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Sample records for group position multilevel

  1. The multilevel analysis of surface acting and mental health: A moderation of positive group affective tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Shiu; Huang, Jui-Chan; Wu, Tzu-Jung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among surface acting, mental health, and positive group affective tone. According to the prior theory, this study attempts to establish a comprehensive research framework among these variables, and furthermore tests the moderating effect of positive group affective tone. Data were collected from 435 employees in 52 service industrial companies by questionnaire, and this study conducted multilevel analysis. The results showed that surface acting will negatively affect the mental health. In addition, the positive group affective tone have significant moderating effect on the relationship among surface acting and mental health. Finally, this study discusses managerial implications and highlights future research suggestions.

  2. Testing Group Mean Differences of Latent Variables in Multilevel Data Using Multiple-Group Multilevel CFA and Multilevel MIMIC Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.

  3. Opposition to enlargement as a symbolic defence of group position: multilevel analyses of attitudes toward candidates' entries in the EU-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jeffrey C

    2010-03-01

    Despite the sociological and geopolitical significance of EU enlargement and opinion toward it, extant literature is lacking a theory of enlargement opinion and an examination of opinion in the wake of the 2004 enlargement. This paper fills these gaps by developing a symbolic defence of group position model to explain opposition to the entries of candidate states (as of 2005: Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, and Turkey) and to examine how these explanations differ for post-Communist EU members. Results of hierarchical multinomial logistic models of Eurobarometer (European Commission 2005) data from the EU-25 support the notion that the symbolic nature of enlargement shapes the effects of interests, threat, and other factors on opinion depending on candidates' position in a culturally and historically-rooted hierarchy of 'European-ness'. Attitudes toward Turkey's entry are less shaped by material interests than attitudes toward other candidates' entries, which is explained by Turkey's position at the bottom - and post-Communist countries' position in the middle - of this hierarchy in the post-Cold War era. Attitudes toward Turkey's entry are rather a function of the perceived threat that it poses to the group position and identity of Europeans, which is defended by the politically knowledgeable. While the lower levels of threat in post-socialist EU member countries help to account for their lower levels of opposition to candidates' entries, people in these countries to a greater extent use European identity as a way of symbolically distancing themselves from Turkey. Implications are discussed.

  4. A multilevel perspective on faultlines: Differentiating the effects between group- and organizational-level faultlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukova, Katerina; Spell, Chester S; Caldwell, David; Burger, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the literature on faultlines, conflict, and pay, we drew on the basic principles of multilevel theory and differentiated between group- and organizational-level faultlines to introduce a novel multilevel perspective on faultlines. Using multisource, multilevel data on 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams, we found that group-level faultlines were negatively associated with group performance, and that internally focused conflict exacerbated but externally focused conflict mitigated this effect. Organizational-level faultlines were negatively related to organizational performance, and were most harmful in organizations with high levels of compensation. Implications for groups and teams in the sports/entertainment and other industries are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Teamwork Satisfaction: Exploring the Multilevel Interaction of Teamwork Interest and Group Extraversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kimberly A.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling is used to examine the impact of teamwork interest and group extraversion on group satisfaction. Participants included 206 undergraduates in 65 groups who were surveyed at the beginning and end of a requisite term-length group project for an upper-division university course. We hypothesized that teamwork interest and both…

  6. Multilevel Contextual 3-D CNNs for False Positive Reduction in Pulmonary Nodule Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Qi; Chen, Hao; Yu, Lequan; Qin, Jing; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2017-07-01

    False positive reduction is one of the most crucial components in an automated pulmonary nodule detection system, which plays an important role in lung cancer diagnosis and early treatment. The objective of this paper is to effectively address the challenges in this task and therefore to accurately discriminate the true nodules from a large number of candidates. We propose a novel method employing three-dimensional (3-D) convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for false positive reduction in automated pulmonary nodule detection from volumetric computed tomography (CT) scans. Compared with its 2-D counterparts, the 3-D CNNs can encode richer spatial information and extract more representative features via their hierarchical architecture trained with 3-D samples. More importantly, we further propose a simple yet effective strategy to encode multilevel contextual information to meet the challenges coming with the large variations and hard mimics of pulmonary nodules. The proposed framework has been extensively validated in the LUNA16 challenge held in conjunction with ISBI 2016, where we achieved the highest competition performance metric (CPM) score in the false positive reduction track. Experimental results demonstrated the importance and effectiveness of integrating multilevel contextual information into 3-D CNN framework for automated pulmonary nodule detection in volumetric CT data. While our method is tailored for pulmonary nodule detection, the proposed framework is general and can be easily extended to many other 3-D object detection tasks from volumetric medical images, where the targeting objects have large variations and are accompanied by a number of hard mimics.

  7. Interdependence and organizational citizenship behavior: exploring the mediating effect of group cohesion in multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Tang, Ya-Yun; Wang, Shih-Jon

    2009-12-01

    The authors investigated the mechanism of group cohesion in the relationship between (a) task interdependence and goal interdependence and (b) individuals' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The authors adopted a multilevel perspective to facilitate understanding of the complex relations among variables. They collected data from 53 supervisors and 270 employees from R&D departments in Taiwan. The authors found that group cohesion fully mediated the effects of task interdependence and goal interdependence on employees' OCB. In addition, task interdependence had a greater effect on group cohesion than did goal interdependence. The authors discuss implications and suggestions for future research.

  8. Group identity and positive deviance in work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Joung; Choi, Jin Nam

    2017-12-05

    This study examines why and how identity cognitions, including group identification and individual differentiation, influence the positive deviance of employees. We identify the risk-taking intention of employees as a critical psychological mechanism to overcome stigma-induced identity threat of positive deviance. The analysis of data collected from 293 members comprising 66 work teams reveals that the relationship between individual differentiation and positive deviance is partially mediated by risk-taking intention. The indirect effect of group identification on positive deviance through risk-taking intention is also significant and positive in groups with low conformity pressure, whereas the same indirect effect is neutralized in groups with high conformity pressure. The current analysis offers new insights into the way the group context and the identity cognition of members explain the development of positive deviance and workplace creativity.

  9. Adaptive grouping for the higher-order multilevel fast multipole method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An alternative parameter-free adaptive approach for the grouping of the basis function patterns in the multilevel fast multipole method is presented, yielding significant memory savings compared to the traditional Octree grouping for most discretizations, particularly when using higher-order basis...... functions. Results from both a uniformly and nonuniformly meshed scatterer are presented, showing how the technique is worthwhile even for regular meshes, and demonstrating that there is no loss of accuracy in spite of the large reduction in memory requirements and the relatively low computational cost....

  10. Small groups, contexts, and civic engagement: A multilevel analysis of United States Congregational Life Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew L; Stroope, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Prior research suggests that church-goers are more civically engaged than their non-church-going counterparts. Little is known, however, about how the popular phenomenon of small groups factors into this equation. In the present study, we examine relationships between small group participation at individual and congregation levels and civic engagement. Using multilevel modeling and national data on congregations and individuals from the U.S. Congregational Life Study (n=82,044), we find that: (1) individual-level small group involvement is associated with four measures of civic engagement; (2) congregation-level small group participation is associated with both lower and higher civic engagement in the case of two outcomes; and (3) in the case of three civic outcomes, congregation-level small group participation moderates individual-level small group involvement such that small group members' civic activity more closely resembles the lower civic engagement of small group nonparticipants. In the case of one civic outcome, at high levels of overall small group participation, small group members' civic engagement drops below that of small group nonparticipants. Explanations for these findings, including a "crowding out" effect, are examined including their complex implications for debates regarding small groups, religious involvement, and civic engagement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Three-level multilevel growth models for nested change data: a guide for group treatment researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Illing, Vanessa; Joyce, Anthony S; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2009-07-01

    Researchers have known for years about the negative impact on Type I error rates caused by dependencies in hierarchically nested and longitudinal data. Despite this, group treatment researchers do not consistently use methods such as multilevel models (MLMs) to assess dependence and appropriately analyse their nested data. The goals of this study are to review some of the study design issues with regard to hierarchically nested and longitudinal data, discuss MLMs for assessing and handling dependence in data, and present a guide for developing a three-level growth MLM that is appropriate for group treatment data, design, and research questions. The authors present an example from group treatment research to illustrate these issues and methods.

  12. Understanding the emergence of state goal orientation in organizational work groups: the role of leadership and multilevel climate perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Lisa

    2005-11-01

    This article attends to a broad range of practically significant employee motivations and provides insight into how to enhance individual-level performance by examining individual-level state goal orientation emergence in organizational work groups. Leadership and multilevel climate processes are theorized to parallel each dimension of state goal orientation to cue and ultimately induce the corresponding achievement focus among individual work group members. It is argued that the patterns of leader behavior, which elucidate the leader's achievement priority, shape group members' psychological and work group climate to embody this priority. Resulting multilevel climate perceptions signal and compel group members to adopt the ascribed form of state goal orientation. The quality of the leader-member exchange relationship is viewed as a means to clarify leader messages in the formation of group members' psychological climate and internalize these cues in the emergence of state goal orientation. Considerations for future research and practice are discussed. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Accentuate the Positive: Positive Sentiments and Status in Task Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Alison J.; Lancianese, Donna A.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the capacity of positive sentiments, those enduring affective states one achieves when one likes another, to impact status structures. Do positive sentiments combine with existing aspects of interaction to create status hierarchies and potentially change the social order, or do they moderate the effects of extant structure by dampening…

  14. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-08

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Compact groups of positive operators on Banach lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeu, de M.F.E.; Wortel, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study groups of positive operators on Banach lattices. If a certain factorization property holds for the elements of such a group, the group has a homomorphic image in the isometric positive operators which has the same invariant ideals as the original group. If the group is

  16. The positive group affect spiral : a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, F.; Bruch, H.

    This conceptual paper seeks to clarify the process of the emergence of positive collective affect. Specifically, it develops a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups. It is suggested that positive group affective similarity and within-group relationship

  17. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Bakke Finne

    Full Text Available Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2 were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect

  18. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit) effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2) were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect. Furthermore, both

  19. Linking Positive Affect and Motivation to Transfer within Training: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Hilko Frederik Klaas; Kauffeld, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Motivation to transfer is a critical element for successful training transfer. Whereas recent research has shown that training-related factors such as training design are related to motivation to transfer, participants' affective experiences have been neglected. Based on the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, we conducted a multilevel…

  20. Individual and group antecedents of job satisfaction: a one-lab multilevel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Martínez

    Full Text Available This study examines the simultaneous effect of individual (selfefficacy and group variables (cohesion and gender diversity on satisfaction. A laboratory study was conducted involving 373 college students randomly distributed across 79 small groups, who performed a laboratory task in about five hours. Two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM method was used. Results show the main effect from individual selfefficacy to satisfaction (both level 1, the cross-level effect from group cohesion (level 2 to individual satisfaction (level 1, and the interaction effect between self-efficacy and gender diversity to satisfaction. These results suggest that in a work group, satisfaction has a background in individual and group variables. Group cohesion and gender diversity have important effects on satisfaction. The article concludes with practical strategies and with limitations and suggestions for future research.

  1. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Sornette, Didier; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Humans are fundamentally social. They form societies which consist of hierarchically layered nested groups of various quality, size, and structure. The anthropologic literature has classified these groups as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups, and so on. Anthropologic data show that, on average, each group consists of approximately three subgroups. However, a general understanding of the structural dependence of groups at different layers is largely missing. We extend these early findings to a very large high-precision large-scale internet-based social network data. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which we know all about their various group memberships at different layers. Remarkably, the online players' society exhibits the same type of structured hierarchical layers as found in hunter-gatherer societies. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical organisation of human society is deeply nested in human psychology.

  2. Reflection Positive Stochastic Processes Indexed by Lie Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Palle E. T.; Neeb, Karl-Hermann; Ólafsson, Gestur

    2016-06-01

    Reflection positivity originates from one of the Osterwalder-Schrader axioms for constructive quantum field theory. It serves as a bridge between euclidean and relativistic quantum field theory. In mathematics, more specifically, in representation theory, it is related to the Cartan duality of symmetric Lie groups (Lie groups with an involution) and results in a transformation of a unitary representation of a symmetric Lie group to a unitary representation of its Cartan dual. In this article we continue our investigation of representation theoretic aspects of reflection positivity by discussing reflection positive Markov processes indexed by Lie groups, measures on path spaces, and invariant gaussian measures in spaces of distribution vectors. This provides new constructions of reflection positive unitary representations.

  3. Group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of nature development plans : A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.E.; Vlek, CAJ; Coeterier, JF

    The study presented here addresses theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the issue of group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of natural landscapes. Beauty ratings of an agrarian landscape and five computer simulations of nature development plans in this landscape were collected

  4. Fault-Tolerant Control for a Flexible Group Battery Energy Storage System Based on Cascaded Multilevel Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A flexible group battery energy storage system (FGBESS based on cascaded multilevel converters is attractive for renewable power generation applications because of its high modularity and high power quality. However, reliability is one of the most important issues and the system may suffer from great financial loss after fault occurs. In this paper, based on conventional fundamental phase shift compensation and third harmonic injection, a hybrid compensation fault-tolerant method is proposed to improve the post-fault performance in the FGBESS. By adjusting initial phase offset and amplitude of injected component, the optimal third harmonic injection is generated in an asymmetric system under each faulty operation. Meanwhile, the optimal redundancy solution under each fault condition is also elaborated comprehensively with a comparison of the presented three fault-tolerant strategies. This takes full advantage of battery utilization and minimizes the loss of energy capacity. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods are verified by results obtained from simulations and a 10 kW experimental platform.

  5. Attitudes toward Immigration as a Sense of Group Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2018-01-01

    such as affirmative action and immigration, we examine the extent to which American attitudes toward immigration can be conceptualized from a Blumerian sense of group position without setting Allport’s contact theory as an alternative hypothesis. Our findings show cultural and ideological threat, and subjective...... economic threat as more important in informing attitudes toward immigration than objective economic conditions; and social and ethnic location threat. Our findings are consistent with and confirm Blumer’s argument that prejudice as a sense of group position is primarily derived from feelings, and are...

  6. Positioning in Groups: A New Development in Systemic Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jeff W.; Singh, RajVinder

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a new approach, employing a combination of Positioning Theory and Semantic Polarities, that educational psychologists can use to develop and facilitate change in organisations and groups. Resistance to change can be seen as reflecting a lack of the language that the members of an organisation need to participate effectively…

  7. Group Representations and Intergroup Bias: Positive Affect, Similarity, and Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovidio, John F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined how social appearance and affective factors can influence social categorization and intergroup bias. Positive affect increased the extent to which subjects formed inclusive group representations, anticipating that the members of two groups would feel like one. Subjects in dissimilarly dressed groups expected the members to feel less like…

  8. Differences in within- and between-person factor structure of positive and negative affect: analysis of two intensive measurement studies using multilevel structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Jonathan; Hofer, Scott M

    2014-06-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely used measure of emotional experience. The factor structure of the PANAS has been examined predominantly with cross-sectional designs, which fails to disaggregate within-person variation from between-person differences. There is still uncertainty as to the factor structure of positive and negative affect and whether they constitute 2 distinct independent factors. The present study examined the within-person and between-person factor structure of the PANAS in 2 independent samples that reported daily affect over 7 and 14 occasions, respectively. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a 2-factor structure at both the within-person and between-person levels, with correlated specific factors for overlapping items, provided good model fit. The best-fitting solution was one where within-person factors of positive and negative affect were inversely correlated, but between-person factors were independent. The structure was further validated through multilevel structural equation modeling examining the effects of cognitive interference, daily stress, physical symptoms, and physical activity on positive and negative affect factors.

  9. A multi-level surface rebalancing approach for efficient convergence acceleration of 3D full core multi-group fine grid nodal diffusion iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geemert, René van

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New type of multi-level rebalancing approach for nodal transport. • Generally improved and more mesh-independent convergence behavior. • Importance for intended regime of 3D pin-by-pin core computations. - Abstract: A new multi-level surface rebalancing (MLSR) approach has been developed, aimed at enabling an improved non-linear acceleration of nodal flux iteration convergence in 3D steady-state and transient reactor simulation. This development is meant specifically for anticipating computational needs for solving envisaged multi-group diffusion-like SP N calculations with enhanced mesh resolution (i.e. 3D multi-box up to 3D pin-by-pin grid). For the latter grid refinement regime, the previously available multi-level coarse mesh rebalancing (MLCMR) strategy has been observed to become increasingly inefficient with increasing 3D mesh resolution. Furthermore, for very fine 3D grids that feature a very fine axial mesh as well, non-convergence phenomena have been observed to emerge. In the verifications pursued up to now, these problems have been resolved by the new approach. The novelty arises from taking the interface current balance equations defined over all Cartesian box edges, instead of the nodal volume-integrated process-rate balance equation, as an appropriate restriction basis for setting up multi-level acceleration of fine grid interface current iterations. The new restriction strategy calls for the use of a newly derived set of adjoint spectral equations that are needed for computing a limited set of spectral response vectors per node. This enables a straightforward determination of group-condensed interface current spectral coupling operators that are of crucial relevance in the new rebalancing setup. Another novelty in the approach is a new variational method for computing the neutronic eigenvalue. Within this context, the latter is treated as a control parameter for driving another, newly defined and numerically more fundamental

  10. Multilevel Cultural Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Fischer, Ronald; van Herk, Hester; Torelli, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-level structures are omnipresent. Consumers live in geographical locations, shop in specific stores, or are members of clubs. Consumers who belong to the same group share characteristics and are expected to be more similar than consumers belonging to another group. In data analysis this

  11. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Liver transplantation in HIV-positive patients: the position of the Brazilian groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Ajacio Bandeira de Mello; Mariante-Neto, Guilherme

    2005-01-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have generally been excluded from consideration for liver transplantation. Recent advances in the management and prognosis of these patients suggest that this policy must be reevaluated. To identify the current position of Brazilian transplant centers concerning liver transplantation in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients with end-stage liver disease. A structured questionnaire was submitted by e-mail to Brazilian groups who perform liver transplantation and were active in late 2003, according to the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplantation. Of the 53 active groups, 30 e-mail addresses have been found of professionals working in 41 of these groups. Twenty-one responses (70%) were obtained. Most of the professionals (62%) reported that they do not include HIV-infected patients in waiting lists for transplants, primarily on account of the limited world experience. They also reported, however, that this issue will soon be discussed by the group. Those who accept these patients usually follow the guidelines provided by the literature: patients must fulfill the same inclusion criteria as the other patients with end-stage liver diseases, present low or undetectable HIV viral load, and a CD4 count above 250/mm3. They reported that there are 10 HIV-infected patients in waiting list and that only one patient has received a liver transplant in the country. Most centers do not accept in waiting lists for liver transplantation patients with HIV infection, even asymptomatic ones. However, advances in the management of HIV-infected patients suggest that this policy must be reevaluated. In Brazil, there is practically no experience in liver transplantation in HIV-positive patients.

  13. Mindfulness training promotes upward spirals of positive affect and cognition : Multilevel and autoregressive latent trajectory modeling analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garland, Eric L.; Geschwind, Nicole; Peeters, Frenk; Wichers, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that positive psychological processes integral to health may be energized through the self-reinforcing dynamics of an upward spiral to counter emotion dysregulation. The present study examined positive emotion-cognition interactions among individuals in partial remission from

  14. Positive mental health in outpatients: comparison within diagnostic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Abdin, Edimansyah; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Seow, Lee Seng Esmond; Pang, Shirlene; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-11-18

    Positive mental health (PMH) supplements the definition of mental health which is not just the mere absence of mental illness. It encompasses an individual's social, emotional and psychological well-being. This cross-sectional study examines the PMH levels in a multi-ethnic outpatient population and the socio-demographic correlates of PMH across the various diagnostic groups. In addition comparisons with the general population were conducted. Outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum, depressive or anxiety disorders seeking treatment at a tertiary psychiatric care hospital were included in the study sample. All respondents completed the PMH instrument. Independent t-tests and ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to establish differences between the PMH levels and domains. Three hundred and sixty outpatients with a mean age of 39.2 years were included in the study. 52.5% were younger adults (21-39 years). There were slightly more males (50.8%) and 56.1% of the sample was unemployed. PMH scores differed between the patient and general populations. There were significant associations of the PMH domains with socio-demographic variables such as age, ethnicity, gender and education status in the patient population. PMH can be viewed as a protective factor of mental illnesses. As such it is critical that mental health professionals examine the domains of PMH in individuals with mental illnesses. This will in turn allow them to develop coping strategies that can look into focusing on emotional, psychological and social well-being appropriately to allow these individuals to thrive.

  15. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. PMID:29755381

  16. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  17. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jo Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  18. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: a systematic review and meta-analysis of a multi-level system of parenting support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Kirby, James N; Tellegen, Cassandra L; Day, Jamin J

    2014-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of the multilevel Triple P-Positive Parenting Program system on a broad range of child, parent and family outcomes. Multiple search strategies identified 116 eligible studies conducted over a 33-year period, with 101 studies comprising 16,099 families analyzed quantitatively. Moderator analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling. Risk of bias within and across studies was assessed. Significant short-term effects were found for: children's social, emotional and behavioral outcomes (d=0.473); parenting practices (d=0.578); parenting satisfaction and efficacy (d=0.519); parental adjustment (d=0.340); parental relationship (d=0.225) and child observational data (d=0.501). Significant effects were found for all outcomes at long-term including parent observational data (d=0.249). Moderator analyses found that study approach, study power, Triple P level, and severity of initial child problems produced significant effects in multiple moderator models when controlling for other significant moderators. Several putative moderators did not have significant effects after controlling for other significant moderators. The positive results for each level of the Triple P system provide empirical support for a blending of universal and targeted parenting interventions to promote child, parent and family wellbeing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship of Repeated Technical Assistance Support Visits to the Delivery of Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention (PHDP) Messages by Healthcare Providers in Mozambique: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Sarah A; Amico, K Rivet; Hunguana, Elsa; Munguambe, António Orlando; Rose, Carol Dawson

    Positive health, dignity, and prevention (PHDP) is Mozambique's strategy to engage clinicians in the delivery of prevention messages to their HIV-positive clients. This national implementation strategy uses provider trainings on offering key messages and focuses on intervening on 9 evidence-based risk reduction areas. We investigated the impact of longitudinal technical assistance (TA) as an addition to this basic training. We followed 153 healthcare providers in 5 Mozambican provinces over 6 months to evaluate the impact of on-site, observation-based TA on PHDP implementation. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated to model change in PHDP message delivery over time among individual providers. With each additional TA visit, providers delivered about 1 additional PHDP message ( P < .001); clinicians and nonclinicians started at about the same baseline level, but clinicians improved more quickly ( P = .004). Message delivery varied by practice sector; maternal and child health sectors outperformed other sectors. Longitudinal TA helped reach the programmatic goals of the PHDP program in Mozambique.

  20. Positive Group Psychotherapy Modified for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasulo, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disorders are considerably more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population, yet research on psychotherapy for people with dual diagnosis is scarce. However, there is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and…

  1. Positive Nonlinear Dynamical Group Uniting Quantum Mechanics and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We discuss and motivate the form of the generator of a nonlinear quantum dynamical group 'designed' so as to accomplish a unification of quantum mechanics (QM) and thermodynamics. We call this nonrelativistic theory Quantum Thermodynamics (QT). Its conceptual foundations differ from those of (von Neumann) quantum statistical mechanics (QSM) and (Jaynes) quantum information theory (QIT), but for thermodynamic equilibrium (TE) states it reduces to the same mathematics, and for zero entropy stat...

  2. Aboriginal groups taking leadership positions in power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2009-09-15

    First Nations and Metis communities are now initiating and managing projects in the Canadian energy sector. Federal and provincial governments are now developing training programs to ensure that Aboriginal communities develop the skills needed to successfully manage energy projects. The Supreme Court of Canada has issued a number of rulings ensuring that companies and government agencies have a duty to consult with Aboriginal people when Crown decisions impact Treaty or Aboriginal rights. The Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure has now set up a unit to provide advice and guidance to facilitate partnership opportunities with First Nations and Metis communities. Major companies in Ontario have also developed consultation policies that focus on relationship building, internal education, and promoting business and workforce development. The Pic River First Nation group now owns a minority interest in the Wawatay generating station. A 23 MW facility is fully owned by the First Nations group. The province of Ontario has made a provision for up to $250 million to serve as loan guarantees for First Nations groups. It was concluded that the Electricity Sector Council (ESC) has developed an Aboriginal participation engagement project designed to increase Aboriginal awareness of opportunities within the electricity and renewable energy sector. 3 figs.

  3. The impact of individual and organisational factors on engagement of individuals with intellectual disability living in community group homes: a multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, X; Tichá, R; Larson, S A; Stancliffe, R J; Wuorio, A

    2015-06-01

    Being engaged in daily activities is a strong indicator of quality of life for individuals with intellectual disability (ID) who live in small community group homes. This study aimed to identify individual and organisational factors that predict high levels of engagement. Individuals with ID (n = 78), direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 174) and supervisors (n = 21) from 21 US group homes participated in the study. For each individual with ID, we conducted 80 min of observation at the person's residence. Information was also gathered regarding demographic characteristics, DSP competence, supervisor years of experience and management practices. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. On average, individuals were engaged in social activities 12% of observed time and non-social activities 35% of the time. Individuals with greater adaptive skills who were supported by more competent staff showed significantly higher levels of social engagement. Individuals with less severe deficits in adaptive behaviours and less challenging behaviour showed higher levels of non-social engagement. Although none of the factors related to group homes were significant, 24% of the variance in non-social engagement existed among group homes. These results suggested that engagement is a dynamic construct. The extent to which an individual with ID is engaged in daily life is a result of interplay between the individual's characteristics and the group home environment. Future research is needed to investigate the influence of variables specific to the group home on the engagement level of individuals with disabilities. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. What Makes a Difference for Disadvantaged Girls? Investigating the Interplay between Group Composition and Positive Youth Development in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Schaillée

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that group composition can influence the experiences of individual group members in social programmes (Weiss, 1998. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between peer group composition in sports programmes and positive youth development (PYD in disadvantaged girls, as well as to determine whether it was moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 10 and 24 completed a questionnaire including, among others, the “Youth Experience Survey for Sport” (YES-S (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012 and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics (i.e., nationality, education, family situation. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. At the group level, a higher percentage of girls from a low educational track and with a migration background predicted greater PYD, as indicated by higher levels of personal and social skills, cognitive skills and goal setting. Results showed interaction effects between the respondents’ family structures on the participant and team levels. The overall statistical models for the different developmental domains accounted for variance ranging from 14.7% (personal and social skills to 30.3% (cognitive skills. Results indicated that the extent to which disadvantaged girls derive benefits from their participation in sport also depends on the group composition. The interaction effects between the group composition and individual characteristics suggest that when girls participate in a group of similar peers, those from non-intact families will derive more benefits than their counterparts from intact families.

  5. Multilevel Models: Conceptual Framework and Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Otilia-Sonia Hrițcu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and the social or organizational groups they belong to can be viewed as a hierarchical system situated on different levels. Individuals are situated on the first level of the hierarchy and they are nested together on the higher levels. Individuals interact with the social groups they belong to and are influenced by these groups. Traditional methods that study the relationships between data, like simple regression, do not take into account the hierarchical structure of the data and the effects of a group membership and, hence, results may be invalidated. Unlike standard regression modelling, the multilevel approach takes into account the individuals as well as the groups to which they belong. To take advantage of the multilevel analysis it is important that we recognize the multilevel characteristics of the data. In this article we introduce the outlines of multilevel data and we describe the models that work with such data. We introduce the basic multilevel model, the two-level model: students can be nested into classes, individuals into countries and the general two-level model can be extended very easily to several levels. Multilevel analysis has begun to be extensively used in many research areas. We present the most frequent study areas where multilevel models are used, such as sociological studies, education, psychological research, health studies, demography, epidemiology, biology, environmental studies and entrepreneurship. We support the idea that since hierarchies exist everywhere, multilevel data should be recognized and analyzed properly by using multilevel modelling.

  6. The Effect of Functional Roles on Group Efficiency : Using Multilevel Modeling and Content Analysis to Investigate Computer-Supported Collaboration in Small Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbos, J.W.; Martens, R.L.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Broers, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The usefulness of roles to support small group performance can often be read; however, their effect is rarely empirically assessed. This article reports the effects of functional roles on group performance, efficiency, and collaboration during computer-supported collaborative learning. A comparison

  7. Assessing where vulnerable groups fare worst: a global multilevel analysis on the impact of welfare regimes on disability across different socioeconomic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, Margot I.; Kunst, Anton E.; Stronks, Karien; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigations on health differences within welfare states between low- and high-socioeconomic groups are mainly conducted in Europe. With the aim of gaining global insight on the extent welfare regimes influence personal disability for the most vulnerable, we explore how these health

  8. Mental Health Support Groups, Stigma, and Self-Esteem : Positive and Negative Implications of Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crabtree, Jason W.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Research into the relationship between stigmatization and well-being suggests that identification with a stigmatized group can buffer individuals from the adverse effects of stigma. In part, this is because social identification is hypothesized to provide a basis for social support which increases

  9. Teaching Multilevel Adult ESL Classes. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Cathy C.; Terrill, Lynda R.

    Teachers in multilevel adult English-as-a-Second-Language classes are challenged to use a variety of materials, activities, and techniques to engage the interest of the learners and assist them in their educational goals. This digest recommends ways to choose and organize content for multilevel classes, explains grouping strategies, discusses a…

  10. How does a servant leader fuel the service fire? A multilevel model of servant leadership, individual self identity, group competition climate, and customer service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Mingjian

    2015-03-01

    Building on a social identity framework, our cross-level process model explains how a manager's servant leadership affects frontline employees' service performance, measured as service quality, customer-focused citizenship behavior, and customer-oriented prosocial behavior. Among a sample of 238 hairstylists in 30 salons and 470 of their customers, we found that hair stylists' self-identity embedded in the group, namely, self-efficacy and group identification, partially mediated the positive effect of salon managers' servant leadership on stylists' service performance as rated by the customers, after taking into account the positive influence of transformational leadership. Moreover, group competition climate strengthened the positive relationship between self-efficacy and service performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Framing Negotiation: Dynamics of Epistemological and Positional Framing in Small Groups during Scientific Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Soo-Yean; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we examined students' epistemological and positional framing during small group scientific modeling to explore their context-dependent perceptions about knowledge, themselves, and others. We focused on two small groups of Korean eighth-grade students who participated in six modeling activities about excretion. The two groups were…

  12. Technology of forming a positive attitude to physical training students of special medical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamediarov N.N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Defined effective technology stages of forming a positive attitude towards physical education of students in special medical groups, stimulate motivation, epistemologically, informative, content-procedural, analytical and adjustment. For each stage technology offered special tools: lectures, seminars, analysis articles, mini conference on improving technique, racing games, mini-competitions, diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, analysis of log data on attendance. Selected criteria forming positive attitudes towards physical education: theoretical and practical, formed groups for research: experimental and control, analyzed results introduction of technology, efficiency of the proposed technology and means forming a positive attitude towards physical education students in special medical groups.

  13. Multilevel modeling using R

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, W Holmes; Kelley, Ken

    2014-01-01

    A powerful tool for analyzing nested designs in a variety of fields, multilevel/hierarchical modeling allows researchers to account for data collected at multiple levels. Multilevel Modeling Using R provides you with a helpful guide to conducting multilevel data modeling using the R software environment.After reviewing standard linear models, the authors present the basics of multilevel models and explain how to fit these models using R. They then show how to employ multilevel modeling with longitudinal data and demonstrate the valuable graphical options in R. The book also describes models fo

  14. Group Positive Psychotherapy and Depression of Females Affected by Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Khayatan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple Sclerosis is one of the most important and prevalent central nervous system diseases, causing disorders such as depression among affected patients. Positive psychotherapy is also a new approach that can be effective in reducing the depression of these people. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of group positive psychotherapy for decreasing the depression among females affected by Multiple Sclerosis. Methods: A samples of 30 females affected by Multiple Sclerosis with mild to moderate depression were participated, and were divided into two groups, intervention and control. Both groups completed Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II at the beginning, he intervention group received six sessions of positive psychotherapy. After the intervention both group completed the questionnaire again. Data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: The result demonstrated that, the decline of depression was more in the intervention group than the control group. Moreover in the intervention group than control group, there was obtained significant reduction in both sub-scales of Beck Depression Inventory II. Discussion: Results of this study indicated that group positive psychotherapy is effective in reducing the depression of females affected by Multiple Sclerosis. This treatment can be widely used in the caring centers for treatment of people affected by Multiple Sclerosis and this can be justified because of its low cost and good efficiency.

  15. Positive-definite functions and unitary representations of locally compact groups in a Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gali, I.M.; Okb el-Bab, A.S.; Hassan, H.M.

    1977-08-01

    It is proved that the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of an integral representation of a group of unitary operators in a Hilbert space is that it is positive-definite and continuous in some topology

  16. Geographic region, socioeconomic position and the utilisation of primary total joint replacement for hip or knee osteoarthritis across western Victoria: a cross-sectional multilevel study of the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon; Vogrin, Sara; Holloway, Kara L; Page, Richard S; Sajjad, Muhammad A; Kotowicz, Mark A; Livingston, Patricia M; Khasraw, Mustafa; Hakkennes, Sharon; Dunning, Trish L; Brumby, Susan; Pedler, Daryl; Sutherland, Alasdair; Venkatesh, Svetha; Williams, Lana J; Duque, Gustavo; Pasco, Julie A

    2017-11-06

    Compared to urban residents, those in rural/regional areas often experience inequitable healthcare from specialist service providers. Independent of small between-area differences in utilisation, socially advantaged groups had the greatest uptake of joint replacement. These data suggest low correlation between 'need' vs. 'uptake' of surgery in rural/regional areas. Compared to urban residents, those in rural and regional areas often experience inequitable healthcare from specialist service providers, often due to geographical issues. We investigated associations between socioeconomic position (SEP), region of residence and utilisation of primary total knee replacement (TKR) and/or total hip replacement (THR) for osteoarthritis. As part of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury study, we extracted data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (2011-2013) for adults that utilised primary TKR (n = 4179; 56% female) and/or THR (n = 3120; 54% female). Residential addresses were matched with the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2011 census data: region of residence was defined according to local government areas (LGAs), and area-level SEP (quintiles) defined using an ABS-derived composite index. The ABS-determined control population (n = 591,265; 51% female) excluded individuals identified as cases. We performed multilevel logistic regression modelling using a stratified two-stage cluster design. TKR was higher for those aged 70-79 years (AOR 1.4 95%CI 1.3-1.5; referent = 60-69 years) and in the most advantaged SEP quintile (AOR 2.1, 95%CI 1.8-2.3; referent = SEP quintile 3); results were similar for THR (70-79 years = AOR 1.7, 95%CI 1.5-1.8; SEP quintile 5 = AOR 2.5, 95%CI 2.2-2.8). Total variances contributed by the variance in LGAs were 2% (SD random effects ± 0.28) and 3% (SD ± 0.32), respectively. Independent of small between-LGA differences in utilisation, and in contrast to the expected greater

  17. Social participation and mortality: does social position in civic groups matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ishikawa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social participation is known to predict longevity. However, little is known about the effect of social participation according to an individual’s position in civic groups. We evaluated the influence of social position on mortality, using data from a large cohort of Japanese older adults (the AGES cohort. Methods Of 14,804 individuals aged 65 years and older enrolled in the AGES, 14,286 individuals were followed up for approximately 5 years from 2003 to 2008. We performed inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW Cox proportional hazards regression with multiple imputation of missing values to compute hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality according to the individual’s position in the community organization(s to which they belonged. We examined participation in the following civic groups: neighborhood association/senior citizen club/fire-fighting team, religious group, political organization or group, industrial or trade association, volunteer group, citizen or consumer group, hobby group, and sports group or club. The values for IPTW were computed based on demographic variables, socioeconomic status, and self-reported medical condition. Results During 22,718 person-years of follow-up for regular members of community groups and 14,014 person-years of follow-up for participants in leadership positions, 479 deaths and 214 deaths were observed, respectively. Relative to regular members, crude HR for all-cause mortality for occupying leadership positions (e.g. president, manager, or having administrative roles was 0.72 (95 % CI:0.62–0.85. The IPTW-HR was 0.88 (95 % CI: 0.79–0.99 for participants occupying leadership positions. Conclusions Holding leadership positions in community organization(s may be more beneficial to health than being regular members.

  18. Detection of shielded radionuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra using group positive RIVAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kump, Paul; Bai, Er-Wei; Chan, Kung-Sik; Eichinger, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the identification of nuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra in the presence of unknown radiation shielding materials such as carbon, water, concrete and lead. Since a shield will attenuate lower energies more so than higher ones, isotope sub-spectra must be introduced into models and into detection algorithms. We propose a new algorithm for detection, called group positive RIVAL, that encourages the selection of groups of sub-spectra rather than the selection of individual sub-spectra that may be from the same parent isotope. Indeed, the proposed algorithm incorporates group positive LASSO, and, as such, we supply the consistency results of group positive LASSO and adaptive group positive LASSO. In an example employing various shielding materials and material thicknesses, group positive RIVAL is shown to perform well in all scenarios with the exception of ones in which the shielding material is lead. - Highlights: ► Identification of nuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra. ► Shielding materials such as carbon, water, concrete, and lead are considered. ► Isotope spectra are decomposed into their sub-spectra. ► A variable selection algorithm is proposed that encourages group selection. ► Simulations demonstrate the proposed method's performance when nuclides have been shielded

  19. Group B Streptococcus Positive Culture’s Results in Pregnants with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Broomand

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM occurs in 2% of all pregnancies. The aim of this study was to compare positive cultures of GBS in two groups of pregnant women.Materials and methods: This case control research was conducted on 242 pregnant women: first group was consisted of 117 pregnant with PPROM and gestational ages between 26-37 weeks; second group was consisted of 125 term pregnant women with intact membranes and before onset of labor. Rectovaginal and urine samples were studied using specific culture medium of GBS, "Todd Hewitt Broth". The percentage of positive results was calculated using odds ratio and chi-square test.Results: GBS cultures were positive in 20 cases (17% in PPROM group and 5 cases in group of term pregnant (4% (Odds ratio=4.95 CI= 1.79-13.67, p=0.001. Past history of preterm labor and neonate hospitalization were more common in PPROM group but without any significant relationship to positive cultures.Conclusion: Our study showed significant difference of GBS colonization rate between two groups (p=0.001. According to CDC and ACOG guidelines routine screening and treatment of positive cases are indicated.

  20. Group Systematic Desensitization Versus Covert Positive Reinforcement in the Reduction of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Marion P.; Galassi, John P.

    1974-01-01

    The study compared modified versions of systematic desensitization and covert positive reinforcement to a no-treatment control condition in the reduction of test anxiety. On an anagrams performance test, the covert reinforcement and control groups were superior to the desensitization group. (Author)

  1. Acculturation, out-group positivity and eating disorders symptoms among Emirati women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; O'Hara, Lily; Quadflieg, Susanne; Weissgerber, Sophia Christin

    2018-04-01

    Western acculturation has been implicated in the development of eating disorders among populations living outside Europe and North America. This study explored the relationship between Western acculturation, in-group/out-group evaluations and eating disorders symptoms among female citizens of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Emirati college women (N = 209) completed an affective priming task, designed to implicitly assess in-group (Emirati) and out-group (American) evaluations. Participants also completed the Westernization Survey, a widely used self-report measure of acculturation, and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Across the whole sample, out-group positivity was correlated with higher levels of eating disorder symptoms. Participants classified as at risk for eating disorders showed a clear out-group preference (out-group positivity greater than in-group positivity). Western acculturation was also positively correlated with eating disorder symptoms. Overall, these findings lend further support to the acculturation hypothesis of eating disorders in the context of Emirati college women.

  2. All unitary ray representations of the conformal group SU(2,2) with positive energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1975-12-01

    We find all those unitary irreducible representations of the infinitely - sheeted covering group G tilde of the conformal group SU(2,2)/Z 4 which have positive energy P 0 >= O. They are all finite component field representations and are labelled by dimension d and a finite dimensional irreducible representation (j 1 , j 2 ) of the Lorentz group SL(2C). They all decompose into a finite number of unitary irreducible representations of the Poincare subgroup with dilations. (orig.) [de

  3. Group intervention: A way to improve working teams' positive psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Bo; Gustafsson, John-Anders; Björkdahl, Ann; Möller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychological capital is reported to have positive effects on people's well-being and attitudes to their working lives. The objective of this study was to investigate if it is possible to increase the level of positive psychological capital by two group intervention programs. The research design was a controlled study with 2 × 2 experimental groups and two control groups. Two of the experimental groups received intervention I (IG I), the other two experimental groups received intervention II (IG II). Assessments were made before and after the intervention programs, with a follow-up at six months post-intervention. Instruments measuring the fundamentals of psychological capital: self-efficacy, hope, optimism, as well as health and job satisfaction were used. The results show that it is possible to increase the level of positive emotions, self-efficacy and job satisfaction of members of a working team by using group intervention methods. The positive changes observed at the end of the program remained six months after the intervention, with the exception of job satisfaction in IG II. It seems that the intervention had a greater influence on those persons who at the start of the study reported a low level of self-enhancement. The results were more pronounced in intervention group I where reinforcement of the resources and positive aspects of the work place environment were provided. A 10-week group intervention program that focused on learned optimism proved to be successful in increasing levels of self-efficacy and job satisfaction. While improvement was maintained six months post-intervention the small sample size and the attrition rate are limitations. Results are promising and further research is warranted.

  4. Positive and Negative Perfectionism in Migrainus Patients Compaired with Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Afshar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: The positive and negative effects of perfectionism on human cognition, affection and behavior have been emphasized. Perfectionism has been conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, with both adaptive and maladaptive aspects, which is one of the common personality traits that cause lifelong stress in human and results in anxiety, depression and physical and mental distress.The aim of this study was to assess the positive and negative perfectionism in migrainus patients in comparison with control group. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical (Case-control study which was performed on 91 migraine patients and 88 healthy individuals. The pqtients and controls completed a standard 40 item questionnaire for perfectionism – PANPS (20 for positive and 20 for negative perfectionism . The patients in both groups were matched for gender and age. Mean of positive and negative perfectionism scores for two groups was statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results: Mean positive perfectionism score was 83.47±8.5 for migraine group and 65.47±7.54 for control group (p=0.0001. The difference between two groups was significant. Mean of negative perfectionism score was 74.12±10.6 for migraine group and 51.79±7.8 for control group(p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results show that migraine patients have higher mean of perfectionism scores than healthy individuals. Based on this study and other clinical experiences more attention to psychotherapy is necessary for better management of migraine and recognition of personality profile in migraine patient helps to reduce patient’s complaints.

  5. Multilevel model of safety climate for furniture industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matilde A; Arezes, Pedro M; Leão, Celina P

    2015-01-01

    Furniture companies can analyze their safety status using quantitative measures. However, the data needed are not always available and the number of accidents is under-reported. Safety climate scales may be an alternative. However, there are no validated Portuguese scales that account for the specific attributes of the furniture sector. The current study aims to develop and validate an instrument that uses a multilevel structure to measure the safety climate of the Portuguese furniture industry. The Safety Climate in Wood Industries (SCWI) model was developed and applied to the safety climate analysis using three different scales: organizational, group and individual. A multilevel exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyze the factorial structure. The studied companies' safety conditions were also analyzed. Different factorial structures were found between and within levels. In general, the results show the presence of a group-level safety climate. The scores of safety climates are directly and positively related to companies' safety conditions; the organizational scale is the one that best reflects the actual safety conditions. The SCWI instrument allows for the identification of different safety climates in groups that comprise the same furniture company and it seems to reflect those groups' safety conditions. The study also demonstrates the need for a multilevel analysis of the studied instrument.

  6. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  7. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  8. Representations of the Poincare group, position operator and the bi-local model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohkawa, Tohru

    1978-01-01

    We propose two types of representations of the Poincare group which give general frameworks for introduction of internal degrees of freedom of a particle. The bi-local model recently proposed by Takabayasi is constructed through our frameworks. In this study, new covariant and non-covariant position operators are introduced and discussed. (author)

  9. The impact of structured support groups for pregnant South African women recently diagnosed HIV positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Jonathan P; Visser, Maretha J; Makin, Jennifer D; Kershaw, Trace S; Forsyth, Brian W C; Jeffery, Bridget; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2011-08-31

    The authors of this study evaluated a structured 10-session psychosocial support group intervention for newly HIV-diagnosed pregnant South African women. Participants were expected to display increases in HIV disclosure, self-esteem, active coping and positive social support, and decreases in depression, avoidant coping, and negative social support. Three hundred sixty-one pregnant HIV-infected women were recruited from four antenatal clinics in Tshwane townships from April 2005 to September 2006. Using a quasi-experimental design, assessments were conducted at baseline and two and eight months post-intervention. A series of random effects regression analyses were conducted, with the three assessment points treated as a random effect of time. At both follow-ups, the rate of disclosure in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the comparison group (p<0.001). Compared to the comparison group at the first follow-up, the intervention group displayed higher levels of active coping (t=2.68, p<0.05) and lower levels of avoidant coping (t=-2.02, p<0.05), and those who attended at least half of the intervention sessions exhibited improved self-esteem (t=2.11, p<0.05). Group interventions tailored for newly HIV positive pregnant women, implemented in resource-limited settings, may accelerate the process of adjusting to one's HIV status, but may not have sustainable benefits over time.

