currie Murphy, L.; Hayes, D.; Hall, A. M.; Toomey, E; McDonough, S.M.; Lonsdale, C; Walsh, N.; Guerin, S.; Matthews, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Medical Research Council framework provides a useful general approach to designing and evaluating complex interventions, but does not provide detailed guidance on how to do this and there is little evidence of how this framework is applied in practice. This study describes the use of intervention mapping (IM) in the design of a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self-management (SM) of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) in...

  11. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Lisa; Pisinger Charlotta; Lau Cathrine; Ovesen Lars; Ladelund Steen; Kristoffersen Lis; Toft Ulla; Borch-Johnsen Knut; Jørgensen Torben

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301), two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; grou...

  12. Health-related quality of life and self-related health in patients with type 2 diabetes: effects of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Eva S; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans;

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can seriously affect patients' health-related quality of life and their self-rated health. Most often, evaluation of diabetes interventions assess effects on glycemic control with little consideration of quality of life. The aim of the current study was to study the effectiveness...... of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-rated health in type 2 diabetes patients....

  13. Does Engaging in a Group-Based Intervention Increase Parental Self-efficacy in Parents of Preschool Children? A Systematic Review of the Current Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Wittkowski, Anja; Dowling, Hannah; Smith, Debbie M.

    2016-01-01

    As the preschool years are a formative period for long-term physical and mental health, this period is recognised as an important window for early effective intervention. Parenting behaviour is a key factor to target in order to optimise child development. Group-based interventions for parents are considered efficient and cost effective methods of early intervention and have been found to improve child behaviour and adjustment. Self-efficacy is key to behaviour change and as such parental sel...

  14. Health-related quality of life and self-related 1 health in patients 2 with type 2 diabetes: Effects of group-based rehabilitation - versus individual counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Eva Soelberg; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans Jørgen Duckert

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can seriously affect patients' health-related quality of life and their self-rated health. Most often, evaluation of diabetes interventions assess effects on glycemic control with little consideration of quality of life. The aim of the current study was to study the effectiveness ...... of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-rated health in type 2 diabetes patients....

  15. Impact of Participation in TimeSlips, a Creative Group-Based Storytelling Program, on Medical Student Attitudes Toward Persons With Dementia: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    George, Daniel R.; Stuckey, Heather L.; Dillon, Caroline F.; Whitehead, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether medical student participation in TimeSlips (TS), a creative group-based storytelling program, with persons affected by dementia would improve student attitudes toward this patient population. Design and Methods: Fifteen fourth-year medical students from Penn State College of Medicine participated in a month-long regimen of TS sessions at a retirement community. Student course evaluations were analyzed at the conclusion of the program to examine perceived qualitati...

  16. Group participants' experiences of a patient-directed group-based education program for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers-Jewell, Kate; Isenring, Elisabeth A; Thomas, Rae; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of individuals who participated in a group-based education program, including their motivators in relation to their diabetes management, and the perceived impact of group interactions on participants' experiences and motivation for self-management. Understanding individuals diagnosed with diabetes experiences of group-based education for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus may guide the development and facilitation of these programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all individuals who participated in the intervention. Using thematic analysis underpinned by self-determination theory, we developed themes that explored participants' motivators in relation to diabetes management and the impact of group interactions on their experiences and motivation. The key themes included knowledge, experience, group interactions and motivation. Participants perceived that the group interactions facilitated further learning and increased motivation, achieved through normalization, peer identification or by talking with, and learning from the experience of others. The results support the use of patient-centred programs that prioritize group interactions over the didactic presentation of content, which may address relevant psychological needs of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and improve their motivation and health behaviours. Future group-based education programs may benefit from the use of self-determination theory as a framework for intervention design to enhance participant motivation.

  17. Quit stalling…!”: Destiny and Destination on L.A.’s Inner City Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zeilinger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available If driving has today really become a Western "metaphor for being" (Hutchinson, then common roadside signs proclaiming "Right lane must exit" or "Through traf-fic merge left", inventions such as the automatic transmission, and the agreeable straightness of freeways can all be understood as symptoms of an ongoing socio-political struggle between the driver as democratic agent, and the state as institu-tionalized regulatory force. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the context of urban traffic, where private motorized transportation represents both the supreme (if illusory expression of personal freedom, and official efforts to channel indivi-dualism by obliterating its sense of direction and ideological divergence. On the concrete proving grounds of the clogged inner-city freeway, "nomad science" and "state science" (Deleuze & Guattari thus oscillate between the pseudo-liberatory expressivity of mainstream car culture and the self-effacing dromoscopic "amne-sia of driving" (Baudrillard. Are a city's multitudes of cars resistant "projectiles" (Virilio or, rather, hegemonic "sites of containment" (Jane Jacobs? This essay approaches the complex tensions between "untamable" democratic mobility and state-regulated transit by way of two Hollywood-produced films that focus on traffic in Los Angeles: in Collateral (2004, a cab driver comes to recognize and transcend the hopelessly directionless circularity dictated by his job; in Falling Down (1993, a frustrated civil service employee abandons his car on a rush-hour freeway and decides to walk home, forced to traverse the supposedly unwalkable city without the "masking screen of the windshield" (Virilio. As they "quit stal-ling", both protagonists become dangerous variants of the defiant nomad - one a driver who remains on the road but goes "under the radar", the other a transient pedestrian whose movement becomes viral and unpredictable. My analysis of the films' metropolitan setting and of the

  18. The 'quit' smoker and stillbirth risk: a review of contemporary literature in the light of findings from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warland, Jane; McCutcheon, Helen

