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Sample records for group discussions role

  1. Gender diversity and motivation in collaborative learning groups : the mediating role of group discussion quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Chappin, M.M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835056; Jansen, Rob J. G.

    Collaborative learning is often used in higher education to help students develop their teamwork skills and acquire curricular knowledge. In this paper we test a mediation model in which the quality of group discussions mediates the impact of gender diversity and group motivation on collaborative

  2. Gender diversity and motivation in collaborative learning groups : The mediating role of group discussion quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, Petre; Chappin, M.M.H.; Jansen, R.J.G.

    2018-01-01

    Collaborative learning is often used in higher education to help students develop their teamwork skills and acquire curricular knowledge. In this paper we test a mediation model in which the quality of group discussions mediates the impact of gender diversity and group motivation on collaborative

  3. Summary of group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the workshop was the interaction and exchange of ideas and information among the 40 participants. To facilitate this activity the workshop participants were divided into five discussions groups. These groups reviewed selected subjects and reported back to the main body with summaries of their considerations. Over the 3 days the 5 discussion groups were requested to focus on the following subjects: the characteristics and capabilities of 'good' organisations; how to ensure sufficient resources; how to ensure competence within the organisation; how to demonstrate organisational suitability; the regulatory oversight processes - including their strengths and weaknesses. A list of the related questions that were provided to the discussion groups can be found in Appendix 3. Also included in Appendix 3 are copies of the slides the groups prepared that summarised their considerations

  4. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  5. The Influence of Collaborative Group Work on Students' Development of Critical Thinking: The Teacher's Role in Facilitating Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis Chun-Lok; To, Helen; Leung, Kit

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of group work in a teaching intervention can effectively foster students' critical thinking skills. Building upon Kuhn's critical thinking model, the research involved comparison of pretest and post-test results for 140 secondary four (10th grade) students in Hong Kong on two…

  6. The role of individualism and the Five-Factor Model in the prediction of performance in a leaderless group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, David A; Atwater, Leanne E; Davidson, Ronald A

    2004-02-01

    Personality has seen a resurgence in the work performance literature. The Five-Factor Model (FFM) represents a set of personality factors that has received the most attention in recent years. Despite its popularity, the FFM may not be sufficiently comprehensive to account for relevant variation across performance dimensions or tasks. Accordingly, the present study also considers how individualism may predict additional variance in performance beyond the FFM. The study involved 152 undergraduate students who experienced a leaderless group discussion (LGD) exercise. Results showed that while the FFM accounted for variance in students' LGD performance, individualism (independence) accounted for additional, unique variance. Furthermore, analyses of the group compositions revealed curvilinear relationships between the relative amount of extraversion, conscientiousness, and individualism in relation to group-level performance.

  7. [Development of clinical trial education program for pharmaceutical science students through small group discussion and role-playing using protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imakyure, Osamu; Shuto, Hideki; Nishikawa, Fumi; Hagiwara, Yoshifuka; Inoue, Sachiko; Koyanagi, Taeko; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2010-08-01

    The acquirement of basic knowledge of clinical trials and professional attitude in their practices is a general instructional objective in the Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education. Unfortunately, the previous program of clinical trial education was not effective in the acquirement of a professional attitude in their practices. Then, we developed the new clinical trial education program using protocol through small group discussion (SGD) and roll-playing. Our program consists of 7 steps of practical training. In step 1, the students find some problems after presentation of the protocol including case and prescription. In step 2, they analyse the extracted problems and share the information obtained in SGD. In steps 3 and 5, five clinical case scenarios are presented to the students and they discuss which case is suitable for entry to the clinical trial or which case corresponds to the discontinuance criteria in the present designed protocol. In steps 4 and 6, the roll-playing is performed by teachers and students as doctors and clinical research coordinators (CRC) respectively. Further, we conducted a trial practice based on this program for the students. In the student's self-evaluation into five grades, the average score of the skill acquisition level in each step was 3.8-4.7 grade. Our clinical trial education program could be effective in educating the candidates for CRC or clinical pharmacists.

  8. Student decision making in large group discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  9. Focus group discussion in mathematical physics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellianawati; Rudiana, D.; Sabandar, J.; Subali, B.

    2018-03-01

    The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) activity in Mathematical Physics learning has helped students perform the stages of problem solving reflectively. The FGD implementation was conducted to explore the problems and find the right strategy to improve the students' ability to solve the problem accurately which is one of reflective thinking component that has been difficult to improve. The research method used is descriptive qualitative by using single subject response in Physics student. During the FGD process, one student was observed of her reflective thinking development in solving the physics problem. The strategy chosen in the discussion activity was the Cognitive Apprenticeship-Instruction (CA-I) syntax. Based on the results of this study, it is obtained the information that after going through a series of stages of discussion, the students' reflective thinking skills is increased significantly. The scaffolding stage in the CA-I model plays an important role in the process of solving physics problems accurately. Students are able to recognize and formulate problems by describing problem sketches, identifying the variables involved, applying mathematical equations that accord to physics concepts, executing accurately, and applying evaluation by explaining the solution to various contexts.

  10. Discussion groups on the Internet: journaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, J E

    1995-09-01

    Interactive communication on the Internet, as illustrated by the e-mail-based breast cancer discussion group, provides an alternative to the telephone, the fax machine and regular mail, and is a resource for communications research, the potential of which is only beginning to be appreciated. At least some of the messages posted to such discussion groups could be regarded as a form of "journaling". Such messages are eminently suitable for qualitative data analysis.

  11. Summaries of discussion groups and closeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Beam Instrumentation Workshop registrants selected the following topics for group discussions: Commercial technology and beam instrumentation, 4th generation light source instrumentation, feedback systems, beam loss monitors, calibration methods, high resolution and highly stable BPM methods, challenges in beam profiling. Summaries of these discussion sessions are listed in the article that follows

  12. Group Discussion and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouas, Kelly S.; Komorita, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Face-to-face discussion has been shown to increase cooperation behavior in social dilemmas. Two general explanations of this effect were tested: group identity and perception of consensus. Female undergraduate students (N=160) participated in four-person groups in one of four experimental conditions. Findings indicate the most plausible…

  13. How to conduct focus groups: researching group priorities through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Focus groups serve to uncover priorities and beliefs of a target group, but health project designers do not always take the time to seek this information beforehand. Focus groups also allow various local subgroups to communicate their concerns before the project starts. Focus groups can also breed ideas and dialogue that individual interviews cannot and they provide baseline information so managers can determine if attitudes or priorities have resulted from the project. Diverse people have different beliefs, e.g., women who have young children view oral rehydration therapy differently from women with no children. Project designers can use these basic differences to arrive at some conclusions about general attitudes. Focus group facilitators should have a discussion outline to help keep the group on the topic of concern. They should limit sessions to 60-90 minutes. Each focus groups should include 8-10 people. It is important to have members of various community subgroups in each group. Yet group designers should be careful not to include within the same group, those who may intimidate other people in the group, e.g., in situations where farmers depend on middlemen, farmers may not be open if middlemen are also in the focus group. Facilitators should launch each session with an attempt to encourage the members to be open and to feel comfortable. For example, in Malawi, a facilitator leads her focus group discussions with songs. Stories are another icebreaker. It is important that all focus groups centering around a certain project discuss the same topics. Facilitators need to stress to the group that all discussions are to be kept confidential. The designers should also carefully word the questions so that facilitators will not impart their bias. Facilitators should not direct the group to certain conclusions, but instead keep the discussions focused.

  14. Sharing and Discussing News in Private Social Media Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    and their associated following, sharing and discussion practices. Specifically, it studies the role of news in six focus groups consisting of people who know each other offline and simultaneously communicate regularly through private Facebook or WhatsApp groups, and who interact primarily in relation...

  15. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  16. Synthesis of the working group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The workshop was an important step in the establishment of a strategy to review the part of SKB's safety case that is devoted to the demonstration of the isolation function of a future spent fuel repository. The emphasis was on identification rather than resolution of issues in this workshop synthesis. Subsequent steps therefore have to be taken within the Swedish regulatory bodies to follow up on this report and suggest activities within the regulators research programmes, as well as organise more detailed issue evaluation for different experts group. Ongoing and planned activities within the SKB programme that are related to the issues identified in this report would have to be reviewed in detail. The great emphasis of isolation of spent nuclear fuel rather than, e.g., radionuclide retardation and dilution, featured in the SR97 performance assessment, suggests that the Swedish regulators have to be prepared to review this part of the coming PAs in greater detail. The specific features of the workshop that contributed to the rather comprehensive description of issues relevant for future licensing activities are: The combined consideration of the areas of the copper canister and bentonite buffer, the assessment of both chemical and mechanical aspects of EBS and canister integrity, the use of a published comprehensive performance assessment (SR-97) as a basis for discussions, the active participation by SKB providing additional information on recent developments. There is an educational value for external consultants and researchers, as well as SKI staff, in addressing the broad subject areas relevant for the EBS isolation function. However, a broad coverage to some extent necessitates rather superficial view of the various issues under consideration. It should be noted that the descriptions in this synthesis can by no means be regarded as fully comprehensive, and that additional key issues may be identified in the SKB programme as well as future regulatory

  17. Searching for Intertextual Connections in Small Group Text Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Feng-ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the sources for and intentions of intertextuality made by 10 groups of Taiwanese university students in the process of discussing two American stories. Two types of data, small group text discussions and oral interviews, were gathered. The results indicated that participants used diverse sources of intertextual links, and with…

  18. Dynamical networks of influence in small group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Noriega Campero, Alejandro; Almaatouq, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    In many domains of life, business and management, numerous problems are addressed by small groups of individuals engaged in face-to-face discussions. While research in social psychology has a long history of studying the determinants of small group performances, the internal dynamics that govern a group discussion are not yet well understood. Here, we rely on computational methods based on network analyses and opinion dynamics to describe how individuals influence each other during a group discussion. We consider the situation in which a small group of three individuals engages in a discussion to solve an estimation task. We propose a model describing how group members gradually influence each other and revise their judgments over the course of the discussion. The main component of the model is an influence network-a weighted, directed graph that determines the extent to which individuals influence each other during the discussion. In simulations, we first study the optimal structure of the influence network that yields the best group performances. Then, we implement a social learning process by which individuals adapt to the past performance of their peers, thereby affecting the structure of the influence network in the long run. We explore the mechanisms underlying the emergence of efficient or maladaptive networks and show that the influence network can converge towards the optimal one, but only when individuals exhibit a social discounting bias by downgrading the relative performances of their peers. Finally, we find a late-speaker effect, whereby individuals who speak later in the discussion are perceived more positively in the long run and are thus more influential. The numerous predictions of the model can serve as a basis for future experiments, and this work opens research on small group discussion to computational social sciences.

  19. Professional Discussion Groups: Informal Learning in a Third Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I explored two discussion groups and discovered Third Space elements such as cultural hybridity, counterscript, and sharing of experiences and resources contributed to a safe learning environment existing at the boundaries between participant personal and professional spaces. The groups operated under the auspices of a…

  20. Discussions of the uranium geology working groups IGC, Sydney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The report is divided into six working group discussions on the following subjects: 1) Chemical and physical mechanisms in the formation of uranium mineralization, geochronology, isotope geology and mineralogy; 2) Sedimentary basins and sandstone-type uranium deposits; 3) Uranium in quartz-pebble conglomerates; 4) Vein and similar type deposits (pitchblende); 5) Other uranium deposits; 6) Relation of metallogenic, tectonic and zoning factors to the origin of uranium deposits. Each working group paper contains a short introductory part followed by a discussion by the working group members

  1. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  2. THE APPLICABILITY OF SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION IN ENGLISH READING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Yudhi Nugroho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Success of learning is not only a matter of using an appropriate teaching resources, instead, the interference of teaching method is found to be essential to determine the students’ learning achievement. Teacher as a captain of class has the right to choose type of method used in the classroom for sake of students’ improvement. This study was designed as an attempt to help Master Students from a well established private university improve their reading comprehension skill through small group discussion. This study was participated by 30 students, later divided into two classes and served differently as an experimental group for the class A and a control group for the class B. Referring to the final data analysis of the study, it is found that there is an improving learning achievement in the experimental group, indicated by higher performance of posttest (20.333 than the pretest. Apart from this, further analysis was also conducted to find out whether or not small group discussion was able to show better performance than another teaching method applied in another different class. Based on the result of statistical calculation, it shows that small group discussion got better result 12.334 than that of another group. As a result, some suggestions were made by referring to result of the study.

  3. Discussion as media and tool in PBL project-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Claus Monrad

    2013-01-01

    on the discussions which groups undertake in their pursuit of problem-solutions fulfilling assessed real-world needs as well as meeting the requirements of the educational program, it is concluded that discussions serve as a media for achieving learning and as a tool for developing skills essential for professional......The Aalborg PBL Model encourages project-management as a way for students to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in their study-projects. This paper looks into how the development of conversation skills relates to project-management as well as other factors. Through analysis of interviews focusing...

  4. A Model for Establishing an Astronomy Education Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Grace; Hayes-Gehrke, M.; Zauderer, B. A.; Bovill, M. S.; DeCesar, M.

    2010-01-01

    In October 2005, a group of astronomy faculty and graduate students met to establish departmental support for participants in the UM Center for Teaching Excellence University Teaching and Learning Program. This program seeks to increase graduate students’ understanding of effective teaching methods, awareness of student learning, and appreciation of education as a scholarly pursuit. Our group has facilitated the submission of successful graduate student educational development grant proposals to the Center for Teaching Excellence (CTE). Completion of the CTE program results in a notation on the graduate student's transcript. Our discussion group met monthly during the first two years. The Astronomy Education Review, The Physics Teacher, The Washington Post, The Chronicle of Higher Education, and National Research Council publications were used to provide background for discussion. Beginning in 2007, the group began sponsoring monthly astronomy education lunches during the academic year to which the entire department was invited. Over the past two years, speakers have included graduate students, faculty, and guests, such as Jay Labov from the National Research Council. Topics have included the Astronomy Diagnostic Test, intelligent design versus evolution, active learning techniques, introducing the use of lecture tutorials, using effective demonstrations, confronting student misconceptions, engagement through clickers (or cards), and fostering critical thinking with ranking tasks. The results of an informal evaluation will be presented.

  5. Discussions of Fatherhood in Male Batterer Treatment Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Veteläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine how men who have perpetrated violence toward their partners and participated in batterer group talked about being a father and how they perceived their own fatherhood. The discussion in the group was analyzed qualitatively by using the methods of content analysis. In traditional fatherhood, they talked about avoidant, passiveness, distant, indifference, and authoritative controlling ways of acting. These men also created an image of themselves as active and caring fathers, thus including empathy and nurture in the concept of fatherhood. This new fatherhood was considered an achieved goal and an objective for the men as being a father. Talking about fatherhood in these groups is important as fatherhood and relations to children are both an important motivator toward nonviolence.

  6. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical

  7. Online Group Discussion pada Mata Kuliah Teknologi Pembelajaran Fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuberti Yuberti

    2015-10-01

    penawaran akses internet yang menggiurkan demi menarik minat penggunanya. Beberapa fenomena tersebut menunjukkan semakin banyak kalangan yang memanfaatkan internet dan menjadikanya sebagai gaya hidup untuk berintaksi, bersosialisasi, belajar dan mendapatkan informasi. Meluasnya pemanfaatan internet bisa menjadi potensi besar dalam pengembangan pembelajaran dengan sistem online memungkinkan pebelajar untuk mengakses infromasi secara fleksibel tanpa terbatas waktu dan tempat. Diskusi tidak lagi terjadi secara tatap muka, namun dapat terus berlangsung meskipun dalam lingkungan maya. Sebagaimana pelaksanaan metode pembelajaran maya lainnya. Pelaksanaannya diskusi online itu sendiri pada dasarnya mengadopsi dari metode pembelajaran diskusi tatap muka. Kata kunci: online group discussion, teknologi pembelajaran

  8. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions

  9. Increasing Student Participation in Online Group Discussions via Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…

  10. The "Us" in Discuss: Grouping in Literature Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes one middle school teacher's use of literature circles using heterogeneous grouping. It begins with a brief rationale for using literature circles in the language arts classroom. Next, it describes techniques to form literature circles. Then, it shares how to build and establish a supportive environment within each group. It…

  11. Social capital as norms and resources: Focus groups discussing alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    and an effect of their drinking experience. We apply Coleman's micro-oriented perspective on local network mechanisms – with a specific focus on collective norms negotiated in the focus groups – in combination with Bourdieu's definition of social capital as resources. The data used in this article come from......The aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between peer-group social capital and the use of alcohol among young people – as this relationship is expressed in focus group interviews. The main point to be made is that social capital affects alcohol use in two different ways: it incites...... focus group interviews with 18–19-year-old Danes. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/16066351003725776...

  12. Sharing and Discussing News in Private Social Media Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    to their membership in a particular (1) location-based (2) work-related or (3) leisure-oriented community. It finds that communication within social media communities whose members consider their ties as weak generally tended to be more news-centred. Even more significant was perceived control over privacy......Social media platforms are an increasingly dominant medium through which people encounter news in everyday life. Yet while we know more-and-more about frequency of use and sharing, content preferences and network configurations around news use on social media, the social experiences associated...... with such practices remain relatively unexplored. This paper addresses this gap to consider if and how news facilitates conversations in everyday contexts where social media play a communicative role. It investigates how people engage with current affairs collectively in different social formations...

  13. Students discussing their mathematical ideas: Group-tests and mind-maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls, M.; de Kramer, D.; Maj, B.; Pytlak, M.; Swoboda, E.

    2008-01-01

    In an explorative research project, teachers experimented with new ideas to make their students discuss (i.e. show, explain, justify and reconstruct their work) their mathematical ideas with each other. Two kind of special tasks were developed: group tests and mind maps. Also, the role of the

  14. The Effect of Instructional Methods (Lecture-Discussion versus Group Discussion) and Teaching Talent on Teacher Trainees Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrofin; Degeng, Nyoman Sudana; Ardhana, Wayan; Setyosari, Punaji

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine difference in the effect of instructional methods (lecture-discussion versus group discussion) and teaching talent on teacher trainees student learning outcomes. It was conducted by a quasi-experimental design using the factorialized (2 x 2) version of the nonequivalent control group design. The subjects were…

  15. The Role of Oncology Nurses in Discussing Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocke, Susan A; Antognoli, Elizabeth; Daly, Barbara J; Jackson, Brigid; Fulton, Sarah E; Liu, Tasnuva M; Surdam, Jessica; Manne, Sharon; Meropol, Neal J

    2017-09-01

    To describe oncology nurses' experiences discussing clinical trials with their patients, and to assess barriers to these discussions.
. A qualitative study designed to elicit narratives from oncology nurses. 
. Community- and academic-based oncology clinics throughout the United States.
. 33 oncology nurses involved in direct patient care in community-based and large hospital-based settings. The sample was drawn from members of the Oncology Nursing Society. 
. In-depth interviews were conducted and analyzed using a 
immersion/crystallization approach to identify themes and patterns. The analyses highlight specific issues, examples, and contexts that present challenges to clinical trial discussions with patients.
. Oncology nurses view their roles as patient educators and advocates to be inclusive of discussion of clinical trials. Barriers to such discussions include lack of knowledge and strategies for addressing patients' common misconceptions and uncertainty about the timing of discussions.
. These data indicate that enabling nurses to actively engage patients in discussions of clinical trials requires educational interventions to build self-efficacy and close knowledge gaps. 
. Oncology nurses can play a critical role in advancing cancer care by supporting patients in decision making about clinical trial participation. This will require training and education to build their knowledge, reduce barriers, and increase their self-efficacy to fulfill this responsibility in various clinical settings.

  16. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  17. The communication of social stereotypes: the effects of group discussion and information distribution on stereotypic appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, M; Judd, C M; Jacquelin, V

    2001-09-01

    Stereotypes are fundamentally social constructs, formulated and modified through discussion and interaction with others. The present studies examined the impact of group discussion on stereotypes. In both studies, groups of participants discussed their impressions about a hypothetical target group after having read behaviors performed by target group members. These behaviors included both stereotypic and counterstereotypic examples, and the distribution of these behaviors varied across discussion group members. In some groups only 1 member knew of the counterstereotypic behaviors; in other groups this information was distributed across all group members. In general, discussion led to a polarization of the target group stereotypes, but this effect was lessened when the counterstereotypic behaviors were concentrated in 1 group member. In this case, these counterstereotypic behaviors were discussed more and retained better.

  18. Testing an empirically derived mental health training model featuring small groups, distributed practice and patient discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrihy, Rachael C; Byrne, Mitchell K; Gonsalvez, Craig J

    2009-02-01

    Internationally, family doctors seeking to enhance their skills in evidence-based mental health treatment are attending brief training workshops, despite clear evidence in the literature that short-term, massed formats are not likely to improve skills in this complex area. Reviews of the educational literature suggest that an optimal model of training would incorporate distributed practice techniques; repeated practice over a lengthy time period, small-group interactive learning, mentoring relationships, skills-based training and an ongoing discussion of actual patients. This study investigates the potential role of group-based training incorporating multiple aspects of good pedagogy for training doctors in basic competencies in brief cognitive behaviour therapy (BCBT). Six groups of family doctors (n = 32) completed eight 2-hour sessions of BCBT group training over a 6-month period. A baseline control design was utilised with pre- and post-training measures of doctors' BCBT skills, knowledge and engagement in BCBT treatment. Family doctors' knowledge, skills in and actual use of BCBT with patients improved significantly over the course of training compared with the control period. This research demonstrates preliminary support for the efficacy of an empirically derived group training model for family doctors. Brief CBT group-based training could prove to be an effective and viable model for future doctor training.

  19. The influence of group discussion on performance judgments: rating accuracy, contrast effects, and halo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jerry K; Loveland, James M

    2008-03-01

    The authors investigated the effect of group discussion, such as may occur formally in panel interview scenarios, assessment centers, or 360-degree feedback situations, on judgments of performance. Research on group polarization suggests that the effect of group discussion combined with raters' preexisting impressions of ratees or interviewees should result in an extremitization of impressions. Thus, the authors hypothesized that group discussion would (a) make ratings less accurate, (b) polarize impressions that were already good or poor as reflected by greater contrast effects, and (c) increase positive halo. Results indicated that group discussion resulted in less accurate ratings and greater contrast effects. Additional analyses suggested that group discussion increased positive halo. The authors discuss implications for research on group or panel judgments.

  20. Acute care patients discuss the patient role in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathert, Cheryl; Huddleston, Nicole; Pak, Youngju

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety has been a highly researched topic in health care since the year 2000. One strategy for improving patient safety has been to encourage patients to take an active role in their safety during their health care experiences. However, little research has shed light on how patients view their roles. This study attempted to address this deficit by inductively exploring the results of a qualitative study in which patients reported their ideas about what they believe their roles should be. Patients with an overnight stay in the previous 90 days at one of three hospitals were surveyed using a mailing methodology. Of 1,040 respondents, 491 provided an open-ended response regarding what they believe the patient role should be. Qualitative analysis found several prominent themes. The largest proportion of responses (23%) suggested that patients should follow instructions given by care providers. Other prominent themes were that patients should ask questions and become informed about their conditions and treatments, and many implied that they should expect competent care. Our results suggest that patients believe they should be able to trust that they are being provided competent care, as opposed to assuming a leadership role in their safety. Our results suggest that engaging patients in safety efforts may be complex, requiring a variety of strategies. Managers must provide environments conducive to staff and patient interactions to support patients in this effort. Different types of patients may require different engagement strategies.

  1. Students discussing their mathematical ideas: the role of the teacher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls, M.; Dekker, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article adds to current research on enhancing student discourse in mathematics teaching specifically in secondary schools but with equal relevance to elementary schools. Three mathematics teachers in secondary education were confronted with the question of how to encourage students to discuss

  2. A Discussion of the Software Quality Assurance Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandt, Ronald Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The basic idea underlying this paper is that the conventional understanding of the role of a Software Quality Assurance (SQA) engineer is unduly limited. This is because few have asked who the customers of a SQA engineer are. Once you do this, you can better define what tasks a SQA engineer should perform, as well as identify the knowledge and skills that such a person should have. The consequence of doing this is that a SQA engineer can provide greater value to his or her customers. It is the position of this paper that a SQA engineer providing significant value to his or her customers must not only assume the role of an auditor, but also that of a software and systems engineer. This is because software engineers and their managers particularly value contributions that directly impact products and their development. These ideas are summarized as lessons learned, based on my experience at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  3. The role of qualitative discussion in problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, V.

    1998-01-01

    The paper contributes to the methodology of problem solving in physics. We argue that the task of solving a problem does not end by obtaining the result. We claim that a question like 'Why the result came out as it did?' can be meaningfully posed and that deeper understanding of the subject comes out as a result of a discussion on possible answers to such a question (Author)

  4. Improving Study Habits of Junior High School Students Through Self-Management versus Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary B.; Trujillo, Amaryllis E.

