WorldWideScience

Sample records for group hazard ratio

  1. Biostatistics primer: what a clinician ought to know: hazard ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Helen; Simms, Lorinda; Govindan, Ramaswamy

    2011-06-01

    Hazard ratios (HRs) are used commonly to report results from randomized clinical trials in oncology. However, they remain one of the most perplexing concepts for clinicians. A good understanding of HRs is needed to effectively interpret the medical literature to make important treatment decisions. This article provides clear guidelines to clinicians about how to appropriately interpret HRs. While this article focuses on the commonly used methods, the authors acknowledge that other statistical methods exist for analyzing survival data.

  2. Mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraska, Michal; Gilbert, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    An objective of randomized placebo-controlled preventive HIV vaccine efficacy (VE) trials is to assess the relationship between vaccine effects to prevent HIV acquisition and continuous genetic distances of the exposing HIVs to multiple HIV strains represented in the vaccine. The set of genetic distances, only observed in failures, is collectively termed the 'mark.' The objective has motivated a recent study of a multivariate mark-specific hazard ratio model in the competing risks failure time analysis framework. Marks of interest, however, are commonly subject to substantial missingness, largely due to rapid post-acquisition viral evolution. In this article, we investigate the mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks and develop two inferential procedures based on (i) inverse probability weighting (IPW) of the complete cases, and (ii) augmentation of the IPW estimating functions by leveraging auxiliary data predictive of the mark. Asymptotic properties and finite-sample performance of the inferential procedures are presented. This research also provides general inferential methods for semiparametric density ratio/biased sampling models with missing data. We apply the developed procedures to data from the HVTN 502 'Step' HIV VE trial.

  3. Volcanic Hazard Maps; the results and progress made by the IAVCEI Hazard Map working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Eliza; Lindsay, Jan; Wright, Heather

    2017-04-01

    The IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Hazards and Risk set up a working group on Hazard Maps in 2014. Since then, the group has led or co-organised three major workshops, and organized two thematic conference sessions. In particular we have initiated a series of workshops, named the "State of the Hazard Map" which we plan to continue (the first was held at COV8 (State of the Hazard Map 1) and second at COV9 (State of the Hazard Map 2) and the third will be held at IAVCEI General Assembly in Portland. The broad aim of these activities is to work towards an IAVCEI-endorsed considerations or guidelines document for volcanic hazard map generation. The workshops have brought together people from around the world working on volcanic hazard maps, and have had four primary objectives: 1) to review (and collect further data on) the diverse variety of methods and rationales currently used to develop maps; 2) to openly discuss approaches and experiences regarding how hazard maps are interpreted and used by different groups; 3) to discuss and prepare the IAVCEI Guidelines document; and lastly, 4) Discuss options for finalizing, publishing and disseminating the Guidelines document (e.g. wiki, report, open-source publication). This presentation will provide an update of the results and outcomes of those initiatives. This includes brief outcomes of the reviews undertaken, a survey that has been constructed in order to gather additional data, the planned structure for the guidelines documents and a summary of the key findings to date. The majority of the participants of these activities so far have come from volcano observatories or geological surveys, as these institutions commonly have primary responsibility for making operational hazard map. It is important however that others in the scientific community that work on quantification of volcanic hazard contribute to these guidelines. We therefore invite interested parties to become involved.

  4. ESTIMATING HAZARD RATIOS IN NESTED CASE-CONTROL STUDIES BY MANTEL-HAENSZEL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠占

    2001-01-01

    In this article, a class of Mantel-Haenszel type estimators of hazard ratios in proportional hazards model is presented for simple nested case-control study. The estimators have the form of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator of odds ratios, and it is shown that the estimators are dually consistent, and asymptotically normal. Dually consistently estimated covariance matrices of the proposed estimators are also developed. An example is given to illustrate the estimators.

  5. Mass-to-light ratios of nearby groups of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Materne, J

    1980-01-01

    The application of a probability density function gives the possibility of determining groups of galaxies and membership probabilities of the galaxies in a reliable unbiased way. For the five nearest groups so defined, the mean mass-to-light ratio was derived using the concept of negative energy. These groups have a mass-to- light ratio of 16 M/sub (.)//L/sub (.)/. The probability function gives also the possibility of deriving masses of groups in a direct and independent way. (22 refs).

  6. Flash Flood Hazard Susceptibility Mapping Using Frequency Ratio and Statistical Index Methods in Coalmine Subsidence Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on producing flash flood hazard susceptibility maps (FFHSM using frequency ratio (FR and statistical index (SI models in the Xiqu Gully (XQG of Beijing, China. First, a total of 85 flash flood hazard locations (n = 85 were surveyed in the field and plotted using geographic information system (GIS software. Based on the flash flood hazard locations, a flood hazard inventory map was built. Seventy percent (n = 60 of the flooding hazard locations were randomly selected for building the models. The remaining 30% (n = 25 of the flooded hazard locations were used for validation. Considering that the XQG used to be a coal mining area, coalmine caves and subsidence caused by coal mining exist in this catchment, as well as many ground fissures. Thus, this study took the subsidence risk level into consideration for FFHSM. The ten conditioning parameters were elevation, slope, curvature, land use, geology, soil texture, subsidence risk area, stream power index (SPI, topographic wetness index (TWI, and short-term heavy rain. This study also tested different classification schemes for the values for each conditional parameter and checked their impacts on the results. The accuracy of the FFHSM was validated using area under the curve (AUC analysis. Classification accuracies were 86.61%, 83.35%, and 78.52% using frequency ratio (FR-natural breaks, statistical index (SI-natural breaks and FR-manual classification schemes, respectively. Associated prediction accuracies were 83.69%, 81.22%, and 74.23%, respectively. It was found that FR modeling using a natural breaks classification method was more appropriate for generating FFHSM for the Xiqu Gully.

  7. Estimating the relative hazard by the ratio of logarithms of event-free proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneger, Thomas V

    2008-09-01

    Clinical trials typically examine associations between an intervention and the occurrence of a clinical event. The association is often reported as a relative risk, more rarely as an odds ratio. Unfortunately, when the scientific interest lies with the ratio of incidence rates, both these statistics are inaccurate: the odds ratio is too extreme, and the relative risk too conservative. These biases are particularly strong when the outcomes are common. This paper describes an alternative statistic, the ratio of logarithms of event-free proportions (or relative log survival), which is simple to compute yet unbiased vis-à-vis the relative hazard. A formula to compute the sampling error of this statistic is also provided. Multivariate analysis can be conducted using complementary log-log regression. Precise knowledge of event occurrence times is not required for these analyses. Relative log survival may be particularly useful for meta-analyses of trials in which the proportion of events varies between studies.

  8. On confidence intervals for the hazard ratio in randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan-Yu; Dai, Luyan; Cheng, Gang; Sailer, Martin Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The log-rank test is widely used to compare two survival distributions in a randomized clinical trial, while partial likelihood (Cox, 1975) is the method of choice for making inference about the hazard ratio under the Cox (1972) proportional hazards model. The Wald 95% confidence interval of the hazard ratio may include the null value of 1 when the p-value of the log-rank test is less than 0.05. Peto et al. (1977) provided an estimator for the hazard ratio based on the log-rank statistic; the corresponding 95% confidence interval excludes the null value of 1 if and only if the p-value of the log-rank test is less than 0.05. However, Peto's estimator is not consistent, and the corresponding confidence interval does not have correct coverage probability. In this article, we construct the confidence interval by inverting the score test under the (possibly stratified) Cox model, and we modify the variance estimator such that the resulting score test for the null hypothesis of no treatment difference is identical to the log-rank test in the possible presence of ties. Like Peto's method, the proposed confidence interval excludes the null value if and only if the log-rank test is significant. Unlike Peto's method, however, this interval has correct coverage probability. An added benefit of the proposed confidence interval is that it tends to be more accurate and narrower than the Wald confidence interval. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method through extensive simulation studies and a colon cancer study.

  9. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols...

  10. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other grou

  11. [ABO system blood group ratios in patients with neuroinfections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudometov, Iu P; Umanskiĭ, K G; Ashmarina, E E; Andreeva, L S

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of the ABO blood groups in 2009 patients including 1441 ones suffering from etiologically diverse neuroinfections was studied. Certain correlations between the nosological forms and groups of the diseases on the one hand, and the blood factors on the other are demonstrated. The data obtained point to a certain role of hereditary predisposition in the genesis of the neuroinfections. This predisposition predetermines the risk of the illnesses and the gravity of their course, the fact, which is of a practical importance for the clinician.

  12. 49 CFR 173.226 - Materials poisonous by inhalation, Division 6.1, Packing Group I, Hazard Zone A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Packing Group I, Hazard Zone A. 173.226 Section 173.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., Packing Group I, Hazard Zone A. Division 6.1, Packing Group I, Zone A poisonous by inhalation (see § 173... performance test requirements of subpart M of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I...

  13. The median hazard ratio: a useful measure of variance and general contextual effects in multilevel survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Wagner, Philippe; Merlo, Juan

    2017-03-15

    Multilevel data occurs frequently in many research areas like health services research and epidemiology. A suitable way to analyze such data is through the use of multilevel regression models (MLRM). MLRM incorporate cluster-specific random effects which allow one to partition the total individual variance into between-cluster variation and between-individual variation. Statistically, MLRM account for the dependency of the data within clusters and provide correct estimates of uncertainty around regression coefficients. Substantively, the magnitude of the effect of clustering provides a measure of the General Contextual Effect (GCE). When outcomes are binary, the GCE can also be quantified by measures of heterogeneity like the Median Odds Ratio (MOR) calculated from a multilevel logistic regression model. Time-to-event outcomes within a multilevel structure occur commonly in epidemiological and medical research. However, the Median Hazard Ratio (MHR) that corresponds to the MOR in multilevel (i.e., 'frailty') Cox proportional hazards regression is rarely used. Analogously to the MOR, the MHR is the median relative change in the hazard of the occurrence of the outcome when comparing identical subjects from two randomly selected different clusters that are ordered by risk. We illustrate the application and interpretation of the MHR in a case study analyzing the hazard of mortality in patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction at hospitals in Ontario, Canada. We provide R code for computing the MHR. The MHR is a useful and intuitive measure for expressing cluster heterogeneity in the outcome and, thereby, estimating general contextual effects in multilevel survival analysis. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 49 CFR 173.133 - Assignment of packing group and hazard zones for Division 6.1 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of packing group and hazard zones for... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions Classification, Packing... Assignment of packing group and hazard zones for Division 6.1 materials. (a) The packing group of Division...

  15. 41 CFR 101-42.1101 - Federal supply classification (FSC) groups and classes which contain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... device. 2520 Vehicular power transmission components Items containing asbestos. 2530 Vehicular brake... metallic sodium. Group 29 Engine accessories Engine valves containing metallic sodium. Group 30 Mechanical power transmission equipment Equipment containing hazardous hydraulic fluids including PCBs. Group...

  16. Sameness: The regulatory crux with nanomaterial identity and grouping schemes for hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Tobias; Studer, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Regulators and industry need clear rules for identification and grouping of nanomaterials for a streamlined quantitative hazard evaluation. Therefore, we provide convincing reasons for (i) why to introduce pragmatic definition of identities for nanomaterials, (ii) how to combine them into entities, and ultimately (iii) how the entities might be evaluated with testing strategies based on clouds of similar nanomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 49 CFR 173.227 - Materials poisonous by inhalation, Division 6.1, Packing Group I, Hazard Zone B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Packing Group I, Hazard Zone B. 173.227 Section 173.227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., Packing Group I, Hazard Zone B. (a) In packagings as authorized in § 173.226 and seamless and welded... conform to the performance test requirements of subpart M of part 178 of this subchapter at the...

  18. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Eastern and Central groups of the Azores - Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontiela, João; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Rosset, Philippe; Borges, José; Rodrigues, Francisco; Caldeira, Bento

    2017-04-01

    Azores islands of the Eastern and Central groups are located at the triple junction of the American, Eurasian and Nubian plates inducing a large number of low magnitude earthquakes. Since its settlement in the 15th century, 33 earthquakes with intensity ≥ VII have caused severe damage and high death toll. The most severe ones occurred in 1522 at São Miguel Island with a maximum MM intensity of X; in 1614 at Terceira Island (X) in 1757 at São Jorge Island (XI); 1852 at São Miguel Island (VIII); 1926 at Faial Island (Mb 5.3-5.9); in 1980 at Terceira Island (Mw7.1) and in 1998 at Faial Island (Mw6.2). The analysis of the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) were carried out using the classical Cornell-McGuire approach using seismogenic zones recently defined by Fontiela et al. (2014). We create a new earthquake catalogue merging local and global datasets with a large time span (1522 - 2016) to calculate recurrence times and maximum magnitudes. In order to reduce the epistemic uncertainties, we test several ground motion prediction equations in agreement with the geological heterogeneities typical of young volcanic islands. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps are proposed for 475 and 975 years returns periods as well as hazard curves and uniform hazard spectra for the main cities. REFERENCES: Fontiela, J. et al., 2014. Azores seismogenic zones. Comunicações Geológicas, 101(1), pp.351-354. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: João Fontiela is supported by grant M3.1.2/F/060/2011 of Regional Science Fund of the Regional Government Azores and this study is co-funded by the European Union through the European fund of Regional Development, framed in COMPETE 2020 (Operational Competitiveness Programme and Internationalization) through the ICT project (UID/GEO/04683/2013) with the reference POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007690.

  19. Exposure to Flood Hazards in Miami and Houston: Are Hispanic Immigrants at Greater Risk than Other Social Groups?

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Alejandra; Collins, Timothy W.; Sara E. Grineski; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted on the vulnerability of marginalized groups in the environmental justice (EJ) and hazards fields, analysts have tended to lump people together in broad racial/ethnic categories without regard for substantial within-group heterogeneity. This paper addresses that limitation by examining whether Hispanic immigrants are disproportionately exposed to risks from flood hazards relative to other racial/ethnic groups (including US-born Hispanics), adjustin...

  20. spatial-temporal variation in sex ratio and group size of ostriches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    The rains in the Serengeti ecosystem fall in a bimodal pattern ... main ostrich predators and their influence on ostrich sex ratios ... group size data was positively skewed due to some large ..... activities on carnivore populations in the. Western ...

  1. Development plan for the External Hazards Experimental Group. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Burns, Douglas Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the development plan for a new multi-partner External Hazards Experimental Group (EHEG) coordinated by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) technical pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Currently, there is limited data available for development and validation of the tools and methods being developed in the RISMC Toolkit. The EHEG is being developed to obtain high-quality, small- and large-scale experimental data validation of RISMC tools and methods in a timely and cost-effective way. The group of universities and national laboratories that will eventually form the EHEG (which is ultimately expected to include both the initial participants and other universities and national laboratories that have been identified) have the expertise and experimental capabilities needed to both obtain and compile existing data archives and perform additional seismic and flooding experiments. The data developed by EHEG will be stored in databases for use within RISMC. These databases will be used to validate the advanced external hazard tools and methods.

  2. Mass-to-Light-Ratios of the galaxy clusters and groups observed with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, T.; Matsushita, K.; Sato, K.; Abe, Y.; Akamatsu, H.; Fujita, Y.; Kanno, Y.; Simionescu, A.; Tamura, T.; Werner, N.

    2016-06-01

    We analyzed 15 nearby (z band luminosities of galaxies and calculated the ratio of the cumulative gas mass and Fe mass in the ICM to the K-band luminosity (gas-mass-to-light ratio and iron-mass-to-light ratio, respectively). The Coma, Perseus, and medium systems have relatively flat radial profiles of the metal abundances at 0.3 solar within 0.5-1 r_{500}, and ˜ 0.2 solar beyond r_{500}. The gas-mass-to-light-ratios and iron-mass-to-light-ratios ratios increase with radius out to r_{500} and become flatter beyond the radius. The weighted average of the iron-mass-to-light ratios of the clusters at 1.6 r_{500} agrees with the expectation with the Salpeter initial-mass-function of stars, and we do not need a top-heavy slope. In contrast, groups and poor clusters have lower gas-mass-to-light ratios and lower iron-mass-to-light ratios than that of rich systems, with the higher entropy excess. Above these results, we discuss an early metal enrichment in galaxy clusters and groups.

  3. Gischig receives 2011 Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Valentin Gischig has been awarded the AGU Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to a recent Ph.D. recipient for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Gischig's thesis is entitled “Kinematics and failure mechanisms of the Randa rock slope instability (Switzerland).” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Gischig received his M.Sc. in geophysics and glaciology at Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, in Switzerland, in 2007. In 2011 he attained a Ph.D. in engineering geology/rock mechanics/landslide analysis under the supervision of Simon Loew, Jeffrey R. Moore, Florian Amann, and Keith F. Evans at ETH Zürich. Gischig is currently conducting postdoctoral research at ETH Zürich. His research interests include landslides, induced seismicity in enhanced geothermal systems, and coupled processes in rock mechanics.

  4. 49 CFR 173.211 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Packing Group I. 173.211 Section 173.211 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group I. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a solid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I...

  5. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Packing Group III. 173.213 Section 173.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group III. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a solid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I, II or...

  6. 49 CFR 173.201 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Packing Group I. 173.201 Section 173.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group I. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a liquid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I...

  7. 49 CFR 173.202 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Packing Group II. 173.202 Section 173.202 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group II. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a liquid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I or...

  8. 49 CFR 173.212 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Packing Group II. 173.212 Section 173.212 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group II. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a solid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I or...

  9. 49 CFR 173.203 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Packing Group III. 173.203 Section 173.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group III. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a liquid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I, II or...

  10. Is the use of wildlife group-specific concentration ratios justified?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Beresford, Nicholas A. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Copplestone, David [School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Howard, Brenda J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Yankovich, Tamara L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    The international Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD; www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org/?) provides the most comprehensive international compilation of radionuclide transfer parameters (concentration ratios) for wildlife. The concentration ratio (CR{sub wo-media}) is a constant that describes the ratio between the activity concentration of a radionuclide in the whole- organism and the activity concentration of that radionuclide in a reference environmental medium (e.g. soil or filtered water). Developed to support activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the WTD now contains over 100,000 CR{sub wo-media} values. The WTD has been used to generate summary statistics for broad wildlife groups (e.g. amphibian, arthropod, mammal, reptile, shrub, tree etc). The group-specific summary statistics include mean and standard deviation (both arithmetic and geometric) and range. These summarised CR{sub wo-media} values (generally arithmetic or geometric mean) are used in most of the modelling approaches currently implemented for wildlife dose assessment. Beyond the broad organism group summary statistics presented within the WTD, it is possible to generate CR{sub wo-media} summary statistics for some organism sub-categories (e.g. carnivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous birds). However, using a statistical analysis we developed recently for the analysis of summarised datasets, we have shown that there is currently little statistical justification for the use of organism sub-category CR{sub wo-media} values. Large variability is a characteristic of many of the organism-radionuclide datasets within the WTD, even within individual input data sets. Therefore, the statistical validity of defining different CR{sub wo-media} values for these broad wildlife groups may also be questioned. However, no analysis has been undertaken to date to determine the statistical significance of any differences between

  11. Lipid Peroxidation, Nitric Oxide Metabolites, and Their Ratio in a Group of Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Caimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate lipid peroxidation, expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite + nitrate expressed as NOx, and TBARS/NOx ratio in a group of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS. In this regard we enrolled 106 subjects with MS defined according to the IDF criteria, subsequently subdivided into diabetic (DMS and nondiabetic (NDMS and also into subjects with a low triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C index or with a high TG/HDL-C index. In the entire group and in the four subgroups of MS subjects we found an increase in TBARS and NOx levels and a decrease in TBARS/NOx ratio in comparison with normal controls. Regarding all these parameters no statistical difference between DMS and NDMS was evident, but a significant increase in NOx was present in subjects with a high TG/HDL-C index in comparison with those with a low index. In MS subjects we also found a negative correlation between TBARS/NOx ratio and TG/HDL-C index. Considering the hyperactivity of the inducible NO synthase in MS, these data confirm the altered redox and inflammatory status that characterizes the MS and suggest a link between lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and insulin resistance, evaluated as TG/HDL-C index.

  12. On the mass-to-light ratios of fossil groups. Are they simply dark clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Proctor, Robert N; Dupke, Renato; de Oliveira, Raimundo Lopes; Cypriano, Eduardo S; Miller, Eric D; Rykoff, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Defined as X-ray bright galaxy groups with large differences between the luminosities of their brightest and second brightest galaxies, "fossil groups" are believed to be some of the oldest galaxy systems in the universe. They have therefore been the subject of much recent research. In this work we present a study of 10 fossil group candidates with an average of 33 spectroscopically confirmed members per group, making this the deepest study of its type to-date. We also use this data to perform an analysis of the luminosity function of our sample of fossil groups. We confirm the high masses previously reported for many of fossil systems, finding values more similar to those of clusters than of groups. We also confirm the high dynamical mass-to-light ratios reported in many previous studies. While our results are consistent with previous studies in many ways, our interpretation is not. This is because we show that, while the luminosities of the BCGs in these systems are consistent with their high dynamical mass...

  13. A Cloud Computing Approach to Personal Risk Management: The Open Hazards Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, W. R.; Holliday, J. R.; Rundle, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    According to the California Earthquake Authority, only about 12% of current California residences are covered by any form of earthquake insurance, down from about 30% in 1996 following the 1994, M6.7 Northridge earthquake. Part of the reason for this decreasing rate of insurance uptake is the high deductible, either 10% or 15% of the value of the structure, and the relatively high cost of the premiums, as much as thousands of dollars per year. The earthquake insurance industry is composed of the CEA, a public-private partnership; modeling companies that produce damage and loss models similar to the FEMA HAZUS model; and financial companies such as the insurance, reinsurance, and investment banking companies in New York, London, the Cayman Islands, Zurich, Dubai, Singapore, and elsewhere. In setting earthquake insurance rates, financial companies rely on models like HAZUS, that calculate on risk and exposure. In California, the process begins with an official earthquake forecast by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities. Modeling companies use these 30 year earthquake probabilities as inputs to their attenuation and damage models to estimate the possible damage factors from scenario earthquakes. Economic loss is then estimated from processes such as structural failure, lost economic activity, demand surge, and fire following the earthquake. Once the potential losses are known, rates can be set so that a target ruin probability of less than 1% or so can be assured. Open Hazards Group was founded with the idea that the global public might be interested in a personal estimate of earthquake risk, computed using data supplied by the public, with models running in a cloud computing environment. These models process data from the ANSS catalog, updated at least daily, to produce rupture forecasts that are backtested with standard Reliability/Attributes and Receiver Operating Characteristic tests, among others. Models for attenuation and structural damage

  14. Revised Mass-to-Light Ratios For Nearby Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Yutong; Courteau, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the cluster stellar mass-to-light (M*/L) ratio and cumulative stellar masses, derived on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis, for 12 massive (M500 ~ 10^14 - 10^15 Msun), nearby clusters with available optical imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 and X-ray data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our method involves a statistical cluster membership using both photometric and spectroscopic redshifts when available to maximize completeness whilst minimizing contamination effects. We show that different methods of estimating the stellar mass-to-light ratio from observed photometry result in systematic discrepancies in the total stellar masses and average mass-to-light ratios of cluster galaxies. Nonetheless, all conversion methodologies point to a lack of correlation between M*/Li and total cluster mass, even though low-mass groups contain relatively more blue galaxies. We also find no statistically significant correlation between M*/Li and the fraction of blu...

  15. Natural hazards Early career scientist Team (NhET), a newborn group bridging science to a broader community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luigi; Cigala, Valeria; Rizzi, Jonathan; Craciun, Iulya; Gain, Animesh Kumar; Albano, Raffaele

    2017-04-01

    Alongside with other major EGU divisions, Natural Hazard has recently formed his Early Career Scientist (ECS) team, known as NhET. NhET was born in 2016 and its scope includes various activities for the EGU members, the international scientific community as well as for the general public. We are a group of six early career researchers, either PhDs or Post-Docs, from different fields of Natural Hazard, keen to promote knowledge exchanges and collaborations. This is done by organizing courses, training sessions and social activities, especially targeting ECSs, during the EGU General Assembly for this year and the next to come. Outside the timeframe of the EGU conference, we constantly promote EGU contents for our division. This is done through the division website (http://www.egu.eu/nh), a mailing list (https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/nhet) and social media. With respect to the latter, a new Facebook page will be launched shortly and other platforms such as Twitter will be used to reach a broader audience. These platforms will foster the transmission of Natural Hazard topics to anyone who is interested. The main content will be researchers' interviews, information about open positions, trainings, open source software, conferences together with news on hazards and their anthropic and environmental impacts. We are NhET and we invite you all to follow and collaborate with us for a more dynamic, efficient and widespread scientific communication.

  16. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... products are used for applications in packaging, building and construction. We identified two currently...--National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical...--Polycyclic Organic Matter PRD--Pressure Relief Device RACT--Reasonably Available Control Technology...

  17. The efficacy of a brief intervention in reducing hazardous drinking in working age men in Russia: the HIM (Health for Izhevsk men individually randomised parallel group exploratory trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Elizabeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Russia has particularly low life expectancy for an industrialised country, with mortality at working ages having fluctuated dramatically over the past few decades, particularly among men. Alcohol has been identified as the most likely cause of these temporal variations. One approach to reducing the alcohol problem in Russia is 'brief interventions' which seek to change views of the personal acceptability of excessive drinking and to encourage self-directed behaviour change. Very few studies to evaluate the efficacy of brief interventions in Russia have been conducted. Motivational Interviewing (MI is a person-centred counselling style which can be adapted to brief interventions in which help is offered in thinking through behaviour in the context of values and goals, to decide whether change is needed, and if so, how it may best be achieved. Methods This paper reports on an individually randomised two-armed parallel group exploratory trial. The primary hypothesis is that a brief adaptation of MI will be effective in reducing self-reported hazardous and harmful drinking at 3 months. Participants were drawn from the Izhevsk Family Study II, with eligibility determined based on proxy reports of hazardous and harmful drinking in the past year. All participants underwent a health check, with MI subsequently delivered to those in the intervention arm. Signed consent was obtained from those in the intervention arm only at this point. Both groups were then invited for 3 and 12 month follow ups. The control group did not receive any additional intervention. Results 441 men were randomised. Of these 61 did not have a health check leaving 190 in each trial arm. Follow up at 3 months was high (97% of those having a health check, and very similar in the two trial arms (183 in the intervention and 187 in the control. No significant differences were detected between the randomised groups in either the primary or the secondary outcomes at

  18. Observational Mass-to-Light Ratio of Galaxy Systems from Poor Groups to Rich Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, M; Mezzetti, M; Giuricin, G; Limboz, F

    2002-01-01

    We study the mass-to-light ratio of galaxy systems from poor groups to rich clusters, and present for the first time a large database for useful comparisons with theoretical predictions. We extend a previous work, where B_j band luminosities and optical virial masses were analyzed for a sample of 89 clusters. Here we also consider a sample of 52 more clusters, 36 poor clusters, 7 rich groups, and two catalogs, of about 500 groups each, recently identified in the Nearby Optical Galaxy sample by using two different algorithms. We obtain the blue luminosity and virial mass for all systems considered. We devote a large effort to establishing the homogeneity of the resulting values, as well as to considering comparable physical regions, i.e. those included within the virial radius. By analyzing a fiducial, combined sample of 294 systems we find that the mass increases faster than the luminosity: the linear fit gives M\\propto L_B^{1.34 \\pm 0.03}, with a tendency for a steeper increase in the low--mass range. In agr...

  19. NMR characterization of functional groups: 9--isomer ratios of available chloromethylstyrene mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, S. L.; Khune, G. D.; Khatri, N. A.

    1985-01-01

    From the assignments of the 1H and 13C 11.7 tesla NMR spectra of available mixtures of m- and p-chloromethylstyrene, the proportion of the meta and para compounds are easily determined. For these materials from two common commercial sources, proportions of 72 and 28% and 68 and 32% were found. These concentrations are substantially different from the often assumed 60 and 40% for the meta and para compounds, respectively. The influence of this difference on the desired properties of copolymers made from such mixtures is discussed. An alternative quantitative procedure for determining the chloromethyl group isomer ratios is also described which employs silver trifluoroacetate in acetone displacement of chloride and 19F NMR examination of the resulting ester mixture with a 2.3 tesla spectrometer.

  20. The Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation (CHIRP) with Stations (CHIRPS): Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Pedreros, D. H.; Landsfeld, M.; Verdin, J. P.; Shukla, S.

    2013-12-01

    CHIRP and CHIRPS are new quasi-global precipitation products with daily to seasonal time scales, a 0.05° resolution, and a 1981 to near real-time period of record. Developed by the Climate Hazards Group at UCSB and scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center specifically for drought early warning and environmental monitoring, CHIRPS provides moderate latency precipitation estimates that place observed hydrologic extremes in their historic context. Three main types of information are used in the CHIRPS: (1) global 0.05° precipitation climatologies, (2) time-varying grids of satellite-based precipitation estimates, and (3) in situ precipitation observations. CHIRP: The global grids of long-term (1980-2009) average precipitation were estimated for each month based on station data, averaged satellite observations, and physiographic parameters. 1981-present time-varying grids of satellite precipitation were derived from spatially varying regression models based on pentadal cold cloud duration (CCD) values and TRMM V7 training data. The CCD time-series were derived from the CPC and NOAA B1 datasets. Pentadal CCD-percent anomaly values were multiplied by pentadal climatology fields to produce low bias pentadal precipitation estimates. CHIRPS: The CHG station blending procedure uses the satellite-observed spatial covariance structure to assign relative weights to neighboring stations and the CHIRP values. The CHIRPS blending procedure is based on the expected correlation between precipitation at a given target location and precipitation at the locations of the neighboring observation stations. These correlations are estimated using the CHIRP fields. The CHG has developed an extensive archive of in situ daily, pentadal and monthly precipitation totals. The CHG database has over half a billion daily rainfall observations since 1980 and another half billion before 1980. Most of these observations come from four sets of global

  1. Fault2SHA- A European Working group to link faults and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment communities in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Oona; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The key questions we ask are: What is the best strategy to fill in the gap in knowledge and know-how in Europe when considering faults in seismic hazard assessments? Are field geologists providing the relevant information for seismic hazard assessment? Are seismic hazard analysts interpreting field data appropriately? Is the full range of uncertainties associated with the characterization of faults correctly understood and propagated in the computations? How can fault-modellers contribute to a better representation of the long-term behaviour of fault-networks in seismic hazard studies? Providing answers to these questions is fundamental, in order to reduce the consequences of future earthquakes and improve the reliability of seismic hazard assessments. An informal working group was thus created at a meeting in Paris in November 2014, partly financed by the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, with the aim to motivate exchanges between field geologists, fault modellers and seismic hazard practitioners. A variety of approaches were presented at the meeting and a clear gap emerged between some field geologists, that are not necessarily familiar with probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methods and needs and practitioners that do not necessarily propagate the "full" uncertainty associated with the characterization of faults. The group thus decided to meet again a year later in Chieti (Italy), to share concepts and ideas through a specific exercise on a test case study. Some solutions emerged but many problems of seismic source characterizations with people working in the field as well as with people tackling models of interacting faults remained. Now, in Wien, we want to open the group and launch a call for the European community at large to contribute to the discussion. The 2016 EGU session Fault2SHA is motivated by such an urgency to increase the number of round tables on this topic and debate on the peculiarities of using faults in seismic hazard

  2. The analysis of ranges of variability of selected ratios from a group of assets productivity ratios three years before the declaration of bankruptcy by companies in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Antonowicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the research results concerning the development of the variability of five selected ratios from the group of assets productivity in companies with extremely different financial and economic positions. The research was conducted on a test sample of 380 business entities: 190 companies subject to bankruptcy in the years 2007-2011 and 190 “healthy” companies. The research shows a different usefulness of various ratios of the financial analysis considered as one-dimensional bankruptcy predictors used to predict and early detect symptoms of companies threatened with bankruptcy.

  3. What climate information is recorded in stable isotope ratios of wood lignin methoxyl groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotope composition of the bioelements C, O, H and N in plant organic matter is known to be a very powerful for various environmental impacts. Particularly tree rings are suitable for this analysis because they exhibit a "climate archive" with a yearly or even biannual resolution. One of the most determined wood compounds is cellulose which amongst others is used to reconstruct the temperature due to measurement of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Therefore cellulose is converted into cellulose nitrate to eliminate the exchangeable hydroxyl hydrogen or equilibration methods are used. However, a general problem associated with the determination of the stable hydrogen values of marker compounds for the study of climate and environmental conditions is the isolation of the pure compound for analysis by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Exploitation of components of wood as markers, in particular, has been restricted by the very labour intensive and time consuming preparation of samples (e.g. cellulose nitrate). An alternative way to record climate information from tree rings was recently proposed by Keppler et al. (2007) who measured the stable hydrogen values of methoxyl groups in wood. Lignin methoxyl groups are considered to be stable, i.e. the hydrogen atoms of the methoxyl moiety do not exchange with those of plant water during ongoing metabolic reactions in the plant. Thus the initial deuterium content of the methoxyl groups of lignin in woody tissue at formation is retained throughout the lifetime of the tree and in preserved tissue. The methoxyl content of lignin in wood is usually determined by the Zeisel method (Zeisel, 1885) - the reaction between methyl ethers and hydroiodic acid to form methyl iodide. Exploiting this reaction for the measurement of stable hydrogen values of lignin methoxyl groups ensures that during the entire analytical procedure the isotope signal is preserved since no isotopic exchange occurs between the methyl groups and

  4. Use of the p,p'-DDD: p,p'-DDE concentration ratio to trace contaminant migration from a hazardous waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Alfred E; McGowan, Peter C

    2006-09-01

    For approximately 50 years, beginning in the 1920s, hazardous wastes were disposed in an 11-hectare area of the Marine Corps Base (MCB) Quantico, Virginia, USA known as the Old Landfill. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT compounds were the primary contaminants of concern. These contaminants migrated into the sediments of a 78-hectare area of the Potomac River, the Quantico Embayment. Fish tissue contamination resulted in the MCB posting signs along the embayment shoreline warning fishermen to avoid consumption. In this paper, we interpret total PCB (t-PCBs) and total DDT (t-DDT, sum of six DDT, DDD, and DDE isomers) data from monitoring studies. We use the ratio of p,p'-DDD to p,p'-DDE concentrations as a tracer to distinguish site-related from regional contamination. The median DDD/DDE ratio in Quantico Embayment sediments (3.5) was significantly higher than the median ratio (0.71) in sediments from nearby Powells Creek, used as a reference area. In general, t-PCBs and t-DDT concentrations were significantly higher in killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Quantico Embayment compared with Powells Creek. For both species, Quantico Embayment fish had mean or median DDD/DDE ratios greater than one. Median ratios were significantly higher in Quantico Embayment (4.6) than Powells Creek (0.28) whole body carp. In contrast, t-PCBs and t-DDT in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets were similar in Quantico Embayment and Powells Creek collections, with median ratios of 0.34 and 0.26, respectively. Differences between species may be attributable to movement (carp and killifish being more localized) and feeding patterns (carp ingesting sediment while feeding). We recommend that environmental scientists use this ratio when investigating sites with DDT contamination.

  5. Reconsidering the Null Hypothesis: Is Maternal Rank Associated with Birth Sex Ratios in Primate Groups?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillian R. Brown; Joan B. Silk

    2002-01-01

    Trivers and Willard hypothesized that vertebrates adaptively vary the sex ratio of their offspring in response to the mother's physical condition [Trivers, R. L. & Willard, D. (1973) Science 179, 90-92...

  6. Aspect ratio plays a role in the hazard potential of CeO2 nanoparticles in mouse lung and zebrafish gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Dong, Yuan; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Song, Tze-Bin; Kohan, Sirus; Xia, Tian; Zink, Jeffrey I; Lin, Shuo; Nel, André E

    2014-05-27

    We have previously demonstrated that there is a relationship between the aspect ratio (AR) of CeO2 nanoparticles and in vitro hazard potential. CeO2 nanorods with AR ≥ 22 induced lysosomal damage and progressive effects on IL-1β production and cytotoxicity in the human myeloid cell line, THP-1. In order to determine whether this toxicological paradigm for long aspect ratio (LAR) CeO2 is also relevant in vivo, we performed comparative studies in the mouse lung and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of zebrafish larvae. Although oropharyngeal aspiration could induce acute lung inflammation for CeO2 nanospheres and nanorods, only the nanorods with the highest AR (C5) induced significant IL-1β and TGF-β1 production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 21 days but did not induce pulmonary fibrosis. However, after a longer duration (44 days) exposure to 4 mg/kg of the C5 nanorods, more collagen production was seen with CeO2 nanorods vs nanospheres after correcting for Ce lung burden. Using an oral-exposure model in zebrafish larvae, we demonstrated that C5 nanorods also induced significant growth inhibition, a decrease in body weight, and delayed vertebral calcification. In contrast, CeO2 nanospheres and shorter nanorods had no effect. Histological and transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that the key injury mechanism of C5 was in the epithelial lining of the GIT, which demonstrated blunted microvilli and compromised digestive function. All considered, these data demonstrate that, similar to cellular studies, LAR CeO2 nanorods exhibit more toxicity in the lung and GIT, which could be relevant to inhalation and environmental hazard potential.

  7. Determining the explosion risk level and the explosion hazard area for a group of natural gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, A.; Petrescu, V.; Deac, C.; Bibu, M.

    2016-11-01

    Starting from the fact that the natural gas engineering profession is generally associated with a high occupational risk, the current paper aims to help increase the safety of natural gas wells and reduce the risk of work-related accidents, as well as the occurrence of professional illnesses, by applying an assessment method that has proven its efficiency in other industrial areas in combination with a computer-aided design software. More specifically, the paper focuses on two main research directions: assessing the explosion risk for employees working at natural gas wells and indicating areas with a higher explosion hazard by using a modern software that allows their presentation in 3D. The appropriate zoning of industrial areas allows to group the various functional areas function of the probability of the occurrence of a dangerous element, such as an explosive atmosphere and subsequently it allows also to correctly select the electrical and mechanical equipment that will be used in that area, since electrical apparatuses that are otherwise found in normal work environments cannot generally be used in areas with explosion hazard, because of the risk that an electric spark, an electrostatic discharge etc. ignites the explosive atmosphere.