  10. Short-term memory development: differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2014-10-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in cognitive performance within an age group is considered to be measurement error. However, if a part of this variance is systematic, it can provide very useful information about the cognitive processes used by some children of a certain age but not others. In the current study, we presented 210 children aged 5 to 12 years with serial order short-term memory tasks. First we analyze our data according to the approach using age groups, and then we apply latent class analysis to form latent classes of children based on their performance instead of their ages. We display the results of the age groups and the latent classes in terms of serial position curves, and we discuss the differences in results. Our findings show that there are considerable differences in performance between the age groups and the latent classes. We interpret our findings as indicating that the latent class analysis yielded a much more meaningful way of grouping children in terms of cognitive processes than the a priori grouping of children based on their ages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Hock

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  12. Detecting groups of coevolving positions in a molecule: a clustering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galtier Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the patterns of co-substitutions in RNA is now well characterized, detection of coevolving positions in proteins remains a difficult task. It has been recognized that the signal is typically weak, due to the fact that (i amino-acid are characterized by various biochemical properties, so that distinct amino acids changes are not functionally equivalent, and (ii a given mutation can be compensated by more than one mutation, at more than one position. Results We present a new method based on phylogenetic substitution mapping. The two above-mentioned problems are addressed by (i the introduction of a weighted mapping, which accounts for the biochemical effects (volume, polarity, charge of amino-acid changes, (ii the use of a clustering approach to detect groups of coevolving sites of virtually any size, and (iii the distinction between biochemical compensation and other coevolutionary mechanisms. We apply this methodology to a previously studied data set of bacterial ribosomal RNA, and to three protein data sets (myoglobin of vertebrates, S-locus Receptor Kinase and Methionine Amino-Peptidase. Conclusion We succeed in detecting groups of sites which significantly depart the null hypothesis of independence. Group sizes range from pairs to groups of size ≃ 10, depending on the substitution weights used. The structural and functional relevance of these groups of sites are assessed, and the various evolutionary processes potentially generating correlated substitution patterns are discussed.

  13. Profiling of Junior College Football Players and Differences between Position Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled junior college football players. Sixty-two subjects completed vertical jump (VJ; height and peak power, standing broad jump (SBJ, 36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, three-cone drill, and maximal-repetition bench press and front squat. The sample included 2 quarterbacks (QB, 7 running backs (RB, 13 wide receivers (WR, 1 tight end (TE, 18 defensive backs (DB, 8 linebackers (LB, and 13 offensive and defensive linemen (LM. To investigate positional differences, subjects were split into skill (SK; WR, DB, big skill (BSK; QB, RB, TE, LB, and LM groups. A one-way ANOVA determined between-group differences. LM were taller and heavier than SK and BSK players. The SK and BSK groups were faster than LM in the 0–36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, and three-cone drill (p ≤ 0.009. The SK group had greater VJ height and SBJ distance; LM generated greater VJ peak power (p ≤ 0.022. There were no between-group differences in the strength endurance tests. Compared to Division I data, junior college players were smaller, slower, and performed worse in jump tests. Positional differences in junior college football are typical to that of established research. Junior college players should attempt to increase body mass, and improve speed and lower-body power.

  14. Liking is not the opposite of disliking: the functional separability of positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittinsky, Todd L; Rosenthal, Seth A; Montoya, R Matthew

    2011-04-01

    Two studies tested the hypotheses that positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups are not interchangeable in predicting positive versus negative behaviors toward those groups. In Study 1, positive attitudes about Latinos were a better predictor of a positive behavior toward Latinos than were negative attitudes or stereotyped positive attitudes. In Study 2, positive attitudes about African Americans were a better predictor of positive behavioral intentions toward that group than were negative attitudes, whereas negative attitudes were better predictors of negative behavioral intentions than were positive attitudes. Taken together, the studies support the perspective that positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups are theoretically and functionally distinct constructs. We conclude that it is important to measure both positive and negative attitudes to understand and predict behaviors toward minority groups.

  15. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  16. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  17. County level socioeconomic position, work organization and depression disorder: a repeated measures cross-classified multilevel analysis of low-income nursing home workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Xue, Xiaonan; Thompson, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia; Chung, Haejoo; Eaton, William W

    2006-12-01

    This study simultaneously tests the effect of county, organizational, workplace, and individual level variables on depressive disorders among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. A total of 482 observations are used from two waves of survey data collection, with an average two-year interval between initial and follow-up surveys. The overall response rate was 62 percent. The hierarchically structured data was analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for cross-classifications across levels of data. Nursing assistants working in nursing homes covered by a single union in three states were asked about aspects of their working conditions, job stress, physical and mental health status, individual and family health-care needs, household economics and household strain. The 241 nursing assistants who participated in this study were employed in 34 nursing homes and lived in 49 counties of West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky. The study finds that emotional strain, related to providing direct care to elderly and disabled clients, is associated with depressive disorder, as is nursing home ownership type (for-profit versus not-for-profit). However, when controlling for county level socioeconomic variables (Gini index and proportion of African Americans living in the county), neither workplace nor organizational level variables were found to be statistically significant associated with depressive disorder. This study supports previous findings that emotional demand in health-care environments is an important correlate of mental health. It also adds empirical evidence to support a link between financial strain and depression in US women. While this study does not find that lack of a seniority wage benefits--a factor that can conceivably exacerbate financial strain over time--is associated with depressive disorder among low-income health-care workers, it does find county level measures of poverty to be statistically significant predictors of depressive

  18. [The Positionality of Caring Action: Small Group Dialogue in a Course on Nursing Ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsien-Hsien

    2016-12-01

    The content of nursing-ethics education has typically focused on the external standards of caring behavior and neglected the relationship between the ethical attitudes and internal experiences of caregivers. To explore the embodied experience in order to define the positionality of caring action, which is necessary to enrich the content of nursing ethics through small-group-learning-based dialogue. The researcher, as a participant observer, teaches a course on nursing ethics. Reflective analysis was used to analyze the data from the process of small group learning, a reflective group of faculty members, and 30 reflective journals submitted by 10 students. The results identified three items that were related to the positionality of caring action: the attitudes of belief, including the choice to belief and deep understanding; articulating the value system, including exploring affectivity and positionality; and cultivating the self through self-dialogues and dialogues with others. The attitudes of belief promote trust in interpersonal relationships. Articulating the value system deepens the meaning of caring. Cultivating the self may facilitate the ethical self.

  19. Comparison of the Anaerobic Power of Brazilian Professional Football Players Grouped by Tactical Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Renato Cruz dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Football is characterized as a predominately aerobic modality, however, during a match; the most important actions performed by the players are in short duration and high intensity. In addition, this sport presents to have some particularities, such as, highlights differences of each tactical position. Thus, this study aimed to compare the anaerobic power of professional football players grouped by different tactical positions. Thirty professional football players separated in three groups, goal¬keep¬ers+fullbacks, sideways+DMF (defensive middlefields and OMF (offensive middlefields+forwards, performed two anaerobic po¬wer tests, Running anaerobic sprint test and Sargent jump test Goalkeepers+fullbacks showed higher values of body mass index and absolute anaerobic power (w, using Sargent jump test than the others, but when analyzed the RAST results, this same group presented lower values (p<0.05 of relative AP (w∙kg-1. OMF+forwards showed to have the best Pmed and Pmax values (p<0.05, when compared with defensive players. These results suggest the use of running anaerobic sprint test and sargent jump test toge¬ther when is proposed to measure the anaerobic power of football players, and also a anthropometric evaluation, so the training can be more specific e efficient to each tactical position and athlete.

  20. ABO and Rh blood groups frequency in women with HER2 positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urun, Y; Utkan, G; Altundag, K; Arslan, O; Onur, H; Arslan, U Y; Kocer, M; Dogan, I; Senler, F C; Yalcin, B; Demirkazik, A; Akbulut, H; Icli, F

    2012-01-01

    The role of genetic factors in the development of cancer is widely accepted. Data on the role of ABO blood group and Rh factor in breast cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a possible association between HER2 (+) breast cancer in Turkish women and ABO blood groups and Rh factor. In 294 female patients with HER2 (+) breast cancer, ABO blood groups and Rh factor were examined. The relationship of blood groups with age, menopausal status, and family history of cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 status of these patients was evaluated. Blood groups distribution of 22,821 healthy blood donors was also assessed and compared with the patients' blood groups distribution. The median patient age was 47 years (range 20-80) and 56% of the patients were premenopausal. ER and PR were positive in 50 and 60% of the patients, respectively. Overall, the ABO blood group distribution of the 294 HER2 (+) breast cancer patients was similar to that of the healthy blood donors (p=0.36). Likewise there was no correlation between blood type and ER, PR and menopausal status. Rh (-) patients had more frequent family cancer history and this difference was significant for patients with blood group B Rh (-) and O Rh (-) (p = 0.04). In the present study we didn't find any relationship between HER2 status and ABO blood group and Rh factor. However, further studies with larger number of patients are needed to establish the role (if any) of blood groups in patients with breast cancer.

  1. The physical environment of positive places: Exploring differences between age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Tiina E; Broberg, Anna; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-02-01

    Features of the physical environment have an impact on the human behaviour. Thus, planners and policymakers around the world should aim at providing environments that are perceived as being of good quality, in which the residents enjoy spending time and moving around in. It is widely acknowledged that urban environmental quality associates with well-being, but there is currently very little research examining which features of urban environments people of different ages perceive as appealing in their living environments. Individuals experience different age-related developmental environments throughout their life course. Thus, the usage and perceptions of different spaces can also differ between various age groups. Public Participation GIS datasets collected in 2009 and 2011 in Helsinki Metropolitan Area were used to study places perceived as being positive by adults (n=3119) and children (n=672). Participants marked points on a map that were overlaid with GIS data to study whether the physical environment of positive places of different age groups differed. The results demonstrated that the physical environment differs significantly in the positive places of different age groups. The places of adult age groups were characterized by green, blue and commercial spaces, whereas sports, residential and commercial spaces characterize children's and adolescents' places. Older adults' places were found to be closest to home, while adolescents' places were the most distant. Providing appealing environments for all age groups in one setting remains problematic but should nevertheless be strived for, especially in the urban context where a constant competition over different usages of space occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Federalism and multilevel governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wusten, H.; Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.; Secor, A.J.; Sharp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Federalism and multilevel governance both emphasize polycentricity in governing arrangements. With their different intellectual pedigrees, these concepts are discussed in two separate sections. Fragments are now increasingly mixed up in hybrid forms of governance that also encompass originally

  3. Association of C-reactive protein positivity among groups of patients with knee osteoarthritis in Erbil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Ahmed Pirdawood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease and a leading cause of disability. Increased circulating levels of C-reactive protein have been associated with prevalent knee osteoarthritis. This study aimed to assess the association between C- reactive protein positivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis in Erbil Methods: Data from100 participants in this case-control study were enrolled from May 1st to December 1st, 2015 in Rizgary Teaching Hospital in Erbil city. Data were divided into two groups. The cases included 50 patients (17 male and 33 female with a mean age of 58.9 ±3.8 years and diagnosed with primary knee osteoarthritis of one or both knee joints. Controls included 50 persons (17 male and 33 female with a mean age of 58.1 ±3.9 years without knee osteoarthritis and matched for age, sex, and body mass index. C-reactive protein qualitatively measured. Patients were radiologically assessed by Kellgren and Lawrence grading scale (grade 0-4. Results: C-reactive protein was positive in 41 out of 50 (82% of knee osteoarthritis patients compared to 3 out of 50 (6% of healthy controls (P = 0.001. C- reactive protein positivity among knee osteoarthritis patients were significantly associated with body mass index, positive family history of knee osteoarthritis, duration of diseases, and Kellgren and Lawrence grade (P 0.05. Conclusion: C-reactive protein positivity was significantly associated with knee osteoarthritis compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, body mass index, positive family history of knee osteoarthritis, early osteoarthritis, and Kellgren and Lawrence grade II, were significantly associated with positive C-reactive protein in knee osteoarthritis.

  4. Effects of body position and sex group on tongue pressure generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Angela M; Cirstea, Carmen M; Auer, Ed T; Searl, Jeff P

    2013-11-01

    Fine control of orofacial musculature is necessary to precisely accelerate and decelerate the articulators across exact distances for functional speech and coordinated swallows (Amerman & Parnell, 1990; Benjamin, 1997; Kent, Duffy, Slama, Kent, & Clift, 2001). Enhanced understanding of neural control for such movements could clarify the nature of and potential remediation for some dysarthrias and other orofacial myofunctional impairments. Numerous studies have measured orolingual force and accuracy during speech and nonspeech tasks, but have focused on young adults, maximum linguapalatal pressures, and upright positioning (O'Day, Frank, Montgomery, Nichols, & McDade, 2005; Solomon & Munson, 2004; Somodi, Robin, & Luschei, 1995; Youmans, Youmans, & Stierwalt, 2009). Patients' medical conditions or testing procedures such as concurrent neuroimaging may preclude fully upright positioning during oral motor assessments in some cases. Since judgments about lingual strength and coordination can influence clinical decisions regarding the functionality of swallowing and speech, it is imperative to understand any effects of body positioning differences. In addition, sex differences in the control of such tasks are not well defined. Therefore, this study evaluated whether pressures exerted during tongue movements differ in upright vs. supine body position in healthy middle-aged men and women. Twenty healthy middle-aged adults compressed small air-filled plastic bulbs in the oral cavity at predetermined fractions of task-specific peak pressure in a randomized block design. Tasks including phoneme repetitions and nonspeech isometric contractions were executed in upright and supine positions. Participants received continuous visual feedback regarding targets and actual exerted pressures. Analyses compared average pressure values for each subject, task, position, and effort level. Speech-like and nonspeech tongue pressures did not differ significantly across body position or sex

  5. A Grouping Particle Swarm Optimizer with Personal-Best-Position Guidance for Large Scale Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weian; Si, Chengyong; Xue, Yu; Mao, Yanfen; Wang, Lei; Wu, Qidi

    2017-05-04

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a popular algorithm which is widely investigated and well implemented in many areas. However, the canonical PSO does not perform well in population diversity maintenance so that usually leads to a premature convergence or local optima. To address this issue, we propose a variant of PSO named Grouping PSO with Personal- Best-Position (Pbest) Guidance (GPSO-PG) which maintains the population diversity by preserving the diversity of exemplars. On one hand, we adopt uniform random allocation strategy to assign particles into different groups and in each group the losers will learn from the winner. On the other hand, we employ personal historical best position of each particle in social learning rather than the current global best particle. In this way, the exemplars diversity increases and the effect from the global best particle is eliminated. We test the proposed algorithm to the benchmarks in CEC 2008 and CEC 2010, which concern the large scale optimization problems (LSOPs). By comparing several current peer algorithms, GPSO-PG exhibits a competitive performance to maintain population diversity and obtains a satisfactory performance to the problems.

  6. [Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive (posttraumatic growth - PTG) effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59%) who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy - positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5):635-644. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and positive (posttraumatic growth – PTG effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Material and Methods: Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59% who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73. Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale – Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. Results: The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy – positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. Conclusions: The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5:635–644

  8. Intergroup Discrimination in Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations: Impact of Stimulus Valence, Relative Group Status, and Relative Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Sabine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as factors and with pull scores on Tajfel matrices…

  9. Timing group delay and differential code bias corrections for BeiDou positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Jinling

    2015-05-01

    This article first clearly figures out the relationship between parameters of timing group delay (TGD) and differential code bias (DCB) for BDS, and demonstrates the equivalence of TGD and DCB correction models combining theory with practice. The TGD/DCB correction models have been extended to various occasions for BDS positioning, and such models have been evaluated by real triple-frequency datasets. To test the effectiveness of broadcast TGDs in the navigation message and DCBs provided by the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX), both standard point positioning (SPP) and precise point positioning (PPP) tests are carried out for BDS signals with different schemes. Furthermore, the influence of differential code biases on BDS positioning estimates such as coordinates, receiver clock biases, tropospheric delays and carrier phase ambiguities is investigated comprehensively. Comparative analysis show that the unmodeled differential code biases degrade the performance of BDS SPP by a factor of two or more, whereas the estimates of PPP are subject to varying degrees of influences. For SPP, the accuracy of dual-frequency combinations is slightly worse than that of single-frequency, and they are much more sensitive to the differential code biases, particularly for the B2B3 combination. For PPP, the uncorrected differential code biases are mostly absorbed into the receiver clock bias and carrier phase ambiguities and thus resulting in a much longer convergence time. Even though the influence of the differential code biases could be mitigated over time and comparable positioning accuracy could be achieved after convergence, it is suggested to properly handle with the differential code biases since it is vital for PPP convergence and integer ambiguity resolution.

  10. Correlative Studies in Clinical Trials: A Position Statement From the International Thyroid Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Keith C; Cote, Gilbert J; Demeure, Michael J; Elisei, Rossella; Jhiang, Sissy; Ringel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Patients with progressive thyroid cancer in distant metastatic sites represent a population with a need for new therapeutic options. Aspiring to improve the treatment of such patients, the objective of this position statement from the International Thyroid Oncology Group (ITOG) is to clarify the importance of incorporating high-quality correlative studies into clinical trials. ITOG was formed to develop and support high-quality multicenter and multidisciplinary clinical trials for patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer. The Correlative Sciences Committee of the ITOG focuses on the quality and types of correlative studies included in ITOG-associated clinical trials. This document represents expert consensus from ITOG regarding this issue based on extensive collective experience in clinical and translational trials informed by basic science. The Correlative Studies Committee identified an international writing group representative of diverse specialties, including basic sciences. Drafts were reviewed by all members of the writing group, the larger committee, and the ITOG board. After consideration of all comments by the writing group and modification of the document, the final document was then approved by the authors and the ITOG board. High-quality correlative studies, which include variety in the types of correlates, should be intrinsic to the design of thyroid cancer clinical trials to offer the best opportunity for each study to advance treatment for patients with advanced and progressive thyroid cancer.

  11. Evaluation of Salivary Vitamin C and Catalase in HIV Positive and Healthy HIV Negative Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Vaziri-Amjad, Samaneh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a complex oral biologic fluid secreted by major and minor salivary glands. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a life-threatening disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary vitamin C and catalase levels in HIV-positive patients in comparison to a healthy control group. Forty-nine HIV-infected individuals and 49 healthy subjects were selected. Five mL of unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes using a sterilized Falcon tube with Navazesh method. Catalase and vitamin C levels were assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary catalase levels were 7.99±2.40 and 8.37±1.81 in the case and control groups, respectively. Catalase level was lower in the case group but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.380). Salivary vitamin C levels in the case and control groups were 3.76±1.92 and 4.87±2.20, respectively (P=0.009). HIV can alter salivary antioxidant capacity as well as vitamin C and catalase levels. Saliva may reflect serum antioxidative changes in these patients. Therefore, further research is necessary on salivary and serum oxidants and the antioxidant changes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Viral Richness is Positively Related to Group Size, but Not Mating System, in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Quinn M R; Fletcher, Quinn E; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing host traits that influence viral richness and diversification is important for understanding wildlife pathogens affecting conservation and/or human health. Behaviors that affect contact rates among hosts could be important for viral diversification because more frequent intra- and inter-specific contacts among hosts should increase the potential for viral diversification within host populations. We used published data on bats to test the contact-rate hypothesis. We predicted that species forming large conspecific groups, that share their range with more heterospecifics (i.e., sympatry), and with mating systems characterized by high contact rates (polygynandry: multi-male/multi-female), would host higher viral richness than species with small group sizes, lower sympatry, or low contact-rate mating systems (polygyny: single male/multi-female). Consistent with our hypothesis and previous research, viral richness was positively correlated with conspecific group size although the relationship plateaued at group sizes of approximately several hundred thousand bats. This pattern supports epidemiological theory that, up to a point, larger groups have higher contact rates, greater likelihood of acquiring and transmitting viruses, and ultimately greater potential for viral diversification. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no effect of sympatry on viral richness and no difference in viral richness between mating systems. We also found no residual effect of host phylogeny on viral richness, suggesting that closely related species do not necessarily host similar numbers of viruses. Our results support the contact-rate hypothesis that intra-specific viral transmission can enhance viral diversification within species and highlight the influence of host group size on the potential of viruses to propagate within host populations.

  13. The applicability of measures of socioeconomic position to different ethnic groups within the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Helen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups: 1 Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators 2 Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities 3 Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata Methods The sample consisted of White (n = 227, African-Caribbean (n = 213 and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233 adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Results Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. Conclusion In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research

  14. The applicability of measures of socioeconomic position to different ethnic groups within the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Paul, Sheila; Lambert, Helen; Ahmad, Waqar; Smith, George Davey

    2009-02-27

    In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups:1) Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators2) Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities3) Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata The sample consisted of White (n = 227), African-Caribbean (n = 213) and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233) adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research is required to establish the degree to which results of

  15. A multilevel analysis of the demands-control model: Is stress at work determined by factors at the group level or the individual level?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Snijders, T.A.B.

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which negative health-related outcomes are associated with differences between work groups and with differences between individuals within work groups using R. A. Karasek's (1979) demands-control model. The sample consisted of 260 employees in 31 working groups of a

  16. Multi-Level Analysis of Peer Support, Internet Self-Efficacy and E-Learning Outcomes--The Contextual Effects of Collectivism and Group Potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Regina Juchun; Chu, Anita Zichun

    2010-01-01

    The present study intends to explore the role of collectivism and group potency at group level in predicting individual Internet self-efficacy (ISE) and individual e-learning outcomes for people aged over 45. Group learning has been widely discussed in the research into online formats. However, less study has been carried out about how…

  17. Relative position of the mandibular foramen in different age groups of children: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonacha K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the relative position of the mandibular foramen (MF and to evaluate the measurement of gonial angle (GoA and its relationship with distances between different mandibular borders in growing children between 3 and 13years of dental age. Materials and methods: The radiographs were traced to arrive at six linear and two angular measurements from which the relative position of the MF was assessed and compared in different age groups to determine the growth pattern of the mandible and changes in the location of the MF. Results: The distances between the MF and the anterior plane of the ramus were greater than that between MF and posterior plane of the ramus through all stages. There was a maximum increase in the vertical dimensions of the mandible compared with the horizontal dimensions, particularly in the late mixed dentition period. Conclusion: The mandible and its growth did not alter the position of the MF, both vertically and horizontally, in relation to different landmarks, and more obtuse GoA indicated an increased growth potential of the mandible. This has major implications in the inferior alveolar nerve block technique when used in children.

  18. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari Ylenia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes, to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles, or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation

  19. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. Conclusions These results

  20. Effect of smile index and incisal edge position on perception of attractiveness in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, J-C; Nelson, A; Katwal, D; Elathamna, E N; Durski, M T

    2016-11-01

    Changes in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) and age have been found to affect Smile Index (SI, width/height of smile). Limited information is available regarding the aesthetic effects of these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of digitally manipulated smile images with differences in SI and incisal edge position (IEP) judged by respondents in different age groups. A total of 12 smile images were generated with varying SI (3·5, 5·3, 7·2, 9·0) and IEP (High, Medium, Low). Fifty respondents each in four age groups (15-24, 25-39, 40-54, 55+) evaluated the attractiveness of the 12 images using a 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS, 10 being most attractive). A repeated-measures three-factorial mixed model assessed differences. SI, IEP and age of respondents were found to significantly influence attractiveness score (P age groups combined, SI = 7·2/IEP = Medium was most attractive (VAS = 7·22), followed by SI = 9·0/IEP = Medium, and SI = 5·3/IEP = Medium (VAS = 6·53 and 6·48, respectively). SI = 3·5/IEP = High and SI = 3·5/IEP = Low were least attractive (VAS = 1·99 and VAS = 2·58, respectively). Age group significantly influenced aesthetic perception, with younger respondents more critical in differences in SI and IEP. SI and IEP significantly influenced attractiveness of the smile in all respondent age groups. Low SI (i.e. 3·5) combined with high or low IEP was unattractive. Medium SI to high SI (i.e. 5·3-9·0) combined with medium IEP were considered attractive. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. SCM-positive Streptococcus canis are predominant among pet-associated group G streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkühlen, Gerd-Josef; Pägelow, Dennis; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Fulde, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) canis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen with increasing impor- tance. Since knowledge about its distribution in pets in Germany is scant, we designed a study and tested 335 dogs and 71 cats for colonization by S. canis. S. canis was isolated from swabs taken from the perianal region by culture and subsequent identification was performed biochemically as well as by PCR. In total, 15.8% (53) of the canine and 8.5% (six) of the feline strains grown on Staphlyo- coccus/Streptococcus Selective Agar were tested positive for the Lancefield group G antigen. The vast majority of strains expressing the Lancefield Group G carbohy- drate (56 out of 59) were further identified as S. canis underlining their outstanding role among animal-associated Group G streptococci (GGS). Furthermore, 90.0% of the canine and 83.3% of the feline S. canis strains harbour the species-specific anti- phagocytic M protein homologue SCM, which has been described as an important virulence factor. In contrast, emm-genes typically encoded by human-specific GGS could not be detected in any of the S. canis isolates. Taken together, this study provides insights into the distribution of the neglected zoonotic pathogen S. canis in a population of pets in Germany. The presence of SCM in the vast majority of strains indicates their pathogenic potential.

  2. Multilevel geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jocelyn M.; Fast, Patton L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2000-02-01

    Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol.

  3. Multilevel geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Jocelyn M. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Fast, Patton L. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Truhlar, Donald G. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)

    2000-02-15

    Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Ethnic Diversity, Inter-group Attitudes and Countervailing Pathways of Positive and Negative Inter-group Contact: An Analysis Across Workplaces and Neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, James; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles

    2018-01-01

    This study advances the current literature investigating the relationship between contextual out-group exposure, inter-group attitudes and the role of inter-group contact. Firstly, it introduces the concept of contact-valence into this relationship; that is, whether contact is experienced positively or negatively. Secondly, it presents a comparative analysis of how processes of out-group exposure and frequency of (valenced) contact affect prejudice across both neighbourhoods and workplaces. Applying path analysis modelling to a nationally-representative sample of white British individuals in England, we demonstrate, across both contexts, that increasing out-group exposure is associated with higher rates of both positively- and negatively-valenced contact. This results in exposure exhibiting both positive and negative indirect associations with prejudice via more frequent inter-group mixing. These countervailing contact-pathways help explain how out-group exposure is associated with inter-group attitudes. In neighbourhoods, increasing numbers of individuals experiencing positive-contact suppress an otherwise negative effect of neighbourhood diversity (driven partly by increasing numbers of individuals reporting negative contact). Across workplaces the effect differs such that increasing numbers of individuals experiencing negative-contact suppress an otherwise positive effect of workplace diversity (driven largely by increasing numbers of individuals experiencing positive contact).

  5. Immigration concern and the white/non-white difference in smoking: Group position theory and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L

    2017-12-01

    National data indicate that U.S. whites have a higher prevalence of smoking compared to non-whites. Group position theory and public opinion data suggest racial differences in immigration concern. This study examines whether immigration concern mediates the racial difference in smoking. Drawing on the 2012 General Social Survey, the 2012 American National Election Study, and the 2006 Portraits of American Life Study, immigration concern was associated with smoking, controlling for covariates across all three nationally representative surveys. Mediation analysis indicated that immigration concern partially mediated the higher odds of smoking among whites across all surveys. Immigration concern also presents a possible explanation for the healthy immigrant advantage and Hispanic paradox as they pertain to smoking differences.

  6. The positive and negative framing of affirmative action: a group dominance perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Hillary; Sidanius, Jim

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of 328 White, Latino, and Black Los Angeles County adults, the authors examined the tendency to employ various affirmative action "frames" (e.g., affirmative action as a "tie-breaking" device or as a quota-based policy). All three groups agreed about which frames cast affirmative action in a positive light and which cast it in a negative light. Although minorities had a tendency to frame affirmative action in terms that most people find morally acceptable, Whites had a tendency to frame affirmative action in terms most people find unacceptable. In addition, compared to minorities, Whites were less supportive of affirmative action regardless of how it was framed. LISREL modeling also was employed to test two competing models regarding predictors of the tendency to use frames that one personally finds to be relatively negative versus positive. Consistent with the expectations of social dominance theory and a motivated cognition perspective, the authors found that social dominance orientation (SDO) had significant net direct and indirect effects on one's framing of affirmative action.

  7. Desensitization in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions -- an EAACI position paper of the Drug Allergy Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K; Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Gooi, J H C; Demoly, P; Romano, A; Schnyder, B; Whitaker, P; Cernadas, J S R; Bircher, A J

    2013-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity may deprive patients of drug therapy, and occasionally no effective alternative treatment is available. Successful desensitization has been well documented in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions. In certain situations, such as sulfonamide hypersensitivity in HIV-positive patients or hypersensitivity to antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis, published success rates reach 80%, and this procedure appears helpful for the patient management. A state of clinical tolerance may be achieved by the administration of increasing doses of the previously offending drug. However, in most cases, a pre-existent sensitization has not been proven by positive skin tests. Successful re-administration may have occurred in nonsensitized patients. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of desensitization is needed. Currently, desensitization in delayed hypersensitivity reactions is restricted to mild, uncomplicated exanthems and fixed drug eruptions. The published success rates vary depending on clinical manifestations, drugs, and applied protocols. Slower protocols tend to be more effective than rush protocols; however, underreporting of unsuccessful procedures is very probable. The decision to desensitize a patient must always be made on an individual basis, balancing risks and benefits. This paper reviews the literature and presents the expert experience of the Drug Hypersensitivity Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Positive and purifying selection influence the evolution of doublesex in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iderval S Sobrinho

    Full Text Available The gene doublesex (dsx is considered to be under strong selective constraint along its evolutionary history because of its central role in somatic sex differentiation in insects. However, previous studies of dsx used global estimates of evolutionary rates to investigate its molecular evolution, which potentially miss signals of adaptive changes in generally conserved genes. In this work, we investigated the molecular evolution of dsx in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group (Diptera, Tephritidae, and test the hypothesis that this gene evolved solely by purifying selection using divergence-based and population-based methods. In the first approach, we compared sequences from Anastrepha and other Tephritidae with other Muscomorpha species, analyzed variation in nonsynonymous to synonymous rate ratios (dN/dS in the Tephritidae, and investigated radical and conservative changes in amino acid physicochemical properties. We show a general selective constraint on dsx, but with signs of positive selection mainly in the common region. Such changes were localized in alpha-helices previously reported to be involved in dimer formation in the OD2 domain and near the C-terminal of the OD1 domain. In the population-based approach, we amplified a region of 540 bp that spanned almost all of the region common to both sexes from 32 different sites in Brazil. We investigated patterns of selection using neutrality tests based on the frequency spectrum and locations of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in a haplotype network. As in the divergence-based approach, these analyses showed that dsx has evolved under an overall selective constraint, but with some events of positive selection. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses indicate that even though dsx has indeed evolved as a conserved gene, the common region of dsx has also experienced bouts of positive selection, perhaps driven by sexual selection, during its evolution.

  9. Elucidation of substituted ester group position in octenylsuccinic anhydride modified sugary maize soluble starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Miao, Ming; Huang, Chao; Lu, Keyu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-03

    The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS.

  10. Intergroup Contact and Social Change: Implications of Negative and Positive Contact for Collective Action in Advantaged and Disadvantaged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Nils Karl; Becker, Julia C; Benz, Angelika; Christ, Oliver; Dhont, Kristof; Klocke, Ulrich; Neji, Sybille; Rychlowska, Magdalena; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that (a) positive intergroup contact with an advantaged group can discourage collective action among disadvantaged-group members and (b) positive intergroup contact can encourage advantaged-group members to take action on behalf of disadvantaged outgroups. Two studies investigated the effects of negative as well as positive intergroup contact. Study 1 ( n = 482) found that negative but not positive contact with heterosexual people was associated with sexual-minority students' engagement in collective action (via group identification and perceived discrimination). Among heterosexual students, positive and negative contacts were associated with, respectively, more and less LGB (lesbian, gay, bisexual) activism. Study 2 ( N = 1,469) found that only negative contact (via perceived discrimination) predicted LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) students' collective action intentions longitudinally while only positive contact predicted heterosexual/cisgender students' LGBT activism. Implications for the relationship between intergroup contact, collective action, and social change are discussed.

  11. Handbook of multilevel analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leeuw, Jan de; Meijer, Erik

    2008-01-01

    ... appropriate and efficient model-based methods have become available to deal with this issue, that we have come to appreciate the power that more complex models provide for describing the world and providing new insights. This book sets out to present some of the most recent developments in what has come to be known as multilevel modelling. An...

  12. Positioning University as a Brand: Distinctions between the Brand Promise of Russell Group, 1994 Group, University Alliance, and Million+ Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Sheila; Springer, Paul; Parsons, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Branding is now widely used by higher education (HE) institutions, yet questions still surround the transference of private sector concepts to a university context. This article reports on findings from studies that investigated the brand promises of four UK universities--one from each of the HE "mission groups." The evidence indicated…

  13. Group Work in the MBA Classroom: Improving Pedagogical Practice and Maximizing Positive Outcomes with Part-Time MBA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Patricia D.

    2013-01-01

    This article forms part of an exploration into how graduate students experience group work. A single case, embedded study was completed in 2011, which reveals insight and understanding into the manner in which part-time MBA students experience group work assignments and how these experiences contribute to their perception of positive group work…

  14. Indirect calorimetry in nutritional therapy. A position paper by the ICALIC study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Taku; Berger, Mette M; De Waele, Elisabeth; Guttormsen, Anne Berit; Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Hiesmayr, Michael; Singer, Pierre; Wernerman, Jan; Pichard, Claude

    2017-06-01

    This review aims to clarify the use of indirect calorimetry (IC) in nutritional therapy for critically ill and other patient populations. It features a comprehensive overview of the technical concepts, the practical application and current developments of IC. Pubmed-referenced publications were analyzed to generate an overview about the basic knowledge of IC, to describe advantages and disadvantages of the current technology, to clarify technical issues and provide pragmatic solutions for clinical practice and metabolic research. The International Multicentric Study Group for Indirect Calorimetry (ICALIC) has generated this position paper. IC can be performed in in- and out-patients, including those in the intensive care unit, to measure energy expenditure (EE). Optimal nutritional therapy, defined as energy prescription based on measured EE by IC has been associated with better clinical outcome. Equations based on simple anthropometric measurements to predict EE are inaccurate when applied to individual patients. An ongoing international academic initiative to develop a new indirect calorimeter aims at providing innovative and affordable technical solutions for many of the current limitations of IC. Indirect calorimetry is a tool of paramount importance, necessary to optimize the nutrition therapy of patients with various pathologies and conditions. Recent technical developments allow broader use of IC for in- and out-patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. One-Level or Multilevel Interbody Fusion for Multilevel Lumbar Degenerative Diseases: A Prospective Randomized Control Study with a 4-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiefeng; Shi, Lei; Luo, Yibin; Chen, Deyu; Chen, Yu

    2018-02-01

    The treatment of multilevel lumbar degenerative disease (LDD) is complicated and challenging, and the optimal surgical strategy remains controversial. To compare the differences in clinical and radiologic outcomes and in complications after 1-level interbody fusion versus multilevel interbody fusion for the treatment of multilevel LDD. A total of 100 patients with multilevel LDD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio into the 1-level interbody fusion group or the multilevel interbody fusion group. Clinical and radiologic results and major complications in the 2 groups were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale for radicular and back pain, the Oswestry Disability Index, and the short-form 36 physical score. Clinical status was assessed by the Whitecloud classification. Radiologic evaluation included assessment of lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, and sacral slope. There were no significant differences in clinical and radiologic results between the 2 groups. Procedure duration and intraoperative blood loss were significantly greater in the multilevel interbody fusion group than in the 1-level interbody fusion group; the multilevel interbody fusion group also had greater incidences of temporary nerve root palsy, wound infection, and adjacent segment disease. A hybrid technique including 1-level interbody fusion and multilevel posterolateral fusion is recommended for patients with multilevel LDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  17. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  18. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  19. Normative evaluations and frequency expectations regarding positive versus negative outcome allocations between groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanz, M; Mummendey, A; Otten, S

    1997-01-01

    Data from several recent studies consistently show a positive-negative asymmetry in social discrimination: within a minimal social situation tendencies cowards ingroup favouritism which usually appear in allocations of positively valenced resources are absent in the domain of negatively valenced

  20. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Trastuzumab shows clinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive early and advanced breast cancer. In the German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 trial, we investigated if trastuzumab treatment should be continued beyond progression. METHODS......: Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles....... The primary end point was time to progression. RESULTS: We randomly assigned 78 patients to capecitabine and 78 patients to capecitabine plus trastuzumab. Sixty-five events and 38 deaths in the capecitabine group and 62 events and 33 deaths in the capecitabine-plus-trastuzumab group occurred during 15...

  1. Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mihi, Victoria; Orellana, Lorena M.; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting position of the head may be implicated in the development of such malocclusions. Study design: Forty-four patients aged between 12-55 years (18 males and 26 females) were studied. Occlusal conditions, the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), changes in the resting position of the head, and breathing and swallowing functions were assessed. Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 70.8% of the patients, the most frequent malocclusions being molar class II, open bite and high overjet. These individuals showed altered breathing and swallowing functions, as well as habit and postural disorders. The resting position of the head, especially the hyperextended presentation, was significantly correlated to high DAI scores. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that patients with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to present malocclusions, particularly molar class II malocclusion, increased open bite, and high overjet. Such alterations in turn are more common in patients with a hyperextended position of the head. Key words:Cerebral palsy, malocclusion, head position, disabled patients. PMID:24596627

  2. Multilevel models applications using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jichuan; Fisher, James F

    2011-01-01

    This book covers a broad range of topics about multilevel modeling. The goal is to help readers to understand the basic concepts, theoretical frameworks, and application methods of multilevel modeling. It is at a level also accessible to non-mathematicians, focusing on the methods and applications of various multilevel models and using the widely used statistical software SAS®. Examples are drawn from analysis of real-world research data.

  3. Multilevel models for longitudinal data

    OpenAIRE

    Fiona Steele

    2008-01-01

    Repeated measures and repeated events data have a hierarchical structure which can be analysed by using multilevel models. A growth curve model is an example of a multilevel random-coefficients model, whereas a discrete time event history model for recurrent events can be fitted as a multilevel logistic regression model. The paper describes extensions to the basic growth curve model to handle auto-correlated residuals, multiple-indicator latent variables and correlated growth processes, and e...

  4. Who is the competent physics student? A study of students' positions and social interaction in small-group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-06-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students. The analysis was based on gender theory viewing gender both as a process and a discourse. Specifically discursive psychology analysis was used to examine how students position themselves and their peers within discourses of physics and gender. The results of the study reveal how images of physics and of "skilled physics student" were constructed in the context of the interviews. These discourses were reconstructed in the students' discussions and their social interactions within groups. Traditional gendered positions were reconstructed, for example with boys positioned as more competent in physics than girls. These positions were however also resisted and challenged.

  5. The effect of group attachment and social position on prosocial behavior. Evidence from lab-in-the-field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer organizations in rural Uganda. Using different variants of the dictator game, we demonstrate that group attachment positively affects prosocial behavior, and that this effect is not simply the by-product of the degree of proximity between individuals. Second, we show that occupying a formal position in an organization or community leads to greater generosity toward in-group members. Taken together, our findings show that prosocial behavior is not an invariant social trait; rather, it varies according to individuals' relative position in the social structure.

  6. Effectiveness of Positive Group Psychotherapy on Resiliency, Happiness and General Health on Women with a Substance Dependence Spouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F sohrabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of positive group psychotherapy on resiliency, happiness and general health in Women with substance dependent spouse. The research design was quasi - experimental with pre-test, post-test and one-month follow - up with the control group. The sample was comprised of women whom their spouse were referred to addiction clinic. Twenty - four women were selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Both groups were assessed by Davidson Resilience Scale, Peterson happiness directions questionnaires and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Positive group psychotherapy was conducted on the experimental group for 14 sessions, each session lasting 90- minutes. The data was analyzed with ANCOVA. The findings indicated that the mean scores of post-test in the experimental groups on resilience, happiness, and public health, was significantly higher than the mean scores of post-test in control group. Benferroni test was indicating the stable effect of therapy. According to the findings, it can be said that group positive psychotherapy was effective in promoting resiliency, happiness, and general health of women with the dependent drug spouses.

  7. Short term memory development : Differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppenol, G.V.; Bouwmeester, S.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in

  8. Positive is usually good, negative is not always bad: The effects of group affect on social integration and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew P; Eisenkraft, Noah

    2015-07-01

    Grounded in a social functional perspective, this article examines the conditions under which group affect influences group functioning. Using meta-analysis, the authors leverage heterogeneity across 39 independent studies of 2,799 groups to understand how contextual factors-group affect source (exogenous or endogenous to the group) and group life span (one-shot or ongoing)-moderate the influence of shared feelings on social integration and task performance. As predicted, results indicate that group positive affect has consistent positive effects on social integration and task performance regardless of contextual idiosyncrasies. The effects of group negative affect, on the other hand, are context-dependent. Shared negative feelings promote social integration and task performance when stemming from an exogenous source or experienced in a 1-shot group, but undermine social integration and task performance when stemming from an endogenous source or experienced in an ongoing group. The authors discuss implications of their findings and highlight directions for future theory and research on group affect. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Fast multilevel radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletou, Frédéric; Léger, Ludovick

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and Successive Overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho (1995); it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry.

  10. Measuring intergroup ideologies: positive and negative aspects of emphasizing versus looking beyond group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M

    2015-12-01

    Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms to minimize group distinctions; segregationism holds that groups should occupy separate spheres. Parallel versions can be identified for intergender relations. Scales to measure all four ideologies are developed both for ethnicity (Studies 1 and 2) and gender (Studies 3 and 4). Results demonstrate that the ideologies can be reliably measured, that the hypothesized four-factor models are superior to alternative models with fewer factors, and that the ideologies relate as predicted to the importance ascribed to group distinctions, subordinate group evaluations, and solution preferences for intergroup conflict scenarios. We argue that this fourfold model can help clarify theory and measurement, allowing a more nuanced assessment of ideological attitudes. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Adolescent Sexuality and Positive Well-Being: A Group-Norms Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2011-01-01

    The link between adolescent sexual activity and psychological well-being is a controversial issue in developmental psychology. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between three aspects of teenage sexuality (genital sexual experience, age of sexual onset, and number of sex partners) and positive well-being (hedonic, eudaimonic,…

  12. The effect of positive group psychotherapy on self-esteem and state anger among adolescents at Korean immigrant churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to describe participants' experiences and examine the effects of group therapy on self-esteem and state anger among the adolescent children of immigrants in the US. A quasi-experimental design and qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Group therapy was conducted for 8weeks. Thirty-three adolescents took part in the study. Quantitative results revealed that group therapy improved self-esteem (t=2.222. pcommunication skills, the forgiveness of others, and the management of anger. Furthermore, group therapy utilizing positive psychology strategies improved self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the Center: Positions, Dominance, and Star Formation Rates of Most Massive Group Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Jennifer L.; Parker, Laura C.; McGee, Sean; Mulchaey, John S.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Balogh, Michael; Wilman, David; Group Environment Evolution Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The group environment is believed to be the stage for many galaxy transformations, helping evolve blue star-forming galaxies to red passive ones. In local studies of galaxy clusters, the central member is usually a single dominant giant galaxy at the center of the potential with little star formation thought to be the result of galaxy mergers. In nearby groups, a range of morphologies and star formation rates are observed and the formation history is less clear. Further, the position and dominance of the central galaxy cannot be assumed in groups, which are less massive and evolved than clusters. To understand the connections between global group properties and properties of the central group galaxy at intermediate redshift, we examine galaxy groups from the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC) catalog, including both optically- and X-ray-selected groups at redshift z~0.4. The sample is diverse, containing a range in overall mass and evolutionary state. The number of groups is significant, membership is notably complete, and measurements span the IR to the UV allowing the properties of the members to be connected to those of the host groups. Having investigated trends in the global group properties previously, including mass and velocity substructure, we turn our attention now to the galaxy populations, focusing on the central regions of these systems. The most massive and second most massive group galaxies are identified by their stellar mass. The positions of the most massive galaxies (MMGs) are determined with respect to both the luminosity-weighted and X-ray center. Star formation rates are used to explore the fraction of passive/quiescent versus star-forming MMGs and the dominance of the MMGs in our group sample is also tested. Determinations of these characteristics and trends constitute the important first steps toward a detailed understanding of the relationships between the properties of host groups and their most massive galaxies and the

  14. Empowering leaders optimize working conditions for engagement: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Bakker, Arnold B; Dollard, Maureen F

    2012-01-01

    Using a multilevel framework, this study examined the role of empowering leadership at the group level by fire brigade captains in facilitating the individual level motivational processes that underpin work engagement in volunteer firefighters. Anonymous mail surveys were completed by 540 volunteer firefighters from 68 fire brigades and, separately, by 68 brigade captains. As predicted on the basis of the Job Demands-Resources model, increased levels of cognitive demands and cognitive resources partially mediated the relationship between empowering leadership and work engagement. In a three-way Leadership × Demands × Resources interaction, empowering leadership also had the effect of optimizing working conditions for engagement by strengthening the positive effect of a work context in which both cognitive demands and cognitive resources were high. Our findings shed light on a process through which leaders can empower workers and enhance well-being: via their influence on and interaction with the work environment. They also underscore the need to examine work engagement from a multilevel theoretical perspective.