    1975-01-01

    Both a self-management approach, teaching the principles of behavior modification and self-control (n=36), and a group-discussion technique, involving discussion of study habits and problems (n=41), led to improvements in grade point averages compared with a no-treatment control group (n=36) for low-achieving junior high school students. (Author)

  5. Examining the Effect of Small Group Discussions and Question Prompts on Vicarious Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yekyung; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of group discussions and question prompts on students' vicarious learning experiences. Vicarious experiences were delivered to 65 preservice teachers via VisionQuest, a Web site that provided examples of successful technology integration. A 2x2 factorial research design employed group discussions and question…

  6. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  7. Advances and bottlenecks in modelling the greenhouse climate: summary of a group discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seginer, I.; Bakker, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of a group discussion at the symposium 'Models in protected cultivation' held in Wageningen, August 1997. The discussion focused on the reasons for the relatively limited acceptance and application of greenhouse climate models, especially in commercial practice. The

  8. Role extension and role advancement - Is there a difference? A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Snaith, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    The terms 'extended' and 'advanced' practice are commonly used to describe clinical practitioner roles. However, these terms have not been clearly defined within the context of modern radiography practice despite their fundamental importance to establishing the 4 tier structure, implementing Agenda for Change and promoting a coherent clinical radiography career structure. This paper discusses the terms 'extension' and 'advancement' in relation to radiography practice and, using evidence from the debates of other health professions, attempts to offer some clarity to the terminology, presenting one interpretation of its possible application to the radiographer role in the United Kingdom

  9. Role extension and role advancement - Is there a difference? A discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Maryann [Division of Radiography, School of Health Studies, University of Bradford, Trinity Road, Bradford, West Yorkshire BD5 0BB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.l.hardy1@bradford.ac.uk; Snaith, Beverly [Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    The terms 'extended' and 'advanced' practice are commonly used to describe clinical practitioner roles. However, these terms have not been clearly defined within the context of modern radiography practice despite their fundamental importance to establishing the 4 tier structure, implementing Agenda for Change and promoting a coherent clinical radiography career structure. This paper discusses the terms 'extension' and 'advancement' in relation to radiography practice and, using evidence from the debates of other health professions, attempts to offer some clarity to the terminology, presenting one interpretation of its possible application to the radiographer role in the United Kingdom.

  10. Literacy and Technology: Integrating Technology with Small Group, Peer-led Discussions of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genya Coffey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review examines research of computer-mediated small group discussion of literature. The goal of this review is to explore several instructional formats for integrating print-based and new literacies skills. First, the theoretical foundations for the shift from teacher-led to student led discussion are outlined. Research exploring ways in which technology has been infused into several common elements of literature discussion groups are presented next. Benefits and challenges of such integration are highlighted and suggestions for future research are presented.

  11. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  12. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol

    2017-06-09

    Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and

  13. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Northridge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Methods Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR, this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents, executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. Results While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24 and numbers of participants (n = 194. Conclusions This study adds to the

  14. The efficacy of focus group discussion in teaching ESP speaking skill for prospective vocational school teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmasitah, Sita; Faridi, Abdurrachman; Utomo, Aryo Baskoro; Astuti, Pudji

    2018-03-01

    The aims of the study were to implement the focus group discussion in teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) speaking skill for prospective Vocational School teacher and also to find out its effectiveness in improving their English speaking skill in ESP course. Quasi-experimental design was employed in this research. Thirty students of Family Welfare Vocational Education Study Program who were taking ESP course, were divided into two classes; experimental and control class. The research data were collected through interview, observation and the students' speaking assessment. The result showed that the implementation of focus group discussion method in the experimental class effectively increased the students' speaking skill compared to the control class.

  15. The Hampstead Clinic at work. Discussions in the Diagnostic Profile Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Minutes of the Hampstead Clinic's Diagnostic Profile Research Group during a fifteen-month period (1964-1965) are reviewed and discussed. A wide range of topics were considered and discussed, with a special focus on the affective life, object relations, and ego function of atypical children in comparison to the early ego functions and differentiation of normal and neurotic children. These lively clinical and theoretical discussions and their implications for therapeutic work with a wide range of children, demonstrate the multifaceted leadership and contributions of Anna Freud as teacher, clinician, and thinker, and of the Hampstead Clinic as a major center for psychoanalytic studies.

  16. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  17. Effects of communication strategy training on EFL students’ performance in small-group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Benson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted with regard to communication strategy training and performance on communicative tasks (Lam, 2009; Nakatani, 2010; Naughton, 2006. This study aims to add to the literature by examining how two strategies, clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation, and two methods of teaching the strategies, affected the interactional sequences and overall group discussion performance of EFL students at a university in Japan. Pre and posttreatment small-group discussions were recorded for assessment, and a stimulated recall interview was administered to determine the participants’ perceptions of their learning and language use. Posttest results reveal that the experimental groups that were taught predetermined phrases aimed at clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation employed such phrases more frequently than the control group. However, this employment of phrases did not lead to higher gains in group discussion skills as the control group enjoyed the largest gains from pre to posttest. The researchers consider the findings in light of previous research, and conclude with recommendations for future research on the topic with special regard to research design.

  18. Special Collections in ARL Libraries: A Discussion Report from the ARL Working Group on Special Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This discussion report identifies key issues in the management of special collections material in the 21st century. The report uses a broad definition of "special collections," which encompasses distinctive material in all media and attendant library services. The group's main focus was on 19th- and 20th-century materials, including…

  19. Shaping Understanding of HIV through Negotiation and Conflict Resolution during Peer Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L.; Branch, Timothy; Gutnik, Lily; Arocha, Jose F.

    2006-01-01

    High-risk behavior in youths related to HIV transmission continues to occur despite large-scale efforts to disseminate information about safe sexual practices through education. Our study examined the relationships among knowledge, decision-making strategies, and risk assessment about HIV by youths during peer group focused discussions. Two focus…

  20. Interteaching: The Effects of Discussion Group Size on Undergraduate Student Performance and Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Interteaching is a college teaching method grounded in the principles of applied behavior analysis. Research on interteaching demonstrates that it improves academic performance, and students report greater satisfaction with interteaching as compared to traditional teaching styles. The current study investigates whether discussion group size, a…

  1. Promoting Pre-Service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…

  2. Effect of interactive group discussion among physicians to promote rational prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garjani, A; Salimnejad, M; Shamsmohamadi, M; Baghchevan, V; Vahidi, R G; Maleki-Dijazi, N; Rezazadeh, H

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of an educational intervention (interactive group discussion) on the prescribing behaviour of 51 general physicians from the north-west of Tabriz. Prescriptions were analysed pre-intervention and post-intervention (control and intervention groups) using a proforma with 8 indicators of correct prescribing. The mean number of drugs per prescription pre-intervention was 3.82. The percentage of prescriptions with antibiotics, corticosteroids and injections were 40.8%, 25.9% and 58.0%, respectively. Following the intervention there were slight but not significant changes in the indicators in both intervention and control groups compared with pre-intervention results.

  3. EFEKTIVITAS FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION UNTUK MENGURANGI STRES PADA SISWA SMA YANG AKAN MENGHADAPI UJIAN AKHIR NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Aprilia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to find the effectivity of Focus Group Discussion (FGD to decrease the feeling stress for senior high school students (SMA who will face the national final examination (UAN. Stress on SMA students is a circumstance which gets negative assessment. It intimidates and pushes the students, in this case is UAN would appear a reaction such as emotional disorder, cognition, physiology and behavior disorder of SMA students. This research concerned 21 SMA students in grade XII, who had high stress level in facing UAN. The subjects were divided into two groups. First group was the experiment group (include 11 students and it was the group who got the FGD treatment. The second group was control group (include 10 students and this group didn’t get the FGD treatment. Collecting data was done by using Stress Scale in facing UAN. It was given (a before FGD (pre-test and (b after FGD (post-test. The hypothesis is examined by using difference examination (t-test by comparing mean pre-test and post-test. The result showed that there was a significant influence to decrease the stress in SMA students who were in experiment group (t = 6,540, p < 0,01 after they got FGD treatment. Experiment group had decreased the stress score to face UAN (Mean=7,476.

  4. Facebook Discussion Groups Provide a Robust Worldwide Platform for Free Pathology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Amer, Sadiq M; Yahia, Nejib Ben; Costa, Felipe D'Almeida; Noatay, Manu; Qiao, Jian-Hua; Rosado, Flavia G; Rosen, Yale; Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Gardner, Jerad M

    2017-05-01

    - Facebook (Menlo Park, California) is one of many online sites that provide potential educational tools for pathologists. We have each founded Facebook groups dedicated to anatomic pathology, in which members can share cases, ask questions, and contribute to discussions. - To report our experiences in founding and maintaining these Facebook groups and to characterize the contributed content. - We circulated a survey among the group founders, then compiled and analyzed the responses. - The groups varied in membership and in the quality of member contribution. Most posts were of pathology cases, although other topics (such as research articles) were also shared. All groups remained active and received posts from users all over the world, although all groups had many noncontributing members and received unwanted messages (which were screened and removed). Most founders were glad they had founded the groups because they provided an opportunity to both teach and learn. - Each analyzed Facebook group had a different character, and some downsides exist, but the groups all provided a no-cost way for pathologists and others across the world to interact online with many colleagues.

  5. Focus group discussions on the coverage of the southern separatist movement crisis in Yemeni newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Majdhoub, Fatima Mohamed; Hamzah, Azizah Binti; Ariffin, Moh Yahya

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative method using focus group discussions (FGDs) was applied in this study to identify people's perceptions on newspaper reporting pertaining to the Southern Separatist Movement (SSM) by different Yemeni newspapers. This paper also looked into the attitudes towards the movement and the popularity of the issue of Yemeni unification. Five FGD groups with a total of 30 participants discussed the subject and some other aspects related to it. The findings of the focu19 groups showed that the southern crisis and SSM had shaken the people's trust on the current form of the unity. The discussion with the groups revealed that media in general and the selected four papers from various political persuasions have no credibility and objectivity, but these papers are trying to instill democratic values which is consistent with their ideology, which have a serious impact on the value of liberal democracy. The participants assured that reporting on the southern cause and the SSM indicated the absence of professional journalism in the media and the political discourse in general.

  6. Adding to the mix: Students use of Facebook groups and blackboard discussion forums in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the use of Facebook in learning and teaching in higher education. Facebook was used as a venue for online discussion to support the existing Learning Management System (in this case Blackboard in the unit Internet Collaboration and Organisation as part of the Internet Communications degree taught fully online through Open Universities Australia (OUA. Students’ posts to both Facebook and the Blackboard discussion forum were analysed for content, length, and when throughout the study period they were posted. This is significant as much of the previous work in this area has relied on students self-reporting, rather than direct observation of student behaviour. These results were then compared to earlier instances of the same unit that ran within the previous twelve months, one fully online with OUA only using the Blackboard discussion group, and a second taught at Curtin University with both blended learning for students at the University’s Bentley campus as well as fully online for external students, that utilised both Blackboard and Facebook. The results show that Facebook greatly increases the level of student activity in online discussions, both absolutely and in the level of sustained activity across the unit’s study period. Facebook groups also had a different pattern of content from Blackboard. In Blackboard discussion is more focused on the set unit learning content, in Facebook students were using the groups to discuss administration and assignments and also bring in additional material from outside the units set learning materials. Facebook posts, while more sustained over the semester, were shorter in length. This study found that the addition of a Facebook discussion forum does not noticeably impact on the use of Blackboard’s discussion forum, but rather adds a new dimension to the mix of online interaction. The paper concludes that there is value in using both of these forums for student

  7. Traditional male circumcision in Uganda: a qualitative focus group discussion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet Sarvestani, Amir; Bufumbo, Leonard; Geiger, James D; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2012-01-01

    The growing body of evidence attesting to the effectiveness of clinical male circumcision in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission is prompting the majority of sub-Saharan African governments to move towards the adoption of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Even though it is recommended to consider collaboration with traditional male circumcision (TMC) providers when planning for VMMC, there is limited knowledge available about the TMC landscape and traditional beliefs. During 2010-11 over 25 focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with clan leaders, traditional cutters, and their assistants to understand the practice of TMC in four ethnic groups in Uganda. Cultural significance and cost were among the primary reasons cited for preferring TMC over VMMC. Ethnic groups in western Uganda circumcised boys at younger ages and encountered lower rates of TMC related adverse events compared to ethnic groups in eastern Uganda. Cutting styles and post-cut care also differed among the four groups. The use of a single razor blade per candidate instead of the traditional knife was identified as an important and recent change. Participants in the focus groups expressed interest in learning about methods to reduce adverse events. This work reaffirmed the strong cultural significance of TMC within Ugandan ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that there is an opportunity to evaluate the involvement of local communities that still perform TMC in the national VMMC roll-out plan by devising safer, more effective procedures through innovative approaches.

  8. What Factors Influence Well-being of Students on Performing Small Group Discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulanyani, N. M. S.; Vembriati, N.

    2018-01-01

    Generally, Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University applied Small Group Discussion (SGD) in its learning process. If group problem solving succeeds, each individual of the group will individually succeed. However, the success is also determined by each individual’s level of psychological well-being. When the students are in the high level of wellbeing, they will feel comfortable in small group discussion, and teamwork will be effective. Therefore, it is needed to conduct a research which investigates how psychological factors, such as traits, needs, cognitive, and social intelligence, influence students’ wellbeing in performing SGD. This research is also initiated by several cases of students who prefer individual learning and take SGD merely to fulfill attendance requirement. If the students have good wellbeing, they will take the SGD process optimally. The subject of this research was 100 students of Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University. This survey research used psychological test assessment, Psychological well-being scale, and Social Intelligence scale to gain data analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that all aspects of traits together with aspects ‘need for rules and supervision’ affect social intelligence. Furthermore, social intelligence factor with cognitive factors influence wellbeing of the students in the process of SGD.

  9. Qualitative findings from focus group discussions on hand hygiene compliance among health care workers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Sharon; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-10-01

    It is accepted by hospital clinical governance that every clinician's "duty of care" includes hand hygiene, yet globally, health care workers (HCWs) continue to struggle with compliance. Focus group discussions were conducted to explore HCWs' barriers to hand hygiene in Vietnam. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs from 6 public hospitals across Hanoi, Vietnam. Discussions included participants' experiences with and perceptions concerning hand hygiene. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and then translated into English. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Expressed frustration with high workload, limited access to hand hygiene solutions, and complicated guidelines that are difficult to interpret in overcrowded settings were considered by participants to be bona fide reasons for noncompliance. No participant acknowledged hand hygiene as a duty of care practice for her or his patients. Justification for noncompliance was the observation that visitors did not perform hand hygiene. HCWs did acknowledge a personal duty of care when hand hygiene was perceived to benefit her or his own health, and then neither workload or environmental challenges influenced compliance. Limited resources in Vietnam are amplified by overcrowded conditions and dual bed occupancy. Yet without a systematic systemic duty of care to patient safety, changes to guidelines and resources might not immediately improve compliance. Thus, introducing routine hand hygiene must start with education programs focusing on duty of care. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. THE USE OF FACEBOOK GROUP DISCUSSION TO IMPROVE READING STRATEGIES, AN ACTION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Yuliani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of technology influence people‘s life in many aspects including the process of teaching and learning in university, school etc. Some social medias are popular in society, one of them is Facebook. This social networking can be used for any purposes Such as interacting, marketing, publishing, learning etc. The study aims to prove whether Facebook‘s group discussion can be effectively used to improve reading strategies which are normally developed through classroom interaction. It is an action research design involving one group consisting of 37 students randomly sampled out from a population of 198 students. A plan-act-observe-reflect design of the study will be carried out in two cycles. Each cycle involves pretest, treatment and post test. Cycle 1 is undertaken to see if there is a significant difference between the pretest and post test upon treatment. The indicator of success of the treatment is that the post test outscores the pretest. If it does, then Cycle 2 will be conducted to convince the results. If the two cycles show an increase in the mean scores, it can be claimed that the method is effective. In other words, Facebook‘s group discussion can be effectively used to improve reading strategies.

  11. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-02-15

    As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health.

  12. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  13. [Role of creative discussion in the learning of critical reading of scientific articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Aguilar, Héctor; Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo; Pérez-Cortés, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    To compare two active educational strategies on critical reading (two and three stages) for research learning in medical students. Four groups were conformed in a quasi-experimental design. The medical student group, related to three stages (critical reading guide resolution, creative discussion, group discussion) g1, n = 9 with school marks > 90 and g2, n = 19 with a learning in our students.

  14. Implementation of small group discussion as a teaching method in earth and space science subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryani, N. P.; Supriyadi

    2018-03-01

    In Physics Department Universitas Negeri Semarang, Earth and Space Science subject is included in the curriculum of the third year of physics education students. There are various models of teaching earth and space science subject such as textbook method, lecturer, demonstrations, study tours, problem-solving method, etc. Lectures method is the most commonly used of teaching earth and space science subject. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of two ways interaction between lecturers and students. This research used small group discussion as a teaching method in Earth and Space science. The purpose of this study is to identify the conditions under which an efficient discussion may be initiated and maintained while students are investigating properties of earth and space science subjects. The results of this research show that there is an increase in student’s understanding of earth and space science subject proven through the evaluation results. In addition, during the learning process, student’s activeness also increase.

  15. Activities in a social networking-based discussion group by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Na; Wang, Xiangping; Zhang, Rongchun; Liu, Zhiguo; Liang, Shuhui; Yao, Shaowei; Tao, Qin; Jia, Hui; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2017-10-01

    Online social networking is increasingly being used among medical practitioners. However, few studies have evaluated its use in therapeutic endoscopy. Here, we aimed to analyze the shared topics and activities of a group of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) doctors in a social networking-based endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography discussion group (EDG). Six ERCP trainers working in Xijing Hospital and 48 graduated endoscopists who had finished ERCP training in the same hospital were invited to join in EDG. All group members were informed not to divulge any private information of patients when using EDG. The activities of group members on EDG were retrospectively extracted. The individual data of the graduated endoscopists were collected by a questionnaire. From June 2014 to May 2015, 6924 messages were posted on EDG, half of which were ERCP related. In total, 214 ERCP-related topics were shared, which could be categorized into three types: sharing experience/cases (52.3%), asking questions (38.3%), and sharing literatures/advances (9.3%). Among the 48 graduated endoscopists, 21 had a low case volume of less than 50 per year and 27 had a high volume case volume of 50 or more. High-volume graduated endoscopists posted more ERCP-related messages (P=0.008) and shared more discussion topics (P=0.003) compared with low-volume graduated endoscopists. A survey showed that EDG was useful for graduated endoscopists in ERCP performance and management of post-ERCP complications, etc. A wide range of ERCP-related topics were shared on the social networking-based EDG. The ERCP-related behaviors on EDG were more active in graduated endoscopists with an ERCP case volume of more than 50 per year.

  16. Stakeholders' Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    Full Text Available An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana.Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data.There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service.Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved.

  17. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    discussions with community pharmacists in the capital area Reykjavík and rural areas were employed to answer the research question: How has the pharmacists' societal role evolved after the legislation and what are the implications for pharmacy practice? The results showed firstly that the public image...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly......, the results showed that the pharmacists have difficulties reconciling their technical paradigm with a legislative and professional will specifying customer and patient focus. This study describes the challenges of a new legislation with a market focus for community pharmacists whose education emphasized...

  18. Evaluation of Small Student-Led Discussion Groups as an Adjunct to a Course in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)

  19. Multiplicity: discussion points from the Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry multiplicity expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alan; Fletcher, Chrissie; Atkinson, Gary; Channon, Eddie; Douiri, Abdel; Jaki, Thomas; Maca, Jeff; Morgan, David; Roger, James Henry; Terrill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Committee of Health and Medicinal Products issued a concept paper on the need to review the points to consider document on multiplicity issues in clinical trials. In preparation for the release of the updated guidance document, Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry held a one-day expert group meeting in January 2013. Topics debated included multiplicity and the drug development process, the usefulness and limitations of newly developed strategies to deal with multiplicity, multiplicity issues arising from interim decisions and multiregional development, and the need for simultaneous confidence intervals (CIs) corresponding to multiple test procedures. A clear message from the meeting was that multiplicity adjustments need to be considered when the intention is to make a formal statement about efficacy or safety based on hypothesis tests. Statisticians have a key role when designing studies to assess what adjustment really means in the context of the research being conducted. More thought during the planning phase needs to be given to multiplicity adjustments for secondary endpoints given these are increasing in importance in differentiating products in the market place. No consensus was reached on the role of simultaneous CIs in the context of superiority trials. It was argued that unadjusted intervals should be employed as the primary purpose of the intervals is estimation, while the purpose of hypothesis testing is to formally establish an effect. The opposing view was that CIs should correspond to the test decision whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Communication of geohazard risks by focus group discussions in the Mount Cameroon area, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Marmol, M.-A.; Suh Atanga, M. Bi; Njome, S.; Mafany Teke, G.; Jacobs, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The inappropriate translation of scientific information of geohazard (volcanic, landslide and crater lake outgassing) risks to any local population leaves people with incongruent views of the real dangers. Initial workshops organized under the supervision of the VLIR-OI (Flemish Interuniversity Council - Own Initiatives) members have led to the deployment of billboards as requested and drawn up by the locals. The VLIR-OI project has also organized focus group discussions (FGD) with the local stakeholders to find out in various cities, the state of preparedness, the response to emergency situations, the recovery from the emergency and the mitigation. Researchers have preferred open discussion with the local population and its representatives in order to elicit information that otherwise might not be found on a structured questionnaire. FGD provide a meaningful interactive opportunity to collect information and reflection on a wide range of input. The method provides an insight into problems that require a solution through a process of discovering the meaning attributed to certain events or issues. In this research four cardinal points as preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation (Fothergill, 1996) guided the FGD. The population (i.e. local town councils) were constituted by a mix of chiefs, engineers, technicians and civil servants and government officials. In all the three city councils concerned, the engineers in charge complained about the lack of strategic planning, and about the missing of an elaborated strategy for disasters. They are aware of the existence of an organigram in the "Département de l'Action Civile" in Yaounde but never received any "strategic" document. Therefore inappropriate actions might be taken by the municipalities themselves. Fortunately all people interrogated at the FDG always mentioned solidarity in any event. Fothergill, 1996, Gender, Risk, and Disasters, Intern. Jour. of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.14, n°1, 33-56

  1. Parental presence on neonatal intensive care unit clinical bedside rounds: randomised trial and focus group discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Danette; Broom, Margaret; Smith, Judith; Davis, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited data to inform the choice between parental presence at clinical bedside rounds (PPCBR) and non-PPCBR in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Methods We performed a single-centre, survey-based, crossed-over randomised trial involving parents of all infants who were admitted to NICU and anticipated to stay >11 days. Parents were randomly assigned using a computer-generated stratified block randomisation protocol to start with PPCBR or non-PPCBR and then crossed over to the other arm after a wash-out period. At the conclusion of each arm, parents completed the ‘NICU Parental Stressor Scale’ (a validated tool) and a satisfaction survey. After completion of the trial, we surveyed all healthcare providers who participated at least in one PPCBR rounding episode. We also offered all participating parents and healthcare providers the opportunity to partake in a focus group discussion regarding PPCBR. Results A total of 72 parents were enrolled in this study, with 63 parents (87%) partially or fully completing the trial. Of the parents who completed the trial, 95% agreed that parents should be allowed to attend clinical bedside rounds. A total of 39 healthcare providers’ surveys were returned and 35 (90%) agreed that parents should be allowed to attend rounds. Nine healthcare providers and 8 parents participated in an interview or focus group, augmenting our understanding of the ways in which PPCBR was beneficial. Conclusions Parents and healthcare providers strongly support PPCBR. NICUs should develop policies allowing PPCBR while mitigating the downsides and concerns of parents and healthcare providers such as decreased education opportunity and confidentiality concerns. Trial registration number Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register number, ACTRN12612000506897. PMID:25711125

  2. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Mr. Traore introduces team supervision. Case scenarios for training and group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This supplement to "The Family Planning Manager" presents a case example and five case discussion questions to illustrate the concept of team supervision. In contrast to traditional supervision, where an emphasis is placed on inspection and the uncovering of deficiencies, team supervision uses a facilitative, advocacy-oriented approach. Problem-solving and decision-making responsibilities are assumed by the clinic staff, who identify and analyze problems in group meetings. Thus, the focus shifts from assessing individual performance to evaluating how well they meet clinic objectives as a team. In the team meetings, the visiting supervisor asks the team as a whole to analyze clinic problems and ensures that all staff members are aware of the significance of their contributions. The supervisor also clarifies the division of labor required for implementing solutions and performance standards. Staff are asked if they have concerns they would like communicated to the next organizational level. The supervisory report of the visit can serve as a guide for implementing the recommendations. This approach may require that supervisors and clinic managers receive training in problem solving, motivating staff, team building, and providing constructive feedback.

  4. Engaging in Online Group Discussions Using Facebook to Enhance Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. T.

    2012-08-01

    A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions participated more frequently and responded more quickly than students using a traditional online discussion forum.