    2011-10-01

    to identify existing literature which addresses the topic of detecting, assessing and intervening when a pregnant woman who has quit smoking relapses. This literature review was conducted in the light of findings of a case-control study which suggest that a quit smoking status is associated with increased risk of late stillbirth (odds ratio 3.03, 95% confidence interval 1.27-7.24, p = 0.01). a structured review was conducted to identify literature related to quitting smoking in early pregnancy, prevalence and likelihood of relapse, possible methods for detecting smoking resumption, potential intervention strategies for the relapsed smoker and the societal burden of continuing to smoke in pregnancy. there is a wide variety of evidence for the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at assisting women to quit smoking during pregnancy. However, few studies have specifically aimed to identify strategies to assist those women who report quitting in early pregnancy to maintain that status throughout pregnancy. in light of the results of the case-control study and this literature review, it is important that changes are made to prenatal care in order to enable midwives to better identify women who are struggling with abstinence or who resume smoking during pregnancy. midwives should discuss and monitor smoking status with women at every prenatal visit. If a midwife finds that a woman has relapsed into smoking, they can be offered a range of quit smoking intervention strategies, including referral to a dedicated cessation service, counselling support, alternative therapies and, perhaps, nicotine replacement therapy. Further research aimed at identifying the extent of relapse among these women and the impact this may have on pregnancy outcome is warranted. Research to ascertain the most appropriate interventions to prevent relapse is also needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in China: a cross-sectional survey on the explanations provided by the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droomers, Mariël; Huang, Xinyuan; Fu, Wenjie; Yang, Yong; Li, Hong; Zheng, Pinpin

    2016-10-07

    We aim to describe the intention to quit smoking among Chinese male smokers from different educational backgrounds and to explain this intention from their attitude, perceived social norms and self-efficacy regarding smoking cessation. Participants were recruited from workplaces and communities to reflect the occupational distribution in three cities (Shanghai, Nanning and Mudanjiang) in China. In 2013 interviews were conducted with 3676 male smokers aged 18 years and older. Multivariate logistic regression analyses calculated educational differences in the intention to quit smoking as well as the association between the intention to quit smoking and attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Bootstrapping estimated to what extent the educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking were mediated by these three determinants. No educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking within 1 or 6 months were observed among male Chinese smokers (p=0.623 and p=0.153, respectively). A less negative attitude, a higher perceived subjective norm towards smoking cessation, and a higher perceived self-efficacy to quit smoking were all associated with intention to quit (all p values theory of planned behaviour that statistically significantly mediated the differences in the intention to quit smoking (within 1 or 6 months) between the lowest educated Chinese men and the groups with lower (β=0.039, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.071 and β=0.043, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.073), higher (β=0.041, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.075 and β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.077) and the highest education (β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.080 and β=0.050, 95% CI 0.023 to 0.083). In order to prevent future socioeconomic disparities in smoking cessation, investment in a more stimulating social environment and norms towards smoking cessation among particularly the lowest educated Chinese men is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  20. Engaging Élitism: The Mediating Effect of Work Engagement on Affective Commitment and Quit Intentions in Two Australian University Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Justine L.; Morris, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    Some universities rely on their élitism as one mechanism to attract and retain talented faculty. This paper examines two groups of élite and non-élite universities and the mediating effect that work engagement has on affective commitment and intention to quit. Findings indicate partial support for the mediating effect of work engagement in the…

  1. Demographic characteristics, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit as possible determinants of smoking behaviors and acceptability of shocking warnings in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Conti, Vittoria; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Paone, Gregorino; Cafolla, Maria; Saulle, Rosella; Bulzomì, Vincenzo; Antici, Daniele; Cuccurullo, Pasquale; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe; Terzano, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the final results of a cross-sectional study started in 2010. It compares the perceived efficacy of different types of tobacco health warning (texts versus shocking pictures) to quit or reduce tobacco use. The study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Italy enrolled adults smokers. Administering a questionnaire demographic data, smokers behaviors were collected. Showing text and graphic warnings (the corpse of a smoker, diseased lungs, etc.) the most perceived efficacy to reduce tobacco consumption or to encourage was quit. 666 subjects were interviewed; 6% of responders referred that they stopped smoking at least one month due to the textual warnings. The 81% of the smokers perceived that the warnings with shocking pictures are more effective in reducing/quitting tobacco consumption than text-only warnings. The younger group (shocking warnings to reduce tobacco consumption of, 76%, 78%, and 43%, respectively with P shock images. The jarring warnings also appear to be supporting those who want to quit smoking. This type of supportive information in Italy may become increasingly important for helping smokers to change their behavior.

  2. Trends and socioeconomic differences in policy triggers for thinking about quitting smoking: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hummel; G.E. Nagelhout; M.C. Willemsen; P. Driezen; L. Springvloet; U. Mons; A.E. Kunst; R. Guignard; S. Allwright; B. van den Putte; C. Hoving; G.T. Fong; A. McNeill; M. Siahpush; H. de Vries

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the current study is to investigate trends and socioeconomic differences in policy triggers for thinking about quitting in six European countries. Methods Data were derived from all available survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys (2003-2013).

  3. Predicting Quitting-Related Intentions and Smoking Behavior Using Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Problem Behavior Theory among Various Population Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung Gun

    2014-01-01

    This study consists of three sub-studies. Sub-study 1 and 2 attempted to incorporate environmental variables as precursor background variables of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict quitting-related intentions among Texas adult smokers and university student smokers, respectively. Sub-study 1 and 2 analyzed different data sets and were…

  4. The Impact of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels and Smoke-Free Law on Health Awareness and Thoughts of Quitting in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chung, Chi-Hui; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-yu

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of Taiwan's graphic cigarette warning labels and smoke-free law on awareness of the health hazards of smoking and thoughts of quitting smoking. National representative samples of 1074 and 1094 people, respectively, were conducted successfully by telephone in July 2008 (pre-law) and March 2009 (post-law).…

  5. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M.C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were

  6. Adult smokers' perception of the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking and association with quitting: a comparison between Thai Buddhists and Malaysian Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Hamann, Stephen L; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Omar, Maizurah

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, attempts have been made to incorporate religion into tobacco control efforts, especially in countries like Malaysia and Thailand where religion is central to the lives of people. This paper is a prospective examination of the perceived relevance and role of religion and religious authorities in influencing smoking behaviour among Muslims in Malaysia and Buddhists in Thailand. Data were collected from 1482 Muslim Malaysian and 1971 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who completed wave 1 (early 2005) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA). Respondents were asked about the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking at Wave 1 and among those recontacted, quitting activity at Wave 2. Results revealed that over 90% of both religious groups reported that their religion guides their day-to-day behaviour at least sometimes, but Malaysian Muslims were more likely to report that this was always the case. The majority (79% Muslims and 88% Buddhists) of both groups believed that their religion discourages smoking. About 61% of the Muslims and 58% of the Buddhists reported that their religious leaders had encouraged them to quit before and a minority (30% and 26%, respectively) said they would be an influential source to motivate them to quit. Logistic regression models suggest that these religious factors had a clear independent association with making quitting attempts in both countries and this translated to success for Malaysian Muslims but not for the Thai Buddhists. Taken together, results from this study indicate that religion and religious authorities are both relevant and important drivers of quitting, but whether this is always enough to guarantee success is less clear. Religion can be a culturally relevant vehicle to complement other tobacco control efforts.