  8. Volcanic Stratigraphy and Potential Hazards of the Chihsingshan Volcano Subgroup in the Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Tsai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chihsingshan Volcano Subgroup (CVSG is one of the most important landforms located within the Tatun Volcano Group in northern Taiwan. Based on a Digital Terrain Model, contour maps and field investigations, the CVSG can be divided into four types of volcanic landforms: (1 a strato- or composite volcano, Chihsingshan; (2 domes, the Shamaoshan and a hidden unit; (3 lava cones, the Baiyunshan and the Hsiaotsaoshan; and (4 a scoria cone, the Chikushan. Meanwhile, many small craters are distributed linearly along two northeast trending normal-fault systems. The occurrences are predominantly lava flows with subsidiary fall deposits, pyroclastic flows, and lahars in which at least twenty layers of lava flow in the CVSG can be recognized. Among them, 16 layers in the Chihsingshan volcano, named as C1 - C16, two in the Baiyunshan, B1 - B2, and two in the Hsiaotsaoshan, H1 - H2. Our study suggests that the potential volcanic hazards include lava and pyroclastic flows and simultaneous or subsequent lahars, if the Chihsingshan erupts in a similar manner as in the past. A volcanic hazard zonation map can be constructed for the purpose of mitigation assuming the future eruptive center and eruptive volume.

  9. Dirichlet Eigenvalue Ratios for the p-sub-Laplacian in the Carnot Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Na; NIU Pengcheng; LIU Haifeng

    2009-01-01

    We prove some new Hardy type inequalities on the bounded domain with smooth boundary in the Carnot group. Several estimates of the first and second Dirich-let eigenvalues for the p-sub-Laplacian are established.

  10. Whole-brain in-vivo measurements of the axonal g-ratio in a group of 37 healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siawoosh eMohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The g-ratio, quantifying the ratio between the inner and outer diameters of a fiber, is an important microstructural characteristic of fiber pathways and is functionally related to conduction velocity. We introduce a novel method for estimating the MR g-ratio non-invasively across the whole brain using high-fidelity magnetization transfer (MT imaging and single-shell diffusion MRI. These methods enabled us to map the MR g-ratio in vivo across the brain’s prominent fiber pathways in a group of 37 healthy volunteers and to estimate the inter-subject variability. Effective correction of susceptibility-related distortion artifacts was essential before combining the MT and diffusion data, in order to reduce partial volume and edge artifacts. The MR g-ratio is in good qualitative agreement with histological findings despite the different resolution and spatial coverage of MRI and histology. The MR g-ratio holds promise as an important non-invasive biomarker due to its microstructural and functional relevance in neurodegeneration.

  11. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios of lignin methoxyl groups as a paleoclimate proxy and constraint of the geographical origin of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Frank; Harper, David B; Kalin, Robert M; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Farmer, Nicola; Davis, Simon; Schmidt, Hanns-Ludwig; Brown, David M; Hamilton, John T G

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of organic compounds are valuable tools for determining the geographical origin, identity, authenticity or history of samples from a vast range of sources such as sediments, plants and animals, including humans. Hydrogen isotope ratios (delta(2)H values) of methoxyl groups in lignin from wood of trees grown in different geographical areas were measured using compound-specific pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry analysis. Lignin methoxyl groups were depleted in (2)H relative to both meteoric water and whole wood. A high correlation (r(2) = 0.91) was observed between the delta(2)H values of the methoxyl groups and meteoric water, with a relatively uniform fractionation of -216 +/- 19 per thousand recorded with respect to meteoric water over a range of delta(2)H values from -110 in northern Norway to +20 per thousand in Yemen. Thus, woods from northern latitudes can be clearly distinguished from those from tropical regions. By contrast, the delta(2)H values of bulk wood were only relatively poorly correlated (r(2) = 0.47) with those of meteoric water. Measurement of the delta(2)H values of lignin methoxyl groups is potentially a powerful tool that could be of use not only in the constraint of the geographical origin of lignified material but also in paleoclimate, food authenticity and forensic investigations.

  12. A meta-analysis of adjusted hazard ratios from 20 observational studies of bilateral versus single internal thoracic artery coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hisato; Goto, Shin-nosuke; Watanabe, Taku; Mizuno, Yusuke; Kawai, Norikazu; Umemoto, Takuya

    2014-10-01

    In 2001, a landmark meta-analysis of bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) versus single internal thoracic artery (SITA) coronary artery bypass grafting for long-term survival included 7 observational studies (only 3 of which reported adjusted hazard ratios [HRs]) enrolling approximately 16,000 patients. Updating the previous meta-analysis to determine whether BITA grafting reduces long-term mortality relative to SITA grafting, we exclusively abstracte, then combined in a meta-analysis, adjusted (not unadjusted) HRs from observational studies. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched until September 2013. Eligible studies were observational studies of BITA versus SITA grafting and reporting an adjusted HR for long-term (≥4 years) mortality as an outcome. Meta-regression analyses were performed to determine whether the effects of BITA grafting were modulated by the prespecified factors. Twenty observational studies enrolling 70,897 patients were identified and included. A pooled analysis suggested a significant reduction in long-term mortality with BITA relative to SITA grafting (HR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 0.84). When data from 6 pedicled and 6 skeletonized internal thoracic artery studies were separately pooled, BITA grafting was associated with a statistically significant 26% and 16% reduction in mortality relative to SITA grafting, respectively (P for subgroup differences=.04). A meta-regression coefficient was significantly negative for the proportion of men (-0.00960; -0.01806 to -0.00114). Based on an updated meta-analysis of exclusive adjusted HRs from 20 observational studies enrolling more than 70,000 patients, BITA grafting seems to significantly reduce long-term mortality. As the proportion of men increases, BITA grafting is more beneficial in reducing mortality. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CalEnviroScreen 1.0 (CES) Group, California, 2013, California EPA and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Developed jointly by the Agency and the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), the tool uses data about 11 types of pollution and environmental...

  14. Relationship between Ratio of Second and Fourth Digit and Obesity Traits among Different Ethnic Groups in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Fatai OYEYEMI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Digit ratio (2D:4D denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. There are contradicting reports on its relationship with ethnicity/race, whereas convincing studies show it is related to obesity. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to demystify ethnic difference in 2D:4D ratio and to analyze its relationship with obesity among adults in Ilorin Nigeria. The cross-sectional study included 701 individuals. Finger lengths were measured with electronic calipers and other anthropometric traits were measured with standard procedure. Student t test and one-way ANOVA were used to detect differences among groups and relationship was computed with Pearson correlation. The receiver operator characteristic curves were used to detect the diagnostic effect of 2D:4D for obesity. The obtained results showed sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D ratio and other anthropometrics at p < 0.01. Obesity was associated with significantly higher mean of 2D:4D in both genders (female 0.9814 ± 0.012:0.9700 ± 0.012; male 0.9700 ± 0.010:0.9592 ± 0.010 at p < 0.001. The area under the curve was 0.753 (95% CI 0.677-0.829, p < 0.01 and 0.798 (95% CI 0.756-0.804, p < 0.01 in female and male R2D:4D respectively for obesity, implying that 2D:4D might be a surrogate marker for obesity in future.  No significant difference was found in 2D:4D among different ethnic groups studied (p >0.05; this result proved that there was no ethnic specificity in 2D:4D ratio among study’ participants. Thus, it can be reported that the digit ratio was related to high 2D:4D, but this cannot be said for different ethnic groups. The results imply that 2D:4D might be a good surrogate indicator for obesity, but not ethnicity.

  15. Viability of exact tri-bimaximal, golden-ratio and bimaximal mixing patterns and renormalization-group running effects

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    In light of the latest neutrino oscillation data, we examine whether the leptonic flavor mixing matrix can take on an exact form of tri-bimaximal (TBM), golden-ratio (GR) or bimaximal (BM) mixing pattern at a superhigh-energy scale, where such a mixing pattern could be realized by a flavor symmetry, and become compatible with experimental data at the low-energy scale. Within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the only hope for realizing such a possibility is to count on the corrections from the renomalization-group (RG) running. In this work we focus on these radiative corrections, and fully explore the allowed parameter space for each of these mixing patterns. We find that when the upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses $\\Sigma^{}_\

  16. Preparing a seismic hazard model for Switzerland: the view from PEGASOS Expert Group 3 (EG1c)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musson, R. M. W. [British Geological Survey, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3LA (United Kingdom); Sellami, S. [Swiss Seismological Service, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bruestle, W. [Regierungspraesidium Freiburg, Abt. 9: Landesamt fuer Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau, Ref. 98: Landeserdbebendienst, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The seismic hazard model used in the PEGASOS project for assessing earth-quake hazard at four NPP sites was a composite of four sub-models, each produced by a team of three experts. In this paper, one of these models is described in detail by the authors. A criticism sometimes levelled at probabilistic seismic hazard studies is that the process by which seismic source zones are arrived at is obscure, subjective and inconsistent. Here, we attempt to recount the stages by which the model evolved, and the decisions made along the way. In particular, a macro-to-micro approach was used, in which three main stages can be described. The first was the characterisation of the overall kinematic model, the 'big picture' of regional seismo-genesis. Secondly, this was refined to a more detailed seismotectonic model. Lastly, this was used as the basis of individual sources, for which parameters can be assessed. Some basic questions had also to be answered about aspects of the approach to modelling to be used: for instance, is spatial smoothing an appropriate tool to apply? Should individual fault sources be modelled in an intra-plate environment? Also, the extent to which alternative modelling decisions should be expressed in a logic tree structure has to be considered. (author)

  17. The Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset and its applications in drought risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Funk, Chris; Peterson, Pete; McNally, Amy; Dinku, Tufa; Barbosa, Humberto; Paredes-Trejo, Franklin; Pedreros, Diego; Husak, Greg

    2017-04-01

    A high quality, long-term, high-resolution precipitation dataset is key for supporting drought-related risk management and food security early warning. Here, we present the Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) v2.0, developed by scientists at the University of California, Santa Barbara and the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center under the direction of Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). CHIRPS is a quasi-global precipitation product and is made available at daily to seasonal time scales with a spatial resolution of 0.05° and a 1981 to near real-time period of record. We begin by describing the three main components of CHIRPS - a high-resolution climatology, time-varying cold cloud duration precipitation estimates, and in situ precipitation estimates, and how they are combined. We then present a validation of this dataset and describe how CHIRPS is being disseminated and used in different applications, such as large-scale hydrologic models and crop water balance models. Validation of CHIRPS has focused on comparisons with precipitation products with global coverage, long periods of record and near real-time availability such as CPC-Unified, CFS Reanalysis and ECMWF datasets and datasets such GPCC and GPCP that incorporate high quality in situ datasets from places such as Uganda, Colombia, and the Sahel. The CHIRPS is shown to have low systematic errors (bias) and low mean absolute errors. We find that CHIRPS performance appears quite similar to research quality products like the GPCC and GPCP, but with higher resolution and lower latency. We also present results from independent validation studies focused on South America and East Africa. CHIRPS is currently being used to drive FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), that incorporates multiple hydrologic models, and Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), which is a widely used crop water balance model. The outputs (such as

  18. A study on health hazards in dry chili market workers in the age group of 16 to 55 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash P Tekade, Gullapalli HS , Namrata H Gullapalli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The workers who are involved in the handling dry chili face some occupational hazards. In this industry there is always danger of polluting the environment with very small irritating particle. Inhalation of this fine particulate matter is responsible for the various respiratory symptoms which include chronic obstructive disease (COPD and allergic rhinitis and associated ocular symptoms like itchy eye, red eye and conjunctivitis. Exposure of this fine chili particle is associated with the skin problems like burning sensation, irritation and dermatitis. Methods and material: This is the case-control observation study in which 378 male workers who are involved in handling the chili powder were selected after they meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. 203 control subjects are selected who are not associated with the chili market at all. Detail history taking and physical examination done all study and control subjects to see for the respiratory, eye and skin problem. The symptoms are compared between the study and control subjects. Results: The incidence of the respiratory, eye and skin related problems are significantly at a higher level than the control subjects. Conclusion: The worker in the dry chili market significantly facing the health hazards due to the exposure of the finest chili powder which can be prevented with the some measures such as using face masks, socks and cotton shirts and pants which will prevent the contact of the body with the fine irritating particles.

  19. Study on mobility-disadvantage group' risk perception and coping behaviors of abrupt geological hazards in coastal rural area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Anping

    2016-07-01

    China is a country highly vulnerable to abrupt geological hazards. The present study aims to investigate disaster preparedness and perception of abrupt geological disasters (such as rock avalanches, landslide, mud-rock flows etc) in mobility-disadvantage group living in coastal rural area of China. This research is to take into account all factors regarding disasters and to design the questionnaires accordingly. Two debris flow vulnerable townships are selected as study areas including Hedi Township in Qinyuan County and Xianxi Township in Yueqing City which are located in East China's Zhejiang Province. SPSS was applied to conduct descriptive analysis, which results in an effective empirical model for evacuation behavior of the disable groups. The result of this study shows mobility-disadvantage groups' awareness on disaster prevention and mitigation is poor and their knowledge about basic theory and emergency response is limited. Errors and distortions in public consciousness on disaster prevention and mitigation stimulate the development of areas with frequent disasters, which will expose more life and property to danger and aggravate the vulnerability of hazard bearing body. In conclusion, before drafting emergency planning, the government should consider more the disable group's expectations and actual evacuation behavior than the request of the situation to ensure the planning is good to work.

  20. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  1. Effect of silica/titania ratio on enhanced photooxidation of industrial hazardous materials by microwave treated mesoporous SBA-15/TiO2 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Akansha; Mishra, Amit; Sharma, Manisha; Singh, Satnam; Basu, Soumen

    2016-07-01

    In this study microwave assisted technique has been adopted for the synthesis of different weight ratios of TiO2 dispersed on Santa barbara amorphous-15 (SBA-15) support. Morphological study revealed TiO2 particles (4-10 nm) uniformly distributed on SBA-15 while increases in SBA-15 content results in higher specific surface area (524-237 m2/g). The diffraction intensity of 101 plane of anatase polymorph was seen increasing with increase in TiO2 ratio. All the photocatalysts were having a mesoporous nature and follow the Langmuir IV isotherm, SBA-15 posses the highest pore volume (0.93 cm3 g-1) which consistently decreased with TiO2 content and was lowest (0.50 cm3 g-1) in case of 5 wt% of TiO2 followed by P25 (0.45 cm3 g-1) while pore diameter increased after TiO2 incorporation due to pore strain. The photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites were analysed for the photodegradation of alizarin dye and pentachlorophenol under UV light irradiation. The reaction kinetics suggested the highest efficiency (98 % for alizarin and 94 % for PCP) of 5 wt% TiO2 compared to other photocatalysts, these nanocomposites were reused for several cycles, which is most important for heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation reaction.

  2. Use of high-throughput in vitro toxicity screening data in cancer hazard evaluations by IARC Monograph Working Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Martin, Matthew T; Reif, David M; Rusyn, Ivan

    2017-07-24

    Evidence regarding carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph evaluations. Three recent IARC Working Groups pioneered inclusion of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast program high-throughput screening (HTS) data to supplement other mechanistic evidence. In Monograph V110, HTS profiles were compared between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and prototypical activators across multiple nuclear receptors. For Monograph V112 -113, HTS assays were mapped to 10 key characteristics of carcinogens identified by an IARC expert group, and systematically considered as an additional mechanistic data stream. Both individual assay results and ToxPi-based rankings informed mechanistic evaluations. Activation of multiple nuclear receptors in HTS assays showed that PFOA targets peroxisome proliferator activated and other receptors. ToxCast assays substantially covered 5 of 10 key characteristics, corroborating literature evidence of "induces oxidative stress" and "alters cell proliferation, cell death or nutrient supply" and filling gaps for "modulates receptor-mediated effects." Thus, ToxCast HTS data were useful both in evaluating specific mechanistic hypotheses and in the overall evaluation of mechanistic evidence. However, additional HTS assays are needed to provide more comprehensive coverage of the 10 key characteristics of carcinogens that form the basis of current IARC mechanistic evaluations.

  3. Reproductive and behavioral aspects of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens in groups with different sex ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VU Cromberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of tinamous submitted to five different male:female ratios. The study was carried out with 72 birds in a randomized experimental design with 4 replications. Tinamous were housed in cages, using the ratios of one (1:1, two (2:1, three (3:1 and four (4:1 females per male, and also one male was housed with three females individually (3R:1, in a rotational system. Reproductive records of the breeding season from September 2004 to March 2005 were used. The reproductive traits studied were: number of eggs laid, fertility, and percentage of eggs damaged and cracked by pecking. Nonparametric analyses of these traits were performed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Two replications of treatments 1:1 and 4:1, and one of treatment 2:1 were video-taped for three days, 12 hours/day. The videotapes were sampled according to the scan method to fit an ethogram. Birds were also watched for one hour per day to study dominance and agonistic behavior. None of the reproductive traits was affected by mating sex ratio (p<0.05. Female dominance could be related to displacement behavior (r=1.00, and male sitting in immobility plus sitting in activity behaviors were related to lower number of damaged eggs (r=-0.90. Social dominance was indirectly determined by displacement behavior in the study situation. A large number of damaged eggs occurred in all treatments, thereby not allowing a clear conclusion on the best male:female ratio.

  4. Report of AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group 74: in-air output ratio, Sc, for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C; Ahnesjö, Anders; Lam, Kwok Leung; Li, X Allen; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Palta, Jatinder R; Sharpe, Michael B; Thomadsen, Bruce; Tailor, Ramesh C

    2009-11-01

    The concept of in-air output ratio (Sc) was introduced to characterize how the incident photon fluence per monitor unit (or unit time for a Co-60 unit) varies with collimator settings. However, there has been much confusion regarding the measurement technique to be used that has prevented the accurate and consistent determination of Sc. The main thrust of the report is to devise a theoretical and measurement formalism that ensures interinstitutional consistency of Sc. The in-air output ratio, Sc, is defined as the ratio of primary collision water kerma in free-space, Kp, per monitor unit between an arbitrary collimator setting and the reference collimator setting at the same location. Miniphantoms with sufficient lateral and longitudinal thicknesses to eliminate electron contamination and maintain transient electron equilibrium are recommended for the measurement of Sc. The authors present a correction formalism to extrapolate the correct Sc from the measured values using high-Z miniphantom. Miniphantoms made of high-Z material are used to measure Sc for small fields (e.g., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery). This report presents a review of the components of Sc, including headscatter, source-obscuring, and monitor-backscattering effects. A review of calculation methods (Monte Carlo and empirical) used to calculate Sc for arbitrary shaped fields is presented. The authors discussed the use of Sc in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of Sc data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes.

  5. Blue Light Hazard and Risk Group Classification of 8 W LED Tubes, Replacing Fluorescent Tubes, through Optical Radiation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Leccese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss the results of a measurement survey of artificial optical radiation emitted by 8 W LED tubes suitable for the substitution of 18 W fluorescent lamps used for general lighting. For both types of lamps, three different color temperatures were chosen, 3000 K, 4000 K, and 6000 K. These measurements were performed to evaluate the photobiological safety of the sources. The radiance and irradiance values have been measured in a wide range of wavelengths (180–3000 nm. The measurement results obtained for the LED tubes have been compared to those of similar measurements obtained for fluorescent lamps. The analysis has been focused on the range of wavelengths 300–700 nm, the blue light range, which turned out to be defining for the risk groups of the lamps. This classification is a function of the maximum permissible exposure time as indicated in the European Standard EN 62471 on the photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems.

  6. Risk factors for early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: estimation of odds ratios by critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitz, W E; Gould, J B; Druzin, M L

    1999-06-01

    To identify and to establish the prevalence of ORs factors associated with increased risk for early-onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection in neonates. streptococcal (EOGBS) infection in neonates. Literature review and reanalysis of published data. Risk factors for EOGBS infection include group B streptococcal (GBS)-positive vaginal culture at delivery (OR: 204), GBS-positive rectovaginal culture at 28 (OR: 9.64) or 36 weeks gestation (OR: 26. 7), vaginal Strep B OIA test positive at delivery (OR: 15.4), birth weight 18 hours (OR: 7.28), intrapartum fever >37.5 degrees C (OR: 4.05), intrapartum fever, PROM, or prematurity (OR: 9.74), intrapartum fever or PROM at term (OR: 11.5), chorioamnionitis (OR: 6.43). Chorioamnionitis is reported in most (88%) cases in which neonatal infection occurred despite intrapartum maternal antibiotic therapy. ORs could not be estimated for maternal GBS bacteriuria during pregnancy, with preterm premature rupture of membranes, or with a sibling or twin with invasive GBS disease, but these findings seem to be associated with a very high risk. Multiple gestation is not an independent risk factor for GBS infection. h Mothers with GBS bacteriuria during pregnancy, with another child with GBS disease, or with chorioamnionitis should receive empirical intrapartum antibiotic treatment. Their infants should have complete diagnostic evaluations and receive empirical treatment until infection is excluded by observation and negative cultures because of their particularly high risk for EOGBS infection. Either screening with cultures at 28 weeks gestation or identification of clinical risk factors, ie, PROM, intrapartum fever, or prematurity, may identify parturients whose infants include 65% of those with EOGBS infection. Intrapartum screening using the Strep B OIA rapid test identifies more at-risk infants (75%) than any other method. These risk identifiers may permit judicious selection of patients for prophylactic interventions.

  7. /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios and their source materials of the volcanic rocks from the Pliocene Misasa Group in San-in district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, T.; Nishikawa, J. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1980-10-01

    /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of the volcanic rocks from the Pliocene Misasa Group and the andesite from the Quaternary Daisen volcano in San'in district were determined. The alkaline basalt and the calc-alkaline andesite from the Misasa Group have a restricted range of /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios (basalt 0.7051 -- 0.7052; andesite 0.7052) and Rb/Sr ratios (basalt 0.03 -- 0.04; andesite 0.04) with low Rb (basalt 19.4 -- 34.5 ppm; andesite 29.2 ppm) and Sr (basalt 631 -- 851 ppm; andesite 729 ppm) contents. These results may indicate that the calc-alkaline andesite may not have been derived from the alkaline basaltic magma by fractional crystallization or assimilation of older sialic materials. An analysis of the Daisen andesite yields a /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio 0f 0.7050, which is almost identical with that of the Misasa andesite. In /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios, the Misasa alkaline basalt, calc-alkaline andesite and the Daisen calc-alkaline andesite are very similar to the Oki-Dogo alkaline basalt (0.7048) which carries ultramafic inclusions and is possibly of the upper mantle origin (Kaneoka et al., 1978). This similarity in Sr isotopic ratios suggests that both the Misasa and Daisen volcanic rocks may have been derived from the upper mantle similar to the source material of the Oki-Dogo alkaline basalt.

  8. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of whole wood, cellulose and lignin methoxyl groups of Picea abies as climate proxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Y; Wehrens, R; Greule, M; Keppler, F; Ziller, L; La Porta, N; Camin, F

    2013-01-15

    Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (C, H and O) stable isotope ratios of whole wood and components are commonly used as paleoclimate proxies. In this work we consider eight different proxies in order to discover the most suitable wood component and stable isotope ratio to provide the strongest climate signal in Picea abies in a southeastern Alpine region (Trentino, Italy). δ(13)C, δ(18)O and δ(2)H values in whole wood and cellulose, and δ(13)C and δ(2)H values in lignin methoxyl groups were measured. Analysis was performed using an Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometer coupled with an Elemental Analyser for measuring (13)C/(12)C and a Pyrolyser for measuring (2)H/(1)H and (18)O/(16)O. The data were evaluated by Principal Component Analysis, and a simple Pearson's correlation between isotope chronologies and climatic features, and multiple linear regression were performed to evaluate the data. Each stable isotope ratio in cellulose and lignin methoxyl differs significantly from the same stable isotope ratio in whole wood, the values begin higher in cellulose and lignin except for the lignin δ(2)H values. Significant correlations were found between the whole wood and the cellulose fractions for each isotope ratio. Overall, the highest correlations with temperature were found with the δ(18)O and δ(2)H values in whole wood, whereas no significant correlations were found between isotope proxies and precipitation. δ(18)O and δ(2)H values in whole wood provide the best temperature signals in Picea abies in the northern Italian study area. Extraction of cellulose and lignin and analysis of other isotopic ratios do not seem to be necessary. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The effect of concentration ratio and type of functional group on synthesis of CNT-ZnO hybrid nanomaterial by an in situ sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Largani, Sekineh; Akbarzadeh Pasha, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    In this research, MWCNT-ZnO hybrid nanomaterials were synthesized by a simple sol-gel process using Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O and functionalized MWCNT with carboxyl(COOH) and hydroxyl(OH) groups. Three different mass ratios of MWCNT:ZnO = 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 were examined. The prepared nanomaterials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Successful growth of MWCNT-ZnO hybrids for both COOH and OH functional groups and all the three mass ratios were obtained. The ZnO nanoparticles attached on the surfaces of CNTs have rather spherical shapes and hexagonal crystal structure. By increasing the concentration of ZnO, the number and average size of ZnO nanoparticles decorated the body of CNTs in hybrid structures increase. By increasing the ZnO precursor, the distribution of ZnO nanoparticles that appeared on the surface of CNTs becomes more uniform. The SEM observation beside EDX analysis revealed that at the same concentration ratio the amount of ZnO loading on the surface of MWCNT-COOH is more than MWCNT-OH. Moreover, the average size of ZnO nanoparticles attached on the surface of COOH functionalized CNTs is relatively smaller than that of OH functionalized ones.

  10. Hair Measurements of Cortisol, DHEA, and DHEA to Cortisol Ratio as Biomarkers of Chronic Stress among People Living with HIV in China: Known-Group Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zilioli, Samuele; Chen, Zheng; Deng, Huihua; Pan, Juxian

    2017-01-01

    Background Existing literature suggests that endocrine measures, including the steroid hormones of cortisol and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), as well as the DHEA to cortisol ratio in the human hair can be used as promising biomarkers of chronic stress among humans. However, data are limited regarding the validity of these measures as biomarkers of chronic stress among people living with HIV (PLWH), whose endocrine system or hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis may be affected by HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART) medications. Method Using hair sample data and self-reported survey from 60 PLWH in China, we examined the validity of three endocrine measures among Chinese PLWH using a known-groups validation strategy. High-stress group (n = 30) and low-stress group (n = 30) of PLWH were recruited through individual assessment interviews by a local licensed psychologist. The endocrine measures in hair were extracted and assessed by LC-APCI-MS/MS method. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the endocrine measures and the stress level, and to investigate if the associations differ by ART status. Results The levels of endocrine measures among Chinese PLWH were consistent with existing studies among PLWH. Generally, this pilot study confirmed the association between endocrine measures and chronic stress. The high stress group showed higher level hair cortisol and lower DHEA to cortisol ratio. The higher stress group also reported higher scores of stressful life events, perceived stress, anxiety and depression. Hair cortisol level was positively related to anxiety; DHEA was negatively associated with stressful life events; and the DHEA to cortisol ratio was positively related to stressful life events and perceived stress. ART did not affect the associations between the endocrine measures and stress level. Conclusions Our findings suggest that hair cortisol and DHEA to cortisol ratio can be used as

  11. The ratio of fish to meat in the diet is positively associated with favorable intake of food groups and nutrients among young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2011-03-01

    Although fish and meat may exert opposing influences on chronic disease, information on the balance of intake between fish and meat to overall diet quality is limited, particularly in Japanese, who have a much higher fish intake than Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that intake balance between fish and meat is associated with food and nutrient intakes in young Japanese women. The subjects were 3716 Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 20 years. Diet was assessed by a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. The dietary ratio of fish to meat was calculated from fish and meat intakes as a temporal indicator of overall intake balance. The ratio of fish to meat intake was associated positively with intakes of vegetables, fruits, pulses, dairy products, and alcohol, and negatively with those of energy-containing beverages and fat and oils. At the nutrient level, the ratio of fish to meat intake was associated negatively with intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin B(1), and zinc, and positively with those of protein, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, and key vitamins and minerals. After limiting analysis to nutrients derived from foods other than fish and meat, the ratio of fish to meat intake was positively associated with intakes of almost all vitamins and minerals examined. In conclusion, women who consumed more fish than meat (ratio >1) tended to choose more favorable food groups that included higher amounts of vegetables and fruits, resulting in a better profile of nutrient intake patterns.

  12. COMPUTERS HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Augustynek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group

  13. Developing hazardous waste programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  14. Study of mechanism of action between credit risk and moral hazard for business group%企业集团道德风险与信用风险的作用机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬; 周宗放; 肖珉

    2012-01-01

    An exogenous lending rates model is proposed to analyze the relationship between the probability of occurrence of moral hazard and the default probability for business group. This model depicts the internal mechanism between moral hazard and credit risk of business group. There are four main findings in this study: First, lending rates and the probability of occurrence of moral hazard for business group are changed in the same direction; Second, the relationship between probability of occurrence of moral hazard and default probability for business group are nonlinear; Third, there is a lending rate as an exogenous control variable that can make the default probability of business group reach extreme value; Fourth, the probability of occurrence of moral hazard and default probability for business group are changed in the same direction when the lending rate is bound in a given range. And the greater the range is, the smaller the probability of occurrence of moral hazard is.%将银行贷款利率作为控制变量,在风险中性假设下构建理论模型分析了企业集团发生道德风险的概率与企业集团违约概率之间的联系.该模型刻画出企业集团道德风险与信用风险之间的内在作用机理并凸显了银行贷款利率在控制企业集团道德风险和信用风险中的作用.研究表明:银行贷款利率与企业集团发生道德风险的概率同向变化;企业集团的违约概率与企业集团发生道德风险的概率之间具有非线性关系;存在外生的控制变量-贷款利率,使企业集团的违约概率达到极值;存在违约概率约束区间,在该区间内企业集团发生道德风险的概率与违约概率同向变化,且区间越大,企业集团发生道德风险的概率越小.

  15. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  16. STUDY ON THE DIGIT RATIO OF BOUYEI ETHNIC GROUP IN GUIZHOU%布依族群体指长比的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建富; 骆文斌; 余跃生

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究贵州布依族群体指长比,比较分析布依族群体不同性别左右手指指长比均值的分布特点.[方法]采用人类体质测量法,研究布依族312例(男153例,女159例)左右手指长比(2D:3D、2D:4D、2D:5D、3D:4D、3D:5D、4D:5D).[结果]布依族指长比均值呈现2D:3D<2D:4D<3D:4D<2D:5D<4D:5D<3D:5D的趋势,左右手指长比均数是女性高于男性,且2D:3D,2D:4D差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).[结论]指长比存在性别问差异,2D:4D尤为明显.%[Objective] To study the digit ratio of Bouyei ethnic group in Guizhou, ananlyze the mean values of left and right hands of different sexes. [Methods] Physique measurements were used to study the digit ratios (2D ∶ 3D, 2D∶ 4D, 2D ∶ 5D, 3D ∶ 4D, 3D ∶ 5D, 4D ∶ 5D) of left and right hands of 312 individuals (153 males, 159 females) of the Bouyei. [Results] The mean values of digit ratios presented a trend as∶ 2D ∶ 3D < 2D ∶ 4D < 3D ∶ 4D < 2D ∶ 5D < 4D ∶ 5D < 3D ∶ 5D. Significant differences of 2D ∶ 3D, 2D ∶ 4D of left and right hands were found between males and females (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Females had higher mean values than males. [Conclusion] There is sexual difference in digit ratio and an obvious sexual difference in 2D ∶ 4D.

  17. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  18. The Relative Severity of Single Hazards within a Multi-Hazard Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2013-04-01

    Here we present a description of the relative severity of single hazards within a multi-hazard framework, compiled through examining, quantifying and ranking the extent to which individual hazards trigger or increase the probability of other hazards. Hazards are broken up into six major groupings (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space), with the interactions for 21 different hazard types examined. These interactions include both one primary hazard triggering a secondary hazard, and one primary hazard increasing the probability of a secondary hazard occurring. We identify, through a wide-ranging review of grey- and peer-review literature, >90 interactions. The number of hazard-type linkages are then summed for each hazard in terms of their influence (the number of times one hazard type triggers another type of hazard, or itself) and their sensitivity (the number of times one hazard type is triggered by other hazard types, or itself). The 21 different hazards are then ranked based on (i) influence and (ii) sensitivity. We found, by quantification and ranking of these hazards, that: (i) The strongest influencers (those triggering the most secondary hazards) are volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and storms, which when taken together trigger almost a third of the possible hazard interactions identified; (ii) The most sensitive hazards (those being triggered by the most primary hazards) are identified to be landslides, volcanic eruptions and floods; (iii) When sensitivity rankings are adjusted to take into account the differential likelihoods of different secondary hazards being triggered, the most sensitive hazards are found to be landslides, floods, earthquakes and ground heave. We believe that by determining the strongest influencing and the most sensitive hazards for specific spatial areas, the allocation of resources for mitigation measures might be done more effectively.

  19. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  20. Association of the index (2nd and ring (4th digit ratios with some physical attributes in Ebira Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Abraham Musa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the index (2D and ring (4D digits ratios and their association with some physical characteristics of the Ebira tribe of Nigeria was carried out to determine the values of the 2D:4D digit ratios and their association with other anthropometric variables. Six hundred adults between ages of 18 years and above were randomly selected with the exclusion of those with hand deformities. Three hundred males and three hundred females, of which one hundred males and one hundred females were selected from each of the participating areas. The index (2D and ring (4D digit lengths were measured from the basal crease to the tips using a digital tape and the height and weight were measured. The 2D:4D ratios were determined for each subject while the height and weight were used to calculate the body mass index (BMI and the data analyzed. The results show significant difference in 2D:4D ratio between the males and the females (P<0.01. Males have longer fourth (4D and shorter second (2D digit lengths with lower 2D:4D digit ratios while females have shorter fourth (4D and longer second (2D digit lengths with higher digit ratio. The results show a positive correlation between the digit lengths and height, weight, and BMI in both males and females but the 2D:4D digit ratio has no relationship with height, weight or BMI of an individual from the people of the Ebira tribe of Nigeria

  1. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  2. Specialized ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, J C; Salzinger, F H

    1983-01-01

    Many common management techniques have little use in managing a medical group practice. Ratio analysis, however, can easily be adapted to the group practice setting. Acting as broad-gauge indicators, financial ratios provide an early warning of potential problems and can be very useful in planning for future operations. The author has gathered a collection of financial ratios which were developed by participants at an education seminar presented for the Virginia Medical Group Management Association. Classified according to the human element, system component, and financial factor, the ratios provide a good sampling of measurements relevant to medical group practices and can serve as an example for custom-tailoring a ratio analysis system for your medical group.

  3. Seismic source characterization of the Alpine foreland in the context of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis by PEGASOS Expert Group 1 (EG1a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, S. M. [Geologisch-Palaeontologisches Institut, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Slejko, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Seismic source characterization is performed as part of the PEGASOS project for the assessment of the seismic hazard at the 4 sites of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plants. The analysis is performed according to the Level 4 procedures for expert elicitation defined in the guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Committee whereby the quantification of uncertainties plays a crucial role. According to our analysis, which is one amongst four that were performed in the frame of PEGASOS, the most important epistemic uncertainty is related to the question as to whether basement-rooted faults at the margins of pre-existing Permo-Carboniferous troughs are prone for compressive or transpressive reactivation under the present-day stress field or not. The question after the present-day style of deformation in the Alpine foreland (thick-skinned versus thin-skinned) is closely related to this key question. Together with the consideration of uncertainties regarding the mapping of seismogenic zones and/or line sources, alternative zonations are presented in form of a logic tree with 21 branches. Area sources play a predominant role in the working area located at the margin of a diffuse plate boundary. Earthquake recurrence relationships are discussed by taking into account a series of uncertainties. These concern the evaluation of b-values and the evaluation of a-values once the b-values were fixed. Both parameters in the Gutenberg-Richter law are based on non-perfect and incomplete catalogue data that were carefully analysed beforehand. Since PEGASOS demanded an analysis of annual probabilities down to one event in 10{sup 7} years, the question after the value of the maximum possible earthquake magnitude M{sub max} and related error in M{sub max} estimates plays a crucial role. We estimate M{sub max} by using geological as well as statistical methods. M{sub max} = 6.9 cannot be excluded in most areas, in the Basel area M{sub max} = 7.3 is possible. Uncertainties in a, b and M{sub max

  4. Potential hazard due to induced radioactivity secondary to radiotherapy: the report of task group 136 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Nath, Ravinder; Bateman, Fred B; Farr, Jonathan; Glisson, Cal; Islam, Mohammad K; LaFrance, Terry; Moore, Mary E; George Xu, X; Yudelev, Mark

    2014-11-01

    External-beam radiation therapy mostly uses high-energy photons (x-rays) produced by medical accelerators, but many facilities now use proton beams, and a few use fast-neutron beams. High-energy photons offer several advantages over lower-energy photons in terms of better dose distributions for deep-seated tumors, lower skin dose, less sensitivity to tissue heterogeneities, etc. However, for beams operating at or above 10 MV, some of the materials in the accelerator room and the radiotherapy patient become radioactive due primarily to photonuclear reactions and neutron capture, exposing therapy staff and patients to unwanted radiation dose. Some recent advances in radiotherapy technology require treatments using a higher number of monitor units and monitor-unit rates for the same delivered dose, and compared to the conventional treatment techniques and fractionation schemes, the activation dose to personnel can be substantially higher. Radiotherapy treatments with proton and neutron beams all result in activated materials in the treatment room. In this report, the authors review critically the published literature on radiation exposures from induced radioactivity in radiotherapy. They conclude that the additional exposure to the patient due to induced radioactivity is negligible compared to the overall radiation exposure as a part of the treatment. The additional exposure to the staff due to induced activity from photon beams is small at an estimated level of about 1 to 2 mSv y. This is well below the allowed occupational exposure limits. Therefore, the potential hazard to staff from induced radioactivity in the use of high-energy x-rays is considered to be low, and no specific actions are considered necessary or mandatory. However, in the spirit of the "As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)" program, some reasonable steps are recommended that can be taken to reduce this small exposure to an even lower level. The dose reduction strategies suggested should be

  5. A quantitative framework to group nanoscale and microscale particles by hazard potency to derive occupational exposure limits: Proof of concept evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Nathan M; Kuempel, Eileen D; Pei, Ying; Yang, Feng

    2017-08-05

    The large and rapidly growing number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) presents a challenge to assessing the potential occupational health risks. An initial database of 25 rodent studies including 1929 animals across various experimental designs and material types was constructed to identify materials that are similar with respect to their potency in eliciting neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation, a response relevant to workers. Doses were normalized across rodent species, strain, and sex as the estimated deposited particle mass dose per gram of lung. Doses associated with specific measures of pulmonary inflammation were estimated by modeling the continuous dose-response relationships using benchmark dose modeling. Hierarchical clustering was used to identify similar materials. The 18 nanoscale and microscale particles were classified into four potency groups, which varied by factors of approximately two to 100. Benchmark particles microscale TiO2 and crystalline silica were in the lowest and highest potency groups, respectively. Random forest methods were used to identify the important physicochemical predictors of pulmonary toxicity, and group assignments were correctly predicted for five of six new ENMs. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated for this framework. More comprehensive data are needed for further development and validation for use in deriving categorical occupational exposure limits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Progress in NTHMP Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Titov, V.V.; Mofjeld, H.O.; Venturato, A.J.; Simmons, R.S.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.; Eisner, R.K.; Hoirup, D.F.; Yanagi, B.S.; Yong, S.; Darienzo, M.; Priest, G.R.; Crawford, G.L.; Walsh, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Hazard Assessment component of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program has completed 22 modeling efforts covering 113 coastal communities with an estimated population of 1.2 million residents that are at risk. Twenty-three evacuation maps have also been completed. Important improvements in organizational structure have been made with the addition of two State geotechnical agency representatives to Steering Group membership, and progress has been made on other improvements suggested by program reviewers. ?? Springer 2005.