  15. Adaptive evolution of the spike gene of SARS coronavirus: changes in positively selected sites in different epidemic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shao-Heng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that animal-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS coronavirus (CoV is the cause of the SARS outbreak worldwide. The spike (S protein is one of the best characterized proteins of SARS-CoV, which plays a key role in SARS-CoV overcoming species barrier and accomplishing interspecies transmission from animals to humans, suggesting that it may be the major target of selective pressure. However, the process of adaptive evolution of S protein and the exact positively selected sites associated with this process remain unknown. Results By investigating the adaptive evolution of S protein, we identified twelve amino acid sites (75, 239, 244, 311, 479, 609, 613, 743, 765, 778, 1148, and 1163 in the S protein under positive selective pressure. Based on phylogenetic tree and epidemiological investigation, SARS outbreak was divided into three epidemic groups: 02–04 interspecies, 03-early-mid, and 03-late epidemic groups in the present study. Positive selection was detected in the first two groups, which represent the course of SARS-CoV interspecies transmission and of viral adaptation to human host, respectively. In contrast, purifying selection was detected in 03-late group. These indicate that S protein experiences variable positive selective pressures before reaching stabilization. A total of 25 sites in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group and 16 sites in 03-early-mid epidemic group were identified under positive selection. The identified sites were different between these two groups except for site 239, which suggests that positively selected sites are changeable between groups. Moreover, it was showed that a larger proportion (24% of positively selected sites was located in receptor-binding domain (RBD than in heptad repeat (HR1-HR2 region in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group (p = 0.0208, and a greater percentage (25% of these sites occurred in HR1–HR2 region than in RBD in 03-early

  16. Support groups for HIV-positive people in South Africa: Who joins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-members had tested due to illness, reported considerably more pain and were more likely to have no income. PLWHA experienced high mental, physical and social distress which must be addressed. Attention to gender differences is called for. While all members joined the support group to gain information and learn ...

  17. Long-Term Musical Group Interaction Has a Positive Influence on Empathy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitch, Tal-Chen; Cross, Ian; Burnard, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Musical group interaction (MGI) is a complex social setting requiring certain cognitive skills that may also elicit shared psychological states. We argue that many MGI-specific features may also be important for emotional empathy, the ability to experience another person's emotional state. We thus hypothesized that long-term repeated participation…

  18. Disintegration of positive isometric group representations on L^p-spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeu, de M.F.E.; Rozendaal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Let G be a Polish locally compact group acting on a Polish space X" role="presentation">X with a G-invariant probability measure μ" role="presentation">μ. We factorize the integral with respect to μ" role="presentation">μ in terms of the integrals with respect to the ergodic measures on X, and show

  19. Examining the Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Training on Increasing Hope and Life Satisfaction in Mothers of Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Omid Sotoudeh Navroodi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders are exposed to mental distress because of having a disabled child more than parents with children with other psychological disorders, and their children's disorder has a negative effect on their hope and life satisfaction. The present study aimed to examining the effectiveness of group positive parenting training on increasing hope and life satisfaction in mothers of children with autism.Method: This was a quasi-experimental study with pretest, posttest, and control and experimental groups. Mothers with autistic children (6-15 years in Rasht consisted the statistical population of the study. All the children had a medical record and autism diagnosis based on DSM-IV-TR by a psychiatrist. Hope Questionnaires by Snyder and Life Satisfaction Questionnaire by Diener were implemented. Participants of the experimental group received positive parenting training for 8 sessions, and participants of the control group were put in the state of waiting. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage and inferential statistics (univariate and multivariate covariance analysis were used for data analysis.Results: In this study, 27 mothers of children with autism were examined. The mean and standard deviation of the age of mothers in the experimental group was 36.14± 2.47 years and it was 37± 3.62 years for mothers in the control group. The results of univariate covariance analysis revealed a significant difference between the scores of pretest and posttest of the experimental and control groups in life satisfaction (Sum of square = 16.558, F = 13.534, DF = 1, P = 0.002, 〖=ƞ〗^2 = 0.361.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that using group positive parenting training can have a positive effect on dimensions of hope and life satisfaction in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

  20. Caught in the Middle: Understanding Asian Pacific American Perspectives on Affirmative Action through Blumer's Group Position Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2003-01-01

    This study examines Asian Pacific American undergraduates' views on affirmative action and their perspectives on U.S. race relations through Herbert Blumer's (1958) theory of group position. Results indicate that Asian Pacific American (APA) students may perceive other minority student applicants as inferior to APA applicants and feel threatened…

  1. Identification of psychobiological stressors among HIV-positive women. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center (HNRC) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, S J; Patterson, T L; Temoshok, L R; McCutchan, J A; Straits-Tröster, K A; Chandler, J L; Grant, I

    1993-01-01

    This research describes major stressors in the lives of women who have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thirty-one HIV antibody positive (HIV+) women infected primarily through heterosexual contact participated in a two hour semi-structured interview detailing the circumstances, context, and consequences of all stressful life events and difficulties experienced within the preceding six months. Qualitative methods of data analyses were utilized (Miles & Huberman, 1984). HIV-related life events and difficulties were classified into primary and secondary stressors based on the stress process model (Pearlin et al., 1981). Problems arising directly from one's seropositivity were defined as primary stressors. Stressful life events and difficulties occurring in other role areas were defined as secondary stressors. Six categories of HIV-related stressors were identified and quantified. Primary stressors were health-related, and included both gynecological problems (e.g., amenorrhea) and general symptoms of HIV infection (e.g., fatigue). Secondary stressors related to child and family (e.g., future guardianship of children), marital/partner relations (e.g., disclosure of HIV+ status), occupation (e.g., arranging time-off for medical appointments), economic problems (e.g., insurance "hassles"), and social network events (e.g., death of friends from AIDS). This research indicates that HIV-positive women are exposed to multiple stressors; some may be viewed as unique to women, whereas others may be considered common to both sexes. Identification of stressors has implications for the design of medical and psychiatric interventions for women.

  2. Positive experience in introduction of functional group control at NPPs. What are the future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, O.M.; Antonyuk, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Experience in introduction of functional group control (FGC) on the basis of the ULU2-computer at the Rovno-3 NPP unit is generalized. A list of additional improvements realized during subsystems RY (steam generator blowing through) and TZ (special waste water system) introduction in the NPP reactor compartment is given. Reguirements to equipment, FGC actuating mechanisms, technological part of the design, necessary for FGC realization, are formulated. FGC relieves NPP operator of routine operations, reduces his fatigue and increases sharply the technological discipline. Rigorous standardization of designs and equipment and centralized management are reguired for FGC introduction at the operating NPPs

  3. Economic and Sociological Correlates of Suicides: Multilevel Analysis of the Time Series Data in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bruce Qiang; Zhang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    For the effects of social integration on suicides, there have been different and even contradictive conclusions. In this study, the selected economic and social risks of suicide for different age groups and genders in the United Kingdom were identified and the effects were estimated by the multilevel time series analyses. To our knowledge, there exist no previous studies that estimated a dynamic model of suicides on the time series data together with multilevel analysis and autoregressive distributed lags. The investigation indicated that unemployment rate, inflation rate, and divorce rate are all significantly and positively related to the national suicide rates in the United Kingdom from 1981 to 2011. Furthermore, the suicide rates of almost all groups above 40 years are significantly associated with the risk factors of unemployment and inflation rate, in comparison with the younger groups. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Fast multilevel radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paletou, Frederic; Leger, Ludovick

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho [A novel iterative scheme for the very fast and accurate solution of non-LTE radiative transfer problems. Astrophys J 1995;455:646]; it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry

  5. Multilevel DC link inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  6. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  7. IgG4 and IgE co-positive group found in idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Xiang Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To reveal the cytokines involved in idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease (IOID and the relationship between Th17 cells, IgE and IOID pathogenesis. METHODS: Whole blood samples were processed immediately after collection and serological IgG4, IgG, and IgE antibodies were tested using ELISA. IOID and orbital cavernous hemangioma (CH tissue samples underwent Bio-Plex multiplex cytokine detection. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE staining of all paraffin samples suggested the histological features of IOIDs, and expressions of IgG4 and IL-17A in affected tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Among 40 IOID plasma samples, 52.5% (21/40 were positive for IgG4 and 25% (10/40 were positive for IgE. Overlapped IgG4 or IgE positive samples accounted for 22.5% (9/40. Therefore, IOID samples were separated into three groups. The IgE+/IgG4+ group had a relevantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. IL-4 (Th2 cell related, IL-10 and TGF-β1 (Treg cell immunity related were elevated in all three groups. Some of the Th17 cell related cytokines (i.e. IL-17A/F, IL-25, IL-23, and IL-33 displayed higher expression levels in the IgE-/IgG4- group compared to the other two groups. CONCLUSION: We discovered an IgG4-IgE co-positive group as well as Th17 cell immune involvement in IgG4-IgE co-negative subgtroup in IOID for the first time. The pathogenesis of IOID could differ from different subgroups according to the IgG4 and IgE detection. Therefore, we recommend that, Treatment stratagy should be made according to the clinical assessment of IgG4-IgE and Th17 profile detection.

  8. The effect of group attachment and social position on prosocial behavior. Evidence from lab-in-the-field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Baldassarri

    Full Text Available Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer organizations in rural Uganda. Using different variants of the dictator game, we demonstrate that group attachment positively affects prosocial behavior, and that this effect is not simply the by-product of the degree of proximity between individuals. Second, we show that occupying a formal position in an organization or community leads to greater generosity toward in-group members. Taken together, our findings show that prosocial behavior is not an invariant social trait; rather, it varies according to individuals' relative position in the social structure.

  9. Assessment of child psychomotor development in population groups as a positive health indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Kelmansky, Diana M; Passcucci, María C; Masautis, Alicia; Insua, Iván; Lejarraga, Celina; Nunes, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    It is necessary to use health indicators describing the conditions of all individuals in a population, not just of those who have a disease or die. To introduce a method to collect population indicators of psychomotor development in children younger than 6 years old and show its results. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional assessment regarding compliance with 13 developmental milestones (selected from the national reference) conducted in 5465 children using five surveys administered by the Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin Authority in areas of this basin where a high proportion of families with unmet basic needs live. For each survey, a logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the median age at attainment of the 13 developmental milestones. A linear regression model between the estimated age at attainment of the 13 milestones was adjusted for each survey based on the corresponding age at attainment of the national reference. Based on this model, three indicators were defined: overall developmental quotient, developmental quotient at 4 years old, and developmental trend. Results from the five surveys ranged between 0.74 and 0.85, 0.88 and 0.81, and -0.15 and -0.26 for the overall developmental quotient, developmental quotient at 4 years old, and developmental trend, respectively. A distinct developmental delay and an increasing trend in delay with age were observed. Indicators are easily interpreted and related to social indicators (unmet basic needs, etc.). Collecting the information necessary to make estimations takes little time and can be applied to population groups, but not on an individual level. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  10. Cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a detailed analysis and position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome," and "risk stratification" overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. There is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. With the objectives of clarifying these concepts and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group reviewed the evidence related to emerging cardiovascular risk factors and Canadian guideline recommendations in order to present a detailed analysis and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider risk factors related to ethnicity in order to appropriately evaluate everyone in their diverse patient populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preferential Acquisition and Activation of Plasminogen Glycoform II by PAM Positive Group A Streptococcal Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, David M P; Law, Ruby H P; Ly, Diane; Cook, Simon M; Quek, Adam J; McArthur, Jason D; Whisstock, James C; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2015-06-30

    Plasminogen (Plg) circulates in the host as two predominant glycoforms. Glycoform I Plg (GI-Plg) contains glycosylation sites at Asn289 and Thr346, whereas glycoform II Plg (GII-Plg) is exclusively glycosylated at Thr346. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that Plg binding group A streptococcal M protein (PAM) exhibits comparative equal affinity for GI- and GII-Plg in the "closed" conformation (for GII-Plg, KD = 27.4 nM; for GI-Plg, KD = 37.0 nM). When Plg was in the "open" conformation, PAM exhibited an 11-fold increase in affinity for GII-Plg (KD = 2.8 nM) compared with that for GI-Plg (KD = 33.2 nM). The interaction of PAM with Plg is believed to be mediated by lysine binding sites within kringle (KR) 2 of Plg. PAM-GI-Plg interactions were fully inhibited with 100 mM lysine analogue ε-aminocaproic acid (εACA), whereas PAM-GII-Plg interactions were shown to be weakened but not inhibited in the presence of 400 mM εACA. In contrast, binding to the KR1-3 domains of GII-Plg (angiostatin) by PAM was completely inhibited in the presence 5 mM εACA. Along with PAM, emm pattern D GAS isolates express a phenotypically distinct SK variant (type 2b SK) that requires Plg ligands such as PAM to activate Plg. Type 2b SK was able to generate an active site and activate GII-Plg at a rate significantly higher than that of GI-Plg when bound to PAM. Taken together, these data suggest that GAS selectively recruits and activates GII-Plg. Furthermore, we propose that the interaction between PAM and Plg may be partially mediated by a secondary binding site outside of KR2, affected by glycosylation at Asn289.

  12. Multi-level predictive maintenance for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Kim-Anh; Do, Phuc; Grall, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel predictive maintenance policy with multi-level decision-making is proposed for multi-component system with complex structure. The main idea is to propose a decision-making process considered on two levels: system level and component one. The goal of the decision rules at the system level is to address if preventive maintenance actions are needed regarding the predictive reliability of the system. At component level the decision rules aim at identifying optimally a group of several components to be preventively maintained when preventive maintenance is trigged due to the system level decision. Selecting optimal components is based on a cost-based group improvement factor taking into account the predictive reliability of the components, the economic dependencies as well as the location of the components in the system. Moreover, a cost model is developed to find the optimal maintenance decision variables. A 14-component system is finally introduced to illustrate the use and the performance of the proposed predictive maintenance policy. Different sensitivity analysis are also investigated and discussed. Indeed, the proposed policy provides more flexibility in maintenance decision-making for complex structure systems, hence leading to significant profits in terms of maintenance cost when compared with existing policies. - Highlights: • A predictive maintenance policy for complex structure systems is proposed. • Multi-level decision process based on prognostic results is proposed. • A cost-based group importance measure is introduced for decision-making. • Both positive and negative dependencies between components are investigated. • A cost model and Monte Carlo simulation are developed for optimization process.

  13. Detecting and accounting for multiple sources of positional variance in peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelter, Andrey; Rouchka, Eric C; Moseley, Hunter N B

    2017-08-01

    Peak lists derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are commonly used as input data for a variety of computer assisted and automated analyses. These include automated protein resonance assignment and protein structure calculation software tools. Prior to these analyses, peak lists must be aligned to each other and sets of related peaks must be grouped based on common chemical shift dimensions. Even when programs can perform peak grouping, they require the user to provide uniform match tolerances or use default values. However, peak grouping is further complicated by multiple sources of variance in peak position limiting the effectiveness of grouping methods that utilize uniform match tolerances. In addition, no method currently exists for deriving peak positional variances from single peak lists for grouping peaks into spin systems, i.e. spin system grouping within a single peak list. Therefore, we developed a complementary pair of peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping algorithms designed to overcome these limitations. We have implemented these algorithms into an approach that can identify multiple dimension-specific positional variances that exist in a single peak list and group peaks from a single peak list into spin systems. The resulting software tools generate a variety of useful statistics on both a single peak list and pairwise peak list alignment, especially for quality assessment of peak list datasets. We used a range of low and high quality experimental solution NMR and solid-state NMR peak lists to assess performance of our registration analysis and grouping algorithms. Analyses show that an algorithm using a single iteration and uniform match tolerances approach is only able to recover from 50 to 80% of the spin systems due to the presence of multiple sources of variance. Our algorithm recovers additional spin systems by reevaluating match tolerances in multiple iterations. To facilitate evaluation of the

  14. Vodacom and MTN’s brand positioning based on the perceptions of a group of LSM seven to ten respondents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie Mentz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates Vodacom and MTN’s brand positioning based on the perceptions of a group of LSM seven to ten respondents who are principal estate agents in Gauteng. An empirical study was conducted. The profile of the sample in terms of access to telecommunication-related services confirmed that of individuals in the LSM seven to ten groups with a skew towards LSM ten. As a minimum requirement for the target market brands in the category should be strongly associated with the statements market leader, local brand, technologically sophisticated brand, trusted brand, South African brand and prestigious/upmarket brand. At an overall level, Vodacom has established a more favourable brand positioning compared to MTN. However, both Vodacom and MTN have failed to establish a personal brand relationship with the target market.

  15. The Effect of Group Attachment and Social Position on Prosocial Behavior. Evidence from Lab-in-the-Field Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer...

  16. [Efficacy of quick repositioning maneuver for posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Jinrang; Guo, Pengfei; Tian, Shiyu; Li, Keliang

    2015-12-01

    To observe the short and long-term efficacy of quick repositioning maneuver for posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (PC-BPPV) in different age groups. The clinical data of 113 adult patients with single PC-BPPV who underwent quick repositioning maneuver from July 2009 to February 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The quick repositioning maneuver was to roll the patient from involved side to healthy side in the coronal plane for 180° as quickly as possible. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to different ages: young group (age group (45 ≤ age group (≥ 60 years). The short and long term outcomes of the three groups were observed. The left ear was involved in 58 cases (51.3%) and the right ear in 55 cases (48.7%). The short term improvement rates of the young, middle-age and the old groups were 92.5%, 93.6% and 92.3% respectively, and the long term improvement rate was 90.0%, 85.1% and 73.1% respectively. There was no significant difference among the three groups in short and long term outcomes (P > 0.05). The recurrence rate of the three groups was 5.0%, 6.4% and 15.4% respectively, also no significant difference (P > 0.05). The quick repositioning maneuver along the coronal plane for PC-BPPV has a definite effect for every age groups. The method is simple, rapid and easy to master, and the patients are tolerated the maneuver well without evident side effect.

  17. Multi-level spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, David S; Kim, Yong H; Razi, Afshin

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of isthmic spondylolysis is approximately 3% to 6% in the general population. Spondylolytic defects involving multiple vertebral levels, on the other hand, are extremely rare. Only a handful of reports have examined the outcomes of surgical treatment of multi-level spondylolysis. Here, we present one case of bilateral pars defects at L3, L4, and L5. The patient, a 46-year-old female, presented with lower back pain radiating into the left lower extremity. Radiographs and CT scans of the lumbar spine revealed bilateral pars defects at L3-L5. The patient underwent lumbar discectomy and interbody fusion of L4-S1 as well as direct repair of the pars defect at L3. There were no postoperative complications, and by seven months the patient had improved clinically. While previous reports describe the use of either direct repair or fusion in the treatment of spondylolysis, we are unaware of reports describing the use of both techniques at adjacent levels.

  18. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21-57 years (M=35.27; SD=8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale--Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive--social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance.

  19. Perceiving social inequity: when subordinate-group positioning on one dimension of social hierarchy enhances privilege recognition on another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, Ashleigh Shelby; Tost, Leigh Plunkett

    2013-08-01

    Researchers have suggested that viewing social inequity as dominant-group privilege (rather than subordinate-group disadvantage) enhances dominant-group members' support for social policies aimed at lessening such inequity. However, because viewing inequity as dominant-group privilege can be damaging to dominant-group members' self-images, this perspective is frequently resisted. In the research reported here, we explored the circumstances that enhance the likelihood of dominant-group members' viewing inequity as privilege. Because social hierarchies have multiple vertical dimensions, individuals may have high status on one dimension but low status on another. We predicted that occupying a subordinate position on one dimension of social hierarchy could enhance perceptions of one's own privilege on a different dimension of hierarchy, but that this tendency would be diminished among individuals who felt they had achieved a particularly high level of success. Results from three studies that considered gender-based and race-based hierarchies in organizational settings supported our hypothesis.

  20. The Educational Gradient in Intermarriage: A Comparative Analysis of Immigrant Groups in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    A common claim in the literature is that higher-educated persons are more likely to marry outside their ethnic/racial group than lower-educated persons. We re-examine this "educational gradient" with a multilevel analysis of 46 immigrant groups in the Current Population Survey. We find that there are positive effects not only of individual…

  1. New porphyrins bearing positively charged peripheral groups linked by a sulfonamide group to meso-tetraphenylporphyrin: interactions with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manono, Janet; Marzilli, Patricia A; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2009-07-06

    New water-soluble cationic meso-tetraarylporphyrins (TArP, Ar = 4-C(6)H(4)) and some metal derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. One main goal was to assess if N-methylpyridinium (N-Mepy) groups must be directly attached to the porphyrin core for intercalative binding of porphyrins to DNA. The new porphyrins have the general formula, [T(R(2)R(1)NSO(2)Ar)P]X(4/8) (R(1) = CH(3) or H and R(2) = N-Mepy-n-CH(2) with n = 2, 3, or 4; or R(1) = R(2) = Et(3)NCH(2)CH(2)). Interactions of selected porphyrins and metalloporphyrins (Cu(II), Zn(II)) with calf thymus DNA were investigated by visible circular dichroism (CD), absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopies. The DNA-induced changes in the porphyrin Soret region (a positive induced CD feature and, at high DNA concentration, increases in the Soret band and fluorescence intensities) indicate that the new porphyrins interact with DNA in an outside, non-self-stacking binding mode. Several new metalloporphyrins did not increase DNA solution viscosity and thus do not intercalate, confirming the conclusion drawn from spectroscopic studies. Porphyrins known to intercalate typically bear two or more N-Mepy groups directly attached to the porphyrin ring, such as the prototypical meso-tetra(N-Mepy)porphyrin tetracation (TMpyP(4)). The distances between the nitrogens of the N-Mepy group are estimated to be approximately 11 A (cis) and 16 A (trans) for the relatively rigid TMpyP(4). For the new flexible porphyrin, [T(N-Mepy-4-CH(2)(CH(3))NSO(2)Ar)P]Cl(4), the distances between the nitrogens are estimated to be able to span the range from approximately 9 to approximately 25 A. Thus, the N-Mepy groups in the new porphyrins can adopt the same spacing as in known intercalators such as TMpyP(4). The absence of intercalation by the new porphyrins indicates that the propensity for the N-Mepy group to facilitate DNA intercalation of cationic porphyrins requires direct attachment of N-Mepy groups to the porphyrin core.

  2. Power and type I error of local fit statistics in multilevel latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, E.; Oberski, D.L.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    In the social and behavioral sciences, variables are often categorical and people are often nested in groups. Models for such data, such as multilevel logistic regression or the multilevel latent class model, should account for not only the categorical nature of the variables, but also the nested

  3. Income inequality and mortality: a multilevel prospective study of 521 248 individuals in 50 US states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Eric; Rowe, Geoff; Lynch, John; Wolfson, Michael C; Kaplan, George A; Sorlie, Paul D

    2007-06-01

    Some of the most consistent evidence in favour of an association between income inequality and health has been among US states. However, in multilevel studies of mortality, only two out of five studies have reported a positive relationship with income inequality after adjustment for the compositional characteristics of the state's inhabitants. In this study, we attempt to clarify these mixed results by analysing the relationship within age-sex groups and by applying a previously unused analytical method to a database that contains more deaths than any multilevel study to date. The US National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) was used to model the relationship between income inequality in US states and mortality using both a novel and previously used methodologies that fall into the general framework of multilevel regression. We adjust age-sex specific models for nine socioeconomic and demographic variables at the individual level and percentage black and region at the state level. The preponderance of evidence from this study suggests that 1990 state-level income inequality is associated with a 40% differential in state level mortality rates (95% CI = 26-56%) for men 25-64 years and a 14% (95% CI = 3-27%) differential for women 25-64 years after adjustment for compositional factors. No such relationship was found for men or women over 65. The relationship between income inequality and mortality is only robust to adjustment for compositional factors in men and women under 65. This explains why income inequality is not a major driver of mortality trends in the United States because most deaths occur at ages 65 and over. This analysis does suggest, however, the certain causes of death that occur primarily in the population under 65 may be associated with income inequality. Comparison of analytical techniques also suggests coefficients for income inequality in previous multilevel mortality studies may be biased, but further research is needed to provide a definitive

  4. Examining multi-level effects on corporate social responsibility and irresponsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzei Matthew J.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available What influences firms to engage in socially responsible (irresponsible activities? Corporate social responsibility (CSR, the efforts of firms to create a positive and desirable impact on society, and corporate social irresponsibility (CSI, contrary actions of unethical behavior that negatively influence society, have become an important focus of discussion for both corporations and scholars. Despite this interest, our understanding of organizations’ socially responsible (irresponsible actions and their antecedents is still developing. A dearth of knowledge about the multi-level nature of the drivers of CSR and CSI continues to exist. Utilizing a longitudinal sample composed of 899 firms in 66 industries, we follow a prominent model to empirically examine industry-, firm-, and individual-level effects on CSR and CSI. Employing variance decomposition analysis, our results confirm that all three levels of investigation do indeed influence CSR and CSI. More substantively, our analysis estimates the magnitude of the effects attributable to each of the three levels for both CSR and CSI. We also compare multi-level influences on two separate CSR strategies, those targeting primary stakeholders (strategic CSR and those targeting secondary stakeholders (social CSR. We find greater industry- and firmlevel effects on social CSR, and higher individual-level effects on strategic CSR. Our results build on the conceptual work of previous authors by providing empirical analyses to confirm multilevel influences on CSR and extending prior multi-level theory to the concept of CSI. Further, we add to the emerging literature regarding stakeholder demands by examining the various influences on CSR strategies targeting different stakeholder groups.

  5. Building positive self-image in adolescents in foster care: the use of role models in an interactive group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K

    1998-01-01

    In a previous article (Yancey, 1992), the literature on identity development in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups was summarized. It was postulated that the social maladaptation of adolescents in residential group foster care is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial/ethnic socialization. The present article describes the development of a pilot preventive mental health intervention, the PRIDE (Personal and Racial/ethnic Identity Development and Enhancement) program, designed to provide components of parenting that are necessary for promoting positive self-image in ethnically marginalized adolescents and that are typically lacking in the group foster care milieu. PRIDE utilizes successful, ethnically relevant role models in interactive group sessions to create a significant cognitive and emotional experience for teens. While the utility of role modeling for at-risk youth is widely accepted, there is little research on the packaging, delivery, and influence of this intervention modality. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a "hybrid" role-modeling approach (intermediate in intensity of exposure and cost between one-to-one mentoring and career-day programs). Implications for further research on this type of intervention are discussed.

  6. A multi-level modeling approach examining PTSD symptom reduction during prolonged exposure therapy: moderating effects of number of trauma types experienced, having an HIV-related index trauma, and years since HIV diagnosis among HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junglen, Angela G; Smith, Brian C; Coleman, Jennifer A; Pacella, Maria L; Boarts, Jessica M; Jones, Tracy; Feeny, Norah C; Ciesla, Jeffrey A; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2017-11-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have extensive interpersonal trauma histories and higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is efficacious in reducing PTSD across a variety of trauma samples; however, research has not examined factors that influence how PTSD symptoms change during PE for PLWH. Using multi-level modeling, we examined the potential moderating effect of number of previous trauma types experienced, whether the index trauma was HIV-related or not, and years since HIV diagnosis on PTSD symptom reduction during a 10-session PE protocol in a sample of 51 PLWH. In general, PTSD symptoms decreased linearly throughout the PE sessions. Experiencing more previous types of traumatic events was associated with a slower rate of PTSD symptom change. In addition, LOCF analyses found that participants with a non-HIV-related versus HIV-related index trauma had a slower rate of change for PTSD symptoms over the course of PE. However, analyses of raw data decreased this finding to marginal. Years since HIV diagnosis did not impact PTSD symptom change. These results provide a better understanding of how to tailor PE to individual clients and aid clinicians in approximating the rate of symptom alleviation. Specifically, these findings underscore the importance of accounting for trauma history and index trauma type when implementing a treatment plan for PTSD in PLWH.

  7. Modeling Multi-Level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...

  8. Intracranial stereotactic positioning systems: Report of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightstone, A.W.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Bova, Frank J.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Stern, Robin L.

    2005-01-01

    Intracranial stereotactic positioning systems (ISPSs) are used to position patients prior to precise radiation treatment of localized lesions of the brain. Often, the lesion is located in close proximity to critical anatomic features whose functions should be maintained. Many types of ISPSs have been described in the literature and are commercially available. These are briefly reviewed. ISPS systems provide two critical functions. The first is to establish a coordinate system upon which a guided therapy can be applied. The second is to provide a method to reapply the coordinate system to the patient such that the coordinates assigned to the patient's anatomy are identical from application to application. Without limiting this study to any particular approach to ISPSs, this report introduces nomenclature and suggests performance tests to quantify both the stability of the ISPS to map diagnostic data to a coordinate system, as well as the ISPS's ability to be realigned to the patient's anatomy. For users who desire to develop a new ISPS system, it may be necessary for the clinical team to establish the accuracy and precision of each of these functions. For commercially available systems that have demonstrated an acceptable level of accuracy and precision, the clinical team may need to demonstrate local ability to apply the system in a manner consistent with that employed during the published testing. The level of accuracy and precision required of an individual ISPS system is dependent upon the clinical protocol (e.g., fractionation, margin, pathology, etc.). Each clinical team should provide routine quality assurance procedures that are sufficient to support the assumptions of accuracy and precision used during the planning process. The testing of ISPS systems can be grouped into two broad categories, type testing, which occurs prior to general commercialization, and site testing, performed when a commercial system is installed at a clinic. Guidelines to help select

  9. Multilevel security for relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Faragallah, Osama S; El-Samie, Fathi E Abd

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of Database Security Database Concepts Relational Database Security Concepts Access Control in Relational Databases      Discretionary Access Control      Mandatory Access Control      Role-Based Access Control Work Objectives Book Organization Basic Concept of Multilevel Database Security IntroductionMultilevel Database Relations Polyinstantiation      Invisible Polyinstantiation      Visible Polyinstantiation      Types of Polyinstantiation      Architectural Consideration

  10. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Jatrorrhizine Derivatives with Amino Groups Linked at the 3-Position as Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatrorrhizine was considered as one of the active constituents of Coptis chinensis Franch. Herein, jatrorrhizine derivatives with substituted amino groups linked at the 3-position were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. Jatrorrhizine derivatives inhibited the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE to a greater extent than the lead compound jatrorrhizine. All these jatrorrhizine derivatives were proved to be potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE with submicromolar IC50 values, but less sensitive to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, which suggests that these jatrorrhizine derivatives are selective for AChE/BuChE. Compound 3g gave the most potent inhibitor activity for AChE (IC50 = 0.301 μM, which is greater than the lead compound jatrorrhizine. All these results demonstrated that these jatrorrhizine derivatives are potential inhibitors for AChE.

  11. Critical Dynamics of the Xy-Model on the One-Dimensional Superlattice by Position Space Renormalization Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J. P. De; Gonçalves, L. L.

    The critical dynamics of the isotropic XY-model on the one-dimensional superlattice is considered in the framework of the position space renormalization group theory. The decimation transformation is introduced by considering the equations of motion of the operators associated to the excitations of the system, and it corresponds to an extension of the procedure introduced by Stinchcombe and dos Santos (J. Phys. A18, L597 (1985)) for the homogeneous lattice. The dispersion relation is obtained exactly and the static and dynamic scaling forms are explicitly determined. The dynamic critical exponent is also obtained and it is shown that it is identical to the one of the XY-model on the homogeneous chain.

  12. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Attri

    Full Text Available In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs using the experimental values such as densities (ρ and ultrasonic sound velocities (u that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7.

  13. Influence of hydroxyl group position and temperature on thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids with alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Baik, Ku Youn; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Kim, In Tae; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs) such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH) and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol) within the temperature range 293.15-313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (V(E) ) and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs ) using the experimental values such as densities (ρ) and ultrasonic sound velocities (u) that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K) and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the V(E) and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary) position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7.

  14. A need to simplify informed consent documents in cancer clinical trials. A position paper of the ARCAD Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiberg, H; Decoster, G; de Gramont, A; Rougier, P; Sobrero, A; Benson, A; Chibaudel, B; Douillard, J Y; Eng, C; Fuchs, C; Fujii, M; Labianca, R; Larsen, A K; Mitchell, E; Schmoll, H J; Sprumont, D; Zalcberg, J

    2017-05-01

    In respect of the principle of autonomy and the right of self-determination, obtaining an informed consent of potential participants before their inclusion in a study is a fundamental ethical obligation. The variations in national laws, regulations, and cultures contribute to complex informed consent documents for patients participating in clinical trials. Currently, only few ethics committees seem willing to address the complexity and the length of these documents and to request investigators and sponsors to revise them in a way to make them understandable for potential participants. The purpose of this work is to focus on the written information in the informed consent documentation for drug development clinical trials and suggests (i) to distinguish between necessary and not essential information, (ii) to define the optimal format allowing the best legibility of those documents. The Aide et Recherche en Cancérologie Digestive (ARCAD) Group, an international scientific committee involving oncologists from all over the world, addressed these issues and developed and uniformly accepted a simplified informed consent documentation for future clinical research. A simplified form of informed consent with the leading part of 1200-1800 words containing all of the key information necessary to meet ethical and regulatory requirements and 'relevant supportive information appendix' of 2000-3000 words is provided. This position paper, on the basis of the ARCAD Group experts discussions, proposes our informed consent model and the rationale for its content. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

  15. The position and residential patterns of ethnic groups in Paramaribo’s development in the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad de Bruijne

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses ethnic residential patterns, in terms of spatial segregation, in Paramaribo, as these developed historically, and their correlation to the changing socioeconomic position of the various ethnic groups. Authors first point out how Paramaribo is at present one of the most multiethnic and multicultural cities of the Caribbean, and discuss the continuing importance of ethnic identity and boundaries. They further describe the history of Paramaribo's development since the period of slavery and after abolition, when many Creoles migrated to the city. Hindustani started migrating in higher numbers to Paramaribo since the early 20th c., mainly to the urban periphery, and since the 1960s also more Javanese. More recently (since the 1980s migrants to Paramaribo include Maroons, Amerindians, Chinese, and Brazilians. Authors examine in how far the residential patterns were determined by socioeconomic factors, and/or by ethnicity. They conclude that socioeconomic factors have overall become more influential in residential patterns than ethnicity. They point out that residential ethnic mixing has increased, as almost half of Paramaribo's neighbourhoods are mixed, with no dominant ethnic group, although some ethnic concentration continues, as a quarter of the neighbourhoods can be called Creole, one-fifth of them Hindustani, and Creoles (and Maroons reside for a higher percentage in the city centre, and Hindustani and Javanese more in the urban periphery.

  16. The influence of neighbourhood formality status and socio-economic position on self-rated health among adult men and women: a multilevel, cross sectional, population study from Aleppo, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence from high income countries that neighbourhoods have an influence on health independent of individual characteristics. However, neighbourhood characteristics are rarely taken into account in the analysis of urban health studies from developing countries. Informal urban neighbourhoods are home to about half of the population in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (population>2.5 million). This study aimed to examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and formality status on self-rated health (SRH) of adult men and women residing in formal and informal urban neighbourhoods in Aleppo. Methods The study used data from 2038 survey respondents to the Aleppo Household Survey, 2004 (age 18–65 years, 54.8% women, response rate 86%). Respondents were nested in 45 neighbourhoods. Five individual-level SES measures, namely education, employment, car ownership, item ownership and household density, were aggregated to the level of neighbourhood. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations. Results We did not find evidence of important SRH variation between neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood average of household item ownership was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting excellent SRH in women; odds ratio (OR) for an increase of one item on average was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.4 (versus poor SRH)) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 (versus normal SRH)), adjusted for individual characteristics and neighbourhood formality. After controlling for individual and neighbourhood SES measures, women living in informal neighbourhoods were less likely to report poor SRH than women living in formal neighbourhoods (OR= 0.4; 95% CI (0.2- 0.8) (versus poor SRH) and OR=0.5; 95%; CI (0.3-0.9) (versus normal SRH). Conclusions Findings support evidence from high income countries that certain characteristic of neighbourhoods affect men and women in different ways. Further research from similar urban settings in

  17. Explaining ethnic polarization over attitudes towards minority rights in Eastern Europe : a multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Geoffrey; Need, Ariana

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines divisions between majority and minority ethnic groups over attitudes towards minority rights in 13 East European societies. Using national sample surveys and multilevel models, we test the effectiveness of competing explanations of ethnic polarization in attitudes towards

  18. Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour

    The subject of this thesis is the development, application and study of novel multilevel methods for the acceleration and improvement of reservoir simulation techniques. The motivation for addressing this topic is a need for more accurate predictions of porous media flow and the ability to carry...... Full Approximation Scheme) • Variational (Galerkin) upscaling • Linear solvers and preconditioners First, a nonlinear multigrid scheme in the form of the Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) is implemented and studied for a 3D three-phase compressible rock/fluids immiscible reservoir simulator...... is extended to include a hybrid strategy, where FAS is combined with Newton’s method to construct a multilevel nonlinear preconditioner. This method demonstrates high efficiency and robustness. Second, an improved IMPES formulated reservoir simulator is implemented using a novel variational upscaling approach...

  19. Stability of Boolean multilevel networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzo, Emanuele; Arenas, Alex; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-09-01

    The study of the interplay between the structure and dynamics of complex multilevel systems is a pressing challenge nowadays. In this paper, we use a semiannealed approximation to study the stability properties of random Boolean networks in multiplex (multilayered) graphs. Our main finding is that the multilevel structure provides a mechanism for the stabilization of the dynamics of the whole system even when individual layers work on the chaotic regime, therefore identifying new ways of feedback between the structure and the dynamics of these systems. Our results point out the need for a conceptual transition from the physics of single-layered networks to the physics of multiplex networks. Finally, the fact that the coupling modifies the phase diagram and the critical conditions of the isolated layers suggests that interdependency can be used as a control mechanism.

  20. Nutrition in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Position Paper on Behalf of The Porto IBD Group of ESPGHAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Erasmo; Shamir, Raanan; Aloi, Marina; Assa, Amit; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; de Ridder, Lissy; Escher, Johanna C; Hojsak, Iva; Kolaček, Sanja; Koletzko, Sibylle; Levine, Arie; Lionetti, Paolo; Martinelli, Massimo; Ruemmele, Frank; Russell, Richard K; Boneh, Rotem Sigall; van Limbergen, Johan; Veereman, Gigi; Staiano, Annamaria

    2018-01-29

    A growing body of evidence supports the need for detailed attention to nutrition and diet in children with IBD. We aimed to define the steps in instituting dietary or nutritional management in light of the current evidence and to offer a useful and practical guide to physicians and dieticians involved in the care of paediatric IBD patients. A group of 20 experts in paediatric IBD participated in an iterative consensus process including 2 face-to-face meetings, following an open call to ESPGHAN Porto, IBD Interest and Nutrition Committee. A list of 41 predefined questions was addressed by working subgroups based on a SR of the literature. A total of 53 formal recommendations and 47 practice points were endorsed with a consensus rate of at least 80% on the following topics: nutritional assessment; nutrition as a primary therapy of paediatric IBD; macronutrients needs; trace Elements, minerals and vitamins; probiotics and prebiotics; specific dietary restrictions; dietary compounds and the risk of IBD. This position paper represents a useful guide to help the clinicians in the management of nutrition issues in children with IBD.

  1. Multilevel optimization algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos; Värbrand, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Researchers working with nonlinear programming often claim "the word is non­ linear" indicating that real applications require nonlinear modeling. The same is true for other areas such as multi-objective programming (there are always several goals in a real application), stochastic programming (all data is uncer­ tain and therefore stochastic models should be used), and so forth. In this spirit we claim: The word is multilevel. In many decision processes there is a hierarchy of decision makers, and decisions are made at different levels in this hierarchy. One way to handle such hierar­ chies is to focus on one level and include other levels' behaviors as assumptions. Multilevel programming is the research area that focuses on the whole hierar­ chy structure. In terms of modeling, the constraint domain associated with a multilevel programming problem is implicitly determined by a series of opti­ mization problems which must be solved in a predetermined sequence. If only two levels are considered, we have ...

  2. Governance and the Commons in a Multi-Level World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Armitage

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level governance may facilitate learning and adaptation in complex social-ecological circumstances. Such arrangements should connect community-based management with regional/national government-level management, link scientific management and traditional management systems, encourage the sharing of knowledge and information, and promote collaboration and dialogue around goals and outcomes. Governance innovations of this type can thus build capacity to adapt to change and manage for resilience. However, critical reflection on the emergence of adaptive, multi-level governance for the commons is warranted. Drawing on examples from the North and South, the purpose of this review is to connect three complementary bodies of scholarship with insights for commons governance in a multi-level world: common property theory, resilience thinking and political ecology. From the commons and resilience literature, normative principles of adaptive, multi-level governance are synthesized (e.g., participation, accountability, leadership, knowledge pluralism, learning and trust. Political ecological interpretations, however, help to reveal the challenge of actualizing these principles and the contextual forces that make entrenched, top-down management systems resilient to change. These forces include the role of power, scale and levels of organization, knowledge valuation, the positioning of social actors and social constructions of nature. Also addressed are the policy narratives that shape governance, and the dialectic relationship among ecological systems and social change. tekst

  3. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  4. Dabrafenib for Treating Unresectable, Advanced or Metastatic BRAF V600 Mutation-Positive Melanoma: An Evidence Review Group Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Nigel; Bagust, Adrian; Beale, Sophie; Boland, Angela; Dickson, Rumona; Dwan, Kerry; Richardson, Marty; Dundar, Yenal; Davis, Helen; Banks, Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited GlaxoSmithKline, the manufacturer of dabrafenib, to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of dabrafenib for the treatment of unresectable, advanced or metastatic BRAF V600 mutation-positive melanoma in accordance with the Institute's Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process. The Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG) at the University of Liverpool was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article summarizes the ERG's review of the evidence submitted by the company and provides a summary of the Appraisal Committee's (AC) final decision in October 2014. The clinical evidence for dabrafenib was derived from an ongoing phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international, multicentre clinical trial (BREAK-3) involving 230 patients randomized 2:1 to receive either dabrafenib or dacarbazine. A significant improvement in median progression-free survival (PFS) but not overall survival (OS) was reported in the dabrafenib arm compared with dacarbazine. Vemurafenib is considered a more appropriate comparator than is dacarbazine. The clinical evidence for vemurafenib was derived from a completed phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international, multicentre clinical trial (BRIM-3) involving 675 patients randomized 1:1 to receive either vemurafenib or dacarbazine. A significant improvement in median PFS and OS was reported in the vemurafenib arm compared with dacarbazine. As there is no direct evidence comparing dabrafenib versus vemurafenib, the company presented an indirect treatment comparison (ITC) that demonstrated no statistical differences between dabrafenib and vemurafenib for PFS or OS. The ERG expressed concerns with the ITC, mainly in relation to the validity of the assumptions underpinning the methodology; the ERG concluded this resulted in findings that are unlikely to be robust or reliable. Dabrafenib and

  5. Identification and management of cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group (executive summary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    With the objectives of clarifying the concepts related to "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome" and "risk stratification" and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group presents an executive summary of a detailed analysis and position paper that offers a comprehensive and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The above concepts overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider ethnicity-related risk factors in order to appropriately evaluate all individuals in their diverse patient populations. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of faecal markers in screening for colorectal neoplasia: a European group on tumor markers position paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials have shown that population-based screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) can reduce mortality from colorectal neoplasia. Based on this evidence, a number of countries have introduced screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and high-risk adenoma and many others are considering its introduction. The aim of this article is to critically review the current status of faecal markers as population-based screening tests for these neoplasia. Most of the available faecal tests involve the measurement of either occult blood or a panel of DNA markers. Occult blood may be measured using either the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or a faecal immunochemical test (iFOBT). Although iFOBT may require a greater initial investment, they have several advantages over gFOBT, including greater analytical sensitivity and specificity. Their use results in improved clinical performance and higher uptake rates. Importantly for population screening, some of the iFOBTs can be automated and provide an adjustable cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. However, samples for iFOBT, may be less stable after collection than for gFOBT. For new centres undertaking FOBT for colorectal neoplasia, the European Group on Tumour Markers recommends use of a quantitative iFOBT with an adjustable cutoff point and high throughput analysis. All participants with positive FOBT results should be offered colonoscopy. The panel recommends further research into increasing the stability of iFOBT and the development of improved and affordable DNA and proteomic-based tests, which reduce current false negative rates, simplify sample transport and enable automated analysis.