  5. Social network activation: the role of health discussion partners in recovery from mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L; Pescosolido, Bernice A

    2015-01-01

    In response to health problems, individuals may strategically activate their social network ties to help manage crisis and uncertainty. While it is well-established that social relationships provide a crucial safety net, little is known about who is chosen to help during an episode of illness. Guided by the Network Episode Model, two aspects of consulting others in the face of mental illness are considered. First, we ask who activates ties, and what kinds of ties and networks they attempt to leverage for discussing health matters. Second, we ask about the utility of activating health-focused network ties. Specifically, we examine the consequences of network activation at time of entry into treatment for individuals' quality of life, social satisfaction, ability to perform social roles, and mental health functioning nearly one year later. Using interview data from the longitudinal Indianapolis Network Mental Health Study (INMHS, N = 171), we focus on a sample of new patients with serious mental illness and a group with less severe disorders who are experiencing their first contact with the mental health treatment system. Three findings stand out. First, our results reveal the nature of agency in illness response. Whether under a rational choice or habitus logic, individuals appear to evaluate support needs, identifying the best possible matches among a larger group of potential health discussants. These include members of the core network and those with prior mental health experiences. Second, selective activation processes have implications for recovery. Those who secure adequate network resources report better outcomes than those who injudiciously activate network ties. Individuals who activate weaker relationships and those who are unsupportive of medical care experience poorer functioning, limited success in fulfilling social roles, and lower social satisfaction and quality of life later on. Third, the evidence suggests that social networks matter above and

  6. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-18

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. This is the first European

  7. Using the Leaderless Group Discussion Technique for the Selection of Residence Hall Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Trudy W.; McCormick, Jane E.

    1969-01-01

    Describes successful effort to involve head residents in selection responsibilities. Discusses use of Record of Previous Leadership Experience, behavior ratings adapted from Interview and LGD Rating Scale (T. W. Banta) recommendation from head resident as selection criteria. (CJ)

  8. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    OpenAIRE

    Eijkel, van, R.; Hermes, N.; Lensink, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts in the highest monitoring effort. Moreover, monitoring efforts differ between group members due to free-riding: one member reduces her level of monitoring if the other increases her monitoring effor...

  9. The embeddedness of academic online groups in offline social networks : reputation gain as a stimulus for online discussion participation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, U.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the conditions under which members of academic Internet discussion groups (IDGs) are motivated to provide help and answers to colleagues during group discussions on the Internet. It presents a simple microeconomic model that specifies mechanisms by which the embeddedness of

  10. Laughter and Forgetting: Using Focus Groups to Discuss Smoking and Motherhood in Low-Income Areas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude

    2009-01-01

    This article considers previously ignored aspects of verbal communication, humor and laughter, as critical components of social interaction within group discussions. Drawing on data from focus groups, Robinson uses a feminist perspective to explore how mothers living in areas of poverty in Liverpool, UK, use humor and laughter to discuss their…

  11. Clarifying and discussing successful aging at work and the active role of employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I clarify and further discuss 4 issues raised by Zacher in critically analyzing my perspective on successful aging at work and the active role of employees. First, I argue that the sustainability concept is a valuable and useful concept to better understand successful aging at work,

  12. Social Reform Groups and the Legal System: Enforcement Problems. Discussion Paper No. 209-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Joel F.

    During the last two decades, there has been a great increase in the use of litigation by social reform groups. This activity has been stimulated by the hospitality of the courts to the demands of social reform groups and the availability of subsidized young, activist lawyers. The paper examines the uses of the legal system by social reform groups…

  13. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, van R.; Hermes, N.; Lensink, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts

  14. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkel, R.; Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts

  15. The fundamental managerial challenges in the role of a contemporary district nurse: A discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComiskey, Florence

    2017-10-02

    This article examines some of the fundamental challenges facing the district nurse in delivery of the managerial aspects of her role in contemporary practice. It discusses the personal attributes that are essential for this role to ensure safe, effective and compassionate leadership and management. The communication skills and ethos underpinning collaborative multidiscilplinary team work and person-centred care are discussed. Issues that compromise positive and productive team working are identified, and strategies dealing with conflict and also change management are debated. These factors are interrelated with the everyday demands of caseload management, the development of educational needs to meet the demands of increased complexity in care needs, and the place of technology in modern health care. It is evidenced that sustained organisational support for this role is more important than ever, due to increasing demand and decreasing capacity. Potential solutions to these challenges are offered to assist the contemporary district nurse.

  16. Qualitative assessment of student-teacher communication using focus group discussion in a Dental College in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The communication between faculty and students is a vital component of optimal facilitation of knowledge and learning. Various factors influence this dynamic. Aim: To assess communication levels between students and teachers in a dental college scenario via focus group discussion. Materials and Methods: The focus group discussion consisted of 10 groups; 5 groups representing the teachers, and 5 groups representing the students. Each group consisted of 6 participants. Hence there were a total of 30 teacher and 30 student participants. Focus group discussion was conducted for each of the groups for 30–45 min duration in the presence of a moderator and a note-taker. Open-ended questions were put across by the moderator to initiate and continue the discussions. The hand-written data taken by the note-taker were transcribed onto a computer on the same day of the discussion. Based on the transcription, domains were created for the student and teacher groups. Results: The issues raised by both the teacher and student groups in this focus group discussion were broadly classified into the following themes: (1 Past versus current scenario, (2 attitudes toward communication and learning, (3 hindrances to effective communication, and (4 potential solutions. Conclusions: Focus group discussion exposed many differences in the perceptions of teachers and students to communication. Each group, however, felt that bridging the teacher-student communication barrier was crucial to improve the teaching-learning experience. Many constructive solutions were provided by both the groups which can help to improve the quality of teaching-learning experience resulting in better quality of education.

  17. Using Facebook Groups to Encourage Science Discussions in a Large-Enrollment Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; McGinnis, Gene; Bryant, Dana; Cole, Megan; Kovacs, Jennifer; Stovall, Kyndra; Lee, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This case study reports the instructional development, impact, and lessons learned regarding the use of Facebook as an educational tool within a large enrollment Biology class at Spelman College (Atlanta, GA). We describe the use of this social networking site to (a) engage students in active scientific discussions, (b) build community within the…

  18. "I Totally Agree with You": Gender Interactions in Educational Online Discussion Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiller, J.; Durndell, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from an extensive project examining gender, language and computer-mediated communication (CMC) in the context of undergraduate psychology courses. The contributions of 197 introductory psychology students (148 females, 49 males) participating in asynchronous CMC as part of their course were collated and coded for…

  19. Students' Evaluation of Google Hangouts through a Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…

  20. Teaching Group Counseling in Botswana: Two U.S.-Trained Counselors Discuss Experiences and Share Cultural Considerations for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Majuta, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research in the area of teaching group counseling within an African context. In this article we describe and reflect on our experiences teaching group counseling at an institution of higher learning in the country of Botswana. We discuss cultural traditions and strengths that support an environment of group work in Botswana,…

  1. Social Influence in Online Health Discussions: An Evaluation of Online Graduate Student Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin Kay

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a field experimental design assessing online support groups testing hypotheses derived from the social identification model of deindividuation effects (SIDE; Lea & Spears, 1992) and social information processing theory (SIP; Walther, 1992). Specifically, it is predicted that individuals in an online support…

  2. Let's Talk about Race: Evaluating a College Interracial Discussion Group on Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Kimberly M.; Collins, Dana L.; Helms, Janet E.; Manlove, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    The authors evaluate Dialogues on Race, an interracial group intervention in which undergraduate student facilitators led conversations about race with their peers. The evaluation process is described, including developing collaborative relationships, identifying program goals, selecting measures, and analyzing and presenting results. The authors…

  3. Roundtable discussion: what is the future role of the private sector in health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallworthy, Guy; Boahene, Kwasi; Ohiri, Kelechi; Pamba, Allan; Knezovich, Jeffrey

    2014-06-24

    The role for the private sector in health remains subject to much debate, especially within the context of achieving universal health coverage.This roundtable discussion offers diverse perspectives from a range of stakeholders--a health funder, a representative from an implementing organization, a national-level policy-maker, and an expert working in a large multi-national company--on what the future may hold for the private sector in health. The first perspective comes from a health funder, who argues that the discussion about the future role of the private sector has been bogged down in language. He argues for a 'both/and' approach rather than an 'either/or' when it comes to talking about health service provision in low- and middle-income countries.The second perspective is offered by an implementer of health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa. The piece examines the comparative roles of public sector actors, private sector actors and funding agencies, suggesting that they must work together to mobilize domestic resources to fund and deliver health services in the longer term.Thirdly, a special advisor working in the federal government of Nigeria considers the situation in that country. He notes that the private sector plays a significant role in funding and delivering health services there, and that the government must engage the private sector or forever be left behind.Finally, a representative from a multi-national pharmaceutical corporation gives an overview of global shifts that are creating opportunities for the private sector in health markets. Overall, the roundtable discussants agree that the private sector will play an important role in future health systems. But we must agree a common language, work together, and identify key issues and gaps that might be more effectively filled by the private sector.

  4. Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies. After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.

  5. Discussing implications of technology and energy on society: the role of the teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnell, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    In exploring the implications of technology with pupils (in science, in geography, in technology, in history), teachers carry the fundamental responsibility of encouraging the formation of pupils' personal opinions but not influencing them. Realizing the teacher's role passes by open minded, well informed and confident teachers, well suited learning approaches (group work, role play...) and suitable resources (equipment...). Whilst evolving in many schools and curriculum areas within England and Wales, the consideration of controversial issues is constrained by competing pressures upon teachers and the curriculum

  6. Women On-Line: Cultural and Relational Aspects of Women's Communication in On-line Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy

    1996-01-01

    Women's online communication often mirrors that of face-to-face communication, linguistically and relationally. Women-only online communities, however, provide an opportunity to develop a distinct relational and cultural style. Discusses gender differences in face-to-face language use, and in mixed gender online discussion groups. Describes…

  7. Children's Behaviors and Emotions in Small-Group Argumentative Discussion: Explore the Influence of Big Five Personality Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting

    2009-01-01

    The assessment and structure of personality traits and small group learning during classroom discussions are both research fields that have undergone fast development in the past few decades. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and performance in discussions, especially with…

  8. Patient informed governance of distributed research networks: results and discussion from six patient focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.

  9. Listening to Women: Focus group discussions of what women want from postnatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WA Butchart

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum care is an essential part of the experience of childbirth and parenthood. This study explores what women want from postnatal care. Three focus groups, using a semi-structured format, were conducted. A total of 12 mothers, up to six weeks postpartum, participated in the study, which was conducted in two clinics in the Western Cape Metropole. Data was transcribed from taped sessions and analysed using Burnard’s (1991 model of “thematic content analysis” . Seven major categories were identified: Information, Support, Organisation of services, Attitudes of the health team, Contact with other mothers, Practical assistance and Other services. Listening to women is an essential element in the provision of flexible and responsive postnatal care that meets the felt needs of women and families.

  10. A proposal for Rio Blanco region. Case scenarios for training and group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This supplement to "The Family Planning Manager" presents a case example and four related discussion questions to advance administrative staff's ability to prepare a pilot project proposal and budget. In the hypothetical scenario, the Ministry of Health has requested proposals for projects from each region that would increase contraceptive prevalence and reduce discontinuation by a national average of 15%. Outlined, in this document, is a two-year project that would use outreach workers to visit the homes of recent discontinuers and attempt to understand their concerns. The goal was to improve the health of mothers and children in the region by reducing the discontinuation rate among first-time users of contraceptives, while the objective was to reduce the discontinuation rate among first-time users from 27% to 15% by the end of the project. Also developed is a budget for the first year of the project that itemizes expenditures for salaries and wages, benefits, fees, general administration, travel and associated expenses, supplies and equipment, purchased services, and education and training. Finally, the supplement presents a sample summary sheet for the proposed project.

  11. Media Memories in Focus Group Discussions - Methodological Reflections Instancing the Global Media Generations Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Hug

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medienereignisse wie auch die Einführung und Verbreitung neuer Medientechnologien und Formate bringen mannigfaltige Wege des „Eintretens von Medien ins Leben“ mit sich. Im Projekt Globale Mediengenerationen (GMG wurden Medienerinnerungen aus der Kindheit im Kontext von Gruppendiskussionen am Beispiel dreier Generationen aus verschiedenen Ländern aller Kontinente untersucht. Dabei wurden medienbezogene Wissensbestände von drei Alterskohorten globaler Generationen analysiert. Der Artikel diskutiert methodologische Aspekte des Projekts und komplexe und selektive Prozesse des Erinnerns vergangener Ereignisse. Er untersucht Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede des GMG-Ansatzes mit dem dokumentarischen Ansatz von Ralf Bohnsack, die beide in der Wissenssoziologie von Karl Mannheim verwurzelt sind. Darüber hinaus wird Medialität als basale methodologische Kategorie in Erwägung gezogen, nicht nur im Hinblick auf die Klärung begrifflicher Grundlagen, sondern auch als inhärente Dimension von Forschungsprozessen. Media events in general and the introduction and divulgence of new media technologies and formats in particular implicate various (new ways of “media entering life.” In the Global Media Generations (GMG research project, articulation of individuals’ memories of childhood experiences with the media was afforded by context of focus groups of three generations in different countries of six continents. In this project media related knowledge segments of different age cohorts have been analyzed and interpreted. The article deals with methodological questions of the project and complex processes of ‘remembering’ past events. It explores commonalities and differences of the GMG approach with Ralf Bohnsack’s documentary approach, both rooted in the sociology of knowledge of Karl Mannheim. Furthermore, mediality is taken into consideration as a basic methodological category, which means that it is perceived not only as subject matter to

  12. Life in groups: the roles of oxytocin in mammalian sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison eAnacker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, scientific understanding of the many roles of oxytocin in social behavior has advanced tremendously. The focus of this research has been on maternal attachments and reproductive pair-bonds, and much less is known about the substrates of sociality outside of reproductive contexts. It is now apparent that oxytocin influences many aspects of social behavior including recognition, trust, empathy, and other components of the behavioral repertoire of social species. This review provides a comparative perspective on the contributions of oxytocin to life in mammalian social groups. We provide background on the functions of oxytocin in maternal attachments and the early social environment, and give an overview of the role of oxytocin circuitry in support of different mating systems. We then introduce peer relationships in group-living rodents as a means for studying the importance of oxytocin in non-reproductive affiliative behaviors. We review species differences in oxytocin receptor distributions in solitary and group-living species of South American tuco-tucos and in African mole-rats, as well as singing mice. We discuss variation in oxytocin receptor levels with seasonal changes in social behavior in female meadow voles, and the effects of oxytocin manipulations on peer huddling behavior. Finally, we discuss avenues of promise for future investigation, and relate current findings to research in humans and non-human primates. There is growing evidence that oxytocin is involved in social selectivity, including increases in aggression toward social outgroups and decreased huddling with unfamiliar individuals, which may support existing social structures or relationships at the expense of others. Oxytocin’s effects reach beyond maternal attachment and pair bonds to play a role in affiliative behavior underlying friendships, organization of broad social structures, and maintenance of established social relationships with individuals

  13. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Afandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions

  14. The Discussions around Precision Genetic Engineering: Role of and Impact on Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic researchers are advancing in their abilities to extract precise genetic information from biological and human entities bringing genetic research steps closer to accurately modifying genes of biological entities, including that of humans. In this analytical essay, we focus on the discussions about precision genetic intervention that have taken place since March 2015 as they pertain to disabled people. We focus on two areas; one being the role of disabled people in the recent gene editing discussions and the second being the utility of existing legal instruments. Within our first focus we address the following questions: (a What is the visibility of disabled people in the gene-editing discussions that have taken place since March 2015? (b What has been the impact of those discussions on disabled people? (c Were social problems which disabled people face taken into account in those discussions; (d How does the reality of engagement with disabled people in these discussions fit with science, technology and innovation governance discourses that ask for more stakeholder, bottom up and anticipatory involvement? Within our second focus we address the following questions: (a What is the utility of the United Nations Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD; and (b What is the utility of existing legal instruments covering genetic interventions: for preventing negative social consequences of genetic engineering developments for disabled people. We argue that (a the genetic engineering debates since March 2015 have portrayed disabled people dominantly through a medical lens; (b that the governance of science, technology and innovation of genetic engineering including anticipatory governance and responsible innovation discourses has not yet engaged with the social impact of gene editing on disabled people; (c that few scholars that focus on the social situation of disabled people are visible in the governance discussions of gene

  15. Perspectives on Positioning, Interaction, and Learning in Small-Group Discussion: Possibilities for Extending the Analytic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Wilson, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    In this forum piece, we respond to Karin Due's study of social dynamics in groups of students in physics class and gender issues that play out in this context. We discuss two threads that appear in Due's paper: one pertains to patterns of talk within groups and how these patterns open up possibilities for learning, the other pertains to…

  16. Exploring the Role of `Gendered' Discourse Styles in Online Science Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Florence R.; Kapur, Manu; Madden, Sandra; Shipe, Stefanie

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we examined whether gendered discourse styles were evidenced in online, synchronous, physics collaborative learning group discussions, and the extent to which such discourse patterns were related to the uptake of ideas within the group. We defined two discourse styles: the oppositional/direct style, theorized to be the socialized discourse pattern typically used by males, and the aligned/indirect style, theorized to be the socialized discourse pattern typically used by females. Our analysis indicates the presence of both styles in these chats and the styles were generally utilized along theorized, gendered lines. However, we also observed male use of the stereotypically 'feminine' discourse style and female use of the stereotypically 'masculine' discourse style. Moreover, we found no main effect for discourse style on the uptake of ideas. The findings indicate that, contrary to prior research in both face-to-face science classroom settings and online physics settings, ideas were taken up at relatively similar rates regardless of the gendered discourse style employed. Design implications of this study are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.

  17. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  18. The Nature of Students' Efferent or Aesthetic Responses to Nonfiction Texts in Small, Peer-Led Literature Discussion Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khieu, Tema Leah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth exploration and describe the nature of fourth graders' responses to nonfiction text in the context of small, peer-led literature discussion groups. This study took place in the teacher researcher's daily, forty-five minute, pull-out intervention time. The participants for this study consisted of…

  19. Combining focus group discussions and choice experiments for economic valuation of peatland restoration : A case study in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, M.; van Beukering, P. J.H.; Oskolokaite, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the benefits of combining results of qualitative focus group discussions (FGDs) with a quantitative choice experiment (CE) in a low-income country context. The assessment addresses the compensation needed by local communities in Central Kalimantan to cooperate in peatland

  20. The Role of Discussion Boards in a University Blended Learning Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isabel González Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussion boards as tools in blended English language learning programs have unique characteristics when compared to other synchronous and asynchronous communication tools that are different. Therefore, it is important to investigate the way they operate, their role within a given program and the students', teachers' and tutors' attitudes towards them. This paper contains the report of a study that took place in an English virtual program of a public university in Colombia. Students' surveys and reflections, the tutor's and teachers' interviews and reflections were used to collect data. The results showed the main advantages and disadvantages of the use of the tool as well as ideas for new proposals to improve their use and, therefore, increase the students' performance in the program.

  1. Discussion and group work design in O2O teaching of applied optics: questions, strategies and extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofeng; Liu, Xiangdong; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2017-08-01

    Applied optics course in Zhejiang University is a National Excellent Resource Sharing Course in China, and the online to offline teaching strategies have been implemented and shared with dozens of universities and colleges in China. Discussion is an important activity in teaching. In this paper our main consideration is designing the discussion questions and group works so as to develop the students' critical thinking, cooperative and sharing spirits, and communication abilities in the cosmopolitan era. Typical questions that connect different chapters and help the students to understand the relationship between each sub-system in both field of view and aperture are given for discussion. We inspire the students to complete group works such as ray trace programming by cooperation and then make presentations. All of these create a circumstance for sharing thoughts and developing intelligence and knowledge. A poll shows that the students pay more attention to optical design than before and have made progress in conversation and cooperation.

  2. Educational Outcomes of Small-Group Discussion Versus Traditional Lecture Format in Dental Students' Learning and Skills Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.

  3. Who is the competent physics student? A study of students' positions and social interaction in small-group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-06-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students. The analysis was based on gender theory viewing gender both as a process and a discourse. Specifically discursive psychology analysis was used to examine how students position themselves and their peers within discourses of physics and gender. The results of the study reveal how images of physics and of "skilled physics student" were constructed in the context of the interviews. These discourses were reconstructed in the students' discussions and their social interactions within groups. Traditional gendered positions were reconstructed, for example with boys positioned as more competent in physics than girls. These positions were however also resisted and challenged.

  4. The Role(s of the Digital Genre Educational Discussion Forum in Pre-Service Education of Teachers of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Moreira dos Anjos-Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The education of teachers of English may be perceived from the perspective of the engagement of the future professionals with different literacy practices which they have to face in their daily activities. Information and communication digital technologies (ICDT are part of several social practices which are constitutive of a new generation and at the same time exclude others who still do not have effective access to them (CGI.BR, 2011. Current paper analyzes the role(s of educational discussion forum as a professional formation instrument for future teachers of English based on the engagement of one pre-service teacher in an elective unit course in Foreign Modern Languages – English, at a government-run university in the north of the state of Parana, Brazil. Results show the (ressignification of the future teacher within the space provided by the educational discussion forum and indicate the dynamics of the (reconstruction of professional knowledge based on the use of the above-mentioned tool.

  5. The transit oil and gas pipeline and the role of bargaining: A non-technical discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omonbude, Ekpen J.

    2007-01-01

    Transit oil and gas pipelines are growing in relevance, and face a number of topical problems. One of such issues is the problem of potential disruption from a number of sources, notably post-construction behaviour of the transit country. Present and future pipelines face the risk of continuous conflict over legal, economic and political issues. Once the pipeline is built and in operation, the threat of disruption of the pipeline by the transit country over disputed transit terms exists. This is due to two key problems: first, a shift in bargaining powers to the transit country upon construction and operation of the pipeline and, second, changes in the value of the throughput imply price changes that can affect the behaviour of the transit country. This paper discusses the role of basic bargaining principles in cross-border oil and gas pipelines involving transit through one or more countries. It finds that the motive behind the pipeline plays a key role in the prevention of potential disruptions to the pipeline due to rent squeezing. Also, although the potential of such disruptions does exist, there are a number of factors that could serve to mute the consequences of shifts in bargaining power to the transit countries

  6. Sustainable development and CERN’s role: Panel discussion at the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    On Thursday 21 June, on the occasion of the UN Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development, some ambitious ecological projects involving CERN and its technologies will be presented in an afternoon of lectures and discussions in the Globe. The event is an opportunity for people at CERN to discuss the Organization’s green credentials and their ecological impact on life in the local area.   “The Globe was seen as a metaphor for the planet and a symbol of sustainable development when it was known as the ‘Palace of Equilibrium’ at Expo02 in Switzerland. Now here at CERN, it is the perfect place to host a debate on the role of technology and innovation in this area," enthuses Bernard Pellequer, who is in charge of event planning for the venue. On the afternoon of 21 June, speakers will present several ambitious projects, such as the eco-neighbourhood “Les Vergers”, the Vernes lake in ...

  7. The role of micro size computing clusters for small physics groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevel, A Y

    2014-01-01

    A small physics group (3-15 persons) might use a number of computing facilities for the analysis/simulation, developing/testing, teaching. It is discussed different types of computing facilities: collaboration computing facilities, group local computing cluster (including colocation), cloud computing. The author discuss the growing variety of different computing options for small groups and does emphasize the role of the group owned computing cluster of micro size.

  8. A discussion paper for emerging markets: The role of IMF and the World Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo R. Lizarzaburu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available While both the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, are two separate entities, often not clear the role of each of them is therefore that this paper seeks to consolidate diverse information reviewed from both entities with the purpose of being able to understand the functioning and scope of each of these important institutions that have had successes and setbacks and ultimately have an active role in global finance and economy, despite the many detractors who are at levels world. There is an anecdote which is worth mentioning. “John Maynard Keynes, recognized at the inaugural meeting of the International Monetary Fund was confused by the names he thought the Fund should be called a bank, and the World Bank should be called a bottom. Confusion has reigned ever since. The Bank and the IMF are two intergovernmental pillars supporting the structure of economic and financial world”. The fundamental difference between the two is understood as: the Bank institution primarily for the development, while the IMF is a cooperative institution that seeks to maintain an orderly system of payments and receipts between nations. The manner followed to choose the head of each organization has a different procedure, but the important thing is that in the next few years, several countries such as Brazil, India have more active participation and Latin America as a group may perhaps lead some of them.

  9. Gay-Straight Alliances as Settings to Discuss Health Topics: Individual and Group Factors Associated with Substance Use, Mental Health, and Sexual Health Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. P.; Heck, N. C.; Yoshikawa, H.; Calzo, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual minority (e.g. lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning; LGBQ) and gender minority (e.g. transgender) youth experience myriad health risks. Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based settings where they may have opportunities to discuss substance use, mental health, and sexual health issues in ways that are safe and tailored to their…

  10. Roles of participation and feedback in group potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero, Nuria; Peiró, José M; Zornoza, Ana; Picazo, Carmen

    2009-08-01

    The roles of group participation and group performance feedback were examined as antecedents of group potency, i.e., beliefs shared among a work group's members about the general effectiveness of the work group. Also examined were how group participation and the congruence of the feedback received from different sources about performance predicted convergence in members' beliefs about group effectiveness. The sample comprised 61 work groups of professionals involved in Master in Business Administration (MBA) programs (284 participants). Mean group size was 4.6 members (SD = .58). 65% of participants were male, and 51% were between 30 and 40 years of age. Data were gathered at two measurement times. Increases in group participation were positively related to increases in group potency and the convergence in beliefs about group effectiveness among group members over time. Results supported the premise that group performance feedback is an antecedent of changes in group potency over time.