  7. The role of theory-driven graphic warning labels in motivation to quit: a qualitative study on perceptions from low-income, urban smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L; Cohen, Joanna E; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Gallo, Joseph; Latkin, Carl A

    2015-02-07

    Use of communication theories in the development of pictorial health warning labels (graphic warning labels) for cigarette packaging might enhance labels' impact on motivation to quit, but research has been limited, particularly among low socioeconomic status (SES) populations in the U.S. This qualitative study explored perceptions of theory-based graphic warning labels and their role in motivation to quit among low-income smokers. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted with 25 low-income adult smokers in Baltimore, Maryland, who were purposively sampled from a community-based source population. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted from January to February 2014. Participants were asked about the motivational impact of 12 labels falling into four content categories: negative depictions of the health effects of smoking to smokers and others, and positive depictions of the benefits of quitting to smokers and others. Data were coded using a combined inductive/deductive approach and analyzed thematically through framework analysis. Labels depicting negative health effects to smokers were identified as most motivational, followed by labels depicting negative health effects to others. Reasons included perceived severity of and susceptibility to the effects, negative emotional reactions (such as fear), and concern for children. Labels about the benefits of quitting were described as motivational because of their hopefulness, characters as role models, and desire to improve family health. Reasons why labels were described as not motivational included lack of impact on perceived severity/susceptibility, low credibility, and fatalistic attitudes regarding the inevitability of disease. Labels designed to increase risk perceptions from smoking might be significant sources of motivation for low SES smokers. Findings suggest innovative theory-driven approaches for the design of labels, such as using former smokers as role models, contrasting healthy and

  8. Relation between newspaper coverage of 'light' cigarette litigation and beliefs about 'lights' among American adolescents and young adults: the impact on risk perceptions and quitting intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally M; Romer, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the impact of newspaper use in a year of increased coverage of litigation against the tobacco industry on youths' beliefs about the health risks of 'light' cigarettes, and examine relations between inaccurate beliefs about 'lights', perceptions of risk and intentions to quit smoking. The data come from the 2004 National Annenberg Survey of Youth, a representative random digit dial telephone survey of youths aged 14-22 years in the USA (n=1501; current smokers, n=305; 'lights' smokers, n=112). All youths were asked about newspaper use and beliefs regarding 'light' cigarettes (riskiness, addictiveness, ease of quitting). Smokers reported on risk perceptions and quitting intentions. We also examined changes in newspaper coverage related to 'lights' from January 2001 to April 2004. Newspaper coverage related to 'lights' increased in the first months of 2003, and continued into 2004. Logistic regression analyses suggest that 'lights' smokers with lower levels of newspaper use were most likely to hold inaccurate beliefs about 'lights' (OR=5.93, 95% CI 1.48 to 23.77). Smokers of 'lights' with inaccurate beliefs were less likely to perceive their smoking as risky (OR=0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.87), and smokers with inaccurate beliefs were less likely to have strong quitting intentions (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.96). Inaccurate beliefs about the risks of 'lights' were negatively related to youth smokers' perceptions of risk and intentions to quit smoking. News coverage surrounding the tobacco industry's failure to disclose these risks might help reduce these inaccurate, and potentially dangerous, beliefs.

  9. Secular versus religious norms against smoking: which is more important as a driver of quitting behaviour among Muslim Malaysian and Buddhist Thai smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Savvas, Steven; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah

    2013-06-01

    This paper prospectively examined two kinds of social normative beliefs about smoking, secular versus religious norms. The purpose of this paper is to determine the relative importance of these beliefs in influencing quitting behaviour among Muslim Malaysian and Buddhist Thai smokers. Data come from 2,166 Muslim Malaysian and 2,463 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who participated in the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia project. Respondents were followed up about 18 months later with replenishment. Respondents were asked at baseline about whether their society disapproved of smoking and whether their religion discouraged smoking, and those recontacted at follow-up were asked about their quitting activity. Majority of both religious groups perceived that their religion discouraged smoking (78% Muslim Malaysians and 86% Buddhist Thais) but considerably more Buddhist Thais than Muslim Malaysians perceived that their society disapproved of smoking (80% versus 25%). Among Muslim Malaysians, religious, but not societal, norms had an independent effect on quit attempts. By contrast, among the Buddhist Thais, while both normative beliefs had an independent positive effect on quit attempts, the effect was greater for societal norms. The two kinds of normative beliefs, however, were unrelated to quit success among those who tried. The findings suggest that religious norms about smoking may play a greater role than secular norms in driving behaviour change in an environment, like Malaysia where tobacco control has been relatively weak until more recently, but, in the context of a strong tobacco control environment like Thailand, secular norms about smoking become the dominant force.

  10. Health-related quality of life and self-related health in patients with type 2 diabetes: Effects of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadstrup Eva S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes can seriously affect patients' health-related quality of life and their self-rated health. Most often, evaluation of diabetes interventions assess effects on glycemic control with little consideration of quality of life. The aim of the current study was to study the effectiveness of group-based rehabilitation versus individual counselling on health-related quality of life (HRQOL and self-rated health in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods We randomised 143 type 2 diabetes patients to either a six-month multidisciplinary group-based rehabilitation programme including patient education, supervised exercise and a cooking-course or a six-month individual counselling programme. HRQOL was measured by Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36 and self-rated health was measured by Diabetes Symptom Checklist - Revised (DCS-R. Results In both groups, the lowest estimated mean scores of the SF36 questionnaire at baseline were "vitality" and "general health". There were no significant differences in the change of any item between the two groups after the six-month intervention period. However, vitality-score increased 5.2 points (p = 0.12 within the rehabilitation group and 5.6 points (p = 0.03 points among individual counselling participants. In both groups, the highest estimated mean scores of the DSC-R questionnaire at baseline were "Fatigue" and "Hyperglycaemia". Hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic distress decreased significantly after individual counselling than after group-based rehabilitation (difference -0.3 points, p = 0.04. No between-group differences occurred for any other items. However, fatigue distress decreased 0.40 points within the rehabilitation group (p = 0.01 and 0.34 points within the individual counselling group (p p = 0.01. Conclusions A group-based rehabilitation programme did not improve health-related quality of life and self-rated health more than an individual counselling

