Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew
For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the “leaky pipeline” problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created “microenvironments” (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students’ academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women’s academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women’s verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061
Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew
For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery.
Tsujimoto, Hiromi; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of female elderly participants of a group exercise organized by the participants themselves and the changes in their physical, mental, and social health, and life function. Findings of this study will be used for promoting effective preventive care. The subjects whose characteristics were analyzed were 394 participants and 757 nonparticipants of the group exercise. Those whose changes in health were analyzed were 52 participants and 114 nonparticipants. Locomotion Check and self-rated health score were used as indices of physical health. World Health Organization-Five well-being (S-WHO-5-J) index and self-rated life satisfaction level were used as indices of mental health. Satisfaction level of social activities was one of indices of social health. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence was used as an index of life function. The health-examination data analyzed were Body Mass Index, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and HbA1c level. In the participant group, the proportions of those who lived alone, who were affluent, and who had no job were higher than those in the nonparticipant group. The indices of physical, mental and social health and life function were higher in the participant group. There was no significant difference in the 5-year trend of health-examination data between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the yearly change in the indices of physical health and life function. The S-WHO-5-J index, self-rated life satisfaction level, and satisfaction level of social activities were maintained or improved in the participant group. The results suggest the possible usefulness of the group exercise for maintaining the mental and social health of elderly women.
Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew
Advances in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are critical to the American economy and require a robust workforce. The scarcity of women in this workforce is a well-recognized problem, but data-driven solutions to this problem are less common. We provide experimental evidence showing that gender composition of small groups in engineering has a substantial impact on undergraduate women’s persistence. Women participate more actively in engineering groups when members are mostly ...
Large regional differences exist in female participation across regions within Japan. This paper uses two datasets to show that a significant convergence in female participation took place from 1940 to 2010. Historically, urban areas have had low participation, whereas non-urban areas have had high participation. The participation rate rose steadily and significantly in urban areas and, to a lesser extent in non-urban areas, and as a result, regional differences shrank over time. The microdat...
Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani
Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.
Egan, Elizabeth; Reilly, Thomas; Giacomoni, Magali; Redmond, Louise; Turner, Clare
Training for and participation in impact-loading sports are associated with alterations in bone strength which are specific to anatomical site and type of strain. The effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) depends on the type of activity engaged in. Sports with high impact loading seem to have a positive effect in promoting bone mineralisation, whereas those with low impacts may have negative or no effects. The aims of the present study were to compare BMD and body composition measures among female participants in three distinctly different sports and investigate differences from sedentary control subjects. Participants were club and university level Rugby Union football players (n = 30, age: 21.4 +/- 1.9 years, height: 1.67 +/- 0.05 m, mass: 73.3 +/- 10.7 kg), netball players (n = 20, 20.7 +/- 1.3 years, 1.68 +/- 0.07 m, 64.3 +/- 7.2 kg), distance runners (n = 11, 21.5 +/- 2.6 years, 1.68 +/- 0.04 m, 57.1 +/- 6.1 kg), and sedentary controls (n = 25, 21.4 +/- 1.1 years; 1.64 +/- 0.07 m, 56.8 +/- 6.8 kg). With the exception of three distance runners, all participants were eumenorrhoeic. Bone mineral density scans were performed for whole-body, left proximal femur, and lumbar spine (L1-4) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat mass, percent body fat, and fat-free soft tissue mass were assessed from whole-body scans. Regional and segmental analysis was also carried out on whole-body BMD data using standard procedures. The runners had a lower fat mass and percent body fat compared to the other sports participants and the controls. All sports groups had higher BMD values than had the controls. Density of bone in the upper body was most pronounced in the rugby football players and least pronounced in the runners. Positive effects were evident at all sites for the rugby players. There were significant correlations between BMD and fat-free soft tissue mass, BMD and body mass, and BMD and training volume. It is concluded that sports participation has positive
Norwegian female labour participation rates have increased steadily since the beginning of the seventies. This paper address several issues concerning female labour participation series for the period 1972-1997. The main purpose is to identify factors that explain the trend-like increase during the last 25 years and a possible cyclical component that is due to labour market conditions. The resulting relations for women in the age-groups 25-39 years and 40-59 years include long-run effects fro...
Lunde, Carolina; Gattario, Kristina Holmqvist
The aim of this qualitative study was to examine young female sport participants' experiences and thoughts in terms of sport, their bodies, and social appearance norms. Six focus groups with female sport participants (N=25) from Sweden were conducted. Participants raised many positive experiences in relation to their sport participation, but they also witnessed a conflict in the intersection between the culture within their sport (emphasizing physical performance) and the culture outside their sport (emphasizing physical appearance). Through thematic analysis, four themes illustrating the balancing act between these two cultures were formed: (a) the performing body versus the objectified body, (b) food as fuel versus source of shame, (c) appreciation of body type diversity versus appearance prejudice, and (d) empowerment and agency versus disempowerment and restraints. The findings of this study indicate that young women who engage in sport have to face complex, ambiguous, and restricting norms and notions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
While womenâ€™s labor force participation tends to increase with economic development, the relationship is not straightforward or consistent at the country level. There is considerably more variation across developing countries in labor force participation by women than by men. This variation is driven by a wide variety of economic and social factors, which include economic growth, education, and social norms. Looking more broadly at improving womenâ€™s access to quality employment, a critica...
The study challenges hindering female participation in politics as expressed by female politicians in the federal capital territory, Abuja, Nigeria. The research design adopted for this study was descriptive survey. The respondents were 210 female politicians selected from six Area Councils of the FCT using a proportionate ...
Concepcion, M B
The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the effects of the participation of health, education and religious professionals in public conversation groups with LGBT people. Participants were interviewed some weeks after the groups for feedback. Professionals declared that this dialogic method (known as Public Conversations Project allowed a qualification of their practices, awareness about the challenges of talking about gender and sexual diversity at their professional’s contexts, and a broader contact with narratives of violence and discrimination against LGBT people. The structure of dialogue allowed participants to talk and listen in a less evaluative context. Differences in the effects produced by each group are discussed in relation to the differences in the group composition and to the specificities of the health, educational and religious contexts.
Attitudes of female university students towards participation in sports. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... linked to attitude but no studies to date have explored such links, particularly in respect of black undergraduate ...
The primary aim of this study was to examine factors affecting sport participation among resident and non- resident female students at Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), Pretoria, South Africa. The study targeted all students participating in 12 registered sports but due to the fact that only a limited number of the total ...
Hine, R.C.; Jones, J.E.; Ruzich, K.C.
Even though the event at Three Mile Island was a bleak moment in the history of nuclear power, many advances in the nuclear industry have evolved as a result. One such advancement involves the establishment of NSSS Vendor Owners Groups. These groups were organized on a voluntary basis with nearly all utilities participating. The main purpose was to achieve mutual benefit, both technical and financial, through joint engineering and plant operation programs. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse Owners Group, which is commonly referred to as the WOG, and how it has benefited and could further benefit utility training. The paper consists of three sections. The first section provides an overview of the WOG structure and how it functions. The second section focuses on the major accomplishments of the WOG with emphasis on the development of the Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs). The third section provides some recommendations as to how utility training departments can better utilize their owners groups
labour market in Botswana is male-dominated, despite the fact that females in .... Labour force participation rate measures how many persons are ... the private sector is the largest employer, accounting for 56 percent of the total .... of enterprises owned at least 50 percent by the government, either profit making or non-profit.
Mohammad Younis Khan; Asif Jamil; Umar Ali Khan; Uzma Kareem; Ghazanfar Imran
A research study was conducted to know about the participation of Muslim girls and women in sports and philosophy of Islam in this regard. The population of this study was all female students of Government Girls Degree Colleges of District Dera Ismail Khan. Total 100 respondents selected from within the population through convenient or available sampling technique. For the purpose of collection of data a structured questionnaire on three point Likert scale, ranging from disagree (DA= 1 point)...
Gay, Victor; Boehnke, Jörn
We explore the effect of military fatalities from World War I on female labor participation in post-war France. We build a unique dataset containing individual level information for all 1.3 million fallen soldiers, and find that the tightness of the marriage market along with negative income shocks generated by the scarcity of men induced many young single women and older widows to enter the labor force permanently after the war, especially in the industrial sector. These findings are robust ...
de Carvalho, Débora; Patrone, Luis Gustavo A; Marques, Danuzia A; Vicente, Mariane C; Szawka, Raphael E; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Bícego, Kênia C; Gargaglioni, Luciane H
Several evidences indicate that the locus coeruleus (LC) is involved in central chemoreception responding to CO 2 /pH and displaying a high percentage of chemosensitive neurons (>80%). However, there are no studies about the LC-mediated hypercapnic ventilation performed in females. Therefore, we assessed the role of noradrenergic LC neurons in non-ovariectomized (NOVX), ovariectomized (OVX) and estradiol (E2)-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E2) rats in respiratory response to hypercapnia, using a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) - lesion model. A reduction in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons (51-90% in 3 animals of NOVX group, 20-42% of lesion in 5 animals of NOVX females, 61.3% for OVX and 62.6% for OVX+E2 group) was observed seven days after microinjection of 6-OHDA in the LC. The chemical lesion of the LC resulted in decreased respiratory frequency under normocapnic conditions in OVX and OVX+E2 group. Hypercapnia increased ventilation in all groups as consequence of increases in respiratory frequency (fR) and tidal volume (V T ). Nevertheless, the hypercapnic ventilatory response was significantly decreased in 6-OHDA-NOVX>50% rats compared with SHAM-NOVX group and with females that had 20-42% of LC lesion. In OVX and OVX+E2 lesioned groups, no difference in CO 2 ventilatory response was observed when compared to SHAM-OVX and SHAM-OVX+E2 groups, respectively. Neither basal body temperature (Tb) nor Tb reduction in response to hypercapnia were affected by E2 treatment, ovariectomy or LC lesion. Thus, our data show that LC noradrenergic neurons seem to exert an excitatory role on the hypercapnic ventilatory response in female rats, as evidenced by the results in NOVX animals with LC lesioned more than 50%; however, this modulation is not observed in OVX and OVX+E2 rats. In addition, LC noradrenergic neurons of OVX females seem to provide a tonic excitatory drive to maintain breathing frequency in normocapnia, and this response may not to be
Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu
Nationalist movements are emerging today everywhere in the world. Many of them display a high level of aggression and a negative attitude toward sexuality and especially female sexuality. Along with this, erotic fiction with a sadomasochistic orientation has achieved great success and has hundreds of millions of readers in the world. This collective fantasy allows some integration of aggression in sexual life while questioning liberal morality and its equality in gender roles and conservative morality and its idea of control over passion. Both phenomena may represent different responses to the appearance of a new female sexuality threatening the social structure we know.
Gustafsson, S; Jacobsson, R
The labor force participation of Swedish married women increased form 49.1% to 83.5% in the past 2 decades. Results from cross section analyses carried out on micro data from 3 standard of living investigations, done in 1968, 1974, and 1981, are used to predict changes over time. Women's real wages have increased over time more than men's real wages; in combination with estimated positve own wages elasticities, this change is the most important determinant of the increase in female labor supply. The labor force participation of married women ages 20-59 has increased from 49.1% in 1963 to 83.5% in 1982; the increase is especially large for women with children under 7. Over the decades 1920-1965, when real wages of woman increased more than real incomes of men, the labor force participation rates of married women increased even faster. From 1963-1981 a dramatic narrowing of the male-female wage gap occurred; most of the decrease is a result of factors other than the human capital variables accumulated at school and on the job. The effect of centralized collective bargaining and a strong union policy to increase low wages may be important explanatory factors. Generous parental leaves and subsidized day care may have an increasing effect on fertility; but instead, fertility has decreased, perhaps less than it might have done in the absence of such policies. By using individual cross section data from the 3 standard of living investigations, estimates of participation are performed. The own wage effects of the participation equation are positive and significant but decreasing over time. Important institutional changes between the sample periods are the extended parental leaves and the increased supply of government subsidized day care.
Estabrooks, P A
The general hypothesis to be examined by this article is that increased group cohesion leads to an increase in adherence to an exercise program over time. Although preliminary research is promising, there is a need for further research aimed at examining the model of group development in exercise classes, the impact of group cohesion on both group and individual exercise behavior, and the measurement of group cohesion.
Starcke, Katrin; Schlereth, Berenike; Domass, Debora; Schöler, Tobias; Brand, Matthias
Background and aims It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. Addictions have often been investigated with cue-reactivity paradigms to assess subjective, physiological and neural craving reactions. The current study aims at testing whether cue reactivity towards shopping cues is related to pathological buying tendencies. Methods A sample of 66 non-clinical female participants rated shopping related pictures concerning valence, arousal, and subjective craving. In a subgroup of 26 participants, electrodermal reactions towards those pictures were additionally assessed. Furthermore, all participants were screened concerning pathological buying tendencies and baseline craving for shopping. Results Results indicate a relationship between the subjective ratings of the shopping cues and pathological buying tendencies, even if baseline craving for shopping was controlled for. Electrodermal reactions were partly related to the subjective ratings of the cues. Conclusions Cue reactivity may be a potential correlate of pathological buying tendencies. Thus, pathological buying may be accompanied by craving reactions towards shopping cues. Results support the assumption that pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. From a methodological point of view, results support the view that the cue-reactivity paradigm is suited for the investigation of craving reactions in pathological buying and future studies should implement this paradigm in clinical samples.
Mintert, Svenja-Maria; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
on the historical development of a Danish women-only fan group called 'The Female Vikings', which support a professional football club, Lyngby Boldklub (BK), in a city north of Copenhagen. The article explores the backgrounds and motivations of female fans, as well as their ways of staging femininity in a man...... of the female fans during the club's 'crisis' and their 'collective memories'....
Sundstrom, M; Stafford, F P
2nd only to Ireland in total fertility, Sweden has the highest total fertility (TFR) and female labor force participation rates (FLFPR) among European countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s. 1988 TFR and FLFPR were 1.96 and 80.1%, respectively. This paper considers the role of public policy in creating this unique trend, with particular focus on family leave policy. In 1974, Sweden became the 1st country to allow leave to both parents following childbirth. By 1990, leave duration had grown from an initial 6-month period to 15 months. In addition, subsidized day care, flexible working hours, and economic support to families with children is provided in the context of a family-supportive tax structure. While generous, benefits are related to work and income history. Labor income is replaced at 90% of gross earnings, while the unemployed receive only minimal taxable flat payments. Benefits overall are paid from general taxes. Given that benefits reflect job history and income, and income level tends to rise fastest in the initial stages of employment, women in Sweden postpone childbirth in order to realize wage increases and greater job standing over the short- to medium-terms. In sum, Sweden's policies stimulate both fertility and women's paid work by reducing the costs of having children while requiring parents to be employed to receive full benefits. This paper further reviews the development of parental leave and related policies and compares Swedish fertility, female labor force participation, and parental leave benefits to those of countries in the European Community.
Gamero, Nuria; Peiró, José M; Zornoza, Ana; Picazo, Carmen
The roles of group participation and group performance feedback were examined as antecedents of group potency, i.e., beliefs shared among a work group's members about the general effectiveness of the work group. Also examined were how group participation and the congruence of the feedback received from different sources about performance predicted convergence in members' beliefs about group effectiveness. The sample comprised 61 work groups of professionals involved in Master in Business Administration (MBA) programs (284 participants). Mean group size was 4.6 members (SD = .58). 65% of participants were male, and 51% were between 30 and 40 years of age. Data were gathered at two measurement times. Increases in group participation were positively related to increases in group potency and the convergence in beliefs about group effectiveness among group members over time. Results supported the premise that group performance feedback is an antecedent of changes in group potency over time.
Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas
Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…
Redfering, David L.
The current study is a one-year follow-up of an earlier report that group counseling with institutionalized delinquent females resulted in significant gains in the connotative meanings of several concepts. (Author)
Rapid fertility decline, a strong expansion of female education, and favorable economic conditions should have promoted female labor force participation in developing countries. Yet trends in female labor force participation (FLFP) have been quite heterogeneous, rising strongly in Latin America, stagnating in many other regions, while improvements were modest in the Middle East and female participation even fell in South Asia. These trends are inconsistent with secular theories such as the Fe...
Preliminary research findings from Brazil and Kenya indicate that, when women are provided with female condoms and peer group support, traditional obstacles to safe sex practices can be overcome. In these countries, as well as many others, women face cultural barriers to negotiating condom use with male partners. The study, conducted by the Women's Health Initiative of Family Health International's AIDS Control and Prevention Project, involved 106 Kenyan and 103 Brazilian women. A female focus group was held at the beginning of the study, followed by two peer support group meetings, with another focus group at the end of the study. Group support was an essential element in the acceptance process. Women who were afraid or unsuccessful with initial use were encouraged by other group members to try different, non-threatening approaches to the negotiation of female condom use and given suggestions for overcoming difficulties with insertion and lubrication. Some of these strategies included laying the female condom on the bed so the male partner raises the subject of its use and telling the partner the doctor had recommended the method to avoid the negative side effects associated with the pill. When female condom use is presented as a form of pregnancy prevention, the association of condoms with infidelity is overcome.
Kubayi Ntwanano Alliance
Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine constraints to sport participation among female secondary school students in Hlanganani rural area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 101 female students aged 17–24 years from four secondary schools were recruited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results indicated that the dress code, lack of energy, lack of family support and family commitment were identified as major constraints to sport participation among female students. The results of this study provide practical implications for promoting and developing female sports programmes in rural schools. This study suggests that stakeholders such as parents, peers, and teachers should motivate and encourage female students to participate in school sport. Additionally, the study recommended that in order to promote sport participation in rural areas, the values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and customs that restrict females from participating in sport and physical activity should be dissented.
Keywords: Gender participation in agricultural programmes, intervention programme in .... The effect of the programmes on the social economic level of .... /subsidies facilities, poor incentive/income and negligence of men's and women's role ...
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The main reasons for non-participation were: 'no time' (68%), transport problems (8%) ... The university management should address the constraints to promote ...
Karr, Trisha M; Davidson, Denise; Bryant, Fred B; Balague, Gloria; Bohnert, Amy M
Through multiple group structural equation modeling analyses, path models were used to test the predictive effects of sport type and both interpersonal (i.e., mothers' body dissatisfaction, family dynamics) and intrapersonal factors (i.e., athletic self-efficacy, body mass index [BMI]) on high school female sport participants' (N=627) body dissatisfaction. Sport types were classified as esthetic/lean (i.e., gymnastics), non-esthetic/lean (i.e., cross-country), or non-esthetic/non-lean (i.e., softball). Most participants reported low body dissatisfaction, and body dissatisfaction did not differ across sport types. Nevertheless, mothers' body dissatisfaction was positively associated with daughters' body dissatisfaction for non-esthetic/lean and non-esthetic/non-lean sport participants, and high family cohesion was predictive of body dissatisfaction among non-esthetic/lean sport participants. Across sport types, higher BMI was associated with greater body dissatisfaction, whereas greater athletic self-efficacy was associated with lower body dissatisfaction. These findings highlight the complex relationship between interpersonal and intrapersonal factors and body dissatisfaction in adolescent female sport participants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel
The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36 took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning.
Svaldi, Diana O; McCuen, Emily C; Joshi, Chetas; Robinson, Meghan E; Nho, Yeseul; Hannemann, Robert; Nauman, Eric A; Leverenz, Larry J; Talavage, Thomas M
As participation in women's soccer continues to grow and the longevity of female athletes' careers continues to increase, prevention and care for mTBI in women's soccer has become a major concern for female athletes since the long-term risks associated with a history of mTBI are well documented. Among women's sports, soccer exhibits among the highest concussion rates, on par with those of men's football at the collegiate level. Head impact monitoring technology has revealed that "concussive hits" occurring directly before symptomatic injury are not predictive of mTBI, suggesting that the cumulative effect of repetitive head impacts experienced by collision sport athletes should be assessed. Neuroimaging biomarkers have proven to be valuable in detecting brain changes that occur before neurocognitive symptoms in collision sport athletes. Quantifying the relationship between changes in these biomarkers and head impacts experienced by female soccer athletes may prove valuable to developing preventative measures for mTBI. This study paired functional magnetic resonance imaging with head impact monitoring to track cerebrovascular reactivity changes throughout a season and to test whether the observed changes could be attributed to mechanical loading experienced by female athletes participating in high school soccer. Marked cerebrovascular reactivity changes were observed in female soccer athletes, relative both to non-collision sport control measures and pre-season measures and were localized to fronto-temporal aspects of the brain. These changes persisted 4-5 months after the season ended and recovered by 8 months after the season. Segregation of the total soccer cohort into cumulative loading groups revealed that population-level changes were driven by athletes experiencing high cumulative loads, although athletes experiencing lower cumulative loads still contributed to group changes. The results of this study imply a non-linear relationship between cumulative
Full Text Available The study was premised on the influence of perceptions on the participation of Ordinary Level rural African Zimbabwean female students in mathematics. Qualitative research design grounded in the interpretive paradigm was employed. Eighteen Ordinary Level female students and six teachers purposively selected from three rural co-educational secondary schools participated in the study. Data were generated through lesson observations and semi-structured question type interview guide. Findings revealed that rural female students perceived mathematics as a difficult subject, masculine and irrelevant to their future aspirations. Participants outlined that their perceptions were rooted in the prevailing cultural belief that mathematics is a masculine subject and negative stereotypes about girls’ maths abilities. Further findings indicate that female students’ participation in mathematics was highly influenced by their perception towards the subject. These perceptions result in the development of a general negative attitude to the subject that caused fewer female students to participate in mathematics in large numbers. We recommended parents and teachers to work hard to eliminate the negative gender and cultural stereotypes in order to enhance female students’ confidence in mathematics abilities. Schools should employ female mathematics teachers and expose female students to female role models who have succeeded in life in order to encourage more participation of female students in mathematics. Schools are made responsible for smoothing out difficulties generated by the prevailing culture. There is a gap in knowledge base pertaining to the Zimbabwean rural girls’ participation in Mathematics.
Zagami, Jason; Boden, Marie; Keane, Therese; Moreton, Bronwyn; Schulz, Karsten
Computer education, with a focus on Computer Science, has become a core subject in the Australian Curriculum and the focus of national innovation initiatives. Equal participation by girls, however, remains unlikely based on their engagement with computing in recent decades. In seeking to understand why this may be the case, a Delphi consensus…
Full Text Available Throughout the world, religiously-oriented conservative political movements are well known for their defence of ‘traditional models’ in terms of both family conception and gender roles. Therefore, one should expect to find a limited social and political mobilization of women within them as well as in right-wing religiously conservative parties. However, many significant movements have built strong female branches in which militants usually perform roles apparently contradicting the religious conservative ideologies the movements support. This paper will show these dynamics in three case studies: the US Christian Right in the USA, the Hindu national religious movement (sangh parivar in India, and the Islamist movement in Turkey. Its final section will compare the three cases, trying to find common patterns and to understand the reasons behind this apparent paradox.
Roberson, N L
Racial/ethnic groups' participation in clinical trials is a relatively new area of research that warrants attention. Although racial/ethnic groups have been included in experimental studies since the 1940s, they were not included in significant numbers in clinical trials for cancer. Clinical trials play a dominant role in clinical oncology. Despite this state-of-the-art cancer treatment, however, there is mounting concern that this scientific progress is not being shared equitably by all segments of the U.S. population. There is underrepresentation of members of racial/ethnic groups in cancer clinical trials, which suggests that participation may be a critical issue. Unfortunately, little is known or documented about these groups' participation in clinical trials. This paper discusses racial/ethnic groups' views and opinions about clinical trial participation. Diagnostic research was conducted as a beginning phase to investigate this new area of research. African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans in three Buffalo, New York, communities were selected as study subjects. Data were collected via telephone surveys. Qualitative methods were employed for data analysis and reporting. Findings showed that study subjects knew little about cancer clinical trials and basically had no opportunity to participate. They believed that participation in clinical trials could be beneficial. In each of the three groups, however, there were cultural factors believed to influence participation. A primary concern was "mistrust of white people" and the feeling of being treated like "guinea pigs." Based on study findings, it was evident that recruitment for improving participation requires strategic planning that involves participants representative of the study population. To yield results, the plan should be tailored to the target group, presented as a credible study, designed to reflect trust in the medical care team, and implemented through a continuous educational process.
van Uden-Kraan, C. F.; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, E; Seydel, E. R.; van de Laar, Mart A F J
Objective: Although much has been expected of the empowering effect of taking part in online patient support groups, there is no direct evidence thus far for the effects of participation on patient empowerment. Hence our exploring to what extent patients feel empowered by their participation in
Murphy, Brooke; Dionigi, Rylee A.; Litchfield, Chelsea
We argue that gender issues in physical education (PE) remain in some schools, despite advances in PE research and curricula aimed at engaging females in PE. We interviewed five Australian PE teachers (1 male and 4 females) at a co-educational, regional high school about the factors affecting female participation in PE and the strategies they used…
Cornick, Shayla L.
Experiences that females have during middle and high school have been found to influence the perceptions that they have of their ability to be successful as an engineer and the value that they place on participating in engineering education. Engineering education continues to suffer from a lack of female participation. Several efforts have been…
Gidman, Wendy; Day, Jennie; Hassell, Karen; Payne, Katherine
Recent UK government policy has placed community pharmacists at the frontline of health care delivery in order to improve patient access. Community pharmacy has been beset by recruitment and retention problems which potentially threaten health service delivery. This is largely a consequence of an increased demand for pharmacists. Additionally, the proportion of female pharmacists in the profession has risen. Consequently, interrupted career patterns and part-time working practices have increased, shrinking the pool of available workers. This study aimed to examine the importance of factors influencing female community pharmacists' work patterns. Q methodology was used in a sample of 40 female UK-based community pharmacists. Nine distinct factors emerged from a factor analysis of Q sorts: fulfilled pharmacists; family first or pharmacy shelved; low stress altruist; permanent part-time employees; focused on free time and finances; pressurized modernizers; wandering wage slaves; overloaded and under resourced for the new contract; and pin money part-timers. Female community pharmacists often worked below their potential and part-time at a practitioner level in response to a combination of domestic commitments and intensifying work place pressures. Family-friendly flexible work environments, adequate staffing levels and improved management support, might be more effective in increasing workforce participation than enhanced salary levels in this group of workers.
Idrees, Z.; Zakir, U.; Khushdil, A.; Shehzadi, H.
To assess the knowledge of osteoporosis and evaluation of the practice of osteoporosis preventive measures, among females of reproductive age group. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was undertaken from September 2015 to February 2016 on 174 females (age range 15-49 years) from Military Hospital and Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan through non- probability convenient sampling. Females with any metabolic, muscular or diagnosed bone disease were excluded from the study. The self -administered questionnaire consisted of questions regarding basic demographics, knowledge and practice of preventive factors related to osteoporosis. Result: Majority (86.8%) females knew about osteoporosis. 80% considered major risk factor to be low calcium intake. Regarding practices, 44.3% of women practiced daily intake of milk in their diet, 69.5 % females practiced physical activity like walking on daily basis and 65.5% have direct exposure of sunlight but only 12.1% of women used calcium supplements. Conclusion: The study revealed that majority of the women knew about osteoporosis and its risk factors but many of them were not practicing appropriate lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease their risk of osteoporosis. Thus, there is a need of standardized approach to promote healthy behaviors to decrease the risk of osteoporosis before menopause. (author)
In Hungary large numbers of women began to perform paid work outside the household from the 1960s on. Among women 15-54 years old the proportion engaged in income-producing activity in the 1930s was 30.8%, almost 50% in 1960, over 70% in 1980 (vs. 87.4% for men). In Hungary women in the early reproductive years have a low employment level, but once their children are kindergarten age their employment level approximates that of men. In 1990 there were 360,000 children 0-5 years old who did not attend child care centers or kindergartens, presumably they were taken care of at home. The increasing trend of female employment is one of the most direct causes of the decline of fertility. The number of children also affects the employment of women. In the United Kingdom twice as many women under the age of 34 with 1 or 2 children work than in France; 37% of mothers with children 0-4 years old and 53% with children 5-9 years old are employed. In Sweden 90% of mothers 35-44 years old with children 0-6 years old and 95% of them with children 7-16 years old are employed. In the United States 48.7% of mothers with children under the age of 6 are employed vs. 62.1% of mothers with children 6-17 years old. Maternity leave of several weeks or months is common in Europe. In a number of industrialized countries and also in Hungary the working and lactating mother gets favorable working hours, increased vacation, and sick leave for caring for sick children. In Hungary child care centers for children under 3 are operating in only 1300 settlements out of 3300 settlements. Similarly, in most western European countries only 2-6% of these children could be accommodated during 1986-89 except for Denmark (48%), Belgium (20%), and France (20%). The situation was much better for children over 3, where the average was 60%. In 1988 part-time work among women with children 0-6 years years old ranged from 10.3 to 57.7% in 11 European countries, but the loss of income and career opportunities are
Seguin, Rebecca A; Heidkamp-Young, Eleanor; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E
Strength training (ST) is an important health behavior for aging women; it helps maintain strength and function and reduces risk for chronic diseases. This study assessed change in physical fitness following participation in a ST program implemented and evaluated by community leaders. The StrongWomen Program is a nationally disseminated, research-based, community ST program active in 40 states. The Senior Fitness Test is used to assess upper and lower body strength, upper and lower body flexibility, aerobic fitness, and agility; data are collected prior to and following program participation. For these analyses, five states provided deidentified data for 367 female participants, mean age 63 (±11) years. Attendance in approximately 10 weeks of twice-weekly classes was 69.4%. Paired t tests were used to analyze pre-post change. Significant improvements were observed (p age-group and compared with published, age-based norms. This study demonstrates that it is feasible for community leaders to conduct pre-post physical fitness evaluations with participants and that participants experienced improvements across several important domains of physical fitness.
Pronyk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Abramsky, Tanya; Phetla, Godfrey; Hargreaves, James R; Morison, Linda A; Watts, Charlotte; Busza, Joanna; Porter, John Dh
To assess effects of a combined microfinance and training intervention on HIV risk behavior among young female participants in rural South Africa. : Secondary analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from a cluster randomized trial, the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity study. Eight villages were pair-matched and randomly allocated to receive the intervention. At baseline and after 2 years, HIV risk behavior was assessed among female participants aged 14-35 years. Their responses were compared with women of the same age and poverty group from control villages. Intervention effects were calculated using adjusted risk ratios employing village level summaries. Qualitative data collected during the study explored participants' responses to the intervention including HIV risk behavior. After 2 years of follow-up, when compared with controls, young participants had higher levels of HIV-related communication (adjusted risk ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.12), were more likely to have accessed voluntary counseling and testing (adjusted risk ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.56), and less likely to have had unprotected sex at last intercourse with a nonspousal partner (adjusted risk ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.96). Qualitative data suggest a greater acceptance of intrahousehold communication about HIV and sexuality. Although women noted challenges associated with acceptance of condoms by men, increased confidence and skills associated with participation in the intervention supported their introduction in sexual relationships. In addition to impacts on economic well being, women's empowerment and intimate partner violence, interventions addressing the economic and social vulnerability of women may contribute to reductions in HIV risk behavior.
de Bruin, A.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Bakker, F.C.
Objectives: To examine the relationship between dieting behavior and body image in female aesthetic athletes. Methods: Seventeen elite gymnasts, 51 non-elite gymnasts and a control group of 85 schoolgirls, participating in non-elite, merely recreational non-aesthetic sports, completed self-report
Effective mentorship, due to the developmental nature of the experience, hinges upon the people involved--specifically, the personal characteristics of the mentoring collaborators. In this paper, the author explored requisite participant characteristics for peer group mentoring. One dozen executive-level professional women shared their…
Group psychotherapy was used with socio-economically deprived adolescents whose capacity for self-expression was promising. Non-psychotic acting out characters and passive inadequate personalities participated, and discussion, role playing, and psychodrama were the techniques utilized. After one year the following changes were seen: (1) increased…
Tunås, Paula; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among female elite football and handball players to a matched non-professional active control group. The participants were requested to answer a questionnaire based on standardized Nordic questionnaires for musculoskeletal symptoms to assess the prevalence of LBP. Included participants were elite female football (n = 277) and handball players (n = 190), and a randomly selected control group from the Norwegian population (n = 167). Fifty-seven percentage of the football players, 59 % of the handball players and 60 % of the control group had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no significant group differences in the prevalence of LBP ever (p = 0.62), the previous year (p = 0.85) or the previous 7 days (p = 0.63). For both sports, there was a significant increase in prevalence of LBP from the resting period to the competitive periods of the season (p ≤ 0.001). Seventy percent of the goalkeepers in both football and handball had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no difference in LBP among female elite football and handball players compared with the control group. However, female elite athletes in football and handball reported a high prevalence of LBP compared to previous studies. The variations in LBP and playing positions indicate that specific field positions, in football and handball, is a risk factor for developing LBP.
Virginia A Fonner
Full Text Available Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317. Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90 and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03 and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51, and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91. Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.
Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan
Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36–4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13–3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125
Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan
Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.
Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple Sclerosis is one of the most important and prevalent central nervous system diseases, causing disorders such as depression among affected patients. Positive psychotherapy is also a new approach that can be effective in reducing the depression of these people. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of group positive psychotherapy for decreasing the depression among females affected by Multiple Sclerosis. Methods: A samples of 30 females affected by Multiple Sclerosis with mild to moderate depression were participated, and were divided into two groups, intervention and control. Both groups completed Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II at the beginning, he intervention group received six sessions of positive psychotherapy. After the intervention both group completed the questionnaire again. Data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: The result demonstrated that, the decline of depression was more in the intervention group than the control group. Moreover in the intervention group than control group, there was obtained significant reduction in both sub-scales of Beck Depression Inventory II. Discussion: Results of this study indicated that group positive psychotherapy is effective in reducing the depression of females affected by Multiple Sclerosis. This treatment can be widely used in the caring centers for treatment of people affected by Multiple Sclerosis and this can be justified because of its low cost and good efficiency.
Full Text Available Intramural programs provide competition and recreation during the academic year for the diverse college populations of faculty, staff, and currently enrolled students and their spouses/partners who do not participate in other organized sports on campus. Sport psychologists, physical activity leaders, and others have shown an increased interest in the psychological factors that motivate college students to consume sport and physical activity (Rickel, Stoll, &Beller, 2005, 2006; Harkema, Dieser, Lankford, & Scholl, 2006; Yue-de, Wen-hao, & Ying-chun, 2009. Little research has been done with regard to the motivational factors affecting individuals’ decisions about participating specifically in intramural sports such as flag football, basketball, and soccer, etc. The purpose of this study was to independently test the measurement model of the Participant Motivations Questionnaire (PMQ assumed to underlie the motivational factors of the intramural sport participation by male and female college students. In addition, this study also examined whether or not PMQ was valid for the intramural sport participants in a northwestern university of the USA. Based on the results of the CFA, the one-factor model does fit both male and female college students. However, the factor loadings are not equivalent across the two groups. In summary, it is noted that the regenerated 24-item PMQ for the intramural sport participants is unequally valid for the current subjects of male and female college students.
Klasen, S.; Pieters, J.
Female labor force participation rates in urban India between 1987 and 2011 are surprisingly low and have stagnated since the late 1980s. Despite rising growth, fertility decline, and rising wage and education levels, married women's labor force participation hovered around 18 percent. Analysis of
Izumi, Betty T; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A; Sand, Sharon L; Reyes, Angela G; Hoston, Bernadine; Richardson, Dawn; Gamboa, Cindy; Rowe, Zachary; Diaz, Goya
Less than half of all U.S. adults meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Leader behaviors and group cohesion have been associated with increased participation or adherence in sports team and exercise class settings. Physical activity interventions in community settings that encompass these factors may enhance intervention adherence. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of Community Health Promoter leader behaviors and group cohesion on participation in a walking group intervention among racially/ethnically diverse adults in low to moderate-income communities in Detroit, Michigan. Data for the current study were drawn from the Walk Your Heart to Health (WYHH) data set. WYHH was a multisite cluster RCT with a lagged intervention and outcome measurements at baseline and 4, 8, and 32 weeks. Pooled survey data from both intervention arms were used for the current study. Data were analyzed between August 2013 and October 2014. A total of 603 non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic adults across five cohorts that began the 32-week WYHH intervention between March 2009 and October 2011. The intervention was a 32-week walking group program hosted by community- and faith-based organizations and facilitated by Community Health Promoters. Walking groups met three times per week for 90 minutes per session. To promote participation in or adherence to WYHH, Community Health Promoters used evidence-based strategies to facilitate group cohesion. Group members assumed increasing leadership responsibility for facilitating sessions over time. Participation in WYHH as measured by consistency of attendance. Community Health Promoter leader behaviors were positively associated with participation in WYHH. Social but not task cohesion was significantly associated with consistent participation. Social cohesion may mediate the relationship between leader behaviors and walking group participation. Providing leaders with training to build socially cohesive groups
Mantsios, Andrea; Galai, Noya; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Shembilu, Catherine; Mwampashi, Ard; Beckham, S W; Leddy, Anna; Davis, Wendy; Sherman, Susan; Kennedy, Caitlin; Kerrigan, Deanna
This study assessed the association between community savings group participation and consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers (FSW) in Iringa, Tanzania. Using cross-sectional data from a survey of venue-based FSW (n = 496), logistic regression was used to examine the associations between financial indicators including community savings group participation and CCU. Over one-third (35%) of the women participated in a savings group. Multivariable regression results indicated that participating in a savings group was significantly associated with nearly two times greater odds of CCU with new clients in the last 30 days (aOR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.10-2.86). Exploratory mediation analysis indicated that the relationship between savings group participation and CCU was partially mediated by financial security, as measured by monthly income. Findings indicate that community savings groups may play an important role in reducing sexual risk behaviors of FSW and hold promise as part of comprehensive, community-led HIV prevention strategies among FSW.
A statistical analysis of enrollment in AP maths and sciences in the Abilene Independent School District, between 2000 and 2005, studied the relationship between gender, enrollment, and performance. Data suggested that mid-scoring females were less likely than their male counterparts to enroll in AP-level courses. AISD showed higher female : male score ratios than national and state averages but no improvement in enrollment comparisons. Several programs are suggested to improve both participation and performance of females in upper-level math and science courses.
Seven, Memnun; Bahar, Mine; Akyüz, Aygül; Erdoğan, Hatice
The workplace has been deemed a suitable location for educating many women at once about cancer screening. To determine how group education about early diagnostic methods for breast and cervical cancer effects women's behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. This semi-interventional study was conducted at a textile factory in Istanbul, Turkey. Female workers (n= 125) were included in the study. A participant identification form and knowledge evaluation form developed for this study, along with the transtheoretical model, were used to collect data. A 45-min interactive group education was given to the participants. Upon contacting participants 3 months after group education, 15.4% (n = 11) stated that they had since received a mammogram and 9.8% (n = 7) a Pap smear. As suggested by the transtheoretical model, group education increased participants' readiness to receive cancer screening, along with their knowledge of breast and cervical cancer. Group education positively impacted women's knowledge of cancer and their readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. Group education can potentially create awareness of cancer screening tests among women and improve their readiness to receive such tests.
Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene
Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.
Rodgers G; Viry D
ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper analysing woman worker labour force participation trends in Peru based on a world fertility survey - examines female wages employment, unpaid work, occupational structure, labour supply determinants such as population variables (incl. Family structure, marital status, age, internal migration and educational level), husband's characteristics, etc., in rural areas and urban areas, with a view to estimating participation economic models. References.
Aromolaran, Adebayo B.
Economists have argued that increasing female schooling positively influences the labor supply of married women by inducing a faster rise in market productivity relative to non-market productivity. I use the Nigerian Labor Force Survey to investigate how own and husband's schooling affect women's labor market participation. I find that additional years of postsecondary education increases wage market participation probability by as much as 15.2%. A marginal increase in primary schooling has n...
Urogenital sinus in females (ectopia of the external urethral opening in the urogenital sinus). All the variants of female hypospadias must be surgically corrected as transposition of the external opening of the urethra from the vagina on the perineum under the clitoris in chronic urethritis. The second case mentioned above.
Lisiane Caroline Rodrigues Hermes
Full Text Available Sports marketing is in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA a strategic potential, either through the promotion and implementation of events or the interested in sports. Thus, the management of the sports event planning becomes strategic to measure it considers the participation of female athletes in MMA events. This study aims to analyze the participation of females in MMA events, highlighting the perception of the fighters on the current business scenario in this segment. The method is configured as an exploratory and descriptive research with a qualitative approach, where there is information content analysis obtained through an open questionnaire. The results showed that the MMA product planning females is working strategically towards attracting viewers and brand awareness. In addition, further notes to male dominance in this type of sport, emphasizing gender issues related to compensation of the athletes and their occupation. However, it is clear that athletes even challenged by this scenario, remain convinced of their choices by segment.
Liu, An; Noback, Inge
The paper analyses the determinants of female labour participation. Structural equation modelling is used to handle theoretical concepts and to solve the typical problem of multicollinearity. The proposed methodology is applied to a dataset for the year 2002 made up of a sample of 278 municipalities
Hovey, Kate; Foland, Jody; Foley, John T.; Kniffin, Mike; Bailey, JoEllen
Body image is an ever-changing phenomenon that has a profound effect on women's quality of life. Research related to body image is expansive, but few researchers have focused on how outdoor education may influence body image. This study examines predictors of change in body image of female participants of an outdoor education program. Twenty-eight…
Thomas, Justin; Quadflieg, Susanne; O'Hara, Lily
Studies exploring the relationship between acculturation and eating disorders symptoms have proven equivocal. Socially desirable responding associated with the use of explicit measures may account for these mixed findings. This study explores the relationship between in-group identity, acculturation and eating disorders symptoms using both implicit and explicit assessments. Emirati female college students (N=94) completed an affective priming task (APT) designed to implicitly assess Emirati in-group evaluations. Participants also completed explicit measures, including the Westernization Survey and the Multicomponent In-group Identification Scale. Eating disorders symptoms were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test. Only implicit in-group evaluations were correlated with eating disorders symptoms. Specifically, increases in in-group preference were associated with lower levels of eating disorders symptomatology. Furthermore, participants with an actual out-group preference had significantly higher levels of eating disorders symptomatology compared with those demonstrating an in-group preference. These findings support the acculturative stress hypothesis, and suggest that the relationship between eating disorders and acculturation may be better understood with reference to implicit rather than explicit in-group evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.
We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at
Bayissa, F.W.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Ruben, R.
A lottery choice task was conducted to examine the risk attitudes of 352 Ethiopian women who were members of 72 female workgroups in the spices processing business in Addis Ababa. The women were asked to make risk choices on their own, and the same choices together with the other members of their
Alley, Thomas R; Hicks, Catherine M
This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in one of three sports. A total of 12 different descriptive paragraphs were used in a 2 (race) x 2 (sex) x 3 (sport) design. Each of these paragraphs, although short, ascribed a variety of traits that could be seen by raters as the independent variables: name (initials only), age, race, gender, hours of practice per week, number of competitions/performances per year, sport, and self-confidence. For this reason, raters were highly unlikely to surmise that sex and sport were the primary independent variables in the study. As predicted, there was a consistent decrease in rated femininity and increase in masculinity for both male and female adolescent targets as they switched from participating in a "feminine" (ballet) to a neutral (tennis) to a "masculine" (karate) sport. These results suggest that sex stereotypes for certain sports may influence who elects to participate and how participants are viewed by others.
Reed, Elizabeth; Fisher, Celia B; Blankenship, Kim M; West, Brooke S; Khoshnood, Kaveh
The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the motivation for and perceived voluntariness of participation in non-intervention HIV research among female sex workers (FSW) in India. FSW (n = 30) who participated in non-intervention HIV studies in the previous three years were recruited from a local community-based organization. Semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on women's personal and economic motivations for participation and their perceptions of the informed consent process. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated, transcribed, and reviewed for common themes. Content analysis indicated that while many women reported willing participation, reports of obligatory participation were also a common theme. Obligations included money-related pressures and coercion by other FSW, social pressures, not wanting to disappoint the researchers, and perceiving that they had a contractual agreement to complete participation as a result of signing the consent form. Findings suggest a need for additional efforts during and following informed consent to prevent obligatory participation in HIV research studies among FSW. Findings emphasize the importance of integrating ongoing participant feedback into research ethics practices to identify issues not well addressed via standard ethics protocols when conducting HIV research among vulnerable populations.
Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Keune, M.; Steinmetz, S.