  7. Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.); Center for Information Systems Studies Security and Research (CISR)

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network is a cost effective, multi-level, easy to use office environment leveraging existing high assurance technology. The Department of Defense and U.S. Government have an identified need to securely share information classified at differing security levels. Because there exist no commercial solutions to this problem, NPS is developing a MLS LAN. The MLS LAN extends high assurance capabilities of an evaluated multi-level secure system to commercial personal com...

  8. Multilevel marketing společnosti Amway

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdková, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyses effectiveness and principles of multilevel marketing as a possible way of selling products and services. Theoretical part describes basis of marketing and direct selling, which is the basis of multilevel marketing. The thesis also states illegal forms of selling that misuse the advantages of multilevel marketing. Pracical part applies gained knowledge on Amway corporation and it atteds to operation of the company, which is evaluated by SWOT analysis.

  9. Multilevel and kin selection in a connected world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wade, Michael J; Wilson, David S; Goodnight, Charles

    2010-01-01

    in the opposition of two processes: within-group and among-group selection. This distinction is important in light of the current controversy among evolutionary biologists in which some continue to affirm that natural selection centres only and always at the level of the individual organism or gene, despite......Wild et al. argue that the evolution of reduced virulence can be understood from the perspective of inclusive fitness, obviating the need to evoke group selection as a contributing causal factor. Although they acknowledge the mathematical equivalence of the inclusive fitness and multilevel...... selection approaches, they conclude that reduced virulence can be viewed entirely as an individual-level adaptation by the parasite. Here we show that their model is a well-known special case of the more general theory of multilevel selection, and that the cause of reduced virulence resides...

  10. Web Syndication in a Multilevel Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Group LAMP Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP LAN Local Area Network MAC Mandatory Access Control MILS Multiple Independent Levels of Security MLS Multilevel...Reader [35] Section 1.4.3 – X X X X X FeedShow [36] Section 1.4.3 – X X X X feed on feeds [37] Section 1.4.3 GPL PHP 4.3.2+, MySQL – X X / Tiny Tiny RSS...38] Section 1.4.3 GPL PHP 5+, MySQL /Postgres – X X X X – zFeeder [39] Section 1.4.3 GPL PHP 4.2+ – X X – / lylina [40] Section 1.4.3 GPL PHP 5.2

  11. Multilevel Inverter by Cascading Industrial VSI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the modularity concept applied to medium-voltage adjustable speed drives is addressed. First, the single-phase cascaded voltage-source inverter that uses series connection of IGBT H-bridge modules with isolated dc-buses is presented. Next, a novel three-phase cascaded voltage......-source inverter that uses three IGBT triphase inverter modules along with an output transformer to obtain a 3 p.u. multilevel output voltage is introduced. The system yields in high-quality multistep voltage with up to 4 levels and low dv/dt, balanced operation of the inverter modules, each supplying a third...... of the motor rated kVA. The concept of using cascaded inverters is further extended to a new modular motor-modular inverter system where the motor winding connections are reconnected into several three-phase groups, either six-lead or 12-lead connection according to the voltage level, each powered...

  12. Synthesis, in-vitro cytotoxicity of 1H-benzo[f]chromene derivatives and structure-activity relationships of the 1-aryl group and 9-position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hany M; Fouda, Ahmed M; Khattab, Essam S A E H; Agrody, Ahmed M El-; Afifi, Tarek H

    2017-05-01

    A series of 1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carbonitriles was synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG-2 cancer cells. The SAR studies reported that the substitution in the phenyl ring at 1-position of 1H-benzo[f]chromene nucleus with the specific group, H atom, or methoxy group at 9-position increases the ability of the molecule against the different cell lines.

  13. The influence of gender, age, matriline and hierarchical rank on individual social position, role and interactional patterns in Macaca sylvanus at ‘La Forêt des singes’: A multilevel social network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian OROZCO SOSA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank on affiliative (allogrooming and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e. centric, peripheral and role (i.e. implication in the network cohesiveness of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

  14. The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at 'La Forêt des Singes': A Multilevel Social Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

  15. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  16. Pre-Mission Communication And Awareness Stratgies For Positive Group Functioning And Development: Analysis Of A Crew At The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) In Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, Matthew; Bishop, Sheryl; Gushin, Vadim; McKay, Chris; Rygalov, Vadim; Allner, Matthew

    Introduction: Psychosocial group functioning has become an increased international focus of many space faring nations due to the recent shift in focus of colonizing the Moon and then preparing to travel to Mars and beyond. Purpose: This study investigates the effects of pre-mission communication and awareness strategies for positive group functioning in extreme environments as well as suggestive countermeasures to maintain positive group dynamic development in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments. The study is supported by both preand intra-mission management efforts, which included crewmember assessments at various mission phases (pre-, intra-, and end-mission). Methods: A six person heterogeneous American crew conducted a Mars simulation mission at the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in Utah, USA in 2006 as part of a new NASA training program called Spaceward Bound. Participants were administered assessments of personality, personal and group identity/functioning, subjective stress, coping, and subjective motivation. All participants were also provided information (pre-mission) regarding past research and tendencies of group functioning, stressors, cognitive functioning, and mission mistakes from a mission phase analysis approach, to see if this would be a factor in positive group dynamic development. Results: Data collected and obtained by both assessment and journaling methods were both consistent and indicative of positive personalities desirable of expedition crews. Assessment data further indicated positive group cohesion and group interactions, along with supportive and strong leadership, all which led to positive personal and group experiences for crewmembers. Crewmembers all displayed low levels of competition while still reporting high motivation and satisfaction for the group dynamic development and the mission objectives that were completed. Journals kept by the crew psychologist indicated that crewmembers all felt that the pre

  17. Intra-Arterial Treatment in Patients with Acute Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding after Endoscopic Failure: Comparisons between Positive versus Negative Contrast Extravasation Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wei Chou; Liu, Chang Hsien; Hsu, Hsian He; Huang, Guo Shu; Hsieh, Tasi Yuan; Tsai, Shin Hung; Hsieh, Chung Bao; Yu, Chin Yung; Tung, Ho Jui

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether treatment outcome is associated with visualization of contrast extravasation in patients with acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding after endoscopic failure. From January 2007 to December 2009, patients that experienced a first attack of acute gastrointestinal bleeding after failure of initial endoscopy were referred to our interventional department for intra-arterial treatment. We enrolled 79 patients and divided them into two groups: positive and negative extravasation. For positive extravasation, patients were treated by coil embolization; and in negative extravasation, patients were treated with intra-arterial vasopressin infusion. The two groups were compared for clinical parameters, hemodynamics, laboratory findings, endoscopic characteristics, and mortality rates. Forty-eight patients had detectable contrast extravasation (positive extravasation), while 31 patients did not (negative extravasation). Fifty-six patients survived from this bleeding episode (overall clinical success rate, 71%). An elevation of hemoglobin level was observed in the both two groups; significantly greater in the positive extravasation group compared to the negative extravasation group. Although these patients were all at high risk of dying, the 90-day mortality rate was significantly lower in the positive extravasation than in the negative extravasation (20% versus 42%, p < 0.05). A multivariate analysis suggested that successful hemo stasis (odds ratio [OR] = 28.66) is the most important predictor affecting the mortality in the two groups of patients. Visualization of contrast extravasation on angiography usually can target the bleeding artery directly, resulting in a higher success rate to control of hemorrhage.

  18. [How to fit and interpret multilevel models using SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Antonio; Ruiz, Miguel A; San Martín, Rafael

    2007-05-01

    Hierarchic or multilevel models are used to analyse data when cases belong to known groups and sample units are selected both from the individual level and from the group level. In this work, the multilevel models most commonly discussed in the statistic literature are described, explaining how to fit these models using the SPSS program (any version as of the 11 th ) and how to interpret the outcomes of the analysis. Five particular models are described, fitted, and interpreted: (1) one-way analysis of variance with random effects, (2) regression analysis with means-as-outcomes, (3) one-way analysis of covariance with random effects, (4) regression analysis with random coefficients, and (5) regression analysis with means- and slopes-as-outcomes. All models are explained, trying to make them understandable to researchers in health and behaviour sciences.

  19. Scalable Adaptive Multilevel Solvers for Multiphysics Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinchao [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-11-26

    In this project, we carried out many studies on adaptive and parallel multilevel methods for numerical modeling for various applications, including Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and complex fluids. We have made significant efforts and advances in adaptive multilevel methods of the multiphysics problems: multigrid methods, adaptive finite element methods, and applications.

  20. The multilevel governance of migration and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, P.; Penninx, R.; Garcés–Mascareñas, B.; Penninx, R.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on migration and integration as multilevel policy issues and explores the consequences in terms of multilevel governance. Immigration policymaking has been characterized by continued struggle between national governments and the EU about the amount of discretion states have in

  1. Multilevel joint competing risk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunarathna, G. H. S.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Joint modeling approaches are often encountered for different outcomes of competing risk time to event and count in many biomedical and epidemiology studies in the presence of cluster effect. Hospital length of stay (LOS) has been the widely used outcome measure in hospital utilization due to the benchmark measurement for measuring multiple terminations such as discharge, transferred, dead and patients who have not completed the event of interest at the follow up period (censored) during hospitalizations. Competing risk models provide a method of addressing such multiple destinations since classical time to event models yield biased results when there are multiple events. In this study, the concept of joint modeling has been applied to the dengue epidemiology in Sri Lanka, 2006-2008 to assess the relationship between different outcomes of LOS and platelet count of dengue patients with the district cluster effect. Two key approaches have been applied to build up the joint scenario. In the first approach, modeling each competing risk separately using the binary logistic model, treating all other events as censored under the multilevel discrete time to event model, while the platelet counts are assumed to follow a lognormal regression model. The second approach is based on the endogeneity effect in the multilevel competing risks and count model. Model parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood based on the Laplace approximation. Moreover, the study reveals that joint modeling approach yield more precise results compared to fitting two separate univariate models, in terms of AIC (Akaike Information Criterion).

  2. Age group differences in positive and negative affect among oldest-old adults: findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W; MacDonald, M; Jazwinski, S M; Green, R C; Gearing, M; Johnson, M A; Markesbery, W R; Woodard, J L; Tenover, J S; Siegler, L C; Rott, C; Rodgers, W L; Hausman, D; Arnold, J; Davey, A

    2013-01-01

    The developmental adaptation model (Martin & Martin, 2002) provides insights into how current experiences and resources (proximal variables) and past experiences (distal variables) are correlated with outcomes (e.g., well-being) in later life. Applying this model, the current study examined proximal and distal variables associated with positive and negative affect in oldest-old adults, investigating age differences. Data from 306 octogenarians and centenarians who participated in Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study were used. Proximal variables included physical functioning, cognitive functioning, self-rated health, number of chronic conditions, social resources, and perceived economic status; distal variables included education, social productive activities, management of personal assets, and other learning experiences. Analysis of variance and block-wise regression analyses were conducted. Octogenarians showed significantly higher levels of positive emotion than centenarians. Cognitive functioning was significantly associated with positive affect, and number of health problems was significantly associated with negative affect after controlling for gender, ethnicity, residence, and marital status. Furthermore, four significant interaction effects suggested that positive affect significantly depended on the levels of cognitive and physical functioning among centenarians, whereas positive affect was dependent on the levels of physical health problems and learning experiences among octogenarians. Findings of this study addressed the importance of current and past experiences and resources in subjective well-being among oldest-old adults as a life-long process. Mechanisms connecting aging processes at the end of a long life to subjective well-being should be explored in future studies.

  3. Playing the Indicator Game: Reflections on Strategies to Position an STS Group in a Multi-disciplinary Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Bal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Roland Bal analyzes the strategies his research group developed to deal with the interlinked dynamics of research evaluation in a multi-disciplinary institutional environment characteristic of much STS research. Scholars in such environments constantly need to navigate and negotiate the standards of evaluation, in complex choreographies of cooperation and competition with other disciplinary groups. Bal describes strategies his group has successfully used, and how these strategies have both shifted the way research quality is assessed within the department as well as changed the way his group works and publishes. In conclusion, he describes performance management systems and research practices as co-constituted and calls for a debate on which forms of evaluation infrastructures allow for better ways of doing research in STS.

  4. Perspectives on Positioning, Interaction, and Learning in Small-Group Discussion: Possibilities for Extending the Analytic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Wilson, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    In this forum piece, we respond to Karin Due's study of social dynamics in groups of students in physics class and gender issues that play out in this context. We discuss two threads that appear in Due's paper: one pertains to patterns of talk within groups and how these patterns open up possibilities for learning, the other pertains to…

  5. Multilevel classification of security concerns in cloud computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Asad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Threats jeopardize some basic security requirements in a cloud. These threats generally constitute privacy breach, data leakage and unauthorized data access at different cloud layers. This paper presents a novel multilevel classification model of different security attacks across different cloud services at each layer. It also identifies attack types and risk levels associated with different cloud services at these layers. The risks are ranked as low, medium and high. The intensity of these risk levels depends upon the position of cloud layers. The attacks get more severe for lower layers where infrastructure and platform are involved. The intensity of these risk levels is also associated with security requirements of data encryption, multi-tenancy, data privacy, authentication and authorization for different cloud services. The multilevel classification model leads to the provision of dynamic security contract for each cloud layer that dynamically decides about security requirements for cloud consumer and provider.

  6. Acute kidney injury in liver transplant candidates : A position paper on behalf of the Liver Intensive Care Group of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angeli, Paolo; Bezinover, Dimitri; Biancofiore, Gianni; Bienholz, Anja; Findlay, James; Paugam Burtz, Catherine; Reyntjens, Koen; Sakai, Tetsuro; Saner, Fuat H; Tomescu, Dana; Wagener, Gebhard; Weiss, Emmanuel

    INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury is associated with high mortality in the perioperative period of liver transplantation. The aim of this position paper was to provide an up-to-date overview with special emphases on diagnosis, risk factors, and treatment. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The Liver Intensive

  7. Beyond Between-Group Differences: Considering Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in Research on Positive Youth Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore how researchers can more fully consider and conceptualize the role of race and ethnicity in studies of youth development programs, with an emphasis on positive youth development (PYD). Such a focus can be integrated in a more meaningful way through the application of a theoretical model that provides a framework for…

  8. A Group-learning Approach to Academic and Transferable Skills through an Exercise in the Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Giles H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a project based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) that offers students a chance to design and implement a mini-research program to prepare them for an undergraduate research project. Discusses the context of the GPS exercise, teaching and learning outcomes, and advantages and evaluation of the exercise. (CMK)

  9. The 4-pyridylmethyl ester as a protecting group for glutamic and aspartic acids: 'flipping' peptide charge states for characterization by positive ion mode ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Sriramya; Burns, Colin S

    2014-03-01

    Use of the 4-pyridylmethyl ester group for side-chain protection of glutamic acid residues in solid-phase peptide synthesis enables switching of the charge state of a peptide from negative to positive, thus making detection by positive ion mode ESI-MS possible. The pyridylmethyl ester moiety is readily removed from peptides in high yield by hydrogenation. Combining the 4-pyridylmethyl ester protecting group with benzyl ester protection reduces the number of the former needed to produce a net positive charge and allows for purification by RP HPLC. This protecting group is useful in the synthesis of highly acidic peptide sequences, which are often beset by problems with purification by standard RP HPLC and characterization by ESI-MS. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Focus group positioning and analysis: a commentary on adjuncts for enhancing the design of health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B C

    1990-01-01

    As health care competition increases, and as the penalties for making poor decisions become potentially more devastating, market research continues to play an increasingly important role in the decision-making process for hospitals. Concern over the appropriate use of market research and the costs related to it remains high. As such, efficiency in research design and clarity in research outcome are clearly the goals. This paper examines the focus group process and its adjunctive role in enhancing the overall design of health care market research. Specifically, the function and placement of focus groups within the research plan as well as several methods of creative focus group analysis are considered within the context of an effective research design.

  11. Study to identify and rectify the causes of failure to administer Intra partum antibiotic prophylaxis in Group B streptococcus positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    To perform an audit to review and minimize the reasons of failure to administer Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) to all GBS positive mothers who presented in labor and it?s effect on fetal outcome. Methodology: A review of all the electronic charts at Tawam Hospital during a 6 month period from 6th April till 6th October 2009. It included women who presented in labor with a GBS positive status who needed to receive IAP and their babies blood cultures were performed postnatal. Results: There were 2405 deliveries during this period. Two hundred and nine cases were GBS positive. IAP was given only to 48 patients i.e 23% while 161 (77%) did not receive any treatment. The various reasons documented were patient presented late in active labor were 59%. Medication (Penicillin) was ordered but delayed from pharmacy. Penicillin ordered late or not ordered by the doctor in 14% and 1% were the patients who underwent elective c-section. All the babies had no growth of GBS with blood culture postnatal. Conclusion: The various strategies to improve the rate of administration of IAP which have been discussed above including patient education, patient information leaflet, physician order from antenatal clinic and midwife ordering the IAP need to be addressed and implement a new guideline. (author)

  12. Prognostic Significance of the Number of Positive Lymph Nodes in Women With T1-2N1 Breast Cancer Treated With Mastectomy: Should Patients With 1, 2, and 3 Positive Lymph Nodes Be Grouped Together?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Kubicky, Charlotte, E-mail: charlottedai@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine and Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange [Biostatistics Shared Resource, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with 1, 2, or 3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) have similar survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2003. We identified 10,415 women with T1-2N1M0 breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with no adjuvant radiation, with at least 10 LNs examined and 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method and log–rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Median follow-up was 92 months. Ten-year overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were progressively worse with increasing number of positive LNs. Survival rates were 70%, 64%, and 60% (OS), and 82%, 76%, and 72% (CSS) for 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs, respectively. Pairwise log–rank test P values were <.001 (1 vs 2 positive LNs), <.001 (1 vs 3 positive LNs), and .002 (2 vs 3 positive LNs). Multivariate analysis showed that number of positive LNs was a significant predictor of OS and CSS. Hazard ratios increased with the number of positive LNs. In addition, age, primary tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, race, and year of diagnosis were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients with 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs have distinct survival outcomes, with increasing number of positive LNs associated with worse OS and CSS. The conventional grouping of 1-3 positive LNs needs to be reconsidered.

  13. Antecedents of Organisational Creativity: A Multi-Level Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this literature review is to provide a better understanding of the antecedents of organisational creativity with a multi-level approach. Organisational creativity is a sum total of the creativity accounted for by the individual employees of the organisation, the cumulative creativity of a team or group and creativity arising out of different structural components of an organisation. Some of the antecedents identified from the literature include personality, intrinsic motivation, group cohesion, social inhibition, cognitive interference, leader member exchange, organisational culture and climate, amongst others at individual, group and organisational level. Based on the literature review, suggestions for future research and research propositions have been proposed.

  14. Playing the Indicator Game : Reflections on Strategies to Position an STS Group in a Multi-disciplinary Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Bal (Roland)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractRoland Bal analyzes the strategies his research group developed to deal with the interlinked dynamics of research evaluation in a multi-disciplinary institutional environment characteristic of much STS research. Scholars in such environments constantly need to navigate and

  15. Standing in the middle: Insider/outsider positionality while conducting qualitative research with opposing military veteran political groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Flores

    2018-01-01

    This case study describes the process and challenges of conducting qualitative research on two opposing military veteran political groups: Iraq Veterans Against the War and Vets for Freedom. The discussion is based on a dissertation project that compelled me to reflect on my simultaneous "insider" status as a military veteran and "outsider" status...

  16. Advanced Multilevel Monte Carlo Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Suciu, Carina

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the application of advanced Monte Carlo techniques in the context of Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC). MLMC is a strategy employed to compute expectations which can be biased in some sense, for instance, by using the discretization of a associated probability law. The MLMC approach works with a hierarchy of biased approximations which become progressively more accurate and more expensive. Using a telescoping representation of the most accurate approximation, the method is able to reduce the computational cost for a given level of error versus i.i.d. sampling from this latter approximation. All of these ideas originated for cases where exact sampling from couples in the hierarchy is possible. This article considers the case where such exact sampling is not currently possible. We consider Markov chain Monte Carlo and sequential Monte Carlo methods which have been introduced in the literature and we describe different strategies which facilitate the application of MLMC within these methods.

  17. Advanced Multilevel Monte Carlo Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay

    2017-04-24

    This article reviews the application of advanced Monte Carlo techniques in the context of Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC). MLMC is a strategy employed to compute expectations which can be biased in some sense, for instance, by using the discretization of a associated probability law. The MLMC approach works with a hierarchy of biased approximations which become progressively more accurate and more expensive. Using a telescoping representation of the most accurate approximation, the method is able to reduce the computational cost for a given level of error versus i.i.d. sampling from this latter approximation. All of these ideas originated for cases where exact sampling from couples in the hierarchy is possible. This article considers the case where such exact sampling is not currently possible. We consider Markov chain Monte Carlo and sequential Monte Carlo methods which have been introduced in the literature and we describe different strategies which facilitate the application of MLMC within these methods.

  18. Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, H

    2011-08-23

    This work generalizes a multilevel forward Euler Monte Carlo method introduced in Michael B. Giles. (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607–617, 2008.) for the approximation of expected values depending on the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation. The work (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607– 617, 2008.) proposed and analyzed a forward Euler multilevelMonte Carlo method based on a hierarchy of uniform time discretizations and control variates to reduce the computational effort required by a standard, single level, Forward Euler Monte Carlo method. This work introduces an adaptive hierarchy of non uniform time discretizations, generated by an adaptive algorithmintroduced in (AnnaDzougoutov et al. Raùl Tempone. Adaptive Monte Carlo algorithms for stopped diffusion. In Multiscale methods in science and engineering, volume 44 of Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., pages 59–88. Springer, Berlin, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. Stoch. Anal. Appl. 23(3):511–558, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. An adaptive algorithm for ordinary, stochastic and partial differential equations. In Recent advances in adaptive computation, volume 383 of Contemp. Math., pages 325–343. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2005.). This form of the adaptive algorithm generates stochastic, path dependent, time steps and is based on a posteriori error expansions first developed in (Anders Szepessy et al. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 54(10):1169– 1214, 2001). Our numerical results for a stopped diffusion problem, exhibit savings in the computational cost to achieve an accuracy of ϑ(TOL),from(TOL−3), from using a single level version of the adaptive algorithm to ϑ(((TOL−1)log(TOL))2).

  19. Multilevel index decomposition analysis: Approaches and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Y.; Ang, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing interest in using the technique of index decomposition analysis (IDA) in energy and energy-related emission studies, such as to analyze the impacts of activity structure change or to track economy-wide energy efficiency trends, the conventional single-level IDA may not be able to meet certain needs in policy analysis. In this paper, some limitations of single-level IDA studies which can be addressed through applying multilevel decomposition analysis are discussed. We then introduce and compare two multilevel decomposition procedures, which are referred to as the multilevel-parallel (M-P) model and the multilevel-hierarchical (M-H) model. The former uses a similar decomposition procedure as in the single-level IDA, while the latter uses a stepwise decomposition procedure. Since the stepwise decomposition procedure is new in the IDA literature, the applicability of the popular IDA methods in the M-H model is discussed and cases where modifications are needed are explained. Numerical examples and application studies using the energy consumption data of the US and China are presented. - Highlights: • We discuss the limitations of single-level decomposition in IDA applied to energy study. • We introduce two multilevel decomposition models, study their features and discuss how they can address the limitations. • To extend from single-level to multilevel analysis, necessary modifications to some popular IDA methods are discussed. • We further discuss the practical significance of the multilevel models and present examples and cases to illustrate

  20. Surgical management of contiguous multilevel thoracolumbar tuberculous spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Asad; Khalique, Ahmed Bilal; Afzal, Waseem; Pasha, Ibrahim Farooq; Aebi, Max

    2013-06-01

    Tuberculous spondylitis (TBS) is the most common form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The mainstay of TBS management is anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. Most of the patients with TBS are treated conservatively; however in some patients surgery is indicated. Most common indications for surgery include neurological deficit, deformity, instability, large abscesses and necrotic tissue mass or inadequate response to anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. The most common form of TBS involves a single motion segment of spine (two adjoining vertebrae and their intervening disc). Sometimes TBS involves more than two adjoining vertebrae, when it is called multilevel TBS. Indications for correct surgical management of multilevel TBS is not clear from literature. We have retrospectively reviewed 87 patients operated in 10 years for multilevel TBS involving the thoracolumbar spine at our spine unit. Two types of surgeries were performed on these patients. In 57 patients, modified Hong Kong operation was performed with radical debridement, strut grafting and anterior instrumentation. In 30 patients this operation was combined with pedicle screw fixation with or without correction of kyphosis by osteotomy. Patients were followed up for correction of kyphosis, improvement in neurological deficit, pain and function. Complications were noted. On long-term follow-up (average 64 months), there was 9.34 % improvement in kyphosis angle in the modified Hong Kong group and 47.58 % improvement in the group with pedicle screw fixation and osteotomy in addition to anterior surgery (p debridement and anterior column reconstruction.

  1. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W

    2013-01-01

    Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable...... indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature...... search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. Where the literature is poor, we have taken into consideration the collective experience of the group...

  2. Multilevel modelling: Beyond the basic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B; London, Kamala

    2009-05-01

    Over the last 30 years statistical algorithms have been developed to analyse datasets that have a hierarchical/multilevel structure. Particularly within developmental and educational psychology these techniques have become common where the sample has an obvious hierarchical structure, like pupils nested within a classroom. We describe two areas beyond the basic applications of multilevel modelling that are important to psychology: modelling the covariance structure in longitudinal designs and using generalized linear multilevel modelling as an alternative to methods from signal detection theory (SDT). Detailed code for all analyses is described using packages for the freeware R.

  3. Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation...... or a combination of the two have been studied. The use of polarization multiplexing (PolMux) to double the bit rate has also been investigated. The impact of transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion, self phase modulation and cross phase modulation has been investigated. The feasibility of multilevel...... modulation for network oriented scenarios has been demonstrated....

  4. Advancing multilevel thinking and methods in HRM research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Maarten; Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the growing belief that multilevel research is necessary to advance HRM understanding, there remains a lack of multilevel thinking – the application of principles for multilevel theory building. The purpose of this paper is to propose a systematic approach for multilevel HRM

  5. Effects of water table position and plant functional group on plant community, aboveground production, and peat properties in a peatland mesocosm experiment (PEATcosm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette R. Potvin; Evan S. Kane; Rodney A. Chimner; Randall K. Kolka; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2015-01-01

    Aims Our objective was to assess the impacts of water table position and plant functional type on peat structure, plant community composition and aboveground plant production. Methods We initiated a full factorial experiment with 2 water table (WT) treatments (high and low) and 3 plant functional groups (PFG: sedge, Ericaceae,...

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among extinct and extant turtles: the position of Pleurodira and the effects of the fossils on rooting crown-group turtles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterli, J.

    2010-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the crown-group of turtles (Cryptodira + Pleurodira) is one of the most interesting topics in turtle evolution, second perhaps only to the phylogenetic position of turtles among amniotes. The present contribution focuses on the former problem, exploring the phylogenetic

  7. Does who you know in the positional hierarchy protect or hurt? Social capital, comparative reference group, and depression in two societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lijun

    2015-07-01

    Does the socioeconomic status (SES) that one's (ego's) network members (alters) occupy indicate social resources or social comparison standards in the dynamics of health across culture? Using nationally representative data simultaneously collected from the United States and urban China, this study examines two competing theories-social capital and comparative reference group-in the two societies and compares their different application across the two societies using two cultural explanations, relational dependence and self-evaluation motive. Social capital theory expects absolute accessed SES and the size of higher accessed socioeconomic positions to protect health, and the size of lower accessed socioeconomic positions to harm health. But comparative reference group theory predicts the opposite. Additionally, the relational dependence explanation anticipates social capital theory to be more applicable to urban China and comparative reference group theory to be more applicable to the United States. The self-evaluation motive explanation expects the same pattern across the two societies in the examination of the size of lower accessed socioeconomic positions but the opposite pattern in the analysis of absolute accessed SES and the size of higher accessed socioeconomic positions. This study focuses on depressive symptoms and measures accessed occupational status. Results are consistent with the self-evaluation motive explanation. They support both social capital theory and comparative reference group theory in the United States but only the latter theory in urban China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving Evaluation to Address the Unintended Consequences of Health Information Technology:. a Position Paper from the Working Group on Technology Assessment & Quality Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrabi, F.; Ammenwerth, E.; Hyppönen, H.; de Keizer, N.; Nykänen, P.; Rigby, M.; Scott, P.; Talmon, J.; Georgiou, A.

    2016-01-01

    With growing use of IT by healthcare professionals and patients, the opportunity for any unintended effects of technology to disrupt care health processes and outcomes is intensified. The objectives of this position paper by the IMIA Working Group (WG) on Technology Assessment and Quality

  9. Women in high places : When and why promoting women into top positions can harm them individually or as a group (and how to prevent this)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, Naomi; Rink, Floor; Derks, Belle; Ryan, Michelle K.

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on women in leadership positions. We propose that two convictions are relevant to the effects of having women in high places. On the one hand, women as a group are expected to employ different leadership styles than men, in this way adding diversity to management teams. On

  10. An automated system for positive reinforcement training of group-housed macaque monkeys at breeding and research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulip, Jennifer; Zimmermann, Jonas B; Farningham, David; Jackson, Andrew

    2017-06-15

    Behavioural training through positive reinforcement techniques is a well-recognised refinement to laboratory animal welfare. Behavioural neuroscience research requires subjects to be trained to perform repetitions of specific behaviours for food/fluid reward. Some animals fail to perform at a sufficient level, limiting the amount of data that can be collected and increasing the number of animals required for each study. We have implemented automated positive reinforcement training systems (comprising a button press task with variable levels of difficulty using LED cues and a fluid reward) at the breeding facility and research facility, to compare performance across these different settings, to pre-screen animals for selection and refine training protocols. Animals learned 1- and 4-choice button tasks within weeks of home enclosure training, with some inter-individual differences. High performance levels (∼200-300 trials per 60min session at ∼80% correct) were obtained without food or fluid restriction. Moreover, training quickly transferred to a laboratory version of the task. Animals that acquired the task at the breeding facility subsequently performed better both in early home enclosure sessions upon arrival at the research facility, and also in laboratory sessions. Automated systems at the breeding facility may be used to pre-screen animals for suitability for behavioural neuroscience research. In combination with conventional training, both the breeding and research facility systems facilitate acquisition and transference of learning. Automated systems have the potential to refine training protocols and minimise requirements for food/fluid control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Readability of Malaysian English Children Books: A Multilevel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlina Ismail

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available These days, there are more English books for children published by local publishers in Malaysia. It is a positive development because the books will be more accessible to the children. However, the books have never been studied and evaluated in depth yet. One important factor in assessing reading materials is readability. Readability determines whether a text is easy or difficult to understand and a balanced mix of both can promote learning and language development. Various researchers mentioned a multilevel framework of discourse that any language assessment on a text should take into account. The levels that were proposed were word, syntax, textbase, situation model and genre and rhetorical structures. Traditional readability measures such as Flesh Reading Ease Formula, Gunning Readability Index, Fog Count, and Fry Grade Level are not able to address the multilevel because they are based on shallow variables. In contrast, Coh-metrix TERA provided five indices that are correlated to grade level and aligned to the multilevel framework. This study analyzed ten Malaysian English chapter books for children using this Coh-metrix TERA. The result revealed that the Malaysian English children books were easy in shallow level but there was a possible difficulty in textbase and situation model level because of the lack of cohesion. In conclusion, more attention should be given on deeper level of text rather than just word and syntax level.

  12. [Discarthrosis with hyperalgic lumbar multileveled radicular syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardaru, D; Tiţu, Gabriela; Pendefunda, L

    2012-01-01

    The problems at the level of intervertebral discs are producing dysfunctions and important functional regression at the level of lumbar column, at a stage at which the patient could remain blocked in an anterior or lateral flexion position or producing an antalgic position of scoliosis that could incapacitate the patient to perform activities of daily living. The medical rehabilitation, in such cases, must seek not only the relief of local pain through different methods of obtaining it, but also the functional reeducation of the intervertebral articulations through specific analytical mobilization in order to achieve the biomechanical harmonization of the rachis. We report the case study of a 66 year-old patient who presented to our clinic for medical consult and physical therapy when he was diagnosed with discharthrosis, hyperalgic lumbar multileveled radiculopathy at L4-L5 and L5-S1. The lumbar x-ray showed osteophytes, disc narrowing at the level of L5-S1 and inter-apophysis arthrosis. The clinical examination revealed difficulty walking with pain in the right sacroiliac articulations and right sciatic emergence with plantar paraesthesia. The patient developed pain induced scoliosis on the right side that restricted the lumbar range of motion and prevented the right flexion blocking him into an left flexion, any attempt of straightening inducing pain. The condition was treated using specific analytical lumbar mobilization for the realignment of the vertebrae complex. In this case study, we found that functional reeducation in cases of pain induced deviations of the rachis of the column should be centered on the harmonization of inadequate pressure and position of the complex intervertebral articulations.

  13. The Sage handbook of multilevel modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Marc A; Marx, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    Leading contributors combine practical pieces with overviews of the state of the art in the field, making this handbook essential reading for any student or researcher looking to apply multilevel techniques in their own research

  14. A Multilevel Secure Workflow Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Myong H; Froscher, Judith N; Sheth, Amit P; Kochut, Krys J; Miller, John A

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) needs multilevel secure (MLS) workflow management systems to enable globally distributed users and applications to cooperate across classification levels to achieve mission critical goals...

  15. ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease position paper--heart valve clinics: organization, structure, and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Rosenhek, Raphael; Pibarot, Philippe; Iung, Bernard; Otto, Catherine M; Tornos, Pilar; Donal, Erwan; Prendergast, Bernard; Magne, Julien; La Canna, Giovanni; Piérard, Luc A; Maurer, Gerald

    2013-06-01

    With an increasing prevalence of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), a dedicated management approach is needed. The challenges encountered are manifold and include appropriate diagnosis and quantification of valve lesion, organization of adequate follow-up, and making the right management decisions, in particular with regard to the timing and choice of interventions. Data from the Euro Heart Survey have shown a substantial discrepancy between guidelines and clinical practice in the field of VHD and many patients are denied surgery despite having clear indications. The concept of heart valve clinics (HVCs) is increasingly recognized as the way to proceed. At the same time, very few centres have developed such expertise, indicating that specific recommendations for the initial development and subsequent operating requirements of an HVC are needed. The aim of this position paper is to provide insights into the rationale, organization, structure, and expertise needed to establish and operate an HVC. Although the main goal is to improve the clinical management of patients with VHD, the impact of HVCs on education is of particular importance: larger patient volumes foster the required expertise among more senior physicians but are also fundamental for training new cardiologists, medical students, and nurses. Additional benefits arise from research opportunities resulting from such an organized structure and the delivery of standardized care protocols. The growing volume of patients with VHD, their changing characteristics, and the growing technological opportunities of refined diagnosis and treatment in addition to the potential dismal prognosis if overlooked mandate specialized evaluation and care by dedicated physicians working in a specialized environment that is called the HVC.

  16. Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure for the management of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: prospective study with a retrospective control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarts Leon PHJ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema can have important benefits in acute cardiac care. However, coronary care units are usually not equipped and their personnel not adequately trained for applying CPAP with mechanical ventilators. Therefore we investigated in the coronary care unit setting the feasibility and outcome of the simple Boussignac mask-CPAP (BCPAP system that does not need a mechanical ventilator. Methods BCPAP was introduced in a coronary care unit where staff had no CPAP experience. All consecutive patients transported to our hospital with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, a respiratory rate > 25 breaths/min and a peripheral arterial oxygen saturation of Results During the 2-year prospective BCPAP study period 108 patients were admitted with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Eighty-four of these patients (78% were treated at the coronary care unit of which 66 (61% were treated with BCPAP. During the control period 66 patients were admitted over a 1-year period of whom 31 (47% needed respiratory support in the intensive care unit. BCPAP treatment was associated with a reduced hospital length of stay and fewer transfers to the intensive care unit for intubation and mechanical ventilation. Overall estimated savings of approximately € 3,800 per patient were achieved with the BCPAP strategy compared to conventional treatment. Conclusion At the coronary care unit, BCPAP was feasible, medically effective, and cost-effective in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Endpoints included mortality, coronary care unit and hospital length of stay, need of ventilatory support, and cost (savings.

  17. Long-term risks of kidney living donation: review and position paper by the ERA-EDTA DESCARTES working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe; Hilbrands, Luuk; Oberbauer, Rainer; Oniscu, Gabriel C; Pascual, Julio; Schwartz Sorensen, Soren; Viklicky, Ondrej; Abramowicz, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States (DESCARTES) board members critically review the literature in an effort to summarize the current knowledge concerning long-term risks of kidney living donation to help physicians for decision-making purposes and for providing information to the prospective live donors. Long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be partially foreseen by trying to identify donors at risk of developing ‘de novo’ kidney diseases during life post-donation and by predicting lifetime ESRD risk. However, lifetime risk may be difficult to assess in young donors, especially in those having first-degree relatives with ESRD. The study from Norway also found an increased risk of death after living donor nephrectomy, which became visible only after >15 years of post-donation follow-up. However, these findings are likely to be largely the result of an overestimation due to the confounding effect related to a family history of renal disease. DESCARTES board members emphasize the importance of optimal risk–benefit assessment and proper information to the prospective donor, which should also include recommendations on health-promoting behaviour post-donation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease Position Paper: assessing the risk of interventions in patients with valvular heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhek, Raphael; Iung, Bernard; Tornos, Pilar; Antunes, Manuel J.; Prendergast, Bernard D.; Otto, Catherine M.; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Stepinska, Janina; Kaden, Jens J.; Naber, Christoph K.; Acartürk, Esmeray; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Aims Risk scores provide an important contribution to clinical decision-making, but their validity has been questioned in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), since current scores have been mainly derived and validated in adults undergoing coronary bypass surgery. The Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology reviewed the performance of currently available scores when applied to VHD, in order to guide clinical practice and future development of new scores. Methods and results The most widely used risk scores (EuroSCORE, STS, and Ambler score) were reviewed, analysing variables included and their predictive ability when applied to patients with VHD. These scores provide relatively good discrimination, i.e. a gross estimation of risk category, but cannot be used to estimate the exact operative mortality in an individual patient because of unsatisfactory calibration. Conclusion Current risk scores do not provide a reliable estimate of exact operative mortality in an individual patient with VHD. They should therefore be interpreted with caution and only used as part of an integrated approach, which incorporates other patient characteristics, the clinical context, and local outcome data. Future risk scores should include additional variables, such as cognitive and functional capacity and be prospectively validated in high-risk patients. Specific risk models should also be developed for newer interventions, such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation. PMID:21406443

  19. Processing multilevel secure test and evaluation information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, George; Hildreth, Bradley; Acevedo, Teresa

    1994-07-01

    The Test and Evaluation Community Network (TECNET) is building a Multilevel Secure (MLS) system. This system features simultaneous access to classified and unclassified information and easy access through widely available communications channels. It provides the necessary separation of classification levels, assured through the use of trusted system design techniques, security assessments and evaluations. This system enables cleared T&E users to view and manipulate classified and unclassified information resources either using a single terminal interface or multiple windows in a graphical user interface. TECNET is in direct partnership with the National Security Agency (NSA) to develop and field the MLS TECNET capability in the near term. The centerpiece of this partnership is a state-of-the-art Concurrent Systems Security Engineering (CSSE) process. In developing the MLS TECNET capability, TECNET and NSA are providing members, with various expertise and diverse backgrounds, to participate in the CSSE process. The CSSE process is founded on the concepts of both Systems Engineering and Concurrent Engineering. Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach to evolve and verify an integrated and life cycle balanced set of system product and process solutions that satisfy customer needs (ASD/ENS-MIL STD 499B 1992). Concurrent Engineering is design and development using the simultaneous, applied talents of a diverse group of people with the appropriate skills. Harnessing diverse talents to support CSSE requires active participation by team members in an environment that both respects and encourages diversity.

  20. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Tempone, Raul; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros

    2016-08-29

    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Multilevel Complex Networks and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarelli, Guido

    2014-03-01

    Network theory has been a powerful tool to model isolated complex systems. However, the classical approach does not take into account the interactions often present among different systems. Hence, the scientific community is nowadays concentrating the efforts on the foundations of new mathematical tools for understanding what happens when multiple networks interact. The case of economic and financial networks represents a paramount example of multilevel networks. In the case of trade, trade among countries the different levels can be described by the different granularity of the trading relations. Indeed, we have now data from the scale of consumers to that of the country level. In the case of financial institutions, we have a variety of levels at the same scale. For example one bank can appear in the interbank networks, ownership network and cds networks in which the same institution can take place. In both cases the systemically important vertices need to be determined by different procedures of centrality definition and community detection. In this talk I will present some specific cases of study related to these topics and present the regularities found. Acknowledged support from EU FET Project ``Multiplex'' 317532.

  3. Efficacy of the Positive Parenting Program (Triple-P for a Group of Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tehranidoost

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: To evaluate the efficacy of the Positive Parenting Program (Triple-P for parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. "nMethod:  Sixty families who had at least one child with clinically diagnosed ADHD aged between 6 to12 were recruited from the consecutive referrals to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic. Families were randomly assigned to the intervention group (who participated in an 8- week- group Triple-P, N=30 and a control group (N=30. Parents completed the battery of self-report questionnaires of triple-P at the beginning and after the 8th session. "nResults: There were no significant differences in pre intervention measures between the two groups. Comparing the pre and post intervention data, the Triple- P group was associated with significantly lower levels of parent reported child behavior problems (P=0.001, lower levels of dysfunctional parenting (P=0.001 and greater parental competence (P=0.001 than the control group. The parents the in triple-P group had significant improvement on measures of depression, anxiety and stress, in comparison with the control group (P=0.001. This study did not follow the long term effect which marks its limitation. "nConclusion: The Triple-P program can be recommended for parents of children with ADHD to reduce the problem behavior of their children and to improve their abilities.

  4. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA-IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75-80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs, unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People′s Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI, depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00 was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00, the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04 and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03 had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00, depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00 and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03 were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  5. Predicting Psychotherapy Dropouts: A Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Alexander F; Flückiger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The role of therapeutic processes in predicting premature termination of psychotherapy has been a particular focus of recent research. The purpose of this study was to contrast outpatients who completed therapy and those who dropped out with respect to their self-reported in-session experiences of self-esteem, mastery, clarification and the therapeutic alliance. The 296 patients with mixed disorders were treated with an integrative form of cognitive-behavioural therapy without pre-determined time limit (M = 20.2 sessions). Multilevel analyses indicated that patients who did not completetreatment reported, on average, lower levels of self-esteem, mastery and clarification and lower ratings of their therapeutic alliance in treatment in contrast to patients who completed therapy. Patient-reported change in self-esteem experiences over the course of treatment turned out to be the strongest predictor of dropout from psychotherapy or successful completion. When dropout occurred before the average treatment length was reached, patients reported fewer clarifying experiences as early as the first session and their ratings of the therapeutic alliance were characterized by an absence of positive development. Both of these aspects seem to be involved in patients' decisions to leave treatment early. The findings underscore the importance of the therapeutic process in understanding the mechanisms behind treatment dropout. Analyses data from 296 patients at a private outpatient clinic in a routine practice setting (CBT). Completer/dropout definition: presence or absence of measurement battery at post-assessment. Focuses on change in therapy processes by investigating post-session reports. Finds that positive changes in self-esteem experiences is the most robust predictor of dropout, followed by ratings of clarification experiences and the global alliance. In line with recent dropout research, these process indicators might help to detect therapeutic situations that are

  6. The effect of group-exercising on females with non-specific chronic low back pain in a sitting position: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beladev, Noa; Masharawi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of active group-exercising on women with non specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) in a sitting position. 25 females with NSCLBP underwent 8 group sitting-exercise sessions of a 45 minute duration, over an 8 week period. Pain intensity (VAS), back specific disability (Rolland Morris questionnaire-RMQ), and lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion were measured twice, for reliability tests and cut-off score values, with a 1 week interval between measurements, prior to intervention and subsequently, six weeks following intervention. Several significant changes in outcome measures were indicated following intervention compared with baseline (p position, improved the functional, painful status and lumbar ranges of motion in the sagittal plane of women suffering from non specific chronic low back pain. As sitting is considered the most common posture in today's workplace, applying this protocol during working hours would be very effective.

  7. A multi-level approach of evaluating crew resource management training: a laboratory-based study examining communication skills as a function of team congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J; Darioly, A; Mast, M Schmid; Schmid, P C; Bischof, N

    2010-11-01

    The article proposes a multi-level approach for evaluating communication skills training (CST) as an important element of crew resource management (CRM) training. Within this methodological framework, the present work examined the effectiveness of CST in matching or mismatching team compositions with regard to hierarchical status and competence. There is little experimental research that evaluated the effectiveness of CRM training at multiple levels (i.e. reaction, learning, behaviour) and in teams composed of members of different status and competence. An experiment with a two (CST: with vs. without) by two (competence/hierarchical status: congruent vs. incongruent) design was carried out. A total of 64 participants were trained for 2.5 h on a simulated process control environment, with the experimental group being given 45 min of training on receptiveness and influencing skills. Prior to the 1-h experimental session, participants were assigned to two-person teams. The results showed overall support for the use of such a multi-level approach of training evaluation. Stronger positive effects of CST were found for subjective measures than for objective performance measures. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work provides some guidance for the use of a multi-level evaluation of CRM training. It also emphasises the need to collect objective performance data for training evaluation in addition to subjective measures with a view to gain a more accurate picture of the benefits of such training approaches.