  11. Panel discussion: Roles of space program in the Asia Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tamiya

    1992-03-01

    A panel discussion on the subject 'Roles played by space development in Asia Pacific region' was held chaired by Space Activities Commission member and attended by the representatives of the participating countries, special attendance and observers. Opinions were expressed by each representative on three subjects, that is, social effects and benefits obtained by remote sensing data, observation data desired to augment the effect, and expectation for developed countries in space development. President of NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) expressed his intension to promote international cooperation for the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) verification program, utilization augmentation of Japanese earth observing satellites and human resource training and education. Deputy Director-General for Science and Technology Agency (STA) outlined ASCA (Association for Science Cooperation in Asia) seminar and STA fellowship in relation to human resource development. Chairman of the Japan International Space Year (ISY) Association cited the necessity of closer and extensive communication networks free from the existing commercial communication. Deputy-Minister for Posts and Telecommunications outlined the PARTNERS project (Post-operational utilization of the Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5)) for international cooperation in space activities in Asia Pacific region. President of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) outlined Japan's present status of and international cooperation in space science.

  12. Selective traditions in group discussions: teachers' views about good science and the possible obstacles when encountering a new topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Sund, Per

    2016-11-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about what content that should be taught in science education and there are different views among teachers about what represent good science content. However, teachers are not isolated individuals making their own interpretations, but are part of institutionalised systems building on patterns in the selection of teaching goals and content. Earlier research shows that teachers teach in alignment with different selective traditions, which can be understood as well-developed teaching habits. Individual teachers seem to develop their personal habits on the basis of the contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers. In order to find out which content teachers find representative for science education, we asked nine teachers to take part in group interviews to talk about what they value as "good" science content. The participants were grouped according to their selective traditions expressed in earlier studies. The method was used to dynamically explore, challenge and highlight teachers' views. The starting point for the group discussions is national tests in science. In Sweden, national tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in secondary school science (year 9) in 2009. One overarching aim of these tests is to support the implementation of the science curricula and to include for example knowledge about socio-scientific issues (SSI). The content of the tests can consequently be seen as important for teachers to consider. The findings show that `resistance' to including SSI is not just an issue for individual teachers. As individuals teachers can create many kinds of obstacles, but still be interested in integrating SSI in their science teaching. However, in group discussions the teachers tend to collectively adopt the scientific rational discourse. This discourse is what joins them and creates their common identity as science teachers. In turn, they seek to free scientific knowledge from social knowledge

  13. Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth: gendered norms and perceived family health risks. Focus group discussions in a Tanzanian suburb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbekenga, Columba K; Pembe, Andrea B; Darj, Elisabeth; Christensson, Kyllike; Olsson, Pia

    2013-01-15

    Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth is a socio-cultural practice with health implications, and is described in several African countries, including Tanzania. This study explored discourses on prolonged postpartum sexual abstinence in relation to family health after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data for the discourse analysis were collected through focus group discussions with first-time mothers and fathers and their support people in Ilala, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In this setting, prolonged sexual abstinence intended at promoting child health was the dominant discourse in the period after childbirth. Sexual relations after childbirth involved the control of sexuality for ensuring family health and avoiding the social implications of non-adherence to sexual abstinence norms. Both abstinence and control were emphasised more with regard to women than to men. Although the traditional discourse on prolonged sexual abstinence for protecting child health was reproduced in Ilala, some modern aspects such as the use of condoms and other contraceptives prevailed in the discussion. Discourses on sexuality after childbirth are instrumental in reproducing gender-power inequalities, with women being subjected to more restrictions and control than men are. Thus, interventions that create openness in discussing sexual relations and health-related matters after childbirth and mitigate gendered norms suppressing women and perpetuating harmful behaviours are needed. The involvement of males in the interventions would benefit men, women, and children through improving the gender relations that promote family health.

  14. Editorial research and the publication process in biomedicine and health: Report from the Esteve Foundation Discussion Group, December 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Ana; Malički, Mario; von Elm, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that there are more than twenty thousand biomedical journals in the world, research into the work of editors and publication process in biomedical and health care journals is rare. In December 2012, the Esteve Foundation, a non-profit scientific institution that fosters progress in pharmacotherapy by means of scientific communication and discussion organized a discussion group of 7 editors and/or experts in peer review biomedical publishing. They presented findings of past editorial research, discussed the lack of competitive funding schemes and specialized journals for dissemination of editorial research, and reported on the great diversity of misconduct and conflict of interest policies, as well as adherence to reporting guidelines. Furthermore, they reported on the reluctance of editors to investigate allegations of misconduct or increase the level of data sharing in health research. In the end, they concluded that if editors are to remain gatekeepers of scientific knowledge they should reaffirm their focus on the integrity of the scientific record and completeness of the data they publish. Additionally, more research should be undertaken to understand why many journals are not adhering to editorial standards, and what obstacles editors face when engaging in editorial research. PMID:24969914

  15. The role of financial groups in Russia's banking crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the role of financial groups in financial crises, and then applies the lessons learnt to Russia though a detailed analysis of the ruble collapse, the GKO default and the banking crisis.

  16. "Pink Is a Girl's Color": A Case Study of Bilingual Kindergarteners' Discussions about Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jung

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined young bilingual students' discussions of picture books dealing with gender themes in a Spanish/English bilingual classroom. The study focused on the reading of five picture books by sixteen 5-year-old Mexican-origin children at a small charter school. The data were collected by…

  17. Analyzing the Learning Process of an Online Role-Playing Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse

    2012-01-01

    Instructional activities based on online discussion strategies have gained prevalence in recent years. Within this context, a crucial research topic is to design innovative and appropriate online discussion strategies that assist learners in attaining a deeper level of interaction and higher cognitive skills. By analyzing the process of online…

  18. Retention of allied health professionals in rural New South Wales: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Sheila; Lincoln, Michelle; Smith, Tony

    2012-06-22

    Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD); the impact of management; and career progression. 'Pull factors' favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. 'Push factors' discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel); limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by informants. While personal factors affecting recruitment and

  19. Exploring views on long term rehabilitation for people with stroke in a developing country: findings from focus group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of long term rehabilitation for people with stroke is increasingly evident, yet it is not known whether such services can be materialised in countries with limited community resources. In this study, we explored the perception of rehabilitation professionals and people with stroke towards long term stroke rehabilitation services and potential approaches to enable provision of these services. Views from providers and users are important in ensuring whatever strategies developed for long term stroke rehabilitations are feasible and acceptable. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted involving 15 rehabilitation professionals and eight long term stroke survivors. All recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of qualitative research. Results Both groups agreed that people with stroke may benefit from more rehabilitation compared to the amount of rehabilitation services presently provided. Views regarding the unavailability of long term rehabilitation services due to multi-factorial barriers were recognised. The groups also highlighted the urgent need for the establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres. Family-assisted home therapy was viewed as a potential approach to continued rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors, given careful planning to overcome several family-related issues. Conclusions Barriers to the provision of long term stroke rehabilitation services are multi-factorial. Establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres and training family members to conduct home-based therapy are two potential strategies to enable the continuation of rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors. PMID:24606911

  20. The national laboratory business role in energy technology research and development. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, John; Sullivan, Charles J.; Aumeier, Steve; Sanders, Tom; Johnson, Shane; Bennett, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Energy issues will play a pivotal role in the economic and political future of the United States. For reasons of both available supply and environmental concerns, development and deployment of new energy technologies is critical. Nuclear technology is important, but economic, political, and technical challenges must be overcome if it is to play a significant role. This session will address business opportunities for national laboratories to contribute to the development and implementation of a national energy strategy, concentrating on the role of nuclear technology. Panelists have been selected from the national laboratories, the U.S. Department of Energy, and state regulators. (authors)

  1. Discussion group networks in occupational medicine: A tool for continuing education to promote the integration of workers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsky-Halivni, Lilah; Lerman, Yehuda

    2018-04-01

    Despite their legal rights, individuals with disabilities face numerous obstacles to integration in the workplace which can result in their discharge from the labor force. Currently occupational physicians have few resources to help decide whether to integrate disabled workers in pre-placement, or in cases of return-to-work. A network of 13 discussion groups comprised of the occupational physicians of each regional clinic of a large Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) in Israel was created to deal with disability management dilemmas. A moderator compiles and shares the physicians' opinions and experiences with all network members thus assisting the consulting physician in decision-making. Successful management of three representative cases is described to illustrate real-life implementations of this network. The network enables both the consulting and other physicians to tap a large knowledge base and decision-making experience concerning cases of occupational disability management, contributing to professional development and improved service delivery. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Qualitative Assessment of Learning Strategies among Medical Students Using Focus Group Discussions and In-depth Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anuradha Sujai; Ganjiwale, Jaishree Deepak; Varma, Jagdish; Singh, Praveen; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Singh, Tejinder

    2017-12-01

    Globally, students with top academic performance and high intellectual capacity usually opt to study medicine. However, once students get enrolled, their academic performance varies widely. Such variations appear to be determined by various factors, one of them being types of learning strategies adopted by students. The learning strategies utilized by the students with better academic performance are likely to be more effective learning strategies. The objective is to identify effective learning strategies used by medical students. This study was carried out among the MBBS students of Final Professional Part I. Students were categorized into three groups namely: high, average, and low rankers based on overall academic performance in second Professional University examination. First, a questionnaire consisting of closed- and open-ended questions was administered to students, to find their learning strategies. Subsequently, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews were conducted for high- and low-rankers. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Key statements were highlighted, collated, and categorized into general themes and sub-themes. Evident themes which emerged as effective strategies were hard work in the form of regularity of studies, meticulous preparation of notes, constructive use of time, utilization of e-learning, learning styles and deep learning approach and regular ward visits. Intrinsic motivation, family support, balancing physical activities and studies, guidance by seniors, teachers, dealing with nonacademic issues such as language barriers and stress were also identified as important strategies. Disseminating effective learning strategies in a systematic manner may be helpful to students in achieving better academic outcomes. Furthermore, educationists need to modulate their teaching strategies based on students' feedback.

  3. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world’s population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. Method An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. Results A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. Conclusions This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to

  4. Group discussions with the health care team--a method of improving care of hypertension in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorian, D; Silverberg, D S; Tomer, D; Wamosher, Z

    1990-06-01

    A management-by-objective approach was used by the health care administration of the Kupat Holim Sick Fund to improve care of hypertension in 20 family practices in the city of Ashdod in central Israel. The doctor-nurse teams in these clinics met jointly on a regular basis with a physician-instructor, reviewed the results of their care of hypertension and discussed ways of improving it. Over a seven-year period, until 1988, the percentage of the population treated increased from 4.0% to 9.2% and percentage of treated patients who had diastolic pressure of 100 mmHg or more fell from 29.6% to 13.4%. Dropout rate ranged from 2.3% to 3.1% per year over the whole period. In 20 other practices in the Ashdod area in 1988 used for comparison, only 5.9% of the population was treated and the per cent treated was less than Ashdod for all age groups above 30. Dropout rate was higher, averaging 9.8% per year, and the percentage of patients with diastolic pressures of 100 mmHg or more was higher (18.1%). Thus the use of regular discussions with feedback to the health care team was associated with better detection, treatment and follow-up of hypertension.

  5. It's in the details: The role of selective discussion in forgetting of children's autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Ruth; Salmon, Karen; Low, Jason

    2018-03-01

    This experiment investigated whether retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) would be found in children's self-generated autobiographical memory recall. An adapted version of the RIF paradigm for adults' autobiographical memories was administered to 8- and 9-year-old children (N = 65). We hypothesized that RIF would be found in terms of both number of memories recalled and amount of memory detail reported. The relationship between memory detail at the retrieval practice phase and RIF magnitude was also investigated. Consistent with hypotheses, RIF was found for both the number of memories recalled and the amount of memory detail reported. In addition, memory detail at retrieval practice was associated with increased RIF magnitude. Findings extend the current literature in three ways. First, they indicate that selective discussion of autobiographical events with children can cause forgetting of similar non-discussed events. Second, even when these non-discussed events are recalled, they contain sparser memory detail. Finally, when events are selectively discussed in greater detail, forgetting of similar non-discussed events occurs to a greater extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role Of Women Farmer Group In Increasing Family Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maudia Camalin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross sector inequality puts farmers in Sumedang on the lowest level of welfare. Agricultural institutions, specifically the Women Farmer Group is formed to increase the level of farmer’s family welfare through women as the booster. The aim of starting KWT Mekar Arum is to relieve poverty which is the main social problem in Margaluyu Village, Tanjungsari Sub-district,  Sumedang Regency. This research is intended to describe its role on increasing the level of the member’s family welfare. It is a qualitative designed research with a case study method. The research result shows that the group has a social role for its members. Facilitation in production input, capital, and marketing are carried out by the group in working its role on developing member’s businesses. By joining the group, increase in welfare occurs in terms of income, health, and education of the KWT Mekar Arum.

  7. Who's in charge: role clarity in a Midwestern watershed group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floress, Kristin; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Ayres, Janet

    2011-10-01

    Studies of collaborative watershed groups show that effective leadership is an important factor for success. This research uses data from in-depth interviews and meeting observation to qualitatively examine leadership in a Midwestern collaborative watershed group operating with government funding. One major finding was a lack of role definition for volunteer steering-committee members. Lack of role clarity and decision-making processes led to confusion regarding project management authority among the group, paid project staff members, and agency personnel. Given the important role of government grants for funding projects to protect water quality, this study offers insight into leadership issues that groups with Clean Water Act Section 319 (h) funds may face and suggestions on how to resolve them.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Kangas, M; Perini, S

    2016-03-01

    Co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes and poorer response to psychological and pharmacological treatments in older adults. However, there is a paucity of research focused on testing the efficacy of the co-morbid treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults using psychological interventions. Accordingly, the primary objective of the current study was to test the effects of a group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program in treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in a sample of older age adults. A total of 133 community-dwelling participants aged ⩾60 years (mean age = 67.35, s.d. = 5.44, male = 59) with both an anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder, as assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS), were randomly allocated to an 11-week CBT group or discussion group. Participants with Mini-Mental State Examination scores <26 were excluded. Participants were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 6 months follow-up on the ADIS, a brief measure of well-being, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Both conditions resulted in significant improvements over time on all diagnostic, symptom and wellbeing measures. Significant group × time interaction effects emerged at post-treatment only for diagnostic severity of the primary disorder, mean severity of all anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and all disorders, and recovery rates on primary disorder. Group CBT produced faster and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression on diagnostic severity and recovery rates compared to an active control in older adults.

  9. Retention of allied health professionals in rural New South Wales: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane Sheila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Methods Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Results Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD; the impact of management; and career progression. ‘Pull factors’ favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. ‘Push factors’ discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel; limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by

  10. Women's Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakumar, Delan; Qureshi, Zeshan; Mannell, Jenevieve; Baruwal, Manju; Sharma, Neha; Rehfuess, Eva; Saville, Naomi M; Manandhar, Dharma S; Osrin, David

    2018-02-01

    Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the Terai district of southern Nepal, we held four focus groups that included 26 local women from urban and peri-urban areas, as well as six local artists. The women then met approximately weekly over four months, and produced images related to air pollution. Transcripts from the focus groups were reviewed independently by two authors, who initially categorised data deductively to pre-defined nodes, and subsequently inductively reviewed emergent themes. Women identified a number of health effects from air pollution. The main physical effects related to the eye and the respiratory system, and women and young children were seen as most vulnerable. The psychosocial effects of air pollution included reduced food intake by women and lethargy. Suggested solutions included modifications to the cooking process, changing the location of stoves, and increasing ventilation. The main barriers were financial. The lived experiences of women in southern Nepal around the problem of air pollution offers a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of the perceptions and challenges of addressing air pollution, which can be used to inform future interventions.

  11. Discussing Gender Roles and Equality by Reading "Max: The Stubborn Little Wolf"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Gilberto P.; Leija, María G.

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of this article, the authors share the story of Mr. Paredes, a fourth grade teacher in a bilingual classroom, who explains his approach in selecting particular pieces of children's literature that address gender roles and equity. His hope, he states, is that the students will be able to identify the stereotype and challenge…

  12. Machismo and Virginidad: Sex Roles in Latin America. Discussion Paper 79-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Julio

    The purpose of this paper is to present a view of Latin American males and females that describes the situation in Latin America more accurately than the current stereotypical view accepted in the United States. The author discusses the roots of the North American misconception, citing differences between Latin American and North American cultures…

  13. The role of research in global food and nutrition security - Discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischler, F.; Wilkinson, D.; Benton, T.; Daniel, H.; Darcy-Vrillon, B.; Hedlund, K.; Heffernan, P.; Kok, E.J.; Saarela, M.; Jakubczyk, E.; Sorlini, C.; Swinnen, J.; Braun, von J.; Ash, K.; Rojas Briales, E.; Buckwell, A.; Frewen, M.; Karlsson, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present discussion document gives an overview of where European research can add the most value in relation to tackling food and nutrition security challenges and points to areas where we can expand our research potential. Moreover, it highlights the need to develop a governance structure that

  14. Discussion meet on role of electrochemistry in biosensors, nano-materials, fuel cells and ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Gopinath, N.; Sharma, M.K.

    2006-09-01

    Electrochemistry is a challenging as well as fascinating branch of chemistry, which is finding applications in almost all areas of science and technology. This present discussion covers invited talks and contributed papers on electrochemical biomimetic sensing, electrochemical immuno sensing, electrochemistry of nano-particles and electrowinning. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Group Norms and the Attitude-Behavior Relationship: A Role for Group Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Deborah J.; Hogg, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies provided support for the proposal that the role of norms in attitude-behavior relations can be useful reconceptualized for the perspective of social identity/self- categorization theory. Study one examined group norms as they influenced subjects to engage in regular exercise. Study two examined group norms as they influenced subjects…

  16. The Role of Group Regulation in Student Groups: A Pedagogical Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Garth; Bristow, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    When tasked with group projects, students often struggle with teamwork and tend to overlook the importance of group self-regulation and its role in effective collaborative work. The pedagogy was implemented in semester long university level new product development courses. The pedagogy illustrates how educators can use student generated weekly…

  17. Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2015-02-28

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.

  18. Research in medical imaging and the role of the consultant radiographer: A discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Pauline J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the need for research in radiography as a means to provide the evidence base for radiographic practice. The review examines the role of the consultant radiographer in providing potential research leadership and outlines possible avenues for research. The article uses three main themes to set out its proposals: - The need for patient focus. - The need for a greater mix of research methods and, specifically, more studies which utilise qualitative methods. - The need for consultant leadership in research and some potential studies. The article concludes by arguing the need for a greater academic community in radiography with consultant radiographers stepping up to play their part in that community

  19. A discussion: the future role of homeopathy in the National Health Service (NHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel Yu-Hin

    2011-07-01

    Homeopathy has been provided by the National Health Service in the UK for over 60 years, funded largely by taxpayer's money. However, in recent years, its provision has come under much criticism questioning its true value. Taking a neutral stance, arguments both for and against the provision of homeopathy on the NHS is presented. It includes issues such as the evidence and safety profile of homeopathy, but also takes into account costs and benefits of homeopathy in a wider perspective. Overall, the provision of homeopathy is justified as long as there is a need within the population, occupying a complementary role alongside conventional medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of tissue damage in whiplash associated disorders: Discussion paper 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogduk, Nikolai; Ivancic, Paul C.; McLean, Samuel A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Winkelstein, Beth

    2011-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Non-systematic review of cervical spine lesions in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). OBJECTIVE To describe whiplash injury models in terms of basic and clinical science, to summarize what can and cannot be explained by injury models, and to highlight future research areas to better understand the role of tissue damage in WAD. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The frequent lack of detectable tissue damage has raised questions about whether tissue damage is necessary for WAD and what role it plays in the clinical context of WAD. METHODS Non-systematic review. RESULTS Lesions of various tissues have been documented by numerous investigations conducted in animals, cadavers, healthy volunteers and patients. Most lesions are undetected by imaging techniques. For zygapophysial (facet) joints, lesions have been predicted by bioengineering studies and validated through animal studies; for zygapophysial joint pain, a valid diagnostic test and a proven treatment are available. Lesions of dorsal root ganglia, discs, ligaments, muscles and vertebral artery have been documented in biomechanical and autopsy studies, but no valid diagnostic test is available to assess their clinical relevance. The proportion of WAD patients in whom a persistent lesion is the major determinant of ongoing symptoms is unknown. Psychosocial factors, stress reactions and generalized hyperalgesia have also been shown to predict WAD outcomes. CONCLUSION There is evidence supporting a lesion-based model in WAD. Lack of macroscopically identifiable tissue damage does not rule out the presence of painful lesions. The best available evidence concerns zygapophysial joint pain. The clinical relevance of other lesions needs to be addressed by future research. PMID:22020601

  1. Sex Role Identity, Communication Skills, and Group Popularity

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Using two groups of undergraduate students (N = 71) the present paper argues about the importance of sex role identity (Bem, 1981) as a potential predictor of group popularity. The results show that participants with psychological androgine identity tend to use better their communication skills and become popular among their peers. Contray to previous studies (e.g. Hall, 1984; Saarni, 1999) focused on gender gap in communication skills, the current study emphasis on the importance of the sex ...

  2. Great Expectations: How Role Expectations and Role Experiences Relate to Perceptions of Group Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark A; Irving, P Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Many athletes experience a discrepancy between the roles they expect to fulfill and the roles they eventually occupy. Drawing from met expectations theory, we applied response surface methodology to examine how role expectations, in relation to role experiences, influence perceptions of group cohesion among Canadian Interuniversity Sport athletes (N = 153). On the basis of data from two time points, as athletes approached and exceeded their role contribution expectations, they reported higher perceptions of task cohesion. Furthermore, as athletes approached and exceeded their social involvement expectations, they reported higher perceptions of social cohesion. These response surface patterns-pertaining to task and social cohesion-were driven by the positive influence of role experiences. On the basis of the interplay between athletes' role experiences and their perception of the group environment, efforts to improve team dynamics may benefit from focusing on improving the quality of role experiences, in conjunction with developing realistic role expectations.

  3. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara

    2012-01-01

    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  4. Perceptions of northeast Thai breastfeeding mothers regarding facilitators and barriers to six-month exclusive breastfeeding: focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepha, Thiwawan; Marais, Debbie; Bell, Jacqueline; Muangpin, Somjit

    2018-01-01

    The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate in the Northeast region of Thailand has recently significantly decreased in contrast to all other regions in Thailand. The factors that have influenced this decrease remain unknown. Hence, it is suggested that an investigation into factors that could improve or hinder EBF for 6 months in Northeast Thailand may be required to inform the development of relevant interventions to improve this situation. This study aimed to identify perceived facilitators and barriers to providing exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in Northeast Thailand among breastfeeding mothers. Six focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 30 mothers aged 20 to 40 years who had children aged between 4 and 6 months and were currently breastfeeding or had breastfeeding experience. Participants were recruited through self-selection sampling from Khonkaen hospital (urban), Numphong hospital (peri-urban) and private hospitals (urban) in Khonkaen, Thailand. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data. Five main themes, with 10 sub-themes, were identified as either facilitators (+) or barriers (-), or in some cases, as both (+/-). Breastfeeding knowledge, perceptions, maternal circumstances, support, and traditional food were the main identified themes. Mother's breastfeeding knowledge, intention to breastfeed, and social media were perceived as facilitators. Perceptions, employment, and formula milk promotion were perceived as barriers. Family, healthcare, and traditional food were perceived as both facilitators and barriers. The perception that social media was a way to access breastfeeding knowledge and support mothers in Northeast Thailand emerged as a new facilitating factor that had not previously been identified in Thai literature relating to facilitators and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Intention to breastfeed, family support, healthcare support and traditional food were mentioned by all groups, whereas mothers from urban

  5. KNOWLEDGE FOR INTELLIGENCE: DISCUSSING THE STATE AND THE ROLE OF BUILDING DATA IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquinelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of integrated information on buildings is the premise for an effective assets management and the provision of innovative services to buildings users: such form of knowledge relies on the efficient exploitation of existing data, providing a complete overview on the state of buildings, and on the acquisition of real-time data flows, coming from sensor and mobile devices, reporting users behaviours. If, on the one hand, technology is progressively enabling the management of new huge streams of data, on the other hand the interconnection among traditional and well rooted datasets, the majority of which in charge of public administrations, is not always guaranteed. While, at European level, interoperability issues among public archives concerning buildings were properly addressed, and the relevance of geo-information is widely recognized, in Italy this process is still taking time to be undertaken. This paper discuss the current state of Building Information in Italy, outlining a possible path for the creation of a georeferenced Building Information System at municipal level, starting from the informative heritage available in existing databases, generated with different purposes and maintained by independent authorities: the idea is to solicit that digitalization process, started a decade ago with the “Digital Administration Code”, through the proposition of real use cases that might be implemented once that public data on buildings are profitably combined together.