In this article, we investigate the effects of economic conditions, families, education, and gender ideologies on the labor force participation rates of women in eleven age groups in 117 countries. We find that participation rates of young and older women are partly explained by sector sizes and the
Brodersen, Søsser; Eghoff, Christian; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard
This paper analyses the shaping of citizens’ efforts to influence the environmental conditions in the local community based on a case study with a community-based organisation (CBO), whom is active in a South African township. The aim of the paper is - To show how this type of participation can...... to the concept of ‘participation’ we see such efforts of citizens as participation in the shaping of the local environment in the township. That is, we are not only focusing on the participation in well-defined projects, hearings etc., but also in the shaping of what is seen as problems and what is seen...... as solutions in relation to the environmental conditions. We are of course also interested in formal procedures for participation, but see such procedures (or lack hereof) just as one of the structures involved in the shaping of the efforts of the citizens....
Forslund Frykedal, Karin; Hammar Chiriac, Eva
Group work is an educational mode that promotes learning and socialisation among students. In this study, we focused on the inclusive processes when students work in small groups. The aim was to investigate and describe students' inclusive and collaborative processes in group work and how the teacher supported or impeded these transactions. Social…
. This article offers a moral perspective on group work by introducing a concept of ‘learning rights’ of the individual in group work. The aim of the paper is theoretically to offer a vocabulary concerning ‘learning rights’ of the individual in group work by applying John Dewey’s metaphor ‘the spectator versus...
Gargari, B P; Khadem-Haghighian, M; Taklifi, E; Hamed-Behzad, M; Shahraki, M
Today, women's participation in sports has substantially increased. This growth has been accompanied by concerns about health risks, as eating disorders, and psychological features, as self-esteem (SE) and social physique anxiety (SPA). The purpose of this study was to determine disordered eating attitudes and their relation to SE, SPA, as well as body weight, and body mass index (BMI), in Iranian females who participate in fitness programs. Subjects were 250 females, aged 14-51 years, who participated in fitness programs. Eating attitude test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg's self esteem scale (RSES), and social physique anxiety scale (SPAS), were used. Body weight and height were measured, and then Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. According to BMI cut-offs, 36% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28.4% and 19.6% of subjects were disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26>or=20) and low self-esteem (RSES<15), respectively. Disordered eating attitude subjects had lower SE and higher SPA, body weight and BMI than normal subjects (P<0.05). The low SE group had higher SPAS than normal one (P<0.02). In bivariate analysis, EAT-26 score was correlated negatively with RSES (r=-0.13, P<0.04) and positively with body weight, BMI, and SPAS (r=0.40, 0.42, and 0.47, respectively, P<0.001). SPAS had positive correlation with body weight and BMI (r=0.22, 0.19, It can be concluded that disordered eating attitudes are prevalent among Iranian females who participate in fitness programs. In this group, high SPA, body weight and BMI, and low SE accompany disordered eating attitudes.
Pumphrey, Karyn Christine
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) professionals are responsible for the development of new technologies and breaking scientific discoveries. However, in the United States, racial minorities and females are vastly underrepresented in STEM professions. This problem is multiplied for individuals falling into both categories. Educators in must develop effective strategies to increase the number of minority females in STEM jobs. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate if there was a difference in attitudes about future STEM educational choices and career opportunities after participation in a theme-based STEM event. The significant points reflected in the literature are statistics that demonstrate the extreme underrepresentation of this population and the importance of having all segments of the population represented in these important jobs. A descriptive non-experimental design study utilizing survey data taken before and after a STEM day at a public school was employed. The analysis tool was the Hopes and Goals Survey which has been found valid and reliable with similar samples of students. The data sets were pre-event and post-event surveys from minority females in grades 3, 4, and 5. The two data sets were compared using descriptive statistics to investigate any differences in opinions before and after the event. The results showed a difference in minority female student's attitudes regarding future STEM educational opportunities and careers after participation in a theme-based STEM event. The results indicate a need for increasing the number of STEM events in public schools. Future research may explore the differences between the opinion changes of males versus females to ascertain which gender responded most positively to STEM day.
Miller, Scott T.
A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…
Chikuvadze, Pinias; Matswetu, Vimbai Sharon; Mugijima, Samuel
This study sought to explore female lecturers' participation in civil engineering research and development activities at one polytechnic in Zimbabwe. Case study design was chosen for this study to make predictions, narration of events, comparisons and drawing of conclusions. The female lecturers were purposively sampled to participate in the…
Dr. Hassan Bahrololoum
This study aims at studying the relationship between happiness and emotional intelligence among female students participating in the 10th Sport Olympiad of Iranian universities held in Semnan province. To do this survey, 302 female students were randomly selected from the total population of female students participating in the 10th sport Olympiad of Iranian Universities. To collect data, the study used three standardized questionnaires: Oxford's Happiness Questionnaire; Brodberry's Emotional...
The study investigated the Zimbabwean female participation in physics, with special emphasis on the factors of identity formation considered as contributing to developing an orientation to physics by female students. The main study from which this paper was taken explored the influence of identity formation on the Zimbabwean Advanced Level…
Juliana Ravaschio Franco de Camargo
Full Text Available Studies on female co-authorship in the scientific production of various areas of knowledge are frequent in international scientific literature. However, this object of study has been little explored by Brazilian research in the field of Information Science. This article presents a contribution to this area by presenting the results of a research that investigated female co-authorship and the participation of women in the editorial staff of Brazilian scientific journals in the area of surgery published between 2010 and 2014. The corpus investigated consisted of 920 articles published in four scientific journals: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira (ACB, Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva (ABCD, Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular (RBCCV and Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões (RCBC. The bibliometric analysis is the methodological approach adopted and sample universe were 920 articles written by 5649 co-authors. Men appear as coauthors in 63.5% (n=585 of articles, while women show up as coauthors in 23.8% (219 of all articles. By investigating the gender of coauthorship in original and review articles, the results showed that women's participation is lower than men in both types and in all four journals. Observing the participation of women in editorial boards of the journals, the results revealed that in only one journal (ABCD the female presence is unique and exclusive. The study showed that gender inequality persists in terms of authorship, co-authorships, types of articles, and also on the editorial board, scientific committee and board of reviewers.
Brown, Donalee; Reyes, Sonia; Brown, Brienne; Gonzenbach, Meredith
Very few clinicians receive training in the treatment of sexual abuse, yet during their careers many will encounter victims of sexual abuse. This article discusses the incidence of child sexual abuse, defines incest, and discusses treatment options. A review of group treatment is explored, with results being documented providing support for the…
Kent E. Portney
Full Text Available Many cities across the United States have embraced programs aimed at achieving greater sustainability. This may seem surprising, particularly since adopting aggressive environmental protection programs is regarded by some as inimical to economic development. An alternative perspective is that in the modern city sustainability can be part of an economic development strategy. What is largely missing from the literature on sustainable cities’ policies and programs is systematic analysis of the political dynamics that seem to affect support for, and adoption and implementation of, local sustainability policies. To explore the actual behavior of cities with respect to sustainability and economic development policies, two original databases on 50 large U.S. cities are used. One source of data is composed of survey responses from city councilors, agency administrators, and leaders of local advocacy groups in each of these cities. The second database contains information as to what these 50 cities actually do in terms of sustainable programs and policies. In testing a series of hypotheses, findings suggest that: a high number of programs aimed at achieving sustainability is linked to the inclusion of environmental advocacy groups; that this relationship is not compromised by business advocacy; and that inclusion of environmental groups in policymaking seems to be supported, rather than impeded, by high rates of economic growth by the cities.
André, S.C.H.; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.
In this research we study support for traditional female roles. We test individual and contextual explanations for differences in support for traditional female roles within and across 32 countries. Higher educated, employed people and those who do not adhere to a religion are least supportive. The
André, S.C.H.; Gesthuizen, M.; Schepers, P.
In this research we study support for traditional female roles. We test individual and contextual explanations for differences in support for traditional female roles within and across 32 countries. Higher educated, employed people and those who do not adhere to a religion are least supportive. The
Full Text Available Many papers have been published related to the retention and advancement of women in sciences. Engineering geology is one of the professional areas where women have not yet broken the gender barrier. The research issues of this paper are focused on why female students “leak out” at the end of engineering geology studies, and what can be done to encourage them to complete their degrees with an engineering career in mind. The author has studied students’ preferences of the final year project required to complete their degree at the University of Salamanca (Salamanca, Spain. It has been found that most female students are choosing a more theoretical final project instead of a practical one relevant to professional employment, contrary to their male peers. Focus group meetings with the students showed that at the end of five years of engineering geology training, many female students, unsatisfied with the content of their courses, feel that their expectations had not been met. They often have preferences for traditional geology rather than applied branches of the subject. Also, they do not feel comfortable with future job prospects in the profession. From the findings of this research it is clear that tutoring and mentoring would be valuable from the beginning of studies to allow all students to become aware of the content and the potential outcomes of engineering geology studies. In the case of female students, it is particularly important for them to know from the very start that they are about to join what is still a man’s world but that they are capable of achieving just as much as men can in the profession. Most importantly, the involvement of more female engineers in professional engineering, including teaching duties, should serve as example and role models in students’ education and future careers.
Many papers have been published related to the retention and advancement of women in sciences. Engineering geology is one of the professional areas where women have not yet broken the gender barrier. The research issues of this paper are focused on why female students "leak out" at the end of engineering geology studies, and what can be done to encourage them to complete their degrees with an engineering career in mind. The author has studied students' preferences of the final year project required to complete their degree at the University of Salamanca (Salamanca, Spain). It has been found that most female students are choosing a more theoretical final project instead of a practical one relevant to professional employment, contrary to their male peers. Focus group meetings with the students showed that at the end of five years of engineering geology training, many female students, unsatisfied with the content of their courses, feel that their expectations had not been met. They often have preferences for traditional geology rather than applied branches of the subject. Also, they do not feel comfortable with future job prospects in the profession. From the findings of this research it is clear that tutoring and mentoring would be valuable from the beginning of studies to allow all students to become aware of the content and the potential outcomes of engineering geology studies. In the case of female students, it is particularly important for them to know from the very start that they are about to join what is still a man's world but that they are capable of achieving just as much as men can in the profession. Most importantly, the involvement of more female engineers in professional engineering, including teaching duties, should serve as example and role models in students' education and future careers.
Avasarala Atchuta Kameswararao
Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To study the risk factor profiles of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS among adolescent girls, housewives and working women and its socioeconomic and quality of life losses. 2 To undertake risk factor modifications using the adolescent girls. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional descriptive study followed by educational intervention. Statistical Methods: Cluster sampling, Proportions, confidence intervals, Chi square and t-Tests and Logistic regression. Materials and Methods: House to house survey was done in two villages and one urban ward. Seventy-five housewives, 75 working women and 180 adolescent girls were asked about the risk factors and losses due to LUTS. Three teams of adolescent girls were utilized to bring about behavioral modifications. Impact was measured through user perspectives obtained from the participants. Results: Risk factors, social, economic and quality of life losses were different among the three female populations. Overall prevalence of LUTS among the three groups is 61(18.5%. Improper anal washing technique, malnutrition, presence of vaginal discharge, use of unsanitary menstrual pads, pinworm infestation and use of bad toilets were the significant causes among girls. Presence of sexually transmitted diseases was a contributing factor among housewives and working women. Prolonged sitting the posture was also contributing to LUTS among working women. Seventy-four per cent of beneficiaries expressed that intervention is useful. Conclusions: The causes for LUTS and their consequences were differing among the three female subpopulations. Specific group level interventions using trained girls were successful.
O'Keefe, Eileen; Hogg, Christine
OBJECTIVES: To develop ways of reaching house-bound people and enabling them to give their views in planning and monitoring health and social care. STRATEGY: HealthLINK - a project based in a community health council - explored ways of involving older house-bound people in the London Borough of Camden, in planning and monitoring health and social care using community development techniques. RESULTS: HealthLINK set up an infrastructure to enable house-bound people to have access to information and to enable them to give their views. This resulted in access for health and local authorities to the views of house-bound older people and increased the self esteem and quality of life of those who became involved. CONCLUSIONS: Community development approaches that enable an infrastructure to be established may be an effective way of reaching marginalized communities. However, there are tensions in this approach between the different requirements for public involvement of statutory bodies and of users, and between representation of groups and listening to individual voices.
Sianou, Argiri; Galyfos, George; Moragianni, Dimitra; Baka, Stavroula
Patients with vaginitis were classified into four groups: Group A (prepubertal under-aged females); Group B (pubertal under-aged females); Group C (reproductive age adult females); Group D (postmenopausal adult females). All vaginal specimens underwent microscopy, amine testing, Gram staining and culturing. Overall, 163 patients were included (33, 14, 81 and 35 patients, respectively). The most common infection was bacterial vaginosis (BV), followed by Ureaplasma infection, aerobic vaginitis (AV) and candidiasis. The most common AV-associated organism was Escherichia coli and the most common BV-associated organism was Gardnerella vaginalis. AV was more frequent in Group A, BV in Group C and Ureaplasma infections in Groups C/D. Decreased lactobacilli concentrations were associated with BV in fertile patients (Groups B-C). Although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age in Greece, type and prevalence of pathogens differ. Normal vaginal flora changes are associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age groups. Impact Statement The worldwide incidence of reproductive tract infections has been increasing, with specific pathogens being associated with significant risk of morbidity and complications. However, literature data on the distribution of such infections in different age groups is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence and causes of vaginitis in adult and non-adult females of all ages. This study has shown that although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age groups and menstrual status in Greece, type and prevalence of responsible pathogens are different among groups. Changes in normal vaginal flora seem to be associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age-groups as well. These findings could contribute in adjusting diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for each age group according to the prevailing pathogens. Further research on antibiotic
Andrasik, Michele Peake; Yoon, Ro; Mooney, Jessica; Broder, Gail; Bolton, Marcus; Votto, Teress; Davis-Vogel, Annet
Observed seroincidence and prevalence rates in male-to-female (MTF) transgender individuals highlight the need for effective targeted HIV prevention strategies for this community. In order to develop an effective vaccine that can be used by transgender women, researchers must understand and address existing structural issues that present barriers to this group's participation in HIV vaccine clinical trials. Overcoming barriers to participation is important for ensuring HIV vaccine acceptability and efficacy for the MTF transgender community. To explore barriers and facilitators to MTF transgender participation in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials, the HIV Vaccine Trials Network conducted focus groups among transgender women in four urban areas (Atlanta, Boston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco). Barriers and facilitators to engagement of transgender women in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials led to the following recommendations: (a) transgender cultural competency training, (b) creating trans-friendly environments, (c) true partnerships with local trans-friendly organizations and health care providers, (d) protocols that focus on transgender specific issues, and (e) data collection and tracking of transgender individuals. These results have implications for the conduct of HIV vaccine trials, as well as engagement of transgender women in research programs in general.
Wanat, Carolyn L.
This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…
Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany
This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…
Jawed, Shireen; Atta, Komal; Tariq, Saba; Amir, Farah
To find out frequency of obesity in female University students in Faisalabad and to investigate its association with blood groups of ABO system. A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample size of 200 female University students, recruited from the Faisalabad based institutes from May 2017 to July 2017. Relevant information was taken by administering questionnaire. Height in meters and weight in kg were taken by stadiometer. BMI was calculated using formula BMI=weight in kg/height m 2 . Blood groups were determined by classic (antigen-antibody agglutination test). The data was analyzed through SPSS 20. Descriptive were presented as mean± SD and association of BMI with blood groups was assessed by regression analysis. P value ≤0.05 deemed statistically significant. Out of students, 192 attempted the questionnaire and participated in study (96% response rate), 30% of the 192 females were obese, distribution of ABO blood group showed 43%, followed by O, A and AB. 90% were Rh positive and 10% were Rh negative. Blood group O showed a trend towards obesity and blood group AB showed a trend towards lean body. The blood group O showed the significant positive association with obesity. Population with blood group O showed greatest susceptibility to be overweight and obese.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes teen birth rates for females by age group, race, and Hispanic origin in the United States since 1960. National data on births by Hispanic...
Zhu, Jin Liang; Vestergaard, Mogens; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar
OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) was used to examine pregnancy outcomes among female hairdressers and neurodevelopment in their offspring. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted of 550 hairdressers and 3216 shop assistants (reference group) by using data from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1997 and 2003. Information on job characteristics was reported by the women in the first interview (around 17 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linkage to the national registers. Developmental milestones were reported by the mother at the fourth......, gender ratio, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, congenital malformations, or achievement of developmental milestones among the children of hairdressers and shop assistants. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not indicate that children of hairdressers in Denmark currently have a high risk of fetal...
Richman, Erin L.; Shaffer, David R.
Investigated links between female precollege sport participation and college self-esteem. Students surveys indicated that participation in sports positively correlated with body image, perceived physical competencies, gender identity, global self-esteem, and other psychosocial variables, thus predicting college self-esteem. In the absence of such…
Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori
Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future
Full Text Available Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults' participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults.Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population-based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups.Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors.Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults' participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future longitudinal studies to elucidate
Rahul Pal, Pratik Kumar Chatterjee, Poulomi Chatterjee, Vinodini NA, PrasannaMithra, Sourjya Banerjee, Suman VB2, Sheila R. Pai
Full Text Available Aim: To find out the co-relation between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with blood group & diet in South Indian females, between the age-group of (20-30 years. Objectives: Correlative analysis of ABO & Rh system, dietary habits & alcohol consumption with PCOS. Materials & Methods: 100 patients between (20-30 years, diagnosed with PCOS were selected. A standard PCOS questionnaire was given. Blood group & dietary status data were collected. Patients were grouped according to ABO & Rh system considering their diet & alcohol intake (p≤0.05 significant. Result: Our data revealed that the highest risk of PCOS was observed in females with blood group ‘O’ positive followed by ‘B’ positive who were on mixed diet & used to consume alcohol. Our study also suggests that Rh negative individuals didn’t show any association with PCOS. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that ‘O’ positive females, are more prone to PCOS. Though the relative frequency of B positive individuals are more in India, females with blood group O positive are more susceptible to PCOS, contributing factors being mixed diet & alcohol intake. So, early screening of ‘O’ positive &‘B’ positive females of reproductive age-group in South-India, could be used as a measure for timely diagnosis of PCOS, better management &also prevention of complications. However, further research should be done to investigate the multifaceted mechanisms triggering these effects.
Baillot, Helen; Murray, Nina; Connelly, Elaine; Howard, Natasha
Public and policy attention to female genital mutilation (FGM) in diaspora communities has increased in Europe, but research remains limited and misinformation abounds. As a first step to addressing these issues, this study explored FGM prevention and response interventions in Europe, using a scoping literature review and key informant interviews. A scoping study design was selected, using Arksey and O'Malley's six-stage scoping framework to review identified sources. Key informant interviews were used to inform and add depth to literature findings. Findings were summarised thematically, guided by the Scottish Government's '4Ps' framework for tackling violence against women (i.e. participation, prevention, protection, providing services). Seventy literature sources, of 1095 screened, plus 16 individual and 3 group interview sources were included. Several countries have developed promising interventions supporting FGM resistance and recovery. However, gaps remain including community participation, professional knowledge and linkages, and evaluation of approaches. This scoping review is an initial attempt to describe available primary evidence on European initiatives responding to FGM. Further research is required to determine whether interventions are effective, while policy and practice development must be shaped and driven by the experiences, needs, and views of affected communities.
Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J
The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.
Lange, Christopher; Costley, Jamie; Han, Seung Lock
This study examines the effect of group work scaffolding on participation. The procedural scaffolding of two cooperative learning techniques, Numbered Heads Together and Think-Pair-Share, are compared based on levels of participation, learning, and satisfaction they elicit. Aspects of participation that are examined include levels of group…
Weckerly, F.; McFarland, K.; Ricca, M.; Meyer, K.
Intersexual social segregation at small spatial scales is prevalent in ruminants that are sexually dimorphic in body size. Explaining social segregation, however, from hypotheses of how intersexual size differences affects the foraging process of males and females has had mixed results. We studied whether body size influences on forage behavior, intersexual social incompatibility or both might influence social segregation in a population of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelt) that declined 40% over 5 y. Most males and females in the population occurred in the same forage patches, meadows, but occupied different parts of meadows and most groups were overwhelming comprised of one sex. The extent of segregation varied slightly with changing elk density. Cropping rate, our surrogate of forage ingestion, of males in mixed-sex groups differed from males in male-only groups at high, but not low, elk density. In a prior study of intersexual social interactions it was shown that females avoided groups containing ???6 males. Therefore, we predicted that females should avoid parts of meadows where groups of males ???6 were prevalent. Across the 5 y of study this prediction held because ???5% of all females were found in parts of meadows where median aggregation sizes of males were ???6. Social segregation was coupled to body size influences on forage ingestion at high density and social incompatibility was coupled to social segregation regardless of elk density.
The long-running REU-program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This longitudinal, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women in the field of astronomy. Stage-1 consisted of an ex post facto analysis of data collected over 8 years, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes. Four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, and an understanding of the "self." Analysis provided an initial theory that was used to design the Stage-2 interview protocol. In Stage-2, over 10 hours of interviews were conducted with 8 participants selected for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Results indicate that the REU provided a limited impact in terms of participants’ knowledge of professional astronomy as a largely computer-based endeavor. The REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, or other aspects of the "self,” were limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women began the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently associated with other mentors/scientist interactions, from middle school into the undergraduate years. Instructors and family members also served as crucial forces in shaping highly developed, stable science identities. Sustained relationships with mentors were particularly transformational. These findings motivate an ongoing research agenda
Helio Marconi Gerth
Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous strategies have been employed as a means to promote health to the older population. It is believed that information is the primary tool in achieving this goal. Therefore, we used the text “Active aging: a policy framework” as a reference point. Objective: To identify the social representation of a group of elderly women who underwent educational training regarding active aging and to assess their response to this methodological approach, in order to develop an actual educational program for the elderly for future use. Method: This training was performed during six meetings, realized twice a week for one hour each day, which utilized the popular education as the pedagogic theory. The group assessed in this study was composed of 10 elderly women, between 60 and 80 years of age, who attended a community exercise program offered by the city of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Data were obtained during individual semi-structured interviews. Since this trial consists of a transversal, exploratory, and qualitative study, data were organized and analyzed according to the theoretical reference discourse of collective subject, based on the theory of social representation and analysis of content. Results: The methodology was well accepted by the participants, who responded positively to the method and believed to have learned new information regarding the topics covered. New knowledge was constructed by exchanging ideas and experiences. The method favors networking, strengthens friendship bonds, stimulates physical activity, and promotes healthy habits. Conclusion: The methodology was appropriate for the population studied. Participants really enjoyed the program and recommend that other people attend it.
Smith, Laura J; Eichelberger, Tamara D; Kane, Edward J
In 2015-2016, over 214,000 female athletes competed at the collegiate level in the United States (U.S.). The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collects injury data; however, breast-related injuries do not have a specific reporting category. The exact sequelae of breast injury are unknown; however, a relationship between breast injury and fat necrosis, which mimics breast carcinoma, is documented outside of sports participation. Breast injuries related to motor vehicle collisions, seatbelt trauma, and blunt trauma have been reported. For these reasons, it is important to investigate female breast injuries in collegiate sports. The objectives of this study are to report the prevalence of self-reported breast injuries in female collegiate athletes, explore injury types and treatments, and investigate breast injury reporting and impact on sports participation. A cross-sectional study of female collegiate athletes at four U.S. universities participating in basketball, soccer, softball, or volleyball. Main outcome measure was a questionnaire regarding breast injuries during sports participation. Almost half of the 194 participants (47.9%) reported a breast injury during their collegiate career, less than 10% reported their injury to health personnel with 2.1% receiving treatment. Breast injuries reported by breast injuries reported by sport include softball (59.5%), basketball (48.8%), soccer (46.7%), and volleyball (34.6%). The long-term effects and sequelae of breast injuries reported by female collegiate athletes during sport play are unknown. Nearly 50% of participants had a breast injury during sports activities. Although 18.2% indicated that breast injury affected sports participation, only 9.6% of the injuries were reported to medical personnel with 2.1% receiving treatment.
Full Text Available Participatory processes have been widely promoted within the field of natural resource management as a method of supporting efficient resource use and, within these processes, much emphasis has been placed on gendered participation. In Kyrgyzstan, participation in irrigation management is organized through water-user associations (WUAs, a decentralized system of management commonly prescribed to increase equity and efficiency in water distribution. Women in Kyrgyzstan are active in irrigated agriculture particularly in light of changing demographics due to labor migration, yet they make up a small percentage of the members and leaders in these WUAs. This study draws upon interviews with WUA officials, village leaders, and female farmers in five communities in southern Kyrgyzstan to examine the determinants of female farmers’ participation in WUAs. We argue that female farmers are strategic in how they choose to irrigate outside of the WUAs as users or participate in WUAs as members or leaders, however their gender, age, and class limits their access to information about WUAs and inclusion in WUA activities. These findings suggest the need to reassess participatory processes in WUAs in order to increase female farmers’ inclusion in WUAs and demonstrates the complexity of gendered participation in natural resource management.
Slater, S. J.
The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the
Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Kohn, Jordan N; Barreiro, Luis B; Johnson, Zachary P; Wilson, Mark E; Tung, Jenny
Strong social relationships confer health and fitness benefits in a number of species, motivating the need to understand the processes through which they arise. In female cercopithecine primates, both kinship and dominance rank are thought to influence rates of affiliative behaviour and social partner preference. Teasing apart the relative importance of these factors has been challenging, however, as female kin often occupy similar positions in the dominance hierarchy. Here, we isolated the specific effects of rank on social relationships in female rhesus macaques by analysing grooming patterns in 18 social groups that did not contain close relatives, and in which dominance ranks were experimentally randomized. We found that grooming was asymmetrically directed towards higher-ranking females and that grooming bouts temporarily decreased the likelihood of aggression between grooming partners, supporting the idea that grooming is associated with social tolerance. Even in the absence of kin, females formed the strongest grooming relationships with females adjacent to them in rank, a pattern that was strongest for the highest-ranking females. Using simulations, we show that three rules for allocating grooming based on dominance rank recapitulated most of the relationships we observed. Finally, we evaluated whether a female's tendency to engage in grooming behaviour was stable across time and social setting. We found that one measure, the rate of grooming females provided to others (but not the rate of grooming females received), exhibited modest stability after accounting for the primary effect of dominance rank. Together, our findings indicate that dominance rank has strong effects on social relationships in the absence of kin, suggesting the importance of considering social status and social connectedness jointly when investigating their health and fitness consequences.
Fakih, Ali; Ghazalian, Pascal L.
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region falls behind several other geo-economic regions in terms of women's participation rates in the labour market. This paper examines the implications of firm-related and national factors for Female Labour Force Participation (FLFP) rates in manufacturing firms located in the MENA region. The empirical investigation uses data derived from the World Bank's Enterprise Surveys database and applies fractional logit models to carry out the estimations. Th...
T. van Elderen (Thérèse); D. Mutlu; J. Karstanje; J. Passchier (Jan); A. Tibben (Arend); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo)
textabstractBackground: Preconception carrier screening for hemoglobinopathies (HbPs) is debated in the Netherlands. Objectives: Intentions to participate in preconception carrier screening for HbPs as well as informed reproductive options were assessed in 109 Turkish female immigrants. Method:
Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Moore, Justin B.; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D.; Liu, Haiyong; Saelens, Brian E.
Objective: To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Analysis: The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time…
Tokuda, Marcos; Boubli, Jean P; Mourthé, Ítalo; Izar, Patrícia; Possamai, Carla B; Strier, Karen B
Although well documented in matrilocal primate species, group fission is still a poorly known phenomenon among patrilocal primates. In this paper we describe in detail a group fission event in the population of northern muriquis at the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural-Feliciano Miguel Abdala in Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using Social Network Analyses (SNA). Data on association patterns were collected during systematic observations from May 2002 to September 2005, and analyzed for dry (from May to October) and rainy seasons (from November to April). The fission process started with subgroup formation in the rainy season 2002-2003, and was completed by the dry season of 2003. By the dry season 2003, the parent group (Jaó) had fissioned to form a second mixed-sex group (Nadir) while a subgroup of males (MU) moved between the parent group and the newly established group. Before the Jaó group fission started (dry season 2002) and during its initial phases (rainy season 2002-2003), females that ultimately composed the daughter group (Nadir) were the most peripheral in the association network. In the rainy season 2002-2003, the median monthly (N=6) operational sex ratio (OSR) of Jaó group was 2.81. However, once Jaó females initiated the fissioning process to establish the Nadir group, the OSR was more favorable to males in the Nadir group than in the Jaó group. Our results suggest that males followed the females to escape an unfavorable OSR in their natal group. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot
This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…
Jawed, Shireen; Zia, Sadaf; Tariq, Sundus
To determine the frequency of different blood groups among female medical students and to find the association of blood groups and body mass index with blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was performed at the University Medical and Dental College, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from March to April 2016, and comprised female medical students. Participants were divided into groups on the basis of their ABO blood groups and on body mass index criteria. Blood groups were determined by simple conventional slide method. Blood pressure was estimated by manual auscultatory technique with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Data was analysed usingSPSS20. There were 145 students with an overall mean age of18.4±0.75 years (range: 17-23 years). Blood group B was the predominant group 65(44.8%). Besides, 130(89.6%) subjects were rhesus positive and 23(53%) subjects of blood group O were pre-hypertensive. Multiple regression analysis indicated significant positive association of blood group O with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.002, 0.001). However, subsequent logistic regression showed significant association only with diastolic blood pressure (p=0.001). Relative risk of pre-hypertension for obese (p=0.001) was greater than non-obese subjects. Body mass index was significantly associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.004, 0.042). Blood group B was the most common blood group. Blood group O was associated with diastolic pre-hypertension, while body mass index was associated with both systolic and diastolic pre-hypertension.
Hamnes, Bente; Rønningen, Aud; Skarbø, Åse
The present study aimed to explore the experiences of individuals with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) who had participated in return-to-work group programmes (RTW-GPs) and to assess whether the programmes had had an impact on their work disability. Three focus group interviews and one individual interview were conducted involving 17 women (mean age = 47) with MSDs who had completed RTW-GPs. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analyses. Participant experiences were categorised into three main themes: changed way of thinking, the importance of being able to work, and a changed lifestyle. The respondents said that participation in the RTW-GPs had enabled them to shift their focus from problems to opportunities. They had become more aware of strategies to enhance their energy levels and continue working. Several participants had reduced their work hours to achieve a better balance between work and daily life. Many participants had also changed their lifestyle habits, which had led to weight reduction, more energy and less pain. The study participants had attained a heightened awareness of what they could do to continue working. Many participants had introduced changes in their daily lives, with consequences for employment, social life and lifestyle. The findings suggest that RTW-GPs can help people with MSDs to remain in employment and prevent absenteeism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stroebe, Katherine; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.
Compared to men, women less often attain high-level positions and generally have lower status in society. In smaller groups, the relative influence of men and women depends on gender composition, but research is inconclusive regarding the relation between gender composition and female influence.
Leinfelder, I.; Vries, Han de; Deleu, R.; Nelissen, M.
In a mixed-sex, captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) we investigated whether female grooming relationships are affected by their dominance ranks. Seyfarths  grooming for support model and Barrett et al.s  biological market model both predict that in primate
Bayissa, F.W.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Ruben, R.
We examine the relation between intra-group trust and monitoring in a patriarchal society, and how this relation affects workgroup performance. Data were collected from 352 women who were members of 72 female workgroups in Addis Ababa by means of field experiments and a survey. The data are analyzed
Goldenberg, Shira M.; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Fisher., Celia B.
This study explored perceived benefits and risks of participation in HIV research among 33 female sex workers in Tecun Uman, Guatemala. Stigma associated with sex work and HIV was a critical barrier to research participation. Key benefits of participation included access to HIV/STI prevention and testing, as well as positive and trusting relationships between sex workers and research teams. Control exerted by managers had mixed influences on perceived research risks and benefits. Results underscore the critical need for HIV investigators to develop population-tailored procedures to reduce stigma, engage managers, and reinforce trusting, reciprocal relationships between sex work communities and researchers. PMID:27840564
Rupert, Douglas J; Poehlman, Jon A; Hayes, Jennifer J; Ray, Sarah E; Moultrie, Rebecca R
Virtual focus groups-such as online chat and video groups-are increasingly promoted as qualitative research tools. Theoretically, virtual groups offer several advantages, including lower cost, faster recruitment, greater geographic diversity, enrollment of hard-to-reach populations, and reduced participant burden. However, no study has compared virtual and in-person focus groups on these metrics. To rigorously compare virtual and in-person focus groups on cost, recruitment, and participant logistics. We examined 3 focus group modes and instituted experimental controls to ensure a fair comparison. We conducted 6 1-hour focus groups in August 2014 using in-person (n=2), live chat (n=2), and video (n=2) modes with individuals who had type 2 diabetes (n=48 enrolled, n=39 completed). In planning groups, we solicited bids from 6 virtual platform vendors and 4 recruitment firms. We then selected 1 platform or facility per mode and a single recruitment firm across all modes. To minimize bias, the recruitment firm employed different recruiters by mode who were blinded to recruitment efforts for other modes. We tracked enrollment during a 2-week period. A single moderator conducted all groups using the same guide, which addressed the use of technology to communicate with health care providers. We conducted the groups at the same times of day on Monday to Wednesday during a single week. At the end of each group, participants completed a short survey. Virtual focus groups offered minimal cost savings compared with in-person groups (US $2000 per chat group vs US $2576 per in-person group vs US $2,750 per video group). Although virtual groups did not incur travel costs, they often had higher management fees and miscellaneous expenses (eg, participant webcams). Recruitment timing did not differ by mode, but show rates were higher for in-person groups (94% [15/16] in-person vs 81% [13/16] video vs 69% [11/16] chat). Virtual group participants were more geographically diverse (but
Groenewoud, Frank; Kingma, Sjouke A; Hammers, Martijn; Dugdale, Hannah L; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S; Komdeur, Jan
1.In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group ("subordinate between-group" dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal. 2.We aim to elucidate the adaptive significance of subordinate between-group dispersal by examining which factors promote such dispersal, whether subordinates gain improved ecological and social conditions by joining a non-natal group, and whether between-group dispersal results in increased lifetime reproductive success and survival. 3.Using a long-term dataset on the cooperatively-breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we investigated 4.how a suite of proximate factors (food availability, group composition, age and sex of focal individuals, population density) promote subordinate between-group dispersal by comparing such dispersers with subordinates that dispersed to a dominant position or became floaters. We then analysed whether subordinates that moved to a dominant or non-natal subordinate position, or became floaters, gained improved conditions relative to the natal territory, and compared fitness components between the three dispersal strategies. 5.We show that individuals that joined another group as non-natal subordinates were mainly female and that, similar to floating, between-group dispersal was associated with social and demographic factors that constrained dispersal to an independent breeding position. Between-group dispersal was not driven by improved ecological or social conditions in the new territory and did not result in higher survival. Instead, between-group dispersing females often became co
Participant responsibility in outdoor education programs is placed on a continuum from passenger status through participant and partner to practitioner. Corresponding leader roles are directive, coaching, supporting, and delegating. The disempowering effects of the passenger approach to risk management and the value of teaching a group to manage…
Nichols, Michelle; Newman, Susan; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell
African American adolescent females have the highest prevalence rates of obesity among those age 18 and under. The long-term health effects and associated comorbidities of obesity within this cohort threaten the health and well-being of a major section of the U.S. population. There is a need to understand the influence of parental support in reducing obesity related health disparities. Using a social ecological framework to explore parental influence on adolescent obesity interventions allows for greater insight into the complex and dynamic influences affecting the lives of African American adolescent females who are obese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This participant observation study of the first Gamblers Anonymous group in Israel is designed to show (1) the ways in which the group helps it members rehabilitate themselves, (2) the three stages through which they must go in order to ensure success, and (3) the reason why some participants fail to do so. The article concludes with a number of observations concerning the extent of gambling in Israel and the different ways that should be developed for dealing with the problem.
Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.
As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group
Dodge, Tonya; Jaccard, James
Compared sexual risk behavior of female athletes and nonathletes. Examined mediation, reverse mediation, spurious effects, and moderated causal models, using as potential mediators physical development, educational aspirations, self-esteem, attitudes toward pregnancy, involvement in a romantic relationship, age, ethnicity, and social class. Found…
Colker, Ruth; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Investigates self-esteem, psychological masculinity and femininity, and attitudes toward women of female athletes in an attempt to examine the validity of various stereotypes and to investigate potential subgroup distinctions based on sport played, level of commitment to athletics, and experience. (Author)
Faryal, U.; Hajra, B.; Saqib, J.; Rashid, S.; Hassan, M.; Ali, M.A.
Background: Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non-contraceptive users. Methods: A total of 300 women were selected in the study. This cross sectional study included three groups; Group-1 (control), group-2 (combined oral contraceptive users) and group-3 (injectable contraceptive users). History and examination of subjects were recorded on proforma. Levels of serum serotonin were measured using standard ELISA kits. Results were analysed by one way anova and a p-value 0.05 percentage was taken as significant, using SPSS 16.0. Results: The mean age of the patients in group-1 was 30.4±6.1 years, group-2 was 28.9±4.9 and in group-3 was 2.5±6.8 years. For subjects in group-1, group-2 and group 3 the mean±SD concentration of serum serotonin was 160.68±53.27 ng/dl, 227.3±63.98 ng/dl and 118.19±31.32 ng/dl. A significant (p=0.00) difference was seen among three groups, i.e., group-1, group-2 and group-3. After applying Post HOC Tukey HSD, there was statistically no significant difference between group-1 and group-2 (p=0.956). Difference was seen between group-2 and group-3 (p=0.00), it was also significant between group-3 and group-1 (p=0.00). Conclusion: It was concluded that hormonal contraceptives affect the levels of serum serotonin.Background: Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non
Logren, Aija; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana
This study examines how group members' questions shape member participation in health counselling and health education groups. The study applies conversation analytic principles as a method. The data consist of video-recorded health education lessons in secondary school and health counselling sessions for adults with a high risk of Type 2 diabetes. Group members' questions accomplish a temporary change in participatory roles. They are used to 1) request counselling, 2) do counselling or 3) challenge previous talk. They are usually treated as relevant and legitimate actions by the participants, but are occasionally interpreted as transitions outside the current action or topic. Group members' questions result in a shift from leader-driven to member-driven discussion. Thus they constitute a pivot point for detecting changes in participation in group interventions. Observing the occurrence of group members' questions helps group leaders to adjust their own actions accordingly and thus facilitate or guide group participation. Comparison of the type and frequency of members' questions is a way to detect different trajectories for delivering group interventions and can thus be used to develop methods for process evaluation of interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sripan, Patumrat; Sriplung, Hutcha; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Virani, Shama; Bilheem, Surichai; Chaisaengkhaum, Udomlak; Maneesai, Puttachart; Waisri, Narate; Hanpragopsuk, Chirapong; Tansiri, Panrada; Khamsan, Varunee; Poungsombat, Malisa; Mawoot, Aumnart; Chitapanarux, Imjai
Objectives: This study was conducted to determine incidence trends of female breast cancer according to age groups and to predict future change in Chiang Mai women through 2028. Method: Data were collected from all hospitals in Chiang Mai in northern Thailand, from 1989 through 2013, and used to investigate effects of age, year of diagnosis (period) and year of birth (cohort) on female breast cancer incidences using an age-period-cohort model. This model features geometric cut trends to predict change by young (<40 years), middle-aged (40-59) and elderly (≥60) age groups. Result: Of 5, 417 female breast cancer patients with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range: 43 to 59 years), 15%, 61% and 24% were young, middle-aged and elderly, respectively. Seventy nine percent of cancer cases in this study were detected at advanced stage. The trend in stage classification showed an increase in percentage of early stage and a decrease in metastatic cancers. Linear trends for cohort and period were not found in young females but were observed in middle-aged and elderly groups. Age-standardized rates (ASR) can be expected to remain stable around 6.8 per 100,000 women-years in young females. In the other age groups, the ASR trends were calculated to increase and reach peaks in 2024 of 120.2 and 138.2 per 100,000 women-years, respectively. Conclusion: Cohort effects or generation-specific effects, such as life style factors and the year of diagnosis (period) might have impacted on increased incidence in women aged over 40 years but not those under 40 years. A budget should be provided for treatment facilities and strategies to detect early stage cancers. The cost effectiveness of screening measures i.e. mammographic screening may need to be reconsidered for women age over 40 years. Creative Commons Attribution License
Sripan, Patumrat; Sriplung, Hutcha; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Virani, Shama; Bilheem, Surichai; Chaisaengkhaum, Udomlak; Maneesai, Puttachart; Waisri, Narate; Hanpragopsuk, Chirapong; Tansiri, Panrada; Khamsan, Varunee; Poungsombat, Malisa; Mawoot, Aumnart; Chitapanarux, Imjai
Objectives: This study was conducted to determine incidence trends of female breast cancer according to age groups and to predict future change in Chiang Mai women through 2028. Method: Data were collected from all hospitals in Chiang Mai in northern Thailand, from 1989 through 2013, and used to investigate effects of age, year of diagnosis (period) and year of birth (cohort) on female breast cancer incidences using an age-period-cohort model. This model features geometric cut trends to predict change by young (<40 years), middle-aged (40-59) and elderly (≥60) age groups. Result: Of 5, 417 female breast cancer patients with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range: 43 to 59 years), 15%, 61% and 24% were young, middle-aged and elderly, respectively. Seventy nine percent of cancer cases in this study were detected at advanced stage. The trend in stage classification showed an increase in percentage of early stage and a decrease in metastatic cancers. Linear trends for cohort and period were not found in young females but were observed in middle-aged and elderly groups. Age-standardized rates (ASR) can be expected to remain stable around 6.8 per 100,000 women-years in young females. In the other age groups, the ASR trends were calculated to increase and reach peaks in 2024 of 120.2 and 138.2 per 100,000 women-years, respectively. Conclusion: Cohort effects or generation-specific effects, such as life style factors and the year of diagnosis (period) might have impacted on increased incidence in women aged over 40 years but not those under 40 years. A budget should be provided for treatment facilities and strategies to detect early stage cancers. The cost effectiveness of screening measures i.e. mammographic screening may need to be reconsidered for women age over 40 years. PMID:28612595
Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that somatotype and success in sport and physical performance are positively related. Existing somatotype data on athletes are useful as guidelines for sport selection and choice of training appropriate to the enhancement of desired somatotype characteristics. Updated somatotype data from non-athlete reference groups complement comparative analysis applied in assessing the effects of the training process and selection. The aim of this study was to determine the somatotype of untrained girls studying at Warsaw University of Technology in 2011, in order to create a current reference group for comparison, and to investigate the difference in body build of female volleyball players compared with the non-athlete group. Twelve Second Division female volleyball players (age 21.6±1.5 years, body height 177.3±6.2 cm, body mass 71.0±6.5 kg, training experience 8.4±3.4 years and 150 female untrained students of the University of Technology in Warsaw (age 20.0±6.4 years, body height 166.5±6.4 cm, body mass 59.7±8.4 kg participated in a study carried out in 2011. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. The volleyball players were a little older and were significantly taller and heavier than female students (p<0.05. Significant differences between the groups were found in breadth of the elbow, breadth of the wrist, biacromial diameter, arm circumference and crus circumference (p<0.05. The mean somatotype of the volleyball players was 4.5-3.4-2.8. (4.5±1.0-3.4±1.2-2.8±1.3, whilst that of the untrained students was 5.1-3.6-2.8. (5.1±1.4-3.6±1.1-2.8±1.3; the groups did not differ significantly in somatotype. The groups were significantly different in body composition (F [kg] and LBM [kg], as estimated by BIA and anthropometric methods (p<0.05. No differences were observed between the groups in the skinfolds. Morphological characteristics of the female volleyball players depended on the competition level
Faryal, Uzma; Rashid, Shazia; Hajra, Bibi; Hassan, Mukhtiar; Saqib, Javeria; Ali, Muhammad Afaq
Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non-contraceptive users. A total of 300 women were selected in the study. This cross sectional study included three groups; Group-1 (control), group-2 (combined oral contraceptive users) and group-3 (injectable contraceptive users). History and examination of subjects were recorded on pro forma. Levels of serum serotonin were measured using standard ELISA kits. Results were analysed by one way ANOVA and a p-value 0.05% was taken as significant, using SPSS 16.0. The mean age of the patients in group-1 was 30.4 ± 6.1 years, group-2 was 28.9 ± 4.9 and in group-3 was 2.5 ± 6.8 years. For subjects in group-1, group-2 and group 3 the mean ± SD concentration of serum serotonin was 160.68 ± 53.27 ng/dl, 227.3 ± 63.98 ng/dl and 118.19 ± 31.32 ng/dl. A significant (p = 0.00) difference was seen among three groups, i.e., group-1, group-2 and group-3. After applying Post HOC Tukey's HSD, there was statistically no significant difference between group-1 and group-2 (p = 0.956). Difference was seen between group-2 and group-3 (p = 0.00), it was also significant between group-3 and group-1 (p = 0.00). It was concluded that hormonal contraceptives affect the levels of serum serotonin.