  11. The role of efficacy and moral outrage norms in creating the potential for international development activism through group-based interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emma F; McGarty, Craig A

    2009-03-01

    This paper adopts an intergroup perspective on helping as collective action to explore the ways to boost motivation amongst people in developed countries to join the effort to combat poverty and preventable disease in developing countries. Following van Zomeren, Spears, Leach, and Fischer's (2004) model of collective action, we investigated the role of norms about an emotional response (moral outrage) and beliefs about efficacy in motivating commitment to take action amongst members of advantaged groups. Norms about outrage and efficacy were harnessed to an opinion-based group identity (Bliuc, McGarty, Reynolds, & Muntele, 2007) and explored in the context of a novel group-based interaction method. Results showed that the group-based interaction boosted commitment to action especially when primed with an (injunctive) outrage norm. This norm stimulated a range of related effects including increased identification with the pro-international development opinion-based group, and higher efficacy beliefs. Results provide an intriguing instance of the power of group interaction (particularly where strengthened with emotion norms) to bolster commitment to positive social change.

  12. Genetic Risk Can Be Decreased: Quitting Smoking Decreases and Delays Lung Cancer for Smokers With High and Low CHRNA5 Risk Genotypes — A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Shiun Chen

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7 years for those who develop it. These results: 1 underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2 suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3 have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.

  13. The Effects of Occupational Stress, Work-Centrality, Self-Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction on Intent to Quit Among Long-Term Care Workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongkyu; Yoon, Seokwon; Moon, Sung Seek; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Park, Jueun

    2017-01-01

    A large and growing population of elderly Koreans with chronic conditions necessitates an increase in long-term care. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of occupational stress, work-centrality, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction on intent to leave among long-term care workers in Korea. We tested the hypothesized structural equation model predicting the intention to quit among long-term care workers in Korea. Survey data were collected from 532 long-term care workers in Seoul, Korea. Results showed that occupational stress was positively associated with intention to leave the job. The study also identified several possible mediators (self-efficacy, work-centrality, job satisfaction) in the relationship between stress and intent to quit. Evidence-based stress management interventions are suggested to help the workers better cope with stressors. Mentoring programs should also be considered for new workers.

  14. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lisa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301, two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; group B, n = 1,308. Subjects were invited for a health screening program. Participation rate was 52.5%. All participants received individual life-style counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease in group A were furthermore offered group-based life-style counselling. The intervention was repeated for high-risk individuals after one and three years. At five-year follow-up all participants were invited for a health examination. High risk individuals were included in this study (n = 2 356 and changes in dietary intake were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. Results At one-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio compared to group B and in men a significantly greater decrease in saturated fat intake was found in group A compared to group B (net change: -1.13 E%; P = 0.003. No differences were found between group A and B at three-year follow-up. At five-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio (net change: 0.09; P = 0.01 and the fish intake compared to group B (net change: 5.4 g/day; P = 0.05. Further, in men a non-significant tendency of a greater decrease was found at five year follow-up in group A compared to group B (net change: -0.68 E%; P = 0.10. The intake of fibre and vegetables increased in both groups, however, no significant difference was found between the groups. No differences between groups were found for saturated fat

  15. Relationship of Smokefree Laws and Alcohol Use with Light and Intermittent Smoking and Quit Attempts among US Adults and Alcohol Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    Full Text Available Light and intermittent smoking (LITS has become increasingly common. Alcohol drinkers are more likely to smoke. We examined the association of smokefree law and bar law coverage and alcohol use with current smoking, LITS, and smoking quit attempts among US adults and alcohol drinkers.Cross-sectional analyses among a population-based sample of US adults (n = 27,731 using restricted data from 2009 National Health Interview Survey and 2009 American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation United States Tobacco Control Database. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship of smokefree law coverage and drinking frequency (1 with current smoking among all adults; (2 with 4 LITS patterns among current smokers; and (3 with smoking quit attempts among 6 smoking subgroups. Same multivariate analyses were conducted but substituted smokefree bar law coverage for smokefree law coverage to investigate the association between smokefree bar laws and the outcomes. Finally we ran the above analyses among alcohol drinkers (n = 16,961 to examine the relationship of smokefree law (and bar law coverage and binge drinking with the outcomes. All models controlled for demographics and average cigarette price per pack. The interactions of smokefree law (and bar law coverage and drinking status was examined.Stronger smokefree law (and bar law coverage was associated with lower odds of current smoking among all adults and among drinkers, and had the same effect across all drinking and binge drinking subgroups. Increased drinking frequency and binge drinking were related to higher odds of current smoking. Smokefree law (and bar law coverage and drinking status were not associated with any LITS measures or smoking quit attempts.Stronger smokefree laws and bar laws are associated with lower smoking rates across all drinking subgroups, which provides further support for these policies. More strict tobacco control measures might help reduce cigarette consumption and

  16. E-cigarette advertisements, and associations with the use of e-cigarettes and disapproval or quitting of smoking: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Heijndijk, Suzanne M; Cummings, K Michael; Willemsen, Marc C; van den Putte, Bas; Heckman, Bryan W; Hummel, Karin; de Vries, Hein; Hammond, David; Borland, Ron

    2016-03-01

    Much attention has been directed towards the possible effects of e-cigarette advertisements on adolescent never smokers. However, e-cigarette advertising may also influence perceptions and behaviours of adult smokers. The aim of our study was to examine whether noticing e-cigarette advertisements is associated with current use of e-cigarettes, disapproval of smoking, quit smoking attempts, and quit smoking success. We used longitudinal data from two survey waves of the ITC Netherlands Survey among smokers aged 16 years and older (n=1198). Respondents were asked whether they noticed e-cigarettes being advertised on television, on the radio, and in newspapers or magazines in the previous 6 months. There was a significant increase in noticing e-cigarette advertisements between 2013 (13.3%) and 2014 (36.0%), across all media. The largest increase was for television advertisements. There was also a substantial increase in current use of e-cigarettes (from 3.1% to 13.3%), but this was not related to noticing advertisements in traditional media (OR=0.99, p=0.937). Noticing advertisements was bivariately associated with more disapproval of smoking (Beta=0.05, p=0.019) and with a higher likelihood of attempting to quit smoking (OR=1.37, p=0.038), but these associations did not reach significance in multivariate analyses. There was no significant association between noticing advertisements and quit smoking success in either the bivariate or multivariate regression analysis (OR=0.92, p=0.807). Noticing e-cigarette advertisements increased sharply in the Netherlands between 2013 and 2014 along with increased e-cigarette use, but the two appear unrelated. The advertisements did not seem to have adverse effects on disapproval of smoking and smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of risk assessment scales and predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a cross-sectional survey protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoking is a very significant behavioural risk factor for the health of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, and is embedded as a social norm. With a focus on women of childbearing age, and men of similar age, this project aims to determine how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers assess smoking risks and how these assessments contribute to their intentions to quit. The findings from this pragmatic study should contribute to developing culturally ta...