  7. Systematic classification of hazards in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryncarz, T.

    1983-01-01

    Hazards in underground coal mines are analyzed. A general definition of a hazard is given as a physical process or interaction between environment and men which can harm miners. The following classification of mine environment is given: lithosphere, atmosphere, and so-called technosphere (equipment, machines and processes associated with mining operations in underground mines). It is stated that the traditional classification of hazards in underground mining which divides the hazards into two groups: natural hazards and other hazards, is not precise. The hazards classification proposed by the author uses three criteria: criterion of mining environment (lithosphere, atmosphere and technosphere), criterion of physical process development (mechanical process, thermal process), and criterion of process intensity (slow or rapid flow). The classification, presented in a table, covers all hazards in underground mining such as rock bursts, water influx, fires, dusts, rock falls etc. Practical use of the classification system in coal mining is discussed. 3 references.

  8. RELM (the Working Group for the Development of Region Earthquake Likelihood Models) and the Development of new, Open-Source, Java-Based (Object Oriented) Code for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E. H.

    2001-12-01

    Given problems with virtually all previous earthquake-forecast models for southern California, and a current lack of consensus on how such models should be constructed, a joint SCEC-USGS sponsored working group for the development of Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) has been established (www.relm.org). The goals are as follows: 1) To develop and test a range of viable earthquake-potential models for southern California (not just one "consensus" model); 2) To examine and compare the implications of each model with respect to probabilistic seismic-hazard estimates (which will not only quantify existing hazard uncertainties, but will also indicate how future research should be focused in order to reduce the uncertainties); and 3) To design and document conclusive tests of each model with respect to existing and future geophysical observations. The variety of models under development reflects the variety of geophysical constraints available; these include geological fault information, historical seismicity, geodetic observations, stress-transfer interactions, and foreshock/aftershock statistics. One reason for developing and testing a range of models is to evaluate the extent to which any one can be exported to another region where the options are more limited. RELM is not intended to be a one-time effort. Rather, we are building an infrastructure that will facilitate an ongoing incorporation of new scientific findings into seismic-hazard models. The effort involves the development of several community models and databases, one of which is new Java-based code for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Although several different PSHA codes presently exist, none are open source, well documented, and written in an object-oriented programming language (which is ideally suited for PSHA). Furthermore, we need code that is flexible enough to accommodate the wide range of models currently under development in RELM. The new code is being developed under

  9. Natural hazard fatalities in Switzerland from 1946 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoux, Alexandre; Andres, Norina; Techel, Frank; Hegg, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    A database of fatalities caused by natural hazard processes in Switzerland was compiled for the period between 1946 and 2015. Using information from the Swiss flood and landslide damage database and the Swiss destructive avalanche database, the data set was extended back in time and more hazard processes were added by conducting an in-depth search of newspaper reports. The new database now covers all natural hazards common in Switzerland, categorised into seven process types: flood, landslide, rockfall, lightning, windstorm, avalanche and other processes (e.g. ice avalanches, earthquakes). Included were all fatal accidents associated with natural hazard processes in which victims did not expose themselves to an important danger on purpose. The database contains information on 635 natural hazard events causing 1023 fatalities, which corresponds to a mean of 14.6 victims per year. The most common causes of death were snow avalanches (37 %), followed by lightning (16 %), floods (12 %), windstorms (10 %), rockfall (8 %), landslides (7 %) and other processes (9 %). About 50 % of all victims died in one of the 507 single-fatality events; the other half were killed in the 128 multi-fatality events. The number of natural hazard fatalities that occurred annually during our 70-year study period ranged from 2 to 112 and exhibited a distinct decrease over time. While the number of victims in the first three decades (until 1975) ranged from 191 to 269 per decade, it ranged from 47 to 109 in the four following decades. This overall decrease was mainly driven by a considerable decline in the number of avalanche and lightning fatalities. About 75 % of victims were males in all natural hazard events considered together, and this ratio was roughly maintained in all individual process categories except landslides (lower) and other processes (higher). The ratio of male to female victims was most likely to be balanced when deaths occurred at home (in or near a building), a situation

  10. Hazard perception test for pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Mandel, Roi; Rosner, Yotam; Eldror, Ehud

    2015-06-01

    This research was aimed to construct and develop a unique system for training of pedestrians - children, adults and older persons - to cross streets safely and especially to detect successfully on-road hazards as pedestrians. For this purpose, an interactive computerized program has been inspired by the format of the popular HPT (hazard perception test) for drivers. The HPTP (hazard perception test for pedestrians) includes 10 pairs of video clips that were filmed in various locations but had a similar hazardous element. The clips presented potentially dangerous crossing scenarios such as a vehicle merging from the right side of the road from the perspective of the pedestrian who is trying to cross the street. The participants were asked to press the spacebar key every time they identified an approaching hazard. The participants were instructed to use the arrow keys for moving the viewing panel to the left or to the right in order to enlarge the field of view accordingly. Totally, 359 participants took part. Adults, children, and elders were assigned to two practice groups and three control groups in a 3 (age groups)×5 (experimental groups) design. One practice group underwent pretest, practice, discussion and posttest, the second experimental group through pretest, practice and posttest, one control group that underwent posttest only, the second control group underwent pretest, discussion and posttest and the third control group underwent both pretest and posttest. The most important finding was that children and adults who underwent practice received higher scores in the posttest compared to the pretest. Also, children who underwent practice increased their use of the arrow keys in the posttest compared to the pretest. Across conditions men scored higher than women on the HPTP, and used the keys more often. Age differences were found, with adults scoring being the highest, followed by children and the older persons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Hazards and hazard combinations relevant for the safety of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kurt; Brinkman, Hans; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    The potential of the contemporaneous impact of different, yet causally related, hazardous events and event cascades on nuclear power plants is a major contributor to the overall risk of nuclear installations. In the aftermath of the Fukushima accident, which was caused by a combination of severe ground shaking by an earthquake, an earthquake-triggered tsunami and the disruption of the plants from the electrical grid by a seismically induced landslide, hazard combinations and hazard cascades moved into the focus of nuclear safety research. We therefore developed an exhaustive list of external hazards and hazard combinations which pose potential threats to nuclear installations in the framework of the European project ASAMPSAE (Advanced Safety Assessment: Extended PSA). The project gathers 31 partners from Europe, North Amerika and Japan. The list comprises of exhaustive lists of natural hazards, external man-made hazards, and a cross-correlation matrix of these hazards. The hazard list is regarded comprehensive by including all types of hazards that were previously cited in documents by IAEA, the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA), and others. 73 natural hazards and 24 man-made external hazards are included. Natural hazards are grouped into seismotectonic hazards, flooding and hydrological hazards, extreme values of meteorological phenomena, rare meteorological phenomena, biological hazards / infestation, geological hazards, and forest fire / wild fire. The list of external man-made hazards includes industry accidents, military accidents, transportation accidents, pipeline accidents and other man-made external events. The large number of different hazards results in the extremely large number of 5.151 theoretically possible hazard combinations (not considering hazard cascades). In principle all of these combinations are possible to occur by random coincidence except for 82 hazard combinations that - depending on the time scale - are mutually

  12. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  13. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  14. Hazard interactions and interaction networks (cascades) within multi-hazard methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper combines research and commentary to reinforce the importance of integrating hazard interactions and interaction networks (cascades) into multi-hazard methodologies. We present a synthesis of the differences between multi-layer single-hazard approaches and multi-hazard approaches that integrate such interactions. This synthesis suggests that ignoring interactions between important environmental and anthropogenic processes could distort management priorities, increase vulnerability to other spatially relevant hazards or underestimate disaster risk. In this paper we proceed to present an enhanced multi-hazard framework through the following steps: (i) description and definition of three groups (natural hazards, anthropogenic processes and technological hazards/disasters) as relevant components of a multi-hazard environment, (ii) outlining of three types of interaction relationship (triggering, increased probability, and catalysis/impedance), and (iii) assessment of the importance of networks of interactions (cascades) through case study examples (based on the literature, field observations and semi-structured interviews). We further propose two visualisation frameworks to represent these networks of interactions: hazard interaction matrices and hazard/process flow diagrams. Our approach reinforces the importance of integrating interactions between different aspects of the Earth system, together with human activity, into enhanced multi-hazard methodologies. Multi-hazard approaches support the holistic assessment of hazard potential and consequently disaster risk. We conclude by describing three ways by which understanding networks of interactions contributes to the theoretical and practical understanding of hazards, disaster risk reduction and Earth system management. Understanding interactions and interaction networks helps us to better (i) model the observed reality of disaster events, (ii) constrain potential changes in physical and social vulnerability

  15. Reviewing and visualizing the interactions of natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a broad overview, characterization, and visualization of the interaction relationships between 21 natural hazards, drawn from six hazard groups (geophysical, hydrological, shallow Earth, atmospheric, biophysical, and space hazards). A synthesis is presented of the identified interaction relationships between these hazards, using an accessible visual format particularly suited to end users. Interactions considered are primarily those where a primary hazard triggers or increases the probability of secondary hazards occurring. In this paper we do the following: (i) identify, through a wide-ranging review of grey- and peer-review literature, 90 interactions; (ii) subdivide the interactions into three levels, based on how well we can characterize secondary hazards, given information about the primary hazard; (iii) determine the spatial overlap and temporal likelihood of the triggering relationships occurring; and (iv) examine the relationship between primary and secondary hazard intensities for each identified hazard interaction and group these into five possible categories. In this study we have synthesized, using accessible visualization techniques, large amounts of information drawn from many scientific disciplines. We outline the importance of constraining hazard interactions and reinforce the importance of a holistic (or multihazard) approach to natural hazard assessment. This approach allows those undertaking research into single hazards to place their work within the context of other hazards. It also communicates important aspects of hazard interactions, facilitating an effective analysis by those working on reducing and managing disaster risk within both the policy and practitioner communities.

  16. Effect of age on aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) and comparison of screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated serum aldosterone concentration for primary aldosteronism screening in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guoshu; Zhang, Shaoling; Yan, Li; Wu, Muchao; Xu, Mingtong; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hua

    2012-08-01

    The serum aldosterone concentration (SAC)/plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) is considered a useful screening test in the differential diagnosis of essential hypertension (EH) and primary aldosteronism (PA). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on ARR and compare the screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated SAC for PA screening in different age groups. Thirty-nine patients with PA, 274 patients with EH, and 153 healthy volunteers were recruited. Blood was sampled for SAC and PRA measuring under keeping upright posture for 1 h. Levels of SAC, PRA, and ARR were compared at different ages range for the respective three groups of subjects. The screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated SAC was compared in different age groups and PA patients served as the same positive subjects. In the EH group, logarithmically transformed ARR (Log-ARR) increased with advancing age and reached its peak in the ≥ 60 years group; in the normotensives group, Log-ARR reached its peak in the 40-49 years group and slightly declined with advancing age. In the PA group, Log-ARR was not age dependent. Screening accuracy increased when combined index of ARR and SAC was used in the ≥ 40 years group but not in the <40 years group. Although the number of EH patients with elevated ARR increased with advancing age, but the screening accuracy and cutoff values of ARR were not affected by age. Using the combined index of ARR and SAC increased the screening accuracy for the patients older than 40 years, but not necessary for the patients younger than 40 years.

  17. Hamburger hazards and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies.

  18. Software safety hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  19. CHRIS: Hazard Assessment Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-12

    CODE AIJ 91 HAZARD ASSESSMENT CODE-ABC KLMN 95 A. VENTING GAS FIRE -CODE AB 97 B. LIOUID FIRE-CODE AKL 97 C. WATER POLLUTION HAZARDS - CODE AK 99 D...The Hazard Calculation Codes for liquefied natural gas are: AB — venting gas fire . AC - gas dispersion, ADE — liquid fire, and ADFG...5.4). Spill Amount Wind Velocity Wind Direction Weather ppm tons knots Primary Code ABCKLMN Code AB - Venting Gas Fire Assessment

  20. The Group Debris Flow Hazards after the Wenchuan Earthquake in Longchi, Dujiangyan, Sichuan Province%汶川地震后四川省都江堰市龙池镇群发泥石流灾害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余斌; 马煜; 张健楠; 吴雨夫; 张惠惠; 李丽; 褚胜名; 亓星

    2011-01-01

    Many group debris flow hazards were triggered by subsequent rainstorm in the Wenchuan Earthquake area after the main shock. Group debris flow hazards in Longchi, Dujiangyan, Sichuan Province is one of these disasters. There were 45 debris flows triggered by heavy rainfall in the catchment of Longxi River on August 13, 2010. In the all 45 debris flows, there were 34 channelized debris flows and 11 debris flows on the slope. The total volume of debris flow was 3. 34 X 10 m and plenty of sediment was deposited in the downstream of Longxi River. The rainfall which triggered the debris flows in Longxi River catchment on August 13, 2010 was 75 mm in one hour. It was the same as one hour rainfall of twenty years return period. Most debris flows were distributing in 3 km from the triggering belt of Wenchuan Earthquake, only 11.1% of total debris flows were located in 3 - 5 km from the triggering belt. The distribution of debris flows were also controlled by the rock characteristics and geomorphology. Most of debris flows are viscous debris flows, only 11.1% of total debris flows were less viscous debris flows. There were 60. 0% small scale debris flows and 11.1% large scale debris flows in total debris flows. Most catchments of debris flow were small catchment, 68.9% of total catchments was less than 1 km2, only 6. 7% of total catchments was larger than 3 km . The sediment deposited in Longxi River was controlled by the activity of debris flows, the width of channel, and the slope of channel; there was no sediment deposited in the upper stream of Longxi River, but there was plenty of sediment deposited in the downstream. The size of sediment deposited in Longxi River was partly decided by the rock characteristics of debris flow catchments, as the results the particle sizes were decreasing from upper stream to downstream of Longxi River. The debris flow hazards will be triggered again when it is heavy rainfall in Longxi River catchment. To reduce the hazards of debris flows

  1. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes.

  2. Hazardous drugs: new challenges, new opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Valero García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to hazardous drugs can cause harmful effects on health professionals and several protective measures must be taken. Nevertheless, classification of hazardous drugs is not the same in all the published repertoires and the terminology is still confusing: hazardous drugs, biohazardous drugs or risky drugs are terms improperly described and can define very different drugs with a very different hazard profiles. In Spain, there is not an updated official list of hazardous drugs, and healthcare professionals must consider and follow other published lists. In our opinion, it is mandatory to do a consensus among these professionals, administration and labor union organizations in order to clarify some conflictive questions not only in healthcare settings but in investigational and academic scenarios too. These multidisciplinary groups should be involved also in teaching new and non-experienced personnel and in the knowledge reinforcement for the experienced ones

  3. Hazardous drugs: new challenges, new opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero García, Silvia; López Briz, Eduardo; Vila Clérigues, Nieves; Poveda Andrés, Jose Luis

    2016-03-01

    Occupational exposure to hazardous drugs can cause harmful effects on health professionals and several protective measures must be taken. Nevertheless, classification of hazardous drugs is not the same in all the published repertoires and the terminology is still confusing: hazardous drugs, biohazardous drugs or risky drugs are terms improperly described and can define very different drugs with a very different hazard profiles. In Spain, there is not an updated official list of hazardous drugs, and healthcare professionals must consider and follow other published lists. In our opinion, it is mandatory to do a consensus among these professionals, administration and labor union organizations in order to clarify some conflictive questions not only in healthcare settings but in investigational and academic scenarios too. These multidisciplinary groups should be involved also in teaching new and non-experienced personnel and in the knowledge reinforcement for the experienced ones.

  4. 87Sr/86Sr Ratios in Carbonate From the Red Lake and Steep Rock Groups in Canada Suggest Rb-enriched Continental Crust was Influencing Seawater Chemistry Prior to 3.0 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkoski, A.; Fralick, P. W.; Beard, B. L.; Johnson, C.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has suggested that prior to 2.5 Ga, Sr isotope compositions of seawater were essentially mantle buffered and the effects of continental weathering on seawater chemistry were negligible. To test this, we collected Sr isotope data from 2.93 and 2.80 Ga carbonates that are part of the Red Lake and Steep Rock groups (Canada), respectively. To better understand carbonate formation and any post-depositional alteration, Sr isotopes are considered with O isotopes and REEs, as well as Rb and Sr contents, including correction for decay of 87Rb. All samples have Y/Ho ratios higher than chondrite and have positive La anomalies, which, combined with low Rb contents suggests that clastic contamination is negligible. Samples we consider near pristine have δ18O (VSMOW) values >20‰. Samples with the highest Y/Ho ratios and largest La anomalies from Red Lake and Steep Rock have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7018-0.7020. This Sr isotope composition is significantly more radiogenic than contemporaneous mantle (0.7011-0.7012), especially at a time when the isotopic difference between the crust and mantle was much less than today. This implies that radiogenic continental crust was emergent and shed detritus into the world's oceans prior to 3.0 Ga, in contrast with proposals for submerged continental crust, but in line with new estimates that continental crust at 3.0 Ga was 60-70% of current volume. We contend that this large amount of crust combined with enhanced Archean weathering could account for the radiogenic Sr isotope compositions we report here, and suggests a significant impact from continental weathering on ocean chemistry during the Archean.

  5. Hazard detection by illness pattern similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, W T

    1980-01-01

    Health hazard detection was investigated by using cluster analysis of illness patterns of occupational groups. This approach was expected to avoid the bias problems of simple illness rates and to detect hazards by their effects on illness severity. The practical use of this approach lead to the following criterion: an environmental exposure of people associated with an illness pattern typical of a more advanced age is a health hazard. The use of this criterion and methodology is widely applicable in industry and the prospect for further improvement in detection methods is good.

  6. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research - founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes - can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H-SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  7. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  8. Hazardous Materials Hazard Analysis, Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    ACCIDENTS IN OREGON, 1976-1979 INJURY RATE FATALITY RATE (per 100 million nilles ) (per 100 million miles) Injuries Fatalities 100 - 94. 8 80 75 - - 6...commercial vehicle Involved. Driver fault--icy road conditions caused truck to jack -knIfe and skid. Resulted in hazardous material spill and relase and...Wheel gem tanks retrieved her body. Huerta Mayor Jack Pirog said Mobil Chemi- Corp. i Mendota. She distributed the revived after emergency treatment at

  9. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  10. [Clinical research XXII. From clinical judgment to Cox proportional hazards model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Talavera, Juan O

    2014-01-01

    Survival analyses are commonly used to determine the time of an event (for example, death). However, they can be used also for other clinical outcomes on the condition that these are dichotomous, for example healing time. These analyses only consider the relationship of one variable. However, Cox proportional hazards model is a multivariate analysis of the survival analysis, in which other potentially confounding covariates of the effect of the main maneuver studied, such as age, gender or disease stage, are taken into account. This analysis can include both quantitative and qualitative variables in the model. The measure of association used is called hazard ratio (HR) or relative risk ratio, which is not the same as the relative risk or odds ratio (OR). The difference is that the HR refers to the possibility that one of the groups develops the event before it is compared with the other group. The proportional hazards multivariate model of Cox is the most widely used in medicine when the phenomenon is studied in two dimensions: time and event.

  11. Reviewing and visualising relationships between anthropic processes and natural hazards within a multi-hazard framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2014-05-01

    Here we present a broad overview of the interaction relationships between 17 anthropic processes and 21 different natural hazard types. Anthropic processes are grouped into seven categories (subsurface extraction, subsurface addition, land use change, explosions, hydrological change, surface construction processes, miscellaneous). Natural hazards are grouped into six categories (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space). A wide-ranging review based on grey- and peer-reviewed literature from many scientific disciplines identified 54 relationships where anthropic processes have been noted to trigger natural hazards. We record case studies for all but three of these relationships. Based on the results of this review, we find that the anthropic processes of deforestation, explosions (conventional and nuclear) and reservoir construction could trigger the widest range of different natural hazard types. We also note that within the natural hazards, landslides and earthquakes are those that could be triggered by the widest range of anthropic processes. This work also examines the possibility of anthropic processes (i) resulting in an increased occurrence of a particular hazard interaction (e.g., deforestation could result in an increased interaction between storms and landslides); and (ii) inadvertently reducing the likelihood of a natural hazard or natural hazard interaction (e.g., poor drainage or deforestation reducing the likelihood of wildfires triggered by lightning). This study synthesises, using accessible visualisation techniques, the large amounts of anthropic process and natural hazard information from our review. In it we have outlined the importance of considering anthropic processes within any analysis of hazard interactions, and we reinforce the importance of a holistic approach to natural hazard assessment, mitigation and management.

  12. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  13. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  14. Natural Hazards Image Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  15. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  16. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  17. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  18. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  19. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  20. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  1. Phytoremediation of Hazardous Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Phytoremediation of Hazardous Wastes 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven C. McCutcheon, N. Lee Wolfe, Laura H. Carreria and Tse-Yuan Ou 5... phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses...SUBJECT TERMS phytoremediation , nitroreductase, laccase enzymes, SERDP 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 8 16. PRICE CODE N/A 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  2. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  3. Training hazard perception skills. [previously known as: Training hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential skill in the driving task, but it is still badly developed among novice drivers. Hazard perception consists of more than perceiving hazards. It also concerns appraising the seriousness of the hazards, and knowing how to act to avert them. There are indications that

  4. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  5. Training hazard perception skills. [previously known as: Training hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential skill in the driving task, but it is still badly developed among novice drivers. Hazard perception consists of more than perceiving hazards. It also concerns appraising the seriousness of the hazards, and knowing how to act to avert them. There are indications that

  6. Supplemental Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment - Hydrotreater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    A supplemental hazard analysis was conducted and quantitative risk assessment performed in response to an independent review comment received by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest Field Office (PNSO) against the Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report issued in April 2013. The supplemental analysis used the hazardous conditions documented by the previous April 2013 report as a basis. The conditions were screened and grouped for the purpose of identifying whether additional prudent, practical hazard controls could be identified, using a quantitative risk evaluation to assess the adequacy of the controls and establish a lower level of concern for the likelihood of potential serious accidents. Calculations were performed to support conclusions where necessary.

  7. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  8. Building Better Volcanic Hazard Maps Through Scientific and Stakeholder Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. A.; Lindsay, J. M.; Calder, E.

    2015-12-01

    All across the world information about natural hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunami is shared and communicated using maps that show which locations are potentially exposed to hazards of varying intensities. Unlike earthquakes and tsunami, which typically produce one dominant hazardous phenomenon (ground shaking and inundation, respectively) volcanic eruptions can produce a wide variety of phenomena that range from near-vent (e.g. pyroclastic flows, ground shaking) to distal (e.g. volcanic ash, inundation via tsunami), and that vary in intensity depending on the type and location of the volcano. This complexity poses challenges in depicting volcanic hazard on a map, and to date there has been no consistent approach, with a wide range of hazard maps produced and little evaluation of their relative efficacy. Moreover, in traditional hazard mapping practice, scientists analyse data about a hazard, and then display the results on a map that is then presented to stakeholders. This one-way, top-down approach to hazard communication does not necessarily translate into effective hazard education, or, as tragically demonstrated by Nevado del Ruiz, Columbia in 1985, its use in risk mitigation by civil authorities. Furthermore, messages taken away from a hazard map can be strongly influenced by its visual design. Thus, hazard maps are more likely to be useful, usable and used if relevant stakeholders are engaged during the hazard map process to ensure a) the map is designed in a relevant way and b) the map takes into account how users interpret and read different map features and designs. The IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Hazards and Risk has recently launched a Hazard Mapping Working Group to collate some of these experiences in graphically depicting volcanic hazard from around the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean, with the aim of preparing some Considerations for Producing Volcanic Hazard Maps that may help map makers in the future.

  9. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  11. Two models for evaluating landslide hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.C.; Chung, C.-J.; Ohlmacher, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Two alternative procedures for estimating landslide hazards were evaluated using data on topographic digital elevation models (DEMs) and bedrock lithologies in an area adjacent to the Missouri River in Atchison County, Kansas, USA. The two procedures are based on the likelihood ratio model but utilize different assumptions. The empirical likelihood ratio model is based on non-parametric empirical univariate frequency distribution functions under an assumption of conditional independence while the multivariate logistic discriminant model assumes that likelihood ratios can be expressed in terms of logistic functions. The relative hazards of occurrence of landslides were estimated by an empirical likelihood ratio model and by multivariate logistic discriminant analysis. Predictor variables consisted of grids containing topographic elevations, slope angles, and slope aspects calculated from a 30-m DEM. An integer grid of coded bedrock lithologies taken from digitized geologic maps was also used as a predictor variable. Both statistical models yield relative estimates in the form of the proportion of total map area predicted to already contain or to be the site of future landslides. The stabilities of estimates were checked by cross-validation of results from random subsamples, using each of the two procedures. Cell-by-cell comparisons of hazard maps made by the two models show that the two sets of estimates are virtually identical. This suggests that the empirical likelihood ratio and the logistic discriminant analysis models are robust with respect to the conditional independent assumption and the logistic function assumption, respectively, and that either model can be used successfully to evaluate landslide hazards. ?? 2006.

  12. Hazard Communication Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab.

  13. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  14. On penalized likelihood estimation for a non-proportional hazards regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Karthik; Ebrahimi, Nader

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a semi-parametric generalization of the Cox model that permits crossing hazard curves is described. A theoretical framework for estimation in this model is developed based on penalized likelihood methods. It is shown that the optimal solution to the baseline hazard, baseline cumulative hazard and their ratio are hyperbolic splines with knots at the distinct failure times.

  15. Occupational hazards to dental staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Ayatollahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental professionals are predisposed to a number of occupational hazards. These include exposure to infections (including Human Immunodeficiency Virus and viral hepatitis; percutaneous exposure incidents, dental materials, radiation, and noise; musculoskeletal disorders; psychological problems and dermatitis; respiratory disorders; and eye insults. Percutaneous exposure incidents remain a main concern, as exposure to serious infectious agents is a virtual risk. Minimizing percutaneous exposure incidents and their consequences should continue to be considered, including sound infection control practices, continuing education, and hepatitis B vaccination. Basically, for any infection control strategies, dentists should be aware of individual protective measures and appropriate sterilization or other high-level disinfection utilities. Strained posture at work disturbs the musculoskeletal alignment and leads to stooped spine. The stooped posture also involved certain groups of muscles and joints. This may lead to diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Continuous educating and appropriate intervention studies are needed to reduce the complication of these hazards. So, it is important for dentists to remain constantly up-to-date about measures on how to deal with newer strategies and dental materials, and implicates the need for special medical care for this professional group.

  16. Current electrosurgical practice: hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J

    1985-01-01

    The beneficial aspects of electrosurgical cutting and coagulating techniques are nearly too numerous to list. The major contribution and electrosurgery has been to drastically reduce both blood loss and operative time resulting in reduced morbidity and mortality. There are, as well, procedures which would not be possible without electrosurgery. Nonetheless, as a source of high energy in the operating theatre, there are hazards attendant to the use of electrosurgery. Moreover, since high frequency signals are involved, the nature of the machine-patient interactions creating a potentially hazardous situation many not be easily identifiable. The significant hazards of electrosurgery in use are: explosions of combustible mixtures including anaesthesia gas and bowel gas; interference with instruments and pacemakers; stimulation of excitable tissues which on occasion has apparently caused ventricular fibrillation; and accidental radio frequency burns. Though the rate of incidents is low--in terms of the number per 100 000 procedures--individual accidents tend to be fairly catastrophic and traumatic to both the patient and surgical team. Frequently, litigation results from these accidents. Though the hazards cannot be eliminated, the probability of an incident can be minimized by careful technique.

  17. Maintenance and hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhl, K.; Terwoert, J.; Cabecas, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance workers come into close contact with a broad variety of often hazardous chemicals. Depending on the specific type, these chemicals may not only cause diseases like skin sores or cancer, but many of them are highly flammable and explosive. This e-facts focuses on the specific risks relate

  18. Laser Hazards Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-31

    Copeland , H. P., and DeRose, L. B., Evaluation and control of hazards in laser light shows, Hlth Physics 31(2): 189-190 (1976). 58. Blaney, L., Perspectives...School of Aerospace Med, Brooks AF Base, TX, 51: 304 (1974). 434. Weston , B. A., Laser Systems-Code of Practice, Ministry of Technology Safety Services

  19. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium...

  20. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  1. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers Health Effects Use ... Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls ... of Universal Precautions Workplace Violence For more information, see Other Healthcare Wide ...

  2. Hazards of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Research, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Common concern for the protection and improvement of the environment and the enhancement of human health and welfare underscore the purpose of this special report on the hazards of mercury directed to the Secretary's Pesticide Advisory Committee, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The report summarizes the findings of a ten-member study…

  3. Cadmium - is it hazardous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zartner-Nyilas, G.; Valentin, H.; Schaller, K.H.; Schiele, R.

    1983-01-01

    The report summarizes the state of knowledge and experience on cadmium. Biological, toxicological and epidemiological data have been evaluated. Cd pollution of the environment is reviewed under the aspect of human health. Uptake in food, threshod values of Cd exposure of the population, types and extent of health hazards, possible carcinogenic effects and future fields of research are discussed.

  4. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites - Commercial Hazardous Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Commercial Hazardous Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Hazardous Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to...

  5. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page on hazardous waste transportation . Top of Page Hazardous Waste Recycling, Treatment, Storage and Disposal To the extent possible, EPA ... Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) provide temporary storage and final treatment or disposal for hazardous wastes. Since they manage large volumes of waste and ...

  6. Hazard perception in traffic. [previously knows as: Hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential part of the driving task. There are clear indications that insufficient skills in perceiving hazards play an important role in the occurrence of crashes, especially those involving novice drivers. Proper hazard perception not only consists of scanning and perceiving

  7. Hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembra, R.L

    1989-01-01

    This report has found that while most states have accomplished few or no cleanups of sites contaminated by hazardous waste, some have enacted tough cleanup laws, committed relatively large resources to the cleanup effort, and achieved considerable results. At the 17 cleanup sites analyzed, state cleanup plans were generally stringent. However, no federal standards have been set for over half of the contaminants found at these sites. For 11 sites, the states set cleanup levels without doing formal risk assessments. Also, most states reviewed did not consider the full range of alternatives EPA requires. Most states have not shown that they can effectively clean up large, hazardous waste sites. This report recommends that EPA turn sites targeted for cleanup over to the states only if there are adequate controls and oversight.

  8. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  9. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  10. The Additive Hazard Mixing Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Xiao-liang LING

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the aging and dependence properties in the additive hazard mixing models including some stochastic comparisons.Further,some useful bounds of reliability functions in additive hazard mixing models are obtained.

  11. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-09-23

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

  12. Male fertility and its association with occupational and mobile phone towers hazards: An analytic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Faris Al-Quzwini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the association of male fertility with the occupational and mobile phone towers hazards. Background: Male reproductive ability is likely to have multiple genetic and environmental determinants. A seminal fluid analysis is clinical marker of male reproductive potential. Aim: To find out whether environmental hazard such as mobile phone tower has an effect on male reproductive ability. Methods: Two hundred couples were enrolled, one hundred subfertile couples as a study group (n = 100, and one hundred fertile couples as a control group (n = 100. Environmental exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone towers and occupational state was assessed by standard questionnaire. Semen analysis was done for the subfertile males, because the fertile males (control group refused to give semen samples. Results: The occupational hazard expressed significant difference between the subfertile and the control groups (38% versus 12% (p < 0.05, with odds ratio (OR = 4.5 and 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 2.175–9.288, and also the environmental factor (mobile tower within fifty meters from their house showed significant difference (29% versus 12% (p < 0.05, with OR = 3; 95% CI: 1.426–6.290. SFA of the subfertile males was 40% abnormal versus 60% normal semen analysis. These abnormalities were classified into 35% oligozoospermia, 55% asthenospermia, and 10% teratozoospermia. Oligozoospermia was associated with more occupational hazard (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 0.569–5.527. Teratozoospermia was associated with more occupational hazard (OR = 5.23, 95% CI: 0.524–52.204, and with exposure to environmental hazard (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 0.342–19.070, and associated with smoking hazard (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.225–12.353. Conclusions: Male fertility represented by quality of semen might be affected by occupational and environmental exposures, so it seems that prevention of occupational and

  13. Industrial hazard and safety handbook

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralph W

    1979-01-01

    Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook (Revised Impression) describes and exposes the main hazards found in industry, with emphasis on how these hazards arise, are ignored, are identified, are eliminated, or are controlled. These hazard conditions can be due to human stresses (for example, insomnia), unsatisfactory working environments, as well as secret industrial processes. The book reviews the cost of accidents, human factors, inspections, insurance, legal aspects, planning for major emergencies, organization, and safety measures. The text discusses regulations, codes of practice, site layou

  14. 77 FR 17573 - Hazard Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., 1915 and 1926 Hazard Communication; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 58 / Monday... Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910, 1915, and 1926 RIN 1218-AC20 Hazard Communication AGENCY: Occupational Safety... modifying its Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) to conform to the United Nations' Globally Harmonized...

  15. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  16. Identifying and modeling safety hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DANIELS,JESSE; BAHILL,TERRY; WERNER,PAUL W.

    2000-03-29

    The hazard model described in this paper is designed to accept data over the Internet from distributed databases. A hazard object template is used to ensure that all necessary descriptors are collected for each object. Three methods for combining the data are compared and contrasted. Three methods are used for handling the three types of interactions between the hazard objects.

  17. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  18. Virtual Research Environments for Natural Hazard Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Hazel; Aldridge, Tim

    2017-04-01

    The Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP) is a group of 17 collaborating public sector organisations providing a mechanism for co-ordinated advice to government and agencies responsible for civil contingency and emergency response during natural hazard events. The NHP has set up a Hazard Impact Model (HIM) group tasked with modelling the impact of a range of UK hazards with the aim of delivery of consistent hazard and impact information. The HIM group consists of 7 partners initially concentrating on modelling the socio-economic impact of 3 key hazards - surface water flooding, land instability and high winds. HIM group partners share scientific expertise and data within their specific areas of interest including hydrological modelling, meteorology, engineering geology, GIS, data delivery, and modelling of socio-economic impacts. Activity within the NHP relies on effective collaboration between partners distributed across the UK. The NHP are acting as a use case study for a new Virtual Research Environment (VRE) being developed by the EVER-EST project (European Virtual Environment for Research - Earth Science Themes: a solution). The VRE is allowing the NHP to explore novel ways of cooperation including improved capabilities for e-collaboration, e-research, automation of processes and e-learning. Collaboration tools are complemented by the adoption of Research Objects, semantically rich aggregations of resources enabling the creation of uniquely identified digital artefacts resulting in reusable science and research. Application of the Research Object concept to HIM development facilitates collaboration, by encapsulating scientific knowledge in a shareable format that can be easily shared and used by partners working on the same model but within their areas of expertise. This paper describes the application of the VRE to the NHP use case study. It outlines the challenges associated with distributed partnership working and how they are being addressed in the VRE. A case

  19. Consumer versus expert hazard identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit S.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    between technical experts and consumers over the nature of the hazards on which risk assessments should focus, and perceptions of insufficient openness about uncertainties in risk assessment. Whilst previous research has almost exclusively focused on genetically modified foods, the present paper...... investigates plant varieties developed by means of mutation breeding, a less-debated class of novel foods. Two studies were conducted that investigated the mental models of experts and laypeople. The results revealed that the mental models of both groups differed in terms of scope, depth and the role...... of uncertainty. Furthermore, a number of misconceptions became apparent in the study of laypeople's mental models, often related to the regulatory system governing risk assessments of novel foods. Critical issue are outlined and communication needs are discussed....

  20. Geomorphological Hazards in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Richard F.

    This is a topical book that deals with the geomorphological and geological engineering problems associated with hillslope processes and sediment transport in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. There are few large cities in the United States where the problems of urban growth include such a distinctive physical environment, as well as the potential hazards of brush fires, earthquakes, and floods that occur in Los Angeles. The research and data used in the book are restricted to Los Angeles County and cover the period 1914-1978. The author has done a commendable job of synthesizing a large mass of data from diverse sources, including federal, state, and local agency reports, plus data from private groups such as professional technical societies and consultants.

  1. Natural Hazard Demonstrations for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents several demonstrations that have been developed or gathered from other sources in the general area of natural hazards (e.g. landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, wildfires, tsunamis, mass movements, asteroid impacts, etc.). There are many methods of teaching, but as university lecturers, particularly for large class sizes, we find ourselves too often presenting material to students by direct speaking, or some combination of blackboard/whiteboard/slide projector/digital projector. There are certainly a number of techniques to more actively involve students, so that teaching is not just `receiving of information', including breaking up students into small group discussions, encouraging students to actively participate in class through comments and questions, and/or some combination of hands-on activities and demonstrations. It is this latter which is concentrated on here. As a teaching tool, the students themselves became much more excited about what they are learning if use is made of 5--10 minute demonstrations, even if only peripherally related to the subject at hand. The resultant discussion with questions and comments by students keeps both the students and the lecturer (in this case the author) motivated and intrigued about the subjects being discussed. Days, weeks, and months later, the students remember these `demonstrations', but to set these up takes time, effort, and resources of equipment, although not necessarily a large amount of the latter. Several natural hazards demonstrations are presented here, most inexpensive, that have been used in front of large university classes and smaller `break-out groups', and which can also be adapted for secondary-school students.