  8. Conceptualising Multilevel Regulation in the EU: A Legal Translation of Multilevel Governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    How should we conceive of regulation in the European context? This paper attempts to answer this by developing multilevel regulation as a theoretical concept. The basic aim of the paper is to explore the difference and convergence between regulation and governance and develop multilevel governance

  9. Short message service (SMS)-based intervention to improve treatment adherence among HIV-positive youth in Uganda: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Yashodhara; Haberer, Jessica; Huang, Haijing; Kambugu, Andrew; Mukasa, Barbara; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Wabukala, Peter; Wagner, Glenn J; Linnemayr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents one of the first qualitative studies to discuss programmatic barriers to SMS-based interventions for HIV-positive youth and discusses pathways through which youth perceive them to work. We conducted six focus groups with 20 male and 19 female HIV-positive youths in two clinics in Kampala, Uganda. We find that youth commonly use SMS as over 90% of this study's youths knew how to read, write and send messages and almost three-fourths of them had phones. Youth strongly felt that the success of this intervention hinged on ensuring confidentiality about their HIV-positive status. Key programmatic challenges discussed where restrictions on phone use and phone sharing that could exclude some youth. Participants felt that the intervention would improve their adherence by providing them with needed reminders and social support. Youths' suggestions about intervention logistics related to content, frequency, timing and two-way messages will be helpful to practitioners in the field.

  10. Periodate Oxidation for Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans, with Special Reference to the Position of Extra Sulfate Groups in Chondroitin Polysulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate D and Chondroitin Sulfate K

    OpenAIRE

    Seno, Nobuko; Murakami, Keiko; Shibusawa, Haru

    1981-01-01

    The optimum conditions for periodate oxidation of sulfated disaccharides were investigated to determine the position of extra sulfate groups on the saturated disulfated disaccharides obtained from chondroitin polysulfates, chondroitin sulfates D and K. Under the conditions: 2mM saturated disulfated disaccharide with 20mM sodium periodate at 37°in the dark, the uronic acid residue in the disulfated disaccharide from chondroitin sulfate D was rapidly and completely destroyed, whereas that in th...

  11. Explicit and implicit positive alcohol expectancies in problem and non-problem drinkers: differences across age groups from young adolescence to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie eVilenne

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence.Methods: Adolescent (13-16 year old, young adult (17-18 year old and adult (35-55 year old participants were recruited. On the basis of their score on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, they were classified as non-problem (AUDIT ≤ 7 or problem (AUDIT ≥ 11 drinkers. The participants completed the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ and performed two unipolar Implicit Association Test (IAT to assess implicit associations between alcohol and the concepts of stimulation and sedation.Results: Problem drinkers from the three age groups reported significantly higher positive alcohol expectancies than non-problem drinkers on all AEQ subscales. Positive alcohol explicit expectancies also gradually decreased with age, with adolescent problem drinkers reporting especially high positive expectancies. This effect was statistically significant for all positive expectancies, with the exception of relaxation expectancies that were only close to statistical significance. In contrast, stimulation and sedation alcohol implicit associations were not significantly different between problem and non-problem drinkers and did not change with age.Conclusions: These results indicate that explicit positive alcohol effect expectancies predict current alcohol consumption levels, especially in adolescents. Positive alcohol expectancies also gradually decrease with age in the three cross-sectional groups of adolescents, young adults and adults. This effect might be related to changes in the physiological response to alcohol.

  12. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION: A MULTILEVEL PROCESS THAT REQUIRES A MULTILEVEL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Otilia-Sonia HRITCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A process of market regulation and a system of multi-level governance and several supranational, national and subnational levels of decision making, European integration subscribes to being a multilevel phenomenon. The individual characteristics of citizens, as well as the environment where the integration process takes place, are important. To understand the European integration and its consequences it is important to develop and test multi-level theories that consider individual-level characteristics, as well as the overall context where individuals act and express their characteristics. A central argument of this paper is that support for European integration is influenced by factors operating at different levels. We review and present theories and related research on the use of multilevel analysis in the European area. This paper draws insights on various aspects and consequences of the European integration to take stock of what we know about how and why to use multilevel modeling.

  13. A 2 x 2 Taxonomy of Multilevel Latent Contextual Models: Accuracy-Bias Trade-Offs in Full and Partial Error Correction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtke, Oliver; Marsh, Herbert W.; Robitzsch, Alexander; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In multilevel modeling, group-level variables (L2) for assessing contextual effects are frequently generated by aggregating variables from a lower level (L1). A major problem of contextual analyses in the social sciences is that there is no error-free measurement of constructs. In the present article, 2 types of error occurring in multilevel data…

  14. ADULTS’ LEARNING IN A MULTILEVEL GROUP: DIFFICULTIES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamatina, I.I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the necessary conditions of modernization of higher education system of the Russian Federation is to increase the level of academic mobility of the teaching community of Russian Universities. To solve this problem in 2014 in the State University of Humanities and Social Studies it was made the decision to organize the biennial English language courses for teachers of non-linguistic specialties, to enhance their level of proficiency. The greatest difficulty in teaching was because of different levels of language proficiency, so the teacher had to develop an effective methodology of teaching English for different levels of students.

  15. Getting off on the wrong foot? How community groups in Zimbabwe position themselves for partnerships with external agencies in the HIV response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, Morten; Magutshwa-Zitha, Sitholubuhle; Campbell, Catherine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Partnerships are core to global public health responses. The HIV field embraces partnership working, with growing attention given to the benefits of involving community groups in the HIV response. However, little has been done to unpack the social psychological foundation of partnership working between well-resourced organisations and community groups, and how community representations of partnerships and power asymmetries shape the formation of partnerships for global health. We draw on a psychosocial theory of partnerships to examine community group members' understanding of self and other as they position themselves for partnerships with non-governmental organisations. This mixed qualitative methods study was conducted in the Matobo district of Matabeleland South province in Zimbabwe. The study draws on the perspectives of 90 community group members (29 men and 61 women) who participated in a total of 19 individual in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions (n = 71). The participants represented an array of different community groups and different levels of experience of working with NGOs. Verbatim transcripts were imported into Atlas.Ti for thematic indexing and analysis. Group members felt they played a central role in the HIV response. Accepting there is a limit to what they can do in isolation, they actively sought to position themselves as potential partners for NGOs. Partnerships with NGOs were said to enable community groups to respond more effectively as well as boost their motivation and morale. However, group members were also acutely aware of how they should act and perform if they were to qualify for a partnership. They spoke about how they had to adopt various strategies to become attractive partners and 'supportable' - including being active and obedient. Many community groups in Zimbabwe recognise their role in the HIV response and actively navigate representational systems of self and other to showcase themselves as capable actors

  16. Realist explanatory theory building method for social epidemiology: a protocol for a mixed method multilevel study of neighbourhood context and postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    A recent criticism of social epidemiological studies, and multi-level studies in particular has been a paucity of theory. We will present here the protocol for a study that aims to build a theory of the social epidemiology of maternal depression. We use a critical realist approach which is trans-disciplinary, encompassing both quantitative and qualitative traditions, and that assumes both ontological and hierarchical stratification of reality. We describe a critical realist Explanatory Theory Building Method comprising of an: 1) emergent phase, 2) construction phase, and 3) confirmatory phase. A concurrent triangulated mixed method multilevel cross-sectional study design is described. The Emergent Phase uses: interviews, focus groups, exploratory data analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, and multilevel Bayesian spatial data analysis to detect and describe phenomena. Abductive and retroductive reasoning will be applied to: categorical principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, coding of concepts and categories, constant comparative analysis, drawing of conceptual networks, and situational analysis to generate theoretical concepts. The Theory Construction Phase will include: 1) defining stratified levels; 2) analytic resolution; 3) abductive reasoning; 4) comparative analysis (triangulation); 5) retroduction; 6) postulate and proposition development; 7) comparison and assessment of theories; and 8) conceptual frameworks and model development. The strength of the critical realist methodology described is the extent to which this paradigm is able to support the epistemological, ontological, axiological, methodological and rhetorical positions of both quantitative and qualitative research in the field of social epidemiology. The extensive multilevel Bayesian studies, intensive qualitative studies, latent variable theory, abductive triangulation, and Inference to Best Explanation provide a strong foundation for Theory

  17. Multilevel Fast Multipole Method for Higher Order Discretizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Meincke, Peter; Jorgensen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The multi-level fast multipole method (MLFMM) for a higher order (HO) discretization is demonstrated on high-frequency (HF) problems, illustrating for the first time how an efficient MLFMM for HO can be achieved even for very large groups. Applying several novel ideas, beneficial to both lower...... order and higher order discretizations, results from a low-memory, high-speed MLFMM implementation of a HO hierarchical discretization are shown. These results challenge the general view that the benefits of HO and HF-MLFMM cannot be combined....

  18. Motivating Proteges' Personal Learning in Teams: A Multilevel Investigation of Autonomy Support and Autonomy Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Fu, Ping-ping

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the roles of 3 multilevel motivational predictors in proteges' personal learning in teams: an autonomy-supportive team climate, mentors' autonomy support, and proteges' autonomy orientation. The authors followed 305 proteges in 58 teams for 12 weeks and found that all 3 predictors were positively related to the proteges'…

  19. Social trust, interpersonal trust and self-rated health in China: a multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixin; Vlachantoni, Athina; Liu, Xiaoting; Jones, Kelvyn

    2016-11-08

    Trust is important for health at both the individual and societal level. Previous research using Western concepts of trust has shown that a high level of trust in society can positively affect individuals' health; however, it has been found that the concepts and culture of trust in China are different from those in Western countries and research on the relationship between trust and health in China is scarce. The analyses use data from the national scale China General Social Survey (CGSS) on adults aged above 18 in 2005 and 2010. Two concepts of trust ("out-group" and "in-group" trust) are used to examine the relationship between trust and self-rated health in China. Multilevel logistical models are applied, examining the trust at the individual and societal level on individuals' self-rated health. In terms of interpersonal trust, both "out-group" and "in-group" trust are positively associated with good health in 2005 and 2010. At the societal level, the relationships between the two concepts of trust and health are different. In 2005, higher "out-group" social trust (derived from trust in strangers) is positively associated with better health; however, higher "in-group" social trust (derived from trust in most people) is negatively associated with good health in 2010. The cross-level interactions show that lower educated individuals (no education or only primary level), rural residents and those on lower incomes are the most affected groups in societies with higher "out-group" social trust; whereas people with lower levels of educational attainment, a lower income, and those who think that most people can be trusted are the most affected groups in societies with higher "in-group" social trust. High levels of interpersonal trust are of benefit to health. Higher "out-group" social trust is positively associated with better health; while higher "in-group" social trust is negatively associated with good health. Individuals with different levels of educational

  20. Case manager-reported utilization of support group, substance use and mental health services among HIV-positive women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupprat, Sandra A; Dayton, Alex; Guschlbauer, Andrea; Halkitis, Perry N

    2009-07-01

    A retrospective, longitudinal analysis of case management and medical charts was used to evaluate utilization of support group, mental health, and substance abuse treatment services among HIV-positive women in New York City. Analyses of 4134 case management and supportive service transactions revealed that 70% utilized support groups over the two-year study period. In contrast, only 35% utilized mental health services (therapy) and of those identified as using substances, only 48% utilized substance abuse treatment services. Considering the high prevalence of mental illness (63%, n=29) and substance use (54%, n=25) in the sample, the low utilization rates highlight unmet needs for service. Significant differences were found in utilization of mental health and substance abuse treatment services, with those who received services at a medical model agency (integrated care) being more likely to receive both types of treatment. In contrast, participants attending support groups in non-medical model agencies (77.8%, n=7) were significantly more likely to be retained in group (i.e., attend 11 or more sessions) than those at medical model agencies (39.1%, n=9). Based on the higher utilization rates of support groups among seropositive women, perhaps these groups could be a vehicle for establishing rapport between mental health professionals and group members to bridge the utilization gap and reduce the stigma associated with therapy and substance abuse treatment services. These findings both taut the success and highlight weaknesses regarding accessing mental health and substance abuse care, and support group retention. Sharing of information regarding recruitment and retention efforts between agencies of different modalities would be beneficial and also could identify service niches that capitalize on their subsequent strengths.

  1. Shared epitope alleles remain a risk factor for anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA--positive rheumatoid arthritis in three Asian ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too Chun-Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE alleles and rheumatoid arthritis in subsets of rheumatoid arthritis defined by autoantibodies in three Asian populations from Malaysia. METHODS: 1,079 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 1,470 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA and rheumatoid factors were assessed and the PCR-SSO method was used for HLA-DRB1 genotyping. RESULTS: The proportion of ACPA positivity among Malay, Chinese and Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients were 62.9%, 65.2% and 68.6%, respectively. An increased frequency of SE alleles was observed in ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis among the three Asian ethnic groups. HLA-DRB1*10 was highly associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in these Asian populations. HLA-DRB1*0405 was significantly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Malays and Chinese, but not in Indians. HLA-DRB1*01 did not show any independent effect as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis in this study and HLA-DRB1*1202 was protective in Malays and Chinese. There was no association between SE alleles and ACPA- negative rheumatoid arthritis in any of the three Asian ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: The HLA-DRB1 SE alleles increase the risk of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis in all three Asian populations from Malaysia.

  2. Association of the position of a hospital-acquired condition diagnosis code with changes in medicare severity diagnosis-related group assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tricia; Kane, Jason M; Odwazny, Richard; McNutt, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Incentives to improve quality include paying less for adverse events, including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' policy to not pay additionally for events classified as hospital-acquired conditions (HACs). This policy is controversial, as variable coding practices at hospitals may lead to differences in the inclusion and position of HACs in the list of codes used for Medicare Severity Diagnosis-Related Group (MS-DRG) assignment. Evaluate changes in MS-DRG assignment for patients with an HAC and test the association of the position of an HAC in the list of International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes with change in MS-DRG assignment. Retrospective analysis of patients discharged from hospital members of the University HealthSystem Consortium's Clinical Data Base between October 2007 and April 2008. Comparisons were made between the MS-DRG assigned when the HAC was not included in the list of ICD-9 diagnosis codes and the MS-DRG that would have been assigned had the HAC code been included in the assignment. Of the 7027 patients with an HAC, 13.8% changed MS-DRG assignment when the HAC was removed. An HAC in the second position versus third position or lower was associated with a 40-fold increase in the likelihood of MS-DRG change. The position of an HAC in the list of diagnosis codes, rather than the presence of an HAC, is associated with a change in MS-DRG assignment. HACs have little effect on reimbursement unless the HAC is in the second position and patients have minor severity of illness. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  3. Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.

  4. Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay

    2016-01-05

    Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.

  5. The Hydroxyl at Position C1 of Genipin Is the Active Inhibitory Group that Affects Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 in Panc-1 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Genipin (GNP effectively inhibits uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2, which regulates the leakage of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. UCP2 inhibition may induce pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell death by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. In this study, the hydroxyls at positions C10 (10-OH and C1 (1-OH of GNP were hypothesized to be the active groups that cause these inhibitory effects. Four GNP derivatives in which the hydroxyl at position C10 or C1 was replaced with other chemical groups were synthesized and isolated. Differences in the inhibitory effects of GNP and its four derivatives on pancreatic carcinoma cell (Panc-1 proliferation were assessed. The effects of GNP and its derivatives on apoptosis, UCP2 inhibition and ROS production were also studied to explore the relationship between GNP's activity and its structure. The derivatives with 1-OH substitutions, geniposide (1-GNP1 and 1-ethyl-genipin (1-GNP2 lacked cytotoxic effects, while the other derivatives that retained 1-OH, 10-piv-genipin (10-GNP1 and 10-acetic acid-genipin (10-GNP2 exerted biological effects similar to those of GNP, even in the absence of 10-OH. Thus, 1-OH is the key functional group in the structure of GNP that is responsible for GNP's apoptotic effects. These cytotoxic effects involve the induction of Panc-1 cell apoptosis through UCP2 inhibition and subsequent ROS production.

  6. The Hydroxyl at Position C1 of Genipin Is the Active Inhibitory Group that Affects Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 in Panc-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Yifu; Hou, Jianwei; Ding, Yue; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jianying; Shi, Chenchen; Fu, Wenwei; Cai, Zhenzhen

    2016-01-01

    Genipin (GNP) effectively inhibits uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which regulates the leakage of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. UCP2 inhibition may induce pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell death by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In this study, the hydroxyls at positions C10 (10-OH) and C1 (1-OH) of GNP were hypothesized to be the active groups that cause these inhibitory effects. Four GNP derivatives in which the hydroxyl at position C10 or C1 was replaced with other chemical groups were synthesized and isolated. Differences in the inhibitory effects of GNP and its four derivatives on pancreatic carcinoma cell (Panc-1) proliferation were assessed. The effects of GNP and its derivatives on apoptosis, UCP2 inhibition and ROS production were also studied to explore the relationship between GNP's activity and its structure. The derivatives with 1-OH substitutions, geniposide (1-GNP1) and 1-ethyl-genipin (1-GNP2) lacked cytotoxic effects, while the other derivatives that retained 1-OH, 10-piv-genipin (10-GNP1) and 10-acetic acid-genipin (10-GNP2) exerted biological effects similar to those of GNP, even in the absence of 10-OH. Thus, 1-OH is the key functional group in the structure of GNP that is responsible for GNP's apoptotic effects. These cytotoxic effects involve the induction of Panc-1 cell apoptosis through UCP2 inhibition and subsequent ROS production.

  7. Synchronous Control of Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bose, Bimal K.

    2002-01-01

    A novel method of direct synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is applied for control of modular multilevel converters consisting from three standard triphase inverter modules along with an 0.33 p.u. output transformer. The proposed method provides synchronisation of the voltage waveforms...... for each module and the composed voltage at the output of the converter. Multilevel output voltage of the converter has quarter-wave symmetry during the whole range including the zone of overmodulation. Both continuous and discontinuous versions of synchronous PWM, based on vector approach...

  8. Management of group b streptococcus-positive pregnant women at maternity homes in JAPAN: a questionnaire survey of compliance among midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kotomi; Ohashi, Kazutomo

    2018-01-01

    Per the 2014 Japanese Midwives Association (JMA) guidelines, midwives were allowed to manage the deliveries for group B streptococcus (GBS)-positive pregnant women in labour at maternity homes without the supervision of a medical doctor if they complied with the guidelines of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG), wherein midwives working for maternity homes are expected to cooperate with commissioned obstetricians and paediatricians in cooperative medical facilities. We examined the rate of compliance with these JMA and JSOG guidelines regarding the management of GBS-positive pregnant women among midwives at maternity homes in Japan. Between October and December 2015, an anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 337 maternity homes registered with the JMA by mail. The questionnaire obtained information regarding the timing of GBS screening, specimen collection, transfer of GBS-positive pregnant women from a maternity home to a hospital, administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and collaboration between midwives and commissioned obstetricians. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. We used frequency distribution as the statistical test. Responses were received from 246 (73.0%) maternity homes, of which complete responses from 204 maternity homes (valid response rate, 60.5%) were analysed. Of these 204 maternity homes, only 97 (47.5%) conducted a GBS screening test during 33-37 weeks of gestation as recommended by the JSOG guidelines. Although midwives alone managed GBS-positive pregnant women in labour at 135 maternity homes (66.2%), intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, as recommended by the JSOG guidelines, was conducted in only 111 (54.4%). Moreover, only 37.0% (50/135) and 82.2% (111/135) of maternity homes ensured that GBS-positive pregnant women in labour with an elapse of ≥18 h after PROM and a body temperature of ≥38.0 °C, respectively, were transferred to a hospital by ambulance. Only at 58.3% (119/204) of

  9. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Bianca Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85. Bonding social capital (positive interaction was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91. Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain.

  10. Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy in Women with T1-T2 Tumors and 1 to 3 Positive Lymph Nodes: Analysis of the Breast International Group 02-98 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Youssef H; Habib, Joyce G; Ameye, Lieveke; Paesmans, Marianne; de Azambuja, Evandro; Gelber, Richard D; Campbell, Ian; Nordenskjöld, Bo; Gutiérez, Jorge; Anderson, Michael; Lluch, Ana; Gnant, Michael; Goldhirsch, Aron; Di Leo, Angelo; Joseph, David J; Crown, John; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine; Francis, Prudence A

    2018-06-01

    To analyze the impact of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) for patients with T1-T2 tumors and 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes enrolled on the Breast International Group (BIG) 02-98 trial. The BIG 02-98 trial randomized patients to receive adjuvant anthracycline with or without taxane chemotherapy. Delivery of PMRT was nonrandomized and performed according to institutional preferences. The present analysis was performed on participants with T1-T2 breast cancer and 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes who had undergone mastectomy and axillary nodal dissection. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the effect of PMRT on risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR), breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. We identified 684 patients who met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis, of whom 337 (49%) had received PMRT. At 10 years, LRR risk was 2.5% in the PMRT group and 6.5% in the no-PMRT group (hazard ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.73; P = .005). Lower LRR after PMRT was noted for patients randomized to receive adjuvant chemotherapy with no taxane (10-year LRR: 3.4% vs 9.1%; P = .02). No significant differences in breast cancer-specific survival (84.3% vs 83.9%) or overall survival (81.7% vs 78.3%) were observed according to receipt of PMRT. Our analysis of the BIG 02-98 trial shows excellent outcomes in women with T1-T2 tumors and 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes found in axillary dissection. Although PMRT improved LRR in this cohort, the number of events remained low at 10 years. In all groups, 10-year rates of LRR were relatively low compared with historical studies. As such, the use of PMRT in women with 1 to 3 positive nodes should be tailored to individual patient risks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multilevel Dual Damascene copper interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, S.

    Copper has been acknowledged as the interconnect material for future generations of ICs to overcome the bottlenecks on speed and reliability present with the current Al based wiring. A new set of challenges brought to the forefront when copper replaces aluminum, have to be met and resolved to make it a viable option. Unit step processes related to copper technology have been under development for the last few years. In this work, the application of copper as the interconnect material in multilevel structures with SiO2 as the interlevel dielectric has been explored, with emphasis on integration issues and complete process realization. Interconnect definition was achieved by the Dual Damascene approach using chemical mechanical polishing of oxide and copper. The choice of materials used as adhesion promoter/diffusion barrier included Ti, Ta and CVD TiN. Two different polish chemistries (NH4OH or HNO3 based) were used to form the interconnects. The diffusion barrier was removed during polishing (in the case of TiN) or by a post CMP etch (as with Ti or Ta). Copper surface passivation was performed using boron implantation and PECVD nitride encapsulation. The interlevel dielectric way composed of a multilayer stack of PECVD SiO2 and SixNy. A baseline process sequence which ensured the mechanical and thermal compatibility of the different unit steps was first created. A comprehensive test vehicle was designed and test structures were fabricated using the process flow developed. Suitable modifications were subsequently introduced in the sequence as and when processing problems were encountered. Electrical characterization was performed on the fabricated devices, interconnects, contacts and vias. The structures were subjected to thermal stressing to assess their stability and performance. The measurement of interconnect sheet resistances revealed lower copper loss due to dishing on samples polished using HNO3 based slurry. Interconnect resistances remained stable upto 400o

  12. Positive Regulation of RNA Metabolic Process” Ontology Group Highly Regulated in Porcine Oocytes Matured In Vitro: A Microarray Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Celichowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs growth and development during folliculogenesis and oogenesis are accompanied by changes involving synthesis and accumulation of large amount of RNA and proteins. In this study, the transcriptomic profile of genes involved in “oocytes RNA synthesis” in relation to in vitro maturation in pigs was investigated for the first time. The RNA was isolated from oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM. Interactions between differentially expressed genes/proteins belonging to “positive regulation of RNA metabolic process” ontology group were investigated by STRING10 software. Using microarray assays, we found expression of 12258 porcine transcripts. Genes with fold change higher than 2 and with corrected p value lower than 0.05 were considered as differentially expressed. The ontology grouppositive regulation of RNA metabolic process” involved differential expression of AR, INHBA, WWTR1, FOS, MEF2C, VEGFA, IKZF2, IHH, RORA, MAP3K1, NFAT5, SMARCA1, EGR1, EGR2, MITF, SMAD4, APP, and NR5A1 transcripts. Since all of the presented genes were downregulated after IVM, we suggested that they might be significantly involved in regulation of RNA synthesis before reaching oocyte MII stage. Higher expression of “RNA metabolic process” related genes before IVM indicated that they might be recognized as important markers and specific “transcriptomic fingerprint” of RNA template accumulation and storage for further porcine embryos growth and development.

  13. Structure and electronic properties of Alq3 derivatives with electron acceptor/donor groups at the C4 positions of the quinolate ligands: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Joshi Laxmikanth; Bhanuprakash, Kotamarthi

    2011-12-01

    The molecular structures of the ground (S(0)) and first singlet excited (S(1)) states of Alq3 derivatives in which pyrazolyl and 3-methylpyrazolyl groups are substituted at the C4 positions of the 8-hydroxyquinolate ligands as electron acceptors, and piperidinyl and N-methylpiperazinyl groups are substituted at the same positions as electron donors, have been optimized using the B3LYP/6-31G and CIS/6-31G methods, respectively. In order to analyze the electronic transitions in these derivatives, the frontier molecular orbital characteristics were analyzed systematically, and it was found that the highest occupied molecular orbital is localized on the A ligand while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital is localized on the B ligand in their ground states, similar to what is seen for mer-Alq3. The absorption and emission spectra were evaluated at the TD-PBE0/6-31G level, and it was observed that electron acceptor substitution causes a red-shift in the emission spectra, which is also seen experimentally. The reorganization energies were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G level and the results show that acceptor/donor substitution has a significant effect on the intrinsic charge mobilities of these derivatives as compared to mer-Alq3.

  14. Individualized tracking of self-directed motor learning in group-housed mice performing a skilled lever positioning task in the home cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silasi, Gergely; Boyd, Jamie D; Bolanos, Federico; LeDue, Jeff M; Scott, Stephen H; Murphy, Timothy H

    2018-01-01

    Skilled forelimb function in mice is traditionally studied through behavioral paradigms that require extensive training by investigators and are limited by the number of trials individual animals are able to perform within a supervised session. We developed a skilled lever positioning task that mice can perform within their home cage. The task requires mice to use their forelimb to precisely hold a lever mounted on a rotary encoder within a rewarded position to dispense a water reward. A Raspberry Pi microcomputer is used to record lever position during trials and to control task parameters, thus making this low-footprint apparatus ideal for use within animal housing facilities. Custom Python software automatically increments task difficulty by requiring a longer hold duration, or a more accurate hold position, to dispense a reward. The performance of individual animals within group-housed mice is tracked through radio-frequency identification implants, and data stored on the microcomputer may be accessed remotely through an active internet connection. Mice continuously engage in the task for over 2.5 mo and perform ~500 trials/24 h. Mice required ~15,000 trials to learn to hold the lever within a 10° range for 1.5 s and were able to further refine movement accuracy by limiting their error to a 5° range within each trial. These results demonstrate the feasibility of autonomously training group-housed mice on a forelimb motor task. This paradigm may be used in the future to assess functional recovery after injury or cortical reorganization induced by self-directed motor learning. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We developed a low-cost system for fully autonomous training of group-housed mice on a forelimb motor task. We demonstrate the feasibility of tracking both end-point, as well as kinematic performance of individual mice, with each performing thousands of trials over 2.5 mo. The task is run and controlled by a Raspberry Pi microcomputer, which allows for cages to be

  15. Micro-macro multilevel latent class models with multiple discrete individual-level variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, M.; Croon, M.A.; Kroon, B.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    An existing micro-macro method for a single individual-level variable is extended to the multivariate situation by presenting two multilevel latent class models in which multiple discrete individual-level variables are used to explain a group-level outcome. As in the univariate case, the

  16. Graduate Attribute Attainment in a Multi-Level Undergraduate Geography Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Sarah; Spronken-Smith, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    We investigated students' perceptions of graduate attributes in a multi-level (second and third year) geography course. A case study with mixed methodology was employed, with data collected through focus groups and a survey. We found that undergraduate geography students can identify the skills, knowledge and attributes that are developed through…

  17. Finite Mixture Multilevel Multidimensional Ordinal IRT Models for Large Scale Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Martijn G.; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a class of finite mixture multilevel multidimensional ordinal IRT models for large scale cross-cultural research. Our model is proposed for confirmatory research settings. Our prior for item parameters is a mixture distribution to accommodate situations where different groups of countries have different measurement operations, while…

  18. Streaming, Tracking and Reading Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis of Students in 40 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Joh, Sung Wook

    2017-01-01

    Grouping similar students together within schools ("streaming") or classrooms ("tracking") based on past literacy skills (reported by parents), family socioeconomic status (SES) or reading attitudes might affect their reading achievement. Our multilevel analysis of the reading tests of 208,057 fourth-grade students across 40…

  19. A multilevel evolutionary framework for sustainability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Waring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability theory can help achieve desirable social-ecological states by generalizing lessons across contexts and improving the design of sustainability interventions. To accomplish these goals, we argue that theory in sustainability science must (1 explain the emergence and persistence of social-ecological states, (2 account for endogenous cultural change, (3 incorporate cooperation dynamics, and (4 address the complexities of multilevel social-ecological interactions. We suggest that cultural evolutionary theory broadly, and cultural multilevel selection in particular, can improve on these fronts. We outline a multilevel evolutionary framework for describing social-ecological change and detail how multilevel cooperative dynamics can determine outcomes in environmental dilemmas. We show how this framework complements existing sustainability frameworks with a description of the emergence and persistence of sustainable institutions and behavior, a means to generalize causal patterns across social-ecological contexts, and a heuristic for designing and evaluating effective sustainability interventions. We support these assertions with case examples from developed and developing countries in which we track cooperative change at multiple levels of social organization as they impact social-ecological outcomes. Finally, we make suggestions for further theoretical development, empirical testing, and application.

  20. Multilevel models in international business research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, M.F.; Arregle, J-L.; Martin, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-level (or mixed linear) modeling (MLM) can simultaneously test hypotheses at several levels of analysis (usually two or three), or control for confounding effects at one level while testing hypotheses at others. Advances in multi-level modeling allow increased precision in quantitative

  1. MULTILEVEL SYNCRETISM AND THE EVOLUTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MULTILEVEL SYNCRETISM AND THE EVOLUTION OF AFRIKAANS. PERIPHRASTIC POSSESSIVES WITH SE. Paul T. Roberge. University or North Carolina, Chapel ..... van hem ook een bees gestoole ben ook drie volk !lli!. spoor en ook ben daar bij Bester een velds waage uijt gespanne gewees heef zulle de man zijn ...

  2. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  3. Robust Algebraic Multilevel Methods and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with algorithms for the solution of linear systems of algebraic equations with large-scale sparse matrices, with a focus on problems that are obtained after discretization of partial differential equations using finite element methods. Provides a systematic presentation of the recent advances in robust algebraic multilevel methods. Can be used for advanced courses on the topic.

  4. Multilevel interventions aimed at adult obesity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger

    A growing body of literature emphasizes the importance of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the wide range of aspects which hinder or promote the success of health interventions. The pilot phase of this study highlights how mixed-method approaches can be strengthened ...... to investigate factors associated with multi-level obesity prevention....

  5. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1989-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  6. Behavioral spillovers from freeriding in multilevel interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thommes, K; Vyrastekova, J.; Akkerman, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study multilevel interactions using experimental methods. Does the efficiency of a production team suffer from the freeriding behavior of some team members at the firm level? Can we identify behavioral spillovers affecting teams? We isolate common tasks that teams must complete - coordination and

  7. "It's for us -newcomers, LGBTQ persons, and HIV-positive persons. You feel free to be": a qualitative study exploring social support group participation among African and Caribbean lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender newcomers and refugees in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Ryan, Shannon; Ramsay, Hope

    2016-07-02

    Stigma and discrimination harm the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and contribute to migration from contexts of sexual persecution and criminalization. Yet LGBT newcomers and refugees often face marginalization and struggles meeting the social determinants of health (SDOH) following immigration to countries such as Canada. Social isolation is a key social determinant of health that may play a significant role in shaping health disparities among LGBT newcomers and refugees. Social support may moderate the effect of stressors on mental health, reduce social isolation, and build social networks. Scant research, however, has examined social support groups targeting LGBT newcomers and refugees. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore experiences of social support group participation among LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees in an urban Canadian city. We conducted 3 focus groups with a venue-based sample of LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees (n = 29) who attended social support groups at an ethno-specific AIDS Service Organization. Focus groups followed a semi-structured interview guide and were analyzed using narrative thematic techniques. Participant narratives highlighted immigration stressors, social isolation, mental health issues, and challenges meeting the SDOH. Findings reveal multi-level benefits of social support group participation at intrapersonal (self-acceptance, improved mental health), interpersonal (reduced isolation, friendships), community (reciprocity, reduced stigma and discrimination), and structural (housing, employment, immigration, health care) levels. Findings suggest that social support groups tailored for LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees can address social isolation, community resilience, and enhance resource access. Health care providers can provide support groups, culturally and LGBT competent health services, and resource access to promote LGBT

  8. Co-occurrences Between Adolescent Substance Use and Academic Performance: School Context Inuences a Multilevel-Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. PMID:25057764

  9. A Container-based Trusted Multi-level Security Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level security mechanism has been widely applied in the military, government, defense and other domains in which information is required to be divided by security-level. Through this type of security mechanism, users at different security levels are provided with information at corresponding security levels. Traditional multi-level security mechanism which depends on the safety of operating system finally proved to be not practical. We propose a container-based trusted multi-level security mechanism in this paper to improve the applicability of the multi-level mechanism. It guarantees multi-level security of the system through a set of multi-level security policy rules and trusted techniques. The technical feasibility and application scenarios are also discussed. The ease of realization, strong practical significance and low cost of our method will largely expand the application of multi-level security mechanism in real life.

  10. Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Considering Symmetry with Regards to the Positive and Negative Ideal Solutions via the Pythagorean Normal Cloud Model for Application to Economic Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pythagorean fuzzy sets are highly appealing in dealing with uncertainty as they allow for greater flexibility in regards to the membership and non-membership degrees by extending the set of possible values. In this paper, we propose a multi-criteria group decision-making approach based on the Pythagorean normal cloud. Some cloud aggregation operators are presented in this paper to facilitate the appraisal of the underlying utilities of the alternatives under consideration. The concept and properties of the Pythagorean normal cloud and its backward generation algorithm, aggregation operators and distance measurement are outlined. The proposed approach resembles the TOPSIS technique, which, indeed, considers the symmetry of the distances to the positive and negative ideal solutions. Furthermore, an example from e-commerce is presented to demonstrate and validate the proposed decision-making approach. Finally, the comparative analysis is implemented to check the robustness of the results when the aggregation rules are changed.

  11. Position statement: Gender dysphoria in childhood and adolescence. Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Asenjo Araque, Nuria; Hurtado Murillo, Felipe; Fernández Rodríguez, María; Vidal Hagemeijer, Ángela; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Lucio Pérez, María Jesús; López Siguero, Juan Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood and adolescence is a complex condition where early detection and comprehensive treatment are essential to improve quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity, and improve GD. In this position statement, the Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN), consisting of specialists in Endocrinology, Psychology, Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Sociology, sets out recommendations for evaluation and treatment of GD in children and adolescents. Interdisciplinary management of GD should be carried out at specialized units (UTIGs), considering that any clinical intervention should follow the principles of scientific rigor, experience, ethical and deontological principles, and the necessary caution in front of chronic, aggressive, and irreversible treatments. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Pertuzumab for the Neoadjuvant Treatment of Early-Stage HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Hazel; Pandor, Abdullah; Thokala, Praveen; Stevens, John W; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Clowes, Mark; Coleman, Robert; Wyld, Lynda

    2018-01-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited the manufacturer of pertuzumab (Perjeta ® ; Roche Products Limited) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost- effectiveness for the neoadjuvant treatment of women with high-risk, early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer when used in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy. High-risk women included those with locally advanced (including inflammatory) breast cancer and women with high-risk early-stage breast cancer (classified as T2/3 or N1). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group. This article presents the critical review of the company's submission by the Evidence Review Group and the outcome of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance. The clinical data were mainly taken from a phase II, randomised, open-label, active controlled study (NeoSphere), which reported a significant advantage in terms of pathological complete response rates of pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy, compared with trastuzumab alone with chemotherapy (45.8 vs. 29.0%, p = 0.0141). The company did not make any indirect comparisons. A meta-analysis of 12 neoadjuvant studies investigating the relationship between pathological complete response and event-free survival was used to extrapolate the outcomes reported in the NeoSphere study. A cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA) demonstrated the safety of pertuzumab. The company undertook a model-based economic evaluation of neoadjuvant pertuzumab plus trastuzumab and docetaxel compared with neoadjuvant trastuzumab and docetaxel over a lifetime horizon from the National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective. The probabilistic incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be £20,104 per quality-adjusted life-year gained for pertuzumab

  13. The essential tension competition, cooperation and multilevel selection in evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bahar, Sonya

    2018-01-01

    'The Essential Tension' explores how agents that naturally compete come to act together as a group. The author argues that the controversial concept of multilevel selection is essential to biological evolution, a proposition set to stimulate new debate. The idea of one collective unit emerging from the cooperative interactions of its constituent (and mutually competitive) parts has its roots in the ancient world. More recently, it has illuminated studies of animal behavior, and played a controversial role in evolutionary biology. In Part I, the author explores the historical development of the idea of a collectivity in biological systems, from early speculations on the sociology of human crowd behavior, through the mid-twentieth century debates over the role of group selection in evolution, to the notion of the selfish gene. Part II investigates the balance between competition and cooperation in a range of contemporary biological problems, from flocking and swarming to experimental evolution and the evolutio...

  14. Competing Forces of Socioeconomic Development and Environmental Degradation on Health and Happiness for Different Income Groups in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lijuan; Rosenberg, Mark W; Zeng, Juxin

    2017-10-01

    China's rapid socioeconomic growth in recent years and the simultaneous increase in many forms of pollution are generating contradictory pictures of residents' well-being. This paper applies multilevel analysis to the 2013 China General Social Survey data on social development and health to understand this twofold phenomenon. Multilevel models are developed to investigate the impact of socioeconomic development and environmental degradation on self-reported health (SRH) and self-reported happiness (SRHP), differentiating among lower, middle, and higher income groups. The results of the logit multilevel analysis demonstrate that income, jobs, and education increased the likelihood of rating SRH and SRHP positively for the lower and middle groups but had little or no effect on the higher income group. Having basic health insurance had an insignificant effect on health but increased the likelihood of happiness among the lower income group. Provincial-level pollutants were associated with a higher likelihood of good health for all income groups, and community-level industrial pollutants increased the likelihood of good health for the lower and middle income groups. Measures of community-level pollution were robust predictors of the likelihood of unhappiness among the lower and middle income groups. Environmental hazards had a mediating effect on the relationship between socioeconomic development and health, and socioeconomic development strengthened the association between environmental hazards and happiness. These outcomes indicate that the complex interconnections among socioeconomic development and environmental degradation have differential effects on well-being among different income groups in China.

  15. Gut microbiota in early life and its influence on health and disease: A position paper by the Malaysian Working Group on Gastrointestinal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Hassan, Siti Asma; Ismail, Intan Hakimah; Chong, Sze Yee; Raja Ali, Raja Affendi; Amin Nordin, Syafinaz; Lee, Way Seah; Majid, Noorizan Abdul

    2017-12-01

    The role of gut microbiota in early life and its impact on gut health and subsequent diseases remain unclear. There is a lack of research and awareness in this area, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, including Malaysia. This paper reports the position of a Malaysian Working Group on some key issues surrounding gut microbiota in early life and its role in gut health and diseases, as well as experts' stand on probiotics and prebiotics. The group reached a consensus that certain factors, including elective caesarean; premature deliveries; complementary feeding; use of antibiotics, prebiotics and/or probiotics; and exposure to the external environmental, have an impact on gut microbiota in early life. However, as evidence is lacking, especially from the Asia-Pacific region, further studies are needed to understand how gut microbiota in early life affects subsequent diseases, including allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and infantile colic. Lastly, although beneficial in acute diarrhoeal disease and probably allergic eczema, probiotics (and/or prebiotics) should be used cautiously in other gut dysbiotic conditions until more data are available. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Equatorenes: synthesis and properties of chiral naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, and pyrene possessing bis(1-adamantyl) groups at the peri-position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Koji; Oyamada, Naohiro; Xia, Sheng; Kobayashi, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Maeda, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Kwon, Eunsang

    2013-11-06

    Chiral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing bis(1-adamantyl) groups at the peri-positions, named equatorenes, were synthesized in optically pure form starting from optically pure 4,5-bis(1-adamantyl)-8-methoxy-1-naphthol. A sequential Diels-Alder reaction of furan and arynes generated from 1,2-bromotriflates provided tricyclic and tetracyclic epoxides, and acid-catalyzed aromatization gave phenanthrol and chrysenol. Deoxygenation reactions involving the hydrogenolysis of triflates gave 1,8-bis(1-adamantyl)naphthalene, 1,10-bis(1-adamantyl)phenanthrene, and 1,12-bis(1-adamantyl)chrysene. 3,4-Bis(1-adamantyl)pyrene was synthesized from phenanthrol by Sonogashira coupling and Pt-catalyzed cyclization. Essentially no racemization occurred during the synthesis. X-ray analysis indicated the distorted naphthalene moiety possessing the peri-diadamantyl groups and the flat structure of the other benzene rings. UV-vis analysis of the equatorenes showed considerable redshifts compared with that of the corresponding achiral arenes. Electrochemical analysis of the naphthalene and pyrene indicated that the distortion decreased the highest occupied molecular orbital stability with no marked effect on the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level, and the origin was discussed on the basis of calculation results.

  17. Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress in Endothelial Progenitor Cells May Be Sustained by a Positive Feedback Loop Involving High Mobility Group Box-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be a critical factor in diabetes-induced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC dysfunction, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1 in diabetes-induced oxidative stress. HMGB-1 was upregulated in both serum and bone marrow-derived monocytes from diabetic mice compared with control mice. In vitro, advanced glycation end productions (AGEs induced, expression of HMGB-1 in EPCs and in cell culture supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. However, inhibition of oxidative stress with N-acetylcysteine (NAC partially inhibited the induction of HMGB-1 induced by AGEs. Furthermore, p66shc expression in EPCs induced by AGEs was abrogated by incubation with glycyrrhizin (Gly, while increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in cell culture supernatants was observed in the Gly treated group. Thus, HMGB-1 may play an important role in diabetes-induced oxidative stress in EPCs via a positive feedback loop involving the AGE/reactive oxygen species/HMGB-1 pathway.

  18. Crizotinib for Untreated Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip; Woolacott, Nerys; Biswas, Mousumi; Mebrahtu, Teumzghi; Harden, Melissa; Hodgson, Robert

    2017-09-01

    As part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, the manufacturer of crizotinib submitted evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of crizotinib in untreated anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK-positive) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Crizotinib has previously been assessed by NICE for patients with previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC (TA 296). It was not approved in this previous appraisal, but had been made available through the cancer drugs fund. As part of this new appraisal, the company included a price discount patient access scheme (PAS). The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Centre for Health Economics Technology Appraisal Group at the University of York was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article provides a description of the company's submission and the ERG's review and summarises the resulting NICE guidance issued in August 2016. The main clinical-effectiveness data were derived from a multicentre randomised controlled trial-PROFILE 1014-that compared crizotinib with pemetrexed chemotherapy in combination with carboplatin or cisplatin in patients with untreated non-squamous ALK-positive NSCLC. In the trial, crizotinib demonstrated improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The company's economic model was a three-state 'area under the curve' Markov model. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated to be greater than £50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained (excluding the PAS discount). The ERG assessment of the evidence submitted by the company raised a number of concerns. In terms of the clinical evidence, the OS benefit was highly uncertain due to the cross-over permitted in the trial and the immaturity of the data; only 26% of events had occurred by the data cut-off point. In the economic modelling, the most significant concerns related to the analysis

  19. Domain decomposition and multilevel integration for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ce, Marco; Giusti, Leonardo; Schaefer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The numerical computation of many hadronic correlation functions is exceedingly difficult due to the exponentially decreasing signal-to-noise ratio with the distance between source and sink. Multilevel integration methods, using independent updates of separate regions in space-time, are known to be able to solve such problems but have so far been available only for pure gauge theory. We present first steps into the direction of making such integration schemes amenable to theories with fermions, by factorizing a given observable via an approximated domain decomposition of the quark propagator. This allows for multilevel integration of the (large) factorized contribution to the observable, while its (small) correction can be computed in the standard way.

  20. Multilevel Monte Carlo in Approximate Bayesian Computation

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay

    2017-02-13

    In the following article we consider approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) inference. We introduce a method for numerically approximating ABC posteriors using the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC). A sequential Monte Carlo version of the approach is developed and it is shown under some assumptions that for a given level of mean square error, this method for ABC has a lower cost than i.i.d. sampling from the most accurate ABC approximation. Several numerical examples are given.