Moore, Theresa; Ting, Brigid; Rossiter-Thornton, Maria
This pilot study explored the experience of participating in a Therapeutic Touch practice group. A qualitative descriptive-exploratory method was used, involving 12 members of practice groups in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada. Analysis of the data using an extraction-synthesis process yielded four themes: (a) learning with others through sharing and hands-on experience is valued; (b) connecting with a network of supportive relationships that sustain self and Therapeutic Touch practice; (c) comfort-discomfort arising with self, others, or ideas; and (d) meaningful changes emerge while experiencing group energy and Therapeutic Touch. The findings expand current knowledge about the positive aspects of participating in practice groups and provide a beginning understanding of member discomfort, which had not been previously reported. This knowledge will be useful to Therapeutic Touch organizations, practice group leaders, and group members. It will also guide health care agencies and practitioners of other healing modalities who may be considering establishing practice groups.
Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin
Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…
Choi, Kyoung Mi; Protivnak, Jake J.
This research study used qualitative phenomenological methodology to explore counseling graduate students' experiences leading support groups for international students. Participants included 6 master's-level counseling students. The following 4 themes emerged to describe the counseling students' experience as group leaders: (a) individualistic…
ROMATOM, the Romanian Atomic Forum, participates in the activity of the following FORATOM working groups: Quality Management, Business Excellence, Accession Task Force, Radioactive Waste Management, Civil Liability and Law Aspects, Climatic Changes. Recently, Romania was invited to attend the working groups for Research and Development and Community Waste Management
Ahmadi, A; Enayatizadeh, N; Akbarzadeh, M; Asadi, S; Tabatabaee, S H R
Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world, affecting 20-50% of the world's population. It is estimated that 10 and 20% of male and female athletes are iron deficient, respectively. Iron deficiency has deleterious effects on the physical performance of athletes. It decreases aerobic capacity, increases heart rate and elongates the recovery time after exercise. In this cross-sectional study, 42 semi-professional female athletes who had been playing in basketball, volleyball and handball super league teams served as subjects. Data on socioeconomic and fertility status as well as the type of sport were obtained through a questionnaire. Nutritional data were gathered with a 3 day dietary recall. Total intake of calorie, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin C and B12 were also analyzed. In addition, ferritin and TIBC were measured and a CBC test was done for each subject. The results showed that the mean total calorie intake of women was 2049.79 +/- 735.12 kcal, where their iron intake was 22.33 +/- 9.24 mg day(-1). There was a significant difference between the iron intake of basketball and volleyball players (p = 0.036). Of our subjects, 33.33% had low ferritin levels (female athletes and therefore, their hematological indices such as ferritin level are below standard values.
Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane
PURPOSE: In this study, we identified the social and psychological characteristics of Danish cancer patients that determine use of the internet for support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited 230 cancer patients taking part in a public rehabilitation program to participate in an internet module...... observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...... comprising training in the retrieval of cancer-related information from the internet and self-support groups. Persons who were motivated to join the internet groups (N = 100; 47%) were compared with persons who chose not to participate (N = 111) on the basis of self-reported baseline questionnaire data...
Full Text Available Background: Recent findings from our research indicate that children participating in a creative afterschool program exhibit overall healthier lifestyle practices compared to the average US pediatric population. This observation led us to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity and lifestyle practices of their parents. Objective: To determine the strongest predictors of weight status for female parents whose children were participating in such creative afterschool program. Design: Surveyed subjects were parents of children who competed in the 2008 and 2009 Destination ImagiNation® Global Finals in Knoxville, Tennessee. A total of 4,608 children participated in data collection, with parental consent. For the combined 2 years, 1,118 parents, 87% of whom were females (n=1,032 completed online questionnaires, which were based on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and included self-reported height, weight, dietary intake, physical activity, and socioeconomic status. The majority of this population was white, and less than 5% were African American or Hispanic. Results: We report here results obtained for the female parents. Only 45.2% of these female parents were overweight/obese, compared to a national average of 64.1% reported by the National Health Nutrition Examination Surveys for 2007—2008. Furthermore, this population was significantly more physically active compared to national average. Most parents (76% had completed a college degree and reported high incomes. Parents with the lowest income were the most obese in this population. Finally, we found a significant association between parent and child weight status. Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that female parents of children who have healthy lifestyles were physically active, which likely accounts for the parents’ lower overweight/obesity rates. In addition to physical activity, income and percentage of calories from fat were all predictors of weight status.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social participation is known to predict longevity. However, little is known about the effect of social participation according to an individual’s position in civic groups. We evaluated the influence of social position on mortality, using data from a large cohort of Japanese older adults (the AGES cohort. Methods Of 14,804 individuals aged 65 years and older enrolled in the AGES, 14,286 individuals were followed up for approximately 5 years from 2003 to 2008. We performed inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW Cox proportional hazards regression with multiple imputation of missing values to compute hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality according to the individual’s position in the community organization(s to which they belonged. We examined participation in the following civic groups: neighborhood association/senior citizen club/fire-fighting team, religious group, political organization or group, industrial or trade association, volunteer group, citizen or consumer group, hobby group, and sports group or club. The values for IPTW were computed based on demographic variables, socioeconomic status, and self-reported medical condition. Results During 22,718 person-years of follow-up for regular members of community groups and 14,014 person-years of follow-up for participants in leadership positions, 479 deaths and 214 deaths were observed, respectively. Relative to regular members, crude HR for all-cause mortality for occupying leadership positions (e.g. president, manager, or having administrative roles was 0.72 (95 % CI:0.62–0.85. The IPTW-HR was 0.88 (95 % CI: 0.79–0.99 for participants occupying leadership positions. Conclusions Holding leadership positions in community organization(s may be more beneficial to health than being regular members.
Full Text Available The perpose of this stud was to determiine the effpyct of group rational emotive therapy on inefficient ideas of female high school students . Therfor 24 students were randomly selected and two therapy and control groups. The therapy group received 10 sessions of 90 minute therapy while the control groups did not receive any thing. The inefficient ideas quertomaire was administered to all subjects as the pre and post tests. The results of analysis of covariance showed that the mean total scores of the therapy group was significantly less on the following sub-scales : expectations (p=0/05 , excessive anxiety (p=0/04 , helplessness with change (p=0/05 , expecting others support (p=0/03 , and dependency (p=0/0001 .
Full Text Available Cross-group friendship is an important element in regard to reducing prejudice and increasing positive interracial interactions among young adults. In order to facilitate the formation of cross-group friendships, organized activity participation (e.g., community service and school-based extracurricular activities may provide an environment that supports positive cross-cultural interactions and contacts. The sample used for this study consisted of 601 college students. We tested whether participation in an organized activity contributes to the formation of cross-group friendships. The results of this study indicate that community service and school-based extracurricular activities significantly contribute to the formation of cross-group friendships among young adults. The findings also suggest that a variety of organized activities should be developed and implemented to facilitate cross-group friendships. We also discuss the practical implications of these findings.
Westine, Carl D.; Gullickson, Arlen R.; Wingate, Lori A.
It is widely known that women are generally underrepresented in STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). The National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program has persistently worked to reduce this disparity. For example, the 2000 solicitation specified "increasing the participation of…
Buus, Niels; Angel, Sanne; Traynor, Michael
Group-based clinical supervision is commonly offered as a stress-reducing intervention in psychiatric settings, but nurses often feel ambivalent about participating. This study aimed at exploring psychiatric nurses' experiences of participating in groupbased supervision and identifying psychosocial...... reasons for their ambivalence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 psychiatric nurses at a Danish university hospital. The results indicated that participation in clinical supervision was difficult for the nurses because of an uncomfortable exposure to the professional community. The sense...... of exposure was caused by the particular interactional organisation during the sessions, which brought to light pre-existing but covert conflicts among the nurses....
Schneider, Jennifer L; Goddard, Katrina A B; Davis, James; Wilfond, Benjamin; Kauffman, Tia L; Reiss, Jacob A; Gilmore, Marian; Himes, Patricia; Lynch, Frances L; Leo, Michael C; McMullen, Carmit
As genome sequencing technology advances, research is needed to guide decision-making about what results can or should be offered to patients in different clinical settings. We conducted three focus groups with individuals who had prior preconception genetic testing experience to explore perceived advantages and disadvantages of genome sequencing for preconception carrier screening, compared to usual care. Using a discussion guide, a trained qualitative moderator facilitated the audio-recorded focus groups. Sixteen individuals participated. Thematic analysis of transcripts started with a grounded approach and subsequently focused on participants' perceptions of the value of genetic information. Analysis uncovered two orientations toward genomic preconception carrier screening: "certain" individuals desiring all possible screening information; and "hesitant" individuals who were more cautious about its value. Participants revealed valuable information about barriers to screening: fear/anxiety about results; concerns about the method of returning results; concerns about screening necessity; and concerns about partner participation. All participants recommended offering choice to patients to enhance the value of screening and reduce barriers. Overall, two groups of likely users of genome sequencing for preconception carrier screening demonstrated different perceptions of the advantages or disadvantages of screening, suggesting tailored approaches to education, consent, and counseling may be warranted with each group.
Clements Eaton, Emma Catherine; Cox, Rachel
A sample of women (n = 5) participated in a qualitative service evaluation concerning an open-ended, therapeutic group for women only. Data analysis followed suggestions by Halcomb and Davidson (2006). Main themes derived from the evaluation included: 'Groups are different from individual work', 'Belonging/ not being alone', 'Performance in the group', 'The group as a safety net', 'Life improvements and hope for the future' and 'The extent of emotional despair felt'. In this paper, several sub-themes within the main themes and relevant theories and implications for theory and service provision are discussed.
Dowey, Ana Lucrecia
The under participation of minority females in STEM fields has been a chronic problem in the United States, mainly when it is analyzed through the lens of their relative representation in the population. The results of the first or quantitative phase, of this two phase sequential, mixed method study, revealed academic achievement or performance in science accounted for most of the variance of mean scores for students' attitudes and interests in science as measured by the TOSRA Likert-scale survey, when compared to the degree of parent education and ethnicity/ racial background. Additionally, this study investigated possible sources of perceived self-efficacy in eighteen seventh grade Hispanic female students by conducting personal semi-structured interviews. The purpose of this study was to explore if middle school female student ethnic/racial backgrounds and academic performance influence their attitudes and interests toward science and to study the possible effects external (family, school, peers, and community) and internal factors may have for Hispanic student self-efficacy toward science. The results revealed that of the five ethnic/racial groups studied, Asian/Filipino female students expressed higher positive attitudes and interests toward science, than the rest of the student ethnic groups studied, followed by the Hispanic student group. The results indicated that students' perceived encouragement from their mothers, regardless of the mother's degree of education, as being the main source of these girls' perceived self-efficacy in science. However, the lack of perceived school-related, peer-related, and community-related support was evident. These results are encouraging because they demonstrate how verbal persuasion, in the form of encouragement and support, fosters perceived self-efficacy for minority female students.
Cantor, Julie D
Ritual genital cutting for women, a common practice in Africa and elsewhere around the world, remains dangerous and controversial. In recent years, a 14-year-old girl living in Sierra Leone exsanguinated and died following a ritualistic genital cutting. Hoping to avoid that fate, women with backgrounds that accept ritual genital cutting may, when they reach majority age, ask plastic surgeons to perform genital alterations for cultural reasons. Although plastic surgeons routinely perform cosmetic procedures, unique ethical and legal concerns arise when an adult female patient asks a surgeon to spare her the tribal elder's knife and alter her genitalia according to tradition and custom. Misinformation and confusion about this issue exist. This article explores the ethical and legal issues relevant to this situation and explains how the thoughtful surgeon should proceed.
Blakeslee, C; McRobert, S P; Brown, A C; Clotfelter, E D
Females of the fighting fish Betta splendens have been shown to associate with other B. splendens females in a manner reminiscent of shoaling behavior. Since body coloration varies dramatically in this species, and since body coloration has been shown to affect shoalmate choice in other species of fish, we examined the influence of body coloration on association preferences in female B. splendens. In dichotomous choice tests, B. splendens females spent more time swimming near groups of females (regardless of coloration) than swimming near an empty chamber, and chose to swim near fish of similar coloration to their own when choosing between two distinctly colored groups of females. When examining the interplay between body coloration and group size, focal fish spent more time swimming near larger groups (N=5) of similarly colored fish than swimming near an individual female of similar coloration. However, focal fish showed no preference when presented with an individual female of similar coloration and a larger group of females of dissimilar coloration. These results suggest that association choices in B. splendens females are strongly affected by both body coloration and by group size.
Rak, Eniko C; Spencer, Lauren
This study examined similarities and differences between persons with and without disabilities on volunteering, donations and group participation. A sample of 1548 individuals participated and 60% of the sample were persons with disabilities. Data for this research was drawn from a major statewide survey in a Midwestern state in the United States. Community participation was measured through involvement with civic, religious and other community-based groups, volunteering activities and donations. Logistic regression was pursued to test the effect of disability on community participation. Findings support different trends in participation between persons with and without disabilities. Individuals without disabilities are more likely to volunteer, donate money and participate in civic organisations (e.g. clubs) and other groups. Employment and household income have a significant contribution in explaining these differences. This study found significant differences in community participation between persons with disabilities and persons without disabilities. Regression analysis outcomes underscore the importance of employment and income in eliminating disparities in community involvement between persons with and without disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Policy change in rehabilitation agencies to fund supported volunteering services. Improve the representation of persons with disabilities in volunteering pursuits by making volunteering positions accessible to them (educate persons with disabilities to be more aware of these opportunities, provide reasonable accommodations at work sites, etc.). Educate stakeholders about the benefits of volunteering and being part of civic, and other community based groups in improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities. Identification of barriers for persons with disabilities in these pursuits (physical and attitudinal barriers, lack of resources). Identifying and utilising natural supports in the work site
Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan
Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social ...
Dwyer, John J M; Macaskill, Lesley A; Uetrecht, Connie L; Dombrow, Carol
Eat Smart! Ontario's Healthy Restaurant Program is a standard provincial health promotion program. Public health units give an award of excellence to restaurants that meet nutrition, food safety, and non-smoking seating standards. The purpose of this study was to determine why some restaurant operators have not applied to participate in the program, and how to get them to apply. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 35 operators who didn't apply to participate. The analysis of responses yielded various themes. The participants' perceived barriers to participation were misunderstandings about how to qualify for the program, lack of time, concern about different non-smoking bylaw requirements, and potential loss of revenue. Their perceived facilitators to participation were convenience of applying to participate, franchise executives' approval to participate, a 100% non-smoking bylaw, flexibility in the assessment of restaurants, the opportunity for positive advertising, alternative payment for food handler training, and customer demand. Program staff can use the findings to develop and use strategies to encourage participation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests that the distribution of female breast cancer mortality demonstrates spatial concentration. There remains a lack of studies on how the mortality burden may impact racial groups across space and over time. The present study evaluated the geographic variations in breast cancer mortality in Texas females according to three predominant racial groups (non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic females over a twelve-year period. It sought to clarify whether the spatiotemporal trend might place an uneven burden on particular racial groups, and whether the excess trend has persisted into the current decade. Methods The Spatial Scan Statistic was employed to examine the geographic excess of breast cancer mortality by race in Texas counties between 1990 and 2001. The statistic was conducted with a scan window of a maximum of 90% of the study period and a spatial cluster size of 50% of the population at risk. The next scan was conducted with a purely spatial option to verify whether the excess mortality persisted further. Spatial queries were performed to locate the regions of excess mortality affecting multiple racial groups. Results The first scan identified 4 regions with breast cancer mortality excess in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic female populations. The most likely excess mortality with a relative risk of 1.12 (p = 0.001 occurred between 1990 and 1996 for non-Hispanic Whites, including 42 Texas counties along Gulf Coast and Central Texas. For Hispanics, West Texas with a relative risk of 1.18 was the most probable region of excess mortality (p = 0.001. Results of the second scan were identical to the first. This suggested that the excess mortality might not persist to the present decade. Spatial queries found that 3 counties in Southeast and 9 counties in Central Texas had excess mortality involving multiple racial groups. Conclusion Spatiotemporal variations in breast cancer mortality affected racial
John F. Dwyer
Much of the initial research on the outdoor recreation participation of racial/ethnic groups focused on between-group differences in percent participating in an activity. This tended to focus research, policy, and management on between-group differences at the expense of a more comprehensive look at the participation patterns of racial/ethnic groups. This paper...
Full Text Available Background and aims. Tooth loss may lead to mastication disability, which in turn has important impact on individual’s quality of life. Social and psychological factors have been shown to be associated with tooth loss. This study aimed to in-vestigate the social determinants and prevalence of tooth loss, and presence of functional dentition among female heads of household under support of Welfare Organization in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and methods. In current study 556 participants aged 16-76 years were recruited. Sociodemographic character-istics (age, level of education, family size, and monthly income were collected using interviewer-led questionnaire. Data about number of teeth and functional dentition were obtained by oral examination. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, T-test and binary logistic regression analysis. Results. Four percent of participants were edentulous. Tooth loss was significantly associated with level of education, age and family size (P < 0.001. There was no significant association between level of income and tooth loss (P = 0.88. Only 37.5% of dentate subjects had functional dentition (anterior and premolar teeth. Women older than 40 years were 0.63 times less likely to have functional dentition than those younger than 40 years. Females with at least a high-school diploma were six times more likely to have functional dentition than their illiterate counterparts. Conclusion. Social determinants of functional dentition should be taken into account when planning oral health promoting programs for female heads of household. For reducing oral health inequalities access to dental services should be facilitated.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite ethical imperatives, informing research participants about the results of the studies in which they take part is not often performed. This is due, in part, to the costs and burdens of communicating with each participant after publication of the results. Methods Following the closeout and publication of a randomized clinical trial of saw palmetto for treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, patients were invited back to the research center to participate in a group presentation of the study results. Results Approximately 10% of participants attended one of two presentation sessions. Reaction to the experience of the group presentation was very positive among the attendees. Conclusion A group presentation to research participants is an efficient method of communicating study results to those who desire to be informed and was highly valued by those who attended. Prospectively planning for such presentations and greater scheduling flexibility may result in higher attendance rates. Trial Registration Number Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00037154
Nadia Musimbi Chanzu
Full Text Available The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate moieties expressed on human red blood cells however; these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. In many human populations 80% secrete ABO antigens (termed 'secretors' while 20% do not (termed 'non-secretors'. Furthermore, there are disease conditions that are associated with secretor status.To investigate correlations between secretor status and HIV infection among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.This cross-sectional study recruited 280 female sex workers aged 18-65 years from the Pumwani Majengo cohort, Kenya. Blood typing was determined by serological techniques using monoclonal antibodies to the ABO blood group antigens. Secretor phenotyping was determined using anti-H specific lectins specific to salivary, vaginal and cervical blood group H antigen using the agglutination inhibition technique and correlated to individual HIV sero-status. Participants were additionally screened for Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis.Out of the 280 participants, 212 (75.7% were secretors and 68 (24.3% were non-secretors. The incidence of all infections: HIV, Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis was higher among secretors compared to non-secretors. However, this difference was only statistically significant for HIV infection incidence rates: HIV infected secretors (83.7% versus HIV un-infected secretors (71.8% (p = 0.029 Based on ABO phenotype stratification, the incidence of HIV infection was higher among blood group A secretors (26/52 = 50%, in comparison to B (12/39 = 33.3%: p = 0.066, AB (3/9 = 33.3%: p = 0.355, and O secretors (36/112 = 32.1%: p = 0.028.This is the first report to document the variable expression of the ABH blood group antigens profiling secretor and non-secretor phenotypes in the female genital tract among a high-risk population
Le Maire, Daniel; Scheuer, Christian
In this paper we evaluate the eects of economic incentives on the labour market participation for selected groups with weak labour market attachment. We argue that the people most likely to be affected by economic incentives are recipients of socialassistance and home-working housewives. Partner ...
Dumas, Jean E.; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Moreland, Angela D.
Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to the process of engagement in preventive parenting groups, we tested the ability of family and child measures to predict intent to enroll, enrollment, attendance, and quality of participation in PACE (Parenting Our Children to Excellence). PACE is a prevention trial testing the efficacy of a…
Anastasia Aldelina Lijadi
Full Text Available Conducting discovery-oriented qualitative research about the life experiences of hard-to-reach individuals posed several challenges for recruiting participants and collecting rich textual data. In a study pertaining the experiences of Third Culture Kids (TCKs, we explored the benefits of the social media, such as Facebook as a platform to collect data. TCKs are individuals who define their sense of belonging to the third culture trailing their parents moving across borders during their developmental years. Adult TCKs live in many different countries, and accessing and interviewing respondents could be a difficult and costly endeavor. In this article, the authors share their experience conducting online, asynchronous focus groups using a Facebook platform. We reflect upon the process of setting up a secret Facebook focus group for research purposes, recruiting participants, rapport building between facilitator and participants, monitoring and keeping track of participants’ responses, and the dynamics emerging within an online focus group. We also discuss the novelty, limitations, and benefits of the Facebook focus group as an emerging mode for collecting qualitative data from hard-to-reach participants.
Schaperclaus, G; deGreef, M; Rispens, P; deCalonne, D; Landsman, M; Lie, KI; Oudhof, J
An experimental study was carried out to determine the influence of participation in Sports Groups for Patients with Cardiac Problems (SPCP) on physical and mental fitness and on risk factor level after myocardial infarction. SPCP members (n = 74; 67 men and 7 women) were compared with Nonsporting
This study examined the relationships among group size, participation, and learning performance factors when learning a programming language in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) context. An online forum was used as the CSCL environment for learning the Microsoft ASP.NET programming language. The collaborative-learning experiment…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2 prevention program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. RESULTS: Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. CONCLUSIONS: Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.
Dasgupta, Kaberi; Da Costa, Deborah; Pillay, Sabrina; De Civita, Mirella; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Leong, Aaron; Bacon, Simon; Stotland, Stephen; Chetty, V Tony; Garfield, Natasha; Majdan, Agnieszka; Meltzer, Sara
We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM) diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevention program. Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.
Mohammadi, N; Jones, T; Evans, D
Participant recruitment is a fundamental component of the research process and the methods employed to attract individuals will depend on the nature of the study. Recruitment may be more challenging when the study involves people from a minority religious group. However, this issue has not been well addressed in the literature. To discuss the challenges of recruiting participants from a minority religious group (the Islamic population) to participate in an interpretive, hermeneutic study concerning the experience of hospitalization. The challenges of recruitment encountered during this study are used as the basis for a broader discussion of this important issue. To ensure the success of this phase of the study, a pre-planned recruitment strategy was essential. Multiple recruitment strategies were used, including hospital-based recruitment, snowball sampling, advertising and contact with key people. Despite the use of multiple strategies, recruitment of participants was difficult and required an extended period of time to achieve sufficiently rich data. Thirteen participants shared their lived experience to provide an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Recruiting participants from minority religious group involves potentially sensitive issues. There is an increased need for the researchers to carefully consider potential participants' rights and ensure that sound ethical principles underpin the study, as failure to do this may hinder the recruitment process. The two most effective strategies of recruitment were snowball sampling and contact with key Islamic people, with the least effective being advertising. This paper highlights the importance of anticipating potential difficulties and pre-planning strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment. Implementation of multiple strategies is recommended to ensure successful research recruitment.
Al-Tawel, Adnan M.; AlJa'afreh, Ibraheem A.
The study aimed to examine the perceived barriers to participate in physical and sports activities among female university students as well as the potential differences of their perceptions of the barriers based on their academic discipline, academic year, and Grade Point Average (GPA) level. The participants in this study were 221 female students…
Full Text Available Objectives: Since support for family caregivers is crucial in providing care for elderly, this study was conducted to examine the effects of participation in support groups on Alzheimer’s family caregivers’ strain and spiritual wellbeing. Materials and Methods & Materials: In this semi-experimental study, 32 accessible family caregivers of elderly patients with Alzheimer who had at least one year of experience participated. The intervention consisted of a 4-month active participation in educational and emotional supportive sessions related to patient and caregivers care management. At the end of the intervention, the leadership of the groups was transferred to members of the groups. These sessions were conducted in 3 public centers in the community. Caregivers were assessed by caregiving strain and spiritual wellbeing questionnaires at the beginning, at the end of the intervention and 2 months later. Data was analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measurement. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In general, 32 accessible family caregivers of elderly Alzheimer patients with at least one year of experience participated in this study. The mean of spiritual wellbeing through three mentioned measurements showed an improvement (26.029, 34.029, 34.471, whereas the care giving strain showed a decreasing trend (40.118, 32.706, 31.265. Findings based on ANOVA-repeated measurement revealed a significantly decrease in care giving strain (P=0.001 and an improvement in spiritual wellbeing (P=0.005. Conclusion: Participation in the support groups as a manifest of empowering helps family caregivers to deal effectively with care giving difficulties. Psychoeducational programs lead to a decreased care giving strain and improve the spiritual wellbeing of the caregivers. Hence, supportive interventions should be considered by policy makers and professional health care providers for elderly people.
Gensemer, Patricia S.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to learn from Hispanic nursing students regarding their experiences as participants in science learning. The participants were four female nursing students of Hispanic origin attending a small, rural community college in a southeastern state. The overarching question of this study was "In what ways does being Hispanic mediate the science-related learning and practices of nursing students?" The following questions more specifically provided focal points for the research: (1) In what ways do students perceive being Hispanic as relevant to their science education experiences? (a) What does it mean to be Hispanic in the participants' home community? (b) What has it meant to be Hispanic in the science classroom? (2) In what ways might students' everyday knowledge (at home) relate to the knowledge or ways of knowing they practice in the nursing school community? The study took place in Alabama, which offered a rural context where Hispanic populations are rapidly increasing. A series of four interviews was conducted with each participant, followed by one focus group interview session. Results of the study were re presented in terms of portrayals of participant's narratives of identity and science learning, and then as a thematic interpretation collectively woven across the individuals' narratives. Portraitures of each participant draw upon the individual experiences of the four nursing students involved in this study in order to provide a beginning point towards exploring "community" as both personal and social aspects of science practices. Themes explored broader interpretations of communities of practice in relation to guiding questions of the study. Three themes emerged through the study, which included the following: Importance of Science to Nurses, Crossing with a Nurturing and Caring Identity, and Different Modes of Participation. Implications were discussed with regard to participation in a community of practice and
Menichetti, J; Giusti, L; Fossati, I; Vegni, E
The main purpose of the present study was to understand the subjective experience of patients adjusting to cancer by focusing on how that experience might be affected by participating in a psychodramatic group intervention. In-depth interviews using an interpretative-phenomenological approach were conducted with eight cancer patients involved in a psychodrama group. Four key themes were identified: (1) outside and inside relationships; (2) identities: nurturing other selves; (3) a feelings' gym: performing the internal world; and (4) many ends: mourning death and dying. Participation in cancer group using a psychodramatic approach provided positive results. In detail, the group setting: (1) favoured relationships in which it was possible to freely express oneself and (2) empowered patients in their feelings of being able to give and receive help; the psychodramatic approach: (1) supported the physical mobilisation of sense of agency and (2) permitted to deal with the grieving process. Cancer healthcare pathways would benefit from psychotherapeutic programmes using a similar approach, since psychodrama by actively involving body seems to works on areas that are often underwhelmed by other approaches, such as (i.e., physical mobilisation, body engagement, grieving adjustment). Psychodrama supports patients to achieve insights into their own possibilities to actively participate in their own life situations despite having cancer and undergoing treatment for it. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Epstein, Elizabeth E; McCrady, Barbara S; Hallgren, Kevin A; Gaba, Ayorkor; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Litt, Mark D
To test group-based Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (G-FS-CBT) for women with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) against an individual Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (I-FS-CBT). This aims of this paper are to describe G-FS-CBT development, content, feasibility, acceptability, group process, engagement in treatment, and within- and post-treatment outcomes. Women with AUD (n=155) were randomly assigned to 12 manual-guided sessions of G-FS-CBT or I-FS-CBT; 138 women attended at least one treatment session. Women in G-FS-CBT attended fewer sessions (M=7.6) than women in I-FS-CBT (M=9.7; p<.001). Women in both conditions reported high satisfaction with the treatments. Independent coders rated high fidelity of delivery of both G-FS-CBT and I-FS-CBT. Therapeutic alliance with the therapist was high in both conditions, with I-FS-CBT being slightly but significantly higher than G-FS-CBT. In the first six weeks of treatment, women in both treatment conditions significantly reduced their percent drinking days (PDD) and percent heavy days drinking (PHD) by equivalent amounts, maintained through the rest of treatment and the 12month follow up with no treatment condition effects. Women reported significant improvement in all but one of the secondary outcomes during treatment; gains made during treatment in depression, anxiety, autonomy, and interpersonal problems were maintained during the follow-up period, while gains made during treatment in use of coping skills, self-efficacy for abstinence, self-care, and sociotropy deteriorated over follow up but remained improved compared to baseline. Findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a group format for female-specific CBT for AUD, a new 12-session, single gender, community friendly, group therapy with programming specifically for women. Similar, positive outcomes for individual and group treatment formats were found for drinking, mood, coping skills, self-confidence, interpersonal
Christensen, Bo Thomas; Jønsson, Thomas
It seems to be an established fact in the organizational psychological literature that participation in decision making leads to creativity and innovation in work groups and organizations. A quite extensive amount of research has claimed that the link exists, although only a somewhat smaller amount...... of research has established that there is a link between the two constructs of participation in decision making and creativity. But although this link has been clearly documented theories with clearly stated causal explanations of why participation in decision making (pdm) would lead to creativity...... factors include such different models as enhanced intrinsic motivation (Amabile, 2001; Conti & Amabile, 1999), reduction in resistance to change (De Dreu & West, 2001), pooling of unshared knowledge (Latham, Winters, & Locke, 1994) and better utilization of individual differences in cognitive style...
Christensen, Bo T.; Jønsson, Thomas S.
It seems to be an established fact in the organizational psychological literature that participation in decision making leads to creativity and innovation in work groups and organizations. A quite extensive amount of research has claimed that the link exists, although only a somewhat smaller amount...... of research has established that there is a link between the two constructs of participation in decision making and creativity. But although this link has been clearly documented theories with clearly stated causal explanations of why participation in decision making (pdm) would lead to creativity...... factors include such different models as enhanced intrinsic motivation (Amabile, 2001; Conti & Amabile, 1999), reduction in resistance to change (De Dreu & West, 2001), pooling of unshared knowledge (Latham, Winters, & Locke, 1994) and better utilization of individual differences in cognitive style...
Sysoeva, Olga V; Maluchenko, Natalia V; Timofeeva, Marina A; Portnova, Galina V; Kulikova, Maria A; Tonevitsky, Alexandr G; Ivanitsky, Alexey M
Aggression is a heterogeneous heritable psychological trait, also influenced by environmental factors. Previous studies, mostly conducted on male population, have found some associations of the aggression with the polymorphisms of genes, regulating the activity of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. However, psychological as well as biochemical manifestations of the aggression are different in males and females. Our study aimed to investigate the association of 5-HTT gene polymorphism with different facets of aggression (BDHI) in females. Two groups: the synchronized swimming and non-athlete control, - were examined to study the possible modulation effect of sport on the association between 5-HTT gene polymorphism and aggression. It was found that in both groups the low-active 5-HTT polymorphism (SS) was associated with increased scores on Indirect Hostility scale and decreased scores on Negativism scale, compared to LL genotype. No interaction effect between sport and 5-HTT polymorphism was found. The higher percentage of LL-carriers and lower of LS-carriers in the synchronized swimming group compared to the control one was observed. This may be the sign of the importance of LL polymorphism of 5-HTT gene, previously associated with higher resistance to stress factors, for being an athlete, although this result has to be taken cautiously keeping in mind the stratification problem. Synchronized swimmers had lower scores on Assault, Negativism, Irritability and Verbal Hostility compared to age-matched control girls (in general and for each 5-HTT genotype separately), suggesting that they may have more matured emotional system (older control group has also lower scores on these scales).
Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Norozi Khalili, Mina; Shakeri Chenarani, Maryam; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Rezaei Ardani, Amir
Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls.
This study examined the relationship between personal characteristics and attendance, engagement, sleep, and mood outcomes of persons with dementia participating in group activities. The purpose of this study is to examine which persons with dementia benefit most from group interventions. Sixty-nine persons with dementia were observed by research and therapeutic recreation staff during 10 types of group activities (reading aloud with discussion, choral-singing, baking, creative storytelling, brain games, active games, exercise, reminiscence poetry, holiday newsletter, and holiday discussions) on multiple outcomes (attendance duration, sleep, engagement, active participation, attitude, and positive mood). Correlations between these outcomes and personal characteristics (demographics, functional and medical characteristics, personal preferences for group activities) were conducted. Variables with significant correlations were then entered into regression analyses. Many of the personal characteristics were significantly correlated with the outcomes. Cognitive function was the most consistent predictor of all outcomes. Personal characteristics, particularly cognitive function, can predict the responses of persons with dementia during group activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Responses to Task 1 Questionnaire of INFCE Working Group 6 supplied by participating states (Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, USSR, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia). Data and information are given on nuclear power forecast, spent fuel requirements for AR and AFR storage, current programmes for storage, future spent fuel disposition plans and transport
Niedlich, Claudia; Steffens, Melanie C; Krause, Jacqueline; Settke, Elisabeth; Ebert, Irena D
The traditional stereotype of the typical woman has been described as "nice, but incompetent." However, such general gender stereotypes are applied to individual targets only under certain conditions: They are used to "fill in the blanks" (Heilman, 2012) if little personal information is provided about a target. "Typical lesbians" are regarded to have more typically masculine (agentic) characteristics such as task competence than the typical woman does. We thus hypothesized that if a woman displays behavior coinciding with the stereotype of the typical woman, it is more readily interpreted as stereotypically female if performed by a heterosexual woman than by a lesbian. Participants (N = 296) read a hypothetical job interview in which we manipulated the target's sexual orientation (between subjects). Findings demonstrated that a lesbian was judged as more competent than a heterosexual woman in the presence of behavior that may be interpreted as gender-stereotypical (Experiments 1 and 2). This difference in competence judgments was not found in the absence of gender-stereotypical behavior (Experiment 1). Judging the heterosexual woman as low in masculinity was related to a judgment of lower competence (Experiment 2). Our findings demonstrate that there are conditions under which lesbians, a group often stereotyped negatively, are less susceptible to invoking negative female stereotypes than heterosexual women are.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which members of support groups for hypersexual disorder meet the proposed criteria for hypersexual disorder of Kafka, how the diagnosis of hypersexual disorders is made and what treatments are currently given. Methods: In this non-interventional research survey, members of support groups for hypersexual disorder received a questionnaire in which the criteria for hypersexual disorder according to Kafka were included as well as the way the disease was diagnosed and treated. Results: The questionnaire was presented to 32 people but only 10 completed questionnaires were returned. Five of the ten respondents met the criteria of Kafka. For the other five respondents a hypersexual disorder was not confirmed but neither excluded. Only for three respondents the diagnosis was made by a professional healthcare worker. The treatment included – besides the support group in nine cases – also individual psychotherapy. Two respondents took a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI, as recommended in the literature. Conclusions: The members of support groups for sex addiction were difficult to motivate for their participation. The way hypersexual disorders were diagnosed was far from optimal. Only two participants received the recommended medication.
Teutsch, Uwe; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald
Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed. Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189-220 minutes) for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211-271 minutes) for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years. To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races.
Seyed Mohammadreza Safavi
Full Text Available Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62. The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients.
Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh
Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958
Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh
Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients.
Blanchard, Ray; Lippa, Richard A
This study investigated the relations among sexual orientation, fraternal birth order (number of older brothers), and hand-preference. The participants were 87,798 men and 71,981 women who took part in a Web-based research project sponsored by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The results yielded some evidence confirming prior findings that non-right-handedness is associated with homosexuality in men and women, that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in men, and that the effect of older brothers on sexual orientation is limited to right-handed men. The evidence was weaker than in previous studies, however, probably because the usual relations among the variables of interest were partially obscured by the effects of other factors. Thus, the homosexual men and women had higher rates of non-right-handedness than their heterosexual counterparts, but the strongest handedness finding for both sexes was a marked tendency for participants who described themselves as ambidextrous also to describe themselves as bisexual. The birth order data were strongly affected by a tendency for the male participants to report an excess of older sisters, and the female participants to report an excess of older brothers. Statistical analyses confirmed that this was an artifact of the parental stopping rule, "Continue having children until you have offspring of both sexes." In subsequent analyses, participants were divided into those who did and did not have younger siblings, on the grounds that the data of the former would be less contaminated by the stopping rule. In the former subsample, the right-handed homo/bisexual males showed the typical high ratio of older brothers to older sisters, whereas the non-right-handed homo/bisexual males did not.
He, Jun; Zeller, Matthias; Hunter, Allen D; Xu, Zhengtao
We describe a white emitting coordination network solid that can be conveniently applied as a thin film onto a commercial UV-LED lamp for practical white lighting applications. The solid state material was discovered in an exercise of exploring molecular building blocks equipped with secondary groups for fine-tuning the structures and properties of coordination nets. Specifically, CH(3)SCH(2)CH(2)S- and (S)-CH(3)(OH)CHCH(2)S- (2-hydroxylpropyl) were each attached as secondary groups to the 2,5- positions of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (bdc), and the resultant molecules (L1 and L2, respectively) were crystallized with Pb(II) into the topologically similar 3D nets of PbL1 and PbL2, both consisting of interlinked Pb-carboxyl chains. While the CH(3)S- groups in PbL1 are not bonded to the Pb(II) centers, the hydroxy groups in PbL2 participate in coordinating to Pb(II) and thus modify the bonding features around the Pb(II), but only to a slight and subtle degree (e.g., Pb-O distances 2.941-3.116 Å). Interestingly, the subtle change in structure significantly impacts the properties, i.e., while the photoluminescence of PbL1 is yellowish green, PbL2 features bright white emission. Also, the homochiral side group in PbL2 imparts significant second harmonic generation, in spite of its seemingly weak association with the main framework (the NLO-phore). In a broad perspective, this work showcases the idea of secondary group participation (SGP) in the construction of coordination networks, an idea that parallels that of hemilabile ligands in organometallics and points to an effective strategy in developing advanced functions in solid state framework materials. © 2011 American Chemical Society
Full Text Available Matthias Zingg,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph A Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers3 1Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France Background: Participation and performance trends for athletes by age group have been investigated for marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races up to 161 km, but not for longer distances of more than 200 km. Methods: Participation and performance trends in athletes by age group in the Badwater (217 km and Spartathlon (246 km races were compared from 2000 to 2012. Results: The number of female and male finishers increased in both races across years (P 0.05. In Spartathlon, the age of the annual five fastest finishers was unchanged at 39.7 ± 2.4 years for men and 44.6 ± 3.2 years for women (P > 0.05. In Badwater, running speed increased in men from 7.9 ± 0.7 km/hour to 8.7 ± 0.6 km/hour (r2 = 0.51, P 0.05. In Badwater, the number of men in age groups 30–34 years (r2 = 0.37, P = 0.03 and 40–44 years (r2 = 0.75, P < 0.01 increased. In Spartathlon, the number of men increased in the age group 40–44 years (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04. Men in age groups 30–34 (r2 = 0.64, P < 0.01, 35–39 (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04, 40–44 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.04, and 55–59 years (r2 = 0.40, P = 0.02 improved running speed in Badwater. In Spartathlon, no change in running speed was observed. Conclusion: The fastest finishers in ultramarathons more than 200 km in distance were 40–45 years old and have to be classified as “master runners” by definition. In contrast to reports of marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races of 161 km in distance, the increase in participation and the improvement in performance by age group were less pronounced in ultramarathoners competing in races of more than 200 km. Keywords: ultra
... PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 664.40 Can participation in a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad be terminated? (a) Participation may be terminated only by the J. William... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can participation in a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects...
Lacau-Mengido, I M; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D
Serotonin (5-HT) receptors can be classified into at least three, possibly up to seven, classes of receptors. They comprise the 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 classes, the "uncloned' 5-HT4 receptor and the recombinant receptors 5-ht5, 5-ht6 and 5-ht7. We investigated the role of different serotonin receptor types in a neuroendocrine response to the activation of the serotonergic system. Female immature rats were chosen as an experimental model as it has been shown that during the 3rd week of life, and not at later developmental stages, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, a serotonin precursor) induces gonadotropin release in females and not in males. Besides, at this age, serotonin releases prolactin in both sexes. 5-HTP (50 mg/kg) released prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as expected. Ketanserin (5-HT2A antagonist) and methysergide (5-HT2C antagonist) blocked 5-HTP-induced prolactin release, but did not block the LH or FSH responses. Ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) did not modify prolactin response to 5-HTP, whereas it blocked 5-HTP-induced LH and FSH release. Propranolol (5-HT1 and beta-adrenergic antagonist) blocked prolactin, LH and FSH release induced by 5-HTP. The 5-HT2C agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine dihydrochloride released prolactin, without modifying LH or FSH release. Methyl-quipazine and phenylbiguanide (5-HT3 agonists) increased both LH and FSH levels, without altering prolactin secretion. The present experiments indicate that serotonin acting at the 5-HT3 receptor mediates LH and FSH release in infantile female rats, whereas 5-HT2C or 2A receptor types participate in the release of prolactin at this age. 5-HT1 receptor type may be involved in the release of the three hormones, though a beta-adrenergic component of the response cannot be discarded.
Ogunjuyigbe, Peter O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Akinlo, Ambrose
The paper brings to focus people's perception about female involvement in science, mathematics and technology (SMT). Data for the study were obtained from a survey conducted in March, 2005 in two Local Government Areas of Osun state, Southwest Nigeria. The paper reveals that: (i) about 57% of household heads, 45.6% of mothers and 57.6% of the children are of the opinion that both boys and girls are given equal right to SMT education (ii) social forces play an important role in determining people's attitude to SMT (iii) though, parents and stakeholders perceptions about girls' participation in some professions is changing, however, socio-cultural and economic factors still determine which sex to encourage to read SMT.
Lind, Johan; Lindenfors, Patrik
What determines the number of cultural traits present in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) communities is poorly understood. In humans, theoretical models suggest that the frequency of cultural traits can be predicted by population size. In chimpanzees, however, females seem to have a particularly important role as cultural carriers. Female chimpanzees use tools more frequently than males. They also spend more time with their young, skewing the infants’ potential for social learning towards their ...
Full Text Available What determines the number of cultural traits present in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes communities is poorly understood. In humans, theoretical models suggest that the frequency of cultural traits can be predicted by population size. In chimpanzees, however, females seem to have a particularly important role as cultural carriers. Female chimpanzees use tools more frequently than males. They also spend more time with their young, skewing the infants' potential for social learning towards their mothers. In Gombe, termite fishing has been shown to be transmitted from mother to offspring. Lastly, it is female chimpanzees that transfer between communities and thus have the possibility of bringing in novel cultural traits from other communities. From these observations we predicted that females are more important cultural carriers than males. Here we show that the reported number of cultural traits in chimpanzee communities correlates with the number of females in chimpanzee communities, but not with the number of males. Hence, our results suggest that females are the carriers of chimpanzee culture.
Lind, Johan; Lindenfors, Patrik
What determines the number of cultural traits present in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) communities is poorly understood. In humans, theoretical models suggest that the frequency of cultural traits can be predicted by population size. In chimpanzees, however, females seem to have a particularly important role as cultural carriers. Female chimpanzees use tools more frequently than males. They also spend more time with their young, skewing the infants' potential for social learning towards their mothers. In Gombe, termite fishing has been shown to be transmitted from mother to offspring. Lastly, it is female chimpanzees that transfer between communities and thus have the possibility of bringing in novel cultural traits from other communities. From these observations we predicted that females are more important cultural carriers than males. Here we show that the reported number of cultural traits in chimpanzee communities correlates with the number of females in chimpanzee communities, but not with the number of males. Hence, our results suggest that females are the carriers of chimpanzee culture.