  6. Roles of sex and ethnicity in procurement coordinator--family communication during the organ donation discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughn, Daniel; Auerbach, Stephen M; Siminoff, Laura A

    2010-09-01

    Interpersonal relations with health care providers influence families' decisions to consent to solid-organ donation. However, previous research has been based on retrospective interviews with donation-eligible families and has not directly examined the interpersonal interactions between families and organ procurement coordinators. To increase understanding of the interpersonal interaction between procurement coordinators and families during the organ donation discussion, with special attention to the influence of the sex and race of the procurement coordinator and the race of the potential donor's family. A descriptive study in which standardized patients portrayed family members interacting with actual procurement coordinators in simulated donation request scenarios. Thirty-three videotaped interactions between standardized patients and 17 procurement coordinators involving 2 different scenarios depicting deceased donation were evaluated. Video recordings were rated by independent coders. Coders completed the Impact Message Inventory-Form C, the Participatory Style of Physician Scale, and the Siminoff Communication and Content and Affect Program-Global Observer Ratings scale. African American procurement coordinators, particularly African American women, were rated as more controlling and work-oriented than white procurement coordinators. Male procurement coordinators were more affiliative with the white family than the African American family, whereas female procurement coordinators were slightly less affiliative with the white family. African American procurement coordinators expressed more positive affect when interacting with the African American family than the white family, whereas the opposite was true for white procurement coordinators. Research is needed to cross-validate these exploratory findings and further examine cultural mistrust between procurement coordinators and families of ethnic minorities, especially given the negative attitudes of many

  7. Complexities in understanding the role of compensation-related factors on recovery from whiplash-associated disorders : discussion paper 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, Linda J.; Connelly, Luke B.; Spearing, Natalie M.; Cote, Pierre; Buitenhuis, Jan; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Study Design. Focused discussion. Objective. To present some of the complexities in conducting research on the role of compensation and compensation-related factors in recovery from whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and to suggest directions for future research. Summary of Background Data. There

  8. Role of WhatsApp-based discussions in improving residents' knowledge of post-operative pain management: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Sumitra G; Bhawalkar, Pranay

    2017-10-01

    To provide a platform for the dissemination of basic knowledge of pain management, a WhatsApp group was created by residents and consultants. Common clinical scenarios, resident queries, and important instructions to be followed by residents with respect to running the Acute Pain Service were discussed in the group. This study evaluates the benefits of this interaction. This study was approved by the hospital ethics board and was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India. Second- and third-year anesthesia residents were included in a WhatsApp group, along with consultants (board certified anesthesiologists with a special interest in pain). Pain knowledge assessment was performed pre- and post-discussion using a standard 22-point questionnaire. A feedback form, which included self-rated confidence scores (1-10, 10-most confident) and opinions about the 3-month WhatsApp discussion, was collected. Improvements in the documentation in clinical sheets post-discussion were also analyzed. A total of 38 residents were included in the WhatsApp group. An improvement in the percentage of correct answers from 69.1% (pre-discussion) to 73.6% (post-discussion) was observed (P = 0.031). Improvements in the self-rated residents' confidence levels were also noted (P WhatsApp-based discussion was useful. Documentation of the details of epidural blockade in clinical sheets improved from 30% to 100%. The WhatsApp discussion improved residents' knowledge and confidence levels, and also resulted in improved documentation of essential details in the clinical notes. This form of education is promising and should be explored in future studies.

  9. PEACE JOURNALISM PRACTICE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTHEAST OF NIGERIA: FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION WITH SOME MEMBERS OF NTA CORRESPONDENTS’ DAMATURU, YOBE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aondover Eric Msughter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Peace journalism is fundamental like in any type of reporting. Thus, it facilitates reporters to disseminate information that would help attune to the development of a nation. Base on the available literature, the study discovered that the media have been variously blamed for their role in the exacerbation of different conflicts in complex and heterogeneous countries like Nigeria. The study uses social responsibility theory as a guiding principle. Likewise, Focus Group Discussions (FGD is applied as a methodological approach in data gathering among some selected members of NTA correspondents’ Damaturu, Yobe State. A total number of 10 practicing journalists were randomly selected in NTA, Damaturu. They discussed peace journalism practice and development in the Northeast of Nigeria. Arising from the discussions, the study concludes that all media organisations should imbibe the appropriate way of reporting peace journalism and development in the country, especially in the Northeast of Nigeria where cases of ethnic, religious, political and other types of conflicts have taken the lead.

  10. What do Polish and Dutch consumers think about dried fruit and products with them - creaiwe group discussions as a means of recognittion consumers'perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; P¿ocharski, W.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to get insight into consumers' perception towards dried fruit and products with them, thus the exploratory study designed as a group discussion took place. While group discussions association (as one of the projective technique) and Kelly repertory grid were used to

  11. Groups challenge US role in planned Chinese project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental groups have threatened to sue the Bureau of Reclamation and the Corps of Engineers over the Agencies role in the construction and planning of China's Three Gorges Dam. They allege the Agencies have violated the Endangered Species Act by failing to notify the US Fish and Wildlife Service about their work on the dam. The environmental group wants to change a 1986 regulation which exempts federal agencies from consulting with the Fish and Wildlife Service on actions affecting endangered species outside the US

  12. Agricultural producers’ groups in the Czech Republic: introductory review and discussion of the problem area economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vavřina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Each company is surrounded by the micro- and macro-environment affecting also its economic performance. These factors are not only individual accounting entries, but also analytical inputs as the internal company processes, management of costs or short-term financial decisions and specifically in the case of agriculture within the EU also the public subsidy schemes implemented through the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Groups of agricultural producers are created as a response to current market dynamics and the opportunity for each agricultural enterprise regardless the size. In this paper, the basis for agricultural cooperation is provided, traditional economic performance measures are presented and their applicability on the sample of agricultural producers’ groups and wholesale entities is empirically verified. Wholesale entities are analysed by its business activity and performance features to consider whether they are suitable peer group for comparing economic performance of examined agricultural producers’ group. Since the economic performance of agricultural producers’ groups directly affects the economic performance of all participating entities, and vice versa, their economic performance measurement may involve specific constraints. According to the structure and characteristics of agricultural producers’ groups may be inferred that whilst the common performance measurement techniques are applicable on the majority of companies, agricultural producers’ groups represent specific entities and therefore need adjusted performance measurement approach.

  13. The role of cultural identity as a learning factor in physics: a discussion through the role of science in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Ivã; Pietrocola, Mauricio; Watanabe, Graciella

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, changes in society have deeply affected the internal organization and the main goals of schools. These changes are particularly important in science education because science is one of the major sources of change in peoples' lives. This research provided the opportunity to investigate how these changes affect the way teachers develop their classroom activities. In this work, we focus on science as part of the cultural identity of a society and how this identity affects the process of teaching and learning inside the classroom. Other works have shown that certain social characteristics such as gender, race, religion, etc., can create a cultural barrier to learning science. This results in an obstacle between those particular students and the science that is taught, hindering their learning process. We first aim to present the notion of identity in education and in other related fields such as social psychology and sociology. Our main purpose is to focus on identity in a school setting and how that identity affects the relationship students have with the science content. Next, we present and analyze an intervention in the subject of Modern and Contemporary Physics composed by a sequence of activities in a private school in the region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This intervention serves to illustrate how scientific topics may be explored while considering aspects of cultural differences as an obstacle. The intervention was completed in two steps: first, in the classroom with a discussion concerning scientific works and nationality of scientists, with one being a Brazilian physicist; second, taking students to visit a particle collider at the University of São Paulo. One of the results of our research was realizing that students do not perceive science as something representative of the Brazilian cultural identity. At the same time, the activity gave the students the opportunity to make the connection between doing physical sciences at an

  14. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L

    2017-09-01

    People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived experiences of a supported social group. Data were analysed using descriptive phenomenology. Two themes emerged (i) supported engagement fosters wellbeing, and (ii) developing social belonging and connectedness. Participants not only acknowledged the support that they needed to participate, but also that the social group had changed their lives in many ways. Adults with intellectual disability want to socialise, have friends and be part of their community. For this to be achieved, they recognise the need to seek some form of support. With appropriate and targeted support, adults with intellectual disability can move from social exclusion towards supported inclusion and experience richer lives. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Urban adolescent high-risk sexual behavior: corroboration of focus group discussions through pile-sorting. The AIDS Youth Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B F; Aronson, R; Borgatti, S; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S

    1993-01-01

    Risk activities for acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain prevalent among urban adolescents. While interdisciplinary approaches to examine the variables contributing to risk/protective behaviors have been promoted, strategies for such explorations require further formulation. Recently we employed focus group discussions to explore factors placing urban adolescents at risk for engaging in HIV risk behaviors. The focus group format enables substantial interaction on a topic in a limited time period, but does not always provide expression of the full range of behavioral options. In this study we investigated the use of pile-sorts for confirmation of impressions from focus group discussions among 57 urban youths aged 10-14. The pile-sorts revealed some support for most of the views expressed in the group discussions. However, the sorts revealed more variability in views than was expressed in the group discussions. Substantial gender and age-based differences in perceptions were revealed with potentially important intervention implications.

  16. Individual to collaborative: guided group work and the role of teachers in junior secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Lui, Wai-mei

    2016-05-01

    This paper, through discussion of a teaching intervention at two secondary schools in Hong Kong, demonstrates the learning advancement brought about by group work and dissects the facilitating role of teachers in collaborative discussions. One-hundred and fifty-two Secondary Two (Grade 8) students were divided into three pedagogical groups, namely 'whole-class teaching', 'self-directed group work' and 'teacher-supported group work' groups, and engaged in peer-review, team debate, group presentation and reflection tasks related to a junior secondary science topic (i.e. current electricity). Pre- and post-tests were performed to evaluate students' scientific conceptions, alongside collected written responses and audio-recorded discussions. The results indicate that students achieved greater cognitive growth when they engaged in cooperative learning activities, the interactive and multi-sided argumentative nature of which is considered to apply particularly well to science education and Vygotsky's zone of proximal development framework. Group work learning is also found to be most effective when teachers play a role in navigating students during the joint construction of conceptual knowledge.

  17. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Methods: Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived…

  18. Investigation of the effects of group discussion on the empowerment of patients with hypertension who were referred to two health centers in Tehran in 1390

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Kheibar

    2014-04-01

    Results: The average age of the subjects was 54 ± 8.4 years and 34.4% of the participants had a history of hypertension for 5 years. Group discussions could lead to improve the average empowerment of individuals (P=0.04. Furthermore, among all the aspects of empowerment, group discussions had the greatest impact on the perception and sensitivity levels (P=0.001 and P=0.02 respectively. Conclusion: In patients with hypertension, group discussions can lead to increased perception and sensitivity levels and also enhance the ability of individuals to control their lifestyles.

  19. The role of sense of coherence in group relations training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This research measured the role that sense of coherence (SOC plays on an individual and group level during group relations training, presented to fifty-eight managers, using Antonovsky’s scale and an semi-structured interview. The individual measuring high on SOC showed more understanding of group dynamics,made more use of own existing resources to cope with anxiety and found the experience challenging and meaningful, than the low measuring individual. On the group level, the split between high and lowled to projective identification: the high SOC individuals contain competence and the low, incompetence.Recommendations for future group relations training are formulated. Opsomming Hierdie navorsing meet die rol wat sin vir koherensie (SOC op individuele en groepvlak tydens groepverhoudinge opleiding speel soos aangebied vir agt-en-vyftig bestuurders, en gemeet met Antonovsky se skaal en ’n semi-gestruktureerde onderhoud. Die individuwat hoogmeet op SOC toon’n beter begrip van groepdinamika, maak meer gebruik van eie bestaande hulpbronne om met angs te cope, en vind die ervaringmeer uitdagend en betekenisvol, as die individu wat laag meet. Op groepsvlak lei die verdeling tussen hoog en laag na projektiewe identifikasie: die hoe SOC individue ‘‘behou’’ bevoegdheid en die lae, onbevoegdheid. Aanbevelings vir toekomstige groepsverhoudinge opleiding word geformuleer.

  20. The role of users group in the IFMIF project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, H.; Sugimoto, M.; Mdslang, A.; Garin, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Experts of materials and fusion technology areas are the major 'users' of the IFMIF, the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility. Now that IFMIF-EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities) Project is implemented under the Broader Approach framework as an EU-JP bilateral collaboration, the Users' Group under IEA does not have a formal interface with the IFMIF-EVEDA project. This lack of interface may cause serious problems since this situation may lead to designing, and eventually, constructing an expensive facility that does not fulfill the users' requirements in an optimal manner. Direct connection of IEA Users group and IFMIF would face a serious difficulty since the participating parties are different to each other. The Broader Approach agreement foresees the creation of a Project Committee in particular to advise IFMIF-EVEDA Project Leader on its implementation. It would be recommendable to appoint fusion-materials and -technology experts from BA participating parties as Project Committee members and let them function as interface between the Users and IFMIF-EVEDA Project. Periodic exchange of opinion involving members of this Committee with Users group members would function as an interface with scientists from all over the world. Roles of users, i.e. fusion-materials and technology experts are identified as follows: - Contribute to the reviews all along the IFMIF-EVEDA progress - Recommendations for further improvement of irradiation and test conditions - Support performance assessments of IFMIF (if needed) - Exchange of information on: - reference materials to be used for IFMIF construction - test matrices, and PIE programs for mechanical testing (at IFMIF site) - advanced microstructural analysis at suitable international laboratories - Ensure the link with DEMO design criteria experts as well as breeding blanket expert group - Support establishment of 'materials design limit data' for IFMIF

  1. Complexities in understanding the role of compensation-related factors on recovery from whiplash-associated disorders: discussion paper 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Linda J; Connelly, Luke B; Spearing, Natalie M; Côté, Pierre; Buitenhuis, Jan; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-12-01

    Focused discussion. To present some of the complexities in conducting research on the role of compensation and compensation-related factors in recovery from whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and to suggest directions for future research. There is divergence of opinion, primary research findings, and systematic reviews on the role of compensation and/or compensation-related factors in WAD recovery. The topic of research of compensation/compensation-related factors was discussed at an international summit meeting of 21 researchers from diverse fields of scientific enquiry. This article summarizes the main points raised in that discussion. Traffic injury compensation is a complex sociopolitical construct, which varies widely across jurisdictions. This leads to conceptual and methodological challenges in conducting and interpreting research in this area. It is important that researchers and their audiences be clear about what aspect of the compensation system is being addressed, what compensation-related variables are being studied, and what social/economic environment the compensation system exists in. In addition, summit participants also recommended that nontraditional, sophisticated study designs and analysis strategies be employed to clarify the complex causal pathways and mechanisms of effects. Care must be taken by both researchers and their audiences not to overgeneralize or confuse different aspects of WAD compensation. In considering the role of compensation/compensation-related factors on WAD and WAD recovery, it is important to retain a broad-based conceptualization of the range of biological, psychological, social, and economic factors that combine and interact to define and determine how people recover from WAD.

  2. Leave your logo at the door. A (Internet) discussion group with a difference on the interaction between nuclear and fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel Alain; Maden, Claire; Mole, Ted

    1999-01-01

    We wanted to investigate the treatment of nuclear energy in literature and cinema, to focus as much as possible on the civil applications of nuclear energy while at the same time trying not to stifle or suppress anything which contributors may feel relevant. We insisted and still do that the purpose was to have a forum for individual not for corporate views, thus the motto: Leave your logo at the door. The question we are dealing with is more related to emotions than anything else: corporations have no emotions. The Internet and e mails still allow fast and personal exchange. The site of the Uranium Institute hosted The Primary Circuit, the 'Internet pub that feeds your mind'. The idea was to have a discussion site for ideas on nuclear energy, the arts (particularly literature) and public perception. The largest body of nuclear related literature is that now known as Survivalist fiction. The separation between military applications and 'Atoms for Peace' was never a fact in people's mind

  3. Who Is the Competent Physics Student? A Study of Students' Positions and Social Interaction in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students.…

  4. Discussions on JNC roles and issues on management and disposition of surplus plutonium from the dismantlement of nuclear warhead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Russian Federation are now promoting the collaborative project to use the fast breeder reactor of BN-600 for the Russian surplus plutonium under the framework of the bilateral agreement on peaceful use of atomic energy. Based upon this background, JNC organized a study group to survey the world aspect on surplus plutonium resulting in START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty). The study group, including technical experts and also experts on international affairs, made a report after their survey and gave wide range discussion on various issues. The surplus plutonium of Russian Federation was estimated to be 102 - 136 tones. There were shortages of back end technologies in Russian infrastructures for dismantling, reprocessing and disposition of the surplus plutonium. A supporting leadership of USA to Russian Federation met some difficulties due to the strategic gap between both countries. One of the examples is the temporal evolution of USA attitude toward the CANDU (thermal power reactors of Canadian design characterized by heavy water moderator, pressure tube construction, and on-power refuelling) option to use surplus plutonium as MOX (Mixed OXide) fuels. Additional supports from the G8 (Group of eight) countries except USA and Russian Federation came up to their expectation. For examples, the joint group of French, German and Russian is promoting DEMOX (Demonstration of MOX fuel) project but is on the way to discussion depending on various thoughts about mutual benefits. Many issues remained in joint project with CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States), such as safeguard, nonproliferation, energy supply and demand, and environmental impacts. In addition, public opinions will give some impacts to policy makers, especially in USA. This report had analyzed many viewpoints for technical and political issues on surplus plutonium in the world, and pointed out consequences, merits and demerits after possible many

  5. The role of enterprise asset management system in the PVO group`s business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, J. [RAMSE Consulting Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation describes the role of the Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) and Enterprise Document Management (EDM) in the PVO Group`s business. The use of the functionality of the EAM (Immpower) and EDM (Documentum) is not limited only to the plant maintenance. All power plants and some other business functions and units will use the system in the future for financial management, activity based costing, purchasing, of materials, office supplies and fuel, invoice matching, project budgeting and costing, real estate management etc. The technical service concept of IT solution is also described in this presentation. The Information Management Strategy development as background to the project is also outlined together with the company information. The benefits of the common EAM system and related business process needs are also described. (orig.)

  6. The role of enterprise asset management system in the PVO group`s business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, J [RAMSE Consulting Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    This presentation describes the role of the Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) and Enterprise Document Management (EDM) in the PVO Group`s business. The use of the functionality of the EAM (Immpower) and EDM (Documentum) is not limited only to the plant maintenance. All power plants and some other business functions and units will use the system in the future for financial management, activity based costing, purchasing, of materials, office supplies and fuel, invoice matching, project budgeting and costing, real estate management etc. The technical service concept of IT solution is also described in this presentation. The Information Management Strategy development as background to the project is also outlined together with the company information. The benefits of the common EAM system and related business process needs are also described. (orig.)

  7. The Effect of Group Discussion-based Education on Self-management of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Compared with Usual Care: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Hosein; Sofiani, Akbar; Alilu, Leyla; Gillespie, Mark

    2017-11-01

    We sought to determine the effect of group discussion-based education on the self-management capability of patients with type 2 diabetes in Iran. This randomized control trial was conducted on 90 patients with type 2 diabetes. Participants were allocated randomly into one of two groups; intervention and control. The intervention group received the group discussion-based education while the control group received routine care only. The Lin's self-management questionnaire was completed at baseline and three months post-intervention. Statistical analysis, including the use of independent t -test, identified that in comparison to the control group, significant increases were observed in the scores of self-organization ( t =11.24, p health experts ( t = 7.31, p diet ( t = 5.22, p diabetes.

  8. Rodas de conversa sobre o trabalho na rua: discutindo saúde mental Conversation groups on outreach work: discussing mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Rios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo narra uma experiência de ensino com agentes comunitários de saúde em uma unidade do Programa de Saúde da Família da periferia de São Paulo. Com o objetivo de discutir temas de Saúde Mental relevantes para o trabalho cotidiano desses profissionais, criou-se um espaço de aprendizagem e construção de sentido para esses agentes. Em grupos de encontro quinzenais com uma psiquiatra e cerca de 20 agentes, discutiam-se casos clínicos e situações de vida e trabalho a partir dos quais era possível aprender conceitos básicos de Saúde Mental e pensar o papel e a identidade desses profissionais na comunidade. Ao final de um ano de experiência, avaliou-se que tal atividade é fundamental como apoio para o desenvolvimento do trabalho desses profissionais, e para o aprendizado de como lidar com aspectos subjetivos próprios e dos usuários, especialmente na periferia de grandes centros urbanos.This article describes a teaching experience with health community agents in a Family Health Program unit. In order to discuss important everyday mental health themes, a space for these agents was created, intended for learning and building up senses. Groups of 20 agents and a psychiatrist met every two weeks, to discuss clinical cases, and life and work situations which helped apprehend basic Mental Health concepts and to reflect on the role and identity of these professionals in the community. After one year, this activity was considered fundamental to support the work developed by the agents and to help them learn how to deal with their and the users' subjective aspects, especially in the periphery of large urban centers.

  9. Identification of mistakes and their correction by a small group discussion as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Sridhar, M G; Soundravally, R; Setiya, Sajita; Babu, M Sathish; Niranjan, G

    2014-01-01

    Graduate medical students often get less opportunity for clarifying their doubts and to reinforce their concepts after lecture classes. The Medical Council of India (MCI) encourages group discussions among students. We evaluated the effect of identifying mistakes in a given set of wrong statements and their correction by a small group discussion by graduate medical students as a revision exercise. At the end of a module, a pre-test consisting of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) was conducted. Later, a set of incorrect statements related to the topic was given to the students and they were asked to identify the mistakes and correct them in a small group discussion. The effects on low, medium and high achievers were evaluated by a post-test and delayed post-tests with the same set of MCQs. The mean post-test marks were significantly higher among all the three groups compared to the pre-test marks. The gain from the small group discussion was equal among low, medium and high achievers. The gain from the exercise was retained among low, medium and high achievers after 15 days. Identification of mistakes in statements and their correction by a small group discussion is an effective, but unconventional revision exercise in biochemistry. Copyright 2014, NMJI.

  10. Review: Ralf Bohnsack, Aglaja Przyborski & Burkhard Schäffer (Eds. (2010. Das Gruppendiskussionsverfahren in der Forschungspraxis [The Group Discussion Technique in Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Schmidt-Pfister

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This edited volume comprises a range of studies that have employed a group discussion technique in combination with a specific strategy for reconstructive social research—the so-called documentary method. The latter is an empirical research strategy based on the meta-theoretical premises of the praxeological sociology of knowledge, as developed by Ralf BOHNSACK. It seeks to access practice in a more appropriate manner, namely by differentiating between various dimensions of knowledge and sociality. It holds that habitual collective orientations, in particular, are best accessed through group discussions. Thus this book does not address the group discussion technique in general, as might be expected from the title. Instead, it presents various contributions from researchers interpreting transcripts of group discussions according to the documentary method. The chapters are grouped into three main sections, representing different frameworks of practice and habitual orientation: childhood, adolescence, and organizational or societal context. A fourth section includes chapters on further, potentially useful ways of employing this particular technique and approach, as well as a chapter on teaching it in a meaningful way. Each chapter is structured in the same way: introduction to the research field and focus; methodological discussion; exemplary interpretation of group discussions; and concluding remarks. Whilst the transcripts referred to by the authors are very helpfully presented in the chapters, there is a lack of methodological reflection on the group discussion technique itself, which, as mentioned above, is only evaluated in regard to the documentary method. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110225

  11. Evaluation of electronic discussion groups as a teaching/learning strategy in an evidence-based medicine course: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, C; Glicken, A; Hall, M; Quarantillo, B; Merenstein, G

    2001-01-01

    As course directors, we wished to incorporate small group learning into our Evidence-based Medicine course for students to get feedback on the development of a well constructed, researchable clinical question. Scheduling of these groups was problematic. We sought to evaluate computer-mediated communication as an alternative to face-to-face small groups. Students were randomly assigned to either face-to-face small groups or asynchronous, electronic, small groups. Final examination scores were analyzed with an analysis of variance to determine if there were differences in student performance based on group type. Student survey items were analyzed using Fisher's Exact test to determine if there were differences in student attitudes based on group type. There were no significant differences found in overall student performance. Significant differences in student attitudes were found to exist with respect to: (1) participation in discussions, with face-to-face groups reporting greater participation; (2) putting more thought into comments, with electronic groups reporting more thought put into comments; and (3) difficulty relating to other students in the class, with electronic groups reporting more difficulty. We found electronic discussion groups (computer-mediated communication) to be a viable teaching/learning strategy with no adverse effects on student performance or attitudes.