  2. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio as predictors of survival after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seropian, Ignacio M; Romeo, Francisco J; Pizarro, Rodolfo; Vulcano, Norberto O; Posatini, Ricardo A; Marenchino, Ricardo G; Berrocal, Daniel H; Belziti, Cesar A

    2017-07-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) predict outcome in heart failure (HF) patients undergoing heart transplantation (HTX). Data from 111 HF patients undergoing HTX 2010-2015 were retrospectively reviewed. NLR and PLR were calculated before HTX, immediately after HTX, and at 6 and 24 hours. Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, and secondary endpoints were 1 year mortality and renal replacement therapy (RRT). Prognostic factors were assessed by multivariate analysis, and the predictive values of NLR and PLR for mortality were compared. The discriminatory performance for predicting in-hospital mortality was better for NLR [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.644, 95% confidence interval 0.492-0.797] than for PLR (AUC = 0.599, 95% confidence interval 0.423-0.776). Best cut-off value was 2.41 for NLR (sensitivity 86%, specificity 67%) and 92.5 for PLR (sensitivity 86%, specificity 68%). When divided according to best cut-off value, in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the high NLR group (17.5% vs. 3.2%, P < 0.05), but not in the high PLR group (16.5% vs. 6.3%, P = ns). One year mortality was not significantly higher for either group (37.5% vs. 6.5% for NLR; 36.7% vs. 9.4% for PLR, P = ns for both), while RRT was significantly higher in both the NLR and PLR high groups (33.8% vs. 0%; 32.9% vs. 3.1%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that only high NLR (hazard ratio = 3.403, P < 0.05) and pre-transplant diabetes (hazard ratio = 3.364, P < 0.05) were independent prognostic factors for 1 year mortality. High NLR was a predictor for in-hospital mortality, and an independent prognostic factor for 1 year mortality. Both high NLR and high PLR were predictors for RRT. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  3. Hazards of geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. 

  4. Further Developments in Beta-Gamma to Alpha Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L

    2017-04-01

    An emphasis on alpha-emitting nuclides at nuclear power plants has produced methods for assessing the relative hazard of alpha versus other species. From the relative hazards, or ratios, decisions on the level of effort for worker protection and monitoring are made. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has issued technical guidance on relative alpha hazard and action level beta-gamma to alpha ratios. This paper shows the development of the ratio concept from first principles and brings hard-to-detect species into consideration. Outcomes from the exercise of computational forms of the ratios are compared to the EPRI results and the differences are noted. Some discussion of the implications and advantages of the developed forms then follows.

  5. [Relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-ping; Xu, Jing; Bi, Bao-gui

    2009-03-01

    To clarify the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors is of significance to the prediction and evaluation of landslide and debris flow hazards. Base on the latitudinal and longitudinal information of 18431 landslide and debris flow hazards in China, and the 1 km x 1 km grid data of elevation, elevation difference, slope, slope aspect, vegetation type, and vegetation coverage, this paper analyzed the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards in this country to above-mentioned environmental factors by the analysis method of frequency ratio. The results showed that the landslide and debris flow hazards in China more occurred in lower elevation areas of the first and second transitional zones. When the elevation difference within a 1 km x 1 km grid cell was about 300 m and the slope was around 30 degree, there was the greatest possibility of the occurrence of landslide and debris hazards. Mountain forest land and slope cropland were the two land types the hazards most easily occurred. The occurrence frequency of the hazards was the highest when the vegetation coverage was about 80%-90%.

  6. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  7. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  8. Communication in hazardous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W N; Herold, T R

    1986-01-01

    Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications.

  9. Learning to drive: from hazard detection to hazard handling

    OpenAIRE

    Madigan, Mary Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Hazard perception has been found to correlate with crash involvement, and has thus been suggested as the most likely source of any skill gap between novice and experienced drivers. The most commonly used method for measuring hazard perception is to evaluate the perception-reaction time to filmed traffic events. It can be argued that this method lacks ecological validity and may be of limited value in predicting the actions drivers’ will take to hazards encountered. The first two studies of th...

  10. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

  11. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Stroke Incidence Among Migrant Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, AA; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    socioeconomic inequalities in relation to stroke incidence among major ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods—A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n=2 397 446) between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2010, among ethnic Dutch and ethnic minority groups. Standardized disposable household...... income was used as a measure of socioeconomic position. Results—Among ethnic Dutch, the incidence of stroke was higher in the low-income group than in the high-income group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–1.20). Similar socioeconomic inequalities in stroke incidence were found...... in Surinamese among all income groups. The incidence of stroke was higher in Indonesian low- and high-income groups than in their ethnic Dutch counterparts. Among Antilleans, the risk of stroke was higher than ethnic Dutch but only in the low-income group. Conclusions—Our findings reveal socioeconomic...

  12. Periurbanisation and natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Loison

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous areas in recent decades urbanisation has expanded to areas where low ground adjoins mountainsides that are unstable in a number of respects. Periurbanisation in mountain basins with unstable sides poses specific problems that local players have to address. The Lavanchon basin (southeast of Grenoble, which is subject to very rapid urban growth combined with particularly dynamic mountainsides, is representative of the way activity is being brought into closer contact with potential hazards. A diachronic study of changes in land use between 1956 and 2001 shows how valley infrastructures at the bottom of mountainsides have become increasingly dense. In this context, a survey was carried out among a number of residents in the Lavanchon basin in an attempt to evaluate the degree of awareness that the population has of the natural hazards to which it is exposed. The results show that slightly more than half of the population surveyed was aware of the problem of natural hazards being present in the area, with most inhabitants being more concerned about industrial and pollution hazards. New residents were unaware of or were unwilling to accept the reality of hazards. The low incidence of significant natural events, the effectiveness of the protective structures built, the absence of information provided by the public authorities and the division of the basin between several management bodies appear to have engendered a feeling of safety from natural phenomena. The geographical distribution of appreciation of the hazard clearly shows a distinction between those inhabitants living on the low ground and those at the bottom of the mountainsides, and this corresponds fairly closely with the historical and current location of the main potentially hazardous events that have occurred.Dans les territoires de montagne, les dernières décennies ont vu l’expansion de l’urbanisation vers les zones de contact entre la plaine et les versants, lieux

  13. 碱催化不同基团配比酚醛树脂的性能研究%Study on properties of different groups ratio phenolic resin under base catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆勤伟; 毕松梅; 谢艳霞

    2016-01-01

    通过改变间苯二酚/甲醛的单体比例来合成系列甲阶酚醛树脂,采用T G (热重分析)、DSC (微分扫描量热器)技术研究酚醛树脂的热学性能;将合成的系列甲阶酚醛树脂与丁吡胶乳混合配制成RFL (酚醛树脂浸渍液),并通过将RFL烘燥制备成胶膜研究酚醛树脂的力学性能;从而寻找到一种单体比例合适的酚醛树脂,具有一定的耐热性和柔性,且能在特定温度(325℃)下熔融.结果表明:酚/醛配比为1∶2的酚醛树脂在初始阶段失重过快,耐热性较差;酚/醛配比为1∶13.的酚醛树脂在125℃左右由玻璃态转变为高弹态时需要吸收更多的热量,且在300℃之前就已分解,分解温度较低,分解较容易,无法满足在特定温度下熔融;酚/醛配比为1∶17.的酚醛树脂的拉伸强度最高,伸长率最小,且其硬度也适中.综合以上各方面的分析,酚/醛配比为1∶17.的酚醛树脂的综合性能最优.%The paper aims to synthetize the series of unsaturated polyester resins through changing the ra‐tio of resorcinol/formaldehyde(such as 1∶1 3. ,1∶1 5. ,1∶1 7. ,1∶2) ,and research the thermal proper‐ties of phenolic resin by TG(thermogravimetric) and DSC(differential scanning calorimeter) .The series of unsaturated polyester resins and butadiene‐vinylpyridine copylymer latex were mixed into RFL (phe‐nolic resin maceration extract) .After that ,the RFL was dried and prepared into a plastic film ,used to re‐search the mechanical properties of phenolic resin .Thus ,polyester resin with suitable monomer ratio was found I.t must have certain heat resistance and flexibility and melt at a specific temperature (325 ℃) .The results show that ,when the ratio of resorcinol/formaldehyde is 1∶2 ,phenolic resin quickly loses weight at the initial steps and has poor heat resistance .When the ratio of resorcinol/formaldehyde is 1∶1 3. ,phe

  14. Management Strategy for Hazardous Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Vilgerts, J; Timma, L; Blumberga, D.

    2012-01-01

    During the past year authorities, manufactures and scientists have been focused on the management and treatment methods of hazardous wastes, because they realized that “prevention costs” of activities connected to handling of hazardous waste are lower than “restoration costs” after damage is done. Uncontrolled management of hazardous substances may lead to contamination of any ecosystem on Earth: freshwater, ocean and terrestrial. Moreover leakage of toxic gasses creates also air pollution...

  15. Review Article: Lake and breach hazard assessment for moraine-dammed lakes: an example from the Cordillera Blanca (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Emmer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs and related debris flows represent a significant threat in high mountainous areas across the globe. It is necessary to quantify this threat so as to mitigate their catastrophic effects. Complete GLOF hazard assessment incorporates two phases: the probability of water release from a given glacial lake is estimated through lake and breach hazard assessment while the endangered areas are identified during downstream hazard assessment. This paper outlines a number of methods of lake and breach hazard assessment, which can be grouped into three categories: qualitative, of which we outline eight; semi-quantitative, of which we outline two; and quantitative, of which we outline three. It is considered that five groups of critical parameters are essential for an accurate regionally focused hazard assessment method for moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca. These comprise the possibility of dynamic slope movements into the lake, the possibility of a flood wave from a lake situated upstream, the possibility of dam rupture following a large earthquake, the size of the dam freeboard (or ratio of dam freeboard, and a distinction between natural dams and those with remedial work. It is shown that none of the summarised methods uses all these criteria with, at most, three of the five considered by the outlined methods. A number of these methods were used on six selected moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca: lakes Quitacocha, Checquiacocha, Palcacocha, Llaca, Rajucolta, and Tararhua. The results have been compared and show that each method has certain advantages and disadvantages when used in this region. These methods demonstrate that the most hazardous lake is Lake Palcacocha.

  16. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, calprotectin and YKL-40 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Klitgaard; Holmgaard, Dennis Back; Mygind, Lone Hagens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation and progressive decline in pulmonary function. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), YKL-40 and calprotectin are biomarkers of inflammation and predict mortality in patients with different inflammatory......- and multivariate Cox regression analyses with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Plasma calprotectin was positively correlated with neutrophil granulocyte count and NLR. No significant association was found between plasma YKL-40 and the cellular biomarkers, irrespective...... of glucocorticoid treatment. In the group not treated with systemic glucocorticoids, plasma calprotectin [HR 1.002 (95% CI 1.000 - 1.004)], NLR [HR 1.090 (1.036 - 1.148)] and lymphocyte count [HR 0.667 (0.522 - 0.851)] were significantly associated with higher mortality. In the group treated with systemic...

  17. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium......-powered incentives are sufficient to induce any given effort level. If the agent is overall moderately overconfident, the latter effect dominates; because the agent bears less risk in this case, he actually benefits from his overconfidence. If the agent is significantly overconfident, the former effect dominates......; the agent is then exposed to an excessive amount of risk, which is harmful to him. An increase in overconfidence--either about the base probability of success or the extent to which effort affects it--makes it more likely that high levels of effort are implemented in equilibrium....

  18. Runoff inundation hazard cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineux, N.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the

  19. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.......) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  20. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  1. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  2. Guidelines for hazard evaluation procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi 1 . Hazard Evaluation Procedures ... Management Overview ... ... Part I Preface 11 Introduction to the Guidelines 1.1 Background ... 1.2 Relationship...

  3. Work-related psychosocial hazards among emergency medical responders (EMRS in Mansoura city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Omar Khashaba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was done to assess levels of psychosocial stress and related hazards [(burnout, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD] among emergency medical responders (EMRs. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted upon (140 EMRs and a comparative group composed of (140 nonemergency workers. The groups studied were subjected to semistructured questionnaire including demographic data, survey for job stressors, Maslach burn out inventory (MBI, Beck depression inventory (BDI, and Davidson Trauma scale for PTSD. Results: The most severe acute stressors among EMRs were dealing with traumatic events (88.57%, followed by dealing with serious accidents (87.8% and young victims (87.14%. Chronic stressors were more commonly reported among EMRs with statistically significant differences (P 0.05. There was increased risk of PTSD for those who had higher stress levels from death of colleagues [odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 2.2 (0.7-7.6, exposure to verbal or physical assault OR (95% CI = 1.6 (0.5-4.4 and dealing with psychiatric OR (95% CI 1.4 (0.53.7 (P > 0.05 Conclusion: EMRs group had more frequent exposure to both acute and chronic work-related stressors than comparative group. Also, EMRs had higher levels of EE, DP, and PTSD compared with comparative group. EMRs are in need for stress management program for prevention these of stress related hazards on health and work performance.

  4. Nodal ratio of positive to excised nodes, but not number of positive lymph nodes is better to predict group to avoid chemotherapy among postmenopausal ER-positive, lymph node-positive T1-T2 breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Q Jia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This retrospective analysis demonstrates that NR of positive to excised nodes, but not number of positive lymph nodes is better to predict group to avoid chemotherapy among postmenopausal ER-positive, lymph node-positive T1-T2 breast cancer patients.

  5. Identification of Potential Hazard using Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R. M.; Syahputri, K.; Rizkya, I.; Siregar, I.

    2017-03-01

    This research was conducted in the paper production’s company. These Paper products will be used as a cigarette paper. Along in the production’s process, Company provides the machines and equipment that operated by workers. During the operations, all workers may potentially injured. It known as a potential hazard. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of a safety and health program in the stage of risk management. This is very important as part of efforts to prevent occupational injuries and diseases resulting from work. This research is experiencing a problem that is not the identification of potential hazards and risks that would be faced by workers during the running production process. The purpose of this study was to identify the potential hazards by using hazard identification and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using severity criteria and the probability of an accident. According to the research there are 23 potential hazard that occurs with varying severity and probability. Then made the determination Risk Assessment Code (RAC) for each potential hazard, and gained 3 extreme risks, 10 high risks, 6 medium risks and 3 low risks. We have successfully identified potential hazard using RAC.

  6. ThinkHazard! - Linking natural hazard information to decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, B.; Fraser, S. A.; Simpson, A.; Balog, S.; Murnane, R. J.; Deparday, V.

    2016-12-01

    Development projects, from construction of schools, hospitals, bridges, or dams, to new agricultural programs are often at risk of being adversely affected by natural hazards in their design lifetime. The design of such projects must consider disaster and climate risks to ensure investment is sustainable and "disaster and climate proofed". A significant challenge for those who want incorporate climate and disaster risk into projects, is accessing appropriate and understandable information on which risks exist and how to reduce these risks. The result is that too few development projects properly consider the full range of hazards present, and are at high risk of being left unprepared down the line. The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery has developed ThinkHazard!, an open-source, simple yet robust, online hazard screening tool providing hazard level at a user's specified location, for eight hazards. We describe the structure and development of ThinkHazard!, which is intended to be the first source of information for project managers unfamiliar with all the potential hazards in their project location, acting as a stepping stone or gateway to accessing more detailed information to incorporate disaster risk management in their projects.

  7. Global Polynomial Kernel Hazard Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiabu, Munir; Miranda, Maria Dolores Martínez; Nielsen, Jens Perch;

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bias reducing method for kernel hazard estimation. The method is called global polynomial adjustment (GPA). It is a global correction which is applicable to any kernel hazard estimator. The estimator works well from a theoretical point of view as it asymptotically...

  8. Global Polynomial Kernel Hazard Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiabu, Munir; Miranda, Maria Dolores Martínez; Nielsen, Jens Perch

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bias reducing method for kernel hazard estimation. The method is called global polynomial adjustment (GPA). It is a global correction which is applicable to any kernel hazard estimator. The estimator works well from a theoretical point of view as it asymptotically redu...

  9. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated fu...

  10. Safety and health hazard observations in Hmong farming operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, R L; Krenz, J; de Castro, A B

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting 50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation.

  11. Financial Key Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  12. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  13. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  14. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...... and to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be substantial enough...... be a poor substitute for a proper risk assessment as low potency substances can constitute a risk if the exposure is high enough and vice versa. Examples illustrating the strength and limitations of hazard classification, risk assessment and toxicological potency will be presented with focus on reproductive...

  15. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  16. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Radiation hazard control report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo; Morishima, Hiroshige; Araki, Yasusuke; Takiguchi, Chizuko; Hiraji, Chihiro; Nagai, Shoya [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The document of radiation hazard control from April 2001 to March 2002 in the research institute of atomic energy of Kinki University was reported and actual data were presented. 106 personnel were subjected to the control, the reactor maximal output was 1W with total output of 399,64 W center dot h for total 718.23 h and the institute underwent the inspection by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for twice, which resulting in getting satisfactory evaluation. The control involved was for the personnel, laboratories and field. The first was done mainly with film badges and sometimes with pocket dosimeters, and revealed the exposure of 0.480 mSv at maximum. The laboratory dose equivalent was continuously measured with the ionization chamber area monitor and sometimes with the ionization chamber survey meters, GM tube survey meters and scintillation survey meters. The film badge and TLD were also used. In addition, concentrations of radioactivity were measured in the exhaust gas and water with the dust-monitor and overall-monitor, respectively, and surface densities by smear-method with 2 pi-gas flow and liquid scintillation counters. The field control was carried out by calculation of environmental gamma-ray dose equivalent rate based on monthly TLD dose data and by actual beta-ray measurement of environmental specimens collected at every 3 months. (J.P.N.)

  18. Radiation hazard control report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo; Morishima, Hiroshige; Araki, Yasusuke; Takiguchi, Chizuko; Matsubayashi, Hideki; Hiraji, Chihiro [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    The document of radiation hazard control from April 2000 to March 2001 in the research institute of atomic energy of Kinki University was reported and actual data were presented. Seventy five personnel were subjected to the control, the reactor maximal output was 1W with total output of 463.74 W center dot h for total 777.34 h and the institute underwent the inspection by Science and Technology Agency for 3 times, which resulting in getting satisfactory evaluation. The control involved was for the personnel, laboratories and field. The first was done mainly with film badges and sometimes with pocket dosimeters, and revealed the exposure of 0.264 mSv at maximum. The laboratory dose equivalent was continuously measured with the ionization chamber area monitor and sometimes with the ionization chamber survey meters, GM tube survey meters and scintillation survey meters. The film badge and TLD were also used. In addition, concentrations of radioactivity were measured in the exhaust gas and water with the dust-monitor and overall-monitor, respectively, and surface densities by smear-method with the 2 pi-gas flow and liquid scintillation counters. The field control was carried out by calculation of environmental gamma-ray dose equivalent rate based on monthly TLD dose data and by actual beta-ray measurement of environmental specimens collected at every 3 months. (J.P.N.)

  19. The Optimizer Topology Characteristics in Seismic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengor, T.

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic data of the natural phenomena are questioned in a topological space approach to illuminate whether there is an algorithm behind them bringing the situation of physics of phenomena to optimized states even if they are hazards. The optimized code designing the hazard on a topological structure mashes the metric of the phenomena. The deviations in the metric of different phenomena push and/or pull the fold of the other suitable phenomena. For example if the metric of a specific phenomenon A fits to the metric of another specific phenomenon B after variation processes generated with the deviation of the metric of previous phenomenon A. Defining manifold processes covering the metric characteristics of each of every phenomenon is possible for all the physical events; i.e., natural hazards. There are suitable folds in those manifold groups so that each subfold fits to the metric characteristics of one of the natural hazard category at least. Some variation algorithms on those metric structures prepare a gauge effect bringing the long time stability of Earth for largely scaled periods. The realization of that stability depends on some specific conditions. These specific conditions are called optimized codes. The analytical basics of processes in topological structures are developed in [1]. The codes are generated according to the structures in [2]. Some optimized codes are derived related to the seismicity of NAF beginning from the quakes of the year 1999. References1. Taner SENGOR, "Topological theory and analytical configuration for a universal community model," Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 81, pp. 188-194, 28 June 2013, 2. Taner SENGOR, "Seismic-Climatic-Hazardous Events Estimation Processes via the Coupling Structures in Conserving Energy Topologies of the Earth," The 2014 AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract no.: 31374, ABD.

  20. Stereotype threat and hazard perception among provisional license drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorich, Daniel P; Webb, Hugh; Stewart, Lisa; Kostyanaya, Maria; Cruwys, Tegan; McNeill, Kathy; Frain, Andrew J; Lim, Li; Jones, Benjamin M; Smyth, Lillian; O'Brien, Kerry J

    2013-05-01

    Stereotype threat refers to the negative impact a stereotype about one's group can have on one's performance in domains relevant to the stereotype. In the current paper, we explore whether the negative stereotype of provisional license drivers (PLDs) might produce stereotype threat in a driving-related hazard perception task. We manipulate threat by asking participants to self-identify as PLDs in a categorization condition, or by reminding PLD participants explicitly of the stereotype of PLDs in an explicit stereotype condition. Results reveal increments in hazard perception in the categorization condition, and decrements in hazard perception in the explicit stereotype condition. Mediation analysis reveals that hazard perception performance is fully mediated by increased effort in the categorization condition and by decreased effort in the explicit stereotype condition. We discuss these findings in terms of their implications for stereotype threat and its mediators, and for public policy that explicitly discriminates between PLDs and other driver groups.

  1. Shedding a new light on hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, N.

    1991-02-01

    The sun's ability to detoxify waterborne chemicals has long been known; polluted streams, for example, become cleaner as they flow through sunlit areas. Solar detoxification harnesses this natural degradation process for beneficial ends, producing simple, nonhazardous substances from hazardous organic chemicals. Solar detoxification systems now being developed break down these chemicals without using the fossil fuels required by conventional technologies. Sunlight destroys hazardous waste because of the distinctive properties of photons, the packets of energy that make up sunlight. Low-energy photons add thermal energy that will heat toxic chemicals; high-energy photons add the energy needed to break the chemical bonds of these chemicals. The detoxification process discussed here takes advantage of this latter group of photons found in the ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum. 4 figs.

  2. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Is a Prognostic Marker in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jie; Huang, Wensi; Chen, Xiaoli; Li, Qian; Cai, Zhengyi; Yu, Tieer; Shao, Bei

    2017-03-01

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, it is uncertain whether neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is related with functional outcome and recurrent ischemic stroke. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio with stroke severity, functional outcome, and recurrent ischemic stroke after acute ischemic stroke. A total of 280 patients with acute ischemic stroke were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio value (3). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected for all patients. We evaluated the association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and (1) stroke severity on admission, (2) functional outcome at 3 months, and (3) recurrent ischemic stroke. Regression analyses were performed, adjusting for confounders. After adjustment for potential confounders, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was associated with an increased risk of stroke severity on admission (odds ratio [OR] 1.364, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.101-1.690, P = .005) and primary unfavorable outcome (OR 1.455, 95% CI 1.083-1.956, P = .013). After a median of 1.13 years (interquartile range.91-1.42) of follow-up, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was associated with recurrent ischemic stroke after adjustment (hazard ratio 1.499, 95% CI 1.161-1.935, P = .002). Our study suggests that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with stroke severity on admission, primary unfavorable functional outcome, and recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of the Crown-Root Ratio on Survival of Abutment Teeth for Dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, S; Allen, P F; Ikebe, K; Zheng, H; Shintani, A; Maeda, Y

    2015-09-01

    Crown-root ratio (CRR) is commonly recorded when planning prosthodontic procedures. However, there is a lack of longitudinal clinical data evaluating the association between CRR and tooth survival. The aim of this longitudinal practice-based study was to assess the impact of CRR on the survival of abutment teeth for removable partial dentures (RPDs). Data were collected from 147 patients provided with RPDs at a dental hospital in Japan. In total, 236 clasp-retained RPDs and 856 abutment teeth were analyzed. Survival of abutment teeth was assessed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox's proportional hazard (PH) regression. The Cox PH regression was used to assess the prognostic significance of initial CRR value with adjustments for clinically relevant factors, including age, sex, frequency of periodontal maintenance programs, occlusal support area, type of abutment tooth, status of endodontic treatment, and probing pocket depth. Abutment teeth were divided into 1 of 5 risk groups according to CRR: A (≤0.75), B (0.76-1.00), C (1.01-1.25), D (1.26-1.50) and E (≥1.51). The 7-year survival rate was 89.1% for group A, 85.9% for group B, 86.5% for group C, 76.9% for group D, and 46.7% for group E. The survival curves of groups A, B, and C were illustrated to be quite similar and favorable. The multivariable analysis treating CRR as a continuous variable allowed estimation of the hazard ratio at any specific CRR value. When CRR = 0.80 was set as a reference, the estimated hazard ratio was 0.58 for CRR = 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.91), 1.13 for CRR = 1.00 (95% CI, 0.93-1.37), 1.35 for CRR = 1.25 (95% CI, 1.02-1.80), 1.53 for CRR = 1.50 (95% CI, 1.15-2.08), or 1.95 for CRR = 2.00 (95% CI, 1.44-2.65). These practice-based longitudinal data provide information to improve the evidence-based prognosis of teeth in providing prosthodontic procedures.

  4. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  5. Geophysics and Seismic Hazard Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuGuihua; ZhouYuanze; YuSheng

    2003-01-01

    The earthquake is a natural phenomenon, which often brings serious hazard to the human life and material possession. It is a physical process of releasing interior energy of the earth, which is caused by interior and outer forces in special tectonic environment in the earth, especially within the lithosphere. The earthquake only causes casualty and loss in the place where people inhabit. Seismic hazard reduction is composed of four parts as seismic prediction, hazard prevention and seismic engineering, seismic response and seismic rescuing, and rebuilding.

  6. Hazard interaction analysis for multi-hazard risk assessment: a systematic classification based on hazard-forming environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyin; Siu, Yim Ling; Mitchell, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    This paper develops a systematic hazard interaction classification based on the geophysical environment that natural hazards arise from - the hazard-forming environment. According to their contribution to natural hazards, geophysical environmental factors in the hazard-forming environment were categorized into two types. The first are relatively stable factors which construct the precondition for the occurrence of natural hazards, whilst the second are trigger factors, which determine the frequency and magnitude of hazards. Different combinations of geophysical environmental factors induce different hazards. Based on these geophysical environmental factors for some major hazards, the stable factors are used to identify which kinds of natural hazards influence a given area, and trigger factors are used to classify the relationships between these hazards into four types: independent, mutex, parallel and series relationships. This classification helps to ensure all possible hazard interactions among different hazards are considered in multi-hazard risk assessment. This can effectively fill the gap in current multi-hazard risk assessment methods which to date only consider domino effects. In addition, based on this classification, the probability and magnitude of multiple interacting natural hazards occurring together can be calculated. Hence, the developed hazard interaction classification provides a useful tool to facilitate improved multi-hazard risk assessment.

  7. Probabilistic landslide hazards and risk mapping on Penang Island, Malaysia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saro Lee; Biswajeet Pradhan

    2006-12-01

    This paper deals with landslide hazards and risk analysis of Penang Island, Malaysia using Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing data. Landslide locations in the study area were identified from interpretations of aerial photographs and field surveys. Topographical/ geological data and satellite images were collected and processed using GIS and image processing tools. There are ten landslide inducing parameters which are considered for landslide hazard analysis. These parameters are topographic slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage, all derived from the topographic database; geology and distance from lineament, derived from the geologic database; landuse from Landsat satellite images; soil from the soil database; precipitation amount, derived from the rainfall database; and the vegetation index value from SPOT satellite images. Landslide susceptibility was analyzed using landslide-occurrence factors employing the probability–frequency ratio model. The results of the analysis were verified using the landslide location data and compared with the probabilistic model. The accuracy observed was 80.03%. The qualitative landslide hazard analysis was carried out using the frequency ratio model through the map overlay analysis in GIS environment. The accuracy of hazard map was 86.41%. Further, risk analysis was done by studying the landslide hazard map and damageable objects at risk. This information could be used to estimate the risk to population, property and existing infrastructure like transportation network.

  8. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J. [Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

  9. Optical Landing Hazard Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to investigate an active optical 3D imaging LADAR as the sensor for an automated Landing Hazard Avoidance system for spacecraft landing on the Moon...

  10. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  11. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  12. Exporting hazards to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, D B

    1998-01-01

    The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources.

  13. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  14. Natural Hazards - A National Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    The USGS Role in Reducing Disaster Losses -- In the United States each year, natural hazards cause hundreds of deaths and cost billions of dollars in disaster aid, disruption of commerce, and destruction of homes and critical infrastructure. Although the number of lives lost to natural hazards each year generally has declined, the economic cost of major disaster response and recovery continues to rise. Each decade, property damage from natural hazards events doubles or triples. The United States is second only to Japan in economic damages resulting from natural disasters. A major goal of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to reduce the vulnerability of the people and areas most at risk from natural hazards. Working with partners throughout all sectors of society, the USGS provides information, products, and knowledge to help build more resilient communities.

  15. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  16. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  17. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  18. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  19. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  20. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  1. Interconditionality geomorphosites and natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA GRECU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the inter-dependency reports between hazards and geomorphosites, even proposing the term of geohazsite for the sites generated by hazards. There is a double significance of the geomorphologic hazards in relation to geosites: of sites generation and of site alteration, vulnerability or even destruction. The geosite can be vulnerable not only at the generating hazard but also to other hazards, generally associated. The geosites constitute into a sequence of temporary dynamic equilibrium of an evolutive system. In this respect, correlations must be done between geomorphosites as a landform and the geomorphologic hazards, in the perspective of dynamic geomorphology.In the process of geomorphosite identification and selection some characteristics of the landform as response to natural and/or antropic hazards are taken into account. Geomorphosites thus become elements at risk, vulnerable to the environmental factors and to the natural and/or antropic hazards.The study is partially integrated in the digital platform on geomorphosites. This e-learning device was initiated and developed by the University of Lausanne, Switzerland (Emmanuel Reynard, director, Luci Darbellay in collaboration with five universities: University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy (Paola Coratza, University of Savoie, France (Fabien Hobléa and Nathalie Cayla, University of Minho, Portugal (Paulo Pereira, University of Bucharest, Romania (Laura Comanescu and Florina Grecu, University of Paris IV – Sorbonne, France (Christian Giusti. The course, developed with the Learning Management System Moodle, is a completely free-access course. It is divided into four parts: (1 Generalities; (2 Methods; (3 Conservation and promotion; (4 Example.

  2. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b − .2713 and variance 2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b − 3.795 − μ2.

  3. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b - .2713 and variance σ2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b - 3.795 μ2.

  4. On the Australian Bank Financial Ratio Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娜

    2011-01-01

    Financial ratios,despite some criticisms,are still used as a basis to evaluate a firm's performance,to make credit risk assessment decisions and classify firms into bankrupt and non-bankrupt groups.There are a great number of financial ratios which can be used for the evaluation of banks performance.Golin (2001) provides a list of over 80 ratios covering the major categories of capital,asset quality,profitability & efficiency,and liquidity & funding provides.

  5. Hazard screening application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information.

  6. Probabilistic analysis of tsunami hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, E.L.; Parsons, T.

    2006-01-01

    Determining the likelihood of a disaster is a key component of any comprehensive hazard assessment. This is particularly true for tsunamis, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models. We discuss probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) from the standpoint of integrating computational methods with empirical analysis of past tsunami runup. PTHA is derived from probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), with the main difference being that PTHA must account for far-field sources. The computational methods rely on numerical tsunami propagation models rather than empirical attenuation relationships as in PSHA in determining ground motions. Because a number of source parameters affect local tsunami runup height, PTHA can become complex and computationally intensive. Empirical analysis can function in one of two ways, depending on the length and completeness of the tsunami catalog. For site-specific studies where there is sufficient tsunami runup data available, hazard curves can primarily be derived from empirical analysis, with computational methods used to highlight deficiencies in the tsunami catalog. For region-wide analyses and sites where there are little to no tsunami data, a computationally based method such as Monte Carlo simulation is the primary method to establish tsunami hazards. Two case studies that describe how computational and empirical methods can be integrated are presented for Acapulco, Mexico (site-specific) and the U.S. Pacific Northwest coastline (region-wide analysis).

  7. Natural Hazards, Poverty Traps versus Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netti, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    Governments, even in developed countries, devote too scarce resources to coping (ex-ante) with natural hazards; as a consequence of this short-sightedness, (ex-post) direct and indirect effects of catastrophic events deeply compromise the economic growth. Protective measures against natural hazards mean complex choices involving the opinions of multidisciplinary groups of experts in the fields of ecology, civic and geotechnical engineering, geology, meteorology, law and economics. Moreover, tools and choices affect different stakeholders: politicians, producers, consumers, taxpayers and voters. Complementarity between informed rationality and democracy need to be recognized and guaranteed as too often the perceptions of the majority of the stakeholders involved about natural hazards are not consistent with any objective information about the catastrophic event. The interaction between strict budget constraints, extremely high degrees of uncertainty, risk-aversion and credit rationing, trade-off between democracy and rationality, are the main causes of potential 'poverty traps'. First of all we believe that the 'reconstruction output' to be included in GDP as an ex-post effect of a natural hazard is a forced investment much more effective in crowding-out other consumption and investment and less effective for growth than investments aiming at increasing, ex-ante, the resiliency of the economy. Keynes' 'Animal Spirits' are embedded in positive expectation for future gains especially if not concentrated in reconstruction procurement sectors but spread across different sectors of the economy. The increased demand for reconstruction goods and services may act in both directions depending on the phase of the business cycles in which the economy is. Risk premiums for risk-averter investors increase in consequence of a natural hazard event; this restrict budget constraints and strengthen credit rationing. A mere replacement effect of the destroyed capital by a more

  8. Bayesian network learning for natural hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kristin

    2016-04-01

    Even though quite different in occurrence and consequences, from a modelling perspective many natural hazards share similar properties and challenges. Their complex nature as well as lacking knowledge about their driving forces and potential effects make their analysis demanding. On top of the uncertainty about the modelling framework, inaccurate or incomplete event observations and the intrinsic randomness of the natural phenomenon add up to different interacting layers of uncertainty, which require a careful handling. Thus, for reliable natural hazard assessments it is crucial not only to capture and quantify involved uncertainties, but also to express and communicate uncertainties in an intuitive way. Decision-makers, who often find it difficult to deal with uncertainties, might otherwise return to familiar (mostly deterministic) proceedings. In the scope of the DFG research training group „NatRiskChange" we apply the probabilistic framework of Bayesian networks for diverse natural hazard and vulnerability studies. The great potential of Bayesian networks was already shown in previous natural hazard assessments. Treating each model component as random variable, Bayesian networks aim at capturing the joint distribution of all considered variables. Hence, each conditional distribution of interest (e.g. the effect of precautionary measures on damage reduction) can be inferred. The (in-)dependencies between the considered variables can be learned purely data driven or be given by experts. Even a combination of both is possible. By translating the (in-)dependences into a graph structure, Bayesian networks provide direct insights into the workings of the system and allow to learn about the underlying processes. Besides numerous studies on the topic, learning Bayesian networks from real-world data remains challenging. In previous studies, e.g. on earthquake induced ground motion and flood damage assessments, we tackled the problems arising with continuous variables

  9. Preliminary Earthquake Hazard Map of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Earthquakes represent a serious threat to the people and institutions of Afghanistan. As part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) effort to assess the resource potential and seismic hazards of Afghanistan, the Seismic Hazard Mapping group of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a series of probabilistic seismic hazard maps that help quantify the expected frequency and strength of ground shaking nationwide. To construct the maps, we do a complete hazard analysis for each of ~35,000 sites in the study area. We use a probabilistic methodology that accounts for all potential seismic sources and their rates of earthquake activity, and we incorporate modeling uncertainty by using logic trees for source and ground-motion parameters. See the Appendix for an explanation of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and discussion of seismic risk. Afghanistan occupies a southward-projecting, relatively stable promontory of the Eurasian tectonic plate (Ambraseys and Bilham, 2003; Wheeler and others, 2005). Active plate boundaries, however, surround Afghanistan on the west, south, and east. To the west, the Arabian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at about 3 cm/yr. The active plate boundary trends northwestward through the Zagros region of southwestern Iran. Deformation is accommodated throughout the territory of Iran; major structures include several north-south-trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault systems in the east and, farther to the north, a series of east-west-trending reverse- and strike-slip faults. This deformation apparently does not cross the border into relatively stable western Afghanistan. In the east, the Indian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at a rate of about 4 cm/yr. A broad, transpressional plate-boundary zone extends into eastern Afghanistan, trending southwestward from the Hindu Kush in northeast Afghanistan, through Kabul, and along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border

  10. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  11. Trimming the UCERF2 hazard logic tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Keith A.; Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 2 (UCERF2) is a fully time‐dependent earthquake rupture forecast developed with sponsorship of the California Earthquake Authority (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [WGCEP], 2007; Field et al., 2009). UCERF2 contains 480 logic‐tree branches reflecting choices among nine modeling uncertainties in the earthquake rate model shown in Figure 1. For seismic hazard analysis, it is also necessary to choose a ground‐motion‐prediction equation (GMPE) and set its parameters. Choosing among four next‐generation attenuation (NGA) relationships results in a total of 1920 hazard calculations per site. The present work is motivated by a desire to reduce the computational effort involved in a hazard analysis without understating uncertainty. We set out to assess which branching points of the UCERF2 logic tree contribute most to overall uncertainty, and which might be safely ignored (set to only one branch) without significantly biasing results or affecting some useful measure of uncertainty. The trimmed logic tree will have all of the original choices from the branching points that contribute significantly to uncertainty, but only one arbitrarily selected choice from the branching points that do not.