This study aims to evaluate the relationship between oil income and the female labor force participation rate in California for the years of 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 using panel linear regression models. This study also aims to visualize the spatial patterns of both variables in California through Hot Spot analysis at the county level for the same years. The regression found no sign of a relationship between oil income and female labor force participation rate but did find evidence of a positive relationship between two income control variables and the female labor force participation rate. The hot spot analysis also found that female labor force participation cold spots are not spatially correlated with oil production hot spots. These findings contribute new methodologies at a finer scale to the very nuanced discussion of the resource curse in the United States.
Asa, Cheryl S; Marshall, Fiona; Fischer, Martha
We observed a group of three young female Somali wild asses to develop an ethogram of social behavior in the first phase of a longer term study of social, sexual, and maternal/infant behavior. The most unexpected finding was the frequency and extent of aggressive interactions, which included Charge, Drive, Neck Wrestle, Head Butt, and Body Slam, behaviors previously reported only for males of other equid species. The overall frequency of aggressive behavior was higher than that of affiliative behavior (84±16.5 vs. 32±5.5, P=0.03), yet no injuries occurred. The dyadic directionality of aggressive behavior suggested a dominance hierarchy, a feature not previously reported for either wild ass or domestic donkeys. The aggression observed may be an accurate representation of the behavior of this species, or their relatively young ages, or their recent transfer from their natal group through quarantine and into a new enclosure may have heightened agonistic tendencies. Further studies will determine whether with time their aggressive behavior becomes more intense or dissipates with maturity. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Martin, Jennifer; Kawachi, Ichiro
We examined social participation in organized clubs and groups from childhood to adolescence in a sample of young people from Dunedin, New Zealand. Groups were broadly categorized as ''sports'' and ''cultural/youth'' groups. While the results indicated high levels of participation in childhood with a decline over the ensuing adolescent years, path…
McDonald, Sarah D; Sword, Wendy; Eryuzlu, Leyla N; Neupane, Binod; Beyene, Joseph; Biringer, Anne B
To determine the likelihood of participating in group prenatal care (GPC) and associated factors among low-risk women receiving traditional prenatal care from obstetricians, family physicians or midwives, and to determine factors associated with likelihood of participating. Prior to completing a self-administered questionnaire, a 2-min compiled video of GPC was shown to pregnant women receiving traditional prenatal care. Data were collected on opinions of current prenatal care, GPC, and demographics. Biologically plausible variables with a p value ≤0.20 were entered in the multivariable logistic regression model and those with a p value care provider (aOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12-2.44), and valued woman-centeredness ("fairly important" aOR 2.81, 95% CI 1.77-4.49; "very important" aOR 4.10, 95% CI 2.45-6.88). Women placed high importance on learning components of GPC. The majority would prefer to be with similar women, especially in age. About two-thirds would prefer to have support persons attend GPC and over half would be comfortable with male partners. Approximately half of women receiving traditional prenatal care were interested in participating in GPC. Our findings will hopefully assist providers interested in optimizing satisfaction with traditional prenatal care and GPC by identifying important elements of each, and thus help engage women to consider GPC.
Roh, Su Yeon
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates on perceived health state and psychological wellbeing. The subjects of this study were 187 female college students participating in Pilates classes in six universities located in Gyeonggi-do. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS and AMOS 18.0 version. The results are as follows. First, the physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their perceived health state. Second, the physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their psychological well-being. Third, the perceived health state of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their psychological well-being. Fourth, there is a causal relationship among the physical self-perception, perceived health state, and psychological well-being of female college students participating in Pilates classes. In particular, the physical self-perception obtained by the students through their Pilates classes strengthens their psychological well-being through their perceived health state. PMID:29740551
Roh, Su Yeon
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates on perceived health state and psychological wellbeing. The subjects of this study were 187 female college students participating in Pilates classes in six universities located in Gyeonggi-do. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS and AMOS 18.0 version. The results are as follows. First, the physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their perceived health state. Second, the physical self-perception of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their psychological well-being. Third, the perceived health state of female college students participating in Pilates classes affects their psychological well-being. Fourth, there is a causal relationship among the physical self-perception, perceived health state, and psychological well-being of female college students participating in Pilates classes. In particular, the physical self-perception obtained by the students through their Pilates classes strengthens their psychological well-being through their perceived health state.
Lays Cavallero Pagliosa
Full Text Available Introduction Falls in elderly people are an increasing public health problem resulting in high costs to health services. Thus, it is essential to invest in the development of actions and programs focused on decreasing such risks. Objective To verify the effects of a program of health promotion and prevention of falls in relation to balance and functional abilities in elderly people participating in interaction groups in Caxias do Sul City, RS State. Materials and methods For this purpose, 14 elderly people were selected for assessment and reassessment through the following instruments: the Barthel Index, Timed Up and Go Test (TUG, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and a questionnaire to characterize the sample. Over the course of 2 months, group activities were conducted in a multi-sensory and proprioceptive circuit with a frequency of 2 times per week, totaling 14 meetings. Results The average age of participants was about 72 years old, mostly women (78.6%; 64.3% of them had experienced falls, and 92.9% had already practiced physical activities. After the intervention, there was an average increase of 9.14 points in the BBS (p = 0.000 and an average reduction of 4.4 seconds in gait speed on the TUG test (p = 0.000. Conclusion The application of the proposed program resulted in increasing balance and gait performance of the elderly, reducing the risk of falls.
The study explored facets of identity formation considered to be of significance by Zimbabwean female adolescent students in physics. Four high schools that were offering physics at A' level in the Midlands Province, in Zimbabwe were targeted. Nine female adolescents doing mathematics and physics and only mathematics were chosen. Data generation…
Kirchner, J; Hackbarth, H; Stelzer, H D; Tsai, P-P
Bedding influences various parameters in the housing of laboratory mice, such as health, physiology and behaviour (often considered as being integral parts of welfare). Notwithstanding existent studies about bedding preferences of individually tested mice, data about group-housed mice are still lacking. The aim of this study was to find out the structure preference for softwood bedding of group-housed mice. One hundred and eight 8-week-old female mice (C57BL6/JOlaHsd and BALB/cOlaHsd) were housed in groups of three and were given one-week free access to two different bedding structures at a time. In three test combinations, softwood shaving bedding was tested versus softwood chip bedding products of three different particle sizes (fine/medium/coarse-grained). The preference test was performed in a DoubleCage system composed of two Makrolon type IIL cages, connected by a perspex tunnel. This validated system was able to detect the crossings of each individual animal with correct crossing time and direction. On the basis of these data, dwelling times on the particular bedding structures were statistically analysed as a parameter for bedding preferences. In all three test combinations, a highly significant shaving preference was detected. On average, mice spent 70% of their dwelling time on the shavings. This preference was more explicit during the light period and in C57BL/6J mice. The relative ranking of the bedding structures was: shavings > coarse-grained chips > medium chips = fine chips. By means of these results, a shaving structure as bedding can be recommended for laboratory mice, whereas fine chip structures should be avoided.
Krahenbuhl, Tathyane; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M; Guimarães, Roseane Fatima; Guerra-Junior, Gil; Barros-Filho, Antonio
To examine the influence of participation in competitive sports on bone parameters, as assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the phalanges in female adolescents. Female adolescents (n = 329, 13.0-16.7 years old) were classified into handball (n = 55), swimming (n = 49) and control (n = 225) groups. QUS was used to evaluate the amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) and bone transmission time (BTT), and their z-scores (zAD-SoS and zBTT) were calculated. Anthropometric measurements and Tanner's stages were also obtained. Swimmers had higher AD-SoS (2089 ± 43.8 m/s) and zAD-SoS (0.47 ± 0.8) than controls (2060 ± 54.0 m/s; 0.09 ± 1.0; both p ≤ .05) and both groups of athletes had higher BTT (handball: 1.44 ± 0.2 μs; swimming: 1.45 ± 0.2) and zBTT (handball: 0.71 ± 0.8; swimming: 0.72 ± 1.1) than the control group (1.37 ± 0.2 μs; 0.32 ± 0.9; all p ≤ .05). Swimmers had a higher total training time (TTT: 52.5 ± 27.6 months) and frequency of training per week (FT: 5.38 ± 0.1) compared with the handball group (35.9 ± 18.1; 3.32 ± 0.8; p ≤ .05). zAD-SoS, BTT and zBTT were positively correlated with FT, while BTT and zBTT showed a positive correlation with TTT. Sports practice influences bone parameters and higher bone parameter values are related to the amount of time and frequency of weekly training. The differences in phalangeal QUS parameters are independent of the impact of weight-bearing exercise.
Nazli, Rubina; Haider, Jamila; Khan, Mohammad Akmal; Akhtar, Tasleem; Aslam, Hina
To determine the frequency of ABO blood group and Rhesus (Rh) D antigen in the females of "District" Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 429 women having pregnancy induced hypertension, admitted in the three teaching hospitals of Peshawar, over a period of one year. Blood sample was collected from each subject after taking informed consent. The antigen antibody agglutination slide test for "blood grouping (ABO)" and RhD factors was done by using IgM and IgG monoclonal reagents. The antisera used were from Biolaboratory, USA. Data was analyzed for percentage calculation. The blood group distribution was 134 (31.2%), 43 (10.1%), 116 (27%), 136 (31.7%) for blood groups A, AB, O and B, respectively. Subjects having blood group B was slightly more dominant, followed by A and O, while blood group AB was rare in these females. Blood group A Rh negative is more in female 12 (37.5%) followed by group O 10 (31.3%), group B 09 (28.1%) and group AB 01 (3.1%). Frequency of "Rh-positive blood group" is B, A, O and AB, whereas the frequency of the most common Rh-negative blood group are A, O, B and AB respectively. The determination of the frequency of blood groups in the region would not only help in blood transfusion services, but also reduce the risk of erythroblastosis foetalis in the neonates.
Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.; van der Mei, Sijrike F.
Purpose: To pilot test the newly developed multidisciplinary group rehabilitation programme Visually Impaired elderly Persons Participating (VIPP). Method: A single group pretest-posttest design pilot study included 29 visually impaired persons (>= 55 years). The intervention (20 weekly meetings)
Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Mberira, Mara; Bartels, Astrid; Gallup, Gordon G.
Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness). Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of Darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of Darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis. PMID:22870251
This study addressed the problem of underachieving female English as second language students in the Persian Gulf Region. The purpose of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between parental participation, as measured by a middle school parent-participation survey, and students' academic achievement, as measured by parent…
Elham Torabi Momen
Conclusion According to the study results, group social work intervention sessions with psychosocial developmental approach to empowering female-headed households is effective. The wider use of this type of intervention by professionals can empower and improve the lives of this group of people.
Full Text Available We compared two non-conceptive sexual behavioral patterns (female-male mounting – FMM – and female-female mounting – FFM across four free-ranging groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata living at three different field sites in Japan (Arashiyama, Minoo, and Jigokudani. We found marked inter-group differences and covariation in the frequency and form of FMM and FFM. This result supports the view that FMM and FFM in Japanese macaques are developmentally and evolutionarily linked. The customary occurrence, high prevalence, and great diversity of FMM and FFM at Arashiyama may be the result of combined favorable socio-demographic conditions, namely few resident males, most of them being old, sexually under-motivated, and less aggressive and controlling than the average male Japanese macaques. We suggest that FMM and FFM may be cultural sexual practices in the Arashiyama-E group. In most other populations, all the aforementioned favorable socio-demographic conditions are not met, and although female mounting may occasionally be expressed by several group members, it does not reach the group-level tradition status. Our cultural interpretation of female mounting in Japanese macaques is consistent with evidence of the social transmission of courtship behaviors and mating preferences in various animal taxa, including nonhuman primates and humans. Our study may have implications for the evolution of non-conceptive sexuality in humans, including sexual fluidity in women.
Gillette, David B; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Herting, Jerald R; Belza, Basia
Physical activity has many benefits for older adults, but adherence is often low. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify motivators and barriers for participation in EnhanceFitness (EF), a group-based exercise program; and (2) quantitatively examine the association between motivators, barriers and individual characteristics, and ongoing participation in the program. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. We mailed a pilot, investigator-developed survey to assess motivators and barriers to exercising to 340 adults who started a new EF class, regardless of their attendance rate. We precoded surveys on the basis of class attendance, with former participants defined as having no attendance a month or more before a 4-month fitness check. Of the 241 respondents (71% response rate), 61 (25%) were precoded as former participants and 180 (75%) as current participants. The mean age of respondents was 71 years and they were predominately female (89%). More than half of respondents were whites (58%), and almost half were married (46%). Former participants reported lower total motivation scores than current participants (P exercise," "Personal illness," and "Exercise caused pain") and 2 motivators ("I want to exercise" and "I plan exercise as part of my day") were significantly different between current and former participants. Discrete event history models show that dropout was related positively to ethnicity (whites were more likely to drop out) and health-related barriers. In newly formed EF classes, participants who drop out report more program, psychosocial, and health barriers, and fewer program and psychosocial motivators. Total barrier score and health barriers significantly predict a participant's dropping out, and white ethnicity is associated with a higher likelihood of dropping out. Employing strategies that address health barriers to participation could improve attendance rates for group-based exercise programs.
Odgers-Jewell, Kate; Isenring, Elisabeth A; Thomas, Rae; Reidlinger, Dianne P
The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of individuals who participated in a group-based education program, including their motivators in relation to their diabetes management, and the perceived impact of group interactions on participants' experiences and motivation for self-management. Understanding individuals diagnosed with diabetes experiences of group-based education for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus may guide the development and facilitation of these programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all individuals who participated in the intervention. Using thematic analysis underpinned by self-determination theory, we developed themes that explored participants' motivators in relation to diabetes management and the impact of group interactions on their experiences and motivation. The key themes included knowledge, experience, group interactions and motivation. Participants perceived that the group interactions facilitated further learning and increased motivation, achieved through normalization, peer identification or by talking with, and learning from the experience of others. The results support the use of patient-centred programs that prioritize group interactions over the didactic presentation of content, which may address relevant psychological needs of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and improve their motivation and health behaviours. Future group-based education programs may benefit from the use of self-determination theory as a framework for intervention design to enhance participant motivation.
The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualise a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents’ gender; (3) to examine the ‘cultural lag’ theory of male rape where it was hypothesised that if the public perception of male rape l...
Roth, Maria; Ciocanescu, Marin; Gheorghiu, C-tin; Ohai, Dumitru; Visinescu, Doru; Ionescu, Silviu; Man, Ion; Pitigoi, Vasile; Anghel, Dumitru; Uta, Octavian
Having in view the participation of the INR's Nuclear Materials and Corrosion Departments together with Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, and other nine well known institutes, to the Research Project coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency - Vienna and the results obtained as well, the CANDU Owners Group (COG) - Canada has proposed an economical contract to INR - Pitesti, called the DHC Project. The goal of this project was the investigation of the slow cracking in the hydration state (Delayed Hydride Cracking phenomenon) of the pressure tubes in CANDU reactors. There were determined, in specific conditions, the DHC rate, V DHC , and threshold factor of triggering the phenomenon K HI (the factor of stress intensity in the crack) occurring in un-irradiated Zr-2.5%Nb alloy. Further extensions of the project to irradiated alloys of the pressure tubes used in CANDU reactors, provided by the Canadian partner, are planned. This paper gives an overview covering the contributions of the INR's departments to the contract provisions for the current year as concluded with COG - Canada. It is described the design and execution activity of a device for processing the samples subject to testing, the mounting of the measuring chain, developing of a system for monitoring the testing parameters, the acquisition and automated processing of experimental data up to constituting the final report. The testing report was appreciated by the COG and recognized as demonstrating the INR's capability to fulfil the tasks of the DHC Project and so opened the way to further cooperation
Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Shepherd, Sam O; Wilson, Oliver J; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S
Using guidance from the reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance evaluation framework, we aimed to qualitatively evaluate the participant experiences of a workplace high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention. Twelve previously insufficiently active individuals (four males and eight females) were interviewed once as part of three focus groups. Perceptions of program satisfaction, barriers to and facilitators of adherence, and persistence to exercise were explored. HIIT initiates interest because of its novelty, provides a sense of accomplishment, and overcomes the barriers of perceived lack of time. The feeling of relatedness between the participants can attenuate negative unpleasant responses during the HIIT sessions. HIIT, in this workplace setting, is an acceptable intervention for physically inactive adults. However, participants were reluctant to maintain the same mode of exercise, believing that HIIT sessions were for the very fit.
Anderson, Emily J; Weladji, Robert B; Paré, Patrick
Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these changes may have long lasting effects on dominance hierarchies, and, consequently, the wellbeing of the animals. We studied the changes in the female dominance hierarchy that occurred both during and after the formation of a group of 10 adult Japanese macaques at the Zoo de Granby by combining members from two previously established groups. There was no significant correlation between individual ranks in the old groups (groups A and B) and their ranks in the new group (group AB), indicating a significant change in the hierarchy. Alliances between kin appeared to be important in determining rank; when the sister of the dominant female was removed from group AB, the hierarchy changed significantly a second time. The average standardized rank of individuals added later in the formation process of group AB was not different from those added earlier. Ranks in the group AB did correlate with age of individual at the beginning of the field season, but not at the end, after the shift in hierarchy occurred. Zoo management must be aware of the consequences small changes in a social group can have when removing and transferring individuals in both primates and in other social species. Zoo Biol. 35:505-512, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wu, Enqi; Tiggelaar, Sarah M; Jiang, Tao; Zhao, Huanhu; Wu, Ritu; Wu, Rilige; Xu, Fangmei
The purpose of this study was to understand cervical cancer prevention-related knowledge and attitudes among female undergraduate students from different ethnic groups within China. We conducted a survey among ethnically diverse female students from the Minzu University of China, in Beijing in October, 2014. Questionnaires from 493 participants aged from 16 to 26 years were included in the final database. The seven ethnic groups included in the final analysis were Han, Korean, Mongolian, Uyghur, Tibetan, Hui, and Tujia. Compared to the Han Chinese, the members of the other six ethnic groups had lower cervical cancer knowledge levels. The knowledge scores of Mongolian and Korean students were significantly lower than those of the Han Chinese. The willingness to accept cervical cancer prevention efforts also differed across different ethnic groups. After adjusting for age and place of residence, the acceptance of cervical cancer screening among the Tibetan, Uyghur, and Korean groups was significantly lower than among the Han Chinese, with different related decision-making factors in each group. Cervical cancer prevention-related public education is an urgent need in China. Extra consideration of ethnic differences should be taken into account when designing and improving new current cervical cancer prevention programs.
Vakili, Khatoon; Pourrazavy, Zinat alsadat
The aim of this study is comparing math anxiety of secondary school female students in groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools, district 2, city of Sari. The purpose of the research is applied research, it is a development branch, and in terms of the nature and method, it is a causal-comparative research. The statistical…
Buus, Niels; Angel, Sanne; Traynor, Michael
This paper is a report of an interview study exploring psychiatric hospital nursing staff members' reflections on participating in supervision. Clinical supervision is a pedagogical process designed to direct, develop, and support clinical nurses. Participation rates in clinical supervision...... they influence participation rates. Twenty-two psychiatric hospital nursing staff members were interviewed with a semistructured interview guide. Interview transcripts were interpreted by means of Ricoeur's hermeneutic method. The respondents understood clinical supervision to be beneficial, but with very...
Nazli, Rubina; Haider, Jamila; Khan, Mohammad Akmal; Akhtar, Tasleem; Aslam, Hina
Objective: To determine the frequency of ABO blood group and Rhesus (Rh) D antigen in the females of “District” Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 429 women having pregnancy induced hypertension, admitted in the three teaching hospitals of Peshawar, over a period of one year. Blood sample was collected from each subject after taking informed consent. The antigen antibody agglutination slide test for “blood grouping (ABO)” and ...
Pernambuco, Carlos Soares; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Di Masi, Fabrizio; Monteiro, Paola Karynne Pinheiro; Dantas, Estelio H M
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an AAG on BMD, osteocalcin and functional autonomy in older women. The sample consisted of eighty-two post-menopausal women with low BMD, randomly divided into two groups: the Aquatic Aerobics Group [AAG; n=42; age: 66.8±4.2years], submitted to two weekly sessions over eight months, and the Control Group (GC; n=42; age: 66.9±3.2years), which did not participate in regular exercise. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DXA] of the lumbar and femur, and serum osteocalcin was measured using electrochemiluminescence. A functional autonomy assessment protocol (GDLAM, 2004) was also applied. Statistical analyses used were repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. The results showed a significant improvement in tests following the GDLAM protocol: 10 meters walk (10mw) -p=0.003; rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP) - Δ%=0.78, pAAG when compared to the CG. The AAG achieved the best results for BMD; however, no inter or intragroup statistical differences were recorded for total femur -p=0.975 and lumbar L(2)-L(4)p=0.597. For serum osteocalcin, intra and intergroup statistical differences of p=0.042 and p=0.027 were observed in the AAG, respectively. This demonstrates that an eight-month aquatic aerobic exercise program can improve functional autonomy and osteocalcin levels, although training did not improve lumbar and total femur BMD in the older women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pistorello, Jacqueline; Follette, Victoria M.
Analysis of female child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors showed relationship themes. The two most frequent were difficulties with emotional communication or intimacy and polarized positions on control. Whereas these themes were correlated with survivors' CSA characteristics, sexual difficulties were correlated with survivors' level of current…
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard
of participants: Informal caregivers of older adults aged 65 years and over with dementia. The informal caregiver was a family member, and care was performed at home. Phenomena of interest: How the informal caregivers perceived the meaningfulness of participating in support groups. The setting was all locations......BACKGROUND Informal caregivers who perform at-home care of older people with dementia might have feelings of a meaningless existence, burden, anxiety, stress and fatigue. Support groups are considered an especially effective and economical way to relieve informal caregivers’ stress and burden......, although it is unclear if participating in group meetings produces a meaningful outcome for the informal caregiver. OBJECTIVES To identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. INCLUSION CRITERIA Types...
Lawson, Kevin E.
This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group…
Zwaanswijk, Marieke; van Dulmen, Sandra
Online focus groups (OFGs) are increasingly used as a method of data collection. Although their advantages for research have repeatedly been described, participants' opinions about OFGs have seldom been studied. We investigated OFG participants' preference for participation in an OFG or a face-to-face focus group (FTF), as well as their perceptions of the advantages of both methods. We also investigated whether any differences exist between the perceptions of child, adolescent, and adult participants. Participants' opinions were studied by means of a questionnaire completed by 284 persons (aged 8-72 years) after their participation in one of 50 OFGs. The OFGs were conducted between December 2005 and December 2013 as part of 19 separate studies. Chi square tests with p advantages of OFGs and FTFs between children, adolescents and adults. The most important advantage of OFGs as perceived by OFG participants was the possibility to participate at a moment most convenient to them. Adolescents and adults (90.5% and 95.9%) more often reported this as an advantage than children did (30.8%, p advantage of OFGs was the possibility to participate from home (69.1%). The most important advantage of FTFs was respondents' perception that it is easier to have a discussion with the whole group when there is personal contact with others (48.5%). This advantage was mentioned significantly more often by adults (78.4%) than by children and adolescents (4.8% and 17.7%, p advantages of OFGs as a research method. Whereas respondents generally value the convenience of participating at their own time and place, the anonymity of OFGs and the increased ease to discuss personal issues were mentioned less often as advantages by the participants. An aspect that may need more attention when conducting an OFG, is the absence of a fluid discussion, which is, according to our respondents, easier to achieve in an FTF. This underlines the importance of the moderator in enabling a constructive
Najavits, Lisa M; de Haan, Hein; Kok, Tim
Self-help groups are beneficial for many people with addiction, predominantly through 12-step models. Yet obstacles to attendance also occur. We explored attendance patterns and attitudes toward self-help groups by 165 outpatient females with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD), the first study of its kind. Cross-sectional self-report data compared adults versus adolescents, and those currently attending self-help versus not attending. We also explored attendance in relation to perceptions of the PTSD/SUD relationship and symptom severity. Adults reported higher attendance at self-help than adolescents, both lifetime and currently. Among current attendees, adults also attended more weekly groups than adolescents. Yet only a minority of both age cohorts attended any self-help in the past week. Adults perceived a stronger relationship between PTSD and SUD than adolescents, but both age groups gave low ratings to the fact that self-help groups do not address PTSD. That item also had low ratings by both those currently attending and not attending self-help. Analysis of those not currently attending identified additional negative attitudes toward self-help (spirituality, addiction as a life-long illness, sayings, and the fellowship). Symptom severity was not associated with attendance, but may reflect a floor effect. Finally, a surprising finding was that all-female groups were not preferred by any subsample. Conclusions/Importance. Creative solutions are needed to address obstacles to self-help among this population. Addressing trauma and PTSD, not just SUD, was valued by females we surveyed, and may be more helpful than all-female groups per se.
Buus, Niels; Delgado, Cynthia; Traynor, Michael; Gonge, Henrik
This present study is a report of an interview study exploring personal views on participating in group clinical supervision among mental health nursing staff members who do not participate in supervision. There is a paucity of empirical research on resistance to supervision, which has traditionally been theorized as a supervisee's maladaptive coping with anxiety in the supervision process. The aim of the present study was to examine resistance to group clinical supervision by interviewing nurses who did not participate in supervision. In 2015, we conducted semistructured interviews with 24 Danish mental health nursing staff members who had been observed not to participate in supervision in two periods of 3 months. Interviews were audio-recorded and subjected to discourse analysis. We constructed two discursive positions taken by the informants: (i) 'forced non-participation', where an informant was in favour of supervision, but presented practical reasons for not participating; and (ii) 'deliberate rejection', where an informant intentionally chose to not to participate in supervision. Furthermore, we described two typical themes drawn upon by informants in their positioning: 'difficulties related to participating in supervision' and 'limited need for and benefits from supervision'. The findings indicated that group clinical supervision extended a space for group discussion that generated or accentuated anxiety because of already-existing conflicts and a fundamental lack of trust between group members. Many informants perceived group clinical supervision as an unacceptable intrusion, which could indicate a need for developing more acceptable types of post-registration clinical education and reflective practice for this group. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
David B. Nicholas PhD
Full Text Available In this study the authors examined Internet-mediated qualitative data collection methods among a sample of children with chronic health conditions. Specifically, focus groups via Internet technology were contrasted to traditional face-to-face focus groups. Internet focus groups consisted of asynchronous text-based chat rooms lasting a total of one week in duration. Participants comprised 23 children with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, or cystic fibrosis, who were assigned to either an Internet or face-to-face focus group. Focus group analysis and follow-up participant interviews identified a range of content outcomes and processes as well as participant experiences and preferences. Findings yielded differences in terms of the volume and nature of online and face-to-face data, and participants' affinity to focus group modality appeared to reflect differences in participant expectations for social engagement and interaction. This study identifies both benefits and limitations of asynchronous, text-based online focus groups. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the concerns and expectations of women invited to attend group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence and whether the experience changed their views; and to gather recommendations from women attending group sessions on the design and delivery of these sessions Methods An interview study nested within a randomised controlled trial in five British NHS physiotherapy departments, including 22 women who had expressed a preference for an individual physiotherapy session but were randomised to, and attended, group sessions. Results Embarrassment was woven throughout women's accounts of experiencing urinary incontinence and seeking health care. Uncertainty about the nature of group sessions was a source of concern. Attending the first session was seen as a big hurdle by many women. However, a sense of relief was common once the session started, with most women describing some benefit from attendance. Recommendations for design and delivery of the sessions from women focused on reducing embarrassment and uncertainty prior to attendance. Conclusion Taking account of women's embarrassment and providing detailed information about the content of group sessions will enable women to benefit from group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence. Trial Registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN 16772662
A group support system (GSS) uses a combination of networked personal computers, software that collects, manipulates, and aggregates member's individual input, and human facilitation to improve the group decision-making process...
Robb, Sheri L
The purposes of this pilot study were two-fold: First, to document and compare attentive behavior during music and play-based group instructional sessions and second, to document and compare 4 group participation behaviors during music and play-based sessions. The 4 group participation behaviors included facing a central speaker, following onestep directions, manipulating objects according to their function, and remaining seated. Six of the 12 children enrolled completed the study, with all participants enrolled in an early intervention program due to visual impairments. Study participants were between the ages of 4 and 6 years inclusively. Children participated in 4, 30-minute instructional sessions. Two instructional sessions were music-based and two were play-based with the 4 sessions equally distributed across a 2-week period. An ABBA design was used to control for possible order effects. Each session was videotaped to facilitate collection of behavioral data. Statistical analysis of these data revealed that attentive behavior was significantly higher during music based-sessions (t(5) = 5.81; p =.002). Mean scores for the remaining group participation behaviors were higher in the music condition, but these differences were not statistically significant. Discussion regarding differential outcomes among participants, as well as an exploration of theories related to music, arousal, and attention are discussed in an effort to guide future research.
Madsen, Louise Sofia; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Handberg, Charlotte
The aim of this study was to gain insight into experiences and reflections of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives concerning the peer group rehabilitation programme "More Life - Less Illness". This qualitative study used the Interpretive Description methodology with Symbolic Interactionism as the analytical framework. Eighteen programme participants representing persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 8) and relatives (n = 10) were included. Data consisted of individual interviews and participant observation. The analysis revealed two categorical themes, "Sense of Community Building" and "Understanding my ALS", which represented the participants' experiences and reflections on peer group rehabilitation. Through the analysis, it became apparent that "Sense of Community Building" gave rise to an increased and personalised understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among the participants. As a part of the continuous processing of the knowledge gained, "Facing Facts" and "Retaining Normality" appeared as subthemes regarding the participants' ability to live a less dependent and more meaningful life. This study of peer group rehabilitation for persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives indicates that programme participation leads to positive experiences in terms of living a shared meaningful life despite severe disability. The findings may guide practice to develop longitudinal peer group rehabilitation programmes with joint inclusion of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives. Implications for Rehabilitation Peer group rehabilitation may facilitate an increased and personalised understanding of what it means to live with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A programme design with six months of sequential sessions enables a continuous processing of shared experiences and gained knowledge. Joint participation of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their relatives supports both their internal
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Problems caused by menstruation are common among women. Focus group discussions are a method of data collection in which a small group of participants discuss a specified topic or issue. This study mainly aimed to determine the effects of health education based on focus group discussions on the promotion of health behaviors of female adolescents residing boarding centers of the Welfare Organization (Tehran, Iran during their menstruation periods. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental interventional study recruited all eligible 12-19-year-old female residents (n=61 of the boarding centers affiliated to the Welfare Organization, Tehran, Iran. The data collection tool was a questionnaire including demographic information and puberty health behaviors (health behaviors during the menstruation period. The questionnaires were completed through interviews before and one month after training. The educational intervention lasted for three months. Data were analyzed using paired t and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests in SPSS16. Results: The mean scores of performance increased from 12.11±4.43 before the intervention to 16.50±2.79 after the intervention (P<0.001. Conclusion: Since the educational intervention based on focus group discussions had positive effects on the participants’ puberty health, such discussions are recommended to educate adolescent girls about puberty issues.
Gabriela Adriana Sala
Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la participación laboral de las mujeres de 60 y más años residentes en áreas urbanas argentinas, a partir de procesamientos especiales de la Encuesta Permanente de Hogares del tercer trimestre del 2009. Con este propósito, se enfatiza el análisis de la ocupación principal, entre quienes trabajaban y de la última ocupación entre las desempleadas. Se evalúa la percepción de beneficios previsionales y la intensidad de la ocupación en diferentes edades en aquellos grupos ocupacionales que concentraban a la mayoría de las ocupadas. El articulo muestra la dualidad del perfil de las ocupadas, porque entre las que carecían de educación universitaria predominaba la inserción en los servicios de limpieza domésticos y no domésticos, la comercialización directa, la gestión administrativa planificación y control, la producción industrial y artesanal, en ocupaciones de la salud y sanidad, del cuidado y la atención de personas y de los servicios gastronómicos. Por otra parte, entre las más escolarizadas prevalecían la vinculación a ocupaciones de la educación, la salud, la dirección de pequeñas y medianas empresas, la gestión administrativa y la comercialización.This article analyzes the labour participation of women aged 60 years and over residing in Argentine urban areas, from special tabulations of the Permanent Survey of households in the third quarter of 2009. To this end, the analysis of the main occupational groups among the occupied and the last occupation among the unemployed is emphasized. Also the perception of social security benefits and the intensity of the occupation at different ages and occupational group are evaluated. The article shows the duality of the profile of the aged women occupied, because them who lack of high education predominated the inclusion in occupation linked to domestic and non-domestic cleaning services, the direct commercialization, administrative planning and control
Brown, B; Blas, M M; Heidari, O; Carcamo, C; Halsey, N A
Limited data exist on the effect of clinical trial participation on sexual behavioural change. Two hundred female sex workers working in Lima, Peru received human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in either the standard (0, 2, 6 months) or modified (0, 3, 6 months) schedule. Participants received comprehensive screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), counselling on safe sex practices, education about HPV and the HPV vaccine, contraceptives (oral and condoms) and family planning at each visit. We assessed vaccine completion rates, change in sexual practices, and changes in HPV knowledge before and after participation in the vaccine trial. There were high rates of vaccine completion, 91% overall. The estimated number of reported new and total clients over a 30-day period decreased significantly (P Knowledge about HPV and HPV-related disease increased among all participants. In addition, all participants listed at least one preventive strategy during the month 7 follow-up survey.
Policy makers in Europe pursue a specific participatory approach to citizenship education, based upon a particular idea of democracy and citizenship. In this approach, schools are required to foster certain virtues such as solidarity, empathy and an active participation that will enhance social
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Bjerrum, Merete Bender
of the disease and the duration of care. The informal caregiver is mainly seen as a family member and care must be performed at home. The review will not differentiate between studies involving subsets of informal caregivers (e.g. based on specific ethnicity, gender and/or specific morbidities of dementia among......Review question/objective The objective of this review is to identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. More specifically, the review question is: How do informal caregivers of older adults...... with dementia, living in urban and rural settings, perceive the meaningfulness of participating in support groups? Inclusion Criteria Types of participant(s) This review will consider studies that include informal caregivers of older adults aged 65 years and older with dementia, regardless of the severity...
Lauritzen, Jette; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard
Introduction: Support groups are considered an effective and economical way to relieve informal caregivers stress and burden. Research shows, that participating in support groups seems to be beneficial for the informal caregivers, but there are no significant improvements in feelings of stress...... and burden. It is unclear how support groups can produce a meaningful and optimal outcome for the informal caregivers. Aim: To identify the meaningfulness of participating in support groups for informal caregivers of older adults with dementia living in their own home. Method: A systematic literature review...... that through comparison and sharing positive and negative emotions, the members of the support group are able to take on and maintain the role as caregiver....
Clara Herlina Karjo
Full Text Available Teaching English (TOEFL to a class of 50 students or more is a difficult task for a lecturer. Some problems will occur, for example, the improbability for all students to get equal teacher’s attention and equal chance for learning and studying in class. To overcome these problems, the writer conducts a quasi-experimental research involving 100 students in her two classes in Bina Nusantara University. In this research, the writer applies the group presentation method for teaching TOEFL for one semester. The research shows that group scores are slightly higher than individual students’ scores.Keywords:
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexual problems in Iranian women and association of sexual dysfunction with menopausal symptoms.Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 151 married women with the age of 40-60 yearsold who were referred for treatmentto Department of Gynecology in Vali-e-Asr Hospital (Tehran, Iran from April to July 2012, were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI questionnaire.Menopause rating scale (MRS was developed for the diagnosis and quantification of climacteric symptoms.Results: Total frequency of sexual dysfunction was 53% with the domains of lubrication, arusal and desire being commonly affected 62%, 70% and 98.5% of cases respectively. There is a relationship between severity of somatic and urogenital symptoms with sexual dysfunction (p = 0.03, p = 0.00 respectively.Conclusion: A considerable percentage of women experienced sexual dysfunctions in this period. Somatic and urogenital symptoms during the menopausal period could be a factor to maintain or intensity of sexual dysfunctions.
Santvoort, F. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.
In the Netherlands, preventive support groups are offered to children of mentally ill parents. Given the variety of parental diagnoses it might be questionable if offering a standardized program for all these children is the most effective response. While no overall knowledge exists about the type
Janssen, C.C.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Felling, A.J.A.
OBJECTIVES: To compare, in a randomized trial, the effects of individual and group physiotherapy for urinary incontinence in women referred by their general practitioner (GP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included women of all ages (mean 47.8 years) with stress, urge or mixed incontinence; 126
Janssen, C.C.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Felling, A.J.A.
OBJECTIVES: To compare, in a randomized trial, the effects of individual and group physiotherapy for urinary incontinence in women referred by their general practitioner (GP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included women of all ages (mean 47.8 years) with stress, urge or mixed incontinence; 126
Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others
Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…
Flythe, Jennifer E; Narendra, Julia H; Dorough, Adeline; Oberlander, Jonathan; Ordish, Antoinette; Wilkie, Caroline; Dember, Laura M
Most prospective studies involving individuals receiving maintenance dialysis have been small, and many have had poor clinical translatability. Research relevance can be enhanced through stakeholder engagement. However, little is known about dialysis clinic stakeholders' perceptions of research participation and facilitation. The objective of this study was to characterize the perspectives of dialysis clinic stakeholders (patients, clinic personnel, and medical providers) on: (1) research participation by patients and (2) research facilitation by clinic personnel and medical providers. We also sought to elucidate stakeholder preferences for research communication. Qualitative study. 7 focus groups (59 participants: 8 clinic managers, 14 nurses/patient care technicians, 8 social workers/dietitians, 11 nephrologists/advanced practice providers, and 18 patients/care partners) from 7 North Carolina dialysis clinics. Clinics and participants were purposively sampled. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis. We identified 11 themes that captured barriers to and facilitators of research participation by patients and research facilitation by clinic personnel and medical providers. We collapsed these themes into 4 categories to create an organizational framework for considering stakeholder (narrow research understanding, competing personal priorities, and low patient literacy and education levels), relationship (trust, buy-in, and altruistic motivations), research design (convenience, follow-up, and patient incentives), and dialysis clinic (professional demands, teamwork, and communication) aspects that may affect stakeholder interest in participating in or facilitating research. These themes appear to shape the degree of research readiness of a dialysis clinic environment. Participants preferred short research communications delivered in multiple formats. Potential selection bias and inclusion of English-speaking participants only. Our findings
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Puberty and adolescence is an important phase of human growth. Puberty leads to a set of physiological, social, and psychological changes in adolescents, which affect different dimensions of their life including parent-child relationship and the control of adolescents’ emotions. This study aimed to determine the impact of group training of personal hygiene during puberty to mothers on parent-child conflicts and controlling over the emotions of the first high school course female students. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The study population included 30 mothers of female students of the seventh grade in Tehran, Iran in 2016. The participants were selected through cluster sampling method and randomly assigned to two groups of control and intervention. The subjects in the intervention group were trained about personal hygine during pubety during 12 90-minute sessions. Data were collected using demographic form, conflict to parents’ questionnaire, and Emotional Control Scale that were completed by mothers and daughters at pre- and post-intervention phases. Data analysis was performed using analysis of variance by the help of the SPSS software, version 16. Results: According to the results, there was a significant difference between two groups in terms of the mean score of child-parent conflicts and all of their subscales at the post intervention phase (P<0.05. In addition, after the intervention, there was a significant difference between two groups considering the mean score of emotional control and this subscales (P<0.05. Conclusion: Regarding the results, appropraite knowledge and awareness about puberty can be helpful for mothers to prevent child-parent conflicts and control their adolescents' emotions.
Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.
The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational and career choices to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. Findings revealed 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. The majority of participants perceived having staff to talk to, the job skills learned, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth.
Hjelte, Jan; Sjöberg, Magdalena; Westerberg, Kristina; Hyvönen, Ulf
In this article the focus is on young parents' engagement process in relation to participation in parenting support groups carried out at child welfare centers. This qualitative study focuses not only on young parents' reasons for participating or not participating in parenting support groups during different phases in their engagement process, but also on examining the circumstances that may contribute to such changes. The results show that these reasons can be divided into four categories: the staff, other participants, the social network, and practical circumstances. It also appears that these reasons change between different phases of their engagement process. Primarily three different circumstances contributed to variation in parents' reasons: difficulty in predicting the value of participation, increased closeness in relationships with staff and other parents, and the specific life phase in which young parents find themselves. The results have important implications for policy makers and practitioners in their work in formulating and updating parenting support; they also indicate what may be important to focus on in the recruitment of young parents, and also what may be crucial in regard to them completing their engagement in parent support groups.
Mi Jin Yi
Full Text Available Background and Objective Pharmacotherapy currently widely used in the treatment of insomnia can be helpful in transient insomnia, but research regarding its effectiveness and safety of long-term use is not enough. Therefore, to complement the limitations of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of patients with insomnia, non-pharmacologic treatment methods (cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT are used. But CBT for insomnia appear to be costly and time-consuming compared to pharmacotherapy, clinical practice in the field can be difficult to be applied. We took the format of group therapy rather than individual therapy to complement the disadvantages of CBT and now we would like to have a thought into its meaning by reporting the effectiveness of group CBT for insomnia. Methods Patients were recruited at Sleep Center of St. Vincent’s Hospital, 2 men and 3 women led to a group of five patients. CBT is a treatment for correction factors that cause and maintain insomnia, it includes a variety of techniques such as sleep hygiene education, stimulus control, sleep restriction, relaxation and cognitive therapy. A series of treatment were performed five sessions once a week with a frequency from February to March 2012 and were proceeded for about 1 hour and 30 minutes per session. Results Results indicated that the subjective quality of sleep and sleep efficiency of all patients improved and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Beck Depression Inventory were decreased in spite of reducing dose of medication. Conclusions Like these cases, we can contribute to reduce the time and economic burden by performing group CBT for insomnia rather than individual therapy.
Hughes, Stephen; Lewis, Sophie; Willis, Karen; Rogers, Anne; Wyke, Sally; Smith, Lorraine
Our aim was to systematically review the qualitative literature about the experiences of both facilitators and participants in a range of group-based programmes to support the self-management of long-term conditions. We searched 7 databases using the terms 'self-management', 'group' and 'qualitative'. Full text articles meeting the inclusion criteria were retrieved for review. A thematic synthesis approach was used to analyse the studies. 2126 articles were identified and 24 were included for review. Group participants valued being with similar others and perceived peer support benefits. Facilitators (HCP and lay) had limited group specific training, were uncertain of purpose and prioritised education and medical conformity over supportive group processes and the promotion of self-management agency and engagement. Overall, studies prioritised positive descriptions. Group programmes' medical self-management focus may reduce their ability to contribute to patient-valued outcomes. Further research is needed to explore this disconnect. This review supports broadening the scope of group-based programmes to foreground shared learning, social support and development of agency. It is of relevance to developers and facilitators of group self-management programmes and their ability to address the burden of long-term conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Midtgaard, J; Rorth, M; Stelter, R; Adamsen, L
A series of studies have shown that physical activity improves cancer patients functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Few of these studies have included physical exercise carried out in a group setting. However, patient's experience with the in-group processes remains unexplored. This study investigated group cohesion and changes in QOL in 55 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy who participated in a 9 h weekly group exercise programme for 6 weeks. The study used a method triangulation component design. Seven qualitative group interviews were conducted post-intervention. QOL (SF-36; EORTC QLQ-C30) was assessed at baseline and after Week 6. The interviews revealed that group cohesion was an interim goal aimed to maximize peak performance potential by patients. Group cohesion was characterized by a special 'esprit de corps' and enabled the group members to feel like sport teams. The programme made purposeful togetherness possible while allowing the patients an opportunity to let their illness fade into the background. Questionnaire data showed significant improvements in mental health, social and emotional functioning. This study identified a conceptualization of group cohesion that forms a valuable basis for a larger randomized controlled trial to conclude whether the observed changes are a result of this specific intervention.
The connection of mind and body as well as the impact of physical activity on mental state of the person is defined in the theoretical part of the thesis. It featured dance as an expressive means of non-verbal communication in the therapeutic process in the group and stressed the importance of creativity in dance expression. It has given a historical overview of the role of women in dance and described the therapeutic characteristics of oriental dance. In addition to presenting dance - moveme...
Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan; Jennings, George; Sánchez, Elena S
Numerous quantitative studies have illustrated the potential usefulness of exercise programs for women with fibromyalgia. However, a deeper understanding of the physical and especially psychosocial benefits of exercise therapy from the subjective perspective of this population is still needed. This study was conducted with 25 women who had fibromyalgia and were participating in a nine-month, group-based exercise program. The aim was to provide an in-depth description and analysis of the perceived physical and psychosocial benefits of participation. Qualitative data were collected through observation, interviews, and focus groups. The exercise program not only alleviated the physical symptoms of fibromyalgia, but social interactions within the group helped to counteract the isolation, frustration, and depression often associated with this chronic condition. The data from this study may contribute to a deeper understanding of the benefits of exercise for women with fibromyalgia and might be useful for the improvement of future exercise programs for this population.
Levett-Jones, Tracy; Andersen, Patrea; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Guinea, Stephen; McAllister, Margaret; Lapkin, Samuel; Palmer, Lorinda; Niddrie, Marian
Active participation in immersive simulation experiences can result in technical and non-technical skill enhancement. However, when simulations are conducted in large groups, maintaining the interest of observers so that they do not disengage from the learning experience can be challenging. We implemented Tag Team Simulation with the aim of ensuring that both participants and observers had active and integral roles in the simulation. In this paper we outline the features of this innovative approach and provide an example of its application to a pain simulation. Evaluation was conducted using the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale. A total of 444 year nursing students participated from a population of 536 (response rate 83%). Cronbach's alpha for the Scale was .94 indicating high internal consistency. The mean satisfaction score for participants was 4.63 compared to 4.56 for observers. An independent sample t test revealed no significant difference between these scores (t (300) = -1.414, p = 0.16). Tag team simulation is an effective approach for ensuring observers' and participants' active involvement during group-based simulations and one that is highly regarded by students. It has the potential for broad applicability across a range of leaning domains both within and beyond nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fernandez, Conrad V.; Ruccione, Kathleen; Wells, Robert J.; Long, Jay B.; Pelletier, Wendy; Hooke, Mary C.; Pentz, Rebecca D.; Noll, Robert B.; Baker, Justin N.; O'Leary, Maura; Reaman, Gregory; Adamson, Peter C.; Joffe, Steven
Purpose The Children's Oncology Group (COG) strongly supports the widely recognized principle that research participants should be offered a summary of study results. The mechanism by which to do so in a cooperative research group setting has not been previously described. Methods On the basis of a review of the available empirical and theoretic literature and on iterative, multidisciplinary discussion, a COG Return of Results Task Force (RRTF) offered detailed recommendations for the return of results to research study participants. Results The RRTF established guidelines for the notification of research participants and/or their parents/guardians about the availability of research results, a mechanism for and timing of sharing results via registration on the COG public Web site, the scope of the research to be shared, the target audience, and a process for creating and vetting lay summaries of study results. The RRTF recognized the challenges in adequately conveying complex scientific results to audiences with varying levels of health literacy and recommended that particularly sensitive or complex results be returned using direct personal contact. The RRTF also recommended evaluation of the cost, effectiveness, and impact of sharing results. Conclusion These recommendations provide a framework for the offering and returning of results to participants. They can be used by individual investigators, multi-investigator research collaboratives, and large cooperative groups. PMID:23109703
Shindo, Norihisa; Sakai, Atsushi; Yamada, Kouji; Higashinakagawa, Toru
Polycomb group (PcG) genes are required for stable inheritance of epigenetic states across cell divisions, a phenomenon termed cellular memory. PcG proteins form multimeric nuclear complex which modifies the chromatin structure of target site. Drosophila PcG gene extra sex combs (esc) and its vertebrate orthologs constitute a member of ESC-E(Z) complex, which possesses histone methyltransferase activity. Here we report isolation and characterization of medaka esc homolog, termed oleed. Hypomorphic knock-down of oleed using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides resulted in the fusion of eyes, termed cyclopia. Prechordal plate formation was not substantially impaired, but expression of hedgehog target genes was dependent on oleed, suggesting some link with hedgehog signaling. In support of this implication, histone methylation, which requires the activity of esc gene product, is increased in hedgehog stimulated mouse NIH-3T3 cells. Our data argue for the novel role of esc in hedgehog signaling and provide fundamental insight into the epigenetic mechanisms in general
Perrier, Marie-Josée; Shirazipour, Celina H; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E
Despite numerous physical, social, and mental health benefits of engaging in moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities (e.g., sport), few individuals with acquired physical disabilities currently participate in adapted sport. Theory-based sport promotion interventions are one possible way to increase the amount of individuals who engage in sport. The primary objective of this study was to examine the profiles of three different sport participation groups with respect to demographic, injury, and Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) constructs. ANOVAs and Chi-square tests were used to determine group differences on demographic and disability-related constructs. A MANCOVA was conducted to determine differences between three sport participation groups (non-intenders, intenders, and actors) with age, years post-injury, mode of mobility, and sex included as covariates. A cohort of 201 individuals was recruited; 56 (27.9%) were non-intenders, 21 (10.4%) were intenders, and 124 (61.7%) were actors. The MANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the HAPA constructs, F(22,370) = 9.02, p sport intentions. These results provide an important framework that adapted sport organizations can use to tailor their sport promotion programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Urie, Marcia; FitzGerald, T.J.; Followill, David; Laurie, Fran; Marcus, Robert; Michalski, Jeff
Purpose: To report current technology implementation, radiation therapy physics and treatment planning practices, and results of treatment planning exercises among 261 institutions belonging to the Children's Oncology Group (COG). Methods and Materials: The Radiation Therapy Committee of the newly formed COG mandated that each institution demonstrate basic physics and treatment planning abilities by satisfactorily completing a questionnaire and four treatment planning exercises designed by the Quality Assurance Review Center. The planning cases are (1) a maxillary sinus target volume (for two-dimensional planning), (2) a Hodgkin's disease mantle field (for irregular-field and off-axis dose calculations), (3) a central axis blocked case, and (4) a craniospinal irradiation case. The questionnaire and treatment plans were submitted (as of 1/30/02) by 243 institutions and completed satisfactorily by 233. Data from this questionnaire and analyses of the treatment plans with monitor unit calculations are presented. Results: Of the 243 clinics responding, 54% use multileaf collimators routinely, 94% use asymmetric jaws routinely, and 13% use dynamic wedges. Nearly all institutions calibrate their linear accelerators following American Association of Physicists in Medicine protocols, currently 16% with TG-51 and 81% with TG-21 protocol. Treatment planning systems are relied on very heavily for all calculations, including monitor units. Techniques and results of each of the treatment planning exercises are presented. Conclusions: Together, these data provide a unique compilation of current (2001) radiation therapy practices in institutions treating pediatric patients. Overall, the COG facilities have the equipment and the personnel to perform high-quality radiation therapy. With ongoing quality assurance review, radiation therapy compliance with COG protocols should be high
Janke, W.; Hueppe, M.
A collective of 168 persons aged 18 to 59 were studied to assess the impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on how they experience, and react to, incidents. Four groups were made up of 42 persons each (male/female; 18-39-year-olds/40-59-year-olds). As variables, the instantaneous psychic condition as a reaction to the accident, and strategies to cope with stress were studied by psychometric methods. Furthermore a questionnaire on attitudes and behaviour, specially drawn up for the study, was used, whose reliability was confirmed by analyses of the individual items. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, it is found, was felt to be a grave incident and led to a number of reactions in the attitudes and views of people. The very different response of the age and sex groups is considered to be the result of the highest significance. (orig./MG) [de
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.
Beltrán Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tortosa Martínez, Juan; Jennings, George; Sánchez, Elena S.
Numerous quantitative studies have illustrated the potential usefulness of exercise programs for women with fibromyalgia. However, a deeper understanding of the physical and especially psychosocial benefits of exercise therapy from the subjective perspective of this population is still needed. This study was conducted with 25 women who had fibromyalgia and were participating in a nine-month, group-based exercise program. The aim was to provide an in-depth description and analysis of the perce...
Wurz, Amanda; St-Aubin, Anik; Brunet, Jennifer
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the barriers and motives experienced by women attending an 8-week group-based physical activity program offered in the community following treatment for breast cancer. Seven women were interviewed during the first and last week of the program. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Factors that hindered women's continued participation could be subdivided into situational barriers, which encompassed community (i.e., distance of center and traffic) and institutional factors (i.e., competing roles and responsibilities), and internal barriers, which consisted of cancer-specific limitations. Motives for initial and continued participation were situational (i.e., gaining social support, networking, and being around similar others) and internal (i.e., feeling a sense of personal fulfillment, acquiring health benefits, and recovering from cancer). The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of women's motives to engage in a group-based physical activity program after treatment for breast cancer. Further, they underscore the necessity of considering situational and internal barriers when developing group-based physical activity programs to increase regular participation, optimize adherence, and reduce drop-out.
Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao
HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study, we divided a sample of 1022 FSWs into three age groups (≤ 20 years, 21-34 years, and ≥ 35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (1) older FSWs (≥ 35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (2) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use, and sexually transmitted diseases history; (3) younger FSWs (≤ 20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (4) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSWs aged 21-34 years; and (5) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs' exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs' mental health status, especially among younger FSWs.
Vitor Corrêa Detomini
Full Text Available The literature points out a lack of studies describing practical experiences approaching the role of social participation, even though, the subject Brazilian Health System (SUS as a principle is valued by theoretical-conceptual works. The lack of studies is especially observed in mental health care services, where the existing studies focus on the users’ management engagement as part of psychosocial rehabilitation. Thus, this article introduces an experience developed in a Center for Psycho-Social Attention (CAPS, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, aiming to address the issue of social participation in care qualification, in accordance to legislation and technical standards. Thisstudy focused on two types of sources. 1 Internship Final Report of a Psycology Student including 54 sessions of a support group, 2 technical and legal documents concerning the SUS and the National Mental Health Policy and Humanization. The service aspects were analyzed through technical and legislative foundations - focusing the needs and claims on group discussions, classified as structure and process, used to assess the health care quality. Most concerns were listed on normative Ordinances and Regulations. Achieving social participation was not an institutional premise and, among the main difficulties was the medical/outpatient centered model and the representation of “crazy”/”CAPS users” as incapable. It requires: i integration of “clinic” and “politics”; ii intensification of interdisciplinary and psychological care; iii respect the citizenship of mental health users, and, finally, iv that the collective participation spaces do not exhaust themselves. Therefore, the collective participation spaces need practical recommendations in order to improve the structures and work processes and meet the users’ needs.
Teutsch, Uwe; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald
Background Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. Methods The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed. Results Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes) for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes) for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years. Conclusion To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races. PMID:23690697
Pasqualini, Leonella; Leli, Christian; Ministrini, Stefano; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Zappavigna, Rosa M; Lombardini, Rita; Scarponi, Anna M; Mannarino, Elmo
Peak of bone mass (PBM) is generally reached about the age of 18 both in boys and girls. Maximizing PBM during growth may contribute to fracture risk reduction in adulthood and in the elderly. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects on bone mineral density (BMD) of global physical activity (PA), carried out in the past 15 years, in a population of 70 healthy, young male and female subjects aged 22 to 25. BMD of the lumbar spine and total hip was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA); global PA, resulting from sports-related, occupational and commuting PA, was evaluated using validated questionnaires. Women spent more time than men both in sports-related, occupational and commuting PA in the age range between 10-15 years. In the female group global PA positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine (r=0.38; P=0.02) and the total hip (r=0.36; P=0.04) and BMD of the lumbar spine was independently predicted by global PA and Body Mass Index. Our retrospective cross-sectional study indicates that global PA, not only sports-related PA, performed during prepubertal age, is associated with a greater PBM in women.
Lee, B S; Mcelwain, A M
The Korean experience raises questions about the assumption that successful economic development and equitable income distribution are preconditions for rapid fertility declines. During the 1960-70 decade, the total fertility rate in Korea declined by 36% and the crude birth rate fell by 33%, in the absence of significant economic development. This paper uses data from the 1974 Korean Fertility Survey to explore the relationships between the factors responsible for this rapid fertility decline. A simultaneous equation model of fertility, age at marriage, extent of labor force participation during marriage, quality of children, and wages is developed and tested. Rather than to provide definitive measures of these interrelationships, the aim was to investigate the utility of treating several variables as being jointly determined. The results suggest that parental education affects fertility by influencing age at marriage, implying that adult education programs will have little effect on marital fertility. There was some evidence that working women whose jobs are compatible with child care have more children than nonworking women, a finding that should be considered in planning increased job opportunities for women. Urbanized women and those who work before marriage tend to marry later than their less urbanized counterparts or women who do not work prior to marriage. Finally, women who used modern methods of birth control had significantly lower fertility than nonusers of modern methods. There is concern that the Government has reduced budgetary appropriations to family planning since the goal of reducing the annual population growth rate from 3% in 1960 to 2% in 1970 was achieved. It is suggested that family planning expenditures should be deployed to areas such as urban slums that have not yet been reached by family planning programs.
Kane, Kyra J; Staples, Kerri L
Children with coordination difficulties are at risk of low levels of physical activity (PA) participation. This intervention examined the effects of a multidisciplinary program that emphasized parent participation on motor skill performance and PA. Ten boys (5-7 years) completed a group program consisting of conditioning exercises and activities designed to address child-selected goals. Motor proficiency and PA participation were assessed before and after the program using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and triaxial accelerometers, respectively. Rating scales captured child and parent perceptions of performance for each child's goals. TGMD-2 subtest raw scores, age equivalent and percentile scores improved, along with parent ratings of their child's performance. Six children reported skill improvements. On average, moderate to vigorous PA improved by 10 min per day although these gains were not significant. Time spent in sedentary activities was unchanged. None of the children met the Canadian PA and sedentary behaviour guidelines. The results support effectiveness of a group program to improve gross motor performance and levels of PA in children with coordination difficulties. Gains in both of these domains also have the potential to impact quality of life and reduce health risks associated with inactivity.
Marit B Rise
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. METHODS: Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. RESULTS: Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. CONCLUSION: Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared "not that scary" or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour.
Seger, Charles R; Banerji, Ishani; Park, Sang Hee; Smith, Eliot R; Mackie, Diane M
Emotions are increasingly being recognised as important aspects of prejudice and intergroup behaviour. Specifically, emotional mediators play a key role in the process by which intergroup contact reduces prejudice towards outgroups. However, which particular emotions are most important for prejudice reduction, as well as the consistency and generality of emotion-prejudice relations across different in-group-out-group relations, remain uncertain. To address these issues, in Study 1 we examined six distinct positive and negative emotions as mediators of the contact-prejudice relations using representative samples of U.S. White, Black, and Asian American respondents (N = 639). Admiration and anger (but not other emotions) were significant mediators of the effects of previous contact on prejudice, consistently across different perceiver and target ethnic groups. Study 2 examined the same relations with student participants and gay men as the out-group. Admiration and disgust mediated the effect of past contact on attitude. The findings confirm that not only negative emotions (anger or disgust, based on the specific types of threat perceived to be posed by an out-group), but also positive, status- and esteem-related emotions (admiration) mediate effects of contact on prejudice, robustly across several different respondent and target groups.
Talita Santos Oliveira
Full Text Available The demographic aging, followed by longevity, provided morbimortality alterations showing a significant part of elderly attacked by noncommunicable chronic-degenerative diseases. In this perspective this study of descriptive exploratory character with transversal delineation aimed to identify the epidemiological profile of 25 elderly and characterize them inside a third age relationship group in the city of Jequié/BA. The majority of the elderly was of the female sex, 68% of the interviewed ones are retired and 32% still carry through professional activities. About the educational level, 20% are illiterate, literate 28%, 44% have the Elementary Degree and 8% the High School Degree. The health problems most cited were disc herniation, cerebrovascular accident, tendinitis, fistulous, arthrosis and others. The pain prevalence was present in 80% of the subjects, and 77% presented pain for more than 6 months. The most frequent localizations were in low back column (44,4%, right shoulder/superior thorax and knee (29.6%.
Sarnquist, Clea C; Ouma, Linda; Lang'at, Nickson; Lubanga, Chrisanthus; Sinclair, Jake; Baiocchi, Michael T; Cornfield, David N
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has myriad negative health and economic consequences for women and families. We hypothesized that empowering women through a combination of formal business training, microfinance, and IPV support groups would decrease IPV and improve women's economic status. The study included adult female survivors of severe IPV. Women living in Korogocho received the intervention and women in Dandora served as a standard of care (SOC) group, but received the intervention at the end of the follow-up period. Women in the intervention groups ( n = 82, SOC group, n = 81) received 8 weeks of business training, assistance creating a business plan, a small initial loan (about US$60), and weekly business and social support meetings. The two primary outcome measures included change in: (a) average daily profit margin, and (b) incidence of severe IPV. Exploratory analysis also looked at incidence of violence against children and women's self-efficacy. Average daily profit margin in the intervention group increased by 351 Kenyan Shillings (about US$3.5) daily (95% CI = [172, 485]). IPV directed against participating women decreased from a baseline of 2.1 to 0.26 incidents, a difference of 1.84 incidents (95% CI = [1.32, 2.36]). Violence against children in the household in the prior 3 months decreased from 1.1 to 0.55 incidents, a difference of 0.55 incidents (95% CI = [0.16, 1.03]). Finally, the intervention appears to have increased self-efficacy scores by 0.42 points (95% CIs 0.13, 0.71). In a low-resource urban environment, employing three complementary interventions resulted in higher daily profit margins and lower IPV in the intervention compared with the SOC group. These data support the notion that employing multiple interventions concomitantly might possess synergistic, beneficial effects, and hold promise to address profound poverty and interrupt the devastating cycle of IPV.
Buch, Martin Sandberg; Edwards, Adrian; Eriksson, Tina
The Maturity Matrix is a group-based formative self-evaluation tool aimed at assessing the degree of organisational development in general practice and providing a starting point for local quality improvement. Earlier studies of the Maturity Matrix have shown that participants find the method a useful way of assessing their practice's organisational development. However, little is known about participants' views on the resulting efforts to implement intended changes. To explore users' perspectives on the Maturity Matrix method, the facilitation process, and drivers and barriers for implementation of intended changes. Observation of two facilitated practice meetings, 17 semi-structured interviews with participating general practitioners (GPs) or their staff, and mapping of reasons for continuing or quitting the project. General practices in Denmark Main outcomes: Successful change was associated with: a clearly identified anchor person within the practice, a shared and regular meeting structure, and an external facilitator who provides support and counselling during the implementation process. Failure to implement change was associated with: a high patient-related workload, staff or GP turnover (that seemed to affect small practices more), no clearly identified anchor person or anchor persons who did not do anything, no continuous support from an external facilitator, and no formal commitment to working with agreed changes. Future attempts to improve the impact of the Maturity Matrix, and similar tools for quality improvement, could include: (a) attention to matters of variation caused by practice size, (b) systematic counselling on barriers to implementation and support to structure the change processes, (c) a commitment from participants that goes beyond participation in two-yearly assessments, and (d) an anchor person for each identified goal who takes on the responsibility for improvement in practice.
Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A
Background Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency ques...
Solé, Carme; Mercadal-Brotons, Melissa; Galati, Adrián; De Castro, Mónica
There is substantive literature reporting the importance and benefits of music and music therapy programs for older adults, and more specifically for those with dementia. However, few studies have focused on how these programs may contribute to quality of life. Objectives for this exploratory study were: (a) to evaluate the potential effect of group music therapy program participation on the quality of life of older people with mild, moderate, and severe dementia living in a nursing home; (b) to identify and analyze changes in affect and participation that take place during music therapy sessions; and (c) to suggest recommendations and strategies for the design of future music therapy studies with people in various stages of dementias. Sixteen participants (15 women; 1 man), with varying level of dementia participated in 12 weekly music therapy sessions. Based on Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) scores, phases of cognitive function were as follows: mild (n = 9; GDS 3-4), moderate (n = 5; GDS 5), and severe (n = 2; GDS 6-7). Data were collected using the GENCAT scale on Quality of Life. Sessions 1, 6, and 12 were also video recorded for post-hoc analysis of facial affect and participation behaviors. There was no significant difference in quality of life scores from pre to posttest (z = -0.824; p =0.410). However, there was a significant improvement in median subscale scores for Emotional Well-being (z = -2.176, p = 0.030), and significant worsening in median subscale scores for Interpersonal Relations (z =-2.074; p = 0.038) from pre to posttest. With regard to affect and participation, a sustained high level of participation was observed throughout the intervention program. Expressions of emotion remained low. Authors discuss implications of study findings to inform and improve future research in the areas of music therapy, quality of life, and individuals with dementia. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e
Kohrt, Brandon A; Yang, Minyoung; Rai, Sauharda; Bhardwaj, Anvita; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D
Preventing involuntary conscription and voluntary recruitment of youth into armed groups are global human rights priorities. Pathways for self-reported voluntary recruitment and the impact of voluntary recruitment on mental health have received limited attention. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for voluntarily joining armed groups, as well as the association of conscription status and mental health. In Nepal, interviews were conducted with 258 former child soldiers who participated in a communist (Maoist) revolution. Eighty percent of child soldiers joined 'voluntarily'. Girls were 2.07 times as likely to join voluntarily (95% CI, 1.03-4.16, p =0.04). Among girls, 51% reported joining voluntarily because of personal connections to people who were members of the armed group, compared to 22% of boys. Other reasons included escaping difficult life situations (36%), inability to achieve other goals in life (28%), and an appealing philosophy of the armed group (32%). Poor economic conditions were more frequently endorsed among boys (22%) than girls (10%). Voluntary conscription was associated with decreased risk for PTSD among boys but not for girls. Interventions to prevent voluntary association with armed groups could benefit from attending to difficulties in daily life, identifying non-violent paths to achieve life goals, and challenging the political philosophy of armed groups. Among boys, addressing economic risk factors may prevent recruitment, and prevention efforts for girls will need to address personal connections to armed groups, as it has important implications for preventing recruitment through new methods, such as social media.
Nathalie Ribeiro Artigas
Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that can dramatically impair patient quality of life (QoL.Objective:To analyze the QoL, motor capacity, depression, anxiety and social phobia of individuals who attended a patient support group (PSG compared to non-participants.Methods:A cross-sectional study was performed. The sample consisted of 20 individuals with PD who attended a PSG and another 20 PD patients who did not attend a support group for PD patients, serving as the control group (nPSG. All patients answered questionnaires on motor capacity (UPDRS, QoL (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire- PDQ-39, depression (Beck Depression Inventory, anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and social phobia (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. To determine data distribution, the Shapiro-Wilk test was performed. For comparison of means, Student's t-test was applied. In cases of asymmetry, the Mann-Whitney test was employed. To assess the association between the scales, Pearson's correlation coefficient (symmetric distribution and Spearman's coefficient (asymmetric distribution were applied. For the association between qualitative variables, Pearson's Chi-squared test was performed. A significance level of 5% (p≤0.05 was adopted.Results:Individuals in the PSG had a significantly better QoL (p=0.002, and lower depression (p=0.026, anxiety (p<0.001 and social phobia (p=0.01 scores compared to the nPSG.Conclusion:The participation of PD patients in social activities such as support groups is associated with better QoL and fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety and social phobia.
B. G. Meagher
This Public Participation Plan outlines activities being planned to: (1) brief the public on results of the remedial investigation and feasibility study, (2) discuss the proposed plan for remediation of Operable Unit 7-13/14 with the public, and (3) encourage public participation in the decision-making process. Operable Unit 7-13/14 is the Comprehensive Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Group 7. Analysis focuses on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory (Site). This plan, a supplement to the Idaho National Laboratory Community Relations Plan (DOE-ID 2004), will be updated as necessary. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will participate in the public involvement activities outlined in this plan. Collectively, DOE, DEQ, and EPA are referred to as the Agencies. Because history has shown that implementing the minimum required public involvement activities is not sufficient for high-visibility cleanup projects, this plan outlines additional opportunities the Agencies are providing to ensure that the public's information needs are met and that the Agencies can use the public's input for decisions regarding remediation activities
Olsen, Aarid Liland; Skjaerven, Liv Helvik
Rheumatic diseases have physical and psychological impact on patients' movement and function. Basic Body Awareness Therapy focuses on promoting more functional movement quality in daily life. The purpose of this study was to describe patient experiences from participating in Basic Body Awareness Group Therapy for inpatients with rheumatic disease. A phenomenological design included data collection in two focus group interviews with seven patients. Giorgi's four-step phenomenological method was used for data analysis. Four main themes emerged: (1) "Movement exploration-being guided in movement" described informants' exploration of bodily signals and movement habits; (2) "Movement awareness training in a relational perspective" informants described experiences from being in a group setting; (3) "Movement awareness-integration and insight" described informants' reflections on movement experiences; and (4) "Integrating and practicing new movement habits" informants described how they used their movement experiences in daily life. The study described perspectives in movement learning experienced by patients. The results support the view that contact with the body can help patients exploring and cultivating their own resources for a more functional movement quality. Descriptions of relational movement learning aspects can contribute to our understanding of physiotherapy group design.
Geysa Donária de Miranda Mascarenhas
Full Text Available The dynamic process defined as aging progressively reduces the functional capacity of the elderly and added to the lifestyle, they can to testify to the high number of pathologies. Thus, pharmacotherapy for this age group requires special care, keeping in view its peculiarities. Given this need, a group of researchers has developed criteria that allowed the identification of inappropriate medications. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of medications used by the elderly participants of a social group, in Vitória da Conquista, BA, according to the Beers criteria. This research was an exploratory descriptive study and data collection conducted through semi - structured interviews. It was asked to bring all the elderly who were using medications and / or prescriptions. It was found that 12.7% of the drugs used by the elderly appeared in the list of inappropriate medicines and 42% of respondents make use of polypharmacy. Among the most prescribed inappropriate medications, there is acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, diazepam, piroxicam, ibuprofen and amitriptyline. The class of inappropriate drugs most used by seniors was anti - inflammatory drugs. Given this, all health professionals need to put into practice the criteria for selecting medications this age group as the reality of existing drugs in Brazil.
Geysa Donária de Miranda Mascarenhas
Full Text Available The dynamic process defined as aging progressively reduces the functional capacity of the elderly and added to the lifestyle, they can to testify to the high number of pathologies. Thus, pharmacotherapy for this age group requires special care, keeping in view its peculiarities. Given this need, a group of researchers has developed criteria that allowed the identification of inappropriate medications. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of medications used by the elderly participants of a social group, in Vitória da Conquista, BA, according to the Beers criteria. This research was an exploratory descriptive study and data collection conducted through semi - structured interviews. It was asked to bring all the elderly who were using medications and / or prescriptions. It was found that 12.7% of the drugs used by the elderly appeared in the list of inappropriate medicines and 42% of respondents make use of polypharmacy. Among the most prescribed inappropriate medications, there is acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, diazepam, piroxicam, ibuprofen and amitriptyline. The class of inappropriate drugs most used by seniors was anti - inflammatory drugs. Given this, all health professionals need to put into practice the criteria for selecting medications this age group as the reality of existing drugs in Brazil.
Full Text Available The development of Information and communications technology (ICT has brought rapid and profound changes in the field of Education. Nowadays, teachers and students alike are engaging on social networks such as Facebook. This study discusses the benefits of using social network in the classroom. It aims at assessing the impact of Facebook on students' motivation and scores in a course of European Literature in a university of central Taiwan. A class of students was taught during the first semester of academic year 2013-2014 (September-January using a traditional way of teaching. During the second semester (February-June 2014, the teacher used multimedia and Facebook to teach to the same students. They joined a "secret group", that is a group in which only students from the class can join, post, view posts, like, and comment. This research compares various data from the first and second semester to measure students' improvement in motivation, their participation to the group and their scores. The data collected from the Facebook group during the whole second semester and students' evaluation of the educator at the end of each semester. Students are expected to make some progress and teacher's evaluation should improve. Even though Taiwanese students generally read and write in Chinese on Facebook, it is expected that they exclusively use English to read, share, and comment texts and information concerning the books studied during the second semester, thus increasing their chances to improve their reading and writing skills.
Pollard, Lorraine; Agarwal, Shona; Harrad, Fawn; Lester, Louise; Cross, Ainsley; Wray, Paula; Smith, Gordon; Locke, Anthony; Sinfield, Paul
NHS policy documents continue to make a wide-ranging commitment to patient involvement. The Patient Participation Direct Enhanced Service (PP-DES), launched in 2011, aimed to ensure patients are involved in decisions about the range and quality of services provided and commissioned by their practice through patient reference groups (PRGs). The aim of this exploratory study is to review the impact of the PP-DES (2011-13) on a sample of PRGs and assess how far it has facilitated their involvement in decisions about the services of their general practices. A qualitative methods design, using semi- structured interviews and focus groups, was employed to explore the experiences and views of GP practice staff (n = 24), PRG members (n = 80) at 12 GP practices, and other stakeholders (n = 4). Wide variation in the role and remit of the participating PRGs was found, which broadly ranged from activities to improve practice resources to supporting health promotion activities. The majority of PRG members were unfamiliar with the PP-DES scheme and its aims and purpose. Stakeholders and practice staff felt strongly that the main success of the PP-DES was that it had led to an increase in the number of PRGs being established in the locality. The PP-DES scheme has been a catalyst to establish PRGs. However, the picture was mixed in terms of the PRGs involvement in decisions about the services provided at their general practice as there was wide variation in the PRGs role and remit. The financial incentive alone, provided via the DES scheme, did not secure greater depth of PRG activity and power, however, as social factors were identified as playing an important role in PRGs' level of participation in decision making. Many PRGs have to become more firmly established before they are involved as partners in commissioning decisions at their practice.
Women play very vital roles in the dynamics of a growing society albeit in a global .... all girls of single child families; those with two girls and no other children may .... They are also deprived of adequate health, education and freedom in most.
EPA News Release: EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources
Full Text Available Abstract Background A population-based breast cancer screening programme was implemented in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–09. The objective of this registry-based study was to examine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and screening participation and to examine whether the group of non-participants can be regarded as a homogeneous group of women. Method Participation status was obtained from a regional database for all women invited to the first screening round in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–2009 (n=149,234. Participation data was linked to registries containing socio-demographic information. Distance to screening site was calculated using ArcGIS. Participation was divided into ‘participants’ and ‘non-participants’, and non-participants were further stratified into ‘active non-participants’ and ‘passive non-participants’ based on whether the woman called and cancelled her participation or was a ‘no-show’. Results The screening participation rate was 78.9%. In multivariate analyses, non-participation was associated with older age, immigrant status, low OECD-adjusted household income, high and low level education compared with middle level education, unemployment, being unmarried, distance to screening site >20 km, being a tenant and no access to a vehicle. Active and passive non-participants comprised two distinct groups with different socio-demographic characteristics, with passive non-participants being more socially deprived compared with active non-participants. Conclusion Non-participation was associated with low social status e.g. low income, unemployment, no access to vehicle and status as tenant. Non-participants were also more likely than participants to be older, single, and of non-Danish origin. Compared to active non-participants, passive non-participants were characterized by e.g. lower income and lower educational level. Different interventions might be warranted to increase
Full Text Available Concerns about body shape and weight are core diagnostic criteria for eating disorders although intensity varies between patients. Few studies have focused on the clinical differences relative to the intensity of these concerns. Nonetheless, they might have a prognostic value. This study was aimed at identifying the characteristics associated with marked body shape concerns in patients with an eating disorder. Data was collected from a systematic and standardized clinical assessment of outpatients seeking treatment in our department for eating disorders. Only female patients, suffering from anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and with "no / mild" or "marked" body shape concerns according to the Body Shape Questionnaire, were included for the present study. We focused on sociodemographic characteristics, eating disorder characteristics, axis 1 disorders, types of attachment, self-esteem and dissociation. A multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors related to "marked" body shape concerns. In our sample (123 participants, with a mean age of 24.3 years [range 16-61], 56.9% had marked concerns with body shape. Marked body shape concerns were associated with a major depressive episode (OR = 100.3, the use of laxatives (OR = 49.8, a high score on the item "body dissatisfaction" of the Eating Disorders Inventory scale (OR = 1.7, a higher minimum body mass index (OR = 1.73, and a high score on the item "loss of control over behavior, thoughts and emotions" from the dissociation questionnaire (OR = 10.74. These results are consistent with previous studies, and highlight the importance of denial.
Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.
This paper analyses the complexity of female longevity improvements. As socio-economic status influence health and mortality, we partition all individuals, at each age and year, into ten socio-economic groups based on an affluence measure. We identify the particular socio-economic groups that have...... for all subgroups, however with particular large decreases for the low-middle and middle affluence groups. We find that causes of deaths related to smoking partly contribute to the slowdown in female longevity. However the lack of improvements in deaths relating to ischemic heart diseases is dominant...
Taylor, Katherine L; Parshuram, Christopher S; Ferri, Susan; Mema, Briseida
Communication during resuscitation is essential for the provision of coordinated, effective care. Previously, we observed 44% of resuscitation communication originated from participants other than the physician team leader; 65% of which was directed to the team, exclusive of the team leader. We called this outer-loop communication. This institutional review board-approved qualitative study used grounded theory analysis of focus groups and interviews to describe and define outer-loop communication and the role of "event manager" as an additional "leader." Participants were health care staff involved in the medical management of resuscitations in a quaternary pediatric academic hospital. The following 3 domains were identified: the existence and rationale of outer-loop communication; the functions fulfilled by outer-loop communication; and the leadership and learning of event manager skills. The role was recognized by all team members and evolved organically as resuscitation complexity increased. A "good" manager has similar qualities to a "good team leader" with strong nontechnical skills. Event managers were not formally identified and no specific training had occurred. "Outer-loop" communication supports resuscitation activities. An event manager gives direction to the team, coordinates activities, and supports the team leader. We describe a new role in resuscitation in light of structural organizational theory and cognitive load with a view to incorporating this structure into resuscitation training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herens, Marion; Wagemakers, Annemarie
In community-based health enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programmes, group-based principles for action such as active participation, enjoyment, and fostering group processes are widely advocated. However, not much is known about participants' perceptions of these principles as there are no assessment tools available. Therefore, this article describes the development of the APEF (Active Participation, Enjoyment, and Fostering group processes) tool and reports on its implementation in a Dutch CBHEPA programme. Indicators for the principles have been identified from literature research, interviews with professionals, and secondary analysis of three group interviews with 11 practitioners. To address the identified indicators, the APEF tool was developed, pretested, and used in 10 focus groups with 76 participants. The APEF tool consists of eight statements about group-based principles for action, on which CBHEPA participants vote, followed by in-depth discussion. The voting procedure engages participants. Spider diagrams visualise participants' perceptions of group-based principles. The APEF tool addresses the challenge of relating group level outcomes to individual outcomes such as physical activity behaviour. The tool facilitates as well as evaluates group-based principles for action, it stimulates dialogue and is culturally sensitive, but it needs strong facilitating skills to manage group dynamics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Women’s labor market participation rates differ substantially between ethnic groups in many Western countries, with ethnic minority women often having lower participation rates than women from the native majority group. This is perceived as problematic due to the negative consequences for these
Sales, Jessica M.; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Latham, Teaniese P; Wingood, Gina M.; Hardin, James W.; Rose, Eve S.
Objective Although effective HIV prevention interventions have been developed for adolescents, few interventions have explored whether components of the intervention are responsible for the observed changes in behaviors post-intervention. This study examined the mediating role of partner communication frequency on African-American adolescent females’ condom use post-participation in a demonstrated efficacious HIV risk-reduction intervention. Main Outcome Measures Percent condom use in the past 60 days and consistent condom use in the past 6o days across the 12-month follow-up period. Design As part of a randomized controlled trial of African-American adolescent females (N=715), 15-21 years, seeking sexual health services, completed a computerized interview at baseline (prior to intervention) and again 6- and 12-month follow-up post-intervention participation. The interview assessed adolescents’ sexual behavior and partner communication skills, among other variables, at each time point. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) techniques, both logistic and linear regression models were employed to test mediation over the 12-month follow-up period. Additional tests were conducted to assess the significance of the mediated models. Results Mediation analyses observed that partner communication frequency was a significant partial mediator of both proportion condom-protected sex acts (p =.001) and consistent condom use (p = .001). Conclusion Partner communication frequency, an integral component of this HIV intervention, significantly increased as a function of participating in the intervention partially explaining the change in condom use observed 12-months post-intervention. Understanding what intervention components are associated with behavior change is important for future intervention development. PMID:21843001
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate predictors of dropout from a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT intervention for overweight or obese women. Methods: 119 overweight and obese Japanese women aged 25-65 years who attended an outpatient weight loss intervention were followed throughout the 7-month weight loss phase. Somatic characteristics, socioeconomic status, obesity-related diseases, diet and exercise habits, and psychological variables (depression, anxiety, self-esteem, alexithymia, parenting style, perfectionism, and eating attitude were assessed at baseline. Significant variables, extracted by univariate statistical analysis, were then used as independent variables in a stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis with dropout as the dependent variable. Results: 90 participants completed the weight loss phase, giving a dropout rate of 24.4%. The multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that compared to completers the dropouts had significantly stronger body shape concern, tended to not have jobs, perceived their mothers to be less caring, and were more disorganized in temperament. Of all these factors, the best predictor of dropout was shape concern. Conclusion: Shape concern, job condition, parenting care, and organization predicted dropout from the group CBT weight loss intervention for overweight or obese Japanese women.
Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of nutritional habits and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in four age groups of women partici-pating in the Prevention Education Program, Family Heart Study.Methods: Anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured in 141 children, 211 adolescents, 151 women 3 times more common in adolescents. Thirty six percent of junior women were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m² and 21% had central adiposity obese. Sixty eight year-old women had a far more adverse risk profile than 35 year-old women. In terms of energy consumption, 14 year-old women had the lowest fat intake and the highest consumption of carbohydrates whereas intake of protein was lowest in 10 year-old girls. Intake of unsaturated fat was lower in youths than in adults amounting to 37 g unsaturated fat respectively 53.4% of total fat consumption. The asso-ciation between energy consumption and overweight was significant and calorie intake was associated with clustering of ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors (OR :4.72; 95% CI 1.22-18.33.Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased continuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Caloric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.
Sawamoto, Ryoko; Nozaki, Takehiro; Furukawa, Tomokazu; Tanahashi, Tokusei; Morita, Chihiro; Hata, Tomokazu; Komaki, Gen; Sudo, Nobuyuki
To investigate predictors of dropout from a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for overweight or obese women. 119 overweight and obese Japanese women aged 25-65 years who attended an outpatient weight loss intervention were followed throughout the 7-month weight loss phase. Somatic characteristics, socioeconomic status, obesity-related diseases, diet and exercise habits, and psychological variables (depression, anxiety, self-esteem, alexithymia, parenting style, perfectionism, and eating attitude) were assessed at baseline. Significant variables, extracted by univariate statistical analysis, were then used as independent variables in a stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis with dropout as the dependent variable. 90 participants completed the weight loss phase, giving a dropout rate of 24.4%. The multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that compared to completers the dropouts had significantly stronger body shape concern, tended to not have jobs, perceived their mothers to be less caring, and were more disorganized in temperament. Of all these factors, the best predictor of dropout was shape concern. Shape concern, job condition, parenting care, and organization predicted dropout from the group CBT weight loss intervention for overweight or obese Japanese women. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Dunham, Noah T; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E
Understanding intraspecific behavioral and dietary variation is critical for assessing primate populations' abilities to persist in habitats characterized by increasing anthropogenic disturbances. While it is evident that some species exhibit considerable dietary flexibility (in terms of species-specific plant parts) in relation to habitat disturbance, it is unclear if primates are characterized by similar variation and flexibility regarding nutrient intake. This study examined the effects of group, season, and reproductive state on nutrient intake and balancing in adult female Colobus angolensis palliatus in the Diani Forest, Kenya. During July 2014 to December 2015, estimates of nutrient intake were recorded for eight females from three groups inhabiting structurally and ecologically distinct forest areas differing in tree species composition and density. There were differences in metabolizable energy (ME) and macronutrient intakes among groups, seasons, and reproductive states. Most notably, females inhabiting one of the more disturbed forest areas consumed less ME and macronutrients compared to females in the more intact forest area. Contrary to prediction, females in early lactation consumed significantly less ME and macronutrients compared to non-lactating and late lactation females. Despite differences in macronutrient intake, the relative contribution of macronutrients to ME were generally more conservative among groups, seasons, and reproductive states. Average daily intake ratios of non-protein energy to available protein ranged from approximately 3.5:1-4.3:1 among groups. These results indicate that female C. a. palliatus demonstrate a consistent nutrient balancing strategy despite significant intergroup differences in consumption of species-specific plant parts. Data from additional colobine species inhabiting different forest types are required to assess the extent to which nutrient balancing is constrained by phylogeny or is more flexible to local
Masharawi, Youssef; Nadaf, Nedal
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of active non-weight-bearing (NWB) group exercising on women with non specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). Forty females with NSCLBP were assigned in a randomized control longitudinal single blinded pilot study. 20 of them were assigned to a NWB bi-weekly group exercise class and 20 females were included in the control group. The exercises involved the entire lumbo-pelvic spine aimed at improving lumbar mobility/flexibility and stability. Pain intensity (VAS), back specific disability (Rolland Morris questionnaire-RMQ), and lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion measurements were taken prior to intervention (t(0)), immediately following 4 weeks of intervention (t(1)) and 8 weeks later (t(fu)). Reliability trials were conducted on 10 females. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical significance (p exercising improves functional, painful status, lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion in women suffering from NSCLBP.
Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A
Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. Folate, iron, calcium and fiber intake were lower than the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) amounts (70, 76, 90, 56% of RDA, respectively). Forty five percent of the population consumed fast foods 2 times a week and 35% used the frying oils for cooking most of the time. Female youths had lower amount of some micronutrients. Consuming frying oils, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and fast food intake should be limited among this group.
Sveen, Unni; Søberg, Helene Lundgaard; Østensjø, Sigrid
To explore traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a biographical disruption and to study the reconstruction of everyday occupations and work participation among individuals with mild TBI. Seven focus groups were conducted with 12 women and 8 men (22-60 years) who had sustained mild TBI and participated in a return-to-work program. Interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Four interrelated themes emerged: disruption of occupational capacity and balance; changes in self-perceptions; experience of time; and occupational adjustment and reconstruction. The meaning of the impairments lies in their impact on the individual's everyday occupations. The abandonment of meaningful daily occupations and the feeling of not recognizing oneself were experienced as threats to the sense of self. Successful integration of the past, present and future was paramount to continuing life activities. The unpredictability of the future seemed to permeate the entire process of adjustment and reconstruction of daily life. Our findings show that the concept of time is important in understanding and supporting the reconstruction of daily life after TBI. The fundamental work of rehabilitation is to ameliorate the disruptions caused by the injury, restoring a sense of personal narrative and supporting the ability to move forward with life. Implications for Rehabilitation Individuals with a protracted recovery after a mild traumatic brain injury must reconstruct a new way of being and acting in the world to achieve biographical continuity. The perceived anxiety regarding changes in self and occupational identity, as well as loss of control over the future, can be attenuated through informational sessions during the hospital stay and at follow-up visits. The significant personal costs of returning to full-time employment too early indicate the need for early and ongoing vocational support in achieving a successful return to work.