  18. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004–11) of the ITC Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers’ perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Methods Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Results Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Conclusions Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires. PMID:24359292

  19. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004-11) of the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison, Sarah E; O'Connor, Richard J; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-12-21

    Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers' perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires.

  20. "After all--it doesn't kill you to quit smoking": an explorative analysis of the blog in a smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of literature demonstrates internet-based smoking cessation interventions as a promising aid in helping people quit smoking. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these interventions influence the cessation process are still relatively unknown. Several studies have indicated blogging as a potential source in providing social support to users of internet-based smoking cessation interventions and thereby enhance their change of succeeding in quitting. The study aimed to investigate themes discussed on a blog in an internet-based smoking cessation intervention. In addition, we examined if blogging could provide social support for people in a smoking cessation process. The study was based on messages posted from 1 January 2012 to 29 February 2012 on the blog of the internet-based smoking cessation programme DDSP, operated by the Danish Cancer Society. Messages were coded according to themes using Grounded Theory, and additionally data about bloggers were analyzed. In total, 1663 messages were posted within the 2-month period, and we identified 16 themes. The majority of messages contained personal stories or experiences (53%), provided emotional support (34%) or congratulated other users (17%). The messages were found capable of supplying social support to members on the blog. In addition, we found that only a minority of users who viewed the blog participated actively in posting messages, and only a minority was highly active bloggers. The blog offers a unique platform for informal conversations about quitting smoking and is important in providing social support to people in a smoking cessation process.

  1. The combined effect of behavioral intention and exposure to a smoke-free air law on taking measures to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jay, Stephen J; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2012-07-01

    Because of the large burden of disease attributable to cigarette smoking, a variety of tobacco control interventions, some focused on changing individual behavior and others focused on influencing societal norms, have been introduced. The current study tested the combined effect of behavioral intention and exposure to a comprehensive smoke-free air law as a prospective predictor of taking measures to quit smoking. Participants were 187 adults living in 7 Texas cities, 3 with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and 4 without such a law, who reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and completed a 1-month follow-up interview. Data were collected by telephone administration of a questionnaire. Results showed that, compared with smokers with low behavioral intention to take measures to quit smoking and no exposure to a comprehensive smoke-free air law, the smokers with high behavioral intention and exposure to a comprehensive law had the greatest odds of taking measures to quit smoking. This longitudinal study provides further evidence that the most successful smoking cessation campaigns will be multifaceted addressing individual factors with educational strategies designed to change beliefs and intentions and environmental factors with policy-based interventions.

  2. Money as motivation to quit: a survey of a non-random Australian sample of socially disadvantaged smokers' views of the acceptability of cash incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonevski, B; Bryant, J; Lynagh, M; Paul, C

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to a) assess acceptability of personal financial incentives to socially disadvantaged smokers and non-smokers; b) examine factors associated with acceptability; and c) examine preferred levels of incentive amounts. A cross-sectional touch screen computer survey was conducted between February and October 2010 in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were clients experiencing financial or social hardship and receiving emergency welfare aid from a non-government social and community service organisation. Of 383 participants (69% response rate), 46% believed personal financial incentives were an excellent/good idea, 47% believed personal financial incentives did more good than harm and 61% agreed they would motivate smokers to quit. High acceptability ratings were associated with participants being female, current smokers, living in low socioeconomic areas, experiencing smoking-induced deprivation, making a previous quit attempt and intending to quit in the next 6 months. When asked what amount of incentive they felt would be acceptable, 23% selected amounts between $50 and $500 AUD and 37% selected amounts over $500 AUD. Given high smoking prevalence among socially disadvantaged groups and consequent health disparities, it is imperative novel methods of encouraging smoking cessation are explored and tested. This survey found financial incentives may be an acceptable method. Further research to understand all possible positive and negative effects is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of in-pregnancy smoking cessation programmes on partner quitting and women's social support mobilization: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN89131885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Olga

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy could influence a woman's social behaviour and her partner's smoking behaviour, but this has not been examined in any published randomized trials. Method 918 women smoking at booking for antenatal care were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial of three interventions: standard care, self-help manual and enhanced stage-based counselling, or self-help manual, enhanced stage-based counselling and use of an interactive computer program. The outcomes were change in social support received by women between booking for maternity care and 30 weeks gestation and 10 days postpartum and reported cessation in the woman's partner at these times. Results Few pregnant women's partners stopped smoking (4.1% at 30 weeks of gestation and 5.8% at 10 days postpartum and the probability of quitting did not differ significantly by trial arm. Women's scores on the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors showed a slight decline from booking to 30 weeks gestation, and a slight increase to 10 days postpartum, but these changes did not differ significantly by trial arm. Conclusion The stage-based interventions tested in this trial aimed partly to influence women's mobilization of support and might have influenced partners' quitting, but there was no evidence that they did so. Given that women and their partners often stopped smoking together, future interventions to prevent smoking in pregnant women could encourage both partners to quit together.

  4. Coping Mediates the Association of Mindfulness with Psychological Stress, Affect, and Depression Among Smokers Preparing to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cao, Yumei; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Marcus, Marianne T.; Li, Yisheng; Wetter, David W.