  12. How natural hazards influence Internet searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Joan; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Effective dissemination of correct and easy-to-understand scientific information is one of the most imperative tasks of natural hazard assessment and risk management, being the media and the population the two fundamental groups of receptors. It has been observed how during the occurrence of hazardous natural phenomena, media and population desperately seek for information in all possible channels. Traditionally, these have been the radio and television, but over the past decades, the Internet has also become a significant information resource. Nevertheless, how the Internet search behavior changes during the occurrence of natural phenomena of significant societal impact (i.e. involving important human and/or economic losses) has never been analyzed so far. Focusing mainly on volcanism, we use here for the first time Internet search data provided by Google Trends to examine the search patterns of volcanology-related terms and how these may change during unrest periods or volcanic crises. Results obtained allow us to evaluate, at a global and local scale, the interest of society towards volcanological phenomena and its potential background knowledge of Earth Sciences. We show here how Internet search data turns to be a promising tool for the global and local monitoring of awareness and education background of society on natural phenomena in general, and volcanic hazards in particular.

  13. Debris Flow Hazard Assessment Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Lifeng; ZHANG Youshui

    2006-01-01

    Seven factors, including the maximum volume of once flow , occurrence frequency of debris flow , watershed area , main channel length , watershed relative height difference , valley incision density and the length ratio of sediment supplement are chosen as evaluation factors of debris flow hazard degree. Using support vector machine (SVM) theory, we selected 259 basic data of 37 debris flow channels in Yunnan Province as learning samples in this study. We create a debris flow hazard assessment model based on SVM. The model was validated though instance applications and showed encouraging results.

  14. Ant Robotic Swarm for Visualizing Invisible Hazardous Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oyekan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the simplicity of how nature solves its problems, this paper presents a novel approach that would enable a swarm of ant robotic agents (robots with limited sensing, communication, computational and memory resources form a visual representation of distributed hazardous substances within an environment dominated by diffusion processes using a decentralized approach. Such a visual representation could be very useful in enabling a quicker evacuation of a city’s population affected by such hazardous substances. This is especially true if the ratio of emergency workers to the population number is very small.

  15. Health and safety information program for hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M.P.; Fallon, N.J.; Kuehner, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    The system is used as a management tool in several safety and health programs. It is used to: trace the use of hazardous materials and to determine monitoring needs; inform the occupational physician of the potential health problems associated with materials ordered by a given individual; inform the fire and rescue group of hazardous materials in a given building; provide waste disposal recommendations to the hazardous waste management group; assist the hazardous materials shipping coordinator in identifying materials which are regulated by the Department of Transportation; and guide management decisions in the area of recognizing and rectifying unsafe conditions. The information system has been expanded from a manual effort to provide a brief description of health hazards of chemicals used at the lab to a computerized health and safety information system which serves the needs of all personnel who may encounter the material in the course of their work. The system has been designed to provide information needed to control the potential problems associated with a hazardous material up to the time that it is consumed in a given operation or is sent to the waste disposal facility.

  16. Research on the Characteristics of Group Debris flow Hazards after Wenchuan Earthquake:A Case Study in the Longchi Area of Dujiangyan,Sichuan, China%汶川强震区群发性泥石流特征研究--以四川省都江堰龙池“8·13”群发泥石流为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马煜; 余斌; 李彩侠; 曾晋

    2014-01-01

    汶川地震导致大量崩塌和滑坡等次生地质灾害,为泥石流发生提供了丰富的物源,强降雨过后,汶川强震区的群发性泥石流出现了高发区。在2008-2010年的三个雨季里,强震区暴发了多处群发性泥石流灾害,龙池所在的龙溪河流域“8·13”群发泥石流灾害就是其中之一。首先对龙池龙溪河流域2010年8月13日暴发的45条泥石流沟进行简单的灾害阐述,其次在调查数据的基础上阐述了群发泥石流的特征:①成因多样,主因为地震和降雨综合的作用;②规模不一,以中小型为主,流体性质多集中为过渡性-粘性;③隐蔽性强,泥石流活动多集中在极小流域,主要为沟谷型泥石流;④泥石流活动集中在断裂带附近;⑤危害方式以冲蚀、淤埋和堵塞河道为主,且具有灾害链作用和叠加-放大作用。最后针对震区群发泥石流的活动特征,提出增强减灾措施的针对性。%The secondary disasters of landslide and collapse in Wenchuan Earthquake provide rich sources for debris flow.The occurrence of group debris flow is frequent in the disaster area during the heavy rainfall after the earthquake.In the rainy seasons of 2008,2009 and 2010,meizoseismal areas have breakout mass of group debris flow disasters.esp.group debris flow hazards in Longchi,Dujiangyan,Sichuan Province is one of these disasters. Based on field investigation and analysis,the disasters of 45 debris flow of Longchi in Longxi river basin disasters were firstly elaborated.Then,the relevant characteristics of group debris flow were studied as:(1 )Various rea-sons,Mainly because of the comprehensive effect of earthquake and rainfall;(2)Different scales,Mostly are small and medium types,Most of debris flows are sub-viscous and viscous debris flows;(3 )Most catchments of debris flow were small catchment and gully debris flow;(4 )Most debris flows are distribution in the triggering belt of

  17. Linking emerging hazardous waste technologies with the electronic information era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.E.; Suk, W.A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Blackard, B. [Technology Planning and Management Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In looking to the future and the development of new approaches or strategies for managing hazardous waste, it is important to understand and appreciate the factors that have contributed to current successful approaches. In the United States, several events in the last two decades have had a significant impact in advancing remediation of hazardous waste, including environmental legislation, legislative reforms on licensing federally funded research, and electronic transfer of information. Similar activities also have occurred on a global level. While each of these areas is significant, the electronic exchange of information has no national boundaries and has become an active part of major hazardous waste research and management programs. It is important to realize that any group or society that is developing a comprehensive program in hazardous waste management should be able to take advantage of this advanced approach in the dissemination of information. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Gender Ratio in Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, T. R.; Haslum, M. N.; Wheeler, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 11,804 British children (age 10) found that when specified criteria for dyslexia were used, 269 children qualified as dyslexic. These included 223 boys and 46 girls, for a ratio of 4.51 to 1. Difficulties in interpreting these data are discussed and a defense of the criteria is provided. (Author/CR)

  19. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  20. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as

  1. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as a waste group B (or A) tank identifies the potential for an induced flammable gas release hazard, the hazard only exists for specific operations that can release the retained gas in the tank at a rate and quantity that results in reaching 100% of the lower flammability limit in the tank headspace. The identification and evaluation of tank farm operations that could cause an induced flammable gas release hazard in a waste group B (or A) tank are included in other documents. The third criterion is the buoyancy ratio. This criterion addresses tanks that are not waste group C double-shell tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0. For these double-shell tanks, the buoyancy ratio considers whether the saturated solids can retain sufficient gas to exceed neutral buoyancy relative to the supernatant layer and therefore have buoyant displacement gas release events. If the buoyancy ratio is {ge} 1.0, that double-shell tank is assigned to waste group A. These tanks are considered to have a potential spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard in addition to a potential induced flammable gas release hazard.

  2. Slope stability hazard management systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Weather-related geo-hazards are a major concern for both natural slopes and man-made slopes and embankments.Government agencies and private companies are increasingly required to ensure that there is adequate protection of sloping surfaces in order that interaction with the climate does not produce instability. Superior theoretical formulations and computer tools are now available to address engineering design issues related to the near ground surface soil-atmospheric interactions. An example is given in this paper that illustrates the consequences of not paying adequate attention to the hazards of slope stability prior to the construction of a highway in South America. On the other hand, examples are given from Hong Kong and Mainland China where significant benefits are derived from putting in place a hazard slope stability management system. Some results from a hazard management slope stability study related to the railway system in Canada are also reported. The study took advantage of recent research on unsaturated soil behaviour and applied this information to real-time modelling of climatic conditions. The quantification of the water balance at the ground surface, and subsequent infiltration, is used as the primary tool for hazard level assessment. The suggested hazard model can be applied at either specific high risk locations or in a more general, broad-based manner over large areas. A more thorough understanding of unsaturated soil behaviour as it applies to near ground surface soils,along with the numerical computational power of the computer has made it possible for new approaches to be used in slope hazard management engineering.

  3. Occupational hazards in a public ambulance service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Brânduşa; Morariu, S; Duma, Olga Odetta

    2013-01-01

    To identify the occupational risks in an ambulance service and to assess their impact on the health of employees. Two marched groups (number, sex, age, length of exposure) from two different work sectors were selected. A 60 item questionnaire was used. The 60 items were grouped into four categories related to work organization, work environment, neuropsychosensorial risk factors and health system and occupational safety-related risk factors and hazards. The data were statistically processed, significant correlations between the risk factors and the associated symptoms being found. Compared to the control group, significantly higher values (pground, carrying weight, vicious postures) were found in ambulance service staff; cervical and lumbar spine problems were the most common complaints of ambulance service staff. The specific risk factors for ambulance service employees directly related to musculoskeletal disorders have been established.

  4. Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys (EE-Con)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Florian; Brantl, Dirk; Meyer, Lukas; Steininger, Karl; Sass, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The Alps and their population are particularly vulnerable to geomorphological and hydrological hazards and this problem might be amplified by ongoing climate change. Natural disasters cause severe monetary damage which often leads to the difficult question whether it socially pays to protect settlements at high costs or whether alternatively settlement areas should better be abandoned. By investigations in the Johnsbachtal and the Kleinsölktal (Styria), the interdisciplinary project "Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys" (EE-Con), funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Are natural hazards and associated damages in fact increasing, and is this due to meteorological triggers, to anthropogenic factors or to internal process dynamics? (2) What is the perception and knowledge of local people, how is risk and risk prevention communicated? (3) What is the respective cost ratio between protection infrastructure, soft measures of adaptation and other options (e.g. reduction of settlement area)? (4) What legitimate claims to compensation do people have, how far does societal responsibility go and where does individual responsibility start if parts of the settlement area had to be abandoned? These questions will be tackled in an interdisciplinary cooperation between geography, economics and normative theory (philosophy). EE-Con will follow broadly the path of risk analysis and risk assessment, focusing on the temporal dimension (past - present - future) with the aim to unravel the history of natural hazards in the areas and to analyse the economic values involved. In the following, natural hazard scenarios for the future (2050 and 2100) will be developed considering the economic consequences. Besides this, the project deals with local knowledge, risk perception and risk communication, which will be investigated via group interviews and stakeholder workshops and be integrated into a human

  5. Urban Heat Wave Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Jedlovec, G.; Crane, D. L.; Meyer, P. J.; LaFontaine, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heat waves are one of the largest causes of environmentally-related deaths globally and are likely to become more numerous as a result of climate change. The intensification of heat waves by the urban heat island effect and elevated humidity, combined with urban demographics, are key elements leading to these disasters. Better warning of the potential hazards may help lower risks associated with heat waves. Moderate resolution thermal data from NASA satellites is used to derive high spatial resolution estimates of apparent temperature (heat index) over urban regions. These data, combined with demographic data, are used to produce a daily heat hazard/risk map for selected cities. MODIS data are used to derive daily composite maximum and minimum land surface temperature (LST) fields to represent the amplitude of the diurnal temperature cycle and identify extreme heat days. Compositing routines are used to generate representative daily maximum and minimum LSTs for the urban environment. The limited effect of relative humidity on the apparent temperature (typically 10-15%) allows for the use of modeled moisture fields to convert LST to apparent temperature without loss of spatial variability. The daily max/min apparent temperature fields are used to identify abnormally extreme heat days relative to climatological values in order to produce a heat wave hazard map. Reference to climatological values normalizes the hazard for a particular region (e.g., the impact of an extreme heat day). A heat wave hazard map has been produced for several case study periods and then computed on a quasi-operational basis during the summer of 2016 for Atlanta, GA, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, and Huntsville, AL. A hazard does not become a risk until someone or something is exposed to that hazard at a level that might do harm. Demographic information is used to assess the urban risk associated with the heat wave hazard. Collectively, the heat wave hazard product can warn people in urban

  6. Identification of hazards in non-nuclear power plants. [Public health hazards of fossil-fuel, combined cycle, combustion turbine, and geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, W.S.; Israel, W.J.; Sacramo, R.F.

    1978-07-01

    Public health and safety hazards have been identified for five types of power plants: coal-fired, oil-fired steam turbine, combined cycle, combustion (gas) turbine, and geothermal. The results of the analysis show that air pollutants are the major hazard that affects the health and safety of the general public. A total of ninety plant hazards were identified for the five plant types. Each of these hazards were rated in six categories as to their affect on the general public. The criteria used in the analysis were: area/population exposed; duration; mitigation; quantity to toxicity ratio; nature of health effects; and public attitude. Even though ninety hazards were identified for the five plants analyzed, the large majority of hazards were similar for each plant. Highest ratings were given to the products of the combustion cycle or to hydrogen sulfide emissions from geothermal plants. Water pollution, cooling tower effects and noise received relatively low ratings. The highest rated of the infrequent or hypothetical hazards were those associated with potential fires, explosions, and chlorine releases at the plant. Hazards associated with major cooling water releases, water pollution and missiles received the lowest ratings. Since the results of the study clearly show that air pollutants are currently considered the most severe hazard, additional effort must be made to further understand the complex interactions of pollutants with man and his environment. Of particular importance is the determination of dose-response relationships for long term, low level exposure to air pollutants. (EDB)

  7. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.; El-Hadidy, M.; Deif, A.; Abou Elenean, K.

    2012-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5°) within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA) values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  8. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  9. Hazardous Waste Worker Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H.; Coleman, Paula; Wallerstein, Nina B.; Marcus, Alfred C.; Morawetz, John S.; Ortlieb, David W.

    2014-01-01

    This study illustrates how a union education center successfully integrated adult empowerment education principles into the teaching methods and curriculum of a health and safety training program. The 12-month follow-up phone survey involved 481 local union respondents each representing a separate plant site and a group of 50 manager trainees. The evaluation shows that the training manual continued to be used by more than 70% of respondents, more than 70% taught coworkers, more than 50% of union trainees went on to train their managers, and more than 90% identified problems at work and sought and obtained changes in programs, training, or equipment. More than 20% reported that major spills had occurred following training. The majority stated that the handling of the spills improved. More than 80% stated that the training better prepared them for their health and safety duties. The managers’ data substantially supported union members’ reports. PMID:7884572

  10. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  11. How to control chemical hazards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit

  12. A Ratio Scale Measurement of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beins, Bernard C.; Porter, J. William

    A sensitive technique for assessing conformity on a ratio scale was designed and tested in one group of 18 naive subjects and one group of 20 volunteer subjects, 10 of whom were naive and 10 of whom were informed. All subjects were undergraduates from Thomas More College (New York). The experiment required subjects to observe a line briefly…

  13. Can child-pedestrians' hazard perception skills be enhanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Anat; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Parmet, Yisrael

    2015-10-01

    Traffic collisions yield a substantial rate of morbidity and injury among child-pedestrians. We explored the formation of an innovative hazard perception training intervention - Child-pedestrians Anticipate and Act Hazard Perception Training (CA(2)HPT). Training was based upon enhancing participants' ability to anticipate potential hazards by exposing them to an array of traffic scenes viewed from different angles. Twenty-four 7-9-year-olds have participated. Trainees underwent a 40-min intervention of observing typical residential traffic scenarios in a simulated dome projection environment while engaging in a hazard detection task. Trainees were encouraged to note differences between the scenarios presented to them from separate angles (a pedestrian's point-of-view and a higher perspective angle). Next, trainees and control group members were required to perform crossing decision tasks. Trainees were found to be more aware of potential hazards related to restricted field of view relative to control. Child pedestrians are responsive to training and actively detecting materialized hazards may enrich child-pedestrians' ability to cross roads. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Odds ratios deconstructed: A new way to understand and explain odds ratios as conditional risk ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Fred M; Hoppe, Daniel J; Walter, Stephen D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this analysis was to provide an alternative derivation of the odds ratio (OR) to provide an intuitive meaning, freeing it from any mention of odds, which may make it a more useful concept for clinicians to use when describing treatment effect. By examining the four possible combinations of treatment/control and corresponding outcomes, we considered the conditional risk ratio (RR, also known as relative risk) of an event with the treatment compared with an event with the control for pairs of patients for whom treatment and control would yield different results. Both matched and unmatched studies are considered. We found that the OR could be derived as the RR of an outcome with treatment compared with an outcome with control conditional on the treatment and control resulting in different outcomes, thus providing a measure of the net benefit of treatment. It has been claimed that the OR comparing the effect of treatment vs. control does not have the same clinical interpretability as RR because it involves ratios of odds and so is difficult to explain in terms of patient numbers. This new derivation provides an interpretation of the OR as an RR but conditional on treatment and control resulting in different outcomes. This may help explain the reason ORs cause interpretation difficulties in practice. Moreover, the OR may be a more clinically useful parameter to patients because it deals with only those situations where the outcome differs between the two groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  16. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Modeling lahar behavior and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manville, Vernon; Major, Jon J.; Fagents, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Lahars are highly mobile mixtures of water and sediment of volcanic origin that are capable of traveling tens to > 100 km at speeds exceeding tens of km hr-1. Such flows are among the most serious ground-based hazards at many volcanoes because of their sudden onset, rapid advance rates, long runout distances, high energy, ability to transport large volumes of material, and tendency to flow along existing river channels where populations and infrastructure are commonly concentrated. They can grow in volume and peak discharge through erosion and incorporation of external sediment and/or water, inundate broad areas, and leave deposits many meters thick. Furthermore, lahars can recur for many years to decades after an initial volcanic eruption, as fresh pyroclastic material is eroded and redeposited during rainfall events, resulting in a spatially and temporally evolving hazard. Improving understanding of the behavior of these complex, gravitationally driven, multi-phase flows is key to mitigating the threat to communities at lahar-prone volcanoes. However, their complexity and evolving nature pose significant challenges to developing the models of flow behavior required for delineating their hazards and hazard zones.

  18. Laser Hazards Bibliography - November 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Blackman, C. P., Jr., Copeland , H. P., and DeRose, L. B., Evaluation and control of hazards in laser light shows, Hlth Physics 31(2): 189-190 (1976). 48...Brooks AF Base, TX, 51: 304 (1974). 299. Weston , B. A., Laser Systems-Code of Practice, Ministry of Technology Safety Services Organization, Station

  19. Laser Hazards Bibliography, January 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-31

    Blackman, C. P., Jr., Copeland , H. P., and DeRoge, L. B., Evaluation and control of hazards in laser light shows, Hlth Physics 31(2): 189-190 (1976). 67...Brooks AF Base, TX, 51: 304 (1974). 488. Weston , B. A., Laser Systems-Code of Practice, Ministry of Technology Safety Services Organization, Station

  20. Mercury as a health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, H A; Ferguson, S D; Kell, R L; Samuel, A H

    1987-03-01

    Pink disease has virtually disappeared since teething powders were withdrawn. We describe a case in a boy who was exposed to metallic mercury vapour. We discuss the potential health hazard of spilled elemental mercury in the house and the difficulties of removing it from the environment.

  1. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Greenwood, J.R.; Achim, A.; Gardiner, B.A.; Nicoll, B.C.; Cammeraat, E.; Mickovski, S.B.; Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  2. A Green Laser Pointer Hazard

    CERN Document Server

    Galang, Jemellie; Hagley, Edward W; Clark, Charles W

    2010-01-01

    An inexpensive green laser pointer was found to emit 20 mW of infrared radiation during normal use. This is potentially a serious hazard that would not be noticed by most users of such pointers. We find that this infrared emission derives from the design of the pointer, and describe a simple method of testing for infrared emissions using common household items.

  3. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Norris; J.R. Greenwood; A. Achim; B.A. Gardiner; B.C. Nicoll; E. Cammeraat; S.B. Mickovski

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  4. Effect of glaucoma on eye movement patterns and laboratory-based hazard detection ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samantha Sze-Yee; Black, Alex A; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the elevated crash rates of older drivers with glaucoma are poorly understood. A key driving skill is timely detection of hazards; however, the hazard detection ability of drivers with glaucoma has been largely unexplored. This study assessed the eye movement patterns and visual predictors of performance on a laboratory-based hazard detection task in older drivers with glaucoma. Participants included 30 older drivers with glaucoma (71±7 years; average better-eye mean deviation (MD) = -3.1±3.2 dB; average worse-eye MD = -11.9±6.2 dB) and 25 age-matched controls (72±7 years). Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, useful field of view (UFoV; processing speeds), and motion sensitivity were assessed. Participants completed a computerised Hazard Perception Test (HPT) while their eye movements were recorded using a desk-mounted Tobii TX300 eye-tracking system. The HPT comprises a series of real-world traffic videos recorded from the driver's perspective; participants responded to road hazards appearing in the videos, and hazard response times were determined. Participants with glaucoma exhibited an average of 0.42 seconds delay in hazard response time (p = 0.001), smaller saccades (p = 0.010), and delayed first fixation on hazards (p<0.001) compared to controls. Importantly, larger saccades were associated with faster hazard responses in the glaucoma group (p = 0.004), but not in the control group (p = 0.19). Across both groups, significant visual predictors of hazard response times included motion sensitivity, UFoV, and worse-eye MD (p<0.05). Older drivers with glaucoma had delayed hazard response times compared to controls, with associated changes in eye movement patterns. The association between larger saccades and faster hazard response time in the glaucoma group may represent a compensatory behaviour to facilitate improved performance.

  5. Crossing Hazard Functions in Common Survival Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajia; Peng, Yingwei

    2009-10-15

    Crossing hazard functions have extensive applications in modeling survival data. However, existing studies in the literature mainly focus on comparing crossed hazard functions and estimating the time at which the hazard functions cross, and there is little theoretical work on conditions under which hazard functions from a model will have a crossing. In this paper, we investigate crossing status of hazard functions from the proportional hazards (PH) model, the accelerated hazard (AH) model, and the accelerated failure time (AFT) model. We provide and prove conditions under which the hazard functions from the AH and the AFT models have no crossings or a single crossing. A few examples are also provided to demonstrate how the conditions can be used to determine crossing status of hazard functions from the three models.

  6. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  7. Risk Perception and the Psychology of Natural Hazard Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.; Weber, E. U.

    2014-12-01

    In the preparedness phase of the disaster cycle, willingness to invest resources in prevention and mitigation doesn't depend only on quantitative judgments of the probability of a disaster. People also evaluate the risks of situations in qualitative ways. Psychological studies of risk perception have shown that risk attitudes toward everyday technologies and activities (e.g., electric power, air travel, smoking) can be mapped onto two orthogonal dimensions: how unknown the risks seem, and how dread or severe they feel. Previously, this psychometric approach to risk perception has focused mostly on man-made risks (e.g., Fischhoff et al. 1978, Slovic 1987). In this paper we examine how natural hazards fit into the established unknown/dread risk space. Hazards that are high on the unknown dimension of risk tend to be perceived as having effects that are unknown to science and to the exposed, uncontrollable, and new. Hazards that rank high on the dread/severity dimension are seen as immediate, catastrophic, highly dreaded on a gut level, new, and likely to be fatal. Perceived risk tends to be highest for hazards that are both high on the dread dimension and low on the unknown dimension. We find that weather-related hazards rank lowest on both dimensions: blizzards, heat waves, hailstorms, fog, and ice storms are all feel very known and not particularly dread. The exception for this group is hurricanes and tornadoes, which are viewed as more similar to geophysical hazards and mass movements: high on dread, though not particularly unknown. Two notable outliers are climate change and sea-level rise, which are both considered very unknown (higher than any other natural hazard save sinkholes), and not at all dread (less dread even than fog and dust storms). But when compared with perceptions of technological hazards, nearly every natural hazard ranks as more dread than any technology or activity, including nuclear power. Man-made hazards fall with technologies, rather than

  8. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuo El-Ela A. Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba–Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  9. The Integrated Hazard Analysis Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard analysis addresses hazards that arise in the design, development, manufacturing, construction, facilities, transportation, operations and disposal activities associated with hardware, software, maintenance, operations and environments. An integrated hazard is an event or condition that is caused by or controlled by multiple systems, elements, or subsystems. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is especially daunting and ambitious for large, complex systems such as NASA s Constellation program which incorporates program, systems and element components that impact others (International Space Station, public, International Partners, etc.). An appropriate IHA should identify all hazards, causes, controls and verifications used to mitigate the risk of catastrophic loss of crew, vehicle and/or mission. Unfortunately, in the current age of increased technology dependence, there is the tendency to sometimes overlook the necessary and sufficient qualifications of the integrator, that is, the person/team that identifies the parts, analyzes the architectural structure, aligns the analysis with the program plan and then communicates/coordinates with large and small components, each contributing necessary hardware, software and/or information to prevent catastrophic loss. As viewed from both Challenger and Columbia accidents, lack of appropriate communication, management errors and lack of resources dedicated to safety were cited as major contributors to these fatalities. From the accident reports, it would appear that the organizational impact of managers, integrators and safety personnel contributes more significantly to mission success and mission failure than purely technological components. If this is so, then organizations who sincerely desire mission success must put as much effort in selecting managers and integrators as they do when designing the hardware, writing the software code and analyzing competitive proposals. This paper will discuss the necessary and

  10. Geologic Hazards Meet the Special Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, D. E.; Haddad, A.; Turner, M.

    2011-12-01

    Mainstream classrooms have difficulty accommodating students with special learning needs and helping them achieve state-mandated standards in reading, writing, math, and science. These students are subsequently grouped into special education classrooms where they receive specialized instruction. Few lesson plans and teaching activities exist to help special education teachers guide their students toward meeting the state-mandated academic standards. This is especially true for science curricula. The goal of this project is to develop a set of science-themed lesson plans for special education students using geologic hazards as a prototype theme. The dynamic nature of geologic hazards provides an excellent opportunity to stimulate the natural curiosity students have about the world around them. We designed and implemented lesson plans for elementary-level students with learning and cognitive disabilities revolving around earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, etc. The lesson plans used tactile and interactive learning activities to teach Earth science and science inquiry concepts outlined in the Arizona Department of Education curriculum standards. All lesson plans were administered by a special education teacher to a class of 8-10 students over the course of three weeks. Student responses were coded semi-quantitatively to assess the effectiveness of the lesson plans. Pre- and post-assessments of each student's state of knowledge showed increased retention of geologic concepts after implementing our new lesson plans. This project demonstrated that real-world science concepts like natural hazards are both engaging to special education students and effective in meeting otherwise elusive state-mandated science curricula. Future efforts will concentrate on making effective, prepackaged lesson plans available to special education teachers on a grab-and-go basis.

  11. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic

  12. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studie

  13. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studie

  14. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  15. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  16. Seismic hazard assessment: Issues and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

  17. Association of Serum Triglyceride to HDL Cholesterol Ratio with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Incident Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Ik; Streja, Elani; Soohoo, Melissa; Kim, Tae Woo; Rhee, Connie M; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kashyap, Moti L; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Moradi, Hamid

    2017-04-03

    Elevated serum triglyceride/HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality in the general population. However, the association of this important clinical index with mortality has not been fully evaluated in patients with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We hypothesized that the association of serum TG/HDL-C ratio with all-cause and CV mortality in patients with ESRD on MHD is different from the general population. We studied the association of serum TG/HDL-C ratio with all-cause and CV mortality in a nationally representative cohort of 50,673 patients on incident hemodialysis between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011. Association of baseline and time-varying TG/HDL-C ratios with mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with adjustment for multiple variables, including statin therapy. During the median follow-up of 19 months (interquartile range, 11-32 months), 12,778 all-cause deaths and 4541 CV deaths occurred, respectively. We found that the 10th decile group (reference: sixth deciles of TG/HDL-C ratios) had significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.99] in baseline and 0.86 [95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 0.94] in time-varying models) and CV mortality (hazard ratio, 0.83 [95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 0.96] in baseline and 0.77 [95% confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.90] in time-varying models). These associations remained consistent and significant across various subgroups. Contrary to the general population, elevated TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with better CV and overall survival in patients on hemodialysis. Our findings provide further support that the nature of CV disease and mortality in patients with ESRD is unique and distinct from other patient populations. Hence, it is vital that future studies focus on identifying risk factors unique to patients on MHD and decipher the underlying

  18. Hazardous materials sensing: An electrical metamaterial approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawat, Vaishali; Kitture, Rohini [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Kumari, Dimple [Department of Applied Chemistry, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Rajesh, Harsh [Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research (SAMEER), IIT-Bombay Campus, Powai, Mumbai (India); Banerjee, Shaibal [Department of Applied Chemistry, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Kale, S.N., E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India)

    2016-10-01

    Metamaterials are recently emerging materials exhibiting amazing properties such as extremely miniaturized antennas, waveguides, optical couplers, multiplexers and filters. Such structures also respond to the variation in their ambient conditions when exposed to toxic and hazardous materials, which are especially hazardous to human health. Through this manuscript, we document our studies on three different high energy materials; namely 2- bromo-2nitropropane-1,3-diol (BNP), bis (1,3-diazido prop-2-yl) malonate (AM) and bis (1,3-diazido prop-2-yl) glutarate (AG). A Complementary Split Ring Resonator has been fabricated at resonant frequency of 4.48 GHz using copper on FR4 substrate. The energetic materials were exposed to the sensor and results were monitored using Vector Network Analyzer. The volume of liquids was varied from 0.5 µL to 3 µL. Prominent and explicit shifts in the transmission resonant frequency and amplitude was seen as a signature of each energetic material. The signatures were not only sensitive to the specific toxic group in the material but also to the volume of the liquid subjected to this sensor. The results are correlated with the simulation results, basic chemistry of the materials and permittivity measurements. The ultra-fast reversibility and repeatability, with good sensitivity and specificity of these devices project their applications in sensitive locations, particularly to combat for human security and health issues.

  19. Hazardous materials sensing: An electrical metamaterial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Vaishali; Kitture, Rohini; Kumari, Dimple; Rajesh, Harsh; Banerjee, Shaibal; Kale, S. N.

    2016-10-01

    Metamaterials are recently emerging materials exhibiting amazing properties such as extremely miniaturized antennas, waveguides, optical couplers, multiplexers and filters. Such structures also respond to the variation in their ambient conditions when exposed to toxic and hazardous materials, which are especially hazardous to human health. Through this manuscript, we document our studies on three different high energy materials; namely 2- bromo-2nitropropane-1,3-diol (BNP), bis (1,3-diazido prop-2-yl) malonate (AM) and bis (1,3-diazido prop-2-yl) glutarate (AG). A Complementary Split Ring Resonator has been fabricated at resonant frequency of 4.48 GHz using copper on FR4 substrate. The energetic materials were exposed to the sensor and results were monitored using Vector Network Analyzer. The volume of liquids was varied from 0.5 μL to 3 μL. Prominent and explicit shifts in the transmission resonant frequency and amplitude was seen as a signature of each energetic material. The signatures were not only sensitive to the specific toxic group in the material but also to the volume of the liquid subjected to this sensor. The results are correlated with the simulation results, basic chemistry of the materials and permittivity measurements. The ultra-fast reversibility and repeatability, with good sensitivity and specificity of these devices project their applications in sensitive locations, particularly to combat for human security and health issues.

  20. Seismic hazard analysis for Jayapura city, Papua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robiana, R., E-mail: robiana-geo104@yahoo.com; Cipta, A. [Geological Agency, Diponegoro Road No.57, Bandung, 40122 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Jayapura city had destructive earthquake which occurred on June 25, 1976 with the maximum intensity VII MMI scale. Probabilistic methods are used to determine the earthquake hazard by considering all possible earthquakes that can occur in this region. Earthquake source models using three types of source models are subduction model; comes from the New Guinea Trench subduction zone (North Papuan Thrust), fault models; derived from fault Yapen, TareraAiduna, Wamena, Memberamo, Waipago, Jayapura, and Jayawijaya, and 7 background models to accommodate unknown earthquakes. Amplification factor using geomorphological approaches are corrected by the measurement data. This data is related to rock type and depth of soft soil. Site class in Jayapura city can be grouped into classes B, C, D and E, with the amplification between 0.5 – 6. Hazard maps are presented with a 10% probability of earthquake occurrence within a period of 500 years for the dominant periods of 0.0, 0.2, and 1.0 seconds.

  1. Natural hazard and disaster tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucińska Dorota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An observed trend, which can be defined as tourist interest in natural hazards and disasters, has persuaded the authors to attempt to research several issues, including tourist motivations and specific tourism properties and functions of this form of activity. The objective also covered the allocation of this social and natural process in the general structure of tourism. This interest has a long history, and a new stage is currently forming, which partly results from factors affecting society, such as information and education, which provoke antagonistic reactions. Extreme natural phenomena entail a common reduction of tourist interest in the destination which hosted the event; however, it never drops to zero. Differences are visible depending on the type of phenomenon. On the other hand, natural hazards and disasters are considered to hold a specific tourism value. This article discusses the allocation of this human activity in the tourism forms known to scientists, accounting for its diversity and relating to ethics.

  2. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamova, R S

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamics and its hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W.-T.

    1981-11-01

    Potential occupational and environmental hazards of a typical combined open-cycle MHD/steam cycle power plant are critically assessed on the basis of direct/indirect research information. Among the potential occupational hazards, explosion at the coal feed system or at the superconducting magnet; combustor rupture in a confined pit; high intensity dc magnetic field exposure at the channel; and combustion products leakage from the pressurized systems are of primary concern. While environmental emissions of SO(x), NO(x) and fine particulates are considered under control in experimental scale, control effectiveness at high capacity operation remains uncertain. Gaseous emission of some highly toxic trace elements including radioactive species may be of concern without gas cleaning device in the MHD design.

  4. Models of volcanic eruption hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohletz, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions pose an ever present but poorly constrained hazard to life and property for geothermal installations in volcanic areas. Because eruptions occur sporadically and may limit field access, quantitative and systematic field studies of eruptions are difficult to complete. Circumventing this difficulty, laboratory models and numerical simulations are pivotal in building our understanding of eruptions. For example, the results of fuel-coolant interaction experiments show that magma-water interaction controls many eruption styles. Applying these results, increasing numbers of field studies now document and interpret the role of external water eruptions. Similarly, numerical simulations solve the fundamental physics of high-speed fluid flow and give quantitative predictions that elucidate the complexities of pyroclastic flows and surges. A primary goal of these models is to guide geologists in searching for critical field relationships and making their interpretations. Coupled with field work, modeling is beginning to allow more quantitative and predictive volcanic hazard assessments.

  5. Patterns of Risk Using an Integrated Spatial Multi-Hazard Model (PRISM Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-hazard risk assessment has long centered on small scale needs, whereby a single community or group of communities’ exposures are assessed to determine potential mitigation strategies. While this approach has advanced the understanding of hazard interactions, it is li...

  6. possible hazards and their preventions in physiotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARUF

    The use of various electrotherapeutic modalities in physiotherapy is known to offer beneficial effects for patients for whom the ... necessary to forestall these potential electrical hazards; ..... Swanbeck (1984) lists the hazards of UVR as both a.

  7. Mortality hazard rates and life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Cramer; R. Kaas

    2013-01-01

    We consider the relation between mortality hazards and life expectancy for men and women in the Netherlands and in England. Halving the lifetime mortality hazards increases life expectancy at birth by only 9%.

  8. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  9. Geologic Hazards Science Center GIS Server

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Geologic Hazards Science Center (GHSC) in Golden, CO maintains a GIS server with services pertaining to various geologic hazard disciplines involving...

  10. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  11. High-Ratio Gear Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear ratio many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. Ratios of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different ratios is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear ratios would be obtained from small mechanism.

  12. Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.

  13. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  14. Magnetic storms and induction hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  15. The Psychology of Hazard Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. F.

    2012-12-01

    A critical step in preparing for natural hazards is understanding the risk: what is the hazard, its likelihood and range of impacts, and what are the vulnerabilities of the community? Any hazard forecast naturally includes a degree of uncertainty, and often these uncertainties are expressed in terms of probabilities. There is often a strong understanding of probability among the physical scientists and emergency managers who create hazard forecasts and issue watches, warnings, and evacuation orders, and often such experts expect similar levels of risk fluency among the general public—indeed, the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) states in the introduction to its earthquake rupture forecast maps that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities—from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [1] However, cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [see, e.g., 2-5] that the WGCEP's expectation of probability literacy is inaccurate. People neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probability information, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [6]. Even the most ubiquitous of probabilistic information—weather forecasts—are systematically misinterpreted [7]. So while disaster risk analysis and assessment is undoubtedly a critical step in public preparedness and hazard mitigation plans, it is equally important that scientists and practitioners understand the common psychological barriers to accurate probability perception before they attempt to communicate hazard risks to the public. This paper discusses several common, systematic distortions in probability perception and use, including: the influence of personal experience on use of statistical information; temporal discounting and construal level theory; the effect

  16. What happens when drivers face hazards on the road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventsislavova, Petya; Gugliotta, Andres; Peña-Suarez, Elsa; Garcia-Fernandez, Pedro; Eisman, Eduardo; Crundall, David; Castro, Candida

    2016-06-01

    The current study aims to obtain knowledge about the nature of the processes involved in Hazard Perception, using measurement techniques to separate and independently quantify these suspected sub-processes: Sensation, Situation Awareness (recognition, location and projection) and decision-making. It applies Signal Detection Theory analysis to Hazard Perception and Prediction Tasks. To enable the calculation of Signal Detection Theory parameters, video-recorded hazardous vs. quasi-hazardous situations were presented to the participants. In the hazardous situations it is necessary to perform an evasive action, for instance, braking or swerving abruptly, while the quasi-hazardous situations do not require the driver to make any evasive manoeuvre, merely to carry on driving at the same speed and following the same trajectory. A first Multiple Choice Hazard Perception and Prediction test was created to measure participants' performance in a What Happens Next? Task. The sample comprised 143 participants, 47 females and 94 males. Groups of non-offender drivers (learner, novice and experienced) and offender drivers (novice and experienced) were recruited. The Multiple Choice Hazard Perception and Prediction test succeeded in finding differences between drivers according to their driving experience. In fact, differences exist with regard to the level of hazard discrimination (d' prime) by drivers with different experience (learner, novice and experienced drivers) and profile (offenders and non-offenders) and these differences emerge from Signal Detection Theory analysis. In addition, it was found that experienced drivers show higher Situation Awareness than learner or novice drivers. On the other hand, although offenders do worse than non-offenders on the hazard identification question, they do just as well when their Situation Awareness is probed (in fact, they are as aware as non-offenders of what the obstacles on the road are, where they are and what will happen next

  17. Asbestos products, hazards, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Asbestos is present in the United States in a multitude of products used in past decades, and in some products that continue to be imported and domestically produced. We have limited information on the hazards posed by some of these individual products and no information at all on most of them. Legal discovery of corporate documents has shed some light on the use of asbestos in some products and exposures from asbestos in others, sometimes adding considerably to what was in the published literature. But liability concerns have motivated corporate efforts to curtail governmental public health guidance on long-recognized hazards to workers. Liability considerations have also evidently led, in the case of asbestos brake linings, to the support of publication in the scientific literature of review articles denying in the 21st century what had been widely accepted and established in health policy in the 20th century. This report is an effort to illustrate the suppression and emergence of scientific knowledge in a climate of regulation and liability. Examples discussed are vinyl-asbestos flooring, feminine hygiene products, automotive friction materials, and asbestos contamination of other minerals such as talc and vermiculite. Global efforts to deal with the hazards of continuing marketing of asbestos products are also discussed.