Tay, Kay Chai Peter; Drury, Vicki Blair; Mackey, Sandra
Self-management programmes have previously been found to decrease health problems, enhance quality of life and increase independence. However, there is no literature that examines the influence of the participants' intrinsic motivation on the outcomes of such programmes. This study examined the role of intrinsic motivation in a pilot low vision self-management programme to enhance self-efficacy and quality of life of the programme participants. A positive association was observed between the female participants' perceived choice and perceived competence, two underlying dimensions of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between the younger participants' perceived competence and the change in their quality of life. The findings provide some support for consideration of participants' intrinsic motivation in the development of effective self-management programmes. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Ovies Carballo, Gisel; Dominguez Alonso, Emma; Verdeja Varela, Olga L; Zamora Recinos, Hugo
The polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most frequent endocrine affection in females at reproductive age. Nowadays, it is known that insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinism seem to be the basis of the disorders characterizing it. That's why, it is not erroneous to think that in females with metabolic syndrome, whose physiopathological bases are insulin resistance and hyperinsulinism, there may appear clinical, humoral and ultrasonographic elements of the polycystic ovarian syndrome
Full Text Available Uwe Teutsch,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009.Methods: The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed.Results: Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years.Conclusion: To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races.Keywords: endurance, men, women, gender
Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Austin C
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a number of European expeditions traveled to the region of Lake Rudolf, now largely in northern Kenya. Although diverse in intent, many of these were undertaken in the interests of furthering colonial territorial claims. In 1900-1901, Major Herbert Henry Austin led a British expedition down to the lake from Khartoum in the north. Of the 62 African, Arab, and European members of this expedition, only 18 (29 %) arrived at its final destination at Lake Baringo in Kenya. Because of a confluence of adverse climatic, social, and political conditions, the expedition ran short of food supplies when it arrived at the northern end of the lake in April 1901. For the next 4 months, the members of the expedition struggled down the west side of the lake and beyond. The greatest mortality (91 %) occurred among the 32 African transport drivers who were the most marginally nourished at the outset of the trip. The lowest mortality among the Africans on the expedition (15 %) occurred among the members of the Tenth Sudanese Rifles Battalion, who had an excellent nutritional status at the start of the expedition. Major Austin himself suffered from severe scurvy with retinal hemorrhages which left him partially blind in his right eye. An analysis of the mortality rates among the groups that participated in this expedition was undertaken. This revealed that poor nutritional status at the start of the trip was predictive of death from starvation.
Full Text Available This study sought to determine the effect of participation in support groups on the depression, anxiety and stress level of caregivers of patients with Alzheimer. This study was a single blind randomized clinical controlled trial (RCT with 80 family caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s (per group=40. The intervention group participated in eight sessions 1.5- 2 hours in support groups. The tool used in this study was the DASS-21 questionnaire for measuring depression, anxiety and stress level of the caregivers, analysis of parametric data, using SPSS version 21. Findings showed, participation in support groups showed no significant difference on depression, anxiety and stress in family caregivers of Alzheimer patients in the control group and the intervention group. Given that caring for these patients by their family members are very sensitive and costly issues for policy makers and health service providers, community and families of these patients.
Betancourt Galeano, Wendy; Castrillón Muñoz, Eduardo; Godoy Jaimes, Kristy Alejandra; Matheus Lamus, Johanna; Ramírez Rivera, Sandra Milena; Ríos Castañeda, Sandra Viviana
Simulation has been used as a learning tool in different disciplines and professions, including medicine and its specialties. Its usefulness is directly related to the integration of objectives, contents, methodologies and specific resources in each area of knowledge. To describe the development of an educational experience implemented in the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali (Cali, Colombia) with medical students of Human Behavior II program, between 2012 and 2013. This experience was performed with simulated patients played by actors of the Altergesto theater group, that were interviewed by students under the supervision of psychiatrists and teachers of the subject, using the Simulated Hospital of the University. A historical development recall of the teaching sequence was made from the first half of 2012 to the second half of 2013, a statement of pedagogical objectives, and a description of the teaching-learning strategies. 158 interviews were conducted over a period of two years during which it was necessary to raise methodological solutions to adapt this teaching sequence to the content and objectives of the subject. The high-fidelity simulation, integrating actors who represent psychiatric patients mixed with the technology of a Simulated Hospital was useful to achieve compliance with the objectives proposed in the course of Human Behavior II, as a part of the program of Medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali. In parallel, the construction of experience as an interdisciplinary project and the practical approach of this strategy may impact on cognitive, emotional, behavioral dimensions of the participants, encouraging meaningful learning. An easy access database for the collected material and the study of the effects of this strategy in the formation of long-term students is needed. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Ekstrand, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Von Essen, Louise; Tydén, Tanja
Sweden has the highest abortion numbers among the Nordic countries. Since 1995, the abortion rate among teenagers has increased by nearly 50%. We therefore undertook a study where the overall aim was to gain a deeper understanding on which factors female teenagers believe may explain the increasing numbers of teenage abortions. Teenagers' perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits were investigated. Six focus group interviews with 17-year-old Swedish girls were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by manifest content analysis. Negative attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and supportive attitudes toward abortion were expressed. Risk-taking behaviors such as negligence in contraceptive use and intercourse under the influence of alcohol were suggested as main reasons behind the increasing numbers of abortions among Swedish teenagers. The contemporary, sexualized, media picture was believed to influence adolescents' sexual behavior, and liberal attitudes toward casual sex were expressed. Girls were perceived as more obliged than boys in taking responsibility for contraceptive compliance and avoidance of pregnancy. The apprehension that hormonal contraceptives cause negative side-effects was widely spread, and the participants were found to have a somewhat limited knowledge of abortion. The majority were unsatisfied with the quality of sexual education provided by the schools. Possible reasons for increased abortion numbers among teenagers in Sweden could be liberal attitudes toward casual sex in combination with negligence in contraceptive use, use of alcohol followed by sexual risk-taking, fear of hormonal contraceptives, and a deterioration of sexual education in the schools.
Bleacher, L.; Hsu, B. C.; Campbell, B. A.; Hess, M.
The Science Communication Working Group (SCWG) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been in existence since late 2007. The SCWG is comprised of education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, public affairs specialists, scientists, and engineers. The goals of the SCWG are to identify barriers to scientist and engineer engagement in E/PO activities and to enable those scientists and engineers who wish to contribute to E/PO to be able to do so. SCWG members have held meetings with scientists and engineers across GSFC to determine barriers to their involvement in E/PO. During these meetings, SCWG members presented examples of successful, ongoing E/PO projects, encouraged active research scientists and engineers to talk about their own E/PO efforts and what worked for them, discussed the E/PO working environment, discussed opportunities for getting involved in E/PO (particularly in high-impact efforts that do not take much time), handed out booklets on effective E/PO, and asked scientists and engineers what they need to engage in E/PO. The identified barriers were consistent among scientists in GSFC's four science divisions (Earth science, planetary science, heliophysics, and astrophysics). Common barriers included 1) lack of time, 2) lack of funding support, 3) lack of value placed on doing E/PO by supervisors, 4) lack of training on doing appropriate/effective E/PO for different audiences, 5) lack of awareness and information about opportunities, 6) lack of understanding of what E/PO really is, and 7) level of effort required to do E/PO. Engineers reported similar issues, but the issues of time and funding support were more pronounced due to their highly structured work day and environment. Since the barriers were identified, the SCWG has taken a number of steps to address and rectify them. Steps have included holding various events to introduce scientists and engineers to E/PO staff and opportunities including an E/PO Open House, brown bag seminars on
Brouzos, Andreas; Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Baourda, Vasiliki C.
Studies examining processes in youth group psychotherapy are scarce. This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Psychoeducational Group Alliance Scale for Children (PGAS-c). This scale was designed to assess the therapeutic alliance that develops between the members and the facilitator in a psychoeducational group…
Ho, D.M.L.; Nelwamondo, A.N.; Hancke, J.J.; Ramebaeck, Henrik
The Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4) of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) registered the largest participation for this exercise in nuclear forensics, with seven of the 17 laboratories participating for the first time. Each of the laboratories had their strategic role to play in its respective country, analyzing real-world samples using their in-house resources. The scenario was fictitious but was thoughtfully crafted to engage participants in nuclear forensic investigations. In this paper, participants from five of the first-time laboratories shared their individual experience in this exercise, from preparation to analysis of samples. (author)
This article explores science communication from the perspective of those most at risk of exclusion, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork. I conducted five focus groups and 32 interviews with participants from low-income, minority ethnic backgrounds. Using theories of social reproduction and social justice, I argue that participation in science communication is marked by structural inequalities (particularly ethnicity and class) in two ways. First, participants' involvement in science communication practices was narrow (limited to science media consumption). Second, their experiences of exclusion centred on cultural imperialism (misrepresentation and 'Othering') and powerlessness (being unable to participate or change the terms of their participation). I argue that social reproduction in science communication constructs a narrow public that reflects the shape, values and practices of dominant groups, at the expense of the marginalised. The article contributes to how we might reimagine science communication's publics by taking inclusion/exclusion and the effects of structural inequalities into account.
Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard
. The programme made purposeful togetherness possible while allowing the patients an opportunity to let their illness fade into the background. Questionnaire data showed significant improvements in mental health, social and emotional functioning. This study identified a conceptualization of group cohesion......A series of studies have shown that physical activity improves cancer patients functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Few of these studies have included physical exercise carried out in a group setting. However, patient's experience with the in-group processes remains unexplored. This study...
Han, Jin-Woo; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Won
This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33) who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28) on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV), Natural Killer cell (NK cell) activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS), depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33 who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28 on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV, Natural Killer cell (NK cell activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS, depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.
Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K
This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues. © The Author(s) 2015.
Chidozie Onyedikachi ANYIRO
Full Text Available This research analyzed determinants of women’s participation in self help group-led micro-financing of farms in Isuikwuato Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to; determine the level of women’s participation in self help group led micro financing of farms; determine the factors that influence women’s participation in self help group micro financing of farms; identify constraints of women participation in self help group micro financing of farms in the study area. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from one hundred and twenty (120 members of women self help group using structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, likert scale type and probit regression analysis. The research revealed that the women (respondents actively participated in self help group meetings ( = 3.07, financial and material contributions (= 3.33, self help group project (= 3.36 and recruitment of fresh members (= 3.16, because their calculated means were greater than the critical midpoint mean score (3.0. The study also showed that the women did not participate in committee membership ( = 2.54 and holding of official executive position (= 2.53 in self help group since the midpoint score (3.0 was greater than their calculated mean values. The result of probit regression analysis showed that women’s participation in self help group led micro financing of farms was influenced by household size, years of membership experience, access to credit, primary occupation, mode of entry and annual contribution. The model predicted 94.69 per cent of the sample correctly and posted a log likelihood value of -33.54958, a pseudo R2value of 0.3013 and a goodness of fit chi-square value of 32.10 which is statistically significant at 1.0% level. Meanwhile irregular monthly contribution and loan default were the major constraints of women’s participation in self help group led micro
Full Text Available Females abortion is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.In this study frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was studied in 125 females with habitual abortion by direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. The results obtained were as follow: Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 18 (14.4% females with habitual abortion and 18 (7.2% normal population (P=0.0139. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 39(31.2% females with habitual aboration and 48 (19.2% normal population (P=0.0045. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct immunofluorescence test in 9 (7.2% of cases and 2 (0.8% of control groups (P=0.0002. the antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured. The valuable titer of antibody (>1/16 was detected in 15 (12% of cases and 8 (3.2% of control groups (P=0.0004.The results show that chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum may be responsible for some cases of abortion.
Becker, Julia C; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver
The present research examined the hypothesis that participation in radical, but not moderate, action results in disidentification from the broader in-group. Study 1 (N = 98) was a longitudinal study conducted in the context of student protests against tuition fees in Germany and confirmed that participation in radical collective action results in disidentification with the broader in-group (students) whereas participation in moderate collective action does not. Both types of action increased politicized identification. Study 2 (N = 175) manipulated the normativeness of different types of imagined collective actions in the same context and replicated this disidentification effect for radical actions, but only when this action mismatched the broader in-group's norms. This study also indicated that these effects were partially mediated by perceived lack of solidarity and perceived lack of commitment to the cause among the broader in-group. The implications of these findings for understanding radicalization within social movements are discussed.
Keels, Megan; Lee, Zoey; Knox, David; Wilson, Ken
Four-hundred and ninety eight female undergraduate students at a large southeastern university participated in a study to assess how lecture versus DVD format affected attitude change towards female masturbation. All groups were given a pre and post test to assess masturbatory attitudes. Group 1 experienced a masturbation lecture. Group 2…
Lamb, S E; Pepper, J; Lall, R; Jørstad-Stein, E C; Clark, M D; Hill, L; Fereday-Smith, J
The aim was to compare effectiveness of group versus individual sessions of physiotherapy in terms of symptoms, quality of life, and costs, and to investigate the effect of patient preference on uptake and outcome of treatment. A pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial in five British National Health Service physiotherapy departments. 174 women with stress and/or urge incontinence were randomised to receive treatment from a physiotherapist delivered in a group or individual setting over three weekly sessions. Outcome were measured as Symptom Severity Index; Incontinence-related Quality of Life questionnaire; National Health Service costs, and out of pocket expenses. The majority of women expressed no preference (55%) or preference for individual treatment (36%). Treatment attendance was good, with similar attendance with both service delivery models. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in symptom severity or quality of life outcomes between the models. Over 85% of women reported a subjective benefit of treatment, with a slightly higher rating in the individual compared with the group setting. When all health care costs were considered, average cost per patient was lower for group sessions (Mean cost difference 52.91 pounds 95%, confidence interval ( 25.82 pounds- 80.00 pounds)). Indications are that whilst some women may have an initial preference for individual treatment, there are no substantial differences in the symptom, quality of life outcomes or non-attendance. Because of the significant difference in mean cost, group treatment is recommended. ISRCTN 16772662.
Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew
The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be
van Dieren, Susan; Kengne, Andre P.; Chalmers, John; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Cooper, Mark E.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Harrap, Stephen; Mancia, Giuseppe; Neal, Bruce; Patel, Anushka; Poulter, Neil; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Woodward, Mark; Zoungas, Sophia
To asses differences in treatment effects of a fixed combination of perindopril-indapamide on major clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes across subgroups of cardiovascular risk. 11,140 participants with type 2 diabetes, from the ADVANCE trial, were randomized to perindopril-indapamide
This article examines the conditions under which members of academic Internet discussion groups (IDGs) are motivated to provide help and answers to colleagues during group discussions on the Internet. It presents a simple microeconomic model that specifies mechanisms by which the embeddedness of
Analysis of countertransference problems in the treatment of a heterogeneous group of war veterans. The method used in this work was psychodynamic clinical observation and analysis of countertransference phenomena in group therapy. In the beginning of our work, we faced with a regressive group, which was behaving as it was re-born. The leading subject in the group was aggression and the need for hospitalization to protect them and their environment from their violence. With the development of group processes, a feeling of helplessness and lack of perspective appeared, together with suicidal ideas, which, because of the development of group cohesion and trust, could be openly discussed. With time, the group became a transitional object for its members, an object that gave them a feeling of safety but also a feeling of dependence. The role of the therapist is to support group members in becoming independent. The therapist's function is in controlling, containing, and analyzing of the destructive, regressive part and in encouraging the healthy parts of the patient. With the integration of good therapeutic process, the healthy parts of the patient gain control over his or her regressive parts.
Gerhardsen, G.; Hansen, A.V.; Killi, M.
Introduction: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, parallel-group, multicentre study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a pollen-based herbal medicinal product, Femal (R) (Sea-Band Ltd, Leicestershire, UK), on premenstrual sleep disturbances (PSD) in women with premenstrual syndrome...... as the main symptom cluster makes this herbal medicinal product a promising addition to the therapeutic arsenal for women with PMS Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to compare effectiveness of group versus individual sessions of physiotherapy in terms of symptoms, quality of life, and costs, and to investigate the effect of patient preference on uptake and outcome of treatment. Methods A pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial in five British National Health Service physiotherapy departments. 174 women with stress and/or urge incontinence were randomised to receive treatment from a physiotherapist delivered in a group or individual setting over three weekly sessions. Outcome were measured as Symptom Severity Index; Incontinence-related Quality of Life questionnaire; National Health Service costs, and out of pocket expenses. Results The majority of women expressed no preference (55% or preference for individual treatment (36%. Treatment attendance was good, with similar attendance with both service delivery models. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in symptom severity or quality of life outcomes between the models. Over 85% of women reported a subjective benefit of treatment, with a slightly higher rating in the individual compared with the group setting. When all health care costs were considered, average cost per patient was lower for group sessions (Mean cost difference £52.91 95%, confidence interval (£25.82 - £80.00. Conclusion Indications are that whilst some women may have an initial preference for individual treatment, there are no substantial differences in the symptom, quality of life outcomes or non-attendance. Because of the significant difference in mean cost, group treatment is recommended. Trial Registration Trial Registration number: ISRCTN 16772662
Christopher Ogbonna EMEROLE
Full Text Available This study on risks, vulnerability and determinants of women farmers’ participation in Self-Help-Group led micro financing was carried out in Isuikwuato local Government Area (LGA of Abia State in Nigeria. Two-stage random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were adopted in selecting communities and respondents. Socio- economic and some farm operation variables were analyzed descriptively and others regressed on discrete decision of women participating or not participating in Self-Help- group (SHG financing. Fire outbreak, ill health, theft, soil erosion and attack of farm products by pests and diseases were perceived (in this descending order as risks/natural disasters confronting the farmers. Previously owed debts, Ease of membership to groups, Age of the woman, Household size, and use of cultural/formal insurance over perceived risks were factors that influenced participation of women farmers in self-help-group micro financing. To ease the burden of inaccessibility to formal farm credit among women farmers, we recommended that relatively younger women should be encouraged to join older women in such mutual self-help groups to reap benefits accruable from the groups especially being able to manage their farms and households with less stress.
The worldwide trend of emerging women-led religious reformist movements create the opportunity for Muslim women to emerge as religious leaders, the positions that have historically been held by men. This study has focused on a women’s group, named the Group of Four Companions (GFC), working for renewal of faith among the Muslim women in a community in Bangladesh. The group claims a wing of Tablighi Jamaat (TJ)―an Islamic missionary movement originated in the 1920s, the largest Islamic piety m...
Lamb, S. E. (Sallie E.); Pepper, Jo; Lall, Ranjit; Jørstad-Stein , Ellen C.; Clark, M. D. (Michael D.); Hill, Lesley; Fereday Smith, Jan
Abstract Background The aim was to compare effectiveness of group versus individual sessions of physiotherapy in terms of symptoms, quality of life, and costs, and to investigate the effect of patient preference on uptake and outcome of treatment. Methods A pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial in five British National Health Service physiotherapy departments. 174 women with stress and/or urge incontinence were randomised to receive treatment from a physiotherapist delivered in ...
Behmel, S; Damour, M; Ludwig, R; Rodriguez, M J
Water quality monitoring programs (WQMPs) must be based on monitoring objectives originating from the real knowledge needs of all stakeholders in a watershed and users of the resource. This paper proposes a participative approach to elicit knowledge needs and preferred modes of communication from citizens and representatives of organized stakeholders (ROS) on water quality and quantity issues. The participative approach includes six steps and is adaptable and transferable to different types of watersheds. These steps are: (1) perform a stakeholder analysis; (2) conduct an adaptable survey accompanied by a user-friendly public participation geographical information system (PPGIS); (3) hold workshops to meet with ROS to inform them of the results of the survey and PPGIS; discuss attainment of past monitoring objectives; exchange views on new knowledge needs and concerns on water quality and quantity; (4) meet with citizens to obtain the same type of input (as from ROS); (5) analyze the data and information collected to identify new knowledge needs and modes of communication and (6) identify, in collaboration with the individuals in charge of the WQMPs, the short-, medium- and long-term monitoring objectives and communication strategies to be pursued. The participative approach was tested on two distinct watersheds in the province of Quebec, Canada. It resulted in a series of optimization objectives of the existing WQMPs, new monitoring objectives and recommendations regarding communication strategies of the WQMPs' results. The results of this study show that the proposed methodology is appreciated by all parties and that the outcomes and monitoring objectives are acceptable. We also conclude that successful integrated watershed management is a question of scale, and that every aspect of integrated watershed management needs to be adapted to the surface watershed, the groundwater watershed (aquifers) and the human catchment area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All
Stott, C; Hutchison, P; Drury, J
During the 1998 Football World Cup Finals in France, English supporters were, once again, involved in major incidents of collective 'disorder'. Explanations for these incidents concentrated on the conflictual norms held by 'hooligans'. In contrast, Scottish supporters attending the tournament displayed norms of non-violence, explained by the popular press in terms of the absence of 'hooligans'. This study challenges this tendency to explain the presence or absence of 'disorder' in the context of football solely in terms of the presence or absence of 'hooligan' fans. Using data obtained from an ethnographic study of both Scottish and English supporters attending the tournament (N = 121), we examine the processes through which ordinarily 'peaceful' supporters would or would not become involved in collective conflict. In line with the Elaborated Social Identity Model (ESIM) of crowd behaviour, the analysis highlights the role of the intergroup context. Where out-group activity was understood as illegitimate in in-group terms, in-group members redefined their identity such that violent action toward out-group members came to be understood as legitimate. By contrast, where there was no out-group hostility, in-group members defined themselves through an explicit contrast with the 'hooligan' supporters of rival teams. This analysis represents an advance on previous studies of crowd behaviour by demonstrating how the ESIM can account for not only the presence, but also the absence, of collective 'disorder'.
Henry John Christiaan De Vries
Full Text Available Introduction: Earlier we showed that neuropathic complications limit social participation of ex-leprosy patients, even in a non-endemic leprosy setting like the Netherlands. Self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients can strengthen self-worth of participants, prevent further handicap, and enable the exchange of coping strategies. For non-endemic leprosy settings with a very low rate of leprosy patients a self-care group exclusively for (exleprosy patients is not likely to be feasible. A combined group with patients facing comparable morbidity would be more efficient than disease specific self-care groups. Here, we studied the comparability in social constraints of diabetic patients and ex-leprosy patients. Moreover, we investigated if combined self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients and diabetic patients would be desirable and acceptable for possible participants.Methods: Social participation was studied based on in-depth interviews and Participation Scale information collected from 41 diabetic patients and compared with the data of 31 ex-leprosy patients from a prior study. Moreover, we made an inventory of potential strengths and limitations and attitudes towards combined self-care groups for diabetic patients with neuropathy.Results: The following themes emerged among diabetic patients: disease confrontation, dependency, conflict with partner or relatives, feelings of inferiority, stigma, abandoning social activities, fear of the future, lack of information and hiding the disease. These themes were very similar to those voiced by the previously interviewed ex-leprosy patients. The latter more often mentioned stigma and disease ignorance among Dutch health care workers. Whereas ex-leprosy patients perceived stigma on multiple fronts, diabetic patients only mentioned feeling inferior. Diabetic patients experienced some form of participation restriction in 39% of the cases as opposed to 71% of the ex-leprosy patients. Diabetic patients did
Ian E Holliday
Full Text Available In perceptual terms, the human body is a complex 3d shape which has to be interpreted by the observer to judge its attractiveness. Both body mass and shape have been suggested as strong predictors of female attractiveness. Normally body mass and shape co-vary, and it is difficult to differentiate their separate effects. A recent study suggested that altering body mass does not modulate activity in the reward mechanisms of the brain, but shape does. However, using computer generated female body-shaped greyscale images, based on a Principal Component Analysis of female bodies, we were able to construct images which covary with real female body mass (indexed with BMI and not with body shape (indexed with WHR, and vice versa. Twelve observers (6 male and 6 female rated these images for attractiveness during an fMRI study. The attractiveness ratings were correlated with changes in BMI and not WHR. Our primary fMRI results demonstrated that in addition to activation in higher visual areas (such as the extrastriate body area, changing BMI also modulated activity in the caudate nucleus, and other parts of the brain reward system. This shows that BMI, not WHR, modulates reward mechanisms in the brain and we infer that this may have important implications for judgements of ideal body size in eating disordered individuals.
Full Text Available Purpose - This paper aims to examine the relationship between the female participation in top management team (TMT and the growth performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the Chinese economic environment. Design/methodology/approach - Adopting resource dependence theory, this paper tests the hypotheses using panel data from 469 Chinese-listed SMEs during the period of 2011 to 2013. Findings - The results show that female participation in TMT significantly promotes the growth performance of SMEs, and there is significantly inverted U-shaped relationship between these two variables. Originality/value - This paper finds that education level weakens the inverted U-shaped relationship between the female’s participation in TMT and the growth performance of SMEs.
Alexander R Gibson
Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.
Clésio de Oliveira Venâncio
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the voluntary community home care mode while a network of affective work in the region of Porto Santana in Cariacica – one of the municipalities of the Metropolitan Area of Greater Vitória – ES – Brazil. Method: an exploratory study, qualitative approach, held together with a group that develops community home care in the territory in which they live in the period April to October 2010. To obtain data group visits were made, targeted interviews and follow-up on their routines, if configuring a cartographic process. Results: the reports of the group's members and of the observations made during the trail pointed to the materialization of a practice where caring configures itself from the movement of living affections within a territory, having elements that make this natural alternative practice in an environment of constant motion.
Puneet Dwivedi; Arundhati Jagadish; John Schelhas
This study examines perceptions of three stakeholder groups (African American Family Forest Landowner,Â Government Agency, and Nonprofit) regarding federal landowner assistance programs in the southern UnitedÂ States by combining a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat) analysis with the AHP (analyticalÂ hierarchy process). Factors with the highest priority...
Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased con-tinuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Ca-loric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.
The Director General has received a letter dated 1 October 2009 from the Resident Representative of Hungary to the Agency on behalf of the Participating Governments of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its Origins, Role and Activities.' The original version of this paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997: revisions were issued on 17 April 2000, 16 September 2003 and 30 May 2005
The Director General has received a letter dated 1 October 2009 from the Resident Representative of Hungary to the Agency on behalf of the Participating Governments of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its Origins, Role and Activities.' The original version of this paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997: revisions were issued on 17 April 2000, 16 September 2003 and 30 May 2005 [es
Elisabeth Meloni Vieira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study HIV-positive women and women at risk of becoming infected with HIV who attended HIV prevention education group sessions at a university hospital in Bra-zil and to compare the use of the female condom and the male condom by these two groups of women. METHODS: The study subjects were 165 women participating in HIV prevention education group sessions at the Medical School Hospital of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo, in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Women could be enrolled in the study from August 2000 to June 2001, and the follow-up observation time period was from August 2000 to July 2001. Male condoms and female condoms were freely distributed to all the participants at the end of each educational session and also at the end of each follow-up visit that the participants made. Each woman took part in an initial interview and was asked to return monthly. At each follow-up visit an additional short interview was carried out in order to investigate use of the male condom and of the female condom. Variables that were examined for the study included age, education, ethnic group, marital or relationship status, number of children, the women's use of male condoms and female condoms, commercial sex (whether the women had ever had sex in exchange for money, gifts, or favors, and previous knowledge of the female condom. RESULTS: The 165 women studied fell into the following three categories: 132 of them (80.0% were HIV-positive, 26 of them (15.8% had a sexually transmitted disease (STD other than HIV and did not have an HIV-positive partner, and 7 of them (4.2% had an HIV-positive partner but did not have HIV or any other STD. The women ranged in age from 15 to 64 years, with a mean of 30.3 years. Of the women in the study, 69.7% of them were married or were cohabitating, and 90.9% of them had a sexual partner. Just over two-thirds of the women had seven years of formal schooling or less. Out of 163
Su, Jing; Hato-Yamada, Noriko; Araki, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki
The forced swimming test (FST) in mice is widely used to predict the antidepressant activity of a drug, but information describing the immobility of female mice is limited. We investigated whether a prior swimming experience affects the immobility duration in a second FST in female mice and whether the test-retest paradigm is a valid screening tool for antidepressants. Female ICR mice were exposed to the FST using two experimental paradigms: a single FST and a double FST in which mice had experienced FST once 24 h prior to the second trail. The initial FST experience reliably prolonged immobility duration in the second FST. The antidepressants imipramine and paroxetine significantly reduced immobility duration in the single FST, but not in the double FST. Scopolamine and the sigma-1 (σ1) antagonist NE-100 administered before the second trial significantly prevented the prolongation of immobility. Neither a 5-HT1A nor a 5-HT2A receptor agonist affected immobility duration. We suggest that the test-retest paradigm in female mice is not adequate for predicting antidepressant-like activity of a drug; the prolongation of immobility in the double FST is modulated through acetylcholine and σ1 receptors.
Full Text Available Purpose. One of the keys to identifying health problems from the holistic perspective is the knowledge of Type D personality (distressed personality. Diagnosing this personality disorder among female football players may help sports psychologists, coaches, parents/caregivers, and all those engaged in training new sports entrants develop guidelines on how to resolve the problem. Methods. The study involved female footballers representing a Polish Ekstraliga football club, AZS-PSW Biała Podlaska, and was conducted with the use of the Polish adaptation of the DS14 scale. Results. In a group of 21 footballers, 7 (33.3% were diagnosed with Type D personality. Besides, a negative correlation was noted between the level of satisfaction with playing football and one of the dimensions of Type D personality - negative emotionality. Conclusions. The results of the study may be applicable in formulating practical recommendations while preparing mental training programmes.
Sandsjö, L; Larsman, P; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R
There is a lack of consistent and comprehensive questionnaire forms for the studies of factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders at the European level. One of the results of the EU-funded project, neuromuscular assessment in the elderly worker (NEW), is a set of questionnaires...... for the screening of musculoskeletal status and the studies of factors that are believed to affect musculoskeletal health. The questionnaires have been used among elderly women (45+) in different occupations and organisations in Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. The aim of this short communication...... is to present the questionnaires used in the NEW study and to evaluate the appropriateness of pooling data gathered in each participating country into a common database. It is concluded that although differences exist among the study samples, these are not of such a magnitude or pattern that data from the four...
King, Jaime; Moulton, Benjamin
In 2007 Washington State became the first state to enact legislation encouraging the use of shared decision making and decision aids to address deficiencies in the informed-consent process. Group Health volunteered to fulfill a legislated mandate to study the costs and benefits of integrating these shared decision-making processes into clinical practice across a range of conditions for which multiple treatment options are available. The Group Health Demonstration Project, conducted during 2009-11, yielded five key lessons for successful implementation, including the synergy between efforts to reduce practice variation and increase shared decision making; the need to support modifications in practice with changes in physician training and culture; and the value of identifying best implementation methods through constant evaluation and iterative improvement. These lessons, and the legislated provisions that supported successful implementation, can guide other states and health care institutions moving toward informed patient choice as the standard of care for medical decision making.
Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
Statistics about the recreational physical activity (PA) of minority ethnic Muslim women reveal very low participation rates. Drawing on approaches to socialization and Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and taste, the aim of this study was to investigate the (lack of) PA participation of Muslim mino...
ALEXANDER, FRANK D.
IN AN ATTEMPT TO LEARN WHETHER THE HUMAN RELATIONS EMPHASIS IN A SERIES OF STUDY GROUPS INFLUENCED THE OPINIONS OF FARM OPERATOR PARTICIPANTS CONCERNING FARM LABOR, 61 OPERATORS WERE PRETESTED AND POSTTESTED WITH A 37 ITEM TEST ON WORK INCENTIVES AND MOTIVATION, PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDES, SALARY AND FRINGE BENEFITS, AND MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS AND…
Stirn, Aglaja; Hinz, Andreas
Reliable psychosocial data about practitioners of body piercing and tattooing are few and controversial. The goal of this study was to reinvestigate the issue by studying a large sample of individuals with body modifications (BMs), focusing on the motives and relations to biographical events. A 55-item anonymous self-report questionnaire was distributed among volunteers of what is considered to be a core group of individuals wearing BMs (N=432). Results show that BMs changed the participants' attitude toward their body considerably, and 34% of all participants reported BM practices in conjunction with decisive biographical events. Twenty-seven percent of the participants admitted self-cutting during childhood. This group differed from the group without self-cutting with respect to several features before, during, and after BM. The rate of medical complications of BM was 16% in the total sample, with a remarkably higher rate (26%) among participants with a history of self-cutting. The data suggest that the significance of BMs ranges from simple peer group imitations to highly informative symptoms of possibly severe psychopathological conditions. In the latter case, BMs sometimes serve as therapeutic substitutes.
Gadin, Katja Gillander; Weiner, Gaby; Ahlgren, Christina
A school health promotion project was carried out in an elementary school in Sweden where active participation, gender equality, and empowerment were leading principles. The objective of the study was to understand challenges and to identify social processes of importance for such a project. Focus group interviews were conducted with 6 single-sex…
Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.
Full Text Available John M Mayer,1 James L Nuzzo,1 Simon Dagenais2 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2Palladian Health, West Seneca, NY, USA Background: Firefighters are at increased risk for back injuries, which may be mitigated through exercise therapy to increase trunk muscle endurance. However, long-term adherence to exercise therapy is generally poor, limiting its potential benefits. Focus groups can be used to identify key barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence among study participants. Objective: To explore barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters to inform future randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Methods: Participants enrolled in a previous RCT requiring twice-weekly worksite exercise therapy for 24 weeks were asked to take part in moderated focus group discussions centered on eight open-ended questions related to exercise adherence. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using a social ecological framework to identify key intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional barriers and potential facilitators to exercise adherence. Results: A total of 27 participants were included in the four focus group discussions, representing 50% of those assigned to a worksite exercise therapy group in the previous RCT, in which only 67% of scheduled exercise therapy sessions were completed. Lack of self-motivation was cited as the key intrapersonal barrier to adherence, while lack of peer support was the key interpersonal barrier reported, and lack of time to exercise during work shifts was the key institutional barrier identified. Conclusion: Focus group discussions identified both key barriers and potential facilitators to increase worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters. Future studies should consider educating and reminding participants about the benefits of exercise, providing individual and group incentives based on
van den Eijnde, F.
This doctoral thesis addresses the question of early Athenian statehood from the vantage point of the cultic remains. One of the main tenets of this book is that the principle stage for Athenian self-representation in the Classical Period, the cult of Athena on the Acropolis, was neither the only nor the first rallying point for the inhabitants of Attica in the Early Iron Age. It is argued that the Athenaioi (the “Men of Athena”) originated as an elite group, whose franchise did not extend be...
Guin, J D; Berry, V K
The incidence of contact sensitivity to a perfume mix was investigated in two groups of student nurses by questionnaire and patch testing. Twenty-nine of ninety gave a history of dermatitis on exposure to fragrances or perfumed cosmetics. Fifteen of eighty-five showed a positive patch test reaction to a perfume mix comprising 2% concentrations of eight different perfume ingredients, and twelve of the fifteen had a positive history. Chi-square analysis of the data indicates that the results of the two methods of measurements are significantly related (p < 0.0001).
de Vries, Henry J C; de Groot, Roos; van Brakel, Wim H
Earlier, we showed that neuropathic complications limit social participation of ex-leprosy patients, even in a non-endemic leprosy setting like the Netherlands. Self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients can strengthen self-worth of participants, prevent further handicap, and enable the exchange of coping strategies. For non-endemic leprosy settings with a very low rate of leprosy patients, a self-care group exclusively for (ex)leprosy patients is not likely to be feasible. A combined group with patients facing comparable morbidity would be more efficient than disease-specific self-care groups. Here, we studied the comparability in social constraints of diabetic patients and ex-leprosy patients. Moreover, we investigated if combined self-care groups for ex-leprosy patients and diabetic patients would be desirable and acceptable for possible participants. Social participation was studied based on in-depth interviews and Participation Scale information collected from 41 diabetic patients and compared with the data of 31 ex-leprosy patients from a prior study. Moreover, we made an inventory of potential strengths and limitations and attitudes toward combined self-care groups for diabetic patients with neuropathy. The following themes emerged among diabetic patients: disease confrontation, dependency, conflict with partner or relatives, feelings of inferiority, stigma, abandoning social activities, fear of the future, lack of information, and hiding the disease. These themes were very similar to those voiced by the previously interviewed ex-leprosy patients. The latter more often mentioned stigma and disease ignorance among Dutch health care workers. Whereas ex-leprosy patients perceived stigma on multiple fronts, diabetic patients only mentioned feeling inferior. Diabetic patients experienced some form of participation restriction in 39% of the cases as opposed to 71% of the ex-leprosy patients. Diabetic patients did acknowledge the comparability with leprosy as far as
Full Text Available This paper describes and quantifies the role of group facilitation in an experiential, real-time, online, university level credit course entitled eAHSC/ 230 Interpersonal Communications and Relations. A new and unique group interaction pattern called parallel communication, as well as classical elements of group interaction are described and quantified. New measures of online group facilitation attributes with analogous face-to-face (F2F counterparts are presented. Specifically, the impact of effective group facilitation on Attentiveness, on Interaction, on Involvement, and on Participation is explored. The paper also examines the eClassrom’s potential effectiveness as a real time teaching and training laboratory which also functions as a process observation tool that collects and feeds back interaction data, providing teachers and trainers immediate and ongoing measures of facilitation effectiveness.
Batenburg, Anika; Das, Enny
Previous research on the effects of online peer support on psychological well-being of patients with cancer showed mixed findings. There is a need for longitudinal studies explaining if and when online peer-led support groups are beneficial. How patients cope with emotions that come along with the cancer diagnosis might influence effectiveness of online participation. Emotional approach coping is a construct encompassing the intentional use of emotional processing and emotional expression in efforts to manage adverse circumstances. In this longitudinal study, we hypothesize that mixed findings in previous research are partly caused by individual differences in coping with emotions, which may moderate the effects of online support group participation on patients' well-being. A total of 133 Dutch patients with breast cancer filled out a baseline (T0) and a follow-up (T1, 6 months later) questionnaire assessing intensity of online participation within the online support community, emotional approach coping (ie, actively processing and expressing emotions), and psychological well-being (depression, emotional well-being, and breast cancer-related concerns). There were 109 patients who visited an online support community at both points in time. Repeated measures ANOVAs assessed change in well-being over time. Results showed 3-way interactions of time, online intensity of participation, and emotional approach coping on emotional well-being (F1,89=4.232, P=.04, η(2) ρ=.045) and depression (F1,88=8.167, P=.005, η(2) ρ=.085). Online support group participation increased emotional well-being over time for patients who scored low on emotional approach coping at T0, provided that they were highly active online. Patients who were highly active online with a high score on emotional approach coping reported no change in sense of well-being, but showed the highest score on well-being overall. Participating less frequently online was only beneficial for patients who scored high
Beladev, Noa; Masharawi, Youssef
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of active group-exercising on women with non specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) in a sitting position. 25 females with NSCLBP underwent 8 group sitting-exercise sessions of a 45 minute duration, over an 8 week period. Pain intensity (VAS), back specific disability (Rolland Morris questionnaire-RMQ), and lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion were measured twice, for reliability tests and cut-off score values, with a 1 week interval between measurements, prior to intervention and subsequently, six weeks following intervention. Several significant changes in outcome measures were indicated following intervention compared with baseline (p position, improved the functional, painful status and lumbar ranges of motion in the sagittal plane of women suffering from non specific chronic low back pain. As sitting is considered the most common posture in today's workplace, applying this protocol during working hours would be very effective.
Lesniak-Karpiak, Katarzyna; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Ross, Judith L.
This study compared 29 females with Turner syndrome and 21 females with fragile X syndrome (ages 6-22) on a videotaped role-play interaction with 34 females in a comparison group. Three of eight behavioral measures of social skills differentiated the participant groups. Fragile-X subjects required more time to initiate interactions and Turner…
Correa, Loreto A; Zapata, Beatriz; Samaniego, Horacio; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio
Social life involves costs and benefits mostly associated with how individuals interact with each other. The formation of hierarchies inside social groups has evolved as a common strategy to avoid high costs stemming from social interactions. Hierarchical relationships seem to be associated with different features such as body size, body condition and/or age, which determine dominance ability ('prior attributes' hypothesis). In contrast, the 'social dynamic' hypothesis suggests that an initial social context is a determinant in the formation of the hierarchy, more so than specific individual attributes. Hierarchical rank places individuals in higher positions, which presumably increases resource accessibility to their benefit, including opportunities for reproduction. We evaluate the maintenance of hierarchy in a family group of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the stability of these interactions and their consequences. We estimate the linearity of social hierarchy and their dynamics. We find evidence of the formation of a highly linear hierarchy among females with males positioned at the bottom of the hierarchy. This hierarchy is not affected by physical characteristics or age, suggesting that it is established only through intra-group interactions. Rank is not related with calves' weight gain either; however, subordinated females, with lower rank, exhibit higher rates of allosuckling. We found no evidence of hierarchical structure in calves suggesting that hierarchical relationship in guanacos could be established during the formation of the family group. Hence, our results suggest that hierarchical dynamics could be related more to social dynamics than to prior attributes. We finally discuss the importance of hierarchies established by dominance and their role in minimizing social costs of interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Rindal, D Brad
, their importance is even further elevated. Our objective was to determine whether we met a key objective for The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN): to recruit a diverse range of practitioner-investigators interested in doing DPBRN studies. METHODS: DPBRN participants completed an enrollment...... DPBRN-participating dentists, their practices, and their patient populations. CONCLUSION: Although as a group, participants have much in common with practices at large; their substantial diversity offers important advantages, such as being able to evaluate how practice differences may affect treatment...... outcomes, while simultaneously offering generalizability to dentists at large. This should help foster knowledge transfer in both the research-to-practice and practice-to-research directions....
McDonough, Meghan H; Patterson, Michelle C; Weisenbach, Beth B; Ullrich-French, Sarah; Sabiston, Catherine M
Peer support can be helpful in rehabilitation from breast cancer, but participation in peer support groups is low. Groups that provide support opportunities in physical activity contexts are an attractive alternative for some survivors. This study examined survivors' reasons for joining and maintaining participation on a dragon boat team, along with perceptions of barriers and attractions to traditional peer support groups. Seventeen breast cancer survivors were interviewed on five occasions over their first two seasons of a newly formed dragon boating team to explore their perceptions of peer support groups and dragon boating. Data were inductively analyzed using thematic analysis. Categories surrounding physical, psychological, social and community features were identified with several themes emerging within each. Advantages of dragon boating included opportunities to get a combination of physical, psychosocial and community benefits; health improvement and behavior change; and obtaining social support without the focus being on cancer. Peer support groups were identified as having advantages for forming relationships and avoiding barriers associated with physical activity. While neither type of program meets all needs, practical considerations are identified for incorporating advantages of both programs to improve participation. Implications for rehabilitation Further understanding of perceptions, and attractions and challenges to taking part in group programs will inform development of accessible programs that target multiple rehabilitation needs. Physical activity can provide a positive, alternative focus that takes the emphasis off of cancer, which is more accessible to some survivors. Physical activity also provides opportunities to build relationships around a common, positive goal, which can be a foundation for providing support for coping with cancer.
Friedrich, Mariola; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna
The influence of diet content and its supplementation with chosen group of B vitamins on the intake of feeding stuff increase, changes of body mass, accumulation of fat tissue, lipids and lipoproteins concentration in the blood of female rats were under research. The animals, aged 5 months, were divided into three groups (8 persons each) and fed ad libitum with granulated Labofeed B type mix. Group I with the basic mix containing among other things whole grain, Group II with a modified mix, where whole grain was replaced by wheat flour and saccharose and Group III with modified mix supplemented in excess with chosen vitamins of B group. This experiment took 6 weeks during which the amount of consumed feed was currently evaluated, and the body mass was controlled weekly. After finishing the experiment in the obtained serum the concentration of triacylglycerols, complete cholesterol with enzyme method and the content of cholesterol fractions with electrophoretic separation method were determined. Analysis of fat content in muscles and livers was conducted and the amount of round the bodily organ fat was determined. It was ascertained that change of the content of the feed and its supplementation with the chosen B group vitamins did not influence in a substantial way its intake and the increase of body mass, however it had influenced substantially, in animals fed with the modified feed the accumulation of round the organ fat and in supplemented the intramuscular fat. Analysis of the results enabled the ascertainment that the diet supplementation with chosen ingredients of the B group vitamins corrects the negative effect of accumulation of the visceral fat tissue as a result of the change of its contents, caused substantial increase in the concentration of triacylglycerols, complete cholesterol and its fractions VLDL- and LDL- with simultaneous decrease of the concentration of cholesterol HDL- fractions.
Abildsnes, Eirik; Stea, Tonje H; Berntsen, Sveinung; Omfjord, Christina S; Rohde, Gudrun
High quality physical education programs in high schools may facilitate adoption of sustainable healthy living among adolescents. Public health nurses often meet students who avoid taking part in physical education programs. We aimed to explore physical education teachers' and public health nurses' perceptions of high school students' attitudes towards physical education, and to explore physical education teachers' thoughts about how to facilitate and promote students' participation in class. Prior to an initiative from physical education teachers, introducing a new physical education model in two high schools in the South of Norway, we conducted focus groups with 6 physical education teachers and 8 public health nurses. After implementation of the new model, we conducted two additional focus group interviews with 10 physical education teachers. In analyses we used Systematic Text Condensation and an editing analysis style. In general, the students were experienced as engaged and appreciating physical education lessons. Those who seldom attended often strived with other subjects in school as well, had mental health problems, or were characterized as outsiders in several arenas. Some students were reported to be reluctant to expose their bodies in showers after class, and students who seldom attended physical education class frequently visited the school health services. Although the majority of students were engaged in class, several of the students lacked knowledge about physical fitness and motoric skills to be able to master daily activities. The participants related the students' competence and attitude towards participation in physical education class to previous experiences in junior high school, to the competence of physical education teachers, and to possibility for students to influence the content of physical education programs. The participants suggested that high school students' attitudes towards participation in physical education is heterogeneous
Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E; Sun, Christina J; Painter, Thomas M; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D
The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupo s intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupo s intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Qualitative analysis of the participants' responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention's key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants' stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants' intentions to share information with their peers may
Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.
Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…
The Director General has received a letter dated 10 May 2005 from the Government of Sweden on behalf of participating Governments of the 'Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).' Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its Origins, Role and Activities.' The original version of this paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997, and revisions were issued on 17 April 2000 and 16 September 2003. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of the letter, the revised version of the paper, attached hereto, is being circulated to Member States of the IAEA
The Director General has received a letter dated 1 October 2009 from the Resident Representative of Hungary to the Agency on behalf of the Participating Governments of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.1 Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its Origins, Role and Activities. The original version of this paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997: revisions were issued on 17 April 2000, 16 September 2003 and 30 May 2005. As requested in the letter, the revised version of the paper, attached hereto, is being circulated to Member States of the IAEA
Tadeu Gomes Teixeira
Full Text Available The focus of this article is to analyze how social relations based on sex/gender and gender images have influenced the inclusion and participation of women in the operational area of the Brazilian Post and Telegraph Company (ECT. We seek to answer the following questions: How do the social relations based on sex and gender images influence the inclusion and participation of women in the state company? What is the image of women’s work in the company and how this image affects the career advancement? In what manner the union demands and the work management policies positions themselves in relation to gender issues? It is found that the workforce in ECT is mostly male and that the social relations based on sex presents a gender image among the employees, makers of labor management policies and trade unionists which associate the company work activities to men, reinforcing unequal sex/gender relations in this environment.
Fischer, Justina AV; Aydıner-Avşar, Nursel
This article aims to compare women in the MENA region with women in Europe as to how globalization affects their conservative values and attitudes, and, thereby, their labor market participation. The authors define conservative values as both religious values and socio-political attitudes relating to family issues and leadership. Using micro data from the World Values Survey covering over 80 countries between 1981 and 2014, we employ three distinct indicators of globalization that reflect, fi...
Wallace, Jean E; Young, Marisa C
There has been a considerable amount of research that documents how women and men spend their time in different work and home tasks. We examine how much time professional women and men spend in paid and unpaid work and how this relates to their participation in different leisure activities. We also explore whether time in paid and unpaid work has gender-specific effects on leisure participation. In examining these issues, we rely on data from lawyers working in different legal settings. Our results show that, as hypothesized, men report more time in paid work and leisure whereas women devote more time to housework and childcare. An unexpected finding is that the time men spend in housework or childcare is either unrelated or positively related to their leisure participation. These results suggest that men's greater overall opportunities for leisure compared with women's appear to stem from the unanticipated relationships between men's involvement in housework and childcare and their leisure activities. We raise several possible explanations for these findings.
Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Eys, Mark A; Emond, Michael; Buzdon, Michael
Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extra-curricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a) athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b) females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception.
Logie, Carmen H; Daniel, CarolAnn
The 2010 earthquake resulted in the breakdown of Haiti's social, economic and health infrastructure. Over one-quarter of a million people remain internally displaced (ID). ID women experience heightened vulnerability to intimate partner violence (IPV) due to increased poverty and reduced community networks. Scant research has examined experiences of IPV among ID women in post-earthquake Haiti. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the impact of participating in Famn an Aksyon Pou Santé Yo (FASY), a small-group HIV prevention intervention, on ID women's agency in Leogane, Haiti. We conducted four focus groups with ID women, FASY participants (n = 40) and in-depth individual interviews with peer health workers (n = 7). Our study was guided by critical ethnography and paid particular attention to power relations. Findings highlighted multiple forms of IPV (e.g., physical, sexual). Participants discussed processes of intrapersonal (confidence), interpersonal (communication), relational (support) and collective (women's rights) agency. Yet structural factors, including patriarchal gender norms and poverty, silenced IPV discussions and constrained women's agency. Findings suggest that agency among ID women is a multi-level, non-linear and incremental process. To effectively address IPV among ID women in Haiti, interventions should address structural contexts of gender inequity and poverty and concurrently facilitate multi-level processes of agency.
Usuda-Sato, K.; Iizuka, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Handa, T.
Translation of information from English is an essential step toward ensuring the involvement of non-English speakers in global events. The NameExoWorlds competition, led by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), was held from 9 July 2014 to 15 December 2015. It was a unique event that invited the public to name celestial bodies. In Japan, language acts as a significant barrier for amateur astronomers and school students to participate in global events hosted in English. To address this concern, we established a domestic working group to set up a Japanese website and provided a translation of the IAU's official site for the NameExoWorlds competition. We also developed additional original information in Japanese when needed and sent announcements to a mailing lists of astronomy societies in Japan. As a result, 28% of the registered groups and 47% of proposals for names were from Japan, making Japan the most active country for these stages of the competition. After the competition had ended, we carried out a survey in the Japanese astronomy community and received 124 responses. We found that most of the Japanese participants referred to our official Japanese website in order to overcome the language barrier and participate in the competition. This article explores our work of translating the competition information into Japanese and our evaluation of the impact of this action on the uptake by Japanese astronomy enthusiasts.
Gadzic, Aleksandar; Vuckovic, Igor
Study aim: To examine the relationships between sport participation and sociometric status of adolescent youths. Material and methods: A group of 359 secondary school students from central Serbia (143 male and 216 female) aged 16-19 years participated in the study. The subjects were given questionnaires pertaining to their participation in sports…
Liddle, Jeannine L M; Lovarini, Meryl; Clemson, Lindy M; Jang, Haeyoung; Willis, Karen; Lord, Stephen R; Sherrington, Catherine
Research on older men's views regarding fall prevention is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and perspectives of older men regarding fall risk and prevention so that fall prevention programmes can better engage older men. Eleven men who had taken part in a group-based fall prevention programme called Stepping On conducted at Men's Sheds in Sydney, Australia, participated in semi-structured interviews during June and July 2015 which were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were coded and analysed using constant comparative methods. Over-arching theoretical categories were developed into a conceptual framework linking programme context and content with effects of programme participation on men. Men's Sheds facilitated participation in the programme by being inclusive, male-friendly places, where Stepping On was programmed into regular activities and was conducted in an enjoyable, supportive atmosphere. Programme content challenged participants to think differently about themselves and their personal fall risk, and provided practical options to address fall risk. Two major themes were identified: adjusting the mindset where men adopted a more cautious mindset paying greater attention to potential fall risks, being careful, concentrating and slowing down; and changing the ways where men acted purposefully on environmental hazards at home and incorporated fall prevention exercises into their routine schedules. Practitioners can engage and support older men to address falls by better understanding men's perspectives on personal fall risk and motivations for action. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Juul, Lise; Rowlands, Gill; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
AIMS: To investigate associations between health literacy (HL) and diet and physical activity, and motivation and diet and physical activity in Danish people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design including 194 individuals with type 2 diabetes participating in peer......, for people with type 2 diabetes, functional HL and autonomous motivation may be important drivers for following diet recommendations, and autonomous motivation may be the most important factor for following recommendations regarding physical activity. These concepts may therefore be highly relevant......-led support groups provided by the Danish Diabetes Association between January-December 2015. The participants completed a questionnaire at the first meeting including; The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) measure, The Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ) (Self-Determination Theory...
Lee, Hyo Young; Short, Stephanie Doris
This was a comparative study between Australia and Korea that investigated whether and to what extent factors related to self-rated good health (SRGH) differ by gender among age groups. This study was a secondary analysis of data that were collected in nationally representative, cross-sectional, and population-based surveys. We analyzed Australian and Korean participants > 20 years of age using 2011 data from the Australian National Nutritional Physical Activity Survey (n = 9,276) and the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (n = 5,915). Analyses were based on multiple logistic regression after controlling for covariates. Factors associated with SRGH and the extent of their influence differed by gender among age groups within each nation. Australian SRGH was associated with more factors than Korean SRGH, except in participants > 65 years old. Many differences among adults aged 20-44 years were observed, particularly with regard to the influence of socioeconomic factors. Living with a spouse only influenced SRGH in men 20-44 years old in both countries, negatively for Korean men and positively for Australian men. In this same age group, SRGH was positively influenced by employment and attainment of a higher education level in Australian men but not among Korean men; among women, income, but not education, affected SRGH in Korea, whereas in Australia, women were more influenced by education than by income. Lack of chronic disease had a strong influence on SRGH in both countries and was influential in all Australians and Koreans except those ≥ 65 years old. Broad features of society should be considered when discussing health and differences in associated factors and their influences. For focused public health interventions of population groups, it is also necessary to consider gender and age groups within social environments.
The UK international participation is mainly at CERN although some British high energy physicists work at DESY in Germany, the Fermi Laboratory in the USA and, indeed, elsewhere as well. The UK subscription to CERN is 16% of the budget. The present state of high energy physics at CERN is summarized and the building of LEP explained. The Group's recommendations are that the UK's financial contribution to CERN should continue until LEP is built (by the early 1990s) but should then, because of the prevailing financial climate gradually be reduced by 25%. (U.K.)
Majevs'ka, Yo.O.; Buzunov, V.O.
Data on the Chernobyl disaster survivors received from the State Registry of Ukraine are out line in the paper. Review of the level and pattern of genital system morbidity was carried out for the 17,237 female participants of the ChNPP accident cleanup works in 1986-1987 depending on time under risk upon radiation expo sure and reproductive age at exposure. Survey period lasted since 1988 till 2012. Assessment of morbidity level, confidential intervals, and statistical significance was carried out using the trial version of OpenEpiversion 2.3.1. software. Statistical significance was also rated using the z-score and t- criterion. The results of this cohort epidemiological study showed that there are some peculiarities of natural course of the female genital system disease depending on reproductive age at exposure and time under risk upon radiation impact. Comparative statistical review of the level and pattern of genital system morbidity at different times within a survey period. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the childbearing age (18-45 years old) can be a risk factor of elevated incidence of uterine leiomyoma, benign mammary dysplasia (i.e. benign breast disease), and salpingooophoritis. It is far to assume that uterine and mammary tissues are more sensitive to impact of ionizing radiation in females of the childbearing age vs. in persons exposed in premenopause or menopause
Blincoe, William D; Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Saurí, Josep; Pierson, Nicholas A; Joyce, Leo A; Mangion, Ian; Sheng, Huaming
Benzoic acid/ester/amide derivatives are common moieties in pharmaceutical compounds and present a challenge in positional isomer identification by traditional tandem mass spectrometric analysis. A method is presented for exploiting the gas-phase neighboring group participation (NGP) effect to differentiate ortho-substituted benzoic acid/ester derivatives with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS 1 ). Significant water/alcohol loss (>30% abundance in MS 1 spectra) was observed for ortho-substituted nucleophilic groups; these fragment peaks are not observable for the corresponding para and meta-substituted analogs. Experiments were also extended to the analysis of two intermediates in the synthesis of suvorexant (Belsomra) with additional analysis conducted with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), density functional theory (DFT), and ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) studies. Significant water/alcohol loss was also observed for 1-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazoles but not for the isomeric 2-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazole analogs. IMS-MS, NMR, and DFT studies were conducted to show that the preferred orientation of the 2-substituted triazole rotamer was away from the electrophilic center of the reaction, whereas the 1-subtituted triazole was oriented in close proximity to the center. Abundance of NGP product was determined to be a product of three factors: (1) proton affinity of the nucleophilic group; (2) steric impact of the nucleophile; and (3) proximity of the nucleophile to carboxylic acid/ester functional groups. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E.; Sun, Christina J.; Painter, Thomas M.; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D.
Objective The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. Methods We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupos intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupos intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Results Qualitative analysis of the participants’ responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Conclusion Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention’s key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants’ stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants’ intentions to
Full Text Available While HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment remains common despite the widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART, there have been relatively few studies investigating the trajectories of neurocognitive change in longitudinal NeuroAIDS studies.To estimate the magnitude and pattern of neurocognitive change over the first 3 years of follow-up using Group-Based Trajectory Analysis (GBTA applied to participants in the longitudinal arm of the CHARTER cohort.The study population consisted of 701 CHARTER participants who underwent neuropsychological (NP testing on at least 2 occasions. Raw test scores on 15 NP measures were modeled using GBTA. Each trajectory was categorized as stable, improved or declined, according to two different criteria for change (whether the magnitude of the estimated change at 36 months differed ≥ 0.5 standard deviations from baseline value or changed by > the standard error of measurement estimated at times 1 and 2. Individuals who declined on one or more NP measures were categorized as decliners.Overall, 111 individuals (15.8% declined on at least one NP test over 36 months, with the vast majority showing decline on a single NP test (93/111-83.8%. The posterior probability of group assignment was high in most participants (71% after only 2 sessions, and in the overwhelming majority of those with 3+ sessions. Heterogeneity of trajectories was the norm rather than the exception. Individuals who declined had, on average, worse baseline NP performance on every test, were older, had a longer duration of HIV infection and more follow-up sessions.The present study identified heterogeneous trajectories over 3 years across 15 NP raw test scores using GBTA. Cognitive decline was observed in only a small subset of this study cohort. Decliners had demographics and HIV characteristics that have been previously associated with cognitive decline, suggesting clinical validity for the method.
Integrating Group Counseling, Cell Phone Messaging, and Participant-Generated Songs and Dramas into a Microcredit Program Increases Nigerian Women’s Adherence to International Breastfeeding Recommendations123
Flax, Valerie L.; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J.; Bentley, Margaret E.
In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5–7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely
Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.
Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E
In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of core training program on speed, acceleration, vertical jump, and standing long jump in female soccer players. A total of 40 female soccer players volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: core training group (CTG; n = 20) and control group (CG;…
Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali
Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using ?Instagram application? with a ?home-exercise program? as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ? 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by ?...
Morag, Ido; Luria, Gil
Most studies concerned with participative ergonomic (PE) interventions, focus on organizational rather than group level analysis. By implementing an intervention at a manufacturing plant, the current study, utilizing advanced information systems, measured the effect of line-supervisor leadership on employee exposure to risks. The study evaluated which PE dimensions (i.e., extent of workforce involvement, diversity of reporter role types and scope of analysis) are related to such exposure at the group level. The data for the study was extracted from two separate computerized systems (workforce medical records of 791 employees and an intranet reporting system) during a two-year period. While the results did not confirm the effect of line-supervisor leadership on subordinates' exposure to risks, they did demonstrate relationships between PE dimensions and the employees' exposure to risks. The results support the suggested level of analysis and demonstrate that group-based analysis facilitates the assimilation of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Punyam, Swarup; Pullikalu, Renuka Somanatha; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Sandri, Prashanth; Mutupuru, Balakrishna Prasad; Kokku, Suresh Babu; Parimi, Prabhakar
To examine the association between the presence of community advocacy groups (CAGs) and female sex workers' (FSWs) access to social entitlements and outcomes of police advocacy. Data were used from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010-2011 among 1986 FSWs and 104 NGO outreach workers from five districts of Andhra Pradesh. FSWs were recruited using a probability-based sampling from 104 primary sampling units (PSUs). A PSU is a geographical area covered by one outreach worker and is expected to have an active CAG as per community mobilisation efforts. The presence of active CAGs was defined as the presence of an active committee or advocacy group in the area (PSU). Outcome indicators included acquisition of different social entitlements and measures of police response as reported by FSWs. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Areas with active CAGs compared with their counterparts had a significantly higher mean number of FSWs linked to ration cards (12.8 vs 6.8; p<0.01), bank accounts (9.3 vs 5.9; p=0.05) and health insurance (13.1 vs 7.0; p=0.02). A significantly higher percentage of FSWs from areas with active CAGs as compared with others reported that the police treat them more fairly now than a year before (79.7% vs 70.3%; p<0.05) and the police explained the reasons for arrest when arrested the last time (95.7% vs 87%; p<0.05). FSWs from areas with active CAGs were more likely to access certain social entitlements and to receive a fair response from the police, highlighting the contributions of CAGs in community mobilisation.
Niemi, Jarkko K; Heikkilä, Jaakko
The participation of agricultural producers in financing losses caused by livestock epidemics has been debated in many countries. One of the issues raised is how reluctant producers are to participate voluntarily in the financing of disease losses before an outbreak occurs. This study contributes to the literature by examining whether disease losses should be financed through pre- or post-outbreak premiums or their combination. A Monte Carlo simulation was employed to illustrate the costs of financing two diseases of different profiles. The profiles differed in the probability in which the damage occurs and in the average damage per event. Three hypothetical financing schemes were compared based on their ability to reduce utility losses in the case of risk-neutral and risk-averse producer groups. The schemes were examined in a dynamic setting where premiums depended on the compensation history of the sector. If producers choose the preferred financing scheme based on utility losses, results suggest that the timing of the premiums, the transaction costs of the scheme, the degree of risk aversion of the producer, and the level and the volatility of premiums affect the choice of the financing scheme. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper presents a critical, on a social-political level, of development of psychotherapy, seen as the health discipline, especially in that part of the world called West, scientifically established itself through the evaluation of the effectiveness of its two most common types of setting: Individual and Group- Psychotherapy. Through a social-anthropological interpretation of mental processes which it underpins, and a group analytical analysis of organizational and institutional dynamics that led to its evolution, the authors highlight the significant impasse in which psychotherapy finds itself today compared to new and more pervasive forms of mental suffering. Following on of the latest scientific research on the functioning of the mind and of new policy proposals from the World Health Organization, it is suggested so a form of basic psychotherapy, focused on the quality of the mental health of human contexts, defined Community-Focused Psychotherapy. This new form of psychotherapy is wrong simply understood as a new setting, alongside the classic individual, group, or family setting, but as a political-cultural background and a theoretical-methodological framework, so for different psychotherapeutic treatment (individual, group , family put in place in cases of specific psychopathological symptoms, as for a number of other clinical and social programs, carried out by professionals, workers and (formerly users, who support the empowerment of people, with serious psychological disorders or severe mental illness, in their own social contexts of belonging, and in their own recovery, through the active participation of all those therapeutic processes that support their care.
Burke, Lee-Ann; Murphy, Elizabeth
This study explores how female students compare learning computer technology in a single- versus a mixed- gender school setting. Twelve females participated, all of whom were enrolled in a grade 12 course in Communications' Technology. Data collection included a questionnaire, a semi-structured interview and focus groups. Participants described…
In connection to their work on developing a 'general advice document', based on the radiation protection law, the Swedish Radiation Authority (SSI) initiated a process in 2002 that welcomed comments and suggestions from the general public, specifically representatives and interested parties involved in the work related to a Swedish repository for high level nuclear wastes. The authority held a seminar in September, and presented the forthcoming task. The present paper summarises and exemplifies discussions in focus groups in October 2002, when participants from the municipalities of Oskarshamn and Oesthammar met to give their input to the authority's ongoing work. The questions and suggestions emerging from the focus groups are classified into three major areas in this presentation: 1. Issues related specifically to radiation and radioactivity. 2. Issues of comprehension of terminology, measurements, risk, and safety. 3. Issues concerning the information process and the transfer of knowledge. The discussion highlights that issues and comments raised by the public are not constrained to specific knowledge questions, e.g. on radiation or risk, but may relate to legal, strategic and political considerations, as well as the basics of the performed analyses and the related assumptions and evaluations. Ideas for improving public knowledge and for facilitating an exchange of information are outlined below
Full Text Available Background. Both exercise and pregnancy influence serum irisin concentration. Aim. To determine how the interaction of pregnancy and exercise affects irisin level and whether various patterns of exercise adherence had different effect on irisin concentration. Methods. It was a one-group pretest-posttest study among 9 Caucasian nulliparous healthy women in normal pregnancy (age 23±3 years, 21±2 weeks of gestation; mean ± SD who participated in 8-week group fitness program. Before and after exercise intervention, we determined serum concentrations of irisin and selected parameters of lipid profile and glucose homeostasis markers. Results. In active women, irisin slightly decreased with the development of pregnancy. After 8 weeks of exercising, irisin correlated negatively with fasting glucose (R = −0.922; p=0.001, glycated hemoglobin (R = −0.784; p=0.012, and insulin concentrations (R = −0.845; p=0.004. In women exercising below recommended level, we observed a significant drop in irisin concentration, whereas in women exercising at least three times a week this myokine slightly increased (31% difference; 90% confidence limits ±28; a large, clear effect. Conclusions. Irisin stimulated by prenatal exercise may improve glucose homeostasis markers in healthy women and compensate for metabolic changes induced by pregnancy. Moreover, the frequency of exercise may regulate the changes in exercise-induced irisin concentration.
Eren, Hakan; Huri, Meral; Bağış, Nilsun; Başıbüyük, Onur; Şahin, Sedef; Umaroğlu, Mutlu; Orhan, Kaan
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and occupational participation limitation among dental students in a dental school in Turkey. Four hundred fifty-eight dental students (females=153; males=305) were included in the study. The age range varied from 17-to-38 years. Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Version (MBI-SV) and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used to gather data. Descriptive analyses, t-test, and Kruskall-Wallis test for independent groups were used for data analyses. The results indicated that 26% of all the students have burnout in terms of emotional exhaustion (25%), cynicism (18%), and academic efficacy (14%). The results showed that burnout is statistically significant in relation to demographics (pstudents showed considerably decreased occupational performance and satisfaction scores, which suggested occupational participation limitations. Occupational performance and satisfaction scores were inversely correlated with emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while directly correlated with reduced academic efficacy (pburnout and occupational participation limitation can be seen among dental students. Students with burnout may also have occupational participation limitation. Enriching dental education programs with different psychological strategies may be useful for education of healthy dentists and improve the quality of oral and dental health services.
ABSTRACTBackground:Introduction: Jamkesda is pro- poor government policy to fulfill their health care right base on mandate of law. Departemen of Health in Nganjuk Regency run socialization by involving all local power Hence, in 2012 Jamkesda participation would reach highest in East Java. Purpose:This resaerch aimed to identify Jamkesda participation acceleration and Jamkesda member visit based on age group phenomenon in Nganjuk Regency year 2012. Method:Descriptive research with cross sectional design. Population was Nganjuk Regency government Agency with all Jamkesda managing agencies as sample. Analysis unit was institution. Respondents were officials who managed Jamkesda.Result:Jamkesda in Nganjuk Regency was integrate to Sub Divison of Special Service an Health Costing primary task. In 2012 it showed highest Jamkesda participation in East Java. Socialization strengthening in form of social support and advocacy and media use to accelerate local health coverage and to erase Poor Notification Letter to have medication. Medication visit phenomenon was varied in number in every district, the highest was Nganjuk District (11.18%. Women (56.1% who took medication in PHC was higher than men (43,99% particularly those at 15–< 54 years old age group. The commonest disease was hypertension. Conclusion: Participation acceleration through social support and advocacy strategy is able to obtain local public support both formal and non formal for its success. Highest medication visit to PHC was Nganjuk district by women with hypertension as commonest disease they complained. Suggestion:Social support and advocacy socialization strategy can be implemented in other places with similar situation and condition Key words: Jamkesda, Socialization, Social Support, Advocacy
Repeat prenatal corticosteroid prior to preterm birth: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis for the PRECISE study group (prenatal repeat corticosteroid international IPD study group: assessing the effects using the best level of evidence - study protocol
Crowther Caroline A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis is to assess whether the effects of repeat prenatal corticosteroid treatment given to women at risk of preterm birth to benefit their babies are modified in a clinically meaningful way by factors related to the women or the trial protocol. Methods/Design The Prenatal Repeat Corticosteroid International IPD Study Group: assessing the effects using the best level of Evidence (PRECISE Group will conduct an IPD meta-analysis. The PRECISE International Collaborative Group was formed in 2010 and data collection commenced in 2011. Eleven trials with up to 5,000 women and 6,000 infants are eligible for the PRECISE IPD meta-analysis. The primary study outcomes for the infants will be serious neonatal outcome (defined by the PRECISE International IPD Study Group as one of death (foetal, neonatal or infant; severe respiratory disease; severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grade 3 and 4; chronic lung disease; necrotising enterocolitis; serious retinopathy of prematurity; and cystic periventricular leukomalacia; use of respiratory support (defined as mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airways pressure or other respiratory support; and birth weight (Z-scores. For the children, the primary study outcomes will be death or any neurological disability (however defined by trialists at childhood follow up and may include developmental delay or intellectual impairment (developmental quotient or intelligence quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean, cerebral palsy (abnormality of tone with motor dysfunction, blindness (for example, corrected visual acuity worse than 6/60 in the better eye or deafness (for example, hearing loss requiring amplification or worse. For the women, the primary outcome will be maternal sepsis (defined as chorioamnionitis; pyrexia after trial entry requiring the use of antibiotics; puerperal sepsis; intrapartum fever requiring the use
Juul, Lise; Rowlands, Gill; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
To investigate associations between health literacy (HL) and diet and physical activity, and motivation and diet and physical activity in Danish people with type 2 diabetes. We used a cross-sectional design including 194 individuals with type 2 diabetes participating in peer-led support groups provided by the Danish Diabetes Association between January-December 2015. The participants completed a questionnaire at the first meeting including; The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) measure, The Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ) (Self-Determination Theory) measuring type of motivation, and two HL scales: The HLS-EU-Q16, and the Diabetes Health Literacy scale (Ishikawa, H). Data were analyzed using linear regression models adjusting for age, gender, educational level, diabetes duration, motivation and HL. The adjusted β (95%CI) showed that autonomous motivation and functional HL were associated with following recommended diet: autonomous motivation; 0.43 (0.06; 0.80) and functional HL; 0.52 (0.02; 1.00). Autonomous motivation was related to following physical activity recommendations; β (95%CI) 0.56 (0.16; 0.96). This study indicates that, for people with type 2 diabetes, functional HL and autonomous motivation may be important drivers for following diet recommendations, and autonomous motivation may be the most important factor for following recommendations regarding physical activity. These concepts may therefore be highly relevant to address in interventions to people with type 2 diabetes. Different interventions are suggested. Copyright © 2018 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amer M. Burhan
Full Text Available In mild cognitive impairment (MCI, a risk state for Alzheimer’s disease, patients have objective cognitive deficits with relatively preserved functioning. fMRI studies have identified anomalies during working memory (WM processing in individuals with MCI. The effect of task-irrelevant emotional face distractor on WM processing in MCI remains unclear. We aim to explore the impact of fearful-face task-irrelevant distractor on WM processing in MCI using fMRI. Hypothesis. Compared to healthy controls (HC, MCI patients will show significantly higher BOLD signal in a priori identified regions of interest (ROIs during a WM task with a task-irrelevant emotional face distractor. Methods. 9 right-handed female participants with MCI and 12 matched HC performed a WM task with standardized task-irrelevant fearful versus neutral face distractors randomized and counterbalanced across WM trials. MRI images were acquired during the WM task and BOLD signal was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM to identify signal patterns during the task response phase. Results. Task-irrelevant fearful-face distractor resulted in higher activation in the amygdala, anterior cingulate, and frontal areas, in MCI participants compared to HC. Conclusions. This exploratory study suggests altered WM processing as a result of fearful-face distractor in MCI.
Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.
Münch, C.; van Wijnbergen, S.
We analyze the determinants of female labor market participation for different age-groups in the European Union. We show that female participation is positively affected by tertiary education at any age. But upper secondary education increases participation only up to an age of 40 while after that
Latka, Mary H.; Kapadia, Farzana; Fortin, Princess
Data on adolescents' views regarding the female condom are limited. We conducted seven single-gender focus groups with 47 New York City boys and girls aged 15-20 years (72% African American; 43% ever on public assistance; 72% sexually active; 25% had either been pregnant or fathered a pregnancy). Conceptual mapping was performed by participants to…
Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will
Sport participation is positively associated with an increase in various physical, motor performance and anthropometric components, however, these benefits are influenced by the gender, race and the type of sport children participate in. Despite this, no researchers have investigated this association and the possible role of gender, race and the nature of sport participation on the possible benefits that can be derived among South African adolescents. It is against this background...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to explore occupational rehabilitation clinicians’ experiences on how to approach their participants on long-term sick leave in order to facilitate return to work (RTW. Methods An exploratory qualitative design was used. Four focus groups were conducted with 29 clinicians working on interdisciplinary inpatient and outpatient occupational rehabilitation teams in Norway. The clinicians shared narratives from clinical practice. Transcripts were analysed, and results were reported by use of systematic text condensation. Results The clinicians used several approaches to facilitate RTW among individuals on sick leave. Three themes emerged as especially important in order to succeed: 1 To get a basic understanding of the participant’s life-world through a mapping process; 2 To build a therapeutic alliance through communication characterised by sensitivity to the participants’ needs and emotional concerns; and 3 To initiate processes of change that increase the possibilities for RTW. Four main areas targetable for change were identified, three directed at the individual and one encompassing the participants’ surroundings. These approaches were: a To increase feelings of confidence and coping; b To increase the participants’ awareness of their own limits; c To challenge inefficient and negative attitudes and thoughts related to the sick-role; and d Close and immediate dialogue with key stakeholders. Conclusions To increase the possibilities for RTW among individuals on long-term sick leave, a thorough mapping process and the construction of a therapeutic alliance are seen as crucial elements in approaches by occupational rehabilitation clinicians. By gaining the participants’ trust and identifying their barriers and possibilities for work, the clinicians can target modifiable factors, especially at the individual level, and obstacles for RTW in their individual surroundings. This study
Full Text Available Background: District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Objective: Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Material and Methods: Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12 was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models were built and evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. For further understanding, recursive partitioning was used to prepare a regression tree. Results: Female married illiteracy positively associated with total fertility rate and explained more than half (53% of variance. Under multiple linear regression model, married illiteracy, infant mortality rate, Ante natal care registration, household size, median age of live birth and sex ratio explained 70% of total variance in total fertility rate. In regression tree, female married illiteracy was the root node and splits at 42% determined TFR = 2.7. The next left side branch was again married illiteracy with splits at 23% to determine TFR = 2.1. Conclusion: We conclude that female married illiteracy is one of the most important determinants explaining total fertility rate among the districts of an Empowered Action Group states. Focus on female literacy is required to stabilize the population growth in long run.
Phipps, Amanda I; Shi, Qian; Newcomb, Polly A; Nelson, Garth D; Sargent, Daniel J; Alberts, Steven R; Limburg, Paul J
By using data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147, a randomized adjuvant trial of patients with stage III colon cancer, we assessed the relationship between smoking and cancer outcomes, disease-free survival (DFS), and time to recurrence (TTR), accounting for heterogeneity by patient and tumor characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS Before random assignment to infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or FOLFOX plus cetuximab, 1,968 participants completed a questionnaire on smoking history and other risk factors. Cox models assessed the association between smoking history and the primary trial outcome of DFS (ie, time to recurrence or death), as well as TTR, adjusting for other clinical and patient factors. The median follow-up was 3.5 years among patients who did not experience events. Compared with never-smokers, ever smokers experienced significantly shorter DFS (3-year DFS proportion: 70% v 74%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.42). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.49). There was significant interaction in this association by BRAF mutation status (P = .03): smoking was associated with shorter DFS in patients with BRAF wild-type (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.66) but not BRAF mutated (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.29) colon cancer. Smoking was more strongly associated with poorer DFS in those with KRAS mutated versus KRAS wild-type colon cancer (HR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.12 to 2.00] v HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.39]), although interaction by KRAS mutation status was not statistically significant (P = .07). Associations were comparable in analyses of TTR. Overall, smoking was significantly associated with shorter DFS and TTR in patients with colon cancer. These adverse relationships were most evident in patients with BRAF wild-type or KRAS mutated colon cancer.
Josephson, M; Pernold, G; Ahlberg-Hultén, G; Härenstam, A; Theorell, T; Vingård, E; Waldenström, M; Hjelm, E W
This study investigated whether there is a relationship between high physical work load and adverse psychosocial work factors, and whether this relationship is different for women and men. Separate analyses for female registered nurses and assistant nurses were made because these are common occupations involving high physical and psychological demands. This study was part of the MUSIC-Norrtälje study, a population study with the overall aim of identifying risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. The respondents, 1423 gainfully employed men and women, were randomly selected from the study population. The exposure assessments referred to a typical workday during the previous 12 months. Physical exposure was investigated by interview, psychosocial work factors by interview and questionnaire. For the women, but not the men, mainly routine work and a job strain situation, according to the model of Karasek and Theorell, increased the probability of having a high physical work load, assessed as a time-weighted average of energy expenditure in multiples of the resting metabolic rate. Results indicated that in female-dominated occupations, high physical work load might also imply adverse psychosocial conditions. A higher frequency of high physical work load and job strain was observed among assistant nurses compared with registered nurses. Covariance between physical and psychosocial demands makes it difficult to determine the relative influence of each in health problems. Results of the present study imply that this is a larger problem in studies of women than men.
... who teaches modern foreign languages or area studies in an institution of higher education; (2) Is a... institution of higher education, who plans a teaching career in modern foreign languages or area studies... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible to participate in projects funded under...
Dassault visited the underground cavern of the ATLAS experiment together with his son, Olivier, and Jean Jacques Blaising, head of the Physics Department. The participants also toured the LHC magnet assembly and testing hall, and the surface assembly hall and experimental cavern of the CMS experiment.
Bouchelle, Henry Ellsworth Wirt, III
Science education in Delaware's public elementary and middle schools has experienced much change in recent years as a result of the adoption of state standards and, in particular, the adoption by school districts of the Smithsonian/National Science Resources Council-sponsored inquiry-based instruction modules as part of the "Elementary Science Initiative." As part of this adoption process, each participating elementary teacher and middle school science teacher receives extensive training in the use of several discrete science kits. The trainings include reinforcement and development of content knowledge, in addition to the modeling of and practice with complementary pedagogy. One measure of the effectiveness of the science kit training process (and perhaps the Initiative itself) is the teachers' levels of use of the Initiative. The purpose of this study was to determine the participating teachers' use of the science kit innovation through the use of the Concerns-based Adoption Model Levels of Use Questionnaire. Eight K--5 elementary classroom teachers who had completed at least three science kit trainings participated. The results of this study indicate that on the Overall Level of Use Rating Scale, teachers who had completed training in at least three science kits generally scored at the Routine (IVA) level. All of the teachers, regardless of the wide range in the number of years of experience, had achieved the Mechanical Use level in Overall (III) LoU, and 6 of the 8 participants (75%) were operating at no less than the Refinement (IVA) Overall LoU level.
Sun, Zhi-Jing; Zhu, Lan; Liang, Maolian; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jing-He
WeChat is a promising tool for capturing electronic data; however, no research has examined its use. This study evaluates the reliability and feasibility of WeChat for administering the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire Short Form 7 questionnaire to women with pelvic floor disorders. Sixty-eight pelvic floor rehabilitation women were recruited between June and December 2015 and crossover randomized to two groups. All participants completed two questionnaire formats. One group completed the paper version followed by the WeChat version; the other group completed the questionnaires in reverse order. Two weeks later, each group completed the two versions in reverse order. The WeChat version's reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients and test-retest reliability. Forty-two women (61.8%) preferred the WeChat to the paper format, eight (11.8%) preferred the paper format, and 18 (26.5%) had no preference. The younger women preferred WeChat. Completion time was 116.5 (61.3) seconds for the WeChat version and 133.4 (107.0) seconds for the paper version, with no significant difference (P = 0.145). Age and education did not impact completion time (P > 0.05). Consistency between the WeChat and paper versions was excellent. The intraclass correlation coefficients of the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire Short Form 7 and the three subscales ranged from 0.915 to 0.980. The Bland-Altman analysis and linear regression results also showed high consistency. The test-retest study had a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.908, demonstrating a strong correlation. WeChat-based questionnaires were well accepted by women with pelvic floor disorders and had good data quality and reliability.
Bouas, Kelly S.; Komorita, S. S.
Face-to-face discussion has been shown to increase cooperation behavior in social dilemmas. Two general explanations of this effect were tested: group identity and perception of consensus. Female undergraduate students (N=160) participated in four-person groups in one of four experimental conditions. Findings indicate the most plausible…
Kumar, Rajesh; Dogra, Vishal; Rani, Khushbu; Sahu, Kanti
District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12) was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models were built and evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. For further understanding, recursive partitioning was used to prepare a regression tree. Female married illiteracy positively associated with total fertility rate and explained more than half (53%) of variance. Under multiple linear regression model, married illiteracy, infant mortality rate, Ante natal care registration, household size, median age of live birth and sex ratio explained 70% of total variance in total fertility rate. In regression tree, female married illiteracy was the root node and splits at 42% determined TFR illiteracy with splits at 23% to determine TFR illiteracy is one of the most important determinants explaining total fertility rate among the districts of an Empowered Action Group states. Focus on female literacy is required to stabilize the population growth in long run.
Kumar, Rajesh; Dogra, Vishal; Rani, Khushbu; Sahu, Kanti
Background: District level determinants of total fertility rate in Empowered Action Group states of India can help in ongoing population stabilization programs in India. Objective: Present study intends to assess the role of district level determinants in predicting total fertility rate among districts of the Empowered Action Group states of India. Material and Methods: Data from Annual Health Survey (2011-12) was analysed using STATA and R software packages. Multiple linear regression models were built and evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. For further understanding, recursive partitioning was used to prepare a regression tree. Results: Female married illiteracy positively associated with total fertility rate and explained more than half (53%) of variance. Under multiple linear regression model, married illiteracy, infant mortality rate, Ante natal care registration, household size, median age of live birth and sex ratio explained 70% of total variance in total fertility rate. In regression tree, female married illiteracy was the root node and splits at 42% determined TFR illiteracy with splits at 23% to determine TFR illiteracy is one of the most important determinants explaining total fertility rate among the districts of an Empowered Action Group states. Focus on female literacy is required to stabilize the population growth in long run. PMID:29416999
N. R. Golod
Full Text Available Purpose : to highlight the main provisions of a comprehensive physical rehabilitation program for students of special medical group based on violations of the motor capacity. Material : testing 24 students of special medical group and the same number of their healthy peers on standardized tests of physical qualities. To reflect the movement disorders applied functional movement screen. Results : a program of rehabilitation of the students included: lifestyle modification; morning hygienic gymnastics; kinesitherapy (using yoga fitness, functional training; aerobic exercise (swimming, Nordic Walking, jogging, aerobics wellness; massage. First presented a unified approach to working with students of special medical groups - selection based on load capacity motor disorders according to the results of tests of functional movement screen. The complexity of the impact of the program involves the impact on the physical, social and mental health components. Conclusions : the author's program of physical rehabilitation of students of special medical group is complex.
Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom......' continued participation. I show how negotiating the risks of participation may simultaneously satisfy the desire for knowledge and curb erotic desires....
Luís Felipe Ferro
Full Text Available The repositioning of mental health care in Brazil proposes actions for user support in a variety of territorial attention equipment. Labor inclusion has been widely discussed in mental health public policy, with remarkable proliferation of groups of work and income generation and cooperatives to serve this population. This article seeks to explore the potential and difficulties of an income generation group which produces bags with reused banners, based on the assumptions of Solidarity Economy, born with the partnership between the Occupational Therapy Course of the Federal University of Paraná and ‘Arnaldo Gilberti’ Association. The present study uses a dual methodological approach: a critical case report of the three-year experience with this income generation group; and a qualitative exploratory field research. Data was collected through unstructured interviews applied to eight subjects who had attended the income generation group for at least six months. Data analysis consisted of examining, categorizing, tabulating and recombining the evidence, using hermeneutic dialectic analysis. Four categories were identified: Solidarity Economy, social inclusion and self-management: opening of the perception of users; Pragmatics of the Work and Income Generation Group in Mental Health: strategies for strengthening the initiative; Work and Income Generation: between referrals and the concise structuring of Singular Therapeutic Projects; Solidarity Economy and the work and income generation group: between empowerment and ideology. The results of this research reveal that actions must be taken to pragmatize concepts such as social inclusion and solidarity
Otrebski, Wojciech; Rutkowska, Katarzyna
Study aim: To determine the need of female junior volleyball players to collaborate with a psychologist, considering previous sport career of those players. Material and methods: A group of 78 female volleyball players aged 14-17 years from 7 top Polish junior teams participated in the study. They were requested to fill questionnaires on their…
Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to analyze farmers' managerial ability, social networks, and information sharing, and to describe the two-way relationship between managerial ability and social networks. We collected data through face-to-face interviews, using a structured questionnaire with a purposively selected random sample of 34 farmers in Khon Kaen province, Northeastern Thailand, in September 2013. All respondents belonged to an organic vegetable group. The findings revealed that almost all of the farmers have a high ability level in marketing, information searching, communication, and technical skills. Farmers with high ability, especially group leaders and group managers, have more chances to increase their networks through becoming consulters and transferring knowledge/technology. As a result, their social networks are more active and stronger, both inside and outside their villages. In addition, farmers with larger networks have more opportunities to assess information and exchange knowledge, so their ability can become even more effective.
Barene, S; Krustrup, Peter; Jackman, S R
This randomized controlled study investigated the effectiveness of soccer and Zumba on fitness and health indicators in female participants recruited from a workplace. One hundred seven hospital employees were cluster-randomized to either a soccer group (SG), Zumba group (ZG), or control group (CG......-term soccer training as well asZumba outside working hours may result in fitness andmodest health benefits among female hospital employees...
Eubanks-Turner, Christina; Beaulieu, Patricia; Pal, Nabendu
The Smooth Transition for Advancement to Graduate Education (STAGE) project was a three-year pilot project designed to mentor undergraduate students primarily from under-represented groups in the mathematical sciences. The STAGE pilot project focused on mentoring students as they transitioned from undergraduate education to either graduate school…
Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Conchar, Lauren; Derman, Wayne
Adolescents with disabilities in developing countries frequently have limited access to sporting opportunities and comparatively little is known of their lived experiences and preferences. We set out to understand what a group of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) living in South Africa perceive to be important components of programmes developed…
Jendrucko, Richard J.
The first half of a Biomedical Engineering course at Texas A&M University is devoted to group projects that require design planning and a search of the literature. The second half requires each student to individually prepare a research proposal and conduct a research project. (MLH)
Rees, Amanda; Shaw, Kimberly
In light of recent interest in the limitations of early and mid-career mentoring (Driscoll et al 2009; Trowers 2011), this case study of a women's scholarly activity and goal setting Community of Practice (CoP) indicates that such groups can offer extensive peer mentoring at one teaching-oriented state university in the United States. Using a…
Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L
The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.
Enablers and constrainers to participation: Has policy in Nordic countries reached its limit for raising participation in adult learning among certain groups? Paper presented (with R. Desjardins) at the II Nordic conference on Adult Learning, Linköping, Sweden, 17-19 April
Milana, Marcella; Desjardins, Richard
barriers to participation, and ensure that disadvantaged groups have equal opportunity to take up adult learning. Together, observations indicate that policy matters in promoting adult learning, especially among adults that would otherwise not participate. At the same time the observations indicate......Despite comparatively high and equal participation in adult learning in Nordic countries, a distinct pattern of non-participation persists. Moreover, the pattern of adults who tend to participate comparatively less often is similar to the non-Nordic countries considered, although it is less...... accentuated. The Nordic countries have a long shared history of supporting and fostering a rich adult learning culture. Although various historical, social and cultural factors are behind this, Nordic countries also share a strong record of public policy that aims to: promote adult learning, target various...
Anahita Khodabakhshi-Koolaee; Shahrzad Barghei Khameneh; Marjan Mojarab; Mahnaz Khatiban
Background and Objective: Puberty and adolescence is an important phase of human growth. Puberty leads to a set of physiological, social, and psychological changes in adolescents, which affect different dimensions of their life including parent-child relationship and the control of adolescents’ emotions. This study aimed to determine the impact of group training of personal hygiene during puberty to mothers on parent-child conflicts and controlling over the emotions of the first high school c...