    2017-01-01

    It is not surprising that smoking abstinence rates are low given that smoking cessation is associated with increases in negative affect and stress that can persist for months. Mindfulness is one factor that has been broadly linked with enhanced emotional regulation. This study examined baseline associations of self-reported trait mindfulness with psychological stress, negative affect, positive affect, and depression among 158 smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment trial. Several coping dimensions were evaluated as potential mediators of these associations. Results indicated that mindfulness was negatively associated with psychological stress, negative affect and depression, and positively associated with positive affect. Furthermore, the use of relaxation as a coping strategy independently mediated the association of mindfulness with psychological stress, positive affect, and depression. The robust and consistent pattern that emerged suggests that greater mindfulness may facilitate cessation and attenuate vulnerability to relapse among smokers preparing for cessation. Furthermore, relaxation appears to be a key mechanism underlying these associations. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT00297479. PMID:28191263

  5. A Group-Based Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Quan Hoang; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lan, Hang Thi Xuan; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn J

    2016-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam. There are currently no evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions for MSM in this setting. Between October 2012 and June 2013, 100 high-risk MSM from Ho Chi Minh City were enrolled in an open pilot trial to assess feasibility and acceptability of a group-based, manualized sexual risk reduction intervention, and to preliminarily examine changes in primary and secondary outcomes. Participants completed a behavioral assessment battery and HIV testing at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Over 80.0 % of the sample was sex acts from baseline (6.32) to 3 month (2.06) and 6 month (2.49) follow-up (p Vietnam in a randomized controlled efficacy trial.

  6. The experiences of staff taking on the role of lay therapist in a group-based cognitive behavioural therapy anger management intervention for people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Aimée; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; MacMahon, Pamela; Rose, Nicola; Townson, Julia; Felce, David; Hood, Kerenza; Jahoda, Andrew; Rose, John; Willner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To explore the experience of 'lay therapists' of a group-based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) anger management intervention. Staff employed in daytime opportunity services for adults with intellectual disabilities took on the role of 'lay therapist' to facilitate CBT groups. They were trained and supervised by clinical psychologists and interviewed 2-6 weeks after the last group session. Their experiences were explored by means of a qualitative approach, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Several key themes emerged from the interview data such as 'hopes and fears', 'having a framework', 'making it work', 'observing progress', 'ingredients of success', 'the therapist role' and 'taking the group forward'. These themes indicate that participants' experiences had been perceived as positive for themselves, the service users as well as the relevant organization although initially the therapist role had appeared daunting. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Group-based exercise in daily clinical practice to improve physical fitness in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergren, Peter; Ragle, Anne-Mette; Jakobsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    . This article describes the design of an ongoing prospective observational study to evaluate the potential benefits of exercise in daily clinical practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Men diagnosed with prostate cancer starting or already receiving ADT at our facility are invited to participate in a 12-week exercise...... educational session of 1½ hours followed by 12 weeks of group-based supervised training two times a week. The focus of the exercise is progressive resistance training in combination with aerobic training. Participants are measured at baseline, after 12 weeks and after 24 weeks as part of the programme....... Primary endpoints of this study are changes in physical fitness evaluated by the 30 s Chair-Stand Test and Graded Cycling Test with Talk Test. Secondary endpoints include changes in quality of life, body composition and safety of exercise. Inclusion started in August 2014, with 169 participants being...

  8. Use of nicotine substitute prescribed at hourly plus ab libitum intake or ad libitum for heavy smokers willing to quit: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zellweger Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the impact of instructional guidance in the regular use of use nicotine nasal spray (NNS on the true use of NNS during the first three weeks of smoking cessation for heavy smokers who are willing to quit. Methods This randomized, open, controlled trial included 50 patients who were heavy smokers, were willing to quit, and attending an academic outpatient clinic in Western Switzerland. Patients were randomised to instruction on NNS use as "ad libitum" (administration whenever cravings appear; control group or to use NNS when craving appears and at least every hour when awake (intervention group. Intakes were monitored using an electronic device fixed in the spray unit (MDILog™ during the first three weeks of use. Self reported abstinence from smoking at six months was confirmed by expired-air carbon monoxide. Using intention-to-treat analysis, random-effect GLS regression was used to calculate the mean difference of daily doses between groups controlling for lack of independence between measures from the same individual. Results One patient was lost to follow-up. At baseline randomization, the group receiving instruction to use NNS hourly included more women, patients with previous desires to quit, and patients with more psychiatric comorbidities and less somatic complaints compared to the group instructed to use NNS with cravings (group imbalance. Both groups self-administered more than the daily recommended dosage of 8 uses. Mean daily usage was 13.6 dose/day and 11.1 dose/day for the group instructed to use NNS hourly and with cravings, respectively. Adjusting for baseline imbalance, the increased daily doses in the intervention group (hourly use remained nonsignificant compared to ad libitum use (-0.5 dose/day; CI 95% -6.2; 5.3, from day 1 to day 7; and 2.3 dose/day; CI 95% -5.4; 10.0, from day 8 to day 21. Instructing patients to use the NNS daily had no effect on smoking cessation at six months (RR = 0.69; CI

  9. Evaluation of a web-based educational programme on changes in frequency of nurses' interventions to help smokers quit and reduce second-hand smoke exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Zou, Xiao Nong; Wang, Weili; Hong, Jingfang; Wells, Marjorie; Brook, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a web-based educational smoking cessation programme on changes in the frequency of hospital-based nurses' self-reported interventions to help smokers quit using the 5 As (i.e. Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange), to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke and to change attitudes about nurses' involvement in tobacco control. Few nurses in China support smokers' quit attempts using evidence-based smoking cessation interventions based on the 5 As. Limited knowledge is a barrier to intervention. Web-based tobacco cessation programs have the potential to reach a large population of nurses. A prospective single-group design with pre-, 3- and 6-month follow-up after the educational programme evaluated the feasibility of conducting web-based educational programs in two cities in China in 2012-2013. Frequency of interventions was assessed using a valid and reliable web-based survey with a convenience sample of nurses from eight hospitals in Beijing and Hefei, China. Generalized linear models, adjusting for age, clinical setting, education and site were used to determine changes in the consistent (usually/always) use of the 5 As from baseline to 3 and to 6 months. Nurses (N = 1386) had baseline and/or 3- and 6-month data. At 6 months, nurses were significantly more likely to Assess, Assist and Arrange for smoking cessation and recommend smoke-free home environments. There was significant improvement in attitudes about tobacco control. Nurses receiving web-based smoking cessation education significantly increased self-reports of frequency of providing interventions to patients who smoke, including recommending smoke-free home environments to support quit attempts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A Brief Smoking Cessation Advice by Youth Counselors for the Smokers in the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest 2010: a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Wong, Yee Man Bonny; Kwong, Antonio; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2017-07-28