  12. The Effect of Group Discussion-based Education on Self-management of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Compared with Usual Care: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Habibzadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to determine the effect of group discussion-based education on the self-management capability of patients with type 2 diabetes in Iran. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted on 90 patients with type 2 diabetes. Participants were allocated randomly into one of two groups; intervention and control. The intervention group received the group discussion-based education while the control group received routine care only. The Lin’s self-management questionnaire was completed at baseline and three months post-intervention. Results: Statistical analysis, including the use of independent t-test, identified that in comparison to the control group, significant increases were observed in the scores of self-organization (t =11.24, p < 0.001, self-adjustment (t = 7.53, p < 0.001, interaction with health experts (t = 7.31, p < 0.001, blood sugar self-monitoring (t = 6.42, p < 0.001, adherence to the proposed diet (t = 5.22, p < 0.001, and total self-management (t = 10.82, p < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Sharing experiences through group discussions and receiving instructive feedback can improve the ability to self-manage diabetes.

  13. Evaluation of support groups for women with breast cancer: importance of the navigator role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till James E

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication.

  14. [Discussion of the Roles of Medical Social Workers in the Response to the Explosion Incident at Formosa Fun Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Hsin-Tien; Sung, Hsien-Yi; Wu, Chia-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Medical social workers apply the theories of "person in the environment" (PIE) and "ecological perspective" as practical foundations. Furthermore, they emphasize the people, the environment, and the interactions between these two. When burn patients from the explosion at Formosa Fun Coast were sent to hospitals, social workers not only provided care and assessed the impact on burn patients but also assisted in supporting the family members of these patients. This article discusses the various roles of social workers within different systems. In the individual system, we use Eric Erickson's theory of psychosocial development to evaluate the patient's crisis and the tasks of social workers. Secondly, in the systems of family, school, and work, we assess the relationships between a patient, his/her significant others, and caregivers as well as the interactions among sub-systems in the family. In the community and cultural systems, we focus on the social resources that may be utilized by the burn patients after discharge. Moreover, we add a time frame to examine our major tasks, including the initial stage, the middle stage, and the preparation-for-discharge stage. We explore the roles of social workers, the applicable theories, and the goals for each stage.

  15. Effects of Education Based on Focus Group Discussions on Menstrual Health Behaviors of Female Adolescents in Boarding Centers of the Welfare Organization, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Shirzadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Problems caused by menstruation are common among women. Focus group discussions are a method of data collection in which a small group of participants discuss a specified topic or issue. This study mainly aimed to determine the effects of health education based on focus group discussions on the promotion of health behaviors of female adolescents residing boarding centers of the Welfare Organization (Tehran, Iran during their menstruation periods. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental interventional study recruited all eligible 12-19-year-old female residents (n=61 of the boarding centers affiliated to the Welfare Organization, Tehran, Iran. The data collection tool was a questionnaire including demographic information and puberty health behaviors (health behaviors during the menstruation period. The questionnaires were completed through interviews before and one month after training. The educational intervention lasted for three months. Data were analyzed using paired t and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests in SPSS16. Results: The mean scores of performance increased from 12.11±4.43 before the intervention to 16.50±2.79 after the intervention (P<0.001. Conclusion: Since the educational intervention based on focus group discussions had positive effects on the participants’ puberty health, such discussions are recommended to educate adolescent girls about puberty issues.

  16. Bridges or Barriers? Conceptualization of the Role of Multiple Identity Gateway Groups in Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc. to affect the intergroup relations between the groups that represent the respective sources of the different identities (e.g., Blacks and Whites, country of origin and country of residence, etc. has not been examined to date. Accordingly, in this paper, we first systematically explore the potential of groups in which people identify with multiple social categories, or groups that are perceived as such by others, to play a role in intergroup dynamics. Next, we offer a theoretical framework outlining what functions groups of people with shared multiple identities may serve (as bridges or barriers by proposing how their presence may facilitate or deteriorate intergroup relations. Finally, we present recent empirical research examining how groups of people with shared multiple identities can act as gateways and bridge the cleft between two separate groups that represent the respective sources of their different identities, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the field of intergroup relations.

  17. Government's role in power supply security. A working group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The working group was to analyse the Government's role in terms of improving the security of supply of the electricity market in exceptionally difficult capacity situations and to make propositions for the ways of arranging a tendering procedure concerning security of supply and capacity control, so as to meet the requirements of the EC Energy Internal Market Directives after 1 July 2004. The Working Group considers that there is no need at this stage to introduce a separate new system intended as a supplement to technical reserves in Finland. Such a system would not bring new capacity for the use of the power system, and in the case of existing capacity, production would only be transferred from one market to another. However, the situation may change from this, if there occur such factors on the market that aim to raise the market price of electricity or if it turned out that reserve power plants would be decommissioned on a large scale. The working group proposes that such a provision be added to the Electricity Market Act that would oblige the electricity supplier to notify the Energy Market Authority of a planned service outage of a power plant of at least 100 MVA producing electricity separately, which would fall within the time period 1 December - 28 February. The Energy Market Authority would be vested with the powers to postpone the outage due to a tight output situation, if there are not technical or safety- bound obstacles to this. It is important for the sufficiency of the power need of the Internal Market that the price signals of the market are reflected to both producers and consumers of electricity. The working group further proposes that the Ministry of Trade and Industry would look into development of the meter-reading requirements, so that they would, for their part, create the conditions for price flexibility in power consumption and for new sales products of electricity. In addition, tightening of the hourly metering requirement related to the

  18. Designing Transferable Skills Inventory for Assessing Students Using Group Discussion: A Case Study of First Year Electrical and Electronics Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejaswani, K.; Madhuri, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    Employability skills among engineering graduates have been a concern due to their inability to perform on a professional platform to the employer's expected level. As they are higher cognitive skills, they are to be nurtured during the graduation period. Keeping this in view, group discussions are identified as one of the methods to elicit…

  19. Small Group Discussion as a Key Component in Online Assessment Training for Enhanced Student Learning in Web-Based Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of online assessment training, with synchronous group discussion as a key component, on subsequent web-based peer assessment results. Participants included 81 college students, mostly women, taking a business writing class. After initial submission of a draft counter-offer letter, they completed…

  20. A Focus Group Study of African American Students' Experiences with Classroom Discussions about Race at a Predominantly White University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Jill K.; Hall, Scott S.

    2018-01-01

    Past research has drawn attention to the unique challenges for students of color attending predominantly white colleges and universities, yet few have focused on the classroom as a micro-context in which race-related discussions often occur. Using a focus group methodology, 22 African American undergraduate students from a variety of academic…

  1. The Effect of Educational Software, Video Modelling and Group Discussion on Social-Skill Acquisition Among Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, Orit E; Banin, Irit

    2017-07-01

    People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often demonstrate difficulties in social skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive intervention program on the acquisition of social skills among students with mild IDD. Single subject multiple baseline design across situations was used for teaching five school-age children with mild IDD social skills embedded in school-based situations. Results demonstrate that the intervention program that included video modelling and games embedded with group discussions and simulations increased the level and use of adequate social behaviours within the school's natural environment. Results demonstrate the unique attribution of a comprehensive interactive program for acquisition and transfer of participants' social skills such as language pragmatics and social rules within the school environment. Group discussions and simulations were beneficial and enabled both group and personalized instruction through the unique application of the program designed for the study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Bilingual asynchronous online discussion groups: design and delivery of an eLearning distance study module for nurse academics in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Mai, Van Anh Thi; Gray, Genevieve

    2012-04-01

    The advent of eLearning has seen online discussion forums widely used in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing education. This paper reports an Australian university experience of design, delivery and redevelopment of a distance education module developed for Vietnamese nurse academics. The teaching experience of Vietnamese nurse academics is mixed and frequently limited. It was decided that the distance module should attempt to utilise the experience of senior Vietnamese nurse academics - asynchronous online discussion groups were used to facilitate this. Online discussion occurred in both Vietnamese and English and was moderated by an Australian academic working alongside a Vietnamese translator. This paper will discuss the design of an online learning environment for foreign correspondents, the resources and translation required to maximise the success of asynchronous online discussion groups, as well as the rationale of delivering complex content in a foreign language. While specifically addressing the first iteration of the first distance module designed, this paper will also address subsequent changes made for the second iteration of the module and comment on their success. While a translator is clearly a key component of success, the elements of simplicity and clarity combined with supportive online moderation must not be overlooked. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulatory good practices relating to inspection and enforcement. A compilation of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a special Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme under which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in a complex manner which ensured the best possible international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for a relatively general wording of the main principles and is sometimes a cause of problems in their application to the detailed design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation when applied to specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often even these do not answer all questions and only the practice used in applying certain rules fully reflects the outcome of the detailed consideration given to solving individual cases. In order to present further information on the application and interpretation in the NUSS Codes and Safety Guides, the preparation of a series of Safety Practice publications has been initiated. It is hoped that many Member States will be able to benefit from the experience presented in these documents. It is hoped that this publication will be useful for regulators and will also provide information for operating organizations. The document is a compilation of the reports of all of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussions held to consider regulatory inspection and enforcement of good practices. Therefore names of participated countries or the situation of regulatory practices reflect those at time when discussions took place. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and the examples of good regulatory practices which were recommended by the senior regulators attending the Peer Group

  4. Regulatory good practices relating to inspection and enforcement. A compilation of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a special Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme under which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in a complex manner which ensured the best possible international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for a relatively general wording of the main principles and is sometimes a cause of problems in their application to the detailed design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation when applied to specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often even these do not answer all questions and only the practice used in applying certain rules fully reflects the outcome of the detailed consideration given to solving individual cases. In order to present further information on the application and interpretation in the NUSS Codes and Safety Guides, the preparation of a series of Safety Practice publications has been initiated. It is hoped that many Member States will be able to benefit from the experience presented in these documents. It is hoped that this publication will be useful for regulators and will also provide information for operating organizations. The document is a compilation of the reports of all of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussions held to consider regulatory inspection and enforcement of good practices. Therefore names of participated countries or the situation of regulatory practices reflect those at time when discussions took place. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and the examples of good regulatory practices which were recommended by the senior regulators attending the Peer Group

  5. Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depczynski Julie C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Methods Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Results Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex

  6. Beyond 50. Challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragar, Lyn J; Depczynski, Julie C

    2011-02-21

    The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex professional roles and a sense of not being valued in the

  7. Peer Groups as a Context for School Misconduct: The Moderating Role of Group Interactional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy; Zarbatany, Lynne; Chen, Xinyin; Kinal, Megan; Boyko, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Peer group interactional style was examined as a moderator of the relation between peer group school misconduct and group members' school misconduct. Participants were 705 students (M[subscript age] = 11.59 years, SD = 1.37) in 148 peer groups. Children reported on their school misconduct in fall and spring. In the winter, group members were…

  8. The Influence of Setting on Findings Produced in Qualitative Health Research: A Comparison between Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Groups about HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina Graffigna

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus their analysis in this article on online focus groups (FGs, in an attempt to describe how the setting shapes the conversational features of the discussion and influences data construction. Starting from a review of current dominant viewpoints, they compare face-to-face discussion groups with different formats of online FGs about AIDS, from a discourse analysis perspective. They conducted 2 face-to-face FGs, 2 chats, 2 forums, and 2 forums+plus+chat involving 64 participants aged 18 to 25 and living in Italy. Their findings seem not only to confirm the hypothesis of a general difference between a face-to-face discussion setting and an Internet-mediated one but also reveal differences among the forms of online FG, in terms of both the thematic articulation of discourse and the conversational and relational characteristics of group exchange, suggesting that exchanges on HIV/AIDS are characterized by the setting. This characterization seems to be important for situating the choice of tool, according to research objectives, and for better defining the technical aspects of the research project.

  9. Fostering group identification and creativity in diverse groups: the role of individuation and self-verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, William B; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Polzer, Jeffrey T; Milton, Laurie P

    2003-11-01

    A longitudinal study examined the interplay of identity negotiation processes and diversity in small groups of master's of business administration (MBA) students. When perceivers formed relatively positive impressions of other group members, higher diversity predicted more individuation of targets. When perceivers formed relatively neutral impressions of other group members, however, higher diversity predicted less individuation of targets. Individuation at the outset of the semester predicted self-verification effects several weeks later, and self-verification, in turn, predicted group identification and creative task performance. The authors conclude that contrary to self-categorization theory, fostering individuation and self-verification in diverse groups may maximize group identification and productivity.

  10. "I would like to discuss it further with an expert": a focus group study of Finnish adults' perspectives on genetic secondary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, M; Aktan-Collan, K; Hallowell, N; Konttinen, H; Kääriäinen, H; Haukkala, A

    2018-01-16

    Lowered costs of genomic sequencing facilitate analyzing large segments of genetic data. Ethical debate has focused on whether and what kind of incidental or secondary findings (SFs) to report, and how to obtain valid informed consent. However, people's support needs after receiving SFs have received less attention. We explored Finnish adults' perspectives on reporting genetic SFs. In this qualitative study which included four focus group discussions (N = 23) we used four vignette letters, each reporting a genetic SF predisposing to a different disease: familial hypercholesterolemia, long QT syndrome, Lynch syndrome, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Transcribed focus group discussions were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Major themes were immediate shock, dealing with worry and heightened risk, fear of being left alone to deal with SFs, disclosing to family, and identified support needs. Despite their willingness to receive SFs, participants were concerned about being left alone to deal with them. Empathetic expert support and timely access to preventive care were seen as essential to coping with shock and worry, and disclosing SFs to family. Discussion around SFs needs to concern not only which findings to report, but also how healthcare systems need to prepare for providing timely access to preventive care and support for individuals and families.

  11. THE ECONOMIC ROLE OF SELF-HELP GROUP

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. S. Selvendran

    2018-01-01

    “All for all” principle behind self-help group (SHG) concept. It is mainly concerned with poor people and it is for the people, by the people and of the people gandhian sarvodaya contained with this.

  12. Grooming network cohesion and the role of individuals in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Sueur, Cédric; Riedl, Katrin; Grossmann, Johannes; Call, Josep

    2011-08-01

    Social network analysis offers new tools to study the social structure of primate groups. We used social network analysis to investigate the cohesiveness of a grooming network in a captive chimpanzee group (N = 17) and the role that individuals may play in it. Using data from a year-long observation, we constructed an unweighted social network of preferred grooming interactions by retaining only those dyads that groomed above the group mean. This choice of criterion was validated by the finding that the properties of the unweighted network correlated with the properties of a weighted network (i.e. a network representing the frequency of grooming interactions) constructed from the same data. To investigate group cohesion, we tested the resilience of the unweighted grooming network to the removal of central individuals (i.e. individuals with high betweenness centrality). The network fragmented more after the removal of individuals with high betweenness centrality than after the removal of random individuals. Central individuals played a pivotal role in maintaining the network's cohesiveness, and we suggest that this may be a typical property of affiliative networks like grooming networks. We found that the grooming network correlated with kinship and age, and that individuals with higher social status occupied more central positions in the network. Overall, the grooming network showed a heterogeneous structure, yet did not exhibit scale-free properties similar to many other primate networks. We discuss our results in light of recent findings on animal social networks and chimpanzee grooming. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Framing effects in group investment decision making: role of group polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pi-Yueh; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Prospect theory proposes that framing effects result in a preference for risk-averse choices in gain situations and risk-seeking choices in loss situations. However, in group polarization situations, groups show a pronounced tendency to shift toward more extreme positions than those they initially held. Whether framing effects in group decision making are more prominent as a result of the group-polarization effect was examined. Purposive sampling of 120 college students (57 men, 63 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 0.9) allowed assessment of relative preference between cautious and risky choices in individual and group decisions. Findings indicated that both group polarization and framing effects occur in investment decisions. More importantly, group decisions in a gain situation appear to be more cautious, i.e., risk averse, than individual decisions, whereas group decisions in the loss situation appear to be more risky than individual decisions. Thus, group decision making may expand framing effects when it comes to investment choices through group polarization.

  14. Role of joined farmer groups in enhancing production and farmers income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, M.; Rahmadanih; Bulkis, S.; Hasnah; Sulili, A.; Darwis; Bustan, A.; Aswad, M.

    2018-05-01

    Production and farmers income still becomes a global issue in economic development. The study aims to (1) describe the implementation of the role of Joined farmer groups (called Gapoktan) in accordance its function and (2) to analyze the role of Gapoktan in increasing production and farming income. The study was conducted in Camba Sub District, Maros District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2017 and choosing Aspana Gapoktan as Case Unit. Data collection is done by a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative data were collected by Focus Group Discussions method, indepth interview and document study while quantitative data was collected through survey method on 60 farmers respondents. The results showed that, (1) Aspana Gapoktan has implemented a role related to its function as a business unit in the provision of production facilities and farming as well as marketing but has not implemented roles related to its function as a processing business unit, and saving and loan (2) Gapoktan role in increasing production and income of farming is facilitating procurement of farm inputs and agricultural production tools for farmers and developing various commodities in farming activities, especially horticultural crops. More than 44.00% of farmers perceived that their production increased about 10.00% - 25.00% and more than 68.00% of farmers perceived that their income increased by about 10.00% - 25.00% for the last three years. It is necessary to increase the role of Gapoktan through (1) the procurement of horticultural product processing industry and (2) doing savings and loan activities by utilizing 40.00% of funds managed by Gapoktan or through the formation of cooperatives under the management of Gapoktan.

  15. Effects of supportive-expressive discussion groups on loneliness, hope and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Fatemeh Moghaddam; Radfar, Moloud; Taei, Zeynab

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of the effect of supportive expressive discussion groups on loneliness, hope and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. A randomized control trial including breast cancer patients who had completed chemotherapy and randomly allocated into two groups: intervention (n = 41) and control (n = 40). The intervention consisted of twelve weekly 90-min sessions for groups of six to eight breast cancer survivors. Data were obtained pre-to -post the intervention and at 8-week follow-up. The data were analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed a significant reduction in loneliness scores (F = 69.85, p hope (F = 20.8, p life from pre- to post-intervention, and then over the 8-week follow-up period in the intervention group, while scores of control participants did not show this pattern during the study. The strongest effects were found for global quality of life (effect size) = 0.59), for future perspectives (effect size = 0.51), emotional functioning (effect size = 0.35) and social functioning (effect size = 0.31). The intervention was effective on loneliness, hope and quality of life in the intervention group. The intervention needs further evaluation in a larger study and with other cancer types. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Why aren't women choosing STEM academic jobs? Observations from a small-group discussion at the 2016 American Society for Microbiology annual meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Elizabeth M

    2017-03-01

    This commentary summarizes a small-group discussion that recently occurred at the American Society for Microbiology annual general meeting, ASM Microbe, in Boston, Massachusetts, on 16-20 June 2016, on the topic 'why are so few women choosing to become academics?' Specifically, the discussion focused on asking what the actual and perceived barriers to academic STEM careers women face, and possible solutions to address them which would make women more likely to seek out academic careers. The conclusions reached suggest that, despite improvement in recent years, women and minorities still face complex barriers to STEM academic careers, and further research is needed to determine the best solutions to this problem. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Conference Report: Drug Metabolism Discussion Group Short Meeting: microsampling--the next big thing. Alderley Park, Macclesfield, UK, 14 March 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Addie, Kirsty; Woods, Karen; Muir, Allan; Smith, Christopher; Higton, David

    2012-12-01

    On behalf of the Drug Metabolism Discussion Group, Regulatory Bioanalysis AstraZeneca (UK) recently organized and hosted an extremely successful Drug Metabolism Discussion Group Short Meeting on 'microsampling--the next big thing'. This attracted over 140 delegates and a strong line up of presenters of respected scientists within the field. This meeting focused on the impact of taking a reduced sample (5-20 µl) from an animal, or later in the clinic, particularly neonates. The agenda covered the spectrum of microsampling, from capillary plasma microsampling, as championed by Ove Jonsson and Kristian Königsson, through to dried blood spots. The day was split up in to three sections, the morning concentrating on the sampling aspects from animals. A highlight of the first section was the 'poster blitz' where four poster presenters gave a quick overview of their work. This introduced the poster session and created a good atmosphere for general debate between the delegates. The mid-session saw the bioanalytical challenges discussed from the discovery to the preclinical stage. To encourage interaction between the presenters and the audience, a panel discussion was used that led to interesting insights into study design from toxicological and bioanalytical viewpoints. The final session was left to clinical aspects of microsampling and a particularly interesting presentation from Hitesh Pandya from the Pediatric Respiratory Medicine Department (University of Leicester, Leicester, UK). An eloquent and hard-hitting presentation put into perspective the importance of advancements in this field that enables sample to be taken in a noninvasive manner. The meeting was well received with excellent feedback from all concerned.

  18. Fall risk awareness and safety precautions taken by older community-dwelling women and men--a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pohl

    Full Text Available Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women's and men's understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls.A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively.Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one's fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was "Safety precautions through fall risk awareness". Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts.The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples' conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes.

  19. Transformational leadership and group potency in small military units: The mediating role of group identification and cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Guiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined an exploratory model to assess the relationship between transformational leadership and group potency and analyze the mediating role of group identification and cohesion. The research was conducted with squads of the Spanish Army. The sample was composed of 243 members of 51 squads of operational units. Our findings highlighted the importance of the transformational leadership style of command of non-commissioned officers (NCOs due to its positive relationship with the group potency of the squad. We also analyzed the indirect relationships between transformational leadership and group identification and group cohesion and found that the latter variables played a mediating role between transformational leadership and group potency. The conclusions of this study are relevant due to the growing importance of transformational leadership and actions implemented at lower levels of the command chain for the success of missions of security organizations and defense.

  20. Group lending and the role of the group leader : Theory and evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Remco van; Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the strategic monitoring behaviour within a group lending setting. We develop a theoretical model, showing that monitoring efforts of group members differ from each other in equilibrium, as a result of the asymmetry between these members in terms of the future

  1. Women’s Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Delan Devakumar; Zeshan Qureshi; Jenevieve Mannell; Manju Baruwal; Neha Sharma; Eva Rehfuess; Naomi M. Saville; Dharma S. Manandhar; David Osrin

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the ...

  2. ClimateQUAL® and Thinklets: Using ClimateQUAL® with Group Support Systems to Facilitate Discussion and Set Priorities for Organizational Change at Criss Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hillyer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article discusses a series of actions taken by the Criss Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha to implement organizational change, using the ClimateQUAL® survey and facilitated discussions with ThinkTank™ group decision software. The library had experienced significant changes over a five-year period, with a renovation of the facility and three reorganizations resulting in a 50% staff turnover. Recognizing the strain that years of construction and personnel changes had placed on the organization, there was a desire to uncover the mood of the employees and reveal the issues behind low morale, uneasiness, and fear.Methods – In November 2009, the library conducted a ClimateQUAL® survey to develop a baseline to assess the effectiveness of any changes. After the results were distributed to library faculty and staff, a series of two-hour facilitated discussions was held to gather opinions and ideas for solutions using thinkLets, a pattern language for reasoning toward a goal. The group support system ThinkTank™ software was loaded onto computers, and employees were able to add their ideas anonymously during the sessions. Finally, 12 employees (29% completed a four-question survey on their perceptions of the facilitated discussions.Results – The facilitated discussions returned 76 sub-themes in 12 categories: staffing and scheduling issues, staff unity/teamwork, communication, goodwill/morale, accountability, decision-making, policy issues, skills and training, leadership, ergonomics/physical work environment, respect, and bullying. An advisory team culled the 76 sub-themes into 40 improvement strategies. Five were implemented immediately, and the remaining 35 were scheduled to be presented to the faculty and staff via an online survey. Participants’ perceptions of the facilitated discussions were mixed. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they did not feel safe speaking out about issues, most

  3. Role of Self-help Group in Substance Addiction Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prangya Paramita Priyadarshini

    2012-11-01

    Background: The Narcotics Anonymous (NA)/Alcoholic Anonymous(AA) is based on the philosophy of self-help, where the former addicts and recovering addicts share experiences, provide emotional support and do active monitoring through mentoring. In mentoring, a former addict with longer duration of drug-free life acts as a guide to the newly recovering addict. Objective: The objective was to study the effect of involvement in self help group upon addictís level of depression, functional social support, and anxiety. Method: The size of the sample was 60. 30 addicts were taken from rehabilitation centre and 30 were taken from self-help groups. ANOVA was used to analyze the result. Result: In all the criteria it was found that there exists a significant impact of Self-help group. Conclusion: Self-help group provide clients with a social network of individuals with similar problems and experiences, since most of these individuals may be isolated from society due to the social stigma attached to their addictions. The transition from being help recipients to being helpers enables recovering addicts to build their self-confidence and feelings of being wanted and desired in society, which facilitates their self-confidence and positive self-esteem.