  1. Multilevel resistive information storage and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohn, Andrew; Mickel, Patrick R.

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) systems, as well as methods of employing multiple state variables to form degenerate states in such memory systems. The methods herein allow for precise write and read steps to form multiple state variables, and these steps can be performed electrically. Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified information retrieval.

  2. Generalization of Random Intercept Multilevel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Ahmad Khan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of random intercept models in a multilevel model developed by Goldstein (1986 has been extended for k-levels. The random variation in intercepts at individual level is marginally split into components by incorporating higher levels of hierarchy in the single level model. So, one can control the random variation in intercepts by incorporating the higher levels in the model.

  3. Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Jank, Wolfgang S

    2014-01-29

    We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions.

  4. Analyzing chromatographic data using multilevel modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiczling, Paweł

    2018-06-01

    It is relatively easy to collect chromatographic measurements for a large number of analytes, especially with gradient chromatographic methods coupled with mass spectrometry detection. Such data often have a hierarchical or clustered structure. For example, analytes with similar hydrophobicity and dissociation constant tend to be more alike in their retention than a randomly chosen set of analytes. Multilevel models recognize the existence of such data structures by assigning a model for each parameter, with its parameters also estimated from data. In this work, a multilevel model is proposed to describe retention time data obtained from a series of wide linear organic modifier gradients of different gradient duration and different mobile phase pH for a large set of acids and bases. The multilevel model consists of (1) the same deterministic equation describing the relationship between retention time and analyte-specific and instrument-specific parameters, (2) covariance relationships relating various physicochemical properties of the analyte to chromatographically specific parameters through quantitative structure-retention relationship based equations, and (3) stochastic components of intra-analyte and interanalyte variability. The model was implemented in Stan, which provides full Bayesian inference for continuous-variable models through Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Graphical abstract Relationships between log k and MeOH content for acidic, basic, and neutral compounds with different log P. CI credible interval, PSA polar surface area.

  5. Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: A Multivariate Multilevel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondimu Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between motivation and self-regulated learning (SRL in a nationally representative sample of 5245, 15-year-old students in the USA. A multivariate multilevel analysis was conducted to examine the role of three motivational variables (self-efficacy, intrinsic value & instrumental value in predicting three SRL strategies (memorization, elaboration & control. The results showed that compared to self-efficacy, intrinsic value and instrumental value of math were stronger predictors of memorization, elaboration and control strategies. None of the motivational variables had a stronger effect on one strategy than the other. The findings suggest that the development of self-regulatory skills in math can be greatly enhanced by helping students develop positive value of and realistic expectancy for success in math.

  6. Multi-level barriers to LTBI treatment: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Blumberg, Elaine; Sipan, Carol; Schmitz, Katharine; West, Joshua; Kelley, Norma; Hovell, Melbourne

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the barriers to effective and timely LTBI treatment encountered in a research study on INH adherence in Latino adolescents. Participant study logs were reviewed, results of continuing medical education pretests for medical providers were examined, and participating medical facilities were contacted in order to construct a profile of multi-level barriers to LTBI treatment. A total of 285 TST positive Latino (96%) high school students were recruited into the trial. We encountered a lack of understanding of the gravity of tuberculosis infection among both the public and providers of health care. Parents and adolescents cited competing priorities, transportation problems and financial constraints as reasons for non-compliance. Improved education of the public and physicians is needed regarding the gravity of the disease and the value of treatment, as well as public and financial support for LTBI treatment by both the government and the medical community.

  7. Favorable outcome in non-infant children with MLL-AF4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Daisuke; Kato, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Junya; Inukai, Takeshi; Fukushima, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Ohara, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Unlike acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants, MLL gene rearrangement (MLL-r) is rare in ALL children (≥1 year old). The outcome and optimal treatment options for MLL-r ALL remain controversial. Among the 1827 children enrolled in the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group ALL studies L95-14, L99-15, L99-1502, L04-16, and L07-1602 (1995-2009), 25 MLL-r ALL patients (1.3 %) were identified. Their median age and leukocyte count at diagnosis was 2 years old (range 1-15 years) and 27,690/μL (range 1800-1,113,000/μL), respectively. All but one patient achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, and 19 underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first CR according to the protocol. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were 60.0 % [standard error (SE), 9.7 %] and 64.0 % (SE 9.6 %), respectively. Notably, 9/12 cases with MLL-AF4-positive ALL are alive in continuous CR with a 75.0 % (SE 12.5 %) EFS rate. The causes of treatment failure were as follows: one induction failure, five relapses, and five transplant-related deaths. With intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic HSCT, favorable outcome of children (≥1 year old) with MLL-AF4-positive ALL was observed. However, considering the risk of acute and late toxicities associated with HSCT, its indication should be restricted.

  8. Bridging the gap between biologic, individual, and macroenvironmental factors in cancer: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Shannon M; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2013-04-01

    To address the complex nature of cancer occurrence and outcomes, approaches have been developed to simultaneously assess the role of two or more etiologic agents within hierarchical levels including the: (i) macroenvironment level (e.g., health care policy, neighborhood, or family structure); (ii) individual level (e.g., behaviors, carcinogenic exposures, socioeconomic factors, and psychologic responses); and (iii) biologic level (e.g., cellular biomarkers and inherited susceptibility variants). Prior multilevel approaches tend to focus on social and environmental hypotheses, and are thus limited in their ability to integrate biologic factors into a multilevel framework. This limited integration may be related to the limited translation of research findings into the clinic. We propose a "Multi-level Biologic and Social Integrative Construct" (MBASIC) to integrate macroenvironment and individual factors with biology. The goal of this framework is to help researchers identify relationships among factors that may be involved in the multifactorial, complex nature of cancer etiology, to aid in appropriate study design, to guide the development of statistical or mechanistic models to study these relationships, and to position the results of these studies for improved intervention, translation, and implementation. MBASIC allows researchers from diverse fields to develop hypotheses of interest under a common conceptual framework, to guide transdisciplinary collaborations, and to optimize the value of multilevel studies for clinical and public health activities.

  9. Group-analytic epistemology and the articulation of group-treatment setting in a Department of Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Della Torre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of multi-level projects of care to mental disorders patients in the context of the Mental Health Centre, proposing an epistemological point of view on groups inspired to the epistemology of complexity.Keywords: Multi-level projects of care; Mental Health Centre; Epistemology of Complexity

  10. Nutrition in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Position Paper on Behalf of the Porto Inflammatory Bowel Disease Group of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Erasmo; Shamir, Raanan; Aloi, Marina; Assa, Amit; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; de Ridder, Lissy; Escher, Johanna C; Hojsak, Iva; Kolaček, Sanja; Koletzko, Sibylle; Levine, Arie; Lionetti, Paolo; Martinelli, Massimo; Ruemmele, Frank; Russell, Richard K; Boneh, Rotem Sigall; van Limbergen, Johan; Veereman, Gigi; Staiano, Annamaria

    2018-04-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the need for detailed attention to nutrition and diet in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to define the steps in instituting dietary or nutritional management in light of the current evidence and to offer a useful and practical guide to physicians and dieticians involved in the care of pediatric IBD patients. A group of 20 experts in pediatric IBD participated in an iterative consensus process including 2 face-to-face meetings, following an open call to Nutrition Committee of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Porto, IBD Interest, and Nutrition Committee. A list of 41 predefined questions was addressed by working subgroups based on a systematic review of the literature. A total of 53 formal recommendations and 47 practice points were endorsed with a consensus rate of at least 80% on the following topics: nutritional assessment; macronutrients needs; trace elements, minerals, and vitamins; nutrition as a primary therapy of pediatric IBD; probiotics and prebiotics; specific dietary restrictions; and dietary compounds and the risk of IBD. This position paper represents a useful guide to help the clinicians in the management of nutrition issues in children with IBD.

  11. Predicting multi-level drug response with gene expression profile in multiple myeloma using hierarchical ordinal regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyan; Li, Bingzong; Han, Huiying; Song, Sha; Xu, Hongxia; Hong, Yating; Yi, Nengjun; Zhuang, Wenzhuo

    2018-05-10

    Multiple myeloma (MM), like other cancers, is caused by the accumulation of genetic abnormalities. Heterogeneity exists in the patients' response to treatments, for example, bortezomib. This urges efforts to identify biomarkers from numerous molecular features and build predictive models for identifying patients that can benefit from a certain treatment scheme. However, previous studies treated the multi-level ordinal drug response as a binary response where only responsive and non-responsive groups are considered. It is desirable to directly analyze the multi-level drug response, rather than combining the response to two groups. In this study, we present a novel method to identify significantly associated biomarkers and then develop ordinal genomic classifier using the hierarchical ordinal logistic model. The proposed hierarchical ordinal logistic model employs the heavy-tailed Cauchy prior on the coefficients and is fitted by an efficient quasi-Newton algorithm. We apply our hierarchical ordinal regression approach to analyze two publicly available datasets for MM with five-level drug response and numerous gene expression measures. Our results show that our method is able to identify genes associated with the multi-level drug response and to generate powerful predictive models for predicting the multi-level response. The proposed method allows us to jointly fit numerous correlated predictors and thus build efficient models for predicting the multi-level drug response. The predictive model for the multi-level drug response can be more informative than the previous approaches. Thus, the proposed approach provides a powerful tool for predicting multi-level drug response and has important impact on cancer studies.

  12. UNDERTAKING POSITIVE CONTROL STUDIES AS PART OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A REPORT FROM THE ILSI RESEARCH FOUNDATION/RISK SCIENCE INSTITUTE EXPERT WORKING GROUP ON NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ENDPOINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing involves functional and neurohistological assessments in offspring during and following maternal and/or neonatal exposure. Data from positive control studies are an integral component in developmental neurotoxicity risk assessments. Positive ...

  13. Liver transplantation in HIV-positive patients: the position of the Brazilian groups Transplante hepático em pacientes HIV-positivo: a posição dos grupos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajacio Bandeira de Mello Brandão

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have generally been excluded from consideration for liver transplantation. Recent advances in the management and prognosis of these patients suggest that this policy must be reevaluated. AIM: To identify the current position of Brazilian transplant centers concerning liver transplantation in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients with end-stage liver disease. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was submitted by e-mail to Brazilian groups who perform liver transplantation and were active in late 2003, according to the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplantation. RESULTS: Of the 53 active groups, 30 e-mail addresses have been found of professionals working in 41 of these groups. Twenty-one responses (70% were obtained. Most of the professionals (62% reported that they do not include HIV-infected patients in waiting lists for transplants, primarily on account of the limited world experience. They also reported, however, that this issue will soon be discussed by the group. Those who accept these patients usually follow the guidelines provided by the literature: patients must fulfill the same inclusion criteria as the other patients with end-stage liver diseases, present low or undetectable HIV viral load, and a CD4 count above 250/mm³. They reported that there are 10 HIV-infected patients in waiting list and that only one patient has received a liver transplant in the country. CONCLUSION: Most centers do not accept in waiting lists for liver transplantation patients with HIV infection, even asymptomatic ones. However, advances in the management of HIV-infected patients suggest that this policy must be reevaluated. In Brazil, there is practically no experience in liver transplantation in HIV-positive patients.RACIONAL: Pacientes infectados com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV têm sido comumente excluídos dos programas de transplantes de fígado. Avanços recentes no

  14. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department Bioscience Engineering, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Meul, Marijke [University College Ghent, Department of Biosciences and Landscape Architecture, Campus Schoonmeersen, Building C, Schoonmeersstraat 52, 9000, Gent (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  15. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: ► We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. ► SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. ► Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. ► We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  16. Comparison of Functional and Radiological Outcomes Between Two Posterior Approaches in the Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Jiang Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posterior cervical decompression is an accepted treatment for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM. Each posterior technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. In the present study, we compared the functional and radiological outcomes of expansive hemilaminectomy and laminoplasty with mini titanium plate in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Methods: Forty-four patients with multilevel CSM treated with posterior cervical surgery in Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Beijing Army General Hospital from March 2011 to June 2012 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups by surgical procedure: Laminoplasty (Group L and hemilaminectomy (Group H. Perioperative parameters including age, sex, duration of symptoms, operative duration, and intraoperative blood loss were recorded and compared. Spinal canal area, calculated using AutoCAD ® software(Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA, and neurological improvement, evaluated with Japanese Orthopedic Association score, were also compared. Results: Neurological improvement did not differ significantly between groups. Group H had a significantly shorter operative duration and significantly less blood loss. Mean expansion ratio was significantly greater in Group L (77.83 ± 6.41% than in Group H (62.72 ± 3.86% (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Both surgical approaches are safe and effective in treating multilevel CSM. Laminoplasty provides a greater degree of enlargement of the spinal canal, whereas expansive hemilaminectomy has the advantages of shorter operative duration and less intraoperative blood loss.

  17. Comparison of Functional and Radiological Outcomes Between Two Posterior Approaches in the Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Da-Jiang; Li, Fang; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Kai, Guan; Shan, Jian-Lin; Zhao, Guang-Min; Sun, Tian-Sheng

    2015-08-05

    Posterior cervical decompression is an accepted treatment for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Each posterior technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. In the present study, we compared the functional and radiological outcomes of expansive hemilaminectomy and laminoplasty with mini titanium plate in the treatment of multilevel CSM. Forty-four patients with multilevel CSM treated with posterior cervical surgery in Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Beijing Army General Hospital from March 2011 to June 2012 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups by surgical procedure: Laminoplasty (Group L) and hemilaminectomy (Group H). Perioperative parameters including age, sex, duration of symptoms, operative duration, and intraoperative blood loss were recorded and compared. Spinal canal area, calculated using AutoCAD ® software(Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA), and neurological improvement, evaluated with Japanese Orthopedic Association score, were also compared. Neurological improvement did not differ significantly between groups. Group H had a significantly shorter operative duration and significantly less blood loss. Mean expansion ratio was significantly greater in Group L (77.83 ± 6.41%) than in Group H (62.72 ± 3.86%) (P < 0.01). Both surgical approaches are safe and effective in treating multilevel CSM. Laminoplasty provides a greater degree of enlargement of the spinal canal, whereas expansive hemilaminectomy has the advantages of shorter operative duration and less intraoperative blood loss.

  18. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degr...

  19. Social and individual risk factors for suicide ideation among Chinese children and adolescents: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ling; Xia, Tiansheng; Reece, Christy

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of suicide ideation among primary, middle and high school students. We used multilevel modelling to investigate suicide ideation among 12,733 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9-18 years from wide range of areas across China. Approximately, 32.09% of children and adolescents reported suicide ideation, with females were more likely to report suicide ideation than males (38.09% vs. 29.95%). Our results showed that the risk factors in primary school students were different from middle and high school student groups, whereas significant risk factors for middle and high school students were similar. The city's standard of living as indicated by the Engel coefficient and the city's divorce rate were positively associated with the prevalence of suicide ideation; in contrast, the school's pupil-to-teacher ratio was negatively correlated with elevated suicide ideation. Significant risk factors for suicide ideation included study anxiety, self-accusation tendency, impulsive tendency, terror tendency and physical symptoms. These results have important implications for the prevention of suicide, suggesting that both contextual (city-level) and compositional (individual-level) factors could be important targets for prevention and intervention for children and adolescents at risk of suicide ideation. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Athletes' perceptions of coaching competency and team conflict in sport teams: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ponce, I; Leo, F M; Jiménez, R; Sánchez-Oliva, D; Sarmento, H; Figueiredo, A; García-Calvo, T

    2018-04-23

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching competency and team conflict, at individual and team levels, over the season. The participants were professional female and male soccer players, who participated in the First and Second Division. A longitudinal study was performed. At Time 1, the sample of participants consisted of 581 soccer players aged between 15 and 39 years. At Time 2, 549 players were recruited from the original sample aged between 15 and 37 years. Finally, at Time 3, the sample comprised 576 players aged between 15 and 37 years. All participants completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing coaching competency (motivation, game strategy, technique competency, and character-building competency) and team conflict (task conflict and relationship conflict). Results showed that both task and relationship conflict increased significantly over time. Multilevel modelling analysis showed that game strategy and character-building competencies negatively predicted both task and relationship conflicts at the individual level, whereas motivation competency was also added as a significant predictor of task conflict at the team level. Moreover, technique competency positively predicted task conflict at the team level. The current study suggests the importance of coaching competency in group dynamics in sport.

  1. The South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP and SASOP State Employed Special Interest Group (SESIG position statements on psychiatric care in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Janse van Rensburg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Executive summary. National mental health policy: SASOP extends its support for the process of formalising a national mental health policy as well as for the principles and content of the current draft policy. Psychiatry and mental health: psychiatrists should play a central role, along with the other mental health disciplines, in the strategic and operational planning of mental health services at local, provincial and national level. Infrastructure and human resources: it is essential that the state takes up its responsibility to provide adequate structures, systems and funds for the specified services and facilities on national, provincial and facility level, as a matter of urgency. Standard treatment guidelines (STGs and essential drug lists (EDLs: close collaboration and co-ordination should occur between the processes of establishing SASOP and national treatment guidelines, as well as the related decisions on EDLs for different levels. HIV/AIDS in children: national HIV programmes have to promote awareness of the neurocognitive problems and psychiatric morbidity associated with HIV in children. HIV/AIDS in adults: the need for routine screening of all HIV-positive individuals for mental health and cognitive impairments should also be emphasised as many adult patients have a mental illness, either before or as a consequence of HIV infection, constituting a ‘special needs’ group. Substance abuse and addiction: the adequate diagnosis and management of related substance abuse and addiction problems should fall within the domain of the health sector and, in particular, that of mental health and psychiatry. Community psychiatry and referral levels: the rendering of ambulatory specialist psychiatric services on a community-centred basis should be regarded as a key strategy to make these services more accessible to users closer to where they live. Recovery and re-integration: a recovery framework such that personal recovery outcomes, among

  2. Interactive and independent associations between the socioeconomic and objective built environment on the neighbourhood level and individual health: a systematic review of multilevel studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Bolte, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The research question how contextual factors of neighbourhood environments influence individual health has gained increasing attention in public health research. Both socioeconomic neighbourhood characteristics and factors of the built environment play an important role for health and health-related behaviours. However, their reciprocal relationships have not been systematically reviewed so far. This systematic review aims to identify studies applying a multilevel modelling approach which consider both neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and factors of the objective built environment simultaneously in order to disentangle their independent and interactive effects on individual health. The three databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were systematically searched with terms for title and abstract screening. Grey literature was not included. Observational studies from USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Western European countries were considered which analysed simultaneously factors of neighbourhood SEP and the objective built environment with a multilevel modelling approach. Adjustment for individual SEP was a further inclusion criterion. Thirty-three studies were included in qualitative synthesis. Twenty-two studies showed an independent association between characteristics of neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual health outcomes or health-related behaviours. Twenty-one studies found cross-level or within-level interactions either between neighbourhood SEP and the built environment, or between neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual characteristics, such as sex, individual SEP or ethnicity. Due to the large variation of study design and heterogeneous reporting of results the identification of consistent findings was problematic and made quantitative analysis not possible. There is a need for studies considering multiple neighbourhood dimensions and applying multilevel modelling in order to clarify their causal

  3. Multi-level iteration optimization for diffusive critical calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunzhao; Wu Hongchun; Cao Liangzhi; Zheng Youqi

    2013-01-01

    In nuclear reactor core neutron diffusion calculation, there are usually at least three levels of iterations, namely the fission source iteration, the multi-group scattering source iteration and the within-group iteration. Unnecessary calculations occur if the inner iterations are converged extremely tight. But the convergence of the outer iteration may be affected if the inner ones are converged insufficiently tight. Thus, a common scheme suit for most of the problems was proposed in this work to automatically find the optimized settings. The basic idea is to optimize the relative error tolerance of the inner iteration based on the corresponding convergence rate of the outer iteration. Numerical results of a typical thermal neutron reactor core problem and a fast neutron reactor core problem demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm in the variational nodal method code NODAL with the Gauss-Seidel left preconditioned multi-group GMRES algorithm. The multi-level iteration optimization scheme reduces the number of multi-group and within-group iterations respectively by a factor of about 1-2 and 5-21. (authors)

  4. Multilevel selection in a resource-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2013-07-01

    In the present work we investigate the emergence of cooperation in a multilevel selection model that assumes limiting resources. Following the work by R. J. Requejo and J. Camacho [Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.038701 108, 038701 (2012)], the interaction among individuals is initially ruled by a prisoner's dilemma (PD) game. The payoff matrix may change, influenced by the resource availability, and hence may also evolve to a non-PD game. Furthermore, one assumes that the population is divided into groups, whose local dynamics is driven by the payoff matrix, whereas an intergroup competition results from the nonuniformity of the growth rate of groups. We study the probability that a single cooperator can invade and establish in a population initially dominated by defectors. Cooperation is strongly favored when group sizes are small. We observe the existence of a critical group size beyond which cooperation becomes counterselected. Although the critical size depends on the parameters of the model, it is seen that a saturation value for the critical group size is achieved. The results conform to the thought that the evolutionary history of life repeatedly involved transitions from smaller selective units to larger selective units.

  5. Cognitive synergy in groups and group-to-individual transfer of decision-making competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru L; Meslec, Nicoleta; Pluut, Helen; Lucas, Gerardus J M

    2015-01-01

    In a field study (148 participants organized in 38 groups) we tested the effect of group synergy and one's position in relation to the collaborative zone of proximal development (CZPD) on the change of individual decision-making competencies. We used two parallel sets of decision tasks reported in previous research to test rationality and we evaluated individual decision-making competencies in the pre-group and post-group conditions as well as group rationality (as an emergent group level phenomenon). We used multilevel modeling to analyze the data and the results showed that members of synergetic groups had a higher cognitive gain as compared to members of non-synergetic groups, while highly rational members (members above the CZPD) had lower cognitive gains compared to less rational group members (members situated below the CZPD). These insights extend the literature on group-to-individual transfer of learning and have important practical implications as they show that group dynamics influence the development of individual decision-making competencies.

  6. Cognitive synergy in groups and group-to-individual transfer of decision-making competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru L.; Meslec, Nicoleta; Pluut, Helen; Lucas, Gerardus J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In a field study (148 participants organized in 38 groups) we tested the effect of group synergy and one's position in relation to the collaborative zone of proximal development (CZPD) on the change of individual decision-making competencies. We used two parallel sets of decision tasks reported in previous research to test rationality and we evaluated individual decision-making competencies in the pre-group and post-group conditions as well as group rationality (as an emergent group level phenomenon). We used multilevel modeling to analyze the data and the results showed that members of synergetic groups had a higher cognitive gain as compared to members of non-synergetic groups, while highly rational members (members above the CZPD) had lower cognitive gains compared to less rational group members (members situated below the CZPD). These insights extend the literature on group-to-individual transfer of learning and have important practical implications as they show that group dynamics influence the development of individual decision-making competencies. PMID:26441750

  7. Multilevel Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2016-01-06

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks, among many others. In this work [6] we present a novel multilevel algorithm for the Chernoff-based hybrid tauleap algorithm. This variance reduction technique allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  8. Multilevel Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2015-01-07

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks, among many others. In this work [6] we present a novel multilevel algorithm for the Chernoff-based hybrid tauleap algorithm. This variance reduction technique allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  9. Multilevel Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2014-01-06

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks, among many others. In this work [6] we present a novel multilevel algorithm for the Chernoff-based hybrid tauleap algorithm. This variance reduction technique allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  10. An introduction to multilevel flow modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) is a methodology for functional modeling of industrial processes on several interconnected levels of means-end and part-whole abstractions. The basic idea of MFM is to represent an industrial plant as a system which provides the means required to serve purposes in i...... in detail by a water mill example. The overall reasoning capabilities of MFM and its basis in cause-effect relations are also explained. The appendix contains an overview of MFM concepts and their definitions....

  11. Multilevel converters for 10 MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Several promising multi-level converter configurations for 10 MW Wind Turbines both with direct drive and one-stage gear box drive using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) are proposed, designed and compared. Reliability is a crucial indicator for large scale wind power converters...... that the three-level and five-level H-bridge converter topologies both have potential to achieve improved thermal performances compared to the three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped converter topology in the wind power application....

  12. Power analysis of trials with multilevel data

    CERN Document Server

    Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Power Analysis of Trials with Multilevel Data covers using power and sample size calculations to design trials that involve nested data structures. The book gives a thorough overview of power analysis that details terminology and notation, outlines key concepts of statistical power and power analysis, and explains why they are necessary in trial design. It guides you in performing power calculations with hierarchical data, which enables more effective trial design.The authors are leading experts in the field who recognize that power analysis has attracted attention from applied statisticians i

  13. Multilevel Simulation of Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Picard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a general system-level simulation and testing methodology for reconfigurable System-on-Chips, starting from behavioral specifications of system activities to multilevel simulations of accelerated tasks running on the reconfigurable circuit. The system is based on a common objectoriented environment that offers valuable debugging and probing facilities as well as integrated testing features. Our system brings these benefits to the hardware simulation, while enforcing validation through characterization tests and interoperability through on-demand mainstream tools connections. This framework has been partially developed in the scope of the EU Morpheus project and is used to validate our contribution to the spatial design task.

  14. Multilevel resonance parameters of 241Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, L.W.; Todd, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The data previously reported by the authors on the neutron fission and capture cross sections of 241 Pu were simultaneously fit with the Adler formalism to obtain multilevel resonance parameters. The neutron energy range of the fit was 0.01 to 100 eV. The 241 Pu cross sections in the resonance region of neutron energies are complex, and the Adler parameters present an efficient method of representing these cross sections, which are important for plutonium-fueled reactors. The parameters represent the data to an accuracy within the quoted experimental errors. 5 figures, 2 tables

  15. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  16. Estimating the Multilevel Rasch Model: With the lme4 Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Doran

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Rasch estimation of the item and student parameters via marginal maximum likelihood, joint maximum likelihood or conditional maximum likelihood, assume individuals in clustered settings are uncorrelated and items within a test that share a grouping structure are also uncorrelated. These assumptions are often violated, particularly in educational testing situations, in which students are grouped into classrooms and many test items share a common grouping structure, such as a content strand or a reading passage. Consequently, one possible approach is to explicitly recognize the clustered nature of the data and directly incorporate random effects to account for the various dependencies. This article demonstrates how the multilevel Rasch model can be estimated using the functions in R for mixed-effects models with crossed or partially crossed random effects. We demonstrate how to model the following hierarchical data structures: a individuals clustered in similar settings (e.g., classrooms, schools, b items nested within a particular group (such as a content strand or a reading passage, and c how to estimate a teacher × content strand interaction.

  17. Transformational Leadership and Incivility: A Multilevel and Longitudinal Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Julien S; Gagné, Marylène; Morin, Alexandre J S; Mageau, Geneviève A

    2017-10-01

    This research examines group-level perceptions of transformational leadership (TFL) as negative longitudinal predictors of witnessing person-related (e.g., insults/affronts) and work-related (e.g., negation/intentional work overload) acts of incivility at work. Witnessing workplace incivility was also postulated to negatively predict employee need satisfaction. Data were collected among production employees in different Canadian plants of a major manufacturing company ( N = 344) who worked for 42 different managers ( M group size = 9.76). Two waves of data collection occurred 1 year apart. Results from multilevel analyses showed that workgroups where managers were perceived to engage in more frequent TFL behaviors reported reduced levels of person- and work-related incivility 1 year later. However, group-level incivility did not predict change in group-level need satisfaction 1 year later. At the individual level, results showed that witnessing higher levels of person-related incivility than one's colleagues predicted reduced satisfaction of the need for relatedness 1 year later. These longitudinal findings build upon previous literature by identifying TFL as a potential managerial strategy to reduce incivility in workgroups over time. They also show that mere exposure to workplace misbehavior still affects employees' adjustment, suggesting that every effort to reduce deviance in workplaces is worthwhile.

  18. An Original Stepwise Multilevel Logistic Regression Analysis of Discriminatory Accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, Juan; Wagner, Philippe; Ghith, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many multilevel logistic regression analyses of "neighbourhood and health" focus on interpreting measures of associations (e.g., odds ratio, OR). In contrast, multilevel analysis of variance is rarely considered. We propose an original stepwise analytical approach that disting...

  19. Multilevel- marketing v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Prudičová, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Graduation Theses concerns an analysis and evaluation, of how a multi-level marketing, functions in the Czech Republic. Explaining its ideals and principals, while it theoretically applies on a specific company, which is involved with multi-level marketing. The target is to introduce such system in an objective way and evaluate it in practice.

  20. Fast Multilevel Panel Method for Wind Turbine Rotor Flow Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Garrel, Arne; Venner, Cornelis H.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    2017-01-01

    A fast multilevel integral transform method has been developed that enables the rapid analysis of unsteady inviscid flows around wind turbines rotors. A low order panel method is used and the new multi-level multi-integration cluster (MLMIC) method reduces the computational complexity for

  1. Multilevel Higher-Order Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    In the social sciences, latent traits often have a hierarchical structure, and data can be sampled from multiple levels. Both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data can occur simultaneously. In this study, we developed a general class of item response theory models to accommodate both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data. The…

  2. Multi-level converter with auxiliary resonant-commutated pole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, F.R.; Duarte, J.L.; Groningen, van W.D.H.

    1998-01-01

    The family of multi-level power converters offers advantages for high-power, high-voltage systems. A multi-level nested-cell structure has the attractive feature of static and dynamic voltage sharing among the switches. This is achieved by using clamping capacitors (floating capacitors) rather than

  3. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.; Tang, X.Z.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of δf particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  4. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of delta f particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future

  5. Multilevel Modeling of the Performance Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Teixeira Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the identification of the role played by Industry on the relations between Corporate Strategic Factors and Performance, the hierarchical multilevel modeling method was adopted when measuring and analyzing the relations between the variables that comprise each level of analysis. The adequacy of the multilevel perspective to the study of the proposed relations was identified and the relative importance analysis point out to the lower relevance of industry as a moderator of the effects of corporate strategic factors on performance, when the latter was measured by means of return on assets, and that industry don‟t moderates the relations between corporate strategic factors and Tobin‟s Q. The main conclusions of the research are that the organizations choices in terms of corporate strategy presents a considerable influence and plays a key role on the determination of performance level, but that industry should be considered when analyzing the performance variation despite its role as a moderator or not of the relations between corporate strategic factors and performance.

  6. Pembuatan Sistem Informasi Multilevel Marketing (MLM) Berbasis Web Studi Kasus Pada PT. Mediderma Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartanto, Johny; Soedjianto, Felicia; Budhi, Gregorius Satia

    2005-01-01

    Multilevel Marketing (MLM) is a marketing method that sells the product directly to the customers. And this method has been booming in Indonesia at this moment. MLM itself is a directly selling system through marketing program conformed more than one level, where the trading partner can get selling commission and bonus from the result of selling goods or services those did by itself and the members of network inside their own group. PT. Mediderma Indonesia is a firm which imports consumer go...

  7. Multilevel Modelling with Spatial Interaction Effects with Application to an Emerging Land Market in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanpeng Dong

    Full Text Available This paper develops a methodology for extending multilevel modelling to incorporate spatial interaction effects. The motivation is that classic multilevel models are not specifically spatial. Lower level units may be nested into higher level ones based on a geographical hierarchy (or a membership structure--for example, census zones into regions but the actual locations of the units and the distances between them are not directly considered: what matters is the groupings but not how close together any two units are within those groupings. As a consequence, spatial interaction effects are neither modelled nor measured, confounding group effects (understood as some sort of contextual effect that acts 'top down' upon members of a group with proximity effects (some sort of joint dependency that emerges between neighbours. To deal with this, we incorporate spatial simultaneous autoregressive processes into both the outcome variable and the higher level residuals. To assess the performance of the proposed method and the classic multilevel model, a series of Monte Carlo simulations are conducted. The results show that the proposed method performs well in retrieving the true model parameters whereas the classic multilevel model provides biased and inefficient parameter estimation in the presence of spatial interactions. An important implication of the study is to be cautious of an apparent neighbourhood effect in terms of both its magnitude and statistical significance if spatial interaction effects at a lower level are suspected. Applying the new approach to a two-level land price data set for Beijing, China, we find significant spatial interactions at both the land parcel and district levels.

  8. The learner’s perspective in GP teaching practices with multi-level learners: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical students, junior hospital doctors on rotation and general practice (GP) registrars are undertaking their training in clinical general practices in increasing numbers in Australia. Some practices have four levels of learner. This study aimed to explore how multi-level teaching (also called vertical integration of GP education and training) is occurring in clinical general practice and the impact of such teaching on the learner. Methods A qualitative research methodology was used with face-to-face, semi-structured interviews of medical students, junior hospital doctors, GP registrars and GP teachers in eight training practices in the region that taught all levels of learners. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis was conducted using thematic analysis techniques aided by the use of the software package N-Vivo 9. Primary themes were identified and categorised by the co-investigators. Results 52 interviews were completed and analysed. Themes were identified relating to both the practice learning environment and teaching methods used. A practice environment where there is a strong teaching culture, enjoyment of learning, and flexible learning methods, as well as learning spaces and organised teaching arrangements, all contribute to positive learning from a learners’ perspective. Learners identified a number of innovative teaching methods and viewed them as positive. These included multi-level learner group tutorials in the practice, being taught by a team of teachers, including GP registrars and other health professionals, and access to a supernumerary GP supervisor (also termed “GP consultant teacher”). Other teaching methods that were viewed positively were parallel consulting, informal learning and rural hospital context integrated learning. Conclusions Vertical integration of GP education and training generally impacted positively on all levels of learner. This research has provided further evidence about the

  9. Long bone reconstruction using multilevel lengthening of bone defect fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzunov, Dmitry Y

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents experimental findings to substantiate the use of multilevel bone fragment lengthening for managing extensive long bone defects caused by diverse aetiologies and shows its clinical introduction which could provide a solution for the problem of reducing the total treatment time. Both experimental and clinical multilevel lengthening to bridge bone defect gaps was performed with the use of the Ilizarov method only. The experimental findings and clinical outcomes showed that multilevel defect fragment lengthening could provide sufficient bone formation and reduction of the total osteosynthesis time in one stage as compared to traditional Ilizarov bone transport. The method of multilevel regeneration enabled management of critical-size defects that measured on average 13.5 ± 0.7 cm in 78 patients. The experimental and clinical results proved the efficiency of the Ilizarov non-free multilevel bone plasty that can be recommended for practical use.

  10. Members' needs, intragroup conflict, and group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jinseok S; Choi, Jin Nam

    2014-05-01

    Focusing on "what people want in their group" as a critical antecedent of intragroup conflict, the present study theorizes and empirically investigates the relationships among the psychological needs of group members, intragroup conflict, and group performance. It attends to the within-group average and dispersion of members' psychological needs and examines the effects stemming from group composition of needs on multiple types of conflict. The analyses based on multisource data from 145 organizational teams revealed significant relationships between the groups' composition with respect to the members' need for achievement and task conflict, need for affiliation and relationship conflict, and need for power and status conflict. Some of these relationships were moderated by open communication among members. The analyses also demonstrated that when the 3 types of conflict were considered together, task conflict was a positive predictor of group performance, whereas relationship conflict was a negative predictor. The findings highlight the motivational aspects of intragroup conflict, revealing the multilevel dynamics of the psychological needs in social settings. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Multilevel survival analysis of health inequalities in life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlo Juan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health status of individuals is determined by multiple factors operating at both micro and macro levels and the interactive effects of them. Measures of health inequalities should reflect such determinants explicitly through sources of levels and combining mean differences at group levels and the variation of individuals, for the benefits of decision making and intervention planning. Measures derived recently from marginal models such as beta-binomial and frailty survival, address this issue to some extent, but are limited in handling data with complex structures. Beta-binomial models were also limited in relation to measuring inequalities of life expectancy (LE directly. Methods We propose a multilevel survival model analysis that estimates life expectancy based on survival time with censored data. The model explicitly disentangles total health inequalities in terms of variance components of life expectancy compared to the source of variation at the level of individuals in households and parishes and so on, and estimates group differences of inequalities at the same time. Adjusted distributions of life expectancy by gender and by household socioeconomic level are calculated. Relative and absolute health inequality indices are derived based on model estimates. The model based analysis is illustrated on a large Swedish cohort of 22,680 men and 26,474 women aged 65–69 in 1970 and followed up for 30 years. Model based inequality measures are compared to the conventional calculations. Results Much variation of life expectancy is observed at individual and household levels. Contextual effects at Parish and Municipality level are negligible. Women have longer life expectancy than men and lower inequality. There is marked inequality by the level of household socioeconomic status measured by the median life expectancy in each socio-economic group and the variation in life expectancy within each group. Conclusion Multilevel

  12. Under multilevel selection: "when shall you be neither spiteful nor envious?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, József; Csiszár, Villő; Móri, Tamás F

    2014-01-07

    In this paper, we study the egalitarianism-game in multilevel selection situation. The individuals form reproductive groups. In each group, an egalitarianism-game determines the number of juveniles of different phenotypes (spiteful, envious, neutral and donator). Before the juveniles form the next reproductive group, they have to survive either predators' attacks or a fight between two groups. We adopt the ESS definition of Maynard Smith to multilevel selection. Based on the "group size advantage" assumption (which claims that each juvenile's survival rate depends on the size of his own group, supposing that either the survival rate under predators' attacks is higher in larger groups, or in inter-group aggression usually the larger group wins) we found that when the survival probability has a massive effect on the average fitness, then "group fitness maximizing behavior" (in our case, either neutral or donator) has evolutionary advantage over "competitive behavior" (in our case, either spiteful or envious). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Who Is the Competent Physics Student? A Study of Students' Positions and Social Interaction in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students.…

  14. Institutional Disparities in the Cost Effectiveness of GCE A-Level Provision: A Multi-Level Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, A.

    1995-01-01

    Reanalyzes H. Thomas's 1980s data, which used teaching group as the unit of analysis and illuminated some institutional disparities in provision of General Certificate of Education (GCE) A-levels. Uses multilevel analysis to focus on individual students in a hierarchical framework. Among the study institutions, school sixth forms appear less…

  15. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers' perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the "Take Cover" communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  16. Model Predictive Control of Grid Connected Modular Multilevel Converter for Integration of Photovoltaic Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajizadeh, Amin; Shahirinia, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of an advanced control structure for integration of Photovoltaic Power Systems through Grid Connected-Modular Multilevel Converter (GC-MMC) is proposed in this paper. To achieve this goal, a non-linear model of MMC regarding considering of negative and positive sequence components has...... been presented. Then, due to existence of unbalance voltage faults in distribution grid, non-linarites and uncertainties in model, model predictive controller which is developed for GC-MMC. They are implemented based upon positive and negative components of voltage and current to mitigate the power...

  17. High-order UWB pulses scheme to generate multilevel modulation formats based on incoherent optical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2013-11-18

    We present a high-order UWB pulses generator based on a microwave photonic filter which provides a set of positive and negative samples by using the slicing of an incoherent optical source and the phase inversion in a Mach-Zehnder modulator. The simple scalability and high reconfigurability of the system permit a better accomplishment of the FCC requirements. Moreover, the proposed scheme permits an easy adaptation to pulse amplitude modulation, bi phase modulation, pulse shape modulation and pulse position modulation. The flexibility of the scheme for being adaptable to multilevel modulation formats permits to increase the transmission bit rate by using hybrid modulation formats.

  18. An introduction to multilevel flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) is a methodology for functional modeling of industrial processes on several interconnected levels of means-end and part-whole abstractions. The basic idea of MFM is to represent an industrial plant as a system which provides the means required to serve purposes in its environment. MFM has a primary focus on plant goals and functions and provide a methodological way of using those concepts to represent complex industrial plant. The paper gives a brief introduction to the historical development, introduces the concepts of MFM and presents the application of the concepts in detail by a water mill example. The overall reasoning capabilities of MFM and its basis in cause-effect relations are also explained. The appendix contains an overview of MFM concepts and their definitions. (author)

  19. Multilevel architectures for electronic document retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Tolliver, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, most classified computer systems run at the highest level of any of the data on the system, and all users must be cleared to this security level. This architecture precludes the use of low-level (pay and clearance) personnel for such tasks as data entry, and makes sharing data with other entities difficult. The government is trying to solve this problem by the introduction of multilevel-secure (MLS) computer systems. In addition, wherever possible, there is pressure to use commercial off-the-shelf software (COTS) to improve reliability, and to reduce purchase and maintenance costs. This paper presents two architectures for an MLS electronic document retrieval system using COTS products. Although the authors believe that the resulting systems represent a real advance in usability, scaleability, and scope, the disconnect between existing security rules and regulations and the rapidly-changing state of technology will make accreditation of such systems a challenge

  20. Multilevel Drift-Implicit Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Hammouda, Chiheb

    2016-01-06

    The dynamics of biochemical reactive systems with small copy numbers of one or more reactant molecules is dominated by stochastic effects. For those systems, discrete state-space and stochastic simulation approaches were proved to be more relevant than continuous state-space and deterministic ones. In systems characterized by having simultaneously fast and slowtimescales, the existing discrete space-state stochastic path simulation methods such as the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and the explicit tauleap method can be very slow. Implicit approximations were developed in the literature to improve numerical stability and provide efficient simulation algorithms for those systems. In this work, we propose an efficient Multilevel Monte Carlo method in the spirit of the work by Anderson and Higham (2012) that uses drift-implicit tau-leap approximations at levels where the explicit tauleap method is not applicable due to numerical stability issues. We present numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  1. Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we study the application of multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) approaches to numerical random homogenization. Our objective is to compute the expectation of some functionals of the homogenized coefficients, or of the homogenized solutions. This is accomplished within MLMC by considering different sizes of representative volumes (RVEs). Many inexpensive computations with the smallest RVE size are combined with fewer expensive computations performed on larger RVEs. Likewise, when it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison to a standard Monte Carlo method. Numerical results are presented for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional test-cases that illustrate the efficiency of the approach.

  2. Consequence Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Consequence reasoning is a major element for operation support system to assess the plant situations. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how Multilevel Flow Models can be used to reason about consequences of disturbances in complex engineering systems. MFM is a modelling methodology...... for representing process knowledge for complex systems. It represents the system by using means-end and part-whole decompositions, and describes not only the purposes and functions of the system but also the causal relations between them. Thus MFM is a tool for causal reasoning. The paper introduces MFM modelling...... syntax and gives detailed reasoning formulas for consequence reasoning. The reasoning formulas offers basis for developing rule-based system to perform consequence reasoning based on MFM, which can be used for alarm design, risk monitoring, and supervision and operation support system design....

  3. Converting multilevel nonclassicality into genuine multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, Bartosz; Piani, Marco; Cianciaruso, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R.; Streltsov, Alexander; Adesso, Gerardo

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing genuine quantum resources and determining operational rules for their manipulation are crucial steps to appraise possibilities and limitations of quantum technologies. Two such key resources are nonclassicality, manifested as quantum superposition between reference states of a single system, and entanglement, capturing quantum correlations among two or more subsystems. Here we present a general formalism for the conversion of nonclassicality into multipartite entanglement, showing that a faithful reversible transformation between the two resources is always possible within a precise resource-theoretic framework. Specializing to quantum coherence between the levels of a quantum system as an instance of nonclassicality, we introduce explicit protocols for such a mapping. We further show that the conversion relates multilevel coherence and multipartite entanglement not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively, restricting the amount of entanglement achievable in the process and in particular yielding an equality between the two resources when quantified by fidelity-based geometric measures.

  4. Multilevel library instruction for emerging nursing roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, B W; Fisher, C C

    1995-10-01

    As new nursing roles emerge that involve greater decision making than in the past, added responsibility for outcomes and cost control, and increased emphasis on primary care, the information-seeking skills needed by nurses change. A search of library and nursing literature indicates that there is little comprehensive library instruction covering all levels of nursing programs: undergraduate, returning registered nurses, and graduate students. The University of Florida is one of the few places that has such a multilevel, course-integrated curriculum in place for all entrants into the nursing program. Objectives have been developed for each stage of learning. The courses include instruction in the use of the online public access catalog, printed resources, and electronic databases. A library classroom equipped with the latest technology enables student interaction with electronic databases. This paper discusses the program and several methods used to evaluate it.

  5. Modular Multilevel Converters: Control and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martinez-Rodrigo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article is mainly oriented to the control and applications of modular multilevel converters (MMC. The main topologies of the switching modules are presented, for normal operation and for the elimination of DC faults. Methods to keep the capacitor voltage balanced are included. The voltage and current modulators, that are the most internal loops of control, are detailed. Voltage control and current control schemes are included which regulate DC link voltage and reactive power. The cases of unbalanced and distorted networks are analyzed, and schemes are proposed so that MMC contribute to improve the quality of the grid in these situations. The main applications in high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission along with other medium voltage (MV and low voltage (LV applications are included. Finally, the application to offshore wind farms is specifically analyzed.