  18. Automatic Hazard Detection for Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry H.

    2008-01-01

    Unmanned planetary landers to date have landed 'blind'; that is, without the benefit of onboard landing hazard detection and avoidance systems. This constrains landing site selection to very benign terrain,which in turn constrains the scientific agenda of missions. The state of the art Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) technology can land a spacecraft on Mars somewhere within a 20-100km landing ellipse.Landing ellipses are very likely to contain hazards such as craters, discontinuities, steep slopes, and large rocks, than can cause mission-fatal damage. We briefly review sensor options for landing hazard detection and identify a perception approach based on stereo vision and shadow analysis that addresses the broadest set of missions. Our approach fuses stereo vision and monocular shadow-based rock detection to maximize spacecraft safety. We summarize performance models for slope estimation and rock detection within this approach and validate those models experimentally. Instantiating our model of rock detection reliability for Mars predicts that this approach can reduce the probability of failed landing by at least a factor of 4 in any given terrain. We also describe a rock detector/mapper applied to large-high-resolution images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for landing site characterization and selection for Mars missions.

  19. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office`s program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities.

  20. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office's program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities.

  1. 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Sonja L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); English, Charles J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are inherent goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE) and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program (a component of the overall Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention [WMin/PP] Program) administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and pollution prevention goals of the Environmental Programs Directorate (EP) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. LANS was very successful in fiscal year (FY) 2013 (October 1-September 30) in WMin/PP efforts. Staff funded four projects specifically related to reduction of waste with hazardous constituents, and LANS won four national awards for pollution prevention efforts from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In FY13, there was no hazardous, mixedtransuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste generated at the Laboratory. More hazardous waste, MTRU waste, and MLLW was generated in FY13 than in FY12, and the majority of the increase was related to MTRU processing or lab cleanouts. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  2. 2016 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Sonja L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); English, Charles Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE), inclusive of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Office of Environmental Management, and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program, which is a component of the overall Pollution Prevention (P2) Program, administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (EPC-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and P2 goals of the Associate Directorate of Environmental Management (ADEM) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. This report includes data for all waste shipped offsite from LANL during fiscal year (FY) 2016 (October 1, 2015 – September 30, 2016). LANS was active during FY2016 in waste minimization and P2 efforts. Multiple projects were funded that specifically related to reduction of hazardous waste. In FY2016, there was no hazardous, mixed-transuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste shipped offsite from the Laboratory. More non-remediation hazardous waste and MLLW was shipped offsite from the Laboratory in FY2016 compared to FY2015. Non-remediation MTRU waste was not shipped offsite during FY2016. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  3. 14 CFR 437.29 - Hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.29 Section 437.29 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.29 Hazard analysis. (a) An applicant must perform a hazard analysis that complies with §...

  4. Hazard perception and how to test it.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential part of the driving task. There are clear indications that insufficient skills in perceiving hazards play an important role in the occurrence of crashes, especially those involving novice drivers. Proper hazard perception not only consists of scanning and perceiving

  5. Age, skill, and hazard perception in driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Shinar, David; Oron-Gilad, Tal

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of age and driving experience on the ability to detect hazards while driving; namely, hazard perception. Studies have shown that young-inexperienced drivers are more likely than experienced drivers to suffer from hazard perception deficiencies. However, it remains to be determined if this skill deteriorates with advancing age. Twenty-one young-inexperienced, 19 experienced, and 16 elderly drivers viewed six hazard perception movies while connected to an eye tracking system and were requested to identify hazardous situations. Four movies embedded planned, highly hazardous, situations and the rest were used as control. Generally, experienced and older-experienced drivers were equally proficient at hazard detection and detected potentially hazardous events (e.g., approaching an intersection, pedestrians on curb) continuously whereas young-inexperienced drivers stopped reporting on hazards that followed planned, highly hazardous situations. Moreover, while approaching T intersections older and experienced drivers fixated more towards the merging road on the right while young-inexperienced drivers fixated straight ahead, paying less attention to potential vehicles on the merging road. The study suggests that driving experience improves drivers' awareness of potential hazards and guides drivers' eye movements to locations that might embed potential risks. Furthermore, advanced age hardly affects older drivers' ability to perceive hazards, and older drivers are at least partially aware of their age-related limitations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Nursing workers' perceptions regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Taiza Florêncio; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Baptista, Patrícia Campos Pavan

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the perceptions of nursing workers regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste at the University of São Paulo University Hospital (HU-USP), and develop a proposal to improve safety measures. This study used a qualitative approach and a convenience sample consisting of eighteen nursing workers. Data collection was performed through focal groups. Thematic analysis revealed four categories that gave evidence of training deficiencies in terms of the stages of handling waste. Difficulties that emerged included a lack of knowledge regarding exposure and its impact, the utilization of personal protective equipment versus collective protection, and suggestions regarding measures to be taken by the institution and workers for the safe handling of hazardous chemical waste. The present data allowed for recommending proposals regarding the safe management of hazardous chemical waste by the nursing staff.

  7. Expert elicitation for a national-level volcano hazard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Mark; Stirling, Mark; Cronin, Shane; Wang, Ting; Jolly, Gill

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of volcanic hazard at national level is a vital pre-requisite to placing volcanic risk on a platform that permits meaningful comparison with other hazards such as earthquakes. New Zealand has up to a dozen dangerous volcanoes, with the usual mixed degrees of knowledge concerning their temporal and spatial eruptive history. Information on the 'size' of the eruptions, be it in terms of VEI, volume or duration, is sketchy at best. These limitations and the need for a uniform approach lend themselves to a subjective hazard analysis via expert elicitation. Approximately 20 New Zealand volcanologists provided estimates for the size of the next eruption from each volcano and, conditional on this, its location, timing and duration. Opinions were likewise elicited from a control group of statisticians, seismologists and (geo)chemists, all of whom had at least heard the term 'volcano'. The opinions were combined via the Cooke classical method. We will report on the preliminary results from the exercise.

  8. PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, R.B.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat aqueous mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses evaporation to separate organics and water from radionuclides and solids, and catalytic oxidation to convert the hazardous into byproducts. This process hazards analysis evaluated a number of accident scenarios not directly related to the operation of the MTU, such as natural phenomena damage and mishandling of chemical containers. Worst case accident scenarios were further evaluated to determine the risk potential to the MTU and to workers, the public, and the environment. The overall risk to any group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  9. Does the Mother or Father Determine the Offspring Sex Ratio? Investigating the Relationship between Maternal Digit Ratio and Offspring Sex Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Beom Kim

    Full Text Available In mammals, high parental testosterone levels present around the time of conception are thought to skew offspring sex ratio toward sons. The second to fourth digit ratio (digit ratio is now widely accepted as a negative correlate of prenatal testosterone. Thus, we investigated the association between digit ratio and offspring sex ratio.A total of 508 Korean patients (257 males and 251 females less than 60 years old who had one or more offspring were prospectively enrolled. The lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital vernier calliper. Next, the patients' lifetime offspring birth sex ratios were investigated.Maternal (rather than paternal digit ratio was significantly associated with the number of sons (r = -0.153, p = 0.015, number of daughters (r = 0.130, p = 0.039, and offspring sex ratio (r = -0.171, p = 0.007. And, the maternal digit ratio was a significant factor for predicting offspring sex ratio (B = -1.620, p = 0.008 on multiple linear regression analysis. The female patients with a lower digit ratio (< 0.95 were found to have a higher offspring sex ratio (0.609 versus 0.521, p = 0.046 compared to those with a higher digit ratio (≥ 0.95. Furthermore, females in the low digit ratio group have a probability 1.138 greater of having sons than females in the high digit ratio group.Maternal digit ratio was negatively associated with offspring sex ratio. Females with a lower digit ratio were more likely to have more male offspring compared to those with a higher digit ratio. Thus, our results suggest that the sex of offspring might be more influenced by maternal rather than paternal factors.

  10. Detection of different hazards by means of mine surveying documents and mining charts. Erkennen verschiedener Gefahren aus dem Bergmaennischen Risswerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J. (Bergbau-Forschung GmbH - Forschungsinstitut des Steinkohlenbergbauvereins, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Markscheidewesen und Gebirgsschlagverhuetung)

    1989-05-01

    The author reports a development project annual at removing the factor of human failure in the detection of hazards as for as possible by rendering the detection process proper more objective. This concerns in particular, those hazards which cannot be detected immediately in the pit. For their detection, mine surveying documents and mining charts need to be consulted. The project looked into hazards which were grouped into hazards resulting from subterranean water, fire areas or from zones with increased pressure for which models were developed, EDP programmes produced and tested, and hazard detection criteria determined. The methodology for data acquisition from mining surveying documents was defined and tested under practical conditions. (MOS).

  11. Eye Movements and Road Hazard Detection: Effects of Blur and Distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samantha Sze-Yee; Black, Alex A; Lacherez, Philippe; Wood, Joanne M

    2016-09-01

    To examine the effects of optical blur, auditory distractors, and age on eye movement patterns while performing a driving hazard perception test (HPT). Twenty young (mean age 27.1 ± 4.6 years) and 20 older (73.3 ± 5.7 years) drivers with normal vision completed a HPT in a repeated-measures counterbalanced design while their eye movements were recorded. Testing was performed under two visual (best-corrected vision and with +2.00DS blur) and two distractor (with and without auditory distraction) conditions. Participants were required to respond to road hazards appearing in the HPT videos of real-world driving scenes and their hazard response times were recorded. Blur and distractors each significantly delayed hazard response time by 0.42 and 0.76 s, respectively (p < 0.05). A significant interaction between age and distractors indicated that older drivers were more affected by distractors than young drivers (response with distractors delayed by 0.96 and 0.60 s, respectively). There were no other two- or three-way interaction effects on response time. With blur, for example, both groups fixated significantly longer on hazards before responding compared to best-corrected vision. In the presence of distractors, both groups exhibited delayed first fixation on the hazards and spent less time fixating on the hazards. There were also significant differences in eye movement characteristics between groups, where older drivers exhibited smaller saccades, delayed first fixation on hazards, and shorter fixation duration on hazards compared to the young drivers. Collectively, the findings of delayed hazard response times and alterations in eye movement patterns with blur and distractors provide further evidence that visual impairment and distractors are independently detrimental to driving safety given that delayed hazard response times are linked to increased crash risk.

  12. NASA LaRC Hazardous Material Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenet, Remy

    1995-01-01

    In 1993-1994 the Office of Environmental Engineering contracted SAIC to develop NASA Langley's Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. One of the priority projects identified in this contract was the development of a hazardous waste minimization (HAZMIN)/hazardous materials reutilization (HAZMART) program in the form of a Hazardous Materials Pharmacy. A hazardous materials pharmacy is designed to reduce hazardous material procurement costs and hazardous waste disposal costs. This is accomplished through the collection and reissue of excess hazardous material. Currently, a rarely used hazardous material may be stored in a shop area, unused, until it passes its expiration date. The material is then usually disposed of as a hazardous waste, often at a greater expense than the original cost of the material. While this material was on the shelf expiring, other shop areas may have ordered new supplies of the same material. The hazardous material pharmacy would act as a clearinghouse for such materials. Material that is not going to be used would be turned in to the pharmacy. Other users could then be issued this material free of charge, thereby reducing procurement costs. The use of this material by another shop prevents it from expiring, thereby reducing hazardous waste disposal costs.

  13. NGNP SITE 2 HAZARDS ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2011-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy pursuant to the 2005 Energy Policy Act, is based on research and development activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. Accordingly, it can be applied in many industrial applications as a substitute for burning fossil fuels, such as natural gas, to generate process heat in addition to producing electricity, which is the principal application of current LWRs. Nuclear energy in the form of LWRs has been used in the U.S. and internationally principally for the generation of electricity. However, because the HTGR operates at higher temperatures than LWRs, it can be used to displace the use of fossil fuels in many industrial applications. It also provides a carbon emission-free energy supply. For example, the energy needs for the recovery and refining of petroleum, for the petrochemical industry and for production of transportation fuels and feedstocks using coal conversion processes require process heat provided at temperatures approaching 800 C. This temperature range is readily achieved by the HTGR technology. This report summarizes a site assessment authorized by INL under the NGNP Project to determine hazards and potential challenges that site owners and HTGR designers need to be aware of when developing the HTGR design for co-location at industrial facilities, and to evaluate the site for suitability considering certain site characteristics. The objectives of the NGNP site hazard assessments are to do an initial screening of representative sites in order to identify potential challenges and restraints

  14. Windsurfing hazard caused by needlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvillain, J L; Donica, A; Gane, C; Zekhnini, C; Garron, E; Uzel, A P

    2013-11-01

    Very amusing and entertaining for the traveler, marine activities in tropical countries can be dangerous. More and more trauma caused by hazardous marine animals have been reported in recent years in the world, after maritime accidents including water sports like windsurfing, kite surfing, swimming, diving, and injuries caused by sting or contact with a marine animal. Rays and stone-fish frequently cause trauma, but there are not many cases of injury by needlefish. This case reports a case of penetrating wound of the left foot caused by a Caribbean needlefish occurred during a session of windsurfing in Martinique.

  15. Occupational hazards of interventional cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Balter, Stephen; Weisz, Giora, E-mail: gw2128@columbia.edu

    2013-07-15

    Complex catheter-based interventions and rising case volumes confer occupational risks to interventional cardiologists. Despite advances in technology, modern interventional procedures are performed in a manner remarkably similar to the techniques pioneered decades ago. Percutaneous interventions are associated with operator orthopedic injuries, exposures to blood borne pathogens, and the effects of chronic radiation exposure from fluoroscopy. This review highlights the occupational hazards of interventional procedures and provides a glimpse at the technologies and techniques that may reduce risks to operators in the catheterization laboratory.

  16. Natural Hazards In Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vera, M.

    2001-12-01

    Around the world more than 300 natural disasters occur each year, taking about 250,000 lives and directly affecting more than 200 million people. Natural hazards are complex and vary greatly in their frequency, speed of onset, duration and area affected. They are distinguished from extreme natural events, which are much more common and widespread, by their potential impacts on human societies. A natural disaster is the occurrence of a natural hazard on a large scale, involving great damage and, particularly in developing countries, great loss of life. The Basin of Mexico, whose central and southwestern parts are occupied by the urban area of Mexico City at the average altitude of 2,240 m above the sea level, is located on the southern edge of the Southern Plateau Central, on a segment of the Trans-Mexican Neovolcanic Belt that developed during Pliocene-Holocene times. The Basin of Mexico is a closed basin, which was created with the closing of the former Valley of Mexico because of basaltic-andesitic volcanism that formed the Sierra de Chichinautzin south of the city. The south-flowing drainage was obstructed and prompted the development of a lake that became gradually filled with sediments during the last 700,000 years. The lake fill accumulated unconformably over a terrain of severely dissected topography, which varies notably in thickness laterally. The major part of the urban area of Mexico City is built over these lake deposits, whereas the rest is built over alluvial material that forms the transition zone between the lake deposits and what constitutes the basement for the basin fill. In the present study, the effect of rain, fire and earthquakes onto Mexico City is evaluated. Rain risk was calculated using the most dangerous flood paths. The fire risk zones were determined by defining the vegetation areas with greater probability to catch fires. Earthquake hazards were determined by characterization of the zones that are vulnerable to damages produced by

  17. Dielectric and electrical hazard shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Hugh

    2011-04-01

    With OSHA early documents falling on the side of EH shoes for electrical work, companies would do well to consider them for all electrical workers and other workers exposed to electrical hazards or damp locations. These shoes rarely add more than $5 to the cost of the shoe and have been known to save lives. They should be considered for low-voltage (shoes provide this type of protection and are the preferred step potential PPE option in both OSHA 1910.269 and NFPA 70E.

  18. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report.

  19. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  20. Warning system for hydrogeological hazards in Campania (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, Mauro; Cristiano, Luigi; Gentile, Salvatore; Gentilella, Matteo; Giannattasio, Maurizio; Napoli, Francesca

    2010-05-01

    Campania is the Italian region with the highest population density (419 inhabitants/km2). Almost 20% of its territory (13669 km2) is affected by significant hydrogeological hazards, with related loss scenarios in almost 12% of it. The most critical hydrogeological hazard scenarios are those triggered by extreme rainfall events with duration ranging from a few tens of minutes up 72 hours: flood loss scenarios are expected in catchments with spatial extent from a few Km2 up to 5000 km2; shallow landslides and mudflows are also triggered by rainfall events within a broad range of time scales. This study presents a warning system for hydrogeological hazards, which has been operating in Campania since 2005, designed for mitigating losses due to extreme rainfall events. The warning system is structured into two stages: the meteorological forecasting stage and the hydrological monitoring stage. In the first stage, after evaluating rainfall forecasts provided by numerical weather prediction models (with a forecasting time up to 48 hours), warning messages are issued to the local municipalities grouped in 8 warning zones. Critical rainfall events are identified by three different alert levels, according to their forecasted spatial and temporal extents, each corresponding to a category of expected hazard scenarios at regional level. During the second stage, the dynamic evolution of the hydrological events is monitored by a real-time network of river stage and rain gauges, which are employed to compute one or more precursors for each loss scenario. Loss scenarios have been classified according to the temporal and spatial scales of the corresponding precursors, in order to deal with the difficulties related to the occurrence of significantly different hazard scenarios during the same rainfall event. Three threshold values have been identified for each precursor, corresponding to given hazard and alert levels. As a precursor exceeds a threshold value, warning messages are

  1. Carbon sequestration and eruption hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    In order to reduce the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, proposals have been made to sequestrate carbon in ocean, or in coal mines and other underground formations. High gas concentration in ocean or underground formations has to potential to power gas-driven eruptions. In this presentation, possible eruption hazards are explored. Whenever carbon dioxide is sequestrated in the form of carbon dioxide gas, or dissolved and/or absorbed carbon dioxide, it is necessary to exercise caution to avoid gas-driven eruption hazard. It is long known that explosive volcanic eruptions are driven by H2O gas in magma. Lake eruptions powered by dissolved CO2 in lake bottom water were discovered in the 1980's (Kling et al., 1987; Zhang, 1996). Gas-driven ocean eruptions with mechanism similar to lake eruptions have been hypothesized (Zhang, 2003; Zhang and Kling, 2006) although not confirmed. Mud volcanos are commonly thought to be driven by methane-rich fluids in sediment (Milkov, 2000). Recently, Zhang et al. (2007) have proposed that coal outbursts in underground coal mines are driven by dissolved high CO2 concentration in coal, causing coal fragmentation and outburst. That is, coal outbursts may be regarded as a new type of gas-driven eruptions. Therefore, high concentrations of free gas or dissolved/absorbed gas may power eruptions of magma, lake water, ocean water, sediment, and coal. Gas- driven volcanic, lake and ocean eruptions are due to volume expansion from bubble growth, whereas gas-driven coal and sediment eruptions are due to high gas-pressure, leading to fragmentation of coal and sediment. (In explosive volcanism, magma fragmentation is also a critical point.) The threshold conditions for many of these eruptions are not known yet. In planning large (industrial) scale injection of CO2 into a natural reservoir, it is important to know the eruption threshold and design the injection scheme accordingly. More safe sequestration in terms of eruption hazards would

  2. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  3. Hazardous waste in Illinois: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heavisides, T.K.; LaScala, R.; Reddy, K.R.; Warren, T.J.; Zyznieuski, W.

    1983-12-01

    Hazardous waste management is recognized as one of the most critical human health and environmental issues of the decade. The State of Illinois, as a major center of industry and agriculture, has been ranked as the second largest generator of hazardous waste in the nation. This report provides a comprehensive review of the hazardous waste issue in Illinois, including how wastes are generated and managed, the environmental and health risks associated with improper management practices, and a discussion of legislative and governmental policies which effect hazardous waste. The report also contains two appendices, the first which provides a discussion of alternative technologies for hazardous waste disposal, the second which contains the full text of a supplementary report on hazardous waste management in Illinois, developed by Patterson Associates, Inc.

  4. Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.

  5. Volcanic hazard assessment in monogenetic volcanic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolini, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    [eng] One of the most important tasks of modern volcanology, which represents a significant socio-economic implication, is to conduct hazard assessment in active volcanic systems. These volcanological studies are aimed at hazard that allows to constructing hazard maps and simulating different eruptive scenarios, and are mainly addressed to contribute to territorial planning, definition of emergency plans or managing volcanic crisis. The impact of a natural event, as a volcanic eruption, can s...

  6. Fibre optic sensors for mine hazard detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T; Wang, C; Wei, Y; Zhao, Y; Shang, Y; Wang, Z [Laser Institute of Shandong Academy of Science (China); Huo, D [Shandong Micro-Sensor Photonics Limited, 19 Keyuan Road, Jinan, Shandong province, 250014 (China); Ning, Y, E-mail: tongyuliu@hotmail.co [Intelligent Sensor Systems Limited, Rockley Manor, Rockley, Wiltshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    We report the development of a comprehensive safety monitoring solution for coal mines. A number of fibre optic sensors have been developed and deployed for safety monitoring of mine roof integrity and hazardous gases. The FOS-based mine hazard detection system offers unique advantages of intrinsic safety, multi-location and multi-parameter monitoring. They can be potentially used to build expert systems for mine hazard early detection and prevention.

  7. Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brenda; Lamb, Rynn M.

    2015-07-09

    When emergencies occur, first responders and disaster response teams often need rapid access to aerial photography and satellite imagery that is acquired before and after the event. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) provides quick and easy access to pre- and post-event imagery and geospatial datasets that support emergency response and recovery operations. The HDDS provides a single, consolidated point-of-entry and distribution system for USGS-hosted remotely sensed imagery and other geospatial datasets related to an event response. The data delivery services are provided through an interactive map-based interface that allows emergency response personnel to rapidly select and download pre-event ("baseline") and post-event emergency response imagery.

  8. Tsunami Hazards - A National Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    In December 2004, when a tsunami killed more than 200,000 people in 11 countries around the Indian Ocean, the United States was reminded of its own tsunami risks. In fact, devastating tsunamis have struck North America before and are sure to strike again. Especially vulnerable are the five Pacific States--Hawaii, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California--and the U.S. Caribbean islands. In the wake of the Indian Ocean disaster, the United States is redoubling its efforts to assess the Nation's tsunami hazards, provide tsunami education, and improve its system for tsunami warning. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is helping to meet these needs, in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and with coastal States and counties.

  9. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  10. Prognostic Utility of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio on Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Severe Calcific Aortic Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Cho, Sang Hoon; Her, Ae-Young; Singh, Gillian Balbir; Shin, Eun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic stenosis (AS). We aimed to evaluate the association between an inflammatory marker, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with severe calcific AS. Methods A total of 336 patients with isolated severe calcific AS newly diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. Using Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression models, we investigated the prognostic value of NLR adjusted for baseline covariates including logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score (EuroSCORE-I) and undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). We also evaluated the clinical relevance of NLR risk groups (divided into low, intermediate, high risk) as categorized by NLR cutoff values. MACE was defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction during the follow-up period. Results The inflammatory marker NLR was an independent prognostic factor most significantly associated with MACE [hazard ratio (HR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.09; p-value 9), respectively. Conclusion The findings of the present study demonstrate the potential utility of NLR in risk stratification of patients with severe calcific AS. PMID:27548384

  11. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  12. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  13. Healthcare hazard control and safety management

    CERN Document Server

    Tweedy, James T

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive in scope, this totally revamped edition of a bestseller is the ideal desk reference for anyone tasked with hazard control and safety management in the healthcare industry. Presented in an easy-to-read format, Healthcare Hazard Control and Safety Management, Third Edition examines hazard control and safety management as proactive functions of an organization. Like its popular predecessors, the book supplies a complete overview of hazard control, safety management, compliance, standards, and accreditation in the healthcare industry. This edition includes new information on leadersh

  14. Canister storage building hazard analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS, T.B.

    1999-05-11

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', and meets the intent of HNF-PRO-704, ''Hazard and Accident Analysis Process''. This hazard analysis implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''.

  15. Resilience to Interacting multi-natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Conventional analyses of hazard assessment tend to focus on individual hazards in isolation. However, many parts of the world are usually affected by multiple natural hazards with the potential for interacting relationships. The understanding of such interactions, their impacts and the related uncertainties, are an important and topical area of research. Interacting multi-hazards may appear in different forms, including 1) CASCADING HAZARDS (a primary hazard triggering one or more secondary hazards such as an earthquake triggering landslides which may block river channels with dammed lakes and ensued floods), 2) CONCURRING HAZARDS (two or more primary hazards coinciding to trigger or exacerbate secondary hazards such as an earthquake and a rainfall event simultaneously creating landslides), and 3) ALTERING HAZARDS (a primary hazard increasing the probability of a secondary hazard occurring such as major earthquakes disturbing soil/rock materials by violent ground shaking which alter the regional patterns of landslides and debris flows in the subsequent years to come). All three types of interacting multi-hazards may occur in natural hazard prone regions, so it is important that research on hazard resilience should cover all of them. In the past decades, great progresses have been made in tackling disaster risk around the world. However, there are still many challenging issues to be solved, and the disasters over recent years have clearly demonstrated the inadequate resilience in our highly interconnected and interdependent systems. We have identified the following weaknesses and knowledge gaps in the current disaster risk management: 1) although our understanding in individual hazards has been greatly improved, there is a lack of sound knowledge about mechanisms and processes of interacting multi-hazards. Therefore, the resultant multi-hazard risk is often significantly underestimated with severe consequences. It is also poorly understood about the spatial and

  16. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research. PMID:28009000

  17. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  18. ABO blood group and the risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpin, Brian M; Chan, Andrew T; Hartge, Patricia; Chanock, Stephen J; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J; Giovannucci, Edward L; Fuchs, Charles S

    2009-03-18

    Other than several rare, highly penetrant familial syndromes, genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic cancer are largely unknown. ABO blood type is an inherited characteristic that in previous small studies has been associated with the risk of gastrointestinal malignancies. We separately examined the relationship between ABO blood type and the risk of incident pancreatic cancer in two large, independent, prospective cohort studies (the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study) that collected blood group data on 107 503 US health professionals. Hazard ratios for pancreatic cancer by ABO blood type were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for other known risk factors, including age, tobacco use, body mass index, physical activity, and history of diabetes mellitus. All statistical tests were two-sided. During 927 995 person-years of follow-up, 316 participants developed pancreatic cancer. ABO blood type was associated with the risk of developing pancreatic cancer (P = .004; log-rank test). Compared with participants with blood group O, those with blood groups A, AB, or B were more likely to develop pancreatic cancer (adjusted hazard ratios for incident pancreatic cancer were 1.32 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.02 to 1.72], 1.51 [95% CI = 1.02 to 2.23], and 1.72 [95% CI = 1.25 to 2.38], respectively). The association between blood type and pancreatic cancer risk was nearly identical in the two cohorts (P(interaction) = .97). Overall, 17% of the pancreatic cancer cases were attributable to inheriting a non-O blood group (blood group A, B, or AB). The age-adjusted incidence rates for pancreatic cancer per 100 000 person-years were 27 (95% CI = 23 to 33) for participants with blood type O, 36 (95% CI = 26 to 50) for those with blood type A, 41 (95% CI = 31 to 56) for those with blood type AB, and 46 (95% CI = 32 to 68) for those with blood type B. In two large, independent populations, ABO blood type was

  19. The visual search patterns and hazard responses of experienced and inexperienced motorcycle riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Simon G; Liu, Charles C; Bayly, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Hazard perception is a critical skill for road users. In this study, an open-loop motorcycle simulator was used to examine the effects of motorcycle riding and car driving experience on hazard perception and visual scanning patterns. Three groups of participants were tested: experienced motorcycle riders who were experienced drivers (EM-ED), inexperienced riders/experienced drivers (IM-ED), and inexperienced riders/inexperienced drivers (IM-ID). Participants were asked to search for hazards in simulated scenarios, and click a response button when a hazard was identified. The results revealed a significant monotonic decrease in hazard response times as experience increased from IM-ID to IM-ED to EM-ED. Compared to the IM-ID group, both the EM-ED and IM-ED groups exhibited more flexible visual scanning patterns that were sensitive to the presence of hazards. These results point to the potential benefit of training hazard perception and visual scanning in motorcycle riders, as has been successfully demonstrated in previous studies with car drivers.

  20. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  1. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  2. Risk Factors, Coronary Severity, Outcome and ABO Blood Group: A Large Chinese Han Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Xu, Rui-Xia; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-10-01

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to have ethnic difference and to be a pivotal genetic determinant of cardiovascular risk, whereas few prospective data regarding the impact on cardiovascular outcomes are available in a large cohort of patients with angiography-proven coronary artery disease, especially from the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic role of blood type in future cardiovascular events (CVEs) in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.The population of this prospective cohort study consisted of 3823 eligible patients, and followed annually to capture all CVEs. Baseline characteristics and ABO blood type were obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of ABO blood type on CVEs.New CVEs occurred in 348 patients [263 (10.3%) non-O and 85 (7.8%) O] during a median period of 24.6 months follow-up. Significantly, non-O blood group was related to the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and several risk factors including inflammatory markers. The log-rank test revealed that there was a significant difference between non-O and O blood groups in event-free survival analysis (P = 0.026). In particular, the Cox proportional hazards models revealed that non-O blood type was associated with increased CVEs risk [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.320 (1.033-1.685)], even after adjusting for potential confounders [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) non-O: 1.289 (1.003-1.656); A: 1.083 (0.797-1.472); B: 1.481 (1.122-1.955); AB: 1.249 (0.852-1.831), respectively].Non-O blood type is associated with future CVEs in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.

  3. [Working hypothesis of simplified techniques for the first mapping of occupational hazards in handicraft. First part: ergonomics hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, D; Di Leone, G; Occhipinti, E; Montomoli, L; Ruschioni, A; Giambartolomei, M; Ardissone, S; Fanti, M; Pressiani, S; Placci, M; Cerbai, M; Preite, S

    2009-01-01

    During the last Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), Beijing - China August 2009, in collaboration with World Health Organization an international group for developing a "toolkit for MSD prevention" was founded. Possible users of toolkits are: members of a health and safety committee; health and safety representatives; line supervisors; foremen; workers; government representatives; health workers implementing basic occupational health services; occupational health and safety specialists. According with ISO standard 11228 series and their ISO Application document for the Key enters and Quick Assessment (green/red conditions), our group developed a first mapping methodology of occupational hazards in handicraft, working with the support of the information technology (Excel). This methodology, utilizing specific key enters and quick evaluation, allows a simple risk estimation. So it is possible to decide for which occupational hazards will be necessary an exhaustive assessment and to which professional consultant it is better to direct them to (worker's doctor, engineer, chemical, etc.).

  4. Technical Guidance for Hazardous Analysis, Emergency Planning for Extremely Hazardous Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    This current guide supplements NRT-1 by providing technical assistance to LEPCs to assess the lethal hazards related to potential airborne releases of extremely hazardous substances (EHSs) as designated under Section 302 of Title Ill of SARA.

  5. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

  6. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE.

  7. Working towards a clearer and more helpful hazard map: investigating the influence of hazard map design on hazard communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. A.; Lindsay, J. M.; Gaillard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, geological hazards are communicated using maps. In traditional hazard mapping practice, scientists analyse data about a hazard, and then display the results on a map for stakeholder and public use. However, this one-way, top-down approach to hazard communication is not necessarily effective or reliable. The messages which people take away will be dependent on the way in which they read, interpret, and understand the map, a facet of hazard communication which has been relatively unexplored. Decades of cartographic studies suggest that variables in the visual representation of data on maps, such as colour and symbology, can have a powerful effect on how people understand map content. In practice, however, there is little guidance or consistency in how hazard information is expressed and represented on maps. Accordingly, decisions are often made based on subjective preference, rather than research-backed principles. Here we present the results of a study in which we explore how hazard map design features can influence hazard map interpretation, and we propose a number of considerations for hazard map design. A series of hazard maps were generated, with each one showing the same probabilistic volcanic ashfall dataset, but using different verbal and visual variables (e.g., different colour schemes, data classifications, probabilistic formats). Following a short pilot study, these maps were used in an online survey of 110 stakeholders and scientists in New Zealand. Participants answered 30 open-ended and multiple choice questions about ashfall hazard based on the different maps. Results suggest that hazard map design can have a significant influence on the messages readers take away. For example, diverging colour schemes were associated with concepts of "risk" and decision-making more than sequential schemes, and participants made more precise estimates of hazard with isarithmic data classifications compared to binned or gradational shading. Based on such

  8. Increasing Resiliency to Natural Hazards--A Strategic Plan for the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lucy; Bernknopf, Richard; Cannon, Susan; Cox, Dale A.; Gaydos, Len; Keeley, Jon; Kohler, Monica; Lee, Homa; Ponti, Daniel; Ross, Stephanie; Schwarzbach, Steven; Shulters, Michael; Ward, A. Wesley; Wein, Anne

    2007-01-01

    planning sessions was to determine the external organizations' needs for mitigation efforts before potential natural hazard events, and response efforts during and after the event. On the basis of input from workshop participants, four priority areas were identified for future research to address. They are (1) helping decision makers design planning scenarios, (2) improving upon the mapping of multiple hazards in urban areas, (3) providing real-time information from monitoring networks, and (4) integrating information in a risk and decision-making analysis. Towards this end, short-term and out-year goals have been outlined with the priorities in mind. First-year goals are (1) to engage the user community to establish the structures and processes for communications and interactions, (2) to develop a program to create scenarios of anticipated disasters, beginning in the first year with a scenario of a southern San Andreas earthquake that triggers secondary hazards, (3) to compile existing datasets of geospatial data, and (4) to target research efforts to support more complete and robust products in future years. Both the first-year and out-year goals have been formulated around a working-group structure that builds on existing research strengths within the USGS. The project is intended to demonstrate how developments in methodology and products can lead to improvement in our management of natural hazards in an urban environment for application across the Nation.

  9. On-line randomized controlled trial of an internet based psychologically enhanced intervention for people with hazardous alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wallace

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interventions delivered via the Internet have the potential to address the problem of hazardous alcohol consumption at minimal incremental cost, with potentially major public health implications. It was hypothesised that providing access to a psychologically enhanced website would result in greater reductions in drinking and related problems than giving access to a typical alcohol website simply providing information on potential harms of alcohol. DYD-RCT Trial registration: ISRCTN 31070347. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A two-arm randomised controlled trial was conducted entirely on-line through the Down Your Drink (DYD website. A total of 7935 individuals who screened positive for hazardous alcohol consumption were recruited and randomized. At entry to the trial, the geometric mean reported past week alcohol consumption was 46.0 (SD 31.2 units. Consumption levels reduced substantially in both groups at the principal 3 month assessment point to an average of 26.0 (SD 22.3 units. Similar changes were reported at 1 month and 12 months. There were no significant differences between the groups for either alcohol consumption at 3 months (intervention: control ratio of geometric means 1.03, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.10 or for this outcome and the main secondary outcomes at any of the assessments. The results were not materially changed following imputation of missing values, nor was there any evidence that the impact of the intervention varied with baseline measures or level of exposure to the intervention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Findings did not provide support for the hypothesis that access to a psychologically enhanced website confers additional benefit over standard practice and indicate the need for further research to optimise the effectiveness of Internet-based behavioural interventions. The trial demonstrates a widespread and potentially sustainable demand for Internet based interventions for people with hazardous alcohol consumption

  10. A decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; Hadi, Mackenzie; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Keene, Athena M; Kreiling, Reinhard; Lyon, Delina; Maier, Monika; Michel, Karin; Petry, Thomas; Sauer, Ursula G; Warheit, David; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-03-15

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) 'Nano Task Force' proposes a Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) that consists of 3 tiers to assign nanomaterials to 4 main groups, to perform sub-grouping within the main groups and to determine and refine specific information needs. The DF4nanoGrouping covers all relevant aspects of a nanomaterial's life cycle and biological pathways, i.e. intrinsic material and system-dependent properties, biopersistence, uptake and biodistribution, cellular and apical toxic effects. Use (including manufacture), release and route of exposure are applied as 'qualifiers' within the DF4nanoGrouping to determine if, e.g. nanomaterials cannot be released from a product matrix, which may justify the waiving of testing. The four main groups encompass (1) soluble nanomaterials, (2) biopersistent high aspect ratio nanomaterials, (3) passive nanomaterials, and (4) active nanomaterials. The DF4nanoGrouping aims to group nanomaterials by their specific mode-of-action that results in an apical toxic effect. This is eventually directed by a nanomaterial's intrinsic properties. However, since the exact correlation of intrinsic material properties and apical toxic effect is not yet established, the DF4nanoGrouping uses the 'functionality' of nanomaterials for grouping rather than relying on intrinsic material properties alone. Such functionalities include system-dependent material properties (such as dissolution rate in biologically relevant media), bio-physical interactions, in vitro effects and release and exposure. The DF4nanoGrouping is a hazard and risk assessment tool that applies modern toxicology and contributes to the sustainable development of nanotechnological products. It ensures that no studies are performed that do not provide crucial data and therefore saves animals and resources.