  4. The Role of Focus Groups with Other Performance Measurement Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Elizabeth

    Huddersfield University Library (England) has undertaken a wide range of evaluative studies of its services and systems, using various data collection techniques such as: user surveys; exit interviews; online and CD-ROM analysis; benchmarking; user groups; staffing and staff development evaluation; suggestion sheets; student project work; group…

  5. Focusing on SSI's risk and radiation protection criteria. A report based on discussions in focus groups in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2003-11-01

    The project was a result of the authority's continued work on the 1998 regulations on protection of human health and the environment in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The idea behind the project, to involve persons from the municipalities participating in SKB's site selection investigation in focus group discussions, was that the questions and points of views that emerged in the discussions could serve as a basis for the authority's work of producing general guidelines associated with the regulations. The finished report would then be handed over to an expert group at the authority which answered or commented on the issues raised, and made a report on this to the participating municipalities Oskarshamn and Oesthammar. The result of discussions in two focus groups in Oskarshamn municipality and two in Oesthammar municipality in October 2002 is presented here, together with a presentation of the project's purpose and organisation. The results are presented in three main sections. The first concentrates on radiation and radioactivity since the task in the discussion groups was to attempt to clarify the issues and problems observed in this area in order to contribute to the authority's work of developing the general guidelines. The second section, on understanding of concepts, measurement, risk and safety, illustrates that the frequently asked and 'simple' knowledge related questions are only the tip of the iceberg where many of the participants have also thought about the more complex contexts and the fundamental problems in the risk and safety analysis, its validity and use. The third section of the report focuses primarily on content and information aspects. It provides a number of ideas about how information on current problems and important issues can be improved, how knowledge can be deepened in the site selection municipalities and how working methods in the process can be developed. The report mainly consists of a presentation of the

  6. Focusing on SSI's risk and radiation protection criteria. A report based on discussions in focus groups in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [BMD Research (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The project was a result of the authority's continued work on the 1998 regulations on protection of human health and the environment in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The idea behind the project, to involve persons from the municipalities participating in SKB's site selection investigation in focus group discussions, was that the questions and points of views that emerged in the discussions could serve as a basis for the authority's work of producing general guidelines associated with the regulations. The finished report would then be handed over to an expert group at the authority which answered or commented on the issues raised, and made a report on this to the participating municipalities Oskarshamn and Oesthammar. The result of discussions in two focus groups in Oskarshamn municipality and two in Oesthammar municipality in October 2002 is presented here, together with a presentation of the project's purpose and organisation. The results are presented in three main sections. The first concentrates on radiation and radioactivity since the task in the discussion groups was to attempt to clarify the issues and problems observed in this area in order to contribute to the authority's work of developing the general guidelines. The second section, on understanding of concepts, measurement, risk and safety, illustrates that the frequently asked and 'simple' knowledge related questions are only the tip of the iceberg where many of the participants have also thought about the more complex contexts and the fundamental problems in the risk and safety analysis, its validity and use. The third section of the report focuses primarily on content and information aspects. It provides a number of ideas about how information on current problems and important issues can be improved, how knowledge can be deepened in the site selection municipalities and how working methods in the process can be developed. The report mainly

  7. Evaluation of factors influencing on non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life in Bushehr Port using focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exclusive breast feeding in the early years of life is one of the most important factors in growth and development of infants. Therefore, exclusive breast feeding is recommended during the first six months of life. For determining the effective factors of non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life, we used focus group discussion by participation of 60 mothers who had an infant under 6 months age and enjoyed non-exclusive breast feeding. Mothers divided into eight groups considering their occupation and number of child. All groups reported scanty of mother’s milk, mother’s occupation, mother’s illness, mother’s comfort, wrong beliefs, infant’s illness, doctors and health care providers recommendations, infant’s dependency to feeding bottle and pacifiers as the most frequent factors in using nonexclusive breast feeding. All mothers believed that health care centers, relatives and older members of family, books and pamphlets, mass media, physicians were their effective sources of awareness and promotion of exclusive breast feeding. Considering the presented ideas in all groups, it is realized that mothers during their pregnancy have sparse information about exclusive breast feeding and because of lack of enough essential training, some socio – cultural beliefs affects non-exclusive breast feeding. Mass media and especial training programs should be implemented to promote exclusive breast feeding in Bushehr Port.

  8. Role Differentiation in Groups: The Relationship Between Instrumental and Expressive Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, C. Roger; Segal, Mady Wechsler

    1984-01-01

    Examined the degree of differentiation between instrumental and expressive leadership roles in two natural groups (N=101). Results showed a relatively high degree of leadership role integration with several members of each group fulfilling both instrumental and expressive leadership roles. (LLL)

  9. The role of steering groups and project workers in NDUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, S

    In light of the challenges that many nursing development units (NDUs) have faced during the past four years, this paper assesses the usefulness, as perceived by their clinical leaders, of support structures that had to be in place to secure NDU status. The structures assessed were a steering group and the allocation of a project worker by the King's Fund. Well organised steering groups offer unique opportunities to the NDUs to gain access to the knowledge and expertise of key figures, marketing the NDU and ensuring the project progresses to plan. Influential project workers were found to support the clinical leader and NDU staff, act as an external advocate and provide a global knowledge of nursing developments. This is the second of two papers reporting on a Department of Health-funded review of NDUs. The first appeared in Nursing Times on November 20.

  10. Questions and Advice to the Swedish Radiation Authority in their Current Work on Radiation Safety from Participants in Focus Group Discussions in the Municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2003-01-01

    In connection to their work on developing a 'general advice document', based on the radiation protection law, the Swedish Radiation Authority (SSI) initiated a process in 2002 that welcomed comments and suggestions from the general public, specifically representatives and interested parties involved in the work related to a Swedish repository for high level nuclear wastes. The authority held a seminar in September, and presented the forthcoming task. The present paper summarises and exemplifies discussions in focus groups in October 2002, when participants from the municipalities of Oskarshamn and Oesthammar met to give their input to the authority's ongoing work. The questions and suggestions emerging from the focus groups are classified into three major areas in this presentation: 1. Issues related specifically to radiation and radioactivity. 2. Issues of comprehension of terminology, measurements, risk, and safety. 3. Issues concerning the information process and the transfer of knowledge. The discussion highlights that issues and comments raised by the public are not constrained to specific knowledge questions, e.g. on radiation or risk, but may relate to legal, strategic and political considerations, as well as the basics of the performed analyses and the related assumptions and evaluations. Ideas for improving public knowledge and for facilitating an exchange of information are outlined below

  11. Use of eyeglasses among children in elementary school: perceptions, behaviors, and interventions discussed by parents, school nurses, and teachers during focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjebacheva, Gergana Damianova; Maliski, Sally; Coleman, Anne L

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the perceptions, behaviors, and recommendations that parents, school nurses, and teachers have regarding children's use of eyeglasses. Focus groups with parents, school nurses, and teachers were conducted. The study took place in one Southern California school district. There were 39 participants, including 24 parents, seven school nurses, and eight teachers. An experienced moderator guided the focus group discussions. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Participants perceive visual impairment as a serious problem in the development of children. The lack of eyeglasses may lead to problems such as tiredness, headaches, inability to focus on school work, and decreased reading speed. Participants experienced disappointment, unhappiness, worry, and concern when they realized they needed eyeglasses at a young age. Negative societal perceptions toward eyeglasses, lack of eye doctors in minority communities, parental perceptions that children do not need eyeglasses, and peer bullying of children wearing eyeglasses are key obstacles to children's use of eyeglasses. Participants suggest school and national campaigns featuring respected public figures who wear eyeglasses to promote positive attitudes toward eyeglasses. Parents and teachers who closely follow the academic development of children have observed that visual impairment has negative consequences for the scholastic achievement of children. They recommend interventions to promote the attractiveness of eyeglasses in society. The participants discuss the need for a national preventative message for eye care similar to the message for dental care. The public health message should emphasize the importance of embracing and respecting differences among individuals.

  12. From Drinking Group Norms to Individual Drinking Consequences: A Moderated Mediation Model Examining the Role of Members' Status, Identification with the Group and with Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M; Davis, Jordan P; Maxwell-Smith, Matthew A; Bell, Angelica

    2018-07-03

    Emerging adults consume alcohol most often with their peer drinking groups. Yet, little is known about the role of drinking group norms on individual members' drinking consequences, nor about the mechanisms that underlie this association. We examined the indirect relationship between drinking group descriptive norms (perceived frequency of group heavy episodic drinking; HED) and individual drinking consequences via individual HED. We also examined key moderators, including the extent to which individuals occupied high status positions within their drinking groups, the strength of their identification with the group, and the degree to which they identified with emerging adulthood, a developmental period associated with heightened alcohol consumption. Participants were 280 and 340 (replication study) emerging adults (18-29 years) who were recruited via an online crowdsourcing site to complete a survey. Across studies, higher status was associated with more individual HED and drinking consequences. Further, group identification and identification with emerging adulthood strengthened the relation between group and individual HED. Finally, the indirect relation between group HED and individual drinking consequences was significant and stronger for individuals who identified more with their drinking groups and with emerging adulthood. Conclusions/Importance: Findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the impact of descriptive peer norms on heavy drinking and related consequences in emerging adulthood and help identify drinking group members most at risk for internalizing descriptive group norms for HED. Key implications for prevention and intervention programming are discussed.

  13. Actionable findings and the role of IT support: report of the ACR Actionable Reporting Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul A; Berland, Lincoln L; Griffith, Brent; Kahn, Charles E; Liebscher, Lawrence A

    2014-06-01

    The ACR formed the Actionable Reporting Work Group to address the potential role of IT in the communication of imaging findings, especially in cases that require nonroutine communication because of the urgency of the findings or their unexpected nature. These findings that require special communication with referring clinicians are classified as "actionable findings." The work group defines 3 categories of actionable findings that require, respectively, communication and clinical decision within minutes (category 1), hours (category 2), or days (category 3). Although the work group does not believe that there can be definitive lists of such findings, it developed lists in each category that would apply in most general hospital settings. For each category, the work group discusses ways in which IT can assist interpreting radiologists in successfully communicating to the relevant clinicians to ensure optimal patient care. IT systems can also help document the communication and facilitate auditing of the documentation. The work group recommends that vendors develop platforms that can be customized on the basis of local preferences and needs. Whatever system is used, it should be highly reliable and fit seamlessly into radiologists' workflow. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Practical nursing training in the University School of Nursing of the Community of Madrid. Opinion of students and health professionals. Qualitative study with discussion groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Andrés, Cristina; Alameda Cuesta, Almudena; Albéniz Lizarraga, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    In the nursing schools, the contrast between what is taught in the classrooms and what is practiced at the health care centers usually creates a great deal of confusion on the part of the students. The objective of this research is to ascertain the opinion of the students and of the professionals at the health care centers where they are doing their training with regard thereto in order to detect their problems and see what differences exist between primary and specialized care. This research was conducted throughout the first half of 2000 employing qualitative methodology, by means of four discussion groups comprised of students, former students, primary care training advisors and nursing professionals at the hospitals where the students of the school in question are doing their nursing training. The initial involvement employed was indirect. The comments of the nursing students and of their training advisors with regard to the practice nursing during the diploma studies reveal dissatisfaction on the part of both of these groups. In all of the groups point out anxiety as the leading factor involved in their teaching as well as learning activities and during professional training. The lack of identification as a group of professionals seems to be related to the lack of recognition on the part of the others, the demand for a degree being granted for their college studies and for the setting up of specialities would contribute to their social recognition and, as a result thereof, to their identification as a professional group. Until a solution is provided to the anxiety which the nursing professionals feel with regard to their professional practice, which they pass on to their students during nursing training, it will not be possible to achieve a higher degree of satisfaction with nursing training experiences either on the part of the training advisors or on the part of the students.

  15. Summary discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs

  16. Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies / Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  17. Making Biodiversity Conservation Happen: The Role of Environmental Education and Communication. A GreenCOM Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Turley, Pat

    This discussion paper is intended for policy makers, program managers, technical specialists, and others seeking new tools and ideas with which to achieve environmentally sustainable development. Effective techniques from the field of environmental education and communication (EE&C) that can help biodiversity conservationists and program managers…

  18. Teaching within-Classroom Groups: Examining the Role of the Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Pigford, Aretha

    1988-01-01

    This article examines the teacher's contribution to the indirect effect that within-classroom grouping has on student achievement. Two distinct types of groups (ability groups and peer work-groups) are discussed and recommendations made for effective use of within-class grouping. (IAH)

  19. Manifestations of Differential Cultural Capital in a University Classroom: Views from Classroom Observations and Focus Group Discussions in a South African University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmore Mutekwe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based predominantly on Pierre Bourdieu’s social and cultural reproduction theory, particularly his notions of cultural capital and symbolic violence, this paper explores how first year post graduate Diploma in Higher Education (PGDHE university students from diverse socio-linguistic backgrounds differ in the levels at which they understand and express themselves in classroom activities. The paper’s thesis is that the diverse nature of South African classrooms presents a number of challenges not only for students but also for educators in terms of the use of English as a medium of instruction or the language for learning and teaching (LOLT. Owing to the fact that the South African Language in Education Policy (LiEP of 1997 empowers both learners and educators in schools to use any of the eleven South African official languages as a LOLT wherever that is reasonably possible, students whose English backgrounds were deficient in enculturating them in the use of English as a learning tool often encounter challenges in expressing their ideas in the classroom, whether in writing or in oral presentations. The discussion is anchored in the data elicited through two data collection methods, lesson observations in a Diploma in Higher Education, Research class composed of students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and through focus group discussion sessions with 40 multi-ethnic Diploma in Higher Education students from the same classroom. The data management and analysis for this study was done thematically, with views emerging from the observations and focus group discussions being clustered into superordinate themes for convenience of the discussion of the findings. The findings of this study were that students from affluent socio-economic backgrounds who enter university with a rich and relevant English linguistic capital, values and attitudes enjoy an enormous advantage compared to their counterparts whose social class and linguistic

  20. Using Negotiated Joining to Construct and Fill Open-ended Roles in Elite Culinary Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vaughn

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examines membership processes in groups operating in an uncertain environment that prevents them from fully predefining new members' roles. I describe how nine elite high-end, cutting-edge culinary groups in the U.S. and Europe, ranging from innovative restaurants to culinary R&D groups, use negotiated joining-a previously undocumented process-to systematically construct and fill these emergent, open-ended roles. I show that negotiated joining is a consistently patterned, iterative process that begins with a role that both aspirant and target group explicitly understand to be provisional. This provisional role is then jointly modified and constructed by the aspirant and target group through repeated iterations of proposition, validation through trial and evaluation, and selective integration of validated role components. The initially provisional role stabilizes and the aspirant achieves membership if enough role components are validated; otherwise the negotiated joining process is abandoned. Negotiated joining allows the aspirant and target group to learn if a mutually desirable role is likely and, if so, to construct such a role. In addition, the provisional roles in negotiated joining can support absorptive capacity by allowing novel role components to enter target groups through aspirants' efforts to construct stable roles for themselves, while the internal adjustment involved in integrating newly validated role components can have the unintended side effect of supporting adaptation by providing opportunities for the groups to use these novel role components to modify their role structure and goals to suit a changing and uncertain environment. Negotiated joining thus reveals role ambiguity's hitherto unexamined beneficial consequences and provides a foundation for a contingency theory of new-member acquisition.

  1. Gauging the gaps in student problem-solving skills: assessment of individual and group use of problem-solving strategies using online discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L; Mitchell, Steven M; Osgood, Marcy P

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted help to groups and to individual students. This method of assessing performance has a high interrater reliability, and senior students, with training, can serve as reliable graders. We have been able to measure improvements in many students' problem-solving strategies, but, not unexpectedly, there is a population of students who consistently apply the same failing strategy when there is no faculty intervention. This new methodology provides an effective tool to direct faculty to constructively intercede in this area of student development.

  2. Role of owner groups in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggiani, J.A. Jr.; Goering, G.T.

    1988-01-01

    The Westinghouse owner's group (WOG) was chartered in 1980 to respond to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requests related to the Three Mile Island accident. Specifically, the WOG addressed safety issues identified in NUREG-0737 as they related to a Westinghouse-designed pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. These issues were the prime focus of the WOG during its early existence. The primary objective of the WOG has remained the same since inception: to achieve mutual benefit, both technical and financial, through joint engineering, licensing, and plant operation enhancement programs. The future direction of the WOG lies in the continued utilization of the full potential of the organization in sharing technical expertise, experience, and program cost on plant issues. The overall financial savings and benefit to each utility member for the diverse programs is substantial. The WOG provides its members with a forum for technical knowledge and direction to (1) respond to regulatory issues; (2) solve plant operating problems; (3) enhance plant performance; (4) develop technical expertise; and (5) address strategic licensing issues

  3. Do we have a moral responsibility to compensate for vulnerable groups? A discussion on the right to health for LGBT people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2017-09-01

    Vulnerability is a broad concept widely addressed in recent scholarly literature. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are among the vulnerable populations with significant disadvantages related to health and the social determinants of health. Medical ethics discourse tackles vulnerability from philosophical and political perspectives. LGBT people experience several disadvantages from both perspectives. This article aims to justify the right to health for LGBT people and their particular claims regarding healthcare because they belong to a vulnerable group. Rawls' theory of justice and Norman Daniels' normal functioning approach will be discussed in this context. Despite the fact that the right to health can be justified by Daniels' normal functioning approach, there is still a theoretical gap in justifying the right to health for particular vulnerable populations such as LGBT peopleand discussing society's duty to compensate for these disadvantages. In search of solid theoretical grounds for the justification of the right to health for LGBT people, the present author takes the opportunity to utilize Daniels' flexible definition of normal functioning to show that normal functioning not only varies by age but also by different states of human existence, including sexual orientation and gender identity, and to propose replacing the life span approach with normal states of human existence.

  4. Observation of Online Communities: A Discussion of Online and Offline Observer Roles in Studying Development, Cooperation and Coordination in an Open Source Software Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana V. Nørskov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the application of observation to online settings with a special focus on observer roles. It draws on a study of online observation of a virtual community, i.e. an open source software (OSS community. The paper examines general and specific advantages and disadvantages of the observer roles in online settings by relating these roles to the same roles assumed in offline settings. The study suggests that under the right circumstances online and offline observation may benefit from being combined as they complement each other well. Quality issues and factors important to elicit trustworthy observational data from online study settings, such as OSS communities, are discussed. A proposition is made concerning how threats to credibility and transferability in relation to online observation (i.e. lack of richness and detail, risk of misunderstandings can be diminished, while maintaining the level of dependability (which is potentially high due to a greater degree of anonymity and "isolation" in online settings. The paper thus suggests that the less participative the researcher's online observer role is, the more s/he should consider introducing offline data collection techniques rather than adopting a more participative role in the observed online setting. This methodological discussion forms the basis for making a well-considered choice of online observer role rather than passively sliding into a role assigned by the setting. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110358

  5. Women’s Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delan Devakumar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the Terai district of southern Nepal, we held four focus groups that included 26 local women from urban and peri-urban areas, as well as six local artists. The women then met approximately weekly over four months, and produced images related to air pollution. Transcripts from the focus groups were reviewed independently by two authors, who initially categorised data deductively to pre-defined nodes, and subsequently inductively reviewed emergent themes. Women identified a number of health effects from air pollution. The main physical effects related to the eye and the respiratory system, and women and young children were seen as most vulnerable. The psychosocial effects of air pollution included reduced food intake by women and lethargy. Suggested solutions included modifications to the cooking process, changing the location of stoves, and increasing ventilation. The main barriers were financial. The lived experiences of women in southern Nepal around the problem of air pollution offers a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of the perceptions and challenges of addressing air pollution, which can be used to inform future interventions.

  6. Women’s Ideas about the Health Effects of Household Air Pollution, Developed through Focus Group Discussions and Artwork in Southern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Zeshan; Mannell, Jenevieve; Baruwal, Manju; Sharma, Neha; Rehfuess, Eva; Manandhar, Dharma S.; Osrin, David

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution is a major cause of ill health, but few solutions have been effective to date. While many quantitative studies have been conducted, few have explored the lived experiences and perceptions of women who do the cooking, and as a result are those most exposed to household air pollution. In this study, we worked with groups of home cooks, and sought to use art as a means of engaging them in discussions of how household air pollution from cooking affects their lives. In the Terai district of southern Nepal, we held four focus groups that included 26 local women from urban and peri-urban areas, as well as six local artists. The women then met approximately weekly over four months, and produced images related to air pollution. Transcripts from the focus groups were reviewed independently by two authors, who initially categorised data deductively to pre-defined nodes, and subsequently inductively reviewed emergent themes. Women identified a number of health effects from air pollution. The main physical effects related to the eye and the respiratory system, and women and young children were seen as most vulnerable. The psychosocial effects of air pollution included reduced food intake by women and lethargy. Suggested solutions included modifications to the cooking process, changing the location of stoves, and increasing ventilation. The main barriers were financial. The lived experiences of women in southern Nepal around the problem of air pollution offers a more nuanced and context-specific understanding of the perceptions and challenges of addressing air pollution, which can be used to inform future interventions. PMID:29389909

  7. Panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  8. The role of interpretation processes and parental discussion in the media's effects on adolescents' use of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, E W; Pinkleton, B E; Fujioka, Y

    2000-02-01

    The process that connects media use with alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors has not been well documented. To address this issue, we examined adolescents' viewing patterns, beliefs about alcohol and media messages, and parental discussion of media messages in the context of a theoretical model of message interpretation processes. Measures included the degree to which adolescents found portrayals desirable, realistic, and similar to their own lives; the degree to which they wanted to be like (identify with) the portrayals; and the degree to which they associated positive outcomes with drinking alcohol (expectancies). Cross-sectional survey. Two public high schools in the California central coastal area that include a diverse population in terms of ethnic origin, income level, and education level. Ninth-grade students (n = 252) and 12th-grade students (n = 326). Students reported the number of days within the past week watching various genres of television content, along with perceptions of realism of content, desirability of portrayals, identification with portrayals, expectancies toward alcohol use, personal norms for alcohol use, desire for products with alcohol logos, current alcohol use, frequency of parental reinforcement, and counter-reinforcement of television messages. Associations were examined via hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Effects of media exposure on drinking behavior, controlling for grade level, ethnicity, gender, household income, and education levels were primarily positive and indirect, operating through a number of intervening beliefs, especially expectancies (beta =.59; r(2) =.33). Direct associations, primarily with exposure to late-night talk shows (beta =.12; r(2) =.01), were small. Parental discussion also affected behavior indirectly, operating through expectancies, identification, and perceived realism. The appeal of products with alcohol logos, which was higher among the younger students (t = 3.44) and predicted by

  9. Using isotope geochemistry to discuss the role of crust-mantle interaction in the formation of endogenetic mega-deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lisheng

    2005-01-01

    Isotope characteristics of some mega-deposits from literature and new results on twenty deposits (ten of them are mega-deposits) show that there exists traces of crust-mantle interaction. It has been established that the interaction all took place in the mantle under many situations. The theory of isotope geochemistry on the genesis of mega-deposits has been discussed. According to the theory, these deposits are a kind of special phenomena, but they have a common factor, i.e. mantle metasomatism produced by the crust-mantle interaction in the mantle no matter what the ore-forming elements diversity may be. The granites with great accumulation of uncompatible elements can be considered as the analogues of mega-deposits. According to the statistical results, it is possible that they formed at a period before about 2 Ga during which the recycling of the materials was accompanied with the obvious crust-mantle interaction and can produce the volatile components which are poor in the mantle. (authors)

  10. Insights of health district managers on the implementation of primary health care outreach teams in Johannesburg, South Africa: a descriptive study with focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shabir; Derese, Anselme; Peersman, Wim

    2017-01-21

    Primary health care (PHC) outreach teams are part of a policy of PHC re-engineering in South Africa. It attempts to move the deployment of community health workers (CHWs) from vertical programmes into an integrated generalised team-based approach to care for defined populations in municipal wards. There has little evaluation of PHC outreach teams. Managers' insights are anecdotal. This is descriptive qualitative study with focus group discussions with health district managers of Johannesburg, the largest city in South Africa. This was conducted in a sequence of three meetings with questions around implementation, human resources, and integrated PHC teamwork. There was a thematic content analysis of validated transcripts using the framework method. There were two major themes: leadership-management challenges and human resource challenges. Whilst there was some positive sentiment, leadership-management challenges loomed large: poor leadership and planning with an under-resourced centralised approach, poor communications both within the service and with community, concerns with its impact on current services and resistance to change, and poor integration, both with other streams of PHC re-engineering and current district programmes. Discussion by managers on human resources was mostly on the plight of CHWs and calls for formalisation of CHWs functioning and training and nurse challenges with inappropriate planning and deployment of the team structure, with brief mention of the extended team. Whilst there is positive sentiment towards intent of the PHC outreach team, programme managers in Johannesburg were critical of management of the programme in their health district. Whilst the objective of PHC reform is people-centred health care, its implementation struggles with a centralising tendency amongst managers in the health service in South Africa. Managers in Johannesburg advocated for decentralisation. The implementation of PHC outreach teams is also limited by

  11. Consequences of job insecurity and the moderator role of occupational group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sora Miana, Beatriz; González-Morales, M Gloria; Caballer, Amparo; Peiró, José M

    2011-11-01

    In recent decades, transformations in organizations and the labour market have produced an increase in employee job insecurity. In response to this situation, workers present different negative reactions. However, the intensity of these reactions varies across studies that have investigated the outcomes of job insecurity. One possible explanation for this inconsistency may lie in the influence of other factors, such as the occupational group (Sverke et al., 2002). The aim of this study is to provide additional evidence about the relationship between job insecurity and its outcomes (i.e., life satisfaction, job satisfaction, perceived performance and organizational commitment), and examine the moderator role of occupational group in this relationship. The sample was composed of 321 employees from different Spanish organizations. The results showed that job insecurity was directly and negatively related to life satisfaction, job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and they suggest that occupational group moderated relations between job insecurity and three studied outcomes. In the case of life satisfaction and perceived performance, this relationship was stronger among blue collar workers. The relationship between job insecurity and job satisfaction was stronger in white collar workers. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  12. The clinical role of lecturers in nursing in Ireland: perceptions from key stakeholder groups in nurse education on the role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskell, Pauline; Murphy, Kathleen; Shaw, David

    2009-10-01

    The clinical role of lecturers in nursing has been a focus of debate since the integration of nurse education into higher education institutions. The purpose of this paper is to report the findings from the preliminary phase of a study, undertaken to investigate the perceptions of key stakeholder groups in nurse education, regarding the current clinical role of nurse lecturers in Ireland. A descriptive exploratory design was used involving focus group and individual interviews, soliciting views of purposefully selected educationalists, clinicians, policy formulators and students. The issue was examined from a policy perspective, aiming to collectively represent views of all participant groups. This approach facilitated a more complete picture of perceptions of the role to emerge, to better inform future decision making. Twenty two focus group interviews and twenty one individual interviews were conducted. Content analysis was used to identify themes. All groups were in agreement that role definition was urgently required to dispel ambiguities surrounding what the clinical role should involve. Conflicting views were evident among groups regarding lecturers' clinical credibility, visibility and teaching effectiveness. Findings highlight the essential nature of nurse lecturers engaging with clinical areas to maintain their skills, demonstrate a value for the practice component of the role and provide a link between education and practice.