Full Text Available This study has the objective to describe the reasons that take the aged ones to practice physical activities in the Third Age Groups and the barriers that hinder them. Thirty aged citizens were subject of this research. The methodological approaching was an exploratory descriptive study, in witch was applied a questionnaire about motivation and barriers for the physical activity practice. As result, it was evidenced that the motivation of the aged ones for physical activity practice is related to: To congregate and meet with other people; to feel itself carried through; to feel themselves mentally more alert and to improve and keep the health. As for the barriers, they exist, in diverse aspects: social, physical and psychic. Although they exist, for these aged ones it did not became something that completely hindered them to go to the group and to practice physical activities. In conclusion, although the difficulties that the aged ones find day after day, the motivation and the barriers are related to the perception of each one, which can become an important and definitive factor for the assiduity or desistance of these individuals in the third age group.
Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva
The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....
Jones, Tamara Bertrand; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara
In recent years, a number of Black female junior scholars have participated in an early career professional development program designed to address socialization issues through individual and small group mentoring. This descriptive qualitative study investigated scholars' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of a research…
Leung, Justin Wai Chung; Wang, Yucai; Fong, Ka Wing; Huen, Michael Shing Yan; Li, Lei; Chen, Junjie
The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway participates in interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair and the maintenance of genomic stability. The FA core complex consists of eight FA proteins and two Fanconi anemia-associated proteins (FAAP24 and FAAP100). The FA core complex has ubiquitin ligase activity responsible for monoubiquitination of the FANCI-FANCD2 (ID) complex, which in turn initiates a cascade of biochemical events that allow processing and removal of cross-linked DNA and thereby promotes cell survival following DNA damage. Here, we report the identification of a unique component of the FA core complex, namely, FAAP20, which contains a RAD18-like ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger domain. Our data suggest that FAAP20 promotes the functional integrity of the FA core complex via its direct interaction with the FA gene product, FANCA. Indeed, somatic knockout cells devoid of FAAP20 displayed the hallmarks of FA cells, including hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, chromosome aberrations, and reduced FANCD2 monoubiquitination. Taking these data together, our study indicates that FAAP20 is an important player involved in the FA pathway. PMID:22396592
Leung, Justin Wai Chung; Wang, Yucai; Fong, Ka Wing; Huen, Michael Shing Yan; Li, Lei; Chen, Junjie
The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway participates in interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair and the maintenance of genomic stability. The FA core complex consists of eight FA proteins and two Fanconi anemia-associated proteins (FAAP24 and FAAP100). The FA core complex has ubiquitin ligase activity responsible for monoubiquitination of the FANCI-FANCD2 (ID) complex, which in turn initiates a cascade of biochemical events that allow processing and removal of cross-linked DNA and thereby promotes cell survival following DNA damage. Here, we report the identification of a unique component of the FA core complex, namely, FAAP20, which contains a RAD18-like ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger domain. Our data suggest that FAAP20 promotes the functional integrity of the FA core complex via its direct interaction with the FA gene product, FANCA. Indeed, somatic knockout cells devoid of FAAP20 displayed the hallmarks of FA cells, including hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, chromosome aberrations, and reduced FANCD2 monoubiquitination. Taking these data together, our study indicates that FAAP20 is an important player involved in the FA pathway.
McWilliam, D.C.; Balasubramanian, T.R.; Kuivila, H.G.
1-Aryl-3-trimethylstannyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoates, Me 3 SnCH 2 CH 2 CHAr(ODNB), 4H, undergo solvolysis in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol to form arylcyclopropanes and trimethylstannyl dinitrobenzoate. The rates for nine substituents on Ar are correlated by sigma + with a rho value of -3.63 at 100 0 C. The rates for a series of model compounds, Me 3 CCH 2 CH 2 CHAr(ODNB), 5H (six substituents), are also correlated by sigma + with a rho value of -4.90. In each case the rate for a given 4H is greater than that for the corresponding 5H. The Winstein-Grunwald m values for 4H and 5H in aqueous acetic acid at 100 0 C are 0.41 and 0.46, respectively. Measurements of the rates of solvolyses in trifluoroethanol of the 2.2-d 2 analogues of 4H and 5H revealed kinetic isotope effects of 0.94 and 1.08, respectively. These results are taken as evidence that the mechanism for the rate acceleration observed in the 4H series is due to direct participation of the C--Sn sigma electrons in the transition state of the rate-determining step of the 1,3-elimination reaction
Okumus, M; Ceceli, E; Tasbas, O; Kocaoglu, S; Akdogan, S; Borman, P
Most women are unaware of the risk factors for osteoporosis (OP). In an effort to prevent the development of OP, women need to have a raised awareness on this issue. The aims of this study were to determine any differences in the level of awareness and knowledge about OP between pre- and postmenopausal women. Three hundred and six women who presented to the outpatient clinic of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department were included into the study. Demographic characteristics of the subjects were recorded. The participants were interviewed via an OP awareness questionnaire, which was designed to determine their knowledge of OP and risk factors. The mean ages of the 126 pre- and 180 postmenopausal women were 41.3 ± 5.9 and 58.9 ± 8.1 years, respectively. Thirty-two percent of premenopausal and 51% of postmenopausal women had heard about OP (p 0.05). Both pre- and postmenopausal women with a higher level of education demonstrated better knowledge of OP based on their awareness questionnaire score (pwomen reported having some awareness of OP, their level of knowledge was poor, particularly with regard to the risk factors associated with the condition and its complications. Having information about the risks of OP and a better understanding of the health beliefs of those at risk are important, as both may play a major role in influencing an individual's OP-preventing behaviors.
"It's for us -newcomers, LGBTQ persons, and HIV-positive persons. You feel free to be": a qualitative study exploring social support group participation among African and Caribbean lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender newcomers and refugees in Toronto, Canada.
Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Ryan, Shannon; Ramsay, Hope
Stigma and discrimination harm the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and contribute to migration from contexts of sexual persecution and criminalization. Yet LGBT newcomers and refugees often face marginalization and struggles meeting the social determinants of health (SDOH) following immigration to countries such as Canada. Social isolation is a key social determinant of health that may play a significant role in shaping health disparities among LGBT newcomers and refugees. Social support may moderate the effect of stressors on mental health, reduce social isolation, and build social networks. Scant research, however, has examined social support groups targeting LGBT newcomers and refugees. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore experiences of social support group participation among LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees in an urban Canadian city. We conducted 3 focus groups with a venue-based sample of LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees (n = 29) who attended social support groups at an ethno-specific AIDS Service Organization. Focus groups followed a semi-structured interview guide and were analyzed using narrative thematic techniques. Participant narratives highlighted immigration stressors, social isolation, mental health issues, and challenges meeting the SDOH. Findings reveal multi-level benefits of social support group participation at intrapersonal (self-acceptance, improved mental health), interpersonal (reduced isolation, friendships), community (reciprocity, reduced stigma and discrimination), and structural (housing, employment, immigration, health care) levels. Findings suggest that social support groups tailored for LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees can address social isolation, community resilience, and enhance resource access. Health care providers can provide support groups, culturally and LGBT competent health services, and resource access to promote LGBT
Crits-Christoph, Paul; Johnson, Jennifer E.; Connolly Gibbons, Mary Beth; Gallop, Robert
Objective: This study examined the relation of process variables to the outcome of group drug counseling, a commonly used community treatment, for cocaine dependence. Method: Videotaped group drug counseling sessions from 440 adult patients (23% female, 41% minority) were rated for member alliance, group cohesion, participation, self-disclosure,…
ALI REZA BANESHI
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the male and female students’ learning styles of classroom participation and these styles’ differences between Humanities and Science majors. Methods: 1039 individuals were selected through the proportional stratified random sampling method among undergraduate and graduate students in Humanities (n=421 and Science (n=618 faculties of Tehran University. In the Humanities group, there were 285 females and 136 males, and in the Science group, there were 208 females and 410 males. The participants answered the Grasha-Riechmann student learning styles scale. Results: The findings indicated that the females obtained significantly higher means in collaborative, participative, and dependent styles than males, but in avoidant, and independent styles, the means for males were higher than those for females. Also, the science group’s means in collaborative, participative, dependent, and competitive styles were significantly higher than those for the humanities group. Conclusion: According to the findings, it seems that due to psychological characteristics, female students tend to collaborate with other students of the same sex and participate in their activities. In this way, they also are more dependent on their teacher and classroom, because otherwise they will face some problems such as anxiety. In addition, it seems that science students in comparison to humanities students are more participative and collaborative because they need more collaboration in their projects and course work.
Vivienne de Vogel; Marijke Louppen
Although girls and women represent only a minority of the forensic mental health and prison populations, studies worldwide suggest that there has been a steady increase in the number of females being convicted for committing offenses, especially violent offenses. In this chapter, an overview will
R. M. Eime
Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation in sport can contribute to health-enhancing levels of leisure-time physical activity. There are recent reports that participation in sport in Australia is decreasing. However, these studies are limited to ages 15 years and over. Methods This study integrates sports club membership data from five popular team sports and investigates sport participation across the lifespan (4–100 years by sex and region (metropolitan/non-metropolitan. Results Overall participant numbers per annum increased from 414,167 in 2010 to 465,403 in 2012 corresponding to a rise in the proportion of Victorian’s participating in these sports from 7.5 % in 2010 to 8.3 % in 2012. The highest proportion of participants was in the 10–14 year age range, with participation rates of 36 % in 2010 and 40 % in 2012. There was a considerably lower participation rate in the 15–19 year age group compared to the 10–14 age group, in all three years studied, and the decline continued progressively with increasing age. Male and female age profiles of participation were generally similar in shape, but the female peak at age 10–14 was sharper than for the males, and conversely there were very few 4 year old female participants. Participation rates were generally higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas; the difference increased with increasing age from 4 to 34 years, then steadily declined, reaching parity at around 60 years of age. Conclusions It is a positive sign that participation in these popular sports increased by over 50,000 participants from 2010 to 2012. Large proportions of the population aged 5–14 participate in club based sport. Participation rates decline sharply in late adolescence, particularly for females, and while this may not be a concern from a broad health perspective so long as they transition into other forms of physical activity, it is certainly a matter of concern for the sport sector. It is recommended
Fleming, M; MacGowan, B; Costos, D
Dyadic adjustment, sexual activities, and marital stability in the relationships of female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses were examined. Participants were 22 female-to-male transsexuals who had undergone some form of surgery to alter their anatomical sex, their spouses, and a control group of married or cohabitating nontranssexual men and women. Participants were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and additional items to assess quantitatively their marital relationships. The transsexuals and their spouses were also asked open-ended interview questions concerning marital and life adjustments. Generally, the transsexuals and their spouses reported good and mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships that are in many ways comparable to those of the matched control group. These findings lend support to the previous clinical interview studies that have reported that female-to-male transsexuals form stable and enduring intimate relationships.
participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear...
Thyø, Anne; Emmertsen, Katrine J; Laurberg, Søren
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction and impaired quality of life is a potential side effect to rectal cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a simple scoring system intended to evaluate sexual function in women treated for rectal cancer. DESIGN......: This is a population-based cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Female patients diagnosed with rectal cancer between 2001 and 2014 were identified by using the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's database. Participants filled in the validated Sexual Function Vaginal Changes questionnaire. Women declared to be sexually active...... in the validation group. PATIENTS: Female patients with rectal cancer above the age of 18 who underwent abdominoperineal resection, Hartmann procedure, or total/partial mesorectal excision were selected. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measured was the quality of life that was negatively affected because...
Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…
Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.
Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female
Moreno, Megan A; Swanson, Michael J; Royer, Heather; Roberts, Linda J
Sexual reference display on a social networking web site (SNS) is associated with self-reported sexual intention; females are more likely to display sexually explicit content on SNSs. The purpose of this study was to investigate male college students' views towards sexual references displayed on publicly available SNSs by females. Focus groups. One large state university. Male college students age 18-23. All tape recorded discussion was fully transcribed, then discussed to determine thematic consensus. A trained male facilitator asked participants about views on sexual references displayed on SNSs by female peers and showed examples of sexual references from female's SNS profiles to facilitate discussion. A total of 28 heterosexual male participants participated in seven focus groups. Nearly all participants reported using Facebook to evaluate potential female partners. Three themes emerged from our data. First, participants reported that displays of sexual references on social networking web sites increased sexual expectations. Second, sexual reference display decreased interest in pursuing a dating relationship. Third, SNS data was acknowledged as imperfect but valuable. Females who display sexual references on publicly available SNS profiles may be influencing potential partners' sexual expectations and dating intentions. Future research should examine females' motivations and beliefs about displaying such references and educate women about the potential impact of these sexual displays. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ntuk, U E; Celis-Morales, C A; Mackay, D F; Sattar, N; Pell, J P; Gill, J M R
To quantify the extent to which ethnic differences in muscular strength might account for the substantially higher prevalence of diabetes in black and South-Asian compared with white European adults. This cross-sectional study used baseline data from the UK Biobank study on 418 656 white European, black and South-Asian participants, aged 40-69 years, who had complete data on diabetes status and hand-grip strength. Associations between hand-grip strength and diabetes were assessed using logistic regression and were adjusted for potential confounding factors. Lower grip strength was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes, independent of confounding factors, across all ethnicities in both men and women. Diabetes prevalence was approximately three- to fourfold higher in South-Asian and two- to threefold higher in black participants compared with white European participants across all levels of grip strength, but grip strength in South-Asian men and women was ~ 5-6 kg lower than in the other ethnic groups. Thus, the attributable risk for diabetes associated with low grip strength was substantially higher in South-Asian participants (3.9 and 4.2 cases per 100 men and women, respectively) than in white participants (2.0 and 0.6 cases per 100 men and women, respectively). Attributable risk associated with low grip strength was also high in black men (4.3 cases) but not in black women (0.4 cases). Low strength is associated with a disproportionately large number of diabetes cases in South-Asian men and women and in black men. Trials are needed to determine whether interventions to improve strength in these groups could help reduce ethnic inequalities in diabetes prevalence. © 2017 Diabetes UK.
James D. Griffith
Full Text Available Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2,925 advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory. The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0.7, lower weight and body mass index, younger age, and photographic displays of breast and buttocks nudity. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services.
Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G; Francke, Anneke L; Pasman, H Roeline W; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D
Maintaining false hope may result in prolonged curative aggressive treatments until the very last stage of life. In this study, we sought to explore how people think that realistic and hopeful information should best be combined in physician-patient communications at the end of life. During a period of 15 days, participants of five online focus groups (OFGs) could log in onto a closed discussion site and offer responses to several topics. A variety of people participated: patients, older people, relatives, and healthcare professionals with and without a Muslim background. Participants with a Muslim background constituted a separate group, because previous research indicated that they might have distinct views on good end-of-life care and communication. Transcripts were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Participants from all focus groups preferred that physicians provide realistic information in an empathic way, stating that the patient would never be left on his own and that withholding curative treatment was not equal to withholding care, explicitly asking how the patient could be helped during the time remaining, and involving other professionals in the care process and communications. As such, physicians could support patients' transition from "hope for a cure" to "hope for a good death." Muslims specified the way they wished to receive realistic information: first from a relative, and not by using the term "incurable illness," but rather by informing the patient that they had no remaining curative treatments available. Realism and hope are not necessarily mutually exclusive and can be combined when providing realistic information in a delicate and culturally sensitive way. This study provides suggestions on how physicians can do so. Communication skills training as well as anchoring knowledge of the diversity of cultural and religious views into physicians' education could improve end-of-life communication.
Luo, Gangming; Houston, Vern L; Mussman, Martin; Garbarini, Maryanne; Beattie, Aaron C; Thongpop, Chaiya
Morphological and geometric differences between male and female feet can be the decisive factor of whether well-fitting, functional, and comfortable footwear is available for both men and women. Optical scans, plaster wrap casts, and a set of manual measurements from the right feet of 51 female participants, aged 20 to 59 years (32 +/- 10.2 years), and 39 male participants, aged 22 to 71 years (47.1 +/- 12.1 years), were taken to determine which parameters were the most significant in characterizing pedal geometry and which had the largest difference between male and female feet. Analysis showed that the heel-to-ball length (ball length) of the male participants' feet (181.5 mm) was significantly longer, on average, than that of the female participants' feet (165.0 mm). The width of the male paticipants' feet at the ball, instep, and heel regions, as well as the ball circumference, normalized by the ball length, were all significantly larger on average, than the female test participants' feet. However, toe region, instep, and medial and lateral malleoli heights were larger, on average, for the female participants than for the male. The results show that female feet differ in size and shape from male feet and are not algebraically scaled, smaller versions of male feet, as is often assumed. The study shows that the average male participants' feet are longer than that of the female participants' feet, while the female feet are relatively narrower but higher than those of the male participants.
Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M
Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Seroprevalencia de la infección por el virus herpes simplex tipo 2 en tres grupos poblacionales de la Ciudad de México Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence among three female population groups from Mexico City
Carlos J Conde-González
ísticas relacionadas al contacto con el virus herpes simplex tipo 2 para las subpoblaciones estudiadas correspondieron, como era de esperarse, a los antecedentes del estilo de vida sexual y a la probabilidad de infección que confiere la mayor edad.OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of type 2 herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 infection and risk factors in three female population groups in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2000, among a sample population of women living in Mexico City, diagnosed with breast or cervical cancer, and women with negative Pap test results from the general population. Informed consent was obtained from all participants to answer a sociodemographic and sex life questionnaire and draw a blood specimen. The presence of antibodies against type 2 herpes simplex virus was determined using the type-specific Western blot technique. Crude and adjusted statistical analyses were performed on the associations between survey data and infection outcomes. RESULTS: Women with cervical cancer had a seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection of 46.8% (191/408; that of women from the general population who were Pap negative was 29.3% (214/730. For women with breast cancer, the seroprevalence was 22.6% (29/128. Variables significantly associated with seropositivity against HSV-2 infection were older age, more sexual partners, having cervical cancer, and, among cervical cancer patients, beginning sexual activity before 21 years of age and being divorced or separated. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings showed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of viral infection by population groups. The overall frequency of viral infection among study subjects shows that this is an intermediate risk population, as compared with other population groups in Mexico at high (sexual workers and low (college students risk. The main characteristics associated with exposure to type 2 herpes simplex virus for the subpopulations corresponded, as expected
Full Text Available Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN have been inconclusive.Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults with first-episode AN and young females recovered from AN.We used the Sniffin' Sticks Odor Threshold Test and Odor Identification Test to assess 43 participants with first-episode AN, 27 recovered participants, and 39 control participants. Participants completed the Importance of Olfaction questionnaire, the Beck Youth Inventory and the Eating Disorder Inventory. We also conducted a psychiatric diagnostic interview and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule with participants.Both clinical groups showed heightened olfactory sensitivity. After excluding participants with depression, participants with first-episode AN identified more odors than recovered participants.Heightened olfactory sensitivity in AN may be independent of clinical status, whereas only individuals with current AN and without depression show more accurate odor identification.
Overcoming Addictions, a Web-Based Application, and SMART Recovery, an Online and In-Person Mutual Help Group for Problem Drinkers, Part 2: Six-Month Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial and Qualitative Feedback From Participants.
Campbell, William; Hester, Reid K; Lenberg, Kathryn L; Delaney, Harold D
Despite empirical evidence supporting the use of Web-based interventions for problem drinking, much remains unknown about factors that influence their effectiveness. We evaluated the performance of 2 resources for people who want to achieve and maintain abstinence: SMART Recovery (SR) and Overcoming Addictions (OA). OA is a Web application based on SR. We also examined participant and intervention-related factors hypothesized to impact clinical outcomes of Web-based interventions. We recruited 189 heavy drinkers through SR's website and in-person meetings throughout the United States. We began by randomly assigning participants to (1) SR meetings alone, (2) OA alone, and (3) OA and SR (OA+SR). Recruitment challenges compelled us to assign participants only to SR (n=86) or OA+SR (n=102). The experimental hypotheses were as follows: (1) Both groups will reduce their drinking and alcohol-related consequences at follow-up compared with their baseline levels, and (2) The OA+SR condition will reduce their drinking and alcohol or drug-related consequences more than the SR only condition. Additionally, we derived 3 groups empirically (SR, OA, and OA+SR) based on the participants' actual use of each intervention and conducted analyses by comparing them. Primary outcome measures included percent days abstinent (PDA), mean drinks per drinking day (DDD), and alcohol or drug-related consequences. Postbaseline assessments were conducted by phone at 3 and 6 months. Secondary analyses explored whether clinical issues (eg, severity of alcohol problems, level of distress, readiness to change) or intervention-related factors (eg, Internet fluency, satisfaction with site) affected outcomes. Both intent-to-treat analyses and the actual-use analyses showed highly significant improvement from baseline to follow-ups for all 3 groups. Mean within-subject effect sizes were large (d>0.8) overall. There was no significant difference between groups in the amount of improvement from baseline to
Özlem Ayvaz KIZILGÖL
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine the reasons of why the single and married women living in Turkey, in urban and rural areas do participate the labour force through the 2002-2008 period. In other words, this study aims to search the reasons affecting the women’s decision of working. To this end, the study is conducted via a pooled data set merged by putting together the data gathered from Household Budget Surveys of the years 2002-2008. Logit model analysis is conducted for application. The results of the analysis illustrated that, education level, household income, dependency ratio, ownership of the property and women’s age are the most important factors as to the women’s decision of participating to labour force regarding the married and single women. Furthermore, the number of children reduces the labour force participation in urban areas while increases in rural areas.
Mebane Minou Ella
Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study aimed to establish whether the amount and types of conflicts vary in all male, all female and mixed gender groups working in asynchronous collaborative learning online settings. Sixty psychology majors were divided into three groups conducted online by the same teacher. The study show that the levels of participation in the three groups varied in relation to gender composition. Further the results evidenced all female group did have more conflicts then male and mixed groups, but primarily they did not have interpersonal. The female groups´ conflicts seem to be related to goal-oriented process of work.
B L Chawada
Full Text Available Background: With the rapid increase in construction sector, the number of female construction workers is increased. The problems of women worker is still not addressed adequately by health sector. Aims and objective: The present study is aimed to explore problems of female workers at construction sites in working environment and to document issues like gender bias, living conditions, vulnerability and slackness of health among female working in construction field. Methodology: This was a Cross sectional study conducted in May 2011in which all females working at the randomly selected construction site were enrolled. The pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire was prepared to study the participant’s response. In-depth interview technique was also used to strengthen the findings. Results: Total of 118 female construction workers participated in the study with mean age found to be 22 years with SD of 6 years. Mean daily wages of female was 120 Rs while for male it was 245 Rs which is double than what female getting. Major health complaints were fatigue/weakness (61 %, backache (30 %, cough (17.5 %, fever (17 %, skin itching (10.5 % and diarrhoea (7 %. They were not even using the government medical facility due to lack of awareness and knowledge about this. No safety measures provided to female as compare to male except at 2 sites where female were provided ‘gloves’. Some (6% of the working females has abuse of chewing tobacco daily or smoking ‘bidi’. The living condition was merely enough to provide any privacy for female. Conclusion: As migratory and floating population, female working in construction field needs attention. Lack of social security and family support make them a vulnerable group for addiction and violence. Alternate way for providing healthcare for these women should be sort out early.
Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete
Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not
The involvement of local communities in public space planning and design processes is widely promoted as an essential element of landscape architecture and urban design practice. Despite this, there has been little theorisation of this topic within these fields. Furthermore, the implementation of ideals and principles commonly found in theory are far from becoming mainstream practice, indicating a significant gap between the theory and practice of participation. This thesis aims to contri...
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.
The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) was administered, individually, to 7 groups (N=765) of Egyptian normal participants (non-clinical), anxiety disorder patients, and patients suffering from schizophrenia (males and females), and addicts (males only). They were generally matched as groups according to age, occupation, and education. The…
Katherine P. Dabney
Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
Bayeck, Rebecca Yvonne; Hristova, Adelina; Jablokow, Kathryn W.; Bonafini, Fernanda
This paper reports the results of an exploratory study on participants' perception of the importance of single-gender grouping in a massive open online course (MOOC) delivered through the Coursera platform. Findings reveal that female and male learners' perception of single-gender grouping differs. Female students more than males indicated less…
Kazis, Keren; Iglesias, Elba
The female athlete triad is a syndrome consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The syndrome is increasing in prevalence as more women are participating in sports at a competitive level. Behaviors such as intense exercise or disordered eating patterns can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarian-ovarian (HPO) axis, resulting in amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Adolescents may particularly be at risk because it is during this crucial time that females attain their peak bone mass. Prevention of the female athlete triad through education and identification of athletes at risk may decrease the incidence of long-term deleterious consequences. Treatment of the female athlete triad is initially aimed at increasing caloric intake and decreasing physical activity until there is resumption of normal menses. Treatment of decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis in the adolescent population, however, is controversial, with new treatment modalities currently being investigated in order to aid in the management of this disorder.
Full Text Available The goal of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in a group of elite female endurance athletes, as professional sport is one of the risk factors for stress urinary incontinence. SUI rates in the groups of female cross-country skiers and runners were compared to determine whether the training weather conditions like temperature and humidity influenced the prevalence of urinary incontinence. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed among 112 elite female athletes ie., 57 cross-country skiers and 55 runners. We used a short form of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 to assess the presence of SUI symptoms and the level of urogenital distress. Only women who had been practicing sport professionally for at least 3 years, on an international and national level, were included in the research. The study group consisted of 76% nulliparous and 24% parous women. 45.54% of all participants reported leakage of urine associated with sneezing or coughing which indicates stress urinary incontinence. 29.46% were not bothered by the urogenital distress symptoms. 42.86% of the participants were slightly bothered by the symptoms, 18.75% were moderately bothered, 8.04% were significantly bothered and 0.89% were heavily bothered. The absence of statistically significant differences between both groups seems to indicate that training weather conditions did not influence the prevalence of SUI in elite female endurance athletes.
Ogunrin, Olubunmi; Woolfall, Kerry; Gabbay, Mark; Frith, Lucy
As genomic research gathers momentum in sub-Saharan Africa, it has become increasingly important to understand the reasons why individuals wish to participate in this kind of medical research. Against the background of communitarianism conceived as typical of African communities, it is often suggested that individuals consent to participate on the grounds of solidarity and to further the common good. In this paper, we seek to explore this contention by presenting data from focus groups with potential research participants about what would influence their decisions to participate in genomic research. These focus groups were conducted as part of a larger qualitative study with a purposively selected group of participants from a community situated in south west Nigeria. We conducted fifteen focus group sessions comprising 50 participants organized by age and sex, namely: 1) adult (>30 years) males, 2) adult females, 3) youth (18-30 years) males, and 4) youth females. A mixed age-group was conducted to probe different views between the age groups. There was discordance and clear division between the adults and youths regarding the decision to participate in genomic research based on commitment to communal values. Adults based their decision to participate on altruism and furthering the common good while youths based their decisions on personal benefits and preferences and also took into account the views and welfare of family members and neighbours. This discordance suggests a 'generational shift' and we advance a model of 'relative solidarity' among the youths, which is different from the communal solidarity model typical of African communitarianism. Our findings suggest the need for a closer look at strategies for implementation of community engagement and informed consent in genomic research in this region, and we recommend further studies to explore this emerging trend.
Fabian, Louise; Samson, Kristine
The article discuss the conflicts, potentials and possible alliances of do-it-yourself (DIY) urbanism when it takes the form of spontaneous place appropriations, when it is performed as participatory urban design and when it is integrated strategically in planning. DIY urbanism and experimentation...... with participation are currently strong influential factors in Danish planning. The article explores the use of participatory DIY urban design in two cases: the relocation of beer drinkers in Enghave Square and the Carlsberg City development in Copenhagen, Denmark. Carlsberg City is the most thorough Danish example...
Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).
Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E
Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.
Nešić, Goran; Majstorović, Nikola; Sikimić, Milan; Marković, Srđan; Ilić, Dejan; Grbić, Vladimir; Osmankač, Nedžad; Savić, Zoran
The goal of this research was to determine whether there is a difference in the manifestation of measured anthropometric characteristics and tested motor abilities of female volleyball players that are 13-15 years old. The sample of participants consists of 62 female volleyball players divided into three groups according to their age. The sample of variables has two sub-samples: 18 variables belonging to anthropometric space and 14 variables belonging to the space of motor skills. A variance ...
Pendragon, Diane K
This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.
O processo de cuidar participante com um grupo de gestantes: repercussões na saúde integral individual-coletiva The participant caring process with a group of pregnant: impact in the individual and collective health
Maria Regina Rufino Delfino
Full Text Available O artigo tem como objetivo conhecer a repercussão da aplicação de um processo de cuidar participante na saúde integral individual-coletiva de um grupo de gestantes. O estudo foi realizado através de atividade prática de cuidado em saúde, desenvolvida com um grupo de dez gestantes, no período de setembro a dezembro de 2002. As atividades grupais se deram em seis oficinas de saúde, ao término das quais foi realizada uma visita domiciliar a cada uma das participantes. Numa abordagem qualitativa, o levantamento dos dados foi realizado pela observação participante com entrevista nas dinâmicas de oficinas e nas visitas domiciliares, delineadas pelo Referencial do Cuidado Holístico-Ecológico. Através do processo de análise-reflexão-síntese, foram identificadas as repercussões do desenvolvimento do processo de cuidar participante nas seguintes dimensões: a gestante com ela própria; a gestante com o seu bebê e com os familiares; e os familiares e a gestante com a comunidade. A busca do conhecimento alicerçada na abordagem participante influenciou na ampliação do conceito de saúde e de cidadania no contexto das gestantes e dos seus coletivos. A utilização de abordagens dos novos paradigmas pode contribuir para a construção do conhecimento e com o processo de promoção da saúde, bem como subsidiar trabalhos interdisciplinares.To study the impact of the use of a participant caring process on the individual and collective health care applied to a group of pregnant. The study was carried out through health care practices with ten pregnant individuals from September to December, 2002. Group activities were developed in six health workshops followed by a home visit to each participant. Using qualitative approach, data were collected through participant observations and interviews during the workshops and home visits, as designed in the Ecological and Holistic Care Reference. The effects of the participant health care were
Grayce Alencar Albuquerque
Full Text Available The objective was to learn about the experiences of women from a Health Strategy in view of the experience of sexual autonomy in the face of the female condom. It is an exploratory and qualitative study, completed in April 2010, which used semi-structured interview as data collection technique and the theory of social constructionism to aid in data analysis. Of the total of 25 women participants, after six months, only 12 were still in continuous use of the female condom. They pointed out the female condom as able to provide them with bargaining power, since it is inserted into their bodies. For some, the difficulty of trading remained for failure partner's approval. It is observed that in practice, the female condom becomes hostage of gender relations.
Full Text Available En el marco de la Investigación "Educación para la Orientación: Proyectos y construcción identitaria de jóvenes escolarizados" (UBACyT 2008-2010 se realizó el seguimiento de los jóvenes que participaron en un programa de orientación vocacional en grupos, transcurrido un año. El programa tuvo lugar en la Dirección de Orientación al Estudiante de la Secretaría de Asuntos Académicos en la Universidad de Buenos Aires. El objetivo fue indagar, mediante una encuesta telefónica, qué pensaban los jóvenes acerca de su situación actual y el desarrollo de sus proyectos de estudio y trabajo, y la posible incidencia que ellos consideraban que había tenido en su orientación el trabajo realizado en los grupos. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de los jóvenes expresaron su satisfacción con la actividad de orientación. Especialmente, valoraron positivamente haber intercambiado con pares cuestiones comunes acerca de su transición, y haber ampliado la información sobre los estudios superiores y el trabajo.In the framework of research on "Education for Guidance: projects and identity construction of secondary school students" (UBACyT 2008-2010, a follow-up of young people who participated in the guidance groups was carried out one year later. The program took place in the Department of Student Orientation (DOE in the University of Buenos Aires. Specifically, it analyzed the way young people felt about their current situation and the development of their study and work projects, with the aim of exploring the possible influence they think the participation in the groups has in their guidance. For this purpose, a telephone survey have been made. The results show that most of young people express their satisfaction with the guidance activity. Specially, they appreciate to discuss about the aspects in common of the transition with others in group, and to broaden the information in order to build their trajectories.
Krupar, Karen R.
Using a series of communicational games, the author leads the participant through self-awareness, verbal and nonverbal communication, decision-making, problem-solving, and skills in perception, listening, and small group, organizational, and cultural communications. The thesis behind the book is that model-making, role-playing, or other forms of…
Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken
The research group Participation, Care and Support is part of the Research Centre for Social Innovation of Utrecht University for Applied Sciences. This is a transdisciplinary research centre, doing practice based research focused on relevant social issues, connecting different fields like social
Carmen Lúcia Alves Filzola
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender a vivência de familiares que frequentam o grupo de apoio Al-Anon diante da experiência do alcoolismo. MÉTODO: A pesquisa foi realizada com 6 mulheres, das 10 convidadas, que frequentam o grupo de autoajuda Al-Anon. A coleta de dados se deu através de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os referenciais teórico e metodológico que embasaram a análise qualitativa foram o Interacionismo Simbólico e a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados, em seus passos iniciais. RESULTADOS: Os dados resultaram em 3 categorias conceituais: 1 Negando o alcoolismo e sofrendo suas consequências; 2 Buscando ajuda, aprendendo com o grupo; e 3 Esperando a cura, experimentando a sobriedade e enfrentando as recaídas. Além do apoio da própria família e da religião, as mulheres apontaram a importância do grupo de autoajuda para ampará-las no enfrentamento dos problemas decorrentes do alcoolismo. CONCLUSÃO: Esperamos que os resultados desta pesquisa possam contribuir para a valorização do suporte oferecido pelo Al-Anon, estimular novos estudos na área e fortalecer, entre os profissionais de saúde, o reconhecimento do grupo como recurso importante de apoio efetivo às famílias.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the experience of family members who participate in Al-Anon support group in relation to alcoholism. METHOD: The research was accomplished with 6 women, 10 invited, attending the group of self-help Al-Anon. The data collection was through semi-structured interviews. The theoretical and methodological reference to the qualitative analysis was based on Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory in Data, in its initial steps. RESULTS: The data resulted in 3 conceptual categories: 1 Denying alcoholism and suffering yours consequences; 2 Searching for help, learning with the support group; 3 Waiting for cure, experiencing sobriety and facing relapses. Besides the support of family and religion, women pointed to the importance of self-help group to support
Okuonghae, E O P; Onyenekwe, C C; Ahaneku, J E; Ukibe, N R; Nwani, P O; Asomugha, A L; Osakue, N O; Aidomeh, F; Awalu, C C
Diabetes mellitus has become an onerous disease to developing countries such as Nigeria. Rapid acceptance of urbanisation and sedentary life styles pose an encumbrance to its prevention and management. Increased oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus has been implicated as a culprit in perpetuating antioxidant depletion and diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus individuals. This study aims to evaluate the level of antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) female participants visiting the out-patient diabetic clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 86 participants aged 51±10 years were recruited for this study. The test group consists of 43 already confirmed type 2 diabetes mellitus females, while the control group consists of 43 apparently healthy females. The test subjects were further subgrouped into good and poor glycaemic control groups, using a cut-off of 0.05). This study concludes that there is antioxidant depletion in females with type 2 diabetes.
Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec, Violetta; Plinta, Ryszard
The impact of premenstrual symptoms, such as the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), on sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and sexual behaviors has not yet been established. To assess the correlates and risk factors of sexual satisfaction and to evaluate sexual behaviors among Polish women with premenstrual symptoms. 2,500 females, aged 18 to 45 years, from the Upper Silesian region of Poland were eligible for the questionnaire-based, prospective population study. All the inclusion criteria were met by 1,540 women who constituted the final study group. The participants were further divided into two subgroups: PMS+ (749 females) and PMS- (791 healthy subjects). Two additional subgroups were created: PMDD+ encompassing 32 subjects diagnosed with PMDD, and PMDD- comprising 32 healthy women, matched to the PMDD+ females for age, marital status, education level, employment status, place of living, and body mass index. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of PMS on sexual satisfaction and adjust for potential confounders. To evaluate risk factors for sexual dissatisfaction in a population of Polish females of reproductive age, diagnosed with PMS and PMDD. Women from the PMS+ group were less sexually satisfied than PMS- (77.73% vs. 88.66%, P=0.001) and reported more sexual distress (28.65% vs. 15.24%, P=0.001). There were no significant differences in sexual satisfaction between PMDD- and PMDD+. Sexual satisfaction correlated positively with a higher frequency of sexual intercourses and a higher level of education. The presence of PMS correlated negatively with sexual satisfaction, even after adjusting for potential confounders in the multivariate logistic regression model (odds ratio=0.48; confidence interval: 0.26-0.89; P=0.02). The presence of PMS is a risk factor for sexual dissatisfaction in Polish women of reproductive age. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Experiences from Participants in Large-Scale Group Practice of the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programs and Parallel Principles of Quantum Theory, Astrophysics, Quantum Cosmology, and String Theory: Interdisciplinary Qualitative Correspondences
Svenson, Eric Johan
Participants on the Invincible America Assembly in Fairfield, Iowa, and neighboring Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa, practicing Maharishi Transcendental Meditation(TM) (TM) and the TM-Sidhi(TM) programs in large groups, submitted written experiences that they had had during, and in some cases shortly after, their daily practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs. Participants were instructed to include in their written experiences only what they observed and to leave out interpretation and analysis. These experiences were then read by the author and compared with principles and phenomena of modern physics, particularly with quantum theory, astrophysics, quantum cosmology, and string theory as well as defining characteristics of higher states of consciousness as described by Maharishi Vedic Science. In all cases, particular principles or phenomena of physics and qualities of higher states of consciousness appeared qualitatively quite similar to the content of the given experience. These experiences are presented in an Appendix, in which the corresponding principles and phenomena of physics are also presented. These physics "commentaries" on the experiences were written largely in layman's terms, without equations, and, in nearly every case, with clear reference to the corresponding sections of the experiences to which a given principle appears to relate. An abundance of similarities were apparent between the subjective experiences during meditation and principles of modern physics. A theoretic framework for understanding these rich similarities may begin with Maharishi's theory of higher states of consciousness provided herein. We conclude that the consistency and richness of detail found in these abundant similarities warrants the further pursuit and development of such a framework.
Maria da Graça Saldanha Padilha
Full Text Available Pessoas que sofreram abuso sexual na infância ou adolescência carregam seqüelas emocionais provenientes do abuso, em diferentes graus. Este estudo teve como objetivo geral a análise de um processo terapêutico em grupo desenvolvido com adolescentes do sexo feminino, vítimas de abuso sexual intrafamiliar, visando diminuir seqüelas do abuso e melhorar seu repertório de enfrentamento. O processo de quinze sessões foi dividido em quatro fases, com objetivos específicos: (I Preparação - dessensibilizar para facilitar a auto-exposição; (II Revelação e exposição de sentimentos - facilitar a revelação do abuso sexual; (III Aceitação - discutir a aceitação do abuso sexual e seu lugar na história de vida da pessoa; e (IV Prevenção - facilitar a aprendizagem de comportamentos de autoproteção que impeçam a revitimização. Os resultados mostraram que exposições graduais ao tema feitas em grupo podem facilitar a revelação, a expressão de sentimentos e a aceitação do abuso na história de vida das participantes.People who suffered sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence carry a great number of abuse-related sequela. The aim of this study was the analysis of a therapeutic group process developed with female teenagers who were victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse. It aimed for the sequela reduction left by the sexual abuse, and improve their tools for facing up to the abuse situation. The process was composed of fifteen sessions, divided into phases, each one having an specific aim: Preparation - desensitization to facilitate the self-exposure; Revelation and feelings exposure - to facilitate the sexual abuse revelation, and promote the feelings exposure; Acceptance - to discuss the sexual abuse acceptance, and its place in the person's life history; Prevention - to facilitate the learning of self protection behaviors that prevent their selves from revictimization. The results show that the gradual exposures to the subject
Ninot, G.; Bilard, J.; Delignieres, D.
Background: The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic programme (integrated vs. segregated) on the athletic domain of perceived competence and on general self-worth. Methods: Participants were 32 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID), divided equally into four groups: (1) segregated swimming; (2) integrated…
Esentas, Melike; Özbey, Selhan; Güzel, Pinar
This study aims to determine the role of youth camp practices, organised by the Ministry of Youth and Sports, in the development of self-awareness and leadership skills of female students participating in youth camps. As a result of analysis of the data collected with triangulation method--observation, focus group discussions and document…
Full Text Available Background: Botulinum toxin (BT use for enhancing the facial features has become a commonly accepted form of aesthetic intervention. This study conducted a self-report survey of female BT users in order to explore the motivating factors in its use (cost-benefit analysis. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional exploratory pilot study. Materials and Methods: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 41 consecutive clients attending an independent medical practice for BT injections for cosmetic purposes. All the participants were females and represented a range of age groups from the 20s to above 60s. Items in the nonstandardized questionnaire elicited questions relating to the reasons for and against BT use. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis was used rather than inferential statistics, and involved ranking the responses according to the most likely reasons for using BT and disadvantages of its use. Results: In general, the primary motivating factor for BT use was to improve self-esteem, and the greatest disadvantage involved financial costs associated with the procedure. Conclusions: The main findings of this study suggest that females who use BT for aesthetic purposes are motivated by personal psychological gains (intrapersonal attributes rather than social gains (interpersonal factors. In other words, they do not believe that having BT will equate to being treated any better by other people but would rather provide them with confidence and satisfaction regarding their self-image.
Allison, Kenneth R.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Goldenberg, Ellie; Fein, Allan; Yoshida, Karen K.; Boutilier, Marie
This study explored male adolescents' reasons for participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity, perceived barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity, and suggestions as to what can be done to increase participation in physical activity. A total of 26 male 15- and 16-year-old adolescents participated in focus group sessions,…
... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...
Larissa Pruner Marques
Full Text Available Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP. The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1. The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.
Marques, Larissa Pruner; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; d'Orsi, Eleonora
The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP). The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1). The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.
Sexual activity among female teenagers: a comparison between two groups of middle class adolescents from a private clinic according to pregnancy status Atividade sexual em mulheres adolescentes: uma comparação entre dois grupos de adolescentes de classe média de clínica particular de acordo com estado gravídico
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to investigate patterns of sexual activity among teenagers. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted between July 1998 and September 2000, among 117 sexually active female adolescents from a private clinic, in the city of the Osasco, State of São Paulo, Brazil. They were divided into two groups: one pregnant group (PG comprised 62 adolescents that were either pregnant (46 or had previously been pregnant (16; another group of 55 female adolescents that had never been pregnant (NPG. During consultations with these subjects, a physician conducted a semi-structured interview. Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to sexual activity were evaluated. The comparison between the two groups was carried out using Student's t test, the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: the two groups showed considerable similarities in terms of sexual behaviour, having engaged in the first sexual intercourse at the age of 15 and having had an average number of sexual partners of 1.5. Nevertheless, adolescents in the PG group had initiated sexual life earlier and tended to use less contraceptive methods during the first intercourse. Despite widespread knowledge of contraception, a large number of the adolescents did not use any contraceptive method during first sexual intercourse. In their current sexual life, an average of 81% of the participants referred to attaining orgasm. CONCLUSIONS: knowledge about contraceptive techniques is not enough to avoid unplanned pregnancies, suggesting the importance of investigating other psychosocial aspects of motherhood and maternal identity among teenagers.OBJETIVOS: investigar padrões de atividade sexual em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal realizado entre julho de 1998 e setembro de 2000, com 117 mulheres adolescentes sexualmente ativas oriundas de clínica privada, em Osasco, São Paulo, Brasil. Foram constituídos dois grupos: um grupo de grávidas (PG com 62 adolescentes que estavam
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National Defense University Press, 2015), 132. 14 Cohn, 3. 15 Linda Grant De Pauw, Battle Cries and Lullabies: Women in War from Prehistory to the...Battle Cries and Lullabies: Women in War from Prehistory to the Present. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. Epstein, David. The Sports Gene
Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth
State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.
Beck, Victoria; Rose, Chris
The goal of this study was to investigate whether the sexual objectification and virtual violence against females in video games increases negative attitudes toward females, when addressing a variety of noted methodological issues. Study participants were randomly assigned to a control group, where participants played Madden NFL 12, or an experimental group, where participants played Grand Theft Auto. In the experimental group, participants played the game with a confederate, who exposed participants to sexual objectification and violence against females. Study results indicated that both the experimental and control groups had equivalently low levels of rape myth acceptance prior to game play. Immediately after game play, there still was no statistically significant difference in rape myth acceptance between groups; however, there was a decrease in rape myth acceptance for the experimental group. The decrease in rape myth acceptance continued and magnified for the experimental group, over time, to the point of creating a statistically significant difference between the two groups for the follow-up measure at the end of the study.
Murthy, R K