  6. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrault, M.; Cances, E.; Hager, W.W.; Le Bris, C.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure

  7. The Emergence of Individual and Collective Leadership in Task Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna

    2015-01-01

    leader emergence in task groups as influenced by individual traits, states, and behaviors. However, current approaches to leadership in groups rely on functional achievement explanations of how collective leadership emerges, influenced by positive states and behaviors. Attention to ascription......This review synthesizes conceptual and empirical research on the emergence of individual and collective leadership in task groups, and proposes avenues for leadership research. To advance multilevel study of leadership emergence, including emergence of distributed and shared leadership, the paper...... reviews research on individual leader emergence, structured around two identified theoretical mechanisms—one of leadership achievement (i.e., based on functional behaviors) and another of leadership ascription (i.e., based on nominal characteristics). These approaches compete to elucidate individual...

  8. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order

  9. A comprehensive multimodal pain treatment reduces opioid consumption after multilevel spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Benny; Thomsen, Berit A

    2013-01-01

    and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) treatment protocol would improve pain treatment in this population. METHODS: A new regimen with acetaminophen, NSAIDs, gabapentin, S-ketamine, dexamethasone, ondansetron and epidural local anesthetic infusion or patient controlled analgesia with morphine, was introduced......PURPOSE: Major spine surgery with multilevel instrumentation is followed by large amount of opioid consumption, significant pain and difficult mobilization in a population of predominantly chronic pain patients. This case-control study investigated if a standardized comprehensive pain...... and dizziness on POD 1-6. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of patients scheduled for multilevel spine surgery, it was demonstrated that compared to a historic group of patients receiving usual care, a comprehensive and standardized multimodal pain and PONV protocol significantly reduced opioid consumption, improved...

  10. The Design Model of Multilevel Estimation Means for Students’ Competence Assessment at Technical Higher School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Shikhova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the research findings aimed at the developing the new quality testing technique for students assessment at Technical Higher School. The model of multilevel estimation means is provided for diagnosing the level of general cultural and professional competences of students doing a bachelor degree in technological fields. The model implies the integrative character of specialists training - the combination of both the psycho-pedagogic (invariable and engineering (variable components, as well as the qualimetric approach substantiating the system of students competence estimation and providing the most adequate assessment means. The principles of designing the multilevel estimation means are defined along with the methodology approaches to their implementation. For the reasonable selection of estimation means, the system of quality criteria is proposed by the authors, being based on the group expert assessment. The research findings can be used for designing the competence-oriented estimation means. 

  11. Serving the army as secretaries: intersectionality, multi-level contract and subjective experience of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomsky-Feder, Edna; Sasson-Levy, Orna

    2015-03-01

    With the growing elusiveness of the state apparatus in late modernity, military service is one of the last institutions to be clearly identified with the state, its ideologies and its policies. Therefore, negotiations between the military and its recruits produce acting subjects of citizenship with long-lasting consequences. Arguing that these negotiations are regulated by multi-level (civic, group, and individual) contracts, we explore the various meanings that these contracts obtain at the intersectionality of gender, class, and ethnicity; and examine how they shape the subjective experience of soldierhood and citizenship. More particularly, we analyse the meaning of military service in the retrospective life stories of Israeli Jewish women from various ethno-class backgrounds who served as army secretaries - a low-status, feminine gender-typed occupation within a hyper-masculine organization. Findings reveal that for women of the lower class, the organizing cultural schema of the multi-level contract is that of achieving respectability through military service, which means being included in the national collective. Conversely, for middle-class women, it is the sense of entitlement that shapes their contract with the military, which they expect to signify and maintain their privileged status. Thus, while for the lower class, the multi-level contract is about inclusion within the boundaries of the national collective, for the dominant groups, this contract is about reproducing social class hierarchies within national boundaries. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  12. Identifying Multilevel Barriers to Tobacco Intervention in Postdoctoral Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David A; Bruzelius, Emilie; Ward, Angela; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this mixed-methods study were to assess tobacco treatment behaviors among residents and faculty in dental specialty postdoctoral programs and to explore factors in training and practice related to tobacco treatment education. Surveys and focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of participants at three postdoctoral residency programs in New York City. Surveys assessed tobacco cessation training and behaviors. Focus groups explored barriers to implementing tobacco cessation treatment in educational settings. Data were collected between May and December 2013. Among the 160 faculty and residents identified as potentially eligible for the study, 60 were invited by program directors to participate, and 50 subsequently completed the survey and participated in a focus group (response rate of 31.3%). Survey results indicated high levels of asking patients about tobacco use and advising patients to quit. In contrast, specific tobacco cessation assistance and follow-up care occurred less frequently. There were statistically significant differences in tobacco cessation intervention across the specialties surveyed, but not between residents and faculty. Focus group comments were grouped into three broad areas: clinician factors, organizational support, and structural and contextual factors. Focus group results indicated that participants experienced significant organizational and structural barriers to learning about and providing tobacco treatment. Participants from each specialty indicated that multi-level barriers impeded their provision of evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions in postdoctoral educational settings. They suggested that didactic education should be reinforced by organizational- and systems-level changes to facilitate comprehensive tobacco education and effective cessation treatment in future dental practice.

  13. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  14. Integrity Based Access Control Model for Multilevel XML Document

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Fan; FENG Xue-bin; HUANO Zhi; ZHENG Ming-hui

    2008-01-01

    XML's increasing popularity highlights the security demand for XML documents. A mandatory access control model for XML document is presented on the basis of investigation of the function dependency of XML documents and discussion of the integrity properties of multilevel XML document. Then, the algorithms for decomposition/recovery multilevel XML document into/from single level document are given, and the manipulation rules for typical operations of XQuery and XUpdate: QUERY, INSERT,UPDATE, and REMOVE, are elaborated. The multilevel XML document access model can meet the requirement of sensitive information processing application.

  15. Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. In this methodology, ''multilevel'' refers to information models described at successful levels of abstraction that are tied together in such a way that reasoning is directed to the appropriate level as determined by the problem solving requirements. The concept of ''multiagent'' refers to the method of information processing within the multilevel model network; each model in the network is an independent information processor, i.e., an intelligent agent. 19 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B

    2015-07-09

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group's National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011-2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group's Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3-5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients-potassium, calcium and fiber-when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  17. Individual relocation decisions after tornadoes: a multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Nejat, Ali; Liang, Daan; Pei, Yaolin; Javid, Roxana J

    2018-04-01

    This study examines how multi-level factors affected individuals' relocation decisions after EF4 and EF5 (Enhanced Fujita Tornado Intensity Scale) tornadoes struck the United States in 2013. A telephone survey was conducted with 536 respondents, including oversampled older adults, one year after these two disaster events. Respondents' addresses were used to associate individual information with block group-level variables recorded by the American Community Survey. Logistic regression revealed that residential damage and homeownership are important predictors of relocation. There was also significant interaction between these two variables, indicating less difference between homeowners and renters at higher damage levels. Homeownership diminished the likelihood of relocation among younger respondents. Random effects logistic regression found that the percentage of homeownership and of higher income households in the community buffered the effect of damage on relocation; the percentage of older adults reduced the likelihood of this group relocating. The findings are assessed from the standpoint of age difference, policy implications, and social capital and vulnerability. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  18. Does school social capital modify socioeconomic inequality in mental health? A multi-level analysis in Danish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Bendtsen, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2015-09-01

    It seems that social capital in the neighbourhood has the potential to reduce socioeconomic differences in mental health among adolescents. Whether school social capital is a buffer in the association between socioeconomic position and mental health among adolescents remains uncertain. The aim of this study is therefore to examine if the association between socioeconomic position and emotional symptoms among adolescents is modified by school social capital. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Methodology Development Study 2012 provided data on 3549 adolescents aged 11-15 in two municipalities in Denmark. Trust in the school class was used as an indicator of school social capital. Prevalence of daily emotional symptoms in each socioeconomic group measured by parents' occupational class was calculated for each of the three categories of school classes: school classes with high trust, moderate trust and low trust. Multilevel logistic regression analyses with parents' occupational class as the independent variable and daily emotional symptoms as the dependent variable were conducted stratified by level of trust in the school class. The prevalence of emotional symptoms was higher among students in school classes with low trust (12.9%) compared to school classes with high trust (7.2%) (p social capital may reduce mental health problems and diminish socioeconomic inequality in mental health among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Position, swimming direction and group size of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus in the presence of a fast-ferry in the Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S. Aniceto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze group size, swimming direction and the orientation of fin whales relative to a fast ferry in the Bay of Biscay. Fin whale groups (≥3 individuals were on average closer to the vessel than single individuals and pairs (F1,114 = 4.94, p = 0.028 and were more often observed within a high-risk angle ahead of the ferry (binomial probability: p = 7.60 × 10−11. Also, small groups tend to swim in the opposite direction (heading of 180° of the ferry at the starboard side (binomial test: p = 6.86 × 10−5 and at the portside (binomial test: p = 0.0156. These findings provide valuable information to improve shipping management procedures in areas at high risk for collisions.

  20. Neoadjuvant letrozole for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer patients, a study from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Signe Korsgaard; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Rasmussen, Birgitte Bruun

    2018-01-01

    response and 55% of patients had partial pathological response. ER at 100%, ductal subtype, tumor size below 2 cm and lymph node-negative status was significantly associated with a better response to NET and malignancy grade 3 with a poorer response to NET. One patient progressed during treatment......INTRODUCTION: Neoadjuvant endocrine treatment (NET) is a low-toxicity approach to achieve operability in locally advanced breast cancer, and to facilitate breast conservation in early breast cancer, particular in patients with highly estrogen receptor (ER) positive and HER2-negative disease. Here......, we report the results obtained by neoadjuvant letrozole in patients with early breast cancer in a phase-II design. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 119 postmenopausal women with ER-positive, HER2-negative operable breast cancer were assigned to four months of neoadjuvant letrozole before definitive...

  1. Combination of micropreparative solution isoelectric focusing and high-performance liquid chromatography for differentiation of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Candida parapsilosis group from vascular catheter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vykydalová, Marie; Horká, Marie; Růžička, F.; Duša, Filip; Moravcová, Dana; Kahle, Vladislav; Šlais, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 812, Feb (2014), s. 243-249 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis group * biofilm * sonicate from vascular cathether * sIEF * HPLC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.513, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0230766

  2. Importance of Urine Dipstick in Evaluation of Young Febrile Infants With Positive Urine Culture: A Spanish Pediatric Emergency Research Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Roberto; Benito, Helvia; Mozun, Rebeca; Trujillo, Juan E; Merino, Pedro A; de la Torre, Mercedes; Gomez, Borja; Mintegi, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics define urinary tract infection (UTI) as the growth of greater than 50,000 ufc/mL of a single bacterium in a urine culture with a positive urine dipstick or with a urinalysis associated. Our objective was to evaluate the adequacy of this cutoff point for the diagnosis of UTI in young febrile infants. Subanalysis of a prospective multicenter study developed in RISeuP-SPERG Network between October 11 and September 13. To carry out the study, it was performed a comparison of analytical and microbiological characteristics of patients younger than 90 days with fever without focus, taking into account the results of urine dipstick and urine culture. Of a total of 3333 infants younger than 90 days with fever without focus which were included in the study, 538 were classified as UTI in accordance with American Academy of Pediatrics' guidelines. These patients were similar to those who had a positive urine dipstick and a urine culture yielding of 10,000 to 50,000 ufc/mL, and they were different from those who had a normal urine dipstick and a urine culture >50,000 ufc/mL, being focused on the isolated bacteria and blood biomarkers values. Forty-five invasive bacterial infections were diagnosed (5.9% of the 756 with a urine culture >10,000 ufc/mL). Half of the infants with a normal urine dipstick diagnosed with invasive bacterial infections were younger than 15 days. It might be inadequate to use a threshold of 50,000 cfu/mL to consider a urine culture as positive in young febrile infants given the fact that it would misdiagnose several UTIs.

  3. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively…

  4. Multilevel inverter switching controller using a field programmable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conducted simulation and measurement results verified and validated the switching controller design functionality and requirement. Keywords: multilevel inverter, switching controller; FPGA, general purpose processor (GPP);digital signal processing (DSP); IGBT; Verilog, power consumption; harmonic elimination (SHE).

  5. Pore-scale uncertainty quantification with multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo; Hoel, Haakon; Long, Quan; Tempone, Raul

    2014-01-01

    . Since there are no generic ways to parametrize the randomness in the porescale structures, Monte Carlo techniques are the most accessible to compute statistics. We propose a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) technique to reduce the computational cost

  6. Generalized latent variable modeling multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models

    CERN Document Server

    Skrondal, Anders; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2004-01-01

    This book unifies and extends latent variable models, including multilevel or generalized linear mixed models, longitudinal or panel models, item response or factor models, latent class or finite mixture models, and structural equation models.

  7. Multilevel Image Segmentation Based on an Improved Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel image segmentation is time-consuming and involves large computation. The firefly algorithm has been applied to enhancing the efficiency of multilevel image segmentation. However, in some cases, firefly algorithm is easily trapped into local optima. In this paper, an improved firefly algorithm (IFA is proposed to search multilevel thresholds. In IFA, in order to help fireflies escape from local optima and accelerate the convergence, two strategies (i.e., diversity enhancing strategy with Cauchy mutation and neighborhood strategy are proposed and adaptively chosen according to different stagnation stations. The proposed IFA is compared with three benchmark optimal algorithms, that is, Darwinian particle swarm optimization, hybrid differential evolution optimization, and firefly algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently segment multilevel images and obtain better performance than the other three methods.

  8. Multi-level governance in EU climate law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses the multi-level governance in EU climate law; it connects the international arena, with EU and national decision-making and relates climate change considerations to competitiveness concerns.

  9. Hybrid dual gate ferroelectric memory for multilevel information storage

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report hybrid organic/inorganic ferroelectric memory with multilevel information storage using transparent p-type SnO semiconductor and ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymer. The dual gate devices include a top ferroelectric field

  10. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2015-01-01

    informative data about the model parameters. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that it naturally involves nested integration over a possibly high dimensional domain. We use the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method

  11. Molecular phylogeny of edge hill virus supports its position in the yellow Fever virus group and identifies a new genetic variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Joanne; Poidinger, Michael; Mackenzie, John S; Russell, Richard C; Doggett, Stephen; Broom, Annette K; Phillips, Debra; Potamski, Joseph; Gard, Geoff; Whelan, Peter; Weir, Richard; Young, Paul R; Gendle, Debra; Maher, Sheryl; Barnard, Ross T; Hall, Roy A

    2010-06-15

    Edge Hill virus (EHV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus isolated throughout Australia during mosquito surveillance programs. While not posing an immediate threat to the human population, EHV is a taxonomically interesting flavivirus since it remains the only member of the yellow fever virus (YFV) sub-group to be detected within Australia. Here we present both an antigenic and genetic investigation of collected isolates, and confirm taxonomic classification of the virus within the YFV-group. Isolates were not clustered based on geographical origin or time of isolation, suggesting that minimal genetic evolution of EHV has occurred over geographic distance or time within the EHV cluster. However, two isolates showed significant differences in antigenic reactivity patterns, and had a much larger divergence from the EHV prototype (19% nucleotide and 6% amino acid divergence), indicating a distinct subtype or variant within the EHV subgroup.

  12. Molecular Phylogeny of Edge Hill Virus Supports its Position in the Yellow Fever Virus Group and Identifies a New Genetic Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Macdonald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Edge Hill virus (EHV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus isolated throughout Australia during mosquito surveillance programs. While not posing an immediate threat to the human population, EHV is a taxonomically interesting flavivirus since it remains the only member of the yellow fever virus (YFV sub-group to be detected within Australia. Here we present both an antigenic and genetic investigation of collected isolates, and confirm taxonomic classification of the virus within the YFV-group. Isolates were not clustered based on geographical origin or time of isolation, suggesting that minimal genetic evolution of EHV has occurred over geographic distance or time within the EHV cluster. However, two isolates showed significant differences in antigenic reactivity patterns, and had a much larger divergence from the EHV prototype (19% nucleotide and 6% amino acid divergence, indicating a distinct subtype or variant within the EHV subgroup.

  13. Position statement: hypoglycemia management in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita-Raya, Pedro; Reyes-García, Rebeca; Moreno-Pérez, Óscar; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; Merino-Torres, Juan Francisco; Gorgojo-Martínez, Juan José; Jódar-Gimeno, Esteban; Escalada San Martín, Javier; Gargallo-Fernández, Manuel; Soto-Gonzalez, Alfonso; González Pérez de Villar, Noemí; Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Bellido Guerrero, Diego; Botella-Serrano, Marta; Gómez-Peralta, Fernando; López de la Torre Casares, Martín

    2013-11-01

    To provide practical recommendations for evaluation and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Members of the Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition. Recommendations were formulated according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (PubMed). Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 15 February 2013 were included. For recommendations about drugs only those approved by the European Medicines Agency were included. After formulation of recommendations, they were discussed by the Working Group. The document provides evidence-based practical recommendations for evaluation and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, A.; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 100, 07-08 (2014), s. 57-67 ISSN 0094-5765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Mars -500 * Group isolation * Emotion * Emotion regulation * Mood Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.122, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2014.03.016

  15. Implementation of the 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement in contact and collision sports: a joint position statement from 11 national and international sports organisations.

    OpenAIRE

    Patricios, JS; Ardern, CL; Hislop, MD; Aubry, M; Bloomfield, P; Broderick, C; Clifton, P; Echemendia, RJ; Ellenbogen, RG; Falvey, ÉC; Fuller, GW; Grand, J; Hack, D; Harcourt, PR; Hughes, D

    2018-01-01

    The 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement provides a global summary of best practice in concussion prevention, diagnosis and management, underpinned by systematic reviews and expert consensus. Due to their different settings and rules, individual sports need to adapt concussion guidelines according to their specific regulatory environment. At the same time, consistent application of the Berlin Consensus Statement's themes across sporting codes is likely to facilitate super...

  16. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, A.; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 100, 07-08 (2014), s. 57-67 ISSN 0094-5765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Mars-500 * Group isolation * Emotion * Emotion regulation * Mood Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.122, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2014.03.016

  17. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  18. Immunocapture of CD133-positive cells from human cancer cell lines by using monodisperse magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres containing amino groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuan, Wei-Chih [Department of Chemical Engineering, Systems Biology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, National Chung Cheng University, Minhisung 621, Taiwan (China); Horák, Daniel, E-mail: horak@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Plichta, Zdeněk [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Lee, Wen-Chien [Department of Chemical Engineering, Systems Biology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, National Chung Cheng University, Minhisung 621, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-based macroporous microspheres with an average particle size of 4.2 μm were prepared using a modified multi-step swelling polymerization method and by introducing amino functionality on their surfaces. Antibody molecules were oxidized on their carbohydrate moieties and bound to the amino-containing magnetic microspheres via a site-directed procedure. CD133-positive cells could be effectively captured from human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HCT116, MCF7, and IMR-32) by using magnetic microspheres conjugated to an anti-human CD133 antibody. After further culture, the immunocaptured CD133-expressing cells from IMR-32 proliferated and gradually detached from the magnetic microspheres. Flow-cytometric analysis confirmed the enrichment of CD133-expressing cells by using the antibody-bound magnetic microspheres. Such microspheres suitable for immunocapture are very promising for cancer diagnosis because the CD133-expressing cells in cancer cell lines have been suggested to be cancer stem cells. - Highlights: • Multi-step swelling polymerization produced poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres. • Anti-human CD133 antibodies were bound to the amino-containing magnetic microspheres. • CD133-positive cells were effectively captured from human cancer cell lines. • Immunocaptured CD133-expressing cells proliferated and were detached from microspheres. • Enrichment of CD133-expressing cells was confirmed by flow-cytometric analysis.

  19. Analog Filter Design Rules for Multilevel Polybinary Signaling Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Cavallero, Francisco javier Vaquero; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    Polybinary signaling has gained attention lately due to its generation simplicity and reduced spectral usage. This paper presents a study on the requirements for analog filters for the generation of multilevel polybinary signals with three to nine levels.......Polybinary signaling has gained attention lately due to its generation simplicity and reduced spectral usage. This paper presents a study on the requirements for analog filters for the generation of multilevel polybinary signals with three to nine levels....

  20. Asynchronous monitoring of the quality of multilevel optical PAM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuzdak, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper, there is analyzed the signal quality assessment method based on delay tap asynchronous sampling, both for binary and multilevel PAM signals. The obtained multilevel phase diagrams are far more complicated than binary ones. The phase diagrams are affected by the signal distortions but it is difficult to relate reliably the phase diagram form to the distortion type and its influence on the signal quality.

  1. Optimal Multi-Level Lot Sizing for Requirements Planning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Earle Steinberg; H. Albert Napier

    1980-01-01

    The wide spread use of advanced information systems such as Material Requirements Planning (MRP) has significantly altered the practice of dependent demand inventory management. Recent research has focused on development of multi-level lot sizing heuristics for such systems. In this paper, we develop an optimal procedure for the multi-period, multi-product, multi-level lot sizing problem by modeling the system as a constrained generalized network with fixed charge arcs and side constraints. T...

  2. The Psychosocial Work Environment, Employee Mental Health and Organizational Interventions: Improving Research and Practice by Taking a Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Angela; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Biron, Caroline; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-08-01

    Although there have been several calls for incorporating multiple levels of analysis in employee health and well-being research, studies examining the interplay between individual, workgroup, organizational and broader societal factors in relation to employee mental health outcomes remain an exception rather than the norm. At the same time, organizational intervention research and practice also tends to be limited by a single-level focus, omitting potentially important influences at multiple levels of analysis. The aims of this conceptual paper are to help progress our understanding of work-related determinants of employee mental health by the following: (1) providing a rationale for routine multilevel assessment of the psychosocial work environment; (2) discussing how a multilevel perspective can improve related organizational interventions; and (3) highlighting key theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to these aims. We present five recommendations for future research, relating to using appropriate multilevel research designs, justifying group-level constructs, developing group-level measures, expanding investigations to the organizational level and developing multilevel approaches to intervention design, implementation and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Multi-level methods for solving multigroup transport eigenvalue problems in 1D slab geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anistratov, D. Y.; Gol'din, V. Y.

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for solving eigenvalue problems for the multigroup neutron transport equation in 1D slab geometry is presented. In this paper we formulate and compare different variants of nonlinear multi-level iteration methods. They are defined by means of multigroup and effective one-group low-order quasi diffusion (LOQD) equations. We analyze the effects of utilization of the effective one-group LOQD problem for estimating the eigenvalue. We present numerical results to demonstrate the performance of the iteration algorithms in different types of reactor-physics problems. (authors)

  4. Multi-level nonlinear diffusion acceleration method for multigroup transport k-Eigenvalue problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) method is an efficient and flexible transport iterative scheme for solving reactor-physics problems. This paper presents a fast iterative algorithm for solving multigroup neutron transport eigenvalue problems in 1D slab geometry. The proposed method is defined by a multi-level system of equations that includes multigroup and effective one-group low-order NDA equations. The Eigenvalue is evaluated in the exact projected solution space of smallest dimensionality, namely, by solving the effective one- group eigenvalue transport problem. Numerical results that illustrate performance of the new algorithm are demonstrated. (author)

  5. Overall survival benefit for sequential doxorubicin-docetaxel compared with concurrent doxorubicin and docetaxel in node-positive breast cancer--8-year results of the Breast International Group 02-98 phase III trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oakman, C; Francis, P A; Crown, J

    2013-01-01

    Background In women with node-positive breast cancer, the Breast International Group (BIG) 02-98 tested the incorporation of docetaxel (Taxotere) into doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-based chemotherapy, and compared sequential and concurrent docetaxel. At 5 years, there was a trend for improved disease...

  6. The overtime effect of social position on dental caries experience in a group of old-aged Danes born in 1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Ulla; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze the life-course effects of education, occupation, and income at ages 70, 75, 80, and 85 years, respectively, on dental caries experience of 85-year-olds. METHODS: The present study includes follow-up data from a population-based study, which...... comprised a sample of 176 individuals aged 85 years. Data on social position were collected at ages 70, 75, 80, and 85 years by means of structured personal interviews. Clinical oral health examinations were conducted to obtain data on dental caries at age 85. Dental caries was recorded at tooth surface...... level and caries experience was expressed by the DMF Index: the decayed tooth surfaces (D component), missing tooth surfaces (M component), and filled tooth surfaces (F component). RESULTS: The participants in the present study demonstrated a high level of dental caries experience; the prevalence rate...

  7. Using positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and H/D exchange study phosphoryl group transfer reactions involved in amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Mei-Juan; Zhang, He; Liao, Chao; Qiu, Ying-Kun; Fang, Hua; Zheng, Zhen-Yu; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Wu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESI-MS n , HRMS and H/D exchange were used. • The fragmentation pathways of NPAAE-BFA in ESI-MS n were described. • Fragment ions involved in phosphorus group’s rearrangement reactions were observed. • Two rearrangement mechanisms about phosphorylation–dephosphorylation were proposed. - Abstract: As mini-chemical models, amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A (compounds 2a–2d) were synthesized and investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in combination with H/D exchange. To further confirm the fragments’s structures, off-line Fourier transform resonance tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS/MS) was also performed. The fragmentation rules of compounds 2a–2d have been summarized and the plausible schemes for the fragmentation pathways were proposed. In this study, one dephosphorylated ion and two phosphorylated ions were observed in ESI-MS 2 spectra of [M + Na] + ions for compounds 2a–2d. The possible mechanisms about phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were proposed and confirmed by H/D exchange. For the “dephosphorylation” rearrangement, a nitrogen atom was migrated from the phosphoryl group to the carbon atom of Brefeldin A’s backbone with losing a molecule of C 3 H 7 PO 3 (122 Da). For the “phosphorylation” rearrangement, an oxygen atom of one phosphoryl group attacked the sideward phosphorus atom to form a nine-member ring intermediate, then two steps of C-H covalent bond cleavage with consecutive migration of hydrogen atom to lose a molecule of C 16 H 20 O 2 (244 Da). The two proposed rearrangement mechanisms about phosphoryl group transfer might be valuable for the structure analysis of other analogs and provide insights into elucidating the dynamic process of the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation of proteins

  8. Using positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and H/D exchange study phosphoryl group transfer reactions involved in amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Mei-Juan; Zhang, He; Liao, Chao; Qiu, Ying-Kun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); Fang, Hua [The Third Institute of Oceanography of the State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Yu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Gao, Xiang [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); Zhao, Yu-Fen [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wu, Zhen, E-mail: wuzhen@xmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESI-MS{sup n}, HRMS and H/D exchange were used. • The fragmentation pathways of NPAAE-BFA in ESI-MS{sup n} were described. • Fragment ions involved in phosphorus group’s rearrangement reactions were observed. • Two rearrangement mechanisms about phosphorylation–dephosphorylation were proposed. - Abstract: As mini-chemical models, amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A (compounds 2a–2d) were synthesized and investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in combination with H/D exchange. To further confirm the fragments’s structures, off-line Fourier transform resonance tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS/MS) was also performed. The fragmentation rules of compounds 2a–2d have been summarized and the plausible schemes for the fragmentation pathways were proposed. In this study, one dephosphorylated ion and two phosphorylated ions were observed in ESI-MS{sup 2} spectra of [M + Na]{sup +} ions for compounds 2a–2d. The possible mechanisms about phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were proposed and confirmed by H/D exchange. For the “dephosphorylation” rearrangement, a nitrogen atom was migrated from the phosphoryl group to the carbon atom of Brefeldin A’s backbone with losing a molecule of C{sub 3}H{sub 7}PO{sub 3} (122 Da). For the “phosphorylation” rearrangement, an oxygen atom of one phosphoryl group attacked the sideward phosphorus atom to form a nine-member ring intermediate, then two steps of C-H covalent bond cleavage with consecutive migration of hydrogen atom to lose a molecule of C{sub 16}H{sub 20}O{sub 2} (244 Da). The two proposed rearrangement mechanisms about phosphoryl group transfer might be valuable for the structure analysis of other analogs and provide insights into elucidating the dynamic process of the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation of proteins.

  9. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Comerford, Kevin B.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during...

  10. The role of supervisor emotional support on individual job satisfaction: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Sabine; Galletta, Maura

    2017-02-01

    Supervisor emotional support is a strong determinant of job satisfaction. There is no study examining the effect of supervisor emotional support at the group level on job satisfaction. Multilevel statistical techniques can help disentangle the effects of subjective assessments from those of group factors. The study's aim was to examine the moderating role of supervisor emotional support (group-level variable) on the relationship between work engagement and job satisfaction (individual-level variables). A cross-sectional study was performed in 39units from three Belgian hospitals. A total of 323 nurses completed a self-reported questionnaire. We carried out a multilevel analysis by using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. The results showed that the cross-level interaction was significant. Hence, at individual-level, the nurses with high levels of work engagement showed high levels of job satisfaction and this relationship was stronger when supervisor emotional support at group-level was high. Contextual differences among groups had an impact on the form of the work engagement-job satisfaction relationship. This relationship between work engagement and job satisfaction is an individual and group level phenomenon. Ways to enhance emotional supervisor support include training supervisors in providing support and enhancing communication between nurses and supervisors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiscale Multilevel Approach to Solution of Nanotechnology Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a multiscale multilevel approach for the solution of nanotechnology problems on supercomputer systems. The approach uses the combination of continuum mechanics models and the Newton dynamics for individual particles. This combination includes three scale levels: macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic. For gas–metal technical systems the following models are used. The quasihydrodynamic system of equations is used as a mathematical model at the macrolevel for gas and solid states. The system of Newton equations is used as a mathematical model at the mesoand microlevels; it is written for nanoparticles of the medium and larger particles moving in the medium. The numerical implementation of the approach is based on the method of splitting into physical processes. The quasihydrodynamic equations are solved by the finite volume method on grids of different types. The Newton equations of motion are solved by Verlet integration in each cell of the grid independently or in groups of connected cells. In the framework of the general methodology, four classes of algorithms and methods of their parallelization are provided. The parallelization uses the principles of geometric parallelism and the efficient partitioning of the computational domain. A special dynamic algorithm is used for load balancing the solvers. The testing of the developed approach was made by the example of the nitrogen outflow from a balloon with high pressure to a vacuum chamber through a micronozzle and a microchannel. The obtained results confirm the high efficiency of the developed methodology.

  12. Developing Multi-Level Institutions from Top-Down Ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Dowsley

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature contains numerous examples of the failures of both top-down and bottom-up common pool resource management frameworks. Many authors agree that management regimes instead need to utilize a multi-level governance approach to meet diverse objectives in management. However, many currently operating systems do not have that history. This paper explores the conversion of ancestral top-down regimes to complex systems involving multiple scales, levels and objectives through the management of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus in its five range countries. The less successful polar bear management systems continue to struggle with the challenges of developing institutions with the capacity to learn and change, addressing multiple objectives while recognizing the conservation backbone to management, and matching the institutional scale with biophysical, economic and social scales. The comparatively successful institutions incorporate these features, but reveal on-going problems with vertical links that are partially dealt with through the creation of links to other groups.

  13. Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    We intended to determine (1) whether stress from employment disadvantages led to increased frequency of heavy drinking and (2) whether race had a role in the relationship between such disadvantages and heavy drinking. Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. Our study employed data from 11 particular years, during which the survey included items measuring respondents' heavy drinking. Our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. Both of our hypotheses were supported by results from multilevel mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of three employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. Results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages' effects on drinking were stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites. That worsening employment disadvantages have worse effects on minority groups' heavy drinking (compared to Whites) probably contributes to the racial health disparities in our nation. Policies and programs addressing such disparities are especially important during economic downturns.

  14. Multiscale Multilevel Approach to Solution of Nanotechnology Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Sergey; Podryga, Viktoriia

    2018-02-01

    The paper is devoted to a multiscale multilevel approach for the solution of nanotechnology problems on supercomputer systems. The approach uses the combination of continuum mechanics models and the Newton dynamics for individual particles. This combination includes three scale levels: macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic. For gas-metal technical systems the following models are used. The quasihydrodynamic system of equations is used as a mathematical model at the macrolevel for gas and solid states. The system of Newton equations is used as a mathematical model at the mesoand microlevels; it is written for nanoparticles of the medium and larger particles moving in the medium. The numerical implementation of the approach is based on the method of splitting into physical processes. The quasihydrodynamic equations are solved by the finite volume method on grids of different types. The Newton equations of motion are solved by Verlet integration in each cell of the grid independently or in groups of connected cells. In the framework of the general methodology, four classes of algorithms and methods of their parallelization are provided. The parallelization uses the principles of geometric parallelism and the efficient partitioning of the computational domain. A special dynamic algorithm is used for load balancing the solvers. The testing of the developed approach was made by the example of the nitrogen outflow from a balloon with high pressure to a vacuum chamber through a micronozzle and a microchannel. The obtained results confirm the high efficiency of the developed methodology.

  15. An innovative discrete multilevel sampler design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvin, B.K.; De Clercq, P.J.; Taylor, B.B.; Mauro, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    An innovative, small-diameter PVC discrete multilevel sampler (DMLS) was designed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to provide low-cost, discrete groundwater samples from shallow aquifers. When combined with appropriately-sized direct push soil sampling technologies, high resolution aquifer characterization can be achieved during initial site assessment or remediation monitoring activities. The sampler is constructed from 1-inch diameter PVC well materials, containing polyethylene tubing threaded through PVC disks. Self-expanding annular and internal bentonite seals were developed which isolate discrete sampling zones. The DMLS design allows customization of sampling and isolation zone lengths to suit site-specific goals. Installation of the DMLS is achieved using a temporary, expendable-tipped casting driven by direct push methods. This technique minimizes mobilization costs, site and soil column disturbances, and allows rapid installation in areas of limited overhead clearance. Successful pilot installations of the DMLS prototype have been made at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site and a diesel fuel spill site. Analysis of groundwater samples from these sites, using relative compound distributions and contaminant concentration profiling, confirmed that representative discrete samples were collected. This design provides both economical and versatile groundwater monitoring during all phases of site assessment and remediation

  16. Multilevel hybrid Chernoff tau-leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2015-04-08

    In this work, we extend the hybrid Chernoff tau-leap method to the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) setting. Inspired by the work of Anderson and Higham on the tau-leap MLMC method with uniform time steps, we develop a novel algorithm that is able to couple two hybrid Chernoff tau-leap paths at different levels. Using dual-weighted residual expansion techniques, we also develop a new way to estimate the variance of the difference of two consecutive levels and the bias. This is crucial because the computational work required to stabilize the coefficient of variation of the sample estimators of both quantities is often unaffordable for the deepest levels of the MLMC hierarchy. Our method bounds the global computational error to be below a prescribed tolerance, TOL, within a given confidence level. This is achieved with nearly optimal computational work. Indeed, the computational complexity of our method is of order O(TOL−2), the same as with an exact method, but with a smaller constant. Our numerical examples show substantial gains with respect to the previous single-level approach and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm.

  17. Multilevel Workflow System in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Golubkov, D; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Vaniachine, A

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is scaling up Big Data processing for the next LHC run using a multilevel workflow system comprised of many layers. In Big Data processing ATLAS deals with datasets, not individual files. Similarly a task (comprised of many jobs) has become a unit of the ATLAS workflow in distributed computing, with about 0.8M tasks processed per year. In order to manage the diversity of LHC physics (exceeding 35K physics samples per year), the individual data processing tasks are organized into workflows. For example, the Monte Carlo workflow is composed of many steps: generate or configure hard-processes, hadronize signal and minimum-bias (pileup) events, simulate energy deposition in the ATLAS detector, digitize electronics response, simulate triggers, reconstruct data, convert the reconstructed data into ROOT ntuples for physics analysis, etc. Outputs are merged and/or filtered as necessary to optimize the chain. The bi-level workflow manager - ProdSys2 - generates actual workflow tasks and their jobs...

  18. Multilevel hybrid Chernoff tau-leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro; Tempone, Raul; Vilanova, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we extend the hybrid Chernoff tau-leap method to the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) setting. Inspired by the work of Anderson and Higham on the tau-leap MLMC method with uniform time steps, we develop a novel algorithm that is able to couple two hybrid Chernoff tau-leap paths at different levels. Using dual-weighted residual expansion techniques, we also develop a new way to estimate the variance of the difference of two consecutive levels and the bias. This is crucial because the computational work required to stabilize the coefficient of variation of the sample estimators of both quantities is often unaffordable for the deepest levels of the MLMC hierarchy. Our method bounds the global computational error to be below a prescribed tolerance, TOL, within a given confidence level. This is achieved with nearly optimal computational work. Indeed, the computational complexity of our method is of order O(TOL−2), the same as with an exact method, but with a smaller constant. Our numerical examples show substantial gains with respect to the previous single-level approach and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm.

  19. Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    KAUST Repository

    Serban, Nicoleta

    2013-10-16

    We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements.

  20. Multilevel weighted least squares polynomial approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Haji-Ali, Abdul-Lateef

    2017-06-30

    Weighted least squares polynomial approximation uses random samples to determine projections of functions onto spaces of polynomials. It has been shown that, using an optimal distribution of sample locations, the number of samples required to achieve quasi-optimal approximation in a given polynomial subspace scales, up to a logarithmic factor, linearly in the dimension of this space. However, in many applications, the computation of samples includes a numerical discretization error. Thus, obtaining polynomial approximations with a single level method can become prohibitively expensive, as it requires a sufficiently large number of samples, each computed with a sufficiently small discretization error. As a solution to this problem, we propose a multilevel method that utilizes samples computed with different accuracies and is able to match the accuracy of single-level approximations with reduced computational cost. We derive complexity bounds under certain assumptions about polynomial approximability and sample work. Furthermore, we propose an adaptive algorithm for situations where such assumptions cannot be verified a priori. Finally, we provide an efficient algorithm for the sampling from optimal distributions and an analysis of computationally favorable alternative distributions. Numerical experiments underscore the practical applicability of our method.

  1. Implementation of the 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement in contact and collision sports: a joint position statement from 11 national and international sports organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricios, Jon S; Hislop, Michael David; Aubry, Mark; Bloomfield, Paul; Broderick, Carolyn; Clifton, Patrick; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Falvey, Éanna Cian; Grand, Julie; Hack, Dallas; Harcourt, Peter Rex; Hughes, David; McGuirk, Nathan; Meeuwisse, Willem; Miller, Jeffrey; Parsons, John T; Richiger, Simona; Sills, Allen; Moran, Kevin B; Shute, Jenny; Raftery, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement provides a global summary of best practice in concussion prevention, diagnosis and management, underpinned by systematic reviews and expert consensus. Due to their different settings and rules, individual sports need to adapt concussion guidelines according to their specific regulatory environment. At the same time, consistent application of the Berlin Consensus Statement’s themes across sporting codes is likely to facilitate superior and uniform diagnosis and management, improve concussion education and highlight collaborative research opportunities. This document summarises the approaches discussed by medical representatives from the governing bodies of 10 different contact and collision sports in Dublin, Ireland in July 2017. Those sports are: American football, Australian football, basketball, cricket, equestrian sports, football/soccer, ice hockey, rugby league, rugby union and skiing. This document had been endorsed by 11 sport governing bodies/national federations at the time of being published. PMID:29500252

  2. Paraneoplastic itch: an expert position statement from the Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Forum on the Study of Itch (IFSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Elke; Weiss, Melanie; Mettang, Thomas; Yosipovitch, Gil; Zylicz, Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    In clinical practice, the term "paraneoplastic itch" is used to describe itch in patients with cancer. Patients with hematological or solid tumor malignancies can be affected. In general, paraneoplastic itch is considered a rare disorder. However, paraneoplastic itch in hematological malignancies such as polycythemia vera and lymphoma are relatively frequent while other forms of paraneoplastic itch are in fact extremely rare. The true frequency of this symptom is unclear, epidemiological data in this field are limited. Itch in malignant disease may additionally impair patients' quality of life. A population-based cohort study showed that chronic itch without concomitant skin changes is a risk factor for having undiagnosed hematologic and bile duct malignancies. Paraneoplastic itch is rather resistant to treatment. In 2012, an interdisciplinary interest group of physicians and researchers was founded, aiming to generate a clear definition of paraneoplastic itch. In this paper we briefly review the current knowledge and aim to define what can be summarized under the term "paraneoplastic itch".

  3. Identifying Neurocognitive Decline at 36 Months among HIV-Positive Participants in the CHARTER Cohort Using Group-Based Trajectory Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Brouillette

    Full Text Available While HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment remains common despite the widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART, there have been relatively few studies investigating the trajectories of neurocognitive change in longitudinal NeuroAIDS studies.To estimate the magnitude and pattern of neurocognitive change over the first 3 years of follow-up using Group-Based Trajectory Analysis (GBTA applied to participants in the longitudinal arm of the CHARTER cohort.The study population consisted of 701 CHARTER participants who underwent neuropsychological (NP testing on at least 2 occasions. Raw test scores on 15 NP measures were modeled using GBTA. Each trajectory was categorized as stable, improved or declined, according to two different criteria for change (whether the magnitude of the estimated change at 36 months differed ≥ 0.5 standard deviations from baseline value or changed by > the standard error of measurement estimated at times 1 and 2. Individuals who declined on one or more NP measures were categorized as decliners.Overall, 111 individuals (15.8% declined on at least one NP test over 36 months, with the vast majority showing decline on a single NP test (93/111-83.8%. The posterior probability of group assignment was high in most participants (71% after only 2 sessions, and in the overwhelming majority of those with 3+ sessions. Heterogeneity of trajectories was the norm rather than the exception. Individuals who declined had, on average, worse baseline NP performance on every test, were older, had a longer duration of HIV infection and more follow-up sessions.The present study identified heterogeneous trajectories over 3 years across 15 NP raw test scores using GBTA. Cognitive decline was observed in only a small subset of this study cohort. Decliners had demographics and HIV characteristics that have been previously associated with cognitive decline, suggesting clinical validity for the method.

  4. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in patients with HPV positive DNA testing and correlation with disease progression by age group: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erika F; Reynolds, Jordan P; Jenkins, Sarah M; Winter, Stephanie M; Henry, Michael R; Nassar, Aziza

    2012-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a broad diagnostic category that could be attributed to human papillomavirus infection (HPV), malignant neoplasia and reactive conditions. We evaluated our institutional experience with ASC-US in women who are positive for high risk HPV (HRHPV+) by the Digene hybrid capture method from 2005-2009 to identify the risk of progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in association with age. We reviewed cytologic and follow-up surgical pathology reports for all specimens available. Progression was defined as a diagnosis of at least CINI on follow-up biopsy or resection or SIL on cytology. We identified 2613 cases and follow-up was available in 1839 (70.4%). Of these 74.2% had just one follow-up, 16.2% had a total of 2 follow-ups, 5.3% had a total of 3 follow-ups, and the remaining had as many as 6 follow-ups. Among the 1839 patients, 69.4% were age 30 or younger, 16.0% were between 31 to 40, 9.0% were between 41 to 50, and 5.6% were 51 or older. Among these, 25-30% progressed to dysplasia. The risk of progression varied by age (p=0.04) and was lowest among women between the ages of 41-50. Our findings highlight the importance of continued cytologic follow-up in women with HRHPV+ ASC-US in order to detect progression of disease, although the risk of progression is age dependent.

  5. Relationships between Religion and Two Forms of Homonegativity in Europe—A Multilevel Analysis of Effects of Believing, Belonging and Religious Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebler, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between religion and two forms of homonegativity across 43 European countries using a bivariate response binary logistic multilevel model. The model analyzes effects of religious believing, belonging and practice on two response variables: a) a moral rejection of homosexuality as a practice and b) intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. The findings indicate that both forms of homonegativity are prevalent in Europe. Traditional doctrinal religious believing (belief in a personal God) is positively related to a moral rejection of homosexuality but to a much lesser extent associated with intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. Members of religious denominations are more likely than non-members to reject homosexuality as morally wrong and to reject homosexuals as neighbors. The analysis found significant differences between denominations that are likely context-dependent. Attendance at religious services is positively related to homonegativity in a majority of countries. The findings vary considerably across countries: Religion is more strongly related to homonegativity in Western than in Eastern Europe. In the post-soviet countries homonegativity appears to be largely a secular phenomenon. National contexts of high religiosity, high perceived government corruption, high income inequality and shortcomings in the implementation of gay rights in the countries’ legislations are statistically related to higher levels of both moralistic homonegativity and intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. PMID:26247352

  6. Relationships between Religion and Two Forms of Homonegativity in Europe--A Multilevel Analysis of Effects of Believing, Belonging and Religious Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebler, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between religion and two forms of homonegativity across 43 European countries using a bivariate response binary logistic multilevel model. The model analyzes effects of religious believing, belonging and practice on two response variables: a) a moral rejection of homosexuality as a practice and b) intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. The findings indicate that both forms of homonegativity are prevalent in Europe. Traditional doctrinal religious believing (belief in a personal God) is positively related to a moral rejection of homosexuality but to a much lesser extent associated with intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. Members of religious denominations are more likely than non-members to reject homosexuality as morally wrong and to reject homosexuals as neighbors. The analysis found significant differences between denominations that are likely context-dependent. Attendance at religious services is positively related to homonegativity in a majority of countries. The findings vary considerably across countries: Religion is more strongly related to homonegativity in Western than in Eastern Europe. In the post-soviet countries homonegativity appears to be largely a secular phenomenon. National contexts of high religiosity, high perceived government corruption, high income inequality and shortcomings in the implementation of gay rights in the countries' legislations are statistically related to higher levels of both moralistic homonegativity and intolerance toward homosexuals as a group.