    Smoking cessation counseling by healthcare professionals is effective, but very few healthcare professionals can deliver these interventions in the busy clinical settings. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief smoking cessation advice delivered by briefly-trained youth counselors at the enrolment of an incentive-based smoking cessation campaign. The study design was a cluster 2-arm randomized controlled trial of 831 Chinese adult smokers who were recruited in public areas to participate in the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest 2010. The intervention group (n = 441) received a 5-min quitting advice from the youth counselors, who were mainly undergraduate nursing students, and a 12-page self-help smoking cessation booklet at the enrolment, while the control group (n = 390) only received the same booklet. Biochemically confirmed quitters at 6-month follow-up could join a lucky draw that offered HK$10,000 (US$1282) cash prize to three winners and HK$4000 gift vouchers to the other 10 winners. Primary outcome was self-reported smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up. By intention-to-treat, the intervention group had a non-significantly higher self-reported (18.4 versus 13.8%, OR = 1.40, 95% CI 0.96-2.04, p = 0.08) and validated quit rate (9.1 versus 6.7%, OR = 1.40, 95% CI 0.84-2.33, p = 0.20) than the control group at 6-month follow-up. The analysis with multiple imputation for missing data also found similar results. We concluded that the brief on-site advice by trained youth counselors had a modest effect on smoking cessation, but the effect was not significant. Future studies with larger sample size and results from higher participation of the biochemical validation to confirm the effectiveness are warranted.

  11. Smoking Cessation Support by Text Message During Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study of Views and Experiences of the MiQuit Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Melanie; Hopewell, Sarah; Coleman, Tim; Cooper, Sue; Naughton, Felix

    2017-05-01

    SMS text messaging is increasingly used for delivering smoking cessation support and pilot studies suggest this may also be useful in pregnancy. This study explores the views of women who received a tailored text messaging cessation intervention (MiQuit) during pregnancy, focusing on acceptability, perceived impact, and suggestions for improvements. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 purposively sampled women who had received the MiQuit intervention during pregnancy as part of a randomized controlled trial. Data were analyzed thematically. Three main themes were identified: "impact", "approach," and "optimization." Participants described an immediate, yet often short-lived, impact from the texts that distracted and delayed them from smoking and they perceived that texts focusing on the development of and risk to the baby generated more enduring emotional impacts. Most women found receiving support by text preferable to face-to-face cessation support, with participants citing the greater regularity, convenience, and non-judgmental style as particular advantages. Participants would have preferred a longer support program with increased tailoring, greater customization of text timings and consideration of cutting down as an alternative/precursor to quitting. Pregnancy-specific cessation support by text message was well received and participants considered the support increased their motivation to stop smoking. The focus on the developing baby, the regularity of contact and the provision of gentle, encouraging messages were highlighted as particularly important elements of the program. This study adds further evidence to the acceptability and perceived positive impact of text-messaging programs in aiding smoking cessation in pregnancy. The findings indicate that for some women, this type of support is preferable to face-to-face methods and could be utilized by health professionals, either in addition to current methods or as an alternative. This study

  12. Correlation between tobacco control policies, consumption of rolled tobacco and e-cigarettes, and intention to quit conventional tobacco, in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saliba, Patrick; Graffelman, Jan; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-03-01

    To analyse the correlation between the implementation of tobacco control policies and tobacco consumption, particularly rolling tobacco, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) users and the intent to quit smoking in 27 countries of the European Union. Ecological study with the country as the unit of analysis. We used the data from tobacco control activities, measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), in 27 European countries, in 2010, and the prevalence of tobacco consumption data from the Eurobarometer of 2012. Spearman correlation coefficients (rsp) and their 95% CIs. There was a negative correlation between TCS and prevalence of smoking (rsp=-0.41; 95% CI -0.67 to -0.07). We also found a negative correlation (rsp=-0.31) between TCS and the prevalence of ever e-cigarette users, but it was not statistically significant. Among former cigarette smokers, there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between TCS and the consumption of hand-rolled tobacco (rsp=0.46; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.70). We observed a similar correlation between TCS and other tobacco products (cigars and pipe) among former cigarette smokers. There was a significant positive correlation between TCS and intent to quit smoking in the past 12 months (rsp=0.66; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.87). The level of smoke-free legislation among European countries is correlated with a decrease in the prevalence of smoking of conventional cigarettes and an increase in the intent to quit smoking within the past 12 months. However, the consumption of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, is positively correlated with TCS among former cigarette smokers. Therefore, tobacco control policies should also consider other tobacco products, such as rolling tobacco, cigars and pipes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Assessing the effectiveness of antismoking television advertisements: do audience ratings of perceived effectiveness predict changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Wakefield, Melanie A; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-01

    Decisions about which antismoking advertisements should be aired are often guided by audience ratings of perceived effectiveness (PE). Given that the usefulness of PE measures depends on their ability to predict the likelihood that a message will have a positive impact on outcomes such as behaviour change, in the current study we used pre-exposure, postexposure and follow-up measures to test the association between PE and subsequent changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours. Daily smokers (N=231; 18 years and older) completed baseline measures of quitting intentions before watching an antismoking advertisement. Immediately following exposure, intentions were measured again and PE was measured using six items that factored into two scales: ad-directed PE (ADPE) and personalised PE (PPE). A follow-up telephone survey conducted within 3 weeks of exposure measured behaviour change (reduced cigarette consumption or quit attempts). From pre-exposure to postexposure, 18% of smokers showed a positive change in their intentions. Controlling for baseline intentions, PPE independently predicted intention change (OR=2.57, p=0.004). At follow-up, 26% of smokers reported that they had changed their behaviour. PPE scores also predicted the likelihood of behaviour change (OR=1.93, p=0.009). Audience ratings of PPE, but not ADPE, were found to predict subsequent intention and behaviour change. These findings increase confidence in the use of PE measures to pretest and evaluate antismoking television advertisements, particularly when these measures tap the extent to which a smoker has been personally affected by the message. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a group-based pain self-management intervention for patients undergoing total hip replacement: feasibility study for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Marques, Elsa; Artz, Neil; Blom, Ashley; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2014-05-20