  11. Hazard detection with a monocular bioptic telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Amy L; Peli, Eli; Luo, Gang

    2015-09-01

    The safety of bioptic telescopes for driving remains controversial. The ring scotoma, an area to the telescope eye due to the telescope magnification, has been the main cause of concern. This study evaluates whether bioptic users can use the fellow eye to detect in hazards driving videos that fall in the ring scotoma area. Twelve visually impaired bioptic users watched a series of driving hazard perception training videos and responded as soon as they detected a hazard while reading aloud letters presented on the screen. The letters were placed such that when reading them through the telescope the hazard fell in the ring scotoma area. Four conditions were tested: no bioptic and no reading, reading without bioptic, reading with a bioptic that did not occlude the fellow eye (non-occluding bioptic), and reading with a bioptic that partially-occluded the fellow eye. Eight normally sighted subjects performed the same task with the partially occluding bioptic detecting lateral hazards (blocked by the device scotoma) and vertical hazards (outside the scotoma) to further determine the cause-and-effect relationship between hazard detection and the fellow eye. There were significant differences in performance between conditions: 83% of hazards were detected with no reading task, dropping to 67% in the reading task with no bioptic, to 50% while reading with the non-occluding bioptic, and 34% while reading with the partially occluding bioptic. For normally sighted, detection of vertical hazards (53%) was significantly higher than lateral hazards (38%) with the partially occluding bioptic. Detection of driving hazards is impaired by the addition of a secondary reading like task. Detection is further impaired when reading through a monocular telescope. The effect of the partially-occluding bioptic supports the role of the non-occluded fellow eye in compensating for the ring scotoma. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of Optometrists.

  12. Structural comparison of hazardous and non-hazardous coals based on gas sorption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Toth, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Radnai-Gyoengyoes, Z. [Geopard Ltd., Pecs (Hungary); Bokanyi, L. [Miskolc Univ., Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Comparison of carbon-dioxide and propane sorption at ambient temperature was used for characterising the difference of the structure of hazardous and non hazardous coals. However, hazardous coals were found more microporous or contain more closed pores than non hazardous ones, this difference couldn`t have been enlarged and attributed to one petrographic component by producing the density fractions. Gas sorption isobars (nitrogen, methane, ethane) are proposed to make a distinction between fine pore structure of coals. (orig.)

  13. Risk Assessment for Natural-Hazard Impact on Hazardous Chemical Installations: Workshop Outcome Report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The impact of natural hazards on hazardous installations can cause major chemical accidents. This so-called “Natech” risk is increasing due to industrialisation and climate change. Capacity building in EU Member States, Candidate Countries and EU Neighbourhood Countries on Natech risk required for Natech risk reduction. This report summarises the findings of a training workshop on risk assessment for natural-hazard impact on hazardous chemical installations which the JRC organised in the ...

  14. Structural comparison of hazardous and non-hazardous coals based on gas sorption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Toth, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Radnai-Gyoengyoes, Z. [Geopard Ltd., Pecs (Hungary); Bokanyi, L. [Miskolc Univ., Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Comparison of carbon-dioxide and propane sorption at ambient temperature was used for characterising the difference of the structure of hazardous and non hazardous coals. However, hazardous coals were found more microporous or contain more closed pores than non hazardous ones, this difference couldn`t have been enlarged and attributed to one petrographic component by producing the density fractions. Gas sorption isobars (nitrogen, methane, ethane) are proposed to make a distinction between fine pore structure of coals. (orig.)

  15. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  16. Use of the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to identify cardiovascular disease in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Leiva Sisnieguez, Betty C; March, Carlos E; Stavile, Rodolfo N; Balbín, Eduardo; Reaven, Gerald M

    2014-10-01

    This analysis evaluated the hypothesis that the plasma triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration ratio can help identify patients with essential hypertension who are insulin-resistant, with the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile associated with that defect. Data from a community-based study developed between 2003 and 2012 were used to compare CVD risk factors and outcome. Plasma TG/HDL-C cut-points of 2.5 (women) and 3.5 (men) subdivided normotensive (n = 574) and hypertensive (n = 373) subjects into "high" and "low" risk groups. Metabolic syndrome criteria (MetS) were also used to identify "high" and "low" risk groups. The baseline cardio-metabolic profile was significantly more adverse in 2003 in "high" risk subgroups, irrespective of BP classification or definition of risk (TG/HDL-C ratio vs. MetS criteria). Crude incidence of combined CVD events increased across risk groups, ranging from 1.9 in normotensive-low TG/HDL-C subjects to 19.9 in hypertensive-high TG/HDL-C ratio individuals (P for trends <.001). Adjusted hazard ratios for CVD events also increased with both hypertension and TG/HDL-C. Comparable findings were seen when CVD outcome was predicted by MetS criteria. The TG/HDL-C concentration ratio and the MetS criteria identify to a comparable degree hypertensive subjects who are at greatest cardio-metabolic risk and develop significantly more CVD.

  17. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reji K Dhaman; V Krishnakumar; V P Mahadevan Pillai; M Satyanarayana; K Raghunath

    2014-02-01

    The study on the optical characteristics of aerosol is carried out using the dual polarization lidar observations from the tropical inland station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) for the period of observation during the year 2010. The summer and monsoon observation days show high scattering ratio at the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and at the lower stratosphere region. The depolarization ratio is also high at this altitude due to the transport of particulates to the TTL layer by the active convection prevailing at the period. The study reveals more dependable values of scattering ratio that are seasonal and range-dependent.

  18. 77 FR 41300 - Hazardous Chemical Reporting: Revisions to the Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Forms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... required to prepare or have available a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for a hazardous chemical defined... facility owner or operator is required to submit a MSDS or a list that contains the hazardous chemical... or operator of a facility that must prepare or have available a MSDS for each ``hazardous chemical...

  19. 75 FR 57686 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... than 1. The description of the waste is corrected from ``wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge'' to..., 2010. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 amended section 3010 of the Resource... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous...

  20. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY...) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of... Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the...

  1. 76 FR 4823 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste... permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage industrial solid waste. The rule also imposes... per year from the list of hazardous wastes. The Agency has decided to grant the petition based on an...

  2. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  3. Experimental study on the radiation hazard of the mandible. On the influence of tooth extraction as a mandibular hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Tohru

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the tooth extraction after irradiation to the mandible experimentally. The following results were obtained. 1. In a group whose teeth were extracted immediately after irradiation, healing of the extraction wound was delayed. However, severe radiation hazard was not recognized macroscopically. 2. In a group whose teeth were extracted after 2 weeks following irradiation, radiation osteomyelitis was recognized macroscopically. All of these cases showed disturbances of healing of the extraction wound. 3. The early radiographical finding on the mandible, in which the teeth had been extracted after irradiation, was osteoporosis and it was accelerated by infection. 4. Bone resorption caused by osteoclast was observed microscopically in a group whose teeth were extracted after irradiation. Osteoporotic bone resorption was accelerated by infection, and was decreased by subsidings of infection and blood vessel hazard. 5. Sequestration was one of the results of radiation osteomyelitis, which was caused by the disturbance of blood circulation due to periosteum detachment. Sequestrum was caused by invasion of the healthy gingiva. 6. Though healing of the extraction wound was delayed by irradiation, new bone was formed in the alveolar socket if the blood clot occupied the alveolar socket. 7. Radiation hazard of the mandible became more severe when the mandible was accompanied by infection. (J.P.N.).

  4. The Hazard Notification System (HANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node

  5. 14 CFR 101.7 - Hazardous operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazardous operations. 101.7 Section 101.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... § 101.7 Hazardous operations. (a) No person may operate any moored balloon, kite, amateur rocket,...

  6. 14 CFR 103.9 - Hazardous operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazardous operations. 103.9 Section 103.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES ULTRALIGHT VEHICLES Operating Rules § 103.9 Hazardous operations. (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 437.55 - Hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.55 Section 437.55 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.55 Hazard analysis. (a) A permittee...

  8. 14 CFR 417.413 - Hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard areas. 417.413 Section 417.413 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.413 Hazard areas. (a) General. A launch operator...

  9. 78 FR 52956 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... 77662. City of Pinehurst Pinehurst City Hall, 2497 Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Orange, TX 77630. City... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register (78 FR 36220-36222) a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous...

  10. Tetryl exposure: forgotten hazards of antique munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaraj, Walla A; McMillan, Brian; Ducatman, Alan M; Werntz, Charles L

    2016-01-01

    Older yet still abundant munitions such as tetryl present easily forgotten health hazards and associated needs for worker protection. Symptoms and findings from 22 workers who were exposed to tetryl are summarized. This study highlights the health hazards from exposure to tetryl. Occupational health professionals need to maintain vigilance to protect workers from the risks of handling older munitions.

  11. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used to...

  12. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  13. 38 CFR 36.4329 - Hazard insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard insurance. 36.4329 Section 36.4329 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4329 Hazard insurance. The holder shall require insurance...

  14. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (“NEHRP...

  15. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Playground Hazards in Atlanta Child Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Jeffrey J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines 71 of the 605 licensed child care centers in Atlanta for playground hazards and school accidents. Finds 684 hazards in 66 centers, including climbing equipment over 6 feet high with inadequate impact-absorbing undersurfacing that had over twice the rate of fall injuries as climbing equipment under 6 feet high. (FMW)

  17. 46 CFR 120.530 - Hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous areas. 120.530 Section 120.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Systems and Requirements § 120.530 Hazardous areas. (a) Electrical equipment in lockers used to...

  18. 46 CFR 183.530 - Hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous areas. 183.530 Section 183.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.530 Hazardous areas. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 129.520 - Hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous areas. 129.520 Section 129.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.520 Hazardous areas. (a) No OSV that carries flammable or...

  20. Dermatologic hazards from hidden contacts with penicillin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonk, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The unbridled use of penicillin after its discovery by Fleming has resulted in possible hazards to human health due to traces of the drug being present in food and other hidden sources. These hazards may include toxic effects, hypersensitivity reactions and possibly a raising of the frequency and duration of allergy to penicillin.

  1. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  2. Assessment of multi hazards in Semarang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Arief Laila; Hani'ah, Pratiwi, Rosika D.

    2017-07-01

    Semarang city is the centre of the city for the people of Central Java province, where it has been transformed into a centre of economic and administrative government. The condition becomes vulnerable because Semarang city has at least four natural disasters. The Natural disasters also negatively impact for the people of Semarang city. The Natural disasters are floods, tidal flooding, landslides, and drought. To find out which areas are experiencing high levels of threat from the disaster, must be done by mapping multi hazards. Multi hazards mapping is done by using the method of weighting parameters and be processed by GIS from disaster-forming parameters. The next step, the result of mapping multi hazards be overlay to get the value of the level of hazards. To get assessment of Level multi natural hazards, the overlay of the hazards map can be done by two methods, GIS and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) methods. The result will be obtained in high level of affected multi hazards area in the Semarang city is Genuk district, Semarang Utara district, and Tugu District. In wich total area in high level of multi hazards is 61944.14 hectares or 30.77% of total area Semarang city.

  3. Probability seismic hazard maps of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinda Sutiwanich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard maps of southern Thailand were obtained from the integration of crustal fault, areal and subductionsource models using probability seismic hazard analysis and the application of a logic tree approach. The hazard maps showthe mean peak ground and spectral accelerations at 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0 second periods with a 10%, 5%, 2% and 0.5% probabilityof exceedance in 50-year hazard levels. The highest hazard areas were revealed to be in the Muang, Phanom, and Viphavadidistricts of Surat Thani province, the Thap Put district of Phang Nga province, and the Plai Phraya district of Krabi province.The lowest hazard areas are in the southernmost part of Thailand e.g. Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces. The maximumvalues of the mean peak ground acceleration for the 475–9,975 yr return period are 0.28-0.52 g and the maximum spectralaccelerations at 0.2 seconds for the same return period are 0.52-0.80 g. Similar hazard is also obtained for different returnperiods. Presented seismic hazard maps are useful as a guideline for the future design of buildings, bridges or dams, for rocksites to resist earthquake forces.

  4. 30 CFR 48.11 - Hazard training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard training. 48.11 Section 48.11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS Training and Retraining of Underground Miners § 48.11 Hazard training. (a)...

  5. Mercury Hazard Assessment for Piscivorous Wildlife in Glacier National Park

    KAUST Repository

    Stafford, Craig P.

    2016-12-14

    We examined the mercury hazard posed to selected piscivorous wildlife in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. Logging Lake was our focal site where we estimated the dietary mercury concentrations of wildlife (common loon [Gavia immer], American mink [Neovison vison], river otter [Lontra canadensis], and belted kingfisher [Megaceryle alcyon]) by assuming that fishes were consumed in proportion to their relative abundances. To evaluate if Logging Lake provided a suitable baseline for our study, we made geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels and investigated the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP. We complimented our assessment by examining selenium:mercury molar ratios in fishes from Logging Lake and Saint Mary Lake. Our results suggest fish consumption does not imperil wildlife from Logging Lake based on published thresholds for adverse mercury effects, but some hazard may exist particularly if there is strong feeding selectivity for the most contaminated species, northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis). The geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels, together with the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP, suggest that Logging Lake provided a relatively protective baseline among our study lakes. Risk may be further reduced by the molar excess of selenium relative to mercury, particularly in the smaller fishes typically consumed by GNP wildlife. Our findings contrast with studies from northeastern US and southeastern Canada where greater mercury hazard to wildlife exists. An emergent finding from our research is that waterborne concentrations of methylmercury may provide limited insight into regional differences in fish mercury levels.

  6. Hazard assessment of rainfall-induced landsliding in mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara-Ayala, I.

    2004-07-01

    Rainfall-induced landsliding represents a major hazard in Mexico. About 200 municipalities in the states of Puebla, Veracruz and Hidalgo were affected by flooding and mass movement processes that resulted from a tropical depression from the Atlantic Ocean in October 1999. Hundreds of slope failures were triggered by intense precipitation, which in some localities reached 420 mm during a 24-h period. According to official information, 263 people died and 1 475 654 inhabitants were affected by flooding and landsliding. Rainfall event and cycle coefficient defined and the ratios between event and antecedent rainfalls, respectively, and the mean annual rainfall are summed to give a total coefficient. For landslide-triggering rainfalls in the Sierra Norte, values for the total coefficient of 0.8 and 0.4 for beginning and end of the wet season, respectively, appear to be important. In addition, a hazard assessment was carried out through the development of a landslide susceptibility indicator. This was elaborated by using aerial photographs, integrating field observations and the coupling of slope instability analysis within a digital elevation model framework. Field validation indicated that this approach provides a good representation of shallow translational failures; 81% of the observed landslides were satisfactorily predicted as potential unstable zones. Results suggested that this type of DEM-based hazard assessment can be extremely valuable not only after, but also before any landslide-related event, so that disaster preparedness and planning could be adequately structured.

  7. Glacial hazards: communicating the science and managing the risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    these scientific applications. Communicating the science to students and trying to excite them to the fun of applying these scientific disciplines in the field are important as part of science outreach. It is also important to communicate the science to those in government (local and national) within those countries affected by such hazards and to international funding agencies. There are two issues here: (a) using the media to a positive effect without alarming vulnerable and sensitive communities, and (b) providing the appropriate authorities with the necessary technical information about the hazards, their potential effects if catastrophe strikes, and how to manage the risk in an effective and timely fashion. For (a) where this is not handled correctly, the media are still ever too keen to headline potential catastrophes and unwittingly cause alarm among local communities. The so-called Palcacocha fiasco in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in April 2003 and the Imja Tsho media flurry of May 2008 in Nepal are but two recent examples. For (b) there needs to be a programme of interaction through workshops between the scientific community and key stakeholders in affected countries. Where these have been undertaken, such as in Bhutan, Nepal and Peru, the outcomes have been extremely productive and beneficial. However, much remains to be done in ensuring that authorities and funding agencies, for example, are aware of existing international guidelines on the assessment of glacial hazards that use objective methodologies, such as those funded by the British Government and published in 2003 (see www.geologyuk.com/mountain_ hazards_group/dfid.htm from which the guidelines can be downloaded in PDF format). Similar workshops, for example, are also being developed separately in Austria by the Glacier and Permafrost Hazard (GAPHAZ) Working Group and in Bhutan by the UNDP.

  8. Using financial ratios to assess physician practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelling, P M

    1996-01-01

    Purchasing physician practices has become commonplace in the health care environment today. The most commonly used method to evaluate a physician's practice is the medical practice assessment. Although assessments include examining revenues, expenses, staffing ratios, collection ratios and other pertinent statistics, one of the often overlooked financial areas is the balance sheet. Evaluating a business, such as a medical practice, requires a thorough examination of the total financial picture including assets, liabilities, owner's equity or net worth, and the relationship of all the variables to each other. Ratios put the numbers into perspective by creating relationships between the balance sheet variables of assets, liabilities and owner's equity, and key income statement components of revenues, expenses and net income. As a result, ratios provide a unique perspective to the assessment process and enable a more complete analysis. This article examines the types and uses of ratios to assist physicians, managers, and hospital executives to better evaluate the financial viability of a physician's solo or group practice.

  9. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  10. The Nature of Natural Hazards Communication (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the many issues of interest to natural hazards professionals include the analysis of proactive approaches to the governance of risk from natural hazards and approaches to broaden the scope of public policies related to the management of risks from natural hazards, as well as including emergency and environmental management, community development and spatial planning related to natural hazards. During the talk we will present results of scientific review, analysis and synthesis, which emphasize same new trends in communication of the natural hazards theories and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new environmental and climate change issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency. The presentation is divided into five sections that focus on natural hazards communication in terms of education, risk management, public discourse, engaging the public, theoretical perspectives, and new media. It includes results of case studies and best practices. It delves into natural hazards communication theories, including diffusion, argumentation, and constructivism, to name a few. The presentation will provide information about: (1) A manual of natural hazards communication for scientists, policymakers, and media; (2) An up-to-the-minute context of environmental hazards, new technologies & political landscape; (3) A work by natural hazards scientists for geoscientists working with social scientists and communication principles; (4) A work underpinned by key natural hazards communication theories and interspersed with pragmatic solutions; (5) A work that crosses traditional natural hazards boundaries: international, interdisciplinary, theoretical/applied. We will further explore how spatial planning can contribute to risk governance by influencing the occupation of natural hazard-prone areas, and review the central role of emergency management in risk policy. The goal of this presentation is to contribute to the augmentation of the conceptual framework

  11. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  12. Occupational Health Hazards in ICU Nursing Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Eri Shimizu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed occupational health hazards for Intensive Care Unit (ICU nurses and nursing technicians, comparing differences in the number and types of hazards which occur at the beginning and end of their careers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 26 nurses and 96 nursing technicians from a public hospital in the Federal District, Brazil. A Likert-type work-related symptom scale (WRSS was used to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological, and social risks. Data were analyzed with the use of the SPSS, version 12.0, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical significance and differences in occupational health hazards at the beginning and at the end of the workers' careers. As a workplace, ICUs can cause work health hazards, mostly physical, to nurses and nursing technicians due to the frequent use of physical energy and strength to provide care, while psychological and social hazards occur to a lesser degree.

  13. Characteristics of civil aviation atmospheric hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Montoya, J.; Richards, Mark A.; Galliano, J.

    1994-01-01

    Clear air turbulence, wake vortices, dry hail, and volcanic ash are hazards to civil aviation that have not been brought to the forefront of public attention by a catastrophic accident. However, these four hazards are responsible for major and minor injuries, emotional trauma, significant aircraft damage, and in route and terminal area inefficiency. Most injuries occur during clear air turbulence. There is significant aircraft damage for any volcanic ash encounter. Rolls induced by wake vortices occur near the ground. Dry hail often appears as an area of weak echo on the weather radar. This paper will present the meteorological, electromagnetic, and spatiotemporal characteristics of each hazard. A description of a typical aircraft encounter with each hazard will be given. Analyzed microwave and millimeter wave sensor systems to detect each hazard will be presented.

  14. Prevention and control of hazards in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik; Reilly, A.; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben

    2000-01-01

    are listed and discussed. It is pointed out that there are serious safety concerns related to the consumption of raw fish and shellfish due to the presence of biological (bacteria, virus, parasites) and chemical (biotoxins) hazards. These hazards are present in the fish and shellfish pre......Seafood is high on the list of foods transmitting disease. However, the food safety issues are highly focussed and more than 80% of all seafood-borne outbreaks are related to biotoxins (ciguatoxin), scombrotoxin or the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish. The safety hazards in seafood production......-harvest and are difficult or impossible to control by applying presently available preventive measures. In contrast, the hazards related to contamination, recontamination or survival of biological hazards during processing are well-defined and can be controlled by applying Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Good Hygiene...

  15. Solvent substitution: an analysis of comprehensive hazard screening indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debia, M; Bégin, D; Gérin, M

    2011-06-01

    The air index (ψ(i)(air)) of the PARIS II software (Environmental Protection Agency), the Indiana Relative Chemical Hazard Score (IRCHS), and the Final Hazard Score (FHS) used in the P2OASys system (Toxics Use Reduction Institute) are comprehensive hazard screening indices that can be used in solvent substitution. The objective of this study was to evaluate these indices using a list of 67 commonly used or recommended solvents. The indices ψ(i)(air), IRCHS and FHS were calculated considering 9, 13, and 33 parameters, respectively, that summarized health and safety hazards, and environmental impacts. Correlation and sensitivity analyses were performed. The vapor hazard ratio (VHR) was used as a reference point. Two good correlations were found: (1) between VHR and ψ(i)(air) (ρ = 0.84), (2) and between IRCHS and FHS (ρ = 0.81). Values of sensitivity ratios above 0.2 were found with ψ(i)(air) (4 of 9 parameters) and IRCHS (3 of 13 parameters), but not with FHS. Overall, the three indices exhibited important differences in the way they integrate key substitution factors, such as volatility, occupational exposure limit, skin exposure, flammability, carcinogenicity, photochemical oxidation potential, atmospheric global effects, and environmental terrestrial and aquatic effects. These differences can result in different choices of alternatives between indices, including the VHR. IRCHS and FHS are the most comprehensive indices but are very tedious and complex to use and lack sensitivity to several solvent-specific parameters. The index ψ(i)(air) is simpler to calculate but does not cover some parameters important to solvents. There is presently no suitably comprehensive tool available for the substitution of solvents. A two-tier approach for the selection of solvents is recommended to avoid errors that could be made using only a global index or the consideration of the simple VHR. As a first tier, one would eliminate solvent candidates having crucial impacts. As a

  16. Anaesthesia machine: Checklist, hazards, scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Goneppanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20 th century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc. more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered.

  17. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  18. Anaesthesia machine: checklist, hazards, scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goneppanavar, Umesh; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2013-09-01

    From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20(th) century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc.) more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered.

  19. Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, G.L.; Holstein, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan (HWCPP) describes how the Rocky Flats Plant institutes a more effective waste management program designed to achieve and maintain strict adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. Emphasis is given to improve integration of line operations with programmatic and functional support activities necessary to achieve physical compliance to RCRA regulated equipment, facilities and operations at the floor level. This program focuses on specific activities occurring or which need to occur within buildings containing RCRA regulated units and activities. The plan describes a new approach to achieving and maintaining compliance. This approach concentrates authority and accountability for compliance with the line operating personnel, with support provided from the programmatic functions. This approach requires a higher degree of integration and coordination between operating and program support organizations. The principal changes in emphases are; (1) increased line operations involvement, knowledge and accountability in compliance activities, (2) improved management systems to identify, correct and/or avoid deficiencies and (3) enhanced management attention and employee awareness of compliance related matters.

  20. Critical Concentration Ratio for Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rehman, Naveed; Siddiqui, Mubashir Ali

    2016-10-01

    A correlation for determining the critical concentration ratio (CCR) of solar concentrated thermoelectric generators (SCTEGs) has been established, and the significance of the contributing parameters is discussed in detail. For any SCTEG, higher concentration ratio leads to higher temperatures at the hot side of modules. However, the maximum value of this temperature for safe operation is limited by the material properties of the modules and should be considered as an important design constraint. Taking into account this limitation, the CCR can be defined as the maximum concentration ratio usable for a particular SCTEG. The established correlation is based on factors associated with the material and geometric properties of modules, thermal characteristics of the receiver, installation site attributes, and thermal and electrical operating conditions. To reduce the number of terms in the correlation, these factors are combined to form dimensionless groups by applying the Buckingham Pi theorem. A correlation model containing these groups is proposed and fit to a dataset obtained by simulating a thermodynamic (physical) model over sampled values acquired by applying the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) technique over a realistic distribution of factors. The coefficient of determination and relative error are found to be 97% and ±20%, respectively. The correlation is validated by comparing the predicted results with literature values. In addition, the significance and effects of the Pi groups on the CCR are evaluated and thoroughly discussed. This study will lead to a wide range of opportunities regarding design and optimization of SCTEGs.

  1. Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: results of a survey of emergency managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Mai; Cooper, John; Simon, Matthew; Ricchetti-Masterson, Kristen; Grabich, Shannon; Salvesen, David; Berke, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States are uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters. One possible way to mitigate vulnerability to disasters in rural communities is to have a high-quality hazard mitigation plan in place. To understand the resources available for hazard mitigation planning and determine how well hazard mitigation plans in rural counties meet the needs of vulnerable populations, we surveyed the lead planning or emergency management official responsible for hazard mitigation plans in 96 rural counties in eight states in the Southeastern United States. In most counties, emergency management was responsible for implementing the county's hazard mitigation plan and the majority of counties had experienced a presidentially declared disaster in the last 5 years. Our research findings demonstrated that there were differences in subjective measures of vulnerability (as reported by survey respondents) and objective measures of vulnerability (as determined by US Census data). In addition, although few counties surveyed included outreach to vulnerable groups as a part of their hazard mitigation planning process, a majority felt that their hazard mitigation plan addressed the needs of vulnerable populations "well" or "very well." These differences could result in increased vulnerabilities in rural areas, particularly for certain vulnerable groups.

  2. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order manip

  3. Waste explosives and other hazardous materials--hazard potential and remedial measures: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R K; Asthana, S N; Bhattacharya, B; Tiwari, Ila; Ghole, V S

    2007-07-01

    A large amount of energetic materials including propellants, high explosives, pyrotechnics are subjected to disposal either due to expiry of their useful life or rejection in the manufacturing process. The environmental regulations do not allow the hazardous materials for open burning / detonation in view of the health hazard involved in these operations. The present paper describes the hazard potential of energetic materials and associated hazardous chemicals. It also deals with global technological status for remedial measures of hazardous chemicals along with their merits and demerits.

  4. Liquefaction hazard potential in north eastern united arab emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Homoud, A.

    2003-04-01

    The United Arab Emirates is adjacent to the Iranian plateau characterized by very high density of active and recent faults. The Iranian plateau is one of the seismically active areas of the world and frequently suffers destructive and catastrophic earthquakes that cause heavy loss of human life and widespread damage. Therefore seismic risk in the North Eastern UAE (Sharjah and Dubai) is due to the neighboring very active Iranian seismotectonic province. As almost all foundation soils in the UAE are cohesionless material, which is clearly identified as recent fill deposits in major industrial and residential areas, and given the rapid on-shore infrastructure developments in the North Eastern UAE, and due to the lack of geo-hazards maps, it is considered vital to develop liquefaction hazard maps for these areas. The earthquake risk was brought to the attention of the public and the government upon the recent March 11, 2002 earthquake of magnitude 5.1 on Richter Scale that struck the northern emirates and caused slight damages. Initial seismic hazard assessment studies showed that Design Horizontal Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) in Sharjah and Dubai with 90% probabilities of non-exceedence in 50 years is around 200 cm/sec^2. This study is concerned with the development of liquefaction hazard maps in North Eastern Emirates UAE Cities of Sharjah and Dubai. Liquefaction hazard potential for various soil deposits in these cities is evaluated for different Peak Ground Acceleation Values. Data from thorough geotechnical studies were evaluated. This include boreholes drilling (with SPT tests) and shear strength for representative sand samples taken from several boreholes and at different depths. Liquefaction hazard potential is evaluated at representative sites in the city of Dubai and Sharjah using the state of the art liquefaction potential evaluation methods (e.g. Seed's cyclic stress ratio approach). Results indicate clearly that the coastal areas have a high potential

  5. Long term volcanic hazard analysis in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Laín, L.; Llorente, M.; Mancebo, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    Historic volcanism in Spain is restricted to the Canary Islands, a volcanic archipelago formed by seven volcanic islands. Several historic eruptions have been registered in the last five hundred years. However, and despite the huge amount of citizens and tourist in the archipelago, only a few volcanic hazard studies have been carried out. These studies are mainly focused in the developing of hazard maps in Lanzarote and Tenerife islands, especially for land use planning. The main handicap for these studies in the Canary Islands is the lack of well reported historical eruptions, but also the lack of data such as geochronological, geochemical or structural. In recent years, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the improvement in the volcanic processes modelling has provided an important tool for volcanic hazard assessment. Although this sophisticated programs are really useful they need to be fed by a huge amount of data that sometimes, such in the case of the Canary Islands, are not available. For this reason, the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) is developing a complete geo-referenced database for long term volcanic analysis in the Canary Islands. The Canarian Volcanic Hazard Database (HADA) is based on a GIS helping to organize and manage volcanic information efficiently. HADA includes the following groups of information: (1) 1:25.000 scale geologic maps, (2) 1:25.000 topographic maps, (3) geochronologic data, (4) geochemical data, (5) structural information, (6) climatic data. Data must pass a quality control before they are included in the database. New data are easily integrated in the database. With the HADA database the IGME has started a systematic organization of the existing data. In the near future, the IGME will generate new information to be included in HADA, such as volcanological maps of the islands, structural information, geochronological data and other information to assess long term volcanic hazard analysis. HADA will permit

  6. Occupational hazards education for nursing staff through web-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Chang, Chia-Chen; Ming, Jin-Lain; Chao, Keh-Ping

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to explore the efficiency of using online education as an intervention measure to prevent occupational hazards in a clinical nursing setting. The subjects were 320 female nursing staff from two hospitals in Taiwan. The questionnaire results indicated that the subjects primarily experienced human factor occupational hazards, as well as psychological and social hazards. Specifically, 73.1% and 69.8% of the subjects suffered from poor sleep quality and low back pain, respectively. After web-based learning, the experimental group had higher post-test scores than the control group in terms of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP). However, there was only a significant difference (p web-based learning, and further facilitate their comments on negative factors. The findings can highly promote nursing staff's attitudes and practices toward preventing occupational hazards through web-based learning.

  7. Flood Hazards in Metro Manila: Recognizing Commonalities, Differences, and Courses of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doracie B. Zoleta-Nantes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the vulnerability to flood hazards of different urban groups in Metro Manila, the Philippines. It contextualizes and finds similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic and institutional manifestations of severe flood hazards to three groups of people in the mega-city. They are the street children and residents of wealthy neighborhoods and urban poor settlements. It explicates a set of issues that needs to be confronted and a list of appropriate actions that can be taken to initiate a pro-active stance in dealing with the causes and consequences of flood hazards at the local scale. This is necessary for future development planning and hazard mitigation purposes.

  8. Hazardous materials management using a Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldgaard, E.; Fish, J.; Campbell, D.; Freshour, N.; Hammond, B.; Bray, O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hollingsworth, M. [Ogden Environmental & Energy Services Co., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous materials management includes interactions among materials, personnel, facilities, hazards, and processes of various groups within a DOE site`s environmental, safety & health (ES&H) and line organizations. Although each group is charged with addressing a particular aspect of these properties and interactions, the information it requires must be gathered into a coherent set of common data for accurate and consistent hazardous material management and regulatory reporting. It is these common data requirements which the Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS) is designed to satisfy. CGTIS collects information at the point at which a process begins or a material enters a facility, and maintains that information, for hazards management and regulatory reporting, throughout the entire life-cycle by providing direct on-line links to a site`s multitude of data bases to bring information together into one common data model.

  9. Biosorbents for Removing Hazardous Metals and Metalloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutoshi Inoue

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biosorbents for remediating aquatic environmental media polluted with hazardous heavy metals and metalloids such as Pb(II, Cr(VI, Sb(III and V, and As(III and V were prepared from lignin waste, orange and apple juice residues, seaweed and persimmon and grape wastes using simple and cheap methods. A lignophenol gel such as lignocatechol gel was prepared by immobilizing the catechol functional groups onto lignin from sawdust, while lignosulfonate gel was prepared directly from waste liquor generated during pulp production. These gels effectively removed Pb(II. Orange and apple juice residues, which are rich in pectic acid, were easily converted using alkali (e.g., calcium hydroxide into biosorbents that effectively removed Pb(II. These materials also effectively removed Sb(III and V and As(III and V when these were preloaded with multi-valent metal ions such as Zr(IV and Fe(III. Similar biosorbents were prepared from seaweed waste, which is rich in alginic acid. Other biosorbents, which effectively removed Cr(VI, were prepared by simply treating persimmon and grape wastes with concentrated sulfuric acid.

  10. Landslide Hazard Zonation Mapping and Comparative Analysis of Hazard Zonation Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Sarkar; R. Anbalagan

    2008-01-01

    Landslide hazard zonation mapping at regional level of a large area provides a broad trend of landslide potential zones. A macro level landslide hazard zonation for a small area may provide a better insight into the landslide hazards. The main objective of the present work was to carry out macro landslide hazard zonation mapping on 1:50,000 scale in an area where regional level zonation mapping was conducted earlier. In the previous work the regional landslide hazard zonation maps of Srinagar-Rudraprayag area of Garhwal Himalaya in the state of Uttarakhand were prepared using subjective and objective approaches. In the present work the landslide hazard zonation mapping at macro level was carded out in a small area using a Landslide Hazard Evaluation Factor rating scheme. The hazard zonation map produced by using this technique classifies the area into relative hazard classes in which the high hazard zones well correspond with high frequency of landslides. The results of this map when compared with the regional zonation maps prepared earlier show that application of the present technique identified more details of the hazard zones, which are broadly shown in the earlier zonation maps.

  11. Volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullineaux, Donal Ray; Peterson, Donald W.

    1974-01-01

    Volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii have been determined to be chiefly products of eruptions: lava flows, falling fragments, gases, and particle-and-gas clouds. Falling fragments and particle-and-gas clouds can be substantial hazards to life, but they are relatively rare. Lava flows are the chief hazard to property; they are frequent and cover broad areas. Rupture, subsidence, earthquakes, and sea waves (tsunamis) caused by eruptions are minor hazards; those same events caused by large-scale crustal movements, however, are major hazards to both life and property. Volcanic hazards are greatest on Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the risk is highest along the rift zones of those volcanoes. The hazards are progressively less severe on Hualalai, Mauna Kea, and Kohala volcanoes. Some risk from earthquakes extends across the entire island, and the risk from tsunamis is high all along the coast. The island has been divided into geographic zones of different relative risk for each volcanic hazard, and for all those hazards combined. Each zone is assigned a relative risk for that area as a whole; the degree of risk varies within the zones, however, and in some of them the risk decreases gradationally across the entire zone. Moreover, the risk in one zone may be locally as great or greater than that at some points in the zone of next higher overall risk. Nevertheless, the zones can be highly useful for land-use planning. Planning decisions to which the report is particularly applicable include the selection of kinds of structures and kinds of land use that are appropriate for the severity and types of hazards present. For example, construction of buildings that can resist a lava flow is generally not feasible, but it is both feasible and desirable to build structures that can resist falling rock fragments, earthquakes, and tsunamis in areas where risk from those hazards is relatively high. The report can also be used to select sites where overall risk is relatively low, to

  12. Hazard Detection Software for Lunar Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing a system for safe and precise manned lunar landing that involves novel sensors, but also specific algorithms. ALHAT has selected imaging LIDAR (light detection and ranging) as the sensing modality for onboard hazard detection because imaging LIDARs can rapidly generate direct measurements of the lunar surface elevation from high altitude. Then, starting with the LIDAR-based Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) algorithm developed for Mars Landing, JPL has developed a mature set of HDA software for the manned lunar landing problem. Landing hazards exist everywhere on the Moon, and many of the more desirable landing sites are near the most hazardous terrain, so HDA is needed to autonomously and safely land payloads over much of the lunar surface. The HDA requirements used in the ALHAT project are to detect hazards that are 0.3 m tall or higher and slopes that are 5 or greater. Steep slopes, rocks, cliffs, and gullies are all hazards for landing and, by computing the local slope and roughness in an elevation map, all of these hazards can be detected. The algorithm in this innovation is used to measure slope and roughness hazards. In addition to detecting these hazards, the HDA capability also is able to find a safe landing site free of these hazards for a lunar lander with diameter .15 m over most of the lunar surface. This software includes an implementation of the HDA algorithm, software for generating simulated lunar terrain maps for testing, hazard detection performance analysis tools, and associated documentation. The HDA software has been deployed to Langley Research Center and integrated into the POST II Monte Carlo simulation environment. The high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations determine the required ground spacing between LIDAR samples (ground sample distances) and the noise on the LIDAR range measurement. This simulation has also been used to determine the effect of

  13. Fragment Hazard Investigation Program: Natural Communication Detonation of 155-mm Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    an accurate representa- S - tion of the percentage of hazardous fragments as a function of range. A good fit to thesO data Is provided by K k i;• vPH ...projected on a sphere equal to the radius of the recovery media, is divided into the total surface area of the polar zone. This ratio yields a zone factor

  14. 5 CFR 550.904 - Authorization of hazard pay differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization of hazard pay differential... Authorization of hazard pay differential. (a) An agency shall pay the hazard pay differential listed in appendix... this subpart. However, hazard pay differential may not be paid to an employee when the hazardous...

  15. The Coastal Hazard Wheel system for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    screening and management. The system is developed to assess the main coastal hazards in a single process and covers the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The system was initially presented in 2012 and based on a range of test......This paper presents the complete Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) system, developed for multi-hazard-assessment and multi-hazard-management of coastal areas worldwide under a changing climate. The system is designed as a low-tech tool that can be used in areas with limited data availability......-applications and feedback from coastal experts, the system has been further refined and developed into a complete hazard management tool. This paper therefore covers the coastal classification system used by the CHW, a standardized assessment procedure for implementation of multi-hazard-assessments, technical guidance...

  16. Communicating geological hazards: assisting geoscientists in communication skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverman, D. G. E.