  7. Relationships between Religion and Two Forms of Homonegativity in Europe--A Multilevel Analysis of Effects of Believing, Belonging and Religious Practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Doebler

    Full Text Available This paper examines relationships between religion and two forms of homonegativity across 43 European countries using a bivariate response binary logistic multilevel model. The model analyzes effects of religious believing, belonging and practice on two response variables: a a moral rejection of homosexuality as a practice and b intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. The findings indicate that both forms of homonegativity are prevalent in Europe. Traditional doctrinal religious believing (belief in a personal God is positively related to a moral rejection of homosexuality but to a much lesser extent associated with intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. Members of religious denominations are more likely than non-members to reject homosexuality as morally wrong and to reject homosexuals as neighbors. The analysis found significant differences between denominations that are likely context-dependent. Attendance at religious services is positively related to homonegativity in a majority of countries. The findings vary considerably across countries: Religion is more strongly related to homonegativity in Western than in Eastern Europe. In the post-soviet countries homonegativity appears to be largely a secular phenomenon. National contexts of high religiosity, high perceived government corruption, high income inequality and shortcomings in the implementation of gay rights in the countries' legislations are statistically related to higher levels of both moralistic homonegativity and intolerance toward homosexuals as a group.

  8. The Assessment of Eating Behaviour in Children Who Are Obese: A Psychological Approach. A Position Paper from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Caroline; O'Malley, Grace; Weghuber, Daniel; Vania, Andrea; Erhardt, Éva; Nowicka, Paulina; Mazur, Artur; Frelut, Marie Laure; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model) are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research. PMID:24820848

  9. Implementation of the 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement in contact and collision sports: a joint position statement from 11 national and international sports organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricios, Jon S; Ardern, Clare L; Hislop, Michael David; Aubry, Mark; Bloomfield, Paul; Broderick, Carolyn; Clifton, Patrick; Echemendia, Ruben J; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Falvey, Éanna Cian; Fuller, Gordon Ward; Grand, Julie; Hack, Dallas; Harcourt, Peter Rex; Hughes, David; McGuirk, Nathan; Meeuwisse, Willem; Miller, Jeffrey; Parsons, John T; Richiger, Simona; Sills, Allen; Moran, Kevin B; Shute, Jenny; Raftery, Martin

    2018-05-01

    The 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement provides a global summary of best practice in concussion prevention, diagnosis and management, underpinned by systematic reviews and expert consensus. Due to their different settings and rules, individual sports need to adapt concussion guidelines according to their specific regulatory environment. At the same time, consistent application of the Berlin Consensus Statement's themes across sporting codes is likely to facilitate superior and uniform diagnosis and management, improve concussion education and highlight collaborative research opportunities. This document summarises the approaches discussed by medical representatives from the governing bodies of 10 different contact and collision sports in Dublin, Ireland in July 2017. Those sports are: American football, Australian football, basketball, cricket, equestrian sports, football/soccer, ice hockey, rugby league, rugby union and skiing. This document had been endorsed by 11 sport governing bodies/national federations at the time of being published. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. MDEP Technical Report TR-DICWG-01. Technical Report on the Relational Structure of the Digital Instrumentation and Controls Working Group (DICWG) Common Positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-10-01

    concern arising from regulatory activities in member countries, safety implications, or the general need to develop a common understanding of the topic. DICWG provides a forum for nuclear regulatory organisations from around the world that is vital in demonstrating to the industry that regulatory organisations are actively engaged with these topics and understand their significance. This document describes the relational structure between the MDEP DICWG common positions (CPs), as well as addressing their scope, content and how they relate to the mission of DICWG

  11. F14:A-:B- and IncX4 Inc group cfr-positive plasmids circulating in Escherichia coli of animal origin in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiumei; Zhu, Yao; Hua, Xin; Chen, Fuguang; Wang, Changzhen; Zhang, Yanhe; Liu, Siguo; Zhang, Wanjiang

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the cfr gene in Escherichia coli isolates from domestic animals in Northeast China and to characterize the cfr-containing plasmids. Between June 2015 and April 2016, 370 E. coli isolates were collected from pigs, chickens, and dairy cows in Northeast China. Among these, 111 were florfenicol resistant, including 109 isolates carrying the floR gene and 6 positives for cfr. The prevalence of cfr in E. coli isolates from the four northeast provinces in China was 1.6% (6/370), which was higher than that previously reported (0.08% and 0.5%). All six cfr-containing E. coli isolates were highly resistant to florfenicol (100%), cefotaxime (100%), and fosfomycin (100%). Complete sequence analysis of two cfr-carrying plasmids revealed high homology of the IncX4-type pEC14cfr plasmid with two other cfr-harboring plasmids, pSD11 and pGXEC6, found in swine E. coli isolates from southern China. pEC14cfr-like plasmids have been isolated in five provinces in southern and northern China. The isolation sites were up to 2700 kilometers apart, implying that pEC14cfr-like plasmids are likely to be national epidemic cfr-carrying plasmids that mediate the dissemination of cfr in China. Moreover, the genetic structure (IS26-IS26-cfr-rec-pre/mob-ramA-IS26) of the second cfr-carrying plasmid, IncF14:A-:B- pEC295cfr, represents a novel genetic environment for cfr identified for the first time in the present study. Sequence homology analysis indicated that the cfr-carrying element was most likely introduced into a cfr-negative pEC12 plasmid backbone, which evolved into the cfr-carrying vector, pEC295cfr. Moreover, isolation of the IncF14:A-:B- pEC295cfr plasmid harboring cfr suggests that IncFII plasmids maybe have become additional effective vehicles for cfr dissemination. These results highlight the importance of surveying the prevalence of IncX4 and IncFII plasmids in gram-negative bacteria, especially in swine E. coli

  12. Intermediate and advanced topics in multilevel logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Merlo, Juan

    2017-09-10

    Multilevel data occur frequently in health services, population and public health, and epidemiologic research. In such research, binary outcomes are common. Multilevel logistic regression models allow one to account for the clustering of subjects within clusters of higher-level units when estimating the effect of subject and cluster characteristics on subject outcomes. A search of the PubMed database demonstrated that the use of multilevel or hierarchical regression models is increasing rapidly. However, our impression is that many analysts simply use multilevel regression models to account for the nuisance of within-cluster homogeneity that is induced by clustering. In this article, we describe a suite of analyses that can complement the fitting of multilevel logistic regression models. These ancillary analyses permit analysts to estimate the marginal or population-average effect of covariates measured at the subject and cluster level, in contrast to the within-cluster or cluster-specific effects arising from the original multilevel logistic regression model. We describe the interval odds ratio and the proportion of opposed odds ratios, which are summary measures of effect for cluster-level covariates. We describe the variance partition coefficient and the median odds ratio which are measures of components of variance and heterogeneity in outcomes. These measures allow one to quantify the magnitude of the general contextual effect. We describe an R 2 measure that allows analysts to quantify the proportion of variation explained by different multilevel logistic regression models. We illustrate the application and interpretation of these measures by analyzing mortality in patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Commercial Probiotic Products: A Call for Improved Quality Control. A Position Paper by the ESPGHAN Working Group for Probiotics and Prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaček, Sanja; Hojsak, Iva; Berni Canani, Roberto; Guarino, Alfredo; Indrio, Flavia; Orel, Rok; Pot, Bruno; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Vandenplas, Yvan; van Goudoever, Johannes; Weizman, Zvi

    2017-07-01

    Probiotics have been proposed for a number of indications ranging from the hypothetical long-term immunomodulatory effects to proven benefits in the management of different clinical conditions.An increasing number of commercial products containing probiotics are available. In those products, irrespective if it is food, food supplement, medical food, or drug, the probiotic microorganisms have to be present in a sufficient number by the end of the shelf-life, to pass through the gastrointestinal tract resisting acid and bile, to colonize the gut, and to retain functional properties required to obtain the suggested beneficial effect. Finally, it should be contamination-free.Studies organized worldwide and summarized in this article have shown that inconsistencies and deviations from the information provided on the product label are surprisingly common. Frequently strains are misidentified and misclassified, products are occasionally contaminated, sometimes with even facultative or obligatory pathogens, strains are not viable, the labeled number of colonies cannot be verified, or the functional properties are diminished to the extent that preclude the proposed health benefit. As the probiotic preparations are commonly used for a wide range of conditions, the aim of the Working Group was to summarize results of the studies looking into the quality of the probiotic products and to raise the awareness of the important issue of their quality control.Based on the results obtained, we strongly suggest a more stringent quality control process. This process should ensure that the probiotic content as mentioned on the label meets the actual content throughout the shelf life of the product, while no contamination is present.

  14. Multilevel modeling and panel data analysis in educational research (Case study: National examination data senior high school in West Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulvia, Pepi; Kurnia, Anang; Soleh, Agus M.

    2017-03-01

    Individual and environment are a hierarchical structure consist of units grouped at different levels. Hierarchical data structures are analyzed based on several levels, with the lowest level nested in the highest level. This modeling is commonly call multilevel modeling. Multilevel modeling is widely used in education research, for example, the average score of National Examination (UN). While in Indonesia UN for high school student is divided into natural science and social science. The purpose of this research is to develop multilevel and panel data modeling using linear mixed model on educational data. The first step is data exploration and identification relationships between independent and dependent variable by checking correlation coefficient and variance inflation factor (VIF). Furthermore, we use a simple model approach with highest level of the hierarchy (level-2) is regency/city while school is the lowest of hierarchy (level-1). The best model was determined by comparing goodness-of-fit and checking assumption from residual plots and predictions for each model. Our finding that for natural science and social science, the regression with random effects of regency/city and fixed effects of the time i.e multilevel model has better performance than the linear mixed model in explaining the variability of the dependent variable, which is the average scores of UN.

  15. On the thermodynamics of multilevel evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessera, Marc; Hoelzer, Guy A

    2013-09-01

    Biodiversity is hierarchically structured both phylogenetically and functionally. Phylogenetic hierarchy is understood as a product of branching organic evolution as described by Darwin. Ecosystem biologists understand some aspects of functional hierarchy, such as food web architecture, as a product of evolutionary ecology; but functional hierarchy extends to much lower scales of organization than those studied by ecologists. We argue that the more general use of the term "evolution" employed by physicists and applied to non-living systems connects directly to the narrow biological meaning. Physical evolution is best understood as a thermodynamic phenomenon, and this perspective comfortably includes all of biological evolution. We suggest four dynamical factors that build on each other in a hierarchical fashion and set the stage for the Darwinian evolution of biological systems: (1) the entropic erosion of structure; (2) the construction of dissipative systems; (3) the reproduction of growing systems and (4) the historical memory accrued to populations of reproductive agents by the acquisition of hereditary mechanisms. A particular level of evolution can underpin the emergence of higher levels, but evolutionary processes persist at each level in the hierarchy. We also argue that particular evolutionary processes can occur at any level of the hierarchy where they are not obstructed by material constraints. This theoretical framework provides an extensive basis for understanding natural selection as a multilevel process. The extensive literature on thermodynamics in turn provides an important advantage to this perspective on the evolution of higher levels of organization, such as the evolution of altruism that can accompany the emergence of social organization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A robust multilevel simultaneous eigenvalue solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costiner, Sorin; Taasan, Shlomo

    1993-01-01

    Multilevel (ML) algorithms for eigenvalue problems are often faced with several types of difficulties such as: the mixing of approximated eigenvectors by the solution process, the approximation of incomplete clusters of eigenvectors, the poor representation of solution on coarse levels, and the existence of close or equal eigenvalues. Algorithms that do not treat appropriately these difficulties usually fail, or their performance degrades when facing them. These issues motivated the development of a robust adaptive ML algorithm which treats these difficulties, for the calculation of a few eigenvectors and their corresponding eigenvalues. The main techniques used in the new algorithm include: the adaptive completion and separation of the relevant clusters on different levels, the simultaneous treatment of solutions within each cluster, and the robustness tests which monitor the algorithm's efficiency and convergence. The eigenvectors' separation efficiency is based on a new ML projection technique generalizing the Rayleigh Ritz projection, combined with a technique, the backrotations. These separation techniques, when combined with an FMG formulation, in many cases lead to algorithms of O(qN) complexity, for q eigenvectors of size N on the finest level. Previously developed ML algorithms are less focused on the mentioned difficulties. Moreover, algorithms which employ fine level separation techniques are of O(q(sub 2)N) complexity and usually do not overcome all these difficulties. Computational examples are presented where Schrodinger type eigenvalue problems in 2-D and 3-D, having equal and closely clustered eigenvalues, are solved with the efficiency of the Poisson multigrid solver. A second order approximation is obtained in O(qN) work, where the total computational work is equivalent to only a few fine level relaxations per eigenvector.

  17. Multilevel Workflow System in the ATLAS Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodin, M; De, K; Navarro, J Garcia; Golubkov, D; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Vaniachine, A

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is scaling up Big Data processing for the next LHC run using a multilevel workflow system comprised of many layers. In Big Data processing ATLAS deals with datasets, not individual files. Similarly a task (comprised of many jobs) has become a unit of the ATLAS workflow in distributed computing, with about 0.8M tasks processed per year. In order to manage the diversity of LHC physics (exceeding 35K physics samples per year), the individual data processing tasks are organized into workflows. For example, the Monte Carlo workflow is composed of many steps: generate or configure hard-processes, hadronize signal and minimum-bias (pileup) events, simulate energy deposition in the ATLAS detector, digitize electronics response, simulate triggers, reconstruct data, convert the reconstructed data into ROOT ntuples for physics analysis, etc. Outputs are merged and/or filtered as necessary to optimize the chain. The bi-level workflow manager - ProdSys2 - generates actual workflow tasks and their jobs are executed across more than a hundred distributed computing sites by PanDA - the ATLAS job-level workload management system. On the outer level, the Database Engine for Tasks (DEfT) empowers production managers with templated workflow definitions. On the next level, the Job Execution and Definition Interface (JEDI) is integrated with PanDA to provide dynamic job definition tailored to the sites capabilities. We report on scaling up the production system to accommodate a growing number of requirements from main ATLAS areas: Trigger, Physics and Data Preparation. (paper)

  18. Strategic Positioning from the Strategic Group Perspective:The Impacts of Strategic Distance, Positioning Direction and Strategic Change on Firm Performance%战略群组视角下的企业战略定位研究--战略距离、定位方向和战略改变对绩效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段霄; 金占明

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the effects of strategic positioning on firm performance are studied via three independent variables from the strategic group perspective. These variables are: the strategic distance from a firm to its strate-gic group, positioning direction among strategic groups, and the strategic change of the firm. Research hypotheses are empirically tested on the basis of grouping listed companies of coal mining industry in China over the period 2008-2011. Results show that strategic distance and positioning direction have negative effects on firm perfor-mance, while strategic change has a positive impact. This study contributes to a more comprehensive strategic group theory by providing a positioning method based on strategic group structure.%通过三个描述战略位置的变量来研究企业在战略群组视角下战略定位对绩效的影响作用。这些变量是:企业与本群组的战略距离、企业在群组间定位的方向以及企业在本时期的战略改变。样本数据来自2008-2011年间我国煤炭采选业上市公司,对其进行战略群组划分后,定量检验了研究假设。结果表明,企业与本群组的战略距离以及企业在群组间定位的方向均负向作用于企业绩效,只有企业的战略改变对绩效有利。

  19. Impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors among impoverished, at-risk couples: A multilevel latent variable approach

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, JA; Nyamathi, A; Ullman, JB; Bentler, PM

    2007-01-01

    Studies among normative samples generally demonstrate a positive impact of marriage on health behaviors and other related attitudes. In this study, we examine the impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and attitudes among impoverished, highly stressed, homeless couples, many with severe substance abuse problems. A multilevel analysis of 368 high-risk sexually intimate married and unmarried heterosexual couples assessed individual and couple-level effects on social support, substance us...

  20. Full Random Coefficients Multilevel Modeling of the Relationship between Land Use and Trip Time on Weekdays and Weekends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyoung Tommy Gim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interests in weekend trips are increasing, but few have studied how they are affected by land use. In this study, we analyze the relationship between compact land use characteristics and trip time in Seoul, Korea by comparing two research models, each of which uses the weekday and weekend data of the same travelers. To secure sufficient numbers of subjects and groups, full random coefficients multilevel models define the trip as level one and the neighborhood as level two, and find that level-two land use characteristics account for less variation in trip time than level-one individual characteristics. At level one, weekday trip time is found to be reduced by the choice of the automobile as a travel mode, but not by its ownership per se. In addition, it becomes reduced if made by high income travelers and extended to travel to quality jobs. Among four land use characteristics at level two, population density, road connectivity, and subway availability are shown to be significant in the weekday model. Only subway availability has a positive relationship with trip time and this finding is consistent with the level-one result that the choice of automobile alternatives increases trip time. The other land use characteristic, land use balance, turns out to be a single significant land use variable in the weekend model, implying that it is concerned mainly with non-work, non-mandatory travel.

  1. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals’ direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627

  2. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-03-18

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.

  3. Emergency transfusion of patients with unknown blood type with blood group O Rhesus D positive red blood cell concentrates: a prospective, single-centre, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleng, Kathleen; Jenichen, Gregor; Denker, Kathrin; Selleng, Sixten; Müllejans, Bernd; Greinacher, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Emergency patients with unknown blood type usually receive O Rhesus D negative (RhD-) red blood cell concentrates until their blood group is determined to prevent RhD+ related adverse transfusion reactions. As 85% of individuals are RhD+, this consumption of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates contributes to shortages of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates, sometimes forcing transfusion of known RhD- patients with RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. Here we report the outcome of this transfusion policy transfusing all emergency patients with unknown blood type with O RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. In this prospective single-centre observational study done between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, we assessed all consecutive RhD- patients at the University Medicine Greifswald who received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates (emergency patients with unknown blood type; and RhD- patients receiving RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages). No patients were excluded. The primary endpoint was anti-D allo-immunisation at 2 months follow-up or later. Patients were followed up and tested for immunisation against red blood cell antigens using the direct antiglobulin test and an antibody screen every 3-5 days for 4 weeks or until death, or hospital discharge. Surviving patients were screened for development of anti-D antibodies for up to 12 months (at the predefined timepoints 2, 3, 6, and 12 months) after RhD+ red blood cell transfusion. 437 emergency patients, of whom 85 (20%) were RhD-, received 2836 RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. The overall risk of inducing anti-D antibodies (in all 437 recipients) was 17 (4%, 95% CI 2·44-6·14) of 437 (assuming all patients lost to follow-up developed anti-D allo-immunisation). During this period, 110 known RhD- patients received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages. Of these, 29 (26%; 95% CI 19·0-35·3) developed anti-D allo-immunisation (assuming all

  4. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki; Long, Quan; Scavino, Marco; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.

  5. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2015-01-07

    Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.

  6. Co-occurrences between adolescent substance use and academic performance: school context influences a multilevel-longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernando H

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of literature has linked substance use and academic performance exploring substance use as a predictor of academic performance or vice versa. This study uses a different approach conceptualizing substance use and academic performance as parallel outcomes and exploring two topics: its multilevel-longitudinal association and school contextual effects on both outcomes. Using multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multilevel-longitudinal analyses, the empirical estimates relied on 7843 students nested in 114 schools (Add Health study). The main finding suggests that the correlation between substance use and academic performance was positive at the school level in contraposition to the negative relationship at the individual level. Additional findings suggest a positive effect of a school risk factor on substance use and a positive effect of academic pressure on academic performance. These findings represent a contribution to our understanding of how schools could affect the relationship between academic performance and substance use. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sick regimes and sick people: a multilevel investigation of the population health consequences of perceived national corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Margot I; Kunst, Anton E; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Stronks, Karien

    2013-10-01

    There is a paucity of empirical work on the potential population health impact of living under a regime marred by corruption. African countries differ in the extent of national corruption, and we explore whether perceived national corruption is associated with population health across all rungs of society. World Health Survey data were analysed on 72 524 adults from 20 African countries. The main outcome was self-reported poor general health. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between poor health and perceived corruption, while jointly accounting for individual- and country-level human development factors. In this research, we use Transparency International's corruption perception index (CPI), which measures 'both administrative and political corruption' on a 0-10 scale. A higher score pertains to a higher rate of perceived corruption within society. We also examined effect modification by gender, age and socio-economic status. Higher national corruption perception was consistently associated with an increase in poor health prevalence, also after multivariable adjustments, with odds ratio (OR) of 1.62 (95% CI: 1.01-2.60). Stratified analyses by age and gender suggested this same pattern in all subgroups. Positive associations between poor health and perceived corruption were evident in all socio-economic groups, with the association being somewhat more positive among less educated people (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.58) than among more educated people (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.83-2.37). This study is a cautious first step in empirically testing the general health consequences of corruption. Our results suggest that higher perceived national corruption is associated with general health of both men and women within all socio-economic groups across the lifespan. Further research is needed using more countries to assess the magnitude of the health consequences of corruption. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Social control of public expenditures in a multilevel principal-agent approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALDEMIR PIRES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study enhances the principal-agent model by incorporating a multilevel perspective and differences among agency situations. A theoretical discussion is developed using a proposed intersection of methodological focuses and a descriptive-exemplificative hypothetical analysis. The analysis is applied to public expenditure social control in representative democracies, and as a result, a principal-agent model unfolds that incorporates a decision-making perspective and focuses on formulation, negotiation, articulation, and implementation competencies. Thus, it is possible to incorporate elements into the principal-agent model to make it more permeable to individual, group, and societal idiosyncrasies with respect to public expenditure social control.

  9. A Multi-step and Multi-level approach for Computer Aided Molecular Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The problem formulation step incorporates a knowledge base for the identification and setup of the design criteria. Candidate compounds are identified using a multi-level generate and test CAMD solution algorithm capable of designing molecules having a high level of molecular detail. A post solution step...... using an Integrated Computer Aided System (ICAS) for result analysis and verification is included in the methodology. Keywords: CAMD, separation processes, knowledge base, molecular design, solvent selection, substitution, group contribution, property prediction, ICAS Introduction The use of Computer...... Aided Molecular Design (CAMD) for the identification of compounds having specific physic...

  10. Linking Narcissism, Motivation, and Doping Attitudes in Sport: A Multilevel Investigation Involving Coaches and Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosic, Doris; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Boardley, Ian David; Stenling, Andreas; Sedikides, Constantine

    2016-12-01

    Research on coaching (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2009) has shown that coaches can display controlling behaviors that have detrimental effects on athletes' basic psychological needs and quality of sport experiences. The current study extends this literature by considering coach narcissism as a potential antecedent of coaches' controlling behaviors. Further, the study tests a model linking coaches' (n = 59) own reports of narcissistic tendencies with athletes' (n = 493) perceptions of coach controlling behaviors, experiences of need frustration, and attitudes toward doping. Multilevel path analysis revealed that coach narcissism was directly and positively associated with athletes' perceptions of controlling behaviors and was indirectly and positively associated with athletes' reports of needs frustration. In addition, athletes' perceptions of coach behaviors were positively associated-directly and indirectly-with attitudes toward doping. The findings advance understanding of controlling coach behaviors, their potential antecedents, and their associations with athletes' attitudes toward doping.

  11. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy. PMID:29064451

  12. What it takes to get proactive: An integrative multilevel model of the antecedents of personal initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying; Liao, Hui; Raub, Steffen; Han, Joo Hun

    2016-05-01

    Building upon and extending Parker, Bindl, and Strauss's (2010) theory of proactive motivation, we develop an integrated, multilevel model to examine how contextual factors shape employees' proactive motivational states and, through these proactive motivational states, influence their personal initiative behavior. Using data from a sample of hotels collected from 3 sources and over 2 time periods, we show that establishment-level initiative-enhancing human resource management (HRM) systems were positively related to departmental initiative climate, which was positively related to employee personal initiative through employee role-breadth self-efficacy. Further, department-level empowering leadership was positively related to initiative climate only when initiative-enhancing HRM systems were low. These findings offer interesting implications for research on personal initiative and for the management of employee proactivity in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2017-10-24

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy.

  14. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy.

  15. Designing of vague logic based multilevel feedback queue scheduler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Raheja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel feedback queue scheduler suffers from major issues of scheduling such as starvation for long tasks, fixed number of queues, and static length of time quantum in each queue. These factors directly affect the performance of the scheduler. At many times impreciseness exists in attributes of tasks which make the performance even worse. In this paper, our intent is to improve the performance by providing a solution to these issues. We design a multilevel feedback queue scheduler using a vague set which we call as VMLFQ scheduler. VMLFQ scheduler intelligently handles the impreciseness and defines the optimum number of queues as well as the optimal size of time quantum for each queue. It also resolves the problem of starvation. This paper simulates and analyzes the performance of VMLFQ scheduler with the other multilevel feedback queue techniques using MatLab.

  16. Health reforms as examples of multilevel interventions in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Ann B; Fennell, Mary L; Devers, Kelly J

    2012-05-01

    To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation's health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform.

  17. On multi-level thinking and scientific understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Michael Edgeworth

    2017-10-01

    Professor Duzheng YE's name has been familiar to me ever since my postdoctoral years at MIT with Professors Jule CHARNEY and Norman PHILLIPS, back in the late 1960s. I had the enormous pleasure of meeting Professor YE personally in 1992 in Beijing. His concern to promote the very best science and to use it well, and his thinking on multi-level orderly human activities, reminds me not only of the communication skills we need as scientists but also of the multi-level nature of science itself. Here I want to say something (a) about what science is; (b) about why multi-level thinking—and taking more than one viewpoint—is so important for scientific as well as for other forms of understanding; and (c) about what is meant, at a deep level, by "scientific understanding" and trying to communicate it, not only with lay persons but also across professional disciplines. I hope that Professor YE would approve.

  18. A multilevel shape fit analysis of neutron transmission data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Sallam, O.H.; Adib, M.

    1989-01-01

    A multilevel shape fit analysis of neutron transmission data is presented. A multilevel computer code SHAPE is used to analyse clean transmission data obtained from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. The shape analysis deduces the parameters of the observed resonances in the energy region considered in the measurements. The shape code is based upon a least square fit of a multilevel Breit-Wigner formula and includes both instrumental resolution and Doppler broadenings. Operating the SHAPE code on a test example of a measured transmission data of 151 Eu, 153 Eu and natural Eu in the energy range 0.025-1 eV acquired a good result for the used technique of analysis. (author)

  19. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation of a Multi-Level Diode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation of a Multi-Level Diode Clamped ... of MATLAB /SIMULINK modeling of the space vector pulse-width modulation and the ... two adjacent active vectors in determining the switching process of the multilevel ...

  20. Multilevel quadrature of elliptic PDEs with log-normal diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Harbrecht, Helmut

    2015-01-07

    We apply multilevel quadrature methods for the moment computation of the solution of elliptic PDEs with lognormally distributed diffusion coefficients. The computation of the moments is a difficult task since they appear as high dimensional Bochner integrals over an unbounded domain. Each function evaluation corresponds to a deterministic elliptic boundary value problem which can be solved by finite elements on an appropriate level of refinement. The complexity is thus given by the number of quadrature points times the complexity for a single elliptic PDE solve. The multilevel idea is to reduce this complexity by combining quadrature methods with different accuracies with several spatial discretization levels in a sparse grid like fashion.

  1. New multilevel inverter with reduction of switches and gate driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaei, M.R., E-mail: m.banaei@azaruniv.ed [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salary, E. [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents a novel topology for symmetrical cascade multilevel converter. The proposed circuit consists of series connected sub multilevel converters units and it can generate DC voltage levels similar to other topologies. The proposed topology results in reduction of switches number, losses, installation area and converter cost. This converter has been used in a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). Simulation results carried out by MATLAB/SIMULINK show the voltage injection capability of converter and the efficiency of its controller in compensating voltage sag and swell.

  2. Mathematical model comparing of the multi-level economics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykalov, S. M.; Kryanev, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The mathematical model (scheme) of a multi-level comparison of the economic system, characterized by the system of indices, is worked out. In the mathematical model of the multi-level comparison of the economic systems, the indicators of peer review and forecasting of the economic system under consideration can be used. The model can take into account the uncertainty in the estimated values of the parameters or expert estimations. The model uses the multi-criteria approach based on the Pareto solutions.

  3. A new configuration for multilevel converters with diode clamped topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami, A.; Zare, F.; Ledwich, G.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the increased use of renewable energy and power elctronic applications, more multilevel converters (MLC) are developed. A Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter is one of the most used multilevel topologies for wind turbine (WT) and photovoltaic (PV) applications. One of the most crucial...... of load changes which can avoid neutral point balancing problem in such converters. In addition, the presented topology is suitable for renewable energy systems to boost the low rectified output-voltage. In order to verify the proposed topology, steady state analysis, modelling and simulations are carried...

  4. A multilevel control approach for a modular structured space platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, F. D.; Borelli, M. T.

    1981-01-01

    A three axis mathematical representation of a modular assembled space platform consisting of interconnected discrete masses, including a deployable truss module, was derived for digital computer simulation. The platform attitude control system as developed to provide multilevel control utilizing the Gauss-Seidel second level formulation along with an extended form of linear quadratic regulator techniques. The objectives of the multilevel control are to decouple the space platform's spatial axes and to accommodate the modification of the platform's configuration for each of the decoupled axes.

  5. Pulse design for multilevel systems by utilizing Lie transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Huang, Bi-Hua; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2018-03-01

    We put forward a scheme to design pulses to manipulate multilevel systems with Lie transforms. A formula to reverse construct a control Hamiltonian is given and is applied in pulse design in the three- and four-level systems as examples. To demonstrate the validity of the scheme, we perform numerical simulations, which show the population transfers for cascaded three-level and N -type four-level Rydberg atoms can be completed successfully with high fidelities. Therefore, the scheme may benefit quantum information tasks based on multilevel systems.

  6. Leveling up? An inter-neighborhood experiment on parochialism and the efficiency of multi-level public goods provision

    OpenAIRE

    Gallier, Carlo; Goeschl, Timo; Kesternich, Martin; Lohse, Johannes; Reif, Christiane; Römer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Many public goods can be provided at different spatial levels. Evidence from social identity theory and in-group favoritism raises the possibility that where higher-level provision is more efficient, subjects’ narrow concern for local outcomes (parochialism) could harm efficiency. Building on the experimental paradigm of multi-level public good games and the ‘neighborhood attachment’ concept, we conduct an artefactual field experiment with 600 participants in a setting conducive to parochial...

  7. Teachers' experiences of workplace bullying and its effects on health :|bdeveloping a multi-level intervention programme / Jaqueline de Vos

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Jaqueline

    2012-01-01

    Workplace bullying is recognised as a major psychosocial stressor in various professions and can have severe effects on health. Teachers are distinguished as an occupational group that is severely affected by this phenomenon. The general objectives of this research study were to firstly investigate teachers’ experiences of workplace bullying and its effects on health, and secondly, to develop a multi-level intervention programme that can be implemented to address workplace bullying and its ef...

  8. Evolution of conditional cooperation under multilevel selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanren; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-03-11

    We study the emergence of conditional cooperation in the presence of both intra-group and inter-group selection. Individuals play public goods games within their groups using conditional strategies, which are represented as piecewise linear response functions. Accordingly, groups engage in conflicts with a certain probability. In contrast to previous studies, we consider continuous contribution levels and a rich set of conditional strategies, allowing for a wide range of possible interactions between strategies. We find that the existence of conditional strategies enables the stabilization of cooperation even under strong intra-group selection. The strategy that eventually dominates in the population has two key properties: (i) It is unexploitable with strong intra-group selection; (ii) It can achieve full contribution to outperform other strategies in the inter-group selection. The success of this strategy is robust to initial conditions as well as changes to important parameters. We also investigate the influence of different factors on cooperation levels, including group conflicts, group size, and migration rate. Their effect on cooperation can be attributed to and explained by their influence on the relative strength of intra-group and inter-group selection.

  9. Multilevel Associations of Neighborhood Poverty, Crime, and Satisfaction With Blood Pressure in African-American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Alia, Kassandra A; Van Horn, M Lee

    2016-01-01

    African-American adults experience the highest rates of elevated blood pressure (BP), and this disparity may be linked to socioeconomic and neighborhood-related disadvantage. Based on a bioecological stress-buffering framework, relations of poverty and neighborhood environmental perceptions with BP were assessed using multilevel regression in at-risk African-American adults. This cross-sectional study used baseline data that were collected in 2008 as part of the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial (N = 409), a community-based intervention to increase walking in low-income, high-crime neighborhoods. BP and perceived neighborhood crime and satisfaction were investigated as individual-level indicators of health and neighborhood environment. Census block groups (N = 22) served as geographic proxies for neighborhoods, and poverty was obtained using 2010 U.S. Census data, to characterize the neighborhood-level socioeconomic environment. There were no individual-level direct associations. Significant cross-product interactions demonstrated that with higher perceived crime, high satisfaction was associated with lower systolic (γ = 3.34) and diastolic (γ = -1.37) BP, but low satisfaction was associated with higher systolic (γ = 15.12) and diastolic (γ = 7.57) BP. Neighborhood-level poverty was associated with diastolic (γ = 11.48, SE = 4.08, P = 0.008) and systolic BP (γ = 12.79, SE = 6.33, P = 0.052). Variance in BP across block groups was low (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.002-0.014) and there were no significant random effects. Results supported hypotheses, with greater neighborhood satisfaction linked to lower systolic and diastolic BP when perceived crime was high. Neighborhood poverty was also linked to higher systolic and diastolic BP. Prevention efforts should further investigate whether attending to issues of poverty and related neighborhood perceptions reduces high BP in at-risk African-American communities. © Published by Oxford

  10. Kin and multilevel selection in social evolution: a never-ending controversy? [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Kramer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kin selection and multilevel selection are two major frameworks in evolutionary biology that aim at explaining the evolution of social behaviors. However, the relationship between these two theories has been plagued by controversy for almost half a century and debates about their relevance and usefulness in explaining social evolution seem to rekindle at regular intervals. Here, we first provide a concise introduction into the kin selection and multilevel selection theories and shed light onto the roots of the controversy surrounding them. We then review two major aspects of the current debate: the presumed formal equivalency of the two theories and the question whether group selection can lead to group adaptation. We conclude by arguing that the two theories can offer complementary approaches to the study of social evolution: kin selection approaches usually focus on the identification of optimal phenotypes and thus on the endresult of a selection process, whereas multilevel selection approaches focus on the ongoing selection process itself. The two theories thus provide different perspectives that might be fruitfully combined to promote our understanding of the evolution in group-structured populations.

  11. Modeling Learning in Doubly Multilevel Binary Longitudinal Data Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models: An Application to Measuring and Explaining Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2016-04-01

    When word learning is supported by instruction in experimental studies for adolescents, word knowledge outcomes tend to be collected from complex data structure, such as multiple aspects of word knowledge, multilevel reader data, multilevel item data, longitudinal design, and multiple groups. This study illustrates how generalized linear mixed models can be used to measure and explain word learning for data having such complexity. Results from this application provide deeper understanding of word knowledge than could be attained from simpler models and show that word knowledge is multidimensional and depends on word characteristics and instructional contexts.

  12. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2007-01-01

    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  13. Multilevel stake holder consensus building in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, Andrejs

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The increased demand of our society to its quality of life, global security and environmental safety as well as to observing a basic ethical principle of equity have advanced our attitude towards the recent proposals to develop shared multinational projects in the use of nuclear energy technologies, in particular, to: a) Siting of shared deep repositories for high-level radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel safe disposal. In turn, arrangement of multinational facilities requires to gain more complex consensus between all involved parties. Method: We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational repositories for RW deep disposal, based on self-organization (SO) of various stake holders, chaos and fuzziness concepts as well as Ashby principle of requisite variety. In the siting of a multi-national repository there appears an essential novel component of stake holder consensus building, namely: to reach consent - political, social, economic, ecological - among international partners, in addition to solving the whole set of intra-national consensus building items. An entire partnering country is considered as a national stake holder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, having possibly diverse political, economic and social interests. Main Results: Following inferences about building of multilevel consensus are developed: 1) The basis of synergetic approach to stake holder interaction - informational SO, by forming a knowledge-creating stake holder community via cooperation and competition among individuals, public bodies/groups, companies, institutions; 2) Building of international stake holder consensus could be promoted by activating and diversifying multilateral interactions between intra- and international stake

  14. A multilevel model of patient safety culture: cross-level relationship between organizational culture and patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Chi; Ng, Hui-Fuang; Li, Hung-Hui

    2012-01-01

    As health-care organizations endeavor to improve their quality of care, there is a growing recognition of the importance of establishing a culture of patient safety. The main objective of this study was to investigate the cross-level influences of organizational culture on patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals. The authors measured organizational culture (bureaucratic, supportive and innovative culture), patient safety culture and behavior from 788 hospital workers among 42 hospitals in Taiwan. Multilevel analysis was applied to explore the relationship between organizational culture (group level) and patient safety behavior (individual level). Patient safety culture had positive impact on patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals. The results also indicated that bureaucratic, innovative and supportive organizational cultures all had direct influence on patient safety behavior. However, only supportive culture demonstrated significant moderation effect on the relationship between patient safety culture and patient safety behavior. Furthermore, organizational culture strength was shown correlated negatively with patient safety culture variability. Overall, organizational culture plays an important role in patient safety activities. Safety behaviors of hospital staff are partly influenced by the prevailing cultural norms in their organizations and work groups. For management implications, constructed patient priority from management commitment to leadership is necessary. For academic implications, research on patient safety should consider leadership, group dynamics and organizational learning. These factors are important for understanding the barriers and the possibilities embedded in patient safety. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. An Internet of Things Based Multi-Level Privacy-Preserving Access Control for Smart Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Salama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the Internet of Things (IoT in healthcare through the use of mobile medical applications and wearable devices allows patients to capture their healthcare data and enables healthcare professionals to be up-to-date with a patient’s status. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, which is considered as one of the major applications of IoT, is a home environment augmented with embedded ambient sensors to help improve an individual’s quality of life. This domain faces major challenges in providing safety and security when accessing sensitive health data. This paper presents an access control framework for AAL which considers multi-level access and privacy preservation. We focus on two major points: (1 how to use the data collected from ambient sensors and biometric sensors to perform the high-level task of activity recognition; and (2 how to secure the collected private healthcare data via effective access control. We achieve multi-level access control by extending Public Key Infrastructure (PKI for secure authentication and utilizing Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC for authorization. The proposed access control system regulates access to healthcare data by defining policy attributes over healthcare professional groups and data classes classifications. We provide guidelines to classify the data classes and healthcare professional groups and describe security policies to control access to the data classes.

  16. Age, forgiveness, and meeting behavior: A multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, E.-M.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the effects of age on counteractive team meeting behaviors (e.g. complaining). Forgiveness is included as a potential buffer against these behaviors. A multilevel model is developed to test individual and team level age effects. Design/methodology/approach: A

  17. Modular Multilevel Converter Control Strategy with Fault Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Mathe, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) technology has recently emerged in VSC-HVDC applications where it demonstrated higher efficiency and fault tolerance compared to the classical 2-level topology. Due to the ability of MMC to connect to HV levels, MMC can be also used in transformerless STATCOM...

  18. Multi-Level Security Cannot Realise NEC Objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, H.A.; Hartog, T.; Verkoelen, C.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-Level Security (MLS) is often viewed as the holy grail of information security, especially in those environments where information of different classifications is being processed. In this paper we argue that MLS cannot facilitate the right balance between need-to-protect and duty-to-share as

  19. A collision dynamics model of a multi-level train

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-05

    In train collisions, multi-level rail passenger vehicles can deform in modes that are different from the behavior of single level cars. The deformation in single level cars usually occurs at the front end during a collision. In one particular inciden...

  20. Multilevel Modeling: Overview and Applications to Research in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers…

  1. Determinants of Academic Entrepreneurship Behavior: A Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano, Joseph Anthony

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that universities encourage the acquisition and dissemination of new knowledge among university community members and beyond. However, what is less well understood is how universities encourage entrepreneurial (opportunity discovery, evaluation, and exploiting) behavior. This research investigated a multilevel model of the…

  2. Optimal algebraic multilevel preconditioning for local refinement along a line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margenov, S.D.; Maubach, J.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The application of some recently proposed algebraic multilevel methods for the solution of two-dimensional finite element problems on nonuniform meshes is studied. The locally refined meshes are created by the newest vertex mesh refinement method. After the introduction of this refinement technique

  3. Help Seeking in Online Collaborative Groupwork: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2015-01-01

    This study examined predictive models for students' help seeking in the context of online collaborative groupwork. Results from multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance in help seeking was at the individual student level, and multiple variables at the individual level were predictive of help-seeking behaviour. Help seeking was…

  4. Attachment, Autonomy, and Emotional Reliance: A Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a test of a multilevel model investigating how attachment security and autonomy contribute to emotional reliance, or the willingness to seek interpersonal support. Participants ("N" = 247) completed online measures of attachment, autonomy, emotional reliance, and vitality with respect to several everyday…

  5. Using Multilevel Modeling in Language Assessment Research: A Conceptual Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This article critiques traditional single-level statistical approaches (e.g., multiple regression analysis) to examining relationships between language test scores and variables in the assessment setting. It highlights the conceptual, methodological, and statistical problems associated with these techniques in dealing with multilevel or nested…

  6. College on Credit: A Multilevel Analysis of Student Loan Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2014-01-01

    This study updates and expands the literature on student loan default. By applying multilevel regression to the Beginning Postsecondary Students survey, four key findings emerge. First, attending proprietary institutions is strongly associated with default, even after accounting for students' socioeconomic and academic backgrounds. Second,…

  7. Multilevel component analysis of time-resolved metabolic fingerprinting data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.J.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Greef, J. van der; Timmerman, M.E.; Smilde, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Genomics-based technologies in systems biology have gained a lot of popularity in recent years. These technologies generate large amounts of data. To obtain information from this data, multivariate data analysis methods are required. Many of the datasets generated in genomics are multilevel

  8. Determinants of firms' investment behaviour : a multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farla, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates micro and macro determinants of firms' investment behaviour using firm data from 101 developing and emerging economies. A substantial number of firms in our sample does not invest in fixed capital or invests little relative to sales revenue. Using a multilevel probit model we

  9. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  10. Charging capacitors of multilevel inverter from dc intermediate circuit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bejvl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 159-170 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : electric drive * multilevel inverter * modulation and demodulation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electric al Engineering

  11. Outline of a multilevel approach of the network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Social and media networks, the Internet in particular, increasingly link interpersonal, organizational and mass communication. It is argued that this gives a cause for an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach of the network society. This will have to link traditional micro- and meso-level

  12. Measuring Collective Efficacy: A Multilevel Measurement Model for Nested Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Ross L.; Drakulich, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    This article specifies a multilevel measurement model for survey response when data are nested. The model includes a test-retest model of reliability, a confirmatory factor model of inter-item reliability with item-specific bias effects, an individual-level model of the biasing effects due to respondent characteristics, and a neighborhood-level…

  13. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as

  14. Local posterior concentration rate for multilevel sparse sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belitser, E.N.; Nurushev, N.

    2017-01-01

    We consider empirical Bayesian inference in the many normal means model in the situation when the high-dimensional mean vector is multilevel sparse, that is,most of the entries of the parameter vector are some fixed values. For instance, the traditional sparse signal is a particular case (with one

  15. Extending the enterprise through multi-level supply control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der P.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.J.E.M.; Hegge, H.M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Demands for flexibility require larger parts of the supply chain to become customer driven. This article describes multi-level supply control (MLSC) as a mechanism to facilitate that; it allows to specify gradually and thus to shift the customer order decoupling point well across the boundary to the

  16. The EU as Multilevel Democracy: Conceptual and Practical Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crum, B.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to systematically think through the implications of conceiving of the European Union as a ‘multilevel democracy’. The central claim on which this notion depends is that parliamentary sovereignty in the EU is not embodied in a single institution but remains essentially

  17. Multilevel inverter based class D audio amplifier for capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced semiconductor voltage stress makes the multilevel inverters especially interesting, when driving capacitive transducers for audio applications. A ± 300 V flying capacitor class D audio amplifier driving a 100 nF load in the midrange region of 0.1-3.5 kHz with Total Harmonic Distortion...

  18. Individualist-Collectivist Culture and Trust Radius : A Multilevel Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, André

    We apply a multilevel approach to examine empirically the nexus between individualist and collectivist culture on the one hand and people’s radius of trust on the other. People’s trust level (i.e., the intensity with which people trust other people) has been extensively studied. Increasingly,

  19. Multi-level Reconfigurable Self-organization in Overlay Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, E.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale decentralized systems organized in overlay networks are complex to manage. Such systems integrate organizational complexity in the application-level resulting in low abstraction and modularity in their services. This thesis introduces a multi-level conceptual architecture for overlay

  20. Detecting bots using multi-level traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2016-01-01

    introduces a novel multi-level botnet detection approach that performs network traffic analysis of three protocols widely considered as the main carriers of botnet Command and Control (C&C) and attack traffic, i.e. TCP, UDP and DNS. The proposed method relies on supervised machine learning for identifying...