    Total hip replacement (THR) is a common elective surgical procedure and can be effective for reducing chronic pain. However, waiting times can be considerable. A pain self-management intervention may provide patients with skills to more effectively manage their pain and its impact during their wait for surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a group-based pain self-management course for patients undergoing THR. Patients listed for a THR at one orthopedic center were posted a study invitation pack. Participants were randomized to attend a pain self-management course plus standard care or standard care only. The lay-led course was delivered by Arthritis Care and consisted of two half-day sessions prior to surgery and one full-day session after surgery. Participants provided outcome and resource-use data using a diary and postal questionnaires prior to surgery and one month, three months and six months after surgery. Brief telephone interviews were conducted with non-participants to explore barriers to participation. Invitations were sent to 385 eligible patients and 88 patients (23%) consented to participate. Interviews with 57 non-participants revealed the most common reasons for non-participation were views about the course and transport difficulties. Of the 43 patients randomized to the intervention group, 28 attended the pre-operative pain self-management sessions and 11 attended the post-operative sessions. Participant satisfaction with the course was high, and feedback highlighted that patients enjoyed the group format. Retention of participants was acceptable (83% of recruited patients completed follow-up) and questionnaire return rates were high (72% to 93%), with the exception of the pre-operative resource-use diary (35% return rate). Resource-use completion rates allowed for an economic evaluation from the health and social care payer perspective

  15. Never Quit: The Complexities of Promoting Social and Academic Excellence at a Single-Gender School for Urban African American Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon C. James

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the experiences of urban African American males at a first year single-gender charter school in the Southern region of the United States. The present case study was based on interviews and focus groups with parents, teachers, students, and the school administrator, and a participant observation of Excel Academy [pseudonym]. The findings of this study suggest that there were four critical instructional complexities that emerged: expectations dissonance, disguised engagement, differential engagement, and expectations overload. Remarkably, these issues were being addressed by a school value created by students and institutionalized by teachers--To Never Quit. Recommendations to address each instructional complexity are explored.

  16. Factors Associated With Smoking, Quit Attempts and Attitudes towards Total Smoking Bans at University: A Survey of Seven Universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, W.; Stock, C.

    2012-01-01

    degree; and, students who reported binge drinking. Conversely, daily smoking was less likely among students who rated their health as very good/excellent, those who ate >= 5 portions of fruit or vegetables, and those who had never taken illicit drugs. Previous attempt/s to quit smoking were more likely...... who rated their health as very good/excellent, those who ate >= 5 portions of fruit or vegetables daily, and those who had never taken illicit drugs, but less likely among daily smokers. Conclusion: Favourable health practices and positive attitudes towards smoking ban were associated with each other...

  17. Analysis on influencing factors of quit smoking among undergraduate students in Guangzhou City%广州市大学生戒烟影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爱; 许信红; 陈建伟; 何子健

    2013-01-01

    目的了解广州市大学生戒烟情况及影响因素。方法采用分层随机整群抽样的方法,于2012年5月对广州市6所大学1~4年级学生进行问卷调查,采用多因素非条件 Logistic 回归分析戒烟的影响因素。结果共调查11593人,戒烟人数360,戒烟率33.77%;女性戒烟率(43.24%)高于男性(32.24%);家庭平均月收入、学生月生活费及父亲文化程度越高,学生戒烟率越低;城职户籍学生戒烟率低于农村户籍;多因素 Logistic 回归分析结果显示戒烟的影响因素为:性别(OR =0.362,95% CI:0.240~0.547)、学校(OR 医学类与理工类=5.275,95% CI:2.872~9.689)、月生活费(OR <500与≥2000=7.115,95% CI:2.538~19.945)、户籍所在地(OR 本省外市 VS 本市=1.597,95% CI:1.044~2.442)、吸烟知识(OR =1.407,95% CI:1.047~1.891)、压力(OR 无与中、重=0.503,95%CI:0.278~0.912)。结论吸烟大学生戒烟与否受多种客观因素的影响,需要社会、学校和家长联合对大学生开展控烟宣传教育以及加强管理工作,促使吸烟学生尽早改变吸烟行为。%Objective To describe the quit smoking status and influence factors among undergraduate students in Guangzhou City.Methods A survey on tobacco use was carried out in six universities of Guangzhou in May 2012,and stratified random cluster sampling method was used.Multivariable logistic regressions were conduct to explore the influence factors of quit smoking.Results A total of 11 593 students were investigated,and the prevalence rate of quit smoking was 33.77% (360 in 11 593).The quit smoking rate was higher in female (43.24%)than those in male (32.24%).The monthly incoming of family,living expenses per month in school and father’s education level were negative related to quit smoking.The quit smoking rate of undergraduate who come from town was lower than those come from

  18. Making It Harder to Smoke and Easier to Quit: The Effect of 10 Years of Tobacco Control in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Elizabeth A.; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Johns, Michael; Coady, Micaela H.; Perl, Sarah B.; Goodman, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, New York City implemented a comprehensive tobacco control plan that discouraged smoking through excise taxes and smoke-free air laws and facilitated quitting through population-wide cessation services and hard-hitting media campaigns. Following the implementation of these activities through a well-funded and politically supported program, the adult smoking rate declined by 28% from 2002 to 2012, and the youth smoking rate declined by 52% from 2001 to 2011. These improvements indicate that local jurisdictions can have a significant positive effect on tobacco control. PMID:24825232

  19. 'We aren't quite as good, but we sure are cheap': prospects for disruptive innovation in medical care and insurance markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2008-01-01

    The concept of "disruptive innovation" by new products of moderately lower quality and much lower cost is useful for the medical care sector. Such products are rarely offered, and when they are (as in the case of health maintenance organizations), they are subject to intense criticism. This Perspective argues that both the legal system and accepted discourse in public policy have inhibited discussion of such alternatives; indeed, the paper by Jason Hwang and Clay Christensen loses its focus on them at the end. The applicability of this concept is quite limited but, given sufficient changes in framing and regulating, might be helpful in the future.

  20. The potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Wind, Gitte; Skinner, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals' person-centered communication skills are pivotal for successful group-based diabetes education. However, healthcare professionals are often insufficiently equipped to facilitate person-centeredness and many have never received post-graduate training. Currentl...