    2009-04-01

    Communication is important in all aspects of the geosciences but is more prominent in the area of geological hazards, as the main audience for scientific information often lacks a geoscience background; and because the implications of not communicating results effectively can be very serious. Geoscientists working in the hazards area face particular challenges in communicating the concepts of risk, probability and uncertainty. Barriers to effective communication of geoscience include the complex language used by geoscientists, restriction of dissemination of results to traditional scientific media, identification of the target audience, inability to tailor products to a variety of audiences, and lack of institutional support for communication efforts. Geoscientists who work in the area of natural hazards need training in risk communication, media relations, and communicating to non-technical audiences. Institutions need to support the efforts of geoscientists in communicating their results through providing communications training; ensuring access to communications professionals; rewarding efforts to engage the public; and devoting sufficient staff and budget to the effort of disseminating results. Geoscientists themselves have to make efforts to change attitudes towards social science, and to become involved in decision making at a community level. The International Union of Geological Sciences Commission for "Geoscience for Environmental Management" established a working group to deal with these issues. This group is holding workshops, publishing collections of papers, and is looking at other means to aid geoscientists in addressing these problems.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  18. Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston

    2012-01-01

    A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.

  19. [The new microbiological hazards in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciezyńska, Halina; Maćkiw, Elzbieta; Maka, Łukasz; Pawłowska, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the new microbiological hazards in food. For protecting human health, nowadays food safety authorities face with many challenges, that years ago were largely unheard. In 2011 verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 has been isolated in Germany. Strain came from fenugreek sprouts originated from Egypt. It was characterized by unique features such as presence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli genes (aatA, aggR, aap, aggA, aggC) and resistance to most antibiotics. In Poland only three cases of disease caused by O104:H4 strain have been reported. Another emergence pathogen in Poland is Yersinia enterocolitica 08, biotype 1B. It is the most pathogenic bioserotype recently isolated in the USA only. Food-borne is commonly associated with raw or undercooked pork. The source of Yersinia spp. may be also milk and water. The presence ofbotulinum neurotoxins in food is not new, but still an important issue because of their high toxicity to human. Botulinum neurotoxins are high-molecular thermolabile proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and some strains of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii. Based on their antigenic properties, botulin neurotoxins are divided into seven types A-G, however only types A, B, E and F are toxic to humans and some animals. Increasing risk associated with food results from antimicrobial resistance eg. extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae. Until recently strains ESBL+ were isolated in hospitals, however during last years they have been isolated from healthy humans, animals and food of animal origin. Increasingly common microbiological hazard in food is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although prevalence of this pathogen in food is not high, the thread comes from difficulties of treating of infections caused by MRSA. The occurrence of food-borne in humans may also be associated with presence of viruses in food and water. The carrier

  20. Seismic hazard communication in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickert, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Conflicting societal conceptions of earthquake safety provide challenges but also opportunities for the communication of seismic hazards. This paradox is exemplified in the controversial social reactions to the ongoing 'urban renewal projects' in Istanbul. Seismologists estimate that there is a high probability that a major earthquake will strike Istanbul in the next decade or so. Detailed earthquake risk analysis, and direct experience of the losses suffered during the major earthquakes that struck Turkey in 1999 and 2011, have engendered a broad societal recognition of the need for extensive earthquake preparedness and response planning. However, there has been dissent concerning the democratic legitimation of some of Istanbul's mitigation measures, most notably the implementation of the 'Law for the Regeneration of Areas Under Disaster Risk' (Law 6306, known as the 'disaster law') in May 2012. The strong interconnections between geological 'matters of fact' and societal 'matters of concern' raise fundamental questions for geocommunication on how to deal with this societal complexity, particularly in terms of maintaining trust in the geoscientist. There is a growing recognition among geoscientists that achieving disaster resilience in Istanbul is not solely the domain of 'earthquake experts' but rather requires a shared societal responsibility. However, the question arises as to how geocommunication can be designed to respond to this increased demand for interdisciplinarity and civil participation. This research will confront this question, exploring ways to combine qualitative and quantitative analyses, values and preferred norms with facts and observations, and be organised around an interactive web-based documentary platform that integrates multiple knowledge bases and seeks to help connect different communication cultures.

  1. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afif, Haunan, E-mail: afif@vsi.esdm.go.id [Geological Agency, Bandung (Indonesia); Cipta, Athanasius [Geological Agency, Bandung (Indonesia); Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2015-04-24

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography.

  2. Landslide hazard assessment: recent trends and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Sudhakar D; Autade, Sumant E; Pardeshi, Suchitra S

    2013-01-01

    Landslide hazard assessment is an important step towards landslide hazard and risk management. There are several methods of Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) viz. heuristic, semi quantitative, quantitative, probabilistic and multi-criteria decision making process. However, no one method is accepted universally for effective assessment of landslide hazards. In recent years, several attempts have been made to apply different methods of LHZ and to compare results in order to find the best suited model. This paper presents the review of researches on landslide hazard mapping published in recent years. The advanced multivariate techniques are proved to be effective in spatial prediction of landslides with high degree of accuracy. Physical process based models also perform well in LHZ mapping even in the areas with poor database. Multi-criteria decision making approach also play significant role in determining relative importance of landslide causative factors in slope instability process. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) are powerful tools to assess landslide hazards and are being used extensively in landslide researches since last decade. Aerial photographs and high resolution satellite data are useful in detection, mapping and monitoring landslide processes. GIS based LHZ models helps not only to map and monitor landslides but also to predict future slope failures. The advancements in Geo-spatial technologies have opened the doors for detailed and accurate assessment of landslide hazards.

  3. Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program - GSHAP legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Danciu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program - or simply GSHAP, when launched, almost two decades ago, aimed at establishing a common framework to evaluate the seismic hazard over geographical large-scales, i.e. countries, regions, continents and finally the globe. Its main product, the global seismic hazard map was a milestone, unique at that time and for a decade have served as the main reference worldwide. Today, for most of the Earth’s seismically active regions such Europe, Northern and Southern America, Central and South-East Asia, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the GSHAP seismic hazard map is outdated. The rapid increase of the new data, advance on the earthquake process knowledge, technological progress, both hardware and software, contributed all in updates of the seismic hazard models. We present herein, a short retrospective overview of the achievements as well as the pitfalls of the GSHAP. Further, we describe the next generation of seismic hazard models, as elaborated within the Global Earthquake Model, regional programs: the 2013 European Seismic Hazard Model, the 2014 Earthquake Model for Middle East, and the 2015 Earthquake Model of Central Asia. Later, the main characteristics of these regional models are summarized and the new datasets fully harmonized across national borders are illustrated for the first time after the GSHAP completion.

  4. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan Earthquake Model (TEM was established to assess the seismic hazard and risk for Taiwan by considering the social and economic impacts of various components from geology, seismology, and engineering. This paper gives the first version of TEM probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Taiwan in these aspects. We named it TEM PSHA2015. The model adopts the source parameters of 38 seismogenic structures identified by TEM geologists. In addition to specific fault source-based categorization, seismic activities are categorized as shallow, subduction intraplate, and subduction interplate events. To evaluate the potential ground-shaking resulting from each seismic source, the corresponding ground-motion prediction equations for crustal and subduction earthquakes are adopted. The highest hazard probability is evaluated to be in Southwestern Taiwan and the Longitudinal Valley of Eastern Taiwan. Among the special municipalities in the highly populated Western Taiwan region, Taichung, Tainan, and New Taipei City are evaluated to have the highest hazard. Tainan has the highest seismic hazard for peak ground acceleration in the model based on TEM fault parameters. In terms of pseudo-spectral acceleration, Tainan has higher hazard over short spectral periods, whereas Taichung has higher hazard over long spectral periods. The analysis indicates the importance of earthquake-resistant designs for low-rise buildings in Tainan and high-rise buildings in Taichung.

  5. Best practice in workplace hazardous substances management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, C

    1995-09-01

    Chemical-induced injury and disease remains a significant problem in workers in industry. As a result of this problem, a number of national and international initiatives have recommended the development of conventions, regulations, and codes of practice to attempt to deal with the problems of hazardous substances at work. Within Australia, workplace hazardous substances regulations are in development which will impose legal obligations and responsibilities on the suppliers of hazardous substances and on the employers who use them. At the same time, internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment, or safety, and the processes involved are applicable to the management of hazardous substances. This process includes: obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a hazardous substances policy; identifying components of the hazardous substances management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organisation's strategic plan. Only by blending in a specific management program for hazardous substances into the overall planning of an organization will they be managed effectively and efficiently.

  6. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-11-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  7. DETECTION OF ROAD HAZARDS BY NOVICE TEEN AND EXPERIENCED ADULT DRIVERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Sheila G; Olsen, Erik C B; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Dingus, Thomas A; Ramsey, David J; Ouimet, Marie Claude

    2008-01-01

    Previous laboratory and simulator research has indicated that hazard detection skills and abilities are less developed among novice drivers compared with experienced adult drivers. Novices tend to miss some relevant cues and may be less able to process important elements in the environment while driving. As was found with other research methods, it was hypothesized that novices would have lower hazard detection skills and will react less appropriately to hazards than older and more experienced drivers.Three hazard perception scenarios were simulated on a test track and data were collected on newly licensed teen drivers (within 2 weeks of licensure) and a comparison group of adults. The scenarios included a hidden stop sign, hidden pedestrian, and hidden pedestrian with lane closure (this last included a text-messaging task). Discrete quantitative performance metrics were evaluated for this analysis, including: 1) Did the participant glance at the potential hazard (e.g., stop sign, pedestrian)? 2) Did the participant stop (for the stop sign scenario)? 3) Did the participant show signs of indecision, caution, or awareness (for all hazards)?Significant differences between teen drivers and more experienced adult drivers were found in a combined hazard detection analysis. Results indicate that the adult drivers observed hazards and demonstrated overt recognition of hazards more frequently than the teen drivers. Results indicated that a large portion of teen drivers failed to disengage from peripheral task engagement in the presence of hazards. The results will later be compared to naturalistic data for the same set of drivers to see whether these test track results are predictive of real-world behavior.

  8. The tumor-to-breast volume ratio (TBR) predicts cancer-specific survival in breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiahuai; Ye, Feng; Huang, Xiaojia; Li, Shuaijie; Yang, Lu; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally, and tumor size measured as the largest diameter of the tumor focus is currently used in tumor-lymph node-metastasis (TNM) staging for prognosis and treatment decisions. The present study utilized the tumor-to-breast volume ratio (TBR) to evaluate the relative tumor size and determined the prognostic impact of TBR on survival in patients with breast cancer. Two thousand twenty-five consecutive breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy between January 2002 and December 2008 at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center were enrolled in this retrospective study. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the prognostic effect of TBR on cancer-specific survival (CSS), and univariate log-rank test and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model were performed to identify independent prognostic factors. The optimal cutoff value of TBR was determined to be 1.70 %, and 1473 and 552 patients were categorized to low-TBR and high-TBR groups, respectively. In the whole patient cohort, CSS was significantly shorter in the high-TBR group (110.2 vs 128.5 months, P breast cancer patients (hazard ratio (HR) 1.489, 95 % CI 1.130-1.961, P = 0.005). High TBR was independently associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. This variable may serve as a valuable parameter to predict the outcomes of breast cancer.

  9. Selection on Moral Hazard in Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Ryan, Stephen; Schrimpf, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We use employee-level panel data from a single firm to explore the possibility that individuals may select insurance coverage in part based on their anticipated behavioral (“moral hazard”) response to insurance, a phenomenon we label “selection on moral hazard.” Using a model of plan choice and medical utilization, we present evidence of heterogeneous moral hazard as well as selection on it, and explore some of its implications. For example, we show that, at least in our context, abstracting from selection on moral hazard could lead to over-estimates of the spending reduction associated with introducing a high-deductible health insurance option. PMID:24748682

  10. Managing risks and hazardous in industrial operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almaula, S.C. [Woodward-Clyde International, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that it makes good business sense to identify risks and hazards of an operation and take appropriate steps to manage them effectively. Developing and implementing an effective risk and hazard management plan also contibutes to other industry requirements and standards. Development of a risk management system, key elements of a risk management plan, and hazards and risk analysis methods are outlined. Comparing potential risk to the cost of prevention is also discussed. It is estimated that the cost of developing and preparing the first risk management plan varies between $50,000 to $200,000. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, K.J. (eds.)

    1988-07-01

    This document describes some of the research performed in the LLNL Hazards Control Department from October 1986 to September 1987. The sections in the Annual report cover scientific concerns in the areas of Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety, Aerosol Science, Resource Management, Dosimetry and Radiation Physics, Criticality Safety, and Fire Science. For a broader overview of the types of work performed in the Hazards Control Department, we have also compiled a selection of abstracts of recent publications by Hazards Control employees. Individual reports are processed separately for the data base.

  12. Parametric Regression Models Using Reversed Hazard Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokan Mulayath Variyath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proportional hazard regression models are widely used in survival analysis to understand and exploit the relationship between survival time and covariates. For left censored survival times, reversed hazard rate functions are more appropriate. In this paper, we develop a parametric proportional hazard rates model using an inverted Weibull distribution. The estimation and construction of confidence intervals for the parameters are discussed. We assess the performance of the proposed procedure based on a large number of Monte Carlo simulations. We illustrate the proposed method using a real case example.

  13. Lead Ingestion Hazard in Hand Soldering Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    RD-Ai45 663 LEAD INGESTION HAZARD IN HAND SOLDERING ENVIRONMENTS i/i (U) NAVAL WEAPONS CENTER CHINA LAKE CA E R MONSALVE MAY 84 NWC-TP-6545...6545 Lead Ingestion Hazard in Hand Soldering Environments (JD CD I) by Elisabeth R. Monsalve a y- Safety and Security Department I MAY 1984 NAVAL...COVERED LEAD INGESTION HAZARD IN HAND SOLDERING ENVIRONMENTS A summary report 6. PERFORMING ONG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) I. CONTRACT O GRANT NUM6ERt

  14. Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Agnes G; Bleeker, Eric A J; Bos, Peter M J; van Broekhuizen, Fleur; Gottardo, Stefania; Groenewold, Monique; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Marcomini, Antonio; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; van Tongeren, Martie; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-10-26

    Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS), as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-)activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics) and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments.

  15. Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes G. Oomen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS, as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments.

  16. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  17. Integrating Community Volcanic Hazard Mapping, Geographic Information Systems, and Modeling to Reduce Volcanic Hazard Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajo Sanchez, Jorge V.

    This dissertation is composed of an introductory chapter and three papers about vulnerability and volcanic hazard maps with emphasis on lahars. The introductory chapter reviews definitions of the term vulnerability by the social and natural hazard community and it provides a new definition of hazard vulnerability that includes social and natural hazard factors. The first paper explains how the Community Volcanic Hazard Map (CVHM) is used for vulnerability analysis and explains in detail a new methodology to obtain valuable information about ethnophysiographic differences, hazards, and landscape knowledge of communities in the area of interest: the Canton Buenos Aires situated on the northern flank of the Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano, El Salvador. The second paper is about creating a lahar hazard map in data poor environments by generating a landslide inventory and obtaining potential volumes of dry material that can potentially be carried by lahars. The third paper introduces an innovative lahar hazard map integrating information generated by the previous two papers. It shows the differences in hazard maps created by the communities and experts both visually as well as quantitatively. This new, integrated hazard map was presented to the community with positive feedback and acceptance. The dissertation concludes with a summary chapter on the results and recommendations.

  18. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject...... of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...

  19. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  20. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  1. Long Term Effects of Hazard Anticipation Training on Novice Drivers Measured on the Open Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Thalia G G; Masserang, Kathleen M; Pradhan, Anuj K; Divekar, Gautam; Samuel, Siby; Muttart, Jeffrey W; Pollatsek, Alexander; Fisher, Donald L

    2011-01-01

    (a) The purpose of this study was to determine whether novice drivers that were trained to anticipate hazards did so better than novice drivers who were not so trained immediately after training and up to one year after training occurred. (b) Novice drivers who had held their restricted license for about one month were randomly assigned to a PC-based hazard anticipation training program (RAPT) or a placebo (control) training program. The programs took about one hour to complete. The effects of training were assessed in a field drive by using patterns of eye movements to assess whether drivers anticipated a potential unseen hazard. (c) The effects of training persisted over time. In the field test immediately after training, the RAPT group anticipated the hazards 65.8% of the time whereas; the control group anticipated them only 47.3% of the time. Six or more months later, the groups were brought back for a second field test and the effects of training did not diminish; the RAPT group anticipated the hazards 61.9% of the time compared to 37.7% for the control group.

  2. Additive Hazard Regression Models: An Application to the Natural History of Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhong Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several statistical methods for time-to-event analysis, among which is the Cox proportional hazards model that is most commonly used. However, when the absolute change in risk, instead of the risk ratio, is of primary interest or when the proportional hazard assumption for the Cox proportional hazards model is violated, an additive hazard regression model may be more appropriate. In this paper, we give an overview of this approach and then apply a semiparametric as well as a nonparametric additive model to a data set from a study of the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. The results from the semiparametric model indicated on average an additional 14 oncogenic HPV infections per 100 woman-years related to CD4 count < 200 relative to HIV-negative women, and those from the nonparametric additive model showed an additional 40 oncogenic HPV infections per 100 women over 5 years of followup, while the estimated hazard ratio in the Cox model was 3.82. Although the Cox model can provide a better understanding of the exposure disease association, the additive model is often more useful for public health planning and intervention.

  3. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  4. Shunting ratios for MHD flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birzvalk, Yu.

    1978-01-01

    The shunting ratio and the local shunting ratio, pertaining to currents induced by a magnetic field in a flow channel, are properly defined and systematically reviewed on the basis of the Lagrange criterion. Their definition is based on the energy balance and related to dimensionless parameters characterizing an MHD flow, these parameters evolving from the Hartmann number and the hydrodynamic Reynolds number as well as the magnetic Reynolds number, and the Lundquist number. These shunting ratios, of current density in the core of a stream (uniform) or equivalent mean current density to the short-circuit (maximum) current density, are given here for a slot channel with nonconducting or conducting walls, for a conduction channel with heavy side rails, and for an MHD-flow around bodies. 5 references, 1 figure.

  5. Healthcare-Wide Hazards: Surgical Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and have on hand Material Safety Data Sheets, (MSDS) for all hazardous chemicals used in their facilities [ 29 CFR 1910.1200 ]. Follow all MSDS instructions regarding safe handling, storage, and disposal of ...

  6. Potential Hazards in Smoke-Flavored Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hong; JIANG Jie; LI Donghua

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alter- native to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocyto- genes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are dis- cussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  7. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  8. Landslides Hazard Assessment Using Different Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coman Cristina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Romania represents one of Europe’s countries with high landslides occurrence frequency. Landslide hazard maps are designed by considering the interaction of several factors which, by their joint action may affect the equilibrium state of the natural slopes. The aim of this paper is landslides hazard assessment using the methodology provided by the Romanian national legislation and a very largely used statistical method. The final results of these two analyses are quantitative or semi-quantitative landslides hazard maps, created in geographic information system environment. The data base used for this purpose includes: geological and hydrogeological data, digital terrain model, hydrological data, land use, seismic action, anthropic action and an inventory of active landslides. The GIS landslides hazard models were built for the geographical area of the Iasi city, located in the north-east side of Romania.

  9. NIR LIDAR for Hazard Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have investigated the feasibility of employing a hazard detection and mitigation system based upon a polarization discriminating range-gated Lidar system. This...

  10. Estancia Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  11. Asbestos: A Present Hazard in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, L. Dayle; Bilbo, David

    1983-01-01

    Explains what asbestos is, how it can be identified, where it has been used in educational facilities, the health hazards, government regulation, how it can be removed, and lists information sources. (MLF)

  12. Environmental Hazards and Mud Volcanoes in Romania

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Romania, an eastern European country, is severely affected by a variety of natural hazards. These include frequent earthquakes, floods, landslides, soil erosion, and...

  13. Overview Landslide Hazard Assessment of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Kunlong; Zhang Guirong; Zhu Liangfeng

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, China has suffered serious geological disasters, most of slope movements due to complex geology, geomorphology, unusual weather conditions, and large-scale land explorations during high speed economic development. According to geological hazard investigations organized by the Ministry of Land and Resources of China, there are 400 towns and more than 10 000 villages under the threatening of those landslide hazards. This paper presents the overview landslide hazard assessment in terms of GIS, which aims to evaluate the overview geohazard potentials, vulnerabilities of lives and land resources, and risks in conterminous China on the scale of 1∶6 000 000. This is the first overview landslide hazard potential map of China.

  14. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grant Program - Property Acquisitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HMGP provides grants to states and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures after a major disaster declaration. The HMGP is one of three...

  16. US Forest Service Wildfire Hazard Potential 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The wildfire hazard potential (WHP) is a raster geospatial product at 270-meter resolution covering all lands in the conterminous United States. It can help to...

  17. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Strategy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.; Pramumijoyo, S.

    2008-05-01

    Because of the active tectonic setting of the region, the risks of geological hazards inevitably increase in Indonesian Archipelagoes and other ASIAN countries. Encouraging community living in the vulnerable area to adapt with the nature of geology will be the most appropriate strategy for earthquake risk reduction. Updating the Earthquake Hazard Maps, enhancement ofthe existing landuse management , establishment of public education strategy and method, strengthening linkages among stake holders of disaster mitigation institutions as well as establishement of continues public consultation are the main strategic programs for community resilience in earthquake vulnerable areas. This paper highlights some important achievements of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Programs in Indonesia, together with the difficulties in implementing such programs. Case examples of Yogyakarta and Bengkulu Earthquake Mitigation efforts will also be discussed as the lesson learned. The new approach for developing earthquake hazard map which is innitiating by mapping the psychological aspect of the people living in vulnerable area will be addressed as well.

  18. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  19. Sierra County Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  20. Martial Arts Can Be Hazardous to Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162248.html Martial Arts Can Be Hazardous to Kids Certain practices put ... kids should only engage in noncontact forms of martial arts, a new American Academy of Pediatrics report says. ...

  1. [Oil and Hazardous Substance Spill Response Emergencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A major oil or hazardous substance spill may constitute an emergency situation requiring prompt actions by the Service to protect threatened natural resources. This...

  2. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  3. US Forest Service Hazardous Fuel Treatment Reduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting select activities that help reduce hazardous fuels on the landscape. This includes features representing Rx Fire, Wildfire,...

  4. Flooding hazards from sea extremes and subsidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo; Vognsen, Karsten; Broge, Niels

    2015-01-01

    If we do not understand the effects of climate change and sea level rise (SLR) we cannot live in low-lying coastal areas in the future. Permanent inundation may become a prevalent issue but more often floods related to extreme events have the largest damage potential, and the management of flooding...... hazards needs to integrate the water loading from various sources. Furthermore, local subsidence must be accounted for in order to evaluate current and future flooding hazards and management options. We present the methodology (Figure) and preliminary results from the research project “Coastal Flooding...... Hazards due to Storm Surges and Subsidence” (2014-2017) with the objective to develop and test a practice oriented methodology for combining extreme water level statistics and land movement in coastal flooding hazard mapping and in climate change adaptation schemes in Denmark. From extreme value analysis...

  5. Hazards Control Department 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G.W.

    1996-09-19

    This annual report of the Hazards Control Department activities in 1995 is part of the department`s efforts to foster a working environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where every person desire to work safely.

  6. Monitoring Hazardous Fuels Treatments: Southeast Regional Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this document is to provide technical guidance on monitoring activities to refuge staff involved in planning and conducting hazardous fuel treatments....

  7. Improving Tamper Detection for Hazardous Waste Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, N.; Martinez, R. K.; Martinez, D. D.; Trujillo, S. J.; Lopez, L. N.

    2003-02-26

    Since September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide effective security for their hazardous wastes. Tamper-indicating seals can help. This paper discusses seals, and offers recommendations for how to choose and use them.

  8. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  9. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  10. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  11. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...

  12. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    OpenAIRE

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The g...

  13. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  14. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahn, D.E.

    1998-02-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  15. A quantitative model for volcanic hazard assessment

    OpenAIRE

    W. Marzocchi; Sandri, L.; Furlan, C

    2006-01-01

    Volcanic hazard assessment is a basic ingredient for risk-based decision-making in land-use planning and emergency management. Volcanic hazard is defined as the probability of any particular area being affected by a destructive volcanic event within a given period of time (Fournier d’Albe 1979). The probabilistic nature of such an important issue derives from the fact that volcanic activity is a complex process, characterized by several and usually unknown degrees o...

  16. Volcanic hazard mapping for development planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkley, P.N.; Young, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 500 million people are at risk from the hazards posed by volcanoes. The potential therefore exists for major loss of life and damage to property in a number of regions, especially where large urban areas occur in proximity to dangerous volcanoes. As population pressures intensify, hazardous areas are likely to become increasingly developed, so raising the level of risk. In the case of major eruptions, losses to property, infrastructure and economic activity c...

  17. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  18. Canister storage building hazard analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahn, D.E.; Garvin, L.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the final CSB safety analysis report (SAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Report, and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  19. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999, aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as high as 9 m/s2. In this study, carried out within the framework of the EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia, the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA for Central Asia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth < 50 km seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects earthquake catalog for the region. The seismic hazard is calculated in terms of macroseismic intensity (MSK-64, intended to be used for the seismic risk maps of the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the OpenQuake software [Pagani et al. 2014], which is an open source software tool developed by the GEM (Global Earthquake Model foundation. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches an intensity of around 8 in southern Tien Shan for 475 years mean return period. The maximum hazard estimated for some of the cities in the region, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Tashkent and Almaty, is between 7 and 8 (7-8, 8.0, 7.0 and 8.0 macroseismic Intensity, respectively, for 475 years mean return period, using different approaches. The results of different methods for assessing the level of seismic hazard are compared and their underlying methodologies are discussed.

  20. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  1. Joint Hacking and Latent Hazard Rate Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ziqi; Smola, Alexander J.; Soska, Kyle; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Zheng, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm for predicting the websites at risk in a long range hacking activity, while jointly inferring the provenance and evolution of vulnerabilities on websites over continuous time. Specifically, we use hazard regression with a time-varying additive hazard function parameterized in a generalized linear form. The activation coefficients on each feature are continuous-time functions constrained with total variation penalty inspired by hacking campaigns. We show ...

  2. Public Alerts for Hyper-Hazard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, G.

    2011-12-01

    Hyper-hazard events pose an exceptional risk to threatened populations around the world. Because of the potentially grave number of casualties, special procedures need to be enacted to alert the public. This paper will consider the decision analysis associated with the provision of public alerts, and what training measures are required. Special focus will be on the issue of false alarms, and the social pyschology of population response to hazard warnings.

  3. Publications of the Volcano Hazards Program 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel

    2016-04-08

    The Volcano Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is part of the Natural Hazards activity, as funded by Congressional appropriation. Investigations are carried out by the USGS and with cooperators at the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, University of Hawaiʻi Mānoa and Hilo, University of Utah, and University of Washington Geophysics Program. This report lists publications from all of these institutions.

  4. A Fault-based Crustal Deformation Model for UCERF3 and Its Implication to Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Shen, Z.

    2012-12-01

    shear zone and northern Walker Lane. This implies a significant increase in seismic hazard in the eastern California and northern Walker Lane region, but decreased seismic hazard in the southern San Andreas area, relative to the current model used in the USGS 2008 seismic hazard map evaluation. Overall the geodetic model suggests an increase in total regional moment rate of 24% compared with the UCERF2 model and the 150-yr California earthquake catalog. However not all the increases are seismic so the seismic/aseismic slip rate ratios are critical for future seismic hazard assessment.

  5. Stakeholder perspectives on land-use strategies for adapting to climate-change-enhanced coastal hazards: Sarasota, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable land-use planning requires decision makers to balance community growth with resilience to natural hazards. This balance is especially difficult in many coastal communities where planners must grapple with significant growth projections, the persistent threat of extreme events (e.g., hurricanes), and climate-change-driven sea level rise that not only presents a chronic hazard but also alters the spatial extent of sudden-onset hazards such as hurricanes. We examine these stressors on coastal, long-term land-use planning by reporting the results of a one-day community workshop held in Sarasota County, Florida that included focus groups and participatory mapping exercises. Workshop participants reflected various political agendas and socioeconomic interests of five local knowledge domains: business, environment, emergency management and infrastructure, government, and planning. Through a series of alternating domain-specific focus groups and interactive plenary sessions, participants compared the county 2050 comprehensive land-use plan to maps of contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazard zones and projected storm-surge hazard zones enlarged by sea level rise scenarios. This interactive, collaborative approach provided each group of domain experts the opportunity to combine geographically-specific, scientific knowledge on natural hazards and climate change with local viewpoints and concerns. Despite different agendas, interests, and proposed adaptation strategies, there was common agreement among participants for the need to increase community resilience to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to explore adaptation strategies to combat the projected, enlarged storm-surge hazard zones.

  6. Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is working with the National Weather Service, the National Ocean Service, other Federal agencies, private industry, and academia to evaluate the feasibility of UAS observations to provide time critical information needed for situational awareness, prediction, warning, and damage assessment of hazards. This activity is managed within a portfolio of projects entitled "Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT)." The diversity of this portfolio includes evaluations of high altitude UAS observations for high impact oceanic storms prediction to low altitude UAS observations of rivers, severe storms, and coastal areas for pre-hazard situational awareness and post-hazard damage assessments. Each SHOUT evaluation project begins with a proof-of-concept field demonstration of a UAS observing strategy for a given hazard and then matures to joint studies of both scientific data impact along with cost and operational feasibility of the observing strategy for routine applications. The technology readiness and preliminary evaulation results will be presented for several UAS observing strategies designed for improved observations of oceanic storms, floods, severe storms, and coastal ecosystem hazards.

  7. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .

  8. Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.

    1989-01-01

    All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects.

  9. Geological hazard monitoring system in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaprindashvili, George

    2017-04-01

    Georgia belongs to one of world's most complex mountainous regions according to the scale and frequency of Geological processes and damage caused to population, farmlands, and Infrastructure facilities. Geological hazards (landslide, debrisflow/mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.) are affecting many populated areas, agricultural fields, roads, oil and gas pipes, high-voltage electric power transmission towers, hydraulic structures, and tourist complexes. Landslides occur almost in all geomorphological zones, resulting in wide differentiation in the failure types and mechanisms and in the size-frequency distribution. In Georgia, geological hazards triggered by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic change; 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. The prediction and monitoring of Geological Hazards is a very wide theme, which involves different researchers from different spheres. Geological hazard monitoring is essential to prevent and mitigate these hazards. In past years in Georgia several monitoring system, such as Ground-based geodetic techniques, Debrisflow Early Warning System (EWS) were installed on high sensitive landslide and debrisflow areas. This work presents description of Geological hazard monitoring system in Georgia.

  10. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Mohapatra

    2015-04-01

    Hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) are long-duration rotatory high velocity winds, very heavy rain, and storm tide. India has a coastline of about 7516 km of which 5400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching the coast, but lying within 100 km from the coast have been classified based on their proneness. Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the place has not been taken into consideration. Therefore, composite cyclone risk of a district, which is the product of hazard and vulnerability, needs to be assessed separately through a detailed study.

  11. Digging Our Own Holes: Institutional Perspectives on Seismic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Tomasello, J.

    2005-12-01

    It has been observed that there are no true students of the earth; instead, we each dig our own holes and sit in them. A similar situation arises in attempts to assess the hazards of earthquakes and other natural disasters and to develop strategies to mitigate them. Ideally, we would like to look at the interests of society as a whole and develop strategies that best balance hazard mitigation with alternative uses of resources. Doing so, however, is difficult for several reasons. First, estimating seismic hazards requires assumptions about the size, recurrence, and shaking from future earthquakes, none of which are well known. Second, we have to chose a definition of seismic hazard, which is even more arbitrary and at least as significant about future earthquakes. Third, mitigating the risks involves economic and policy issues as well as the scientific one of estimating the hazard itself and the engineering one of designing safe structures. As a result, different public and private organizations with different institutional perspectives naturally adopt different approaches. Most organizations have a single focus. For example, those focusing on economic development tend to discount hazards, whereas emergency management groups tend to accentuate them. Organizations with quasi-regulatory duties (BSSC, FEMA, USGS) focus on reducing losses in future earthquakes without considering the cost of mitigation measures or how this use of resources should be balanced with alternative uses of resources that could mitigate other losses. Some organizations, however, must confront these tradeoffs directly because they allocate resources internally. Hence hospitals implicitly trade off more earthquake resistant construction with treating uninsured patients, highway departments balance stronger bridges with other safety improvements, and schools balance safer buildings with after school programs. These choices are complicated by the fact that such infrastructure typically has longer

  12. Geo hazard studies and their policy implications in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    Nicaragua, situated at the Central American Subduction zone and placed in the trajectory of tropical storms and hurricanes, is a frequent showplace of natural disasters which have multiplied the negative effects of a long term socioeconomic crisis leaving Nicaragua currently as the second poorest country of the Americas. In the last years, multiple efforts were undertaken to prevent or mitigate the affectation of the natural phenomena to the country. National and local authorities have become more involved in disaster prevention policy and international cooperation boosted funding for disaster prevention and mitigation measures in the country. The National Geosciences Institution (INETER) in cooperation with foreign partners developed a national monitoring and early warning system on geological and hydro-meteorological phenomena. Geological and risk mapping projects were conducted by INETER and international partners. Universities, NGO´s, International Technical Assistance, and foreign scientific groups cooperated to capacitate Nicaraguan geoscientists and to improve higher education on disaster prevention up to the master degree. Funded by a World Bank loan, coordinated by the National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Attention (SINAPRED) and scientifically supervised by INETER, multidisciplinary hazard and vulnerability studies were carried out between 2003 and 2005 with emphasis on seismic hazard. These GIS based works provided proposals for land use policies on a local level in 30 municipalities and seismic vulnerability and risk information for each single building in Managua, Capital of Nicaragua. Another large multidisciplinary project produced high resolution air photos, elaborated 1:50,000 vectorized topographic maps, and a digital elevation model for Western Nicaragua. These data, integrated in GIS, were used to assess: 1) Seismic Hazard for Metropolitan Managua; 2) Tsunami hazard for the Pacific coast; 3) Volcano hazard for Telica

  13. Revised seismic hazard map for the Kyrgyz Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kevin; Ullah, Shahid; Parolai, Stefano; Walker, Richard; Pittore, Massimiliano; Free, Matthew; Fourniadis, Yannis; Villiani, Manuela; Sousa, Luis; Ormukov, Cholponbek; Moldobekov, Bolot; Takeuchi, Ko

    2017-04-01

    final hazard level, this is still not fully accounted for, even if a nation-wide first order Vs30 model (i.e., from the USGS) is available. Abdrakhmatov, K., Havenith, H.-B., Delvaux, D., Jongsmans, D. and Trefois, P. (2003) Probabilistic PGA and Arias Intensity maps of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia), Journal of Seismology, 7, 203-220. Ulomov, V.I., The GSHAP Region 7 working group (1999) Seismic hazard of Northern Eurasia, Annali di Geofisica, 42, 1012-1038.

  14. Ratio-model for the simulation of infrared spectra of pollution gases in complicated background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A ratio-model for the computer simulation of infrared spectra of pollution gases in complicated background is proposed. The characteristic spectrum of the hazardous pollution gas is simulated with background spectra which are measured by passive Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The simulated results agree well with the experimental results.

  15. EFFECT OF LIQUID TO SOLID RATIO ON LEACHING OF METALS FROM MINERAL PROCESSING WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various anthropogenic activities generate hazardous solid wastes that are affluent in heavy metals, which can cause significant damage to the environment an human health. A mineral processing waste was used to study the effect of liquid to solid ratio (L/S) on the leaching behav...

  16. Identifying hazard parameter to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminar, Wulan; Saepuloh, Asep; Meilano, Irwan

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of hazard assessment to active volcanoes is crucial for risk management. The hazard map of volcano provides information to decision makers and communities before, during, and after volcanic crisis. The rapid and accurate hazard assessment, especially to an active volcano is necessary to be developed for better mitigation on the time of volcanic crises in Indonesia. In this paper, we identified the hazard parameters to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano. The Guntur volcano in Garut Region, West Java, Indonesia was selected as study area due population are resided adjacent to active volcanoes. The development of infrastructures, especially related to tourism at the eastern flank from the Summit, are growing rapidly. The remote sensing and field investigation approaches were used to obtain hazard parameters spatially. We developed a quantitative and dynamic algorithm to map spatially hazard potential of volcano based on index overlay technique. There were identified five volcano hazard parameters based on Landsat 8 and ASTER imageries: volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout, pyroclastic flows, lava and lahar, slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and vegetation density. Following this proposed technique, the hazard parameters were extracted, indexed, and calculated to produce spatial hazard values at and around Guntur Volcano. Based on this method, the hazard potential of low vegetation density is higher than high vegetation density. Furthermore, the slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and fragmental volcanic product such as pyroclastics influenced to the spatial hazard value significantly. Further study to this proposed approach will be aimed for effective and efficient analyses of volcano risk assessment.

  17. Occupational health hazards in veterinary medicine: Zoonoses and other biological hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This study describes biological hazards reported by veterinarians working in western Canada obtained through a self-administered mailed questionnaire. The potential occupational hazards included as biological hazards were zoonotic disease events, exposure to rabies, injuries due to bites and scratches, and allergies. Only 16.7% (136/812) of responding veterinarians reported the occurrence of a zoonosis or exposure to rabies in the past 5 years; the most commonly reported event was ringworm. M...

  18. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which is ...

  19. Gender Ratios for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcut, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analysed data from 1133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had…

  20. Natural hazards and technological risk in Russia: the relation assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost every natural disaster is accompanied by some sort of technological one. A number of studies also show a correlation between technological disasters and various global processes such as solar disturbances, geophysical field variation etc. In this study we attempted to ascertain and codify the relationship between different types of technological disasters and natural hazards. Two types of natural hazards were found, based on their genesis, distribution in time, and impact pattern on the technosphere. Solar and geomagnetic disturbances generally affect technological risk through the failure of automatic machinery and the reduction of operator reliability. They increase the probability of transport accidents, fires, and catastrophic toxic emissions. These types of technological disasters are widely prevalent throughout Russia and in all federal regions. Geological, climatic, hydrological, and other natural hazardous processes increase technological risk through direct mechanical impacts. Their occurrence in space and time depends on the character of the natural process and the specific regional environment. The total number and proportion of technological disasters in federal regions results mainly from the concentration of industrial units and their type, as well as the local natural and social environment. Temporal changes in the number of technological disasters of different groups depend on the prevailing type of natural processes.