  13. The Role of Discussion Boards in a University Blended Learning Program (El papel de los foros de discusión en un programa universitario de aprendizaje mixto)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Moreno, Rosa Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Discussion boards as tools in blended "English language" learning programs have unique characteristics when compared to other synchronous and asynchronous communication tools that are different. Therefore, it is important to investigate the way they operate, their role within a given program and the students', teachers' and tutors'…

  14. Understanding the impact of subsidizing artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs in the retail sector--results from focus group discussions in rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah V Kedenge

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the potential of private sector subsidies to increase availability and affordability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs for malaria treatment. A cluster randomized trial of such subsidies was conducted in 3 districts in Kenya, comprising provision of subsidized packs of paediatric ACT to retail outlets, training of retail staff, and community awareness activities. The results demonstrated a substantial increase in ACT availability and coverage, though patient counselling and adherence were suboptimal. We conducted a qualitative study in order to understand why these successes and limitations occurred.Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted, 9 with retailers and 9 with caregivers, to document experiences with the intervention. Respondents were positive about intervention components, praising the focused retailer training, affordable pricing, strong promotional activities, dispensing job aids, and consumer friendly packaging, which are likely to have contributed to the positive access and coverage outcomes observed. However, many retailers still did not stock ACT, due to insufficient supplies, lack of capital and staff turnover. Advice to caregivers was poor due to insufficient time, and poor recall of instructions. Adherence by caregivers to dosing guidelines was sub-optimal, because of a wish to save tablets for other episodes, doses being required at night, stopping treatment when the child felt better, and the number and bitter taste of the tablets. Caregivers used a number of strategies to obtain paediatric ACT for older age groups.This study has highlighted that important components of a successful ACT subsidy intervention are regular retailer training, affordable pricing, a reliable supply chain and community mobilization emphasizing patient adherence and when to seek further care.

  15. Understanding the impact of subsidizing artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the retail sector--results from focus group discussions in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedenge, Sarah V; Kangwana, Beth P; Waweru, Evelyn W; Nyandigisi, Andrew J; Pandit, Jayesh; Brooker, Simon J; Snow, Robert W; Goodman, Catherine A

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential of private sector subsidies to increase availability and affordability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria treatment. A cluster randomized trial of such subsidies was conducted in 3 districts in Kenya, comprising provision of subsidized packs of paediatric ACT to retail outlets, training of retail staff, and community awareness activities. The results demonstrated a substantial increase in ACT availability and coverage, though patient counselling and adherence were suboptimal. We conducted a qualitative study in order to understand why these successes and limitations occurred. Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted, 9 with retailers and 9 with caregivers, to document experiences with the intervention. Respondents were positive about intervention components, praising the focused retailer training, affordable pricing, strong promotional activities, dispensing job aids, and consumer friendly packaging, which are likely to have contributed to the positive access and coverage outcomes observed. However, many retailers still did not stock ACT, due to insufficient supplies, lack of capital and staff turnover. Advice to caregivers was poor due to insufficient time, and poor recall of instructions. Adherence by caregivers to dosing guidelines was sub-optimal, because of a wish to save tablets for other episodes, doses being required at night, stopping treatment when the child felt better, and the number and bitter taste of the tablets. Caregivers used a number of strategies to obtain paediatric ACT for older age groups. This study has highlighted that important components of a successful ACT subsidy intervention are regular retailer training, affordable pricing, a reliable supply chain and community mobilization emphasizing patient adherence and when to seek further care.

  16. Discussion Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    , time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present......Much research has focused on studying complex phenomena through their reflection in social media, from drawing neighborhood boundaries to inferring relationships between medicines and diseases. While it is generally recognized in the social sciences that such studies should be conditioned on gender...... a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context...

  17. Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A responsividade materna tem sido considerada como um elemento central para a compreensão do desenvolvimento infantil e este conceito tem sido articulado com a teoria do apego. Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir criticamente o papel de estudos transculturais sobre responsividade materna, à luz da teoria do apego, a partir da revisão da literatura recente sobre o tema. Considerando a teoria do apego um referencial valioso para investigações sobre interações mãe-bebê e responsividade materna, as conclusões apontam, basicamente, para três questões: 1 a teoria do apego precisa ser investigada em diferentes contextos socioculturais e receber validação transcultural; 2 pesquisas sobre responsividade materna devem considerar a discussão sobre a teoria do apego e diferenças culturais; 3 a inclusão do estudo da responsividade materna em referenciais teóricos que levem em conta variáveis socioculturais é necessária.Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  18. Anemia and its determinants among women of reproductive age of a slum in Kolkata: A focus group discussion among health workers in a slum of Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Dasgupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anemia is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among women of reproductive age. Progress toward reducing the burden of anemia has been little despite efforts through decades. Aims: We conducted this study to unearth the microlevel determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age. Settings and Design: This qualitative study was conducted in Urban Health Centre (UHC, Chetla. Subjects and Methods: A focus group discussion was held among all the eight health staffs, who were involved in reproductive and child health-related service delivery under UHC, Chetla. Analysis Used: A thematic analysis of the transcript was performed. Results: We found that socioeconomic factors like poverty and social neglect, diet and nutrition related factors, lack of personal hygiene, and worm infestation contributed to the burden of anemia, and this was reinforced by factors related to service delivery, such as lack of supply of drugs and supplements, and inadequate training of health workers as well as poor media accountability. Conclusions: Because of easy reversibility and implementation, health service delivery-related issues should be addressed closely through monitoring and evaluation and appropriate and timely action should be taken to improve the effectiveness of the services.

  19. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  20. Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, James

    1997-03-01

    Panelists: Arthur Bienenstock, Stanford University Cherry Ann Murray, Lucent Technologies Venkatesh Narayanamurti, University of California-Santa Barbara Paul Peercy, SEMI-SEMATECH Robert Richardson, Cornell University James Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Board on Physics and Astronomy is undertaking a series of reassessments of all branches of physics as the foundation of a new physics survey. As part of this project, a Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics has been established under the leadership of Venkatesh Narayanamurti of the University of California-Santa Barbara. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources. The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!

  1. The Role of Peer Group Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence and Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…

  2. Strategic use of preference confirmation in group decision making: the role of competition and dissent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Claudia; Gilles, Ingrid; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    The present research investigates the moderating role of goal interdependence and dissent on individual preference confirmation in hidden-profile tasks. We propose that preference confirmation can be used strategically to deal with competition and dissent likely to arise in group decision making. In two studies, participants first received incomplete information about a car accident investigation, and then read a fictitious discussion with two other participants containing full information. The interaction with the fictitious participants was presented either as cooperative or competitive. We predicted and found preference confirmation to be higher in competition than cooperation, when initial preferences were dissenting (Studies 1 & 2), but to be higher in cooperation than in competition, when initial preferences were consensual (Study 2). Also, the increased versus decreased preference confirmation in competition with, respectively, dissent and no dissent were found to be predicted by self-enhancement strategies (Study 2). These findings contribute to a better understanding of the boundary conditions of preference confirmation in hidden profiles and shed a new light on the role of motivated information processing in these tasks. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  3. The role of the disturbed rock zone in radioactive waste repository safety and performance assessment. A topical discussion and international overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, A.

    1991-06-01

    A discussion was presented of the role and relative importance of the disturbed rock zone (DRZ) around the underground openings of a repository for nuclear waste in crystalline rock. The term disturbed rock zone was defined and possible criteria to be sued to distinguish if from undisturbed rock was suggested. The processes decisive for the hydraulic characteristics of the DRZ were discussed. With regard to the integral hydraulic characteristics of the DRZ, the effects of the excavation methodology, stress redistribution, thermal changes, chemical changes and backfill were discussed. A review of in-situ observations of the DRZ was provided. Model analysis where the DRZ has been explicitly or implicitly represented, either from a phenomenological and performance assessment aspect were reviewed. The implications of the disturbed rock zone for the safe performance of a nuclear waste repository were discussed. Conceptual models for the geometry of the DRZ and hydraulic conductivity distribution in the DRZ were suggested. (au) (82 refs.)

  4. Moral Disengagement, Normative Beliefs of Peer Group, and Attitudes Regarding Roles in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana; Correia, Isabel; Marinho, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how moral disengagement, empathy, belief in a just world, and peer group normative beliefs regarding the roles of bully and defender of the victim are associated with attitudes regarding the roles of the bully and the defender of the victim. Two hundred ninety-two students from grades 6-9 participated. Results showed that…

  5. The Role of Public and Self-Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Shechtman, Zipora; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Public and self-stigmas have been implicated as factors in the underutilization of individual counseling. However, group counseling is also underutilized, and yet scholars know very little about the role of different types of stigma on attitudes toward seeking group counseling. Therefore, the current study examined the relationships between public…

  6. Improving Students' Participation in Active Learning Methods: Group Discussions, Presentations and Demonstrations: A Case of Madda Walabu University Second Year Tourism Management Students of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Sewnet; Berhanu, Kassegn

    2015-01-01

    Education is a means by which people develop and acquire knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. It paves the way for development and plays a vital role (serves as a catalyst) in bringing socio-cultural, economical, technological, political and environmental advancements. The general objective of this study was to improve Second Year Tourism…

  7. Water growth on metals and oxides: binding, dissociation and role of hydroxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron, M.; Bluhm, H.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Ketteler, G.; Shimizu, T.K.; Mugarza, A.; Deng, Xingyi; Herranz, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Nilsson, A.

    2008-09-01

    The authors discuss the role of the presence of dangling H bonds from water or from surface hydroxyl species on the wetting behavior of surfaces. Using Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopies, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy, they have examined a variety of surfaces, including mica, oxides, and pure metals. They find that in all cases, the availability of free, dangling H-bonds at the surface is crucial for the subsequent growth of wetting water films. In the case of mica electrostatic forces and H-bonding to surface O atoms determine the water orientation in the first layer and also in subsequent layers with a strong influence in its wetting characteristics. In the case of oxides like TiO{sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, surface hydroxyls form readily on defects upon exposure to water vapor and help nucleate the subsequent growth of molecular water films. On pure metals, such as Pt, Pd, and Ru, the structure of the first water layer and whether or not it exhibits dangling H bonds is again crucial. Dangling H-bonds are provided by molecules with their plane oriented vertically, or by OH groups formed by the partial dissociation of water. By tying the two II atoms of the water molecules into strong H-bonds with pre-adsorbed O on Ru can also quench the wettability of the surface.

  8. Balancing multiple roles among a group of urban midlife American Indian working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, L

    2000-06-01

    Presented are the results of a secondary analysis of group data from a study of a six-week role conflict reduction intervention among a group of urban American Indian women (n = 8). The specific aim of this researcher was to understand the process of balancing multiple roles as expressed in the participants' daily lived experiences as mothers, wives, and workers. A construction of the process of balancing multiple roles was accomplished through the use of narratives. Balancing multiple roles represented a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate and balance traditional and contemporary feminine strengths in a positive, culturally consistent manner. The study themes included: traditional sex role expectation conflicts, family guilt, guilt management, transitioning inner conflict and stress, breaking the silence-learning to say no, and healing the spirit to reclaim the self. Further support for retraditionalization of roles for this group of Indian women was maintained as an effective means of balancing roles and achieving Indian self-determination.

  9. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Building positive self-image in adolescents in foster care: the use of role models in an interactive group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K

    1998-01-01

    In a previous article (Yancey, 1992), the literature on identity development in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups was summarized. It was postulated that the social maladaptation of adolescents in residential group foster care is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial/ethnic socialization. The present article describes the development of a pilot preventive mental health intervention, the PRIDE (Personal and Racial/ethnic Identity Development and Enhancement) program, designed to provide components of parenting that are necessary for promoting positive self-image in ethnically marginalized adolescents and that are typically lacking in the group foster care milieu. PRIDE utilizes successful, ethnically relevant role models in interactive group sessions to create a significant cognitive and emotional experience for teens. While the utility of role modeling for at-risk youth is widely accepted, there is little research on the packaging, delivery, and influence of this intervention modality. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a "hybrid" role-modeling approach (intermediate in intensity of exposure and cost between one-to-one mentoring and career-day programs). Implications for further research on this type of intervention are discussed.

  11. Altruistic behavior in cohesive social groups: The role of target identifiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritov, Ilana; Kogut, Tehila

    2017-01-01

    People's tendency to be more generous toward identifiable victims than toward unidentifiable or statistical victims is known as the Identifiable Victim Effect. Recent research has called the generality of this effect into question, showing that in cross-national contexts, identifiability mostly affects willingness to help victims of one's own "in-group." Furthermore, in inter-group conflict situations, identifiability increased generosity toward a member of the adversary group, but decreased generosity toward a member of one's own group. In the present research we examine the role of group-cohesiveness as an underlying factor accounting for these divergent findings. In particular, we examined novel groups generated in the lab, using the minimal group paradigm, as well as natural groups of students in regular exercise sections. Allocation decisions in dictator games revealed that a group's cohesiveness affects generosity toward in-group and out-group recipients differently, depending on their identifiability. In particular, in cohesive groups the identification of an in-group recipient decreased, rather than increased generosity.

  12. Altruistic behavior in cohesive social groups: The role of target identifiability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Ritov

    Full Text Available People's tendency to be more generous toward identifiable victims than toward unidentifiable or statistical victims is known as the Identifiable Victim Effect. Recent research has called the generality of this effect into question, showing that in cross-national contexts, identifiability mostly affects willingness to help victims of one's own "in-group." Furthermore, in inter-group conflict situations, identifiability increased generosity toward a member of the adversary group, but decreased generosity toward a member of one's own group. In the present research we examine the role of group-cohesiveness as an underlying factor accounting for these divergent findings. In particular, we examined novel groups generated in the lab, using the minimal group paradigm, as well as natural groups of students in regular exercise sections. Allocation decisions in dictator games revealed that a group's cohesiveness affects generosity toward in-group and out-group recipients differently, depending on their identifiability. In particular, in cohesive groups the identification of an in-group recipient decreased, rather than increased generosity.

  13. What is CCZN-armalcolite? A crystal-chemical discussion and an ad-hoc incursion in the crichtonite-minerals group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril Sabau

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The status of CCZN-armalcolite, commonly still believed to be a variety of armalcolite s.s., is questionable in view of partial evidence suggesting that it would represent a distinct phase, as initially claimed by its discoverers. Because of the rarity of the mineral, combined with its habitual small grain-size, no successful structural investigation could be undertaken so far. Therefore we attempted a chemical overview of existing and original data pertaining to CCZN-armalcolite. With the view of systematizing structure-composition relationships, we analyzed the topology of large cations – bearing close-packed oxides, while extending the nomenclature in use in order to accommodate further topologies. By using relevant chemical plots, a fair compositional match between CCZN-armalcolite and the crichtonite group minerals was demonstrated, as well as a chemical incompatibility with armalcolite. Stoichiometric crichtonite compositions and matching optical properties allowed identification of at least part of “CCZN-armalcolites” with the mineral loveringite of the crichtonite group. A detailed inspection of structure-composition relationships in crichtonites allowed an insight in their trends and range of chemical variation, as well as a comparison between them and a group of “CCZN-armalcolites” slightly differing from known crichtonites. These “CCZN-armalcolites” departing from normal chemical trends in crichtonites either represent an ordered variety of non-stoichiometric crichtonite or a new group of close-packed oxides. Their composition clustering around formula AM16O30 is temptingly consistent with an hypothetical structure intermediate between magnetoplumbites and crichtonites, based on close-packed stacking of layers made up by triangular clusters of octahedra, stuffed with large cations. A model of such a structure, not encountered so far in minerals, is outlined, displaying a hexagonal symmetry P , with a ≈ 7.45Å and c

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (16th, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, November 5-8, 1994). Volume 1: Plenary Sessions, Technology Focus Groups, Discussion Groups and Research Papers, Oral Reports and Posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, David, Ed.

    This volume contains the full text of 2 plenary papers and 26 research reports. In addition, brief, usually one-page, reports are provided for 6 discussion groups, 10 technology focus groups, 7 symposiums, 7 oral presentations, and 17 position sessions. The two full plenary reports are: (1) "Problems of Reification: Representations and…

  15. Effect of using an audience response system on learning environment, motivation and long-term retention, during case-discussions in a large group of undergraduate veterinary clinical pharmacology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Michèle; Vrins, André; Harvey, Denis

    2009-12-01

    Teaching methods that provide an opportunity for individual engagement and focussed feedback are required to create an active learning environment for case-based teaching in large groups. A prospective observational controlled study was conducted to evaluate whether the use of an audience response system (ARS) would promote an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups, have an impact on student motivation and improve long-term retention. Group A (N = 83) participated in large group case discussions where student participation was voluntary, while for group B (N = 86) an ARS was used. Data collection methods included student and teacher surveys, student focus group interviews, independent observations and 1-year post-course testing. Results indicated that the use of an ARS provided an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups by favouring engagement, observation and critical reflection and by increasing student and teacher motivation. Although final exam results were significantly improved in group B, long-term retention was not significantly different between groups. It was concluded that ARS use significantly improved the learning experience associated with case-based discussions in a large group of undergraduate students.

  16. Modeling the Role of Networks and Individual Differences in Inter-Group Violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Isakov

    Full Text Available There is significant heterogeneity within and between populations in their propensity to engage in conflict. Most research has neglected the role of within-group effects in social networks in contributing to between-group violence and focused instead on the precursors and consequences of violence, or on the role of between-group ties. Here, we explore the role of individual variation and of network structure within a population in promoting and inhibiting group violence towards other populations. Motivated by ethnographic observations of collective behavior in a small-scale society, we describe a model with differentiated roles for individuals embedded within friendship networks. Using a simple model based on voting-like dynamics, we explore several strategies for influencing group-level behavior. When we consider changing population level attitude changes and introducing control nodes separately, we find that a particularly effective control strategy relies on exploiting network degree. We also suggest refinements to our model such as tracking fine-grained information spread dynamics that can lead to further enrichment in using evolutionary game theory models for sociological phenomena.

  17. The Role of Perceived In-group Moral Superiority in Reparative Intentions and Approach Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsolt P; Mészáros, Noémi Z; Csertő, István

    2017-01-01

    Three studies examined how members of a national group react to in-group wrongdoings. We expected that perceived in-group moral superiority would lead to unwillingness to repair the aggression. We also expected that internal-focused emotions such as group-based guilt and group-based shame would predict specific, misdeed-related reparative intentions but not general approach motivation toward the victim groups. In Study 1, facing the in-group's recent aggression, participants who believed that the Hungarians have been more moral throughout their history than members of other nations, used more exonerating cognitions, experienced less in-group critical emotions and showed less willingness to provide reparations for the members of the victim group. Study 2 and Study 3 confirmed most findings of Study 1. Perceived in-group moral superiority directly or indirectly reduced willingness to provide either general or specific reparations, while internally focused in-group critical emotions predicted specific misdeed-related reparative intentions but not general approach motivation. The role of emotional attachment to the in-group is considered.

  18. 浅议陕西煤化集团并购重组工作%Discussion of mergers and acquisitions work in Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹贵武

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the main methods of mergers and acquisitions work , summarized the experiences of mergers and acquisitions work and analyzed the effects of mergers and acquisitions work during the development process of Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group .%介绍了陕煤化集团在发展过程中,实施并购重组工作的主要做法,总结了开展并购重组工作经验,并以具体实例说明了集团实施并购重组工作的效果。

  19. The Role of Perceived In-group Moral Superiority in Reparative Intentions and Approach Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt P. Szabó

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three studies examined how members of a national group react to in-group wrongdoings. We expected that perceived in-group moral superiority would lead to unwillingness to repair the aggression. We also expected that internal-focused emotions such as group-based guilt and group-based shame would predict specific, misdeed-related reparative intentions but not general approach motivation toward the victim groups. In Study 1, facing the in-group’s recent aggression, participants who believed that the Hungarians have been more moral throughout their history than members of other nations, used more exonerating cognitions, experienced less in-group critical emotions and showed less willingness to provide reparations for the members of the victim group. Study 2 and Study 3 confirmed most findings of Study 1. Perceived in-group moral superiority directly or indirectly reduced willingness to provide either general or specific reparations, while internally focused in-group critical emotions predicted specific misdeed-related reparative intentions but not general approach motivation. The role of emotional attachment to the in-group is considered.

  20. The Effect of Functional Roles on Group Efficiency : Using Multilevel Modeling and Content Analysis to Investigate Computer-Supported Collaboration in Small Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbos, J.W.; Martens, R.L.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Broers, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The usefulness of roles to support small group performance can often be read; however, their effect is rarely empirically assessed. This article reports the effects of functional roles on group performance, efficiency, and collaboration during computer-supported collaborative learning. A comparison

  1. Preparing for human papillomavirus vaccine introduction in Kenya: implications from focus-group and interview discussions with caregivers and opinion leaders in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L; Oruko, Kelvin O; Habel, Melissa A; Ford, Jessie; Kinsey, Jennine; Odhiambo, Frank; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Wang, Susan A; Collins, Tabu; Laserson, Kayla F; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-08-16

    Cervical cancer claims the lives of 275,000 women each year; most of these deaths occur in low-or middle-income countries. In Kenya, cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women of reproductive age. Kenya's Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation has developed a comprehensive strategy to prevent cervical cancer, which includes plans for vaccinating preteen girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) by 2015. To identify HPV vaccine communication and mobilization needs, this research sought to understand HPV vaccine-related perceptions and concerns of male and female caregivers and community leaders in four rural communities of western Kenya. We conducted five focus groups with caregivers (n = 56) and 12 key-informant interviews with opinion leaders to explore cervical cancer-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, as well as acceptability of HPV vaccination for 9-12 year-old girls. Four researchers independently reviewed the data and developed codes based on questions in interview guides and topics that emerged organically, before comparing and reconciling results through a group consensus process. Cervical cancer was not commonly recognized, though it was understood generally in terms of its symptoms. By association with cancer and genital/reproductive organs, cervical cancer was feared and stigmatized. Overall acceptability of a vaccine that prevents cervical cancer was high, so long as it was endorsed by trusted agencies and communities were sensitized first. Some concerns emerged related to vaccine safety (e.g., impact on fertility), program intent, and health equity. For successful vaccine introduction in Kenya, there is a need for communication and mobilization efforts to raise cervical cancer awareness; prompt demand for vaccination; address health equity concerns and stigma; and minimize potential resistance. Visible endorsement by government leaders and community influencers can provide reassurance of the vaccine's safety

  2. The self-regulatory role of anticipated group-based shame and guilt in inhibiting in-group favoritism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepherd, Lee; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In three studies, we examined whether the anticipation of group-based guilt and shame inhibits in-group favoritism. In Studies 1 and 2, anticipated group-based shame negatively predicted in-group favoritism; in neither study did anticipated group-based guilt uniquely predict in-group favoritism. In

  3. Strategic use of preference confirmation in group decision making : The role of competition and dissent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toma, C.; Gilles, I.; Butera, F.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigates the moderating role of goal interdependence and dissent on individual preference confirmation in hidden-profile tasks. We propose that preference confirmation can be used strategically to deal with competition and dissent likely to arise in group decision making. In

  4. Integrated resource planning for the rational use of energy in Slovenia. Overview of analysis with discussion of the role of WASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbancic, A.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) for the regional use of energy in Slovenia is presented in this paper. The main objective of the analysis is the improvement of the overall energy efficiency in Slovenia. Emphasis of the IRP analysis is given on: 1) comparison of demand and supply options and 2) embedding of the planning procedure into a structured analysis procedure to make the planning process more transparent. The Wien Automatic System Planning package (WASP) will be sued in the modeling framework for determining the optimal expansion plan for different demand patterns. This paper provides an overview of the IRP project for Slovenia. The paper consists of three sections. The first section aims at giving an insight on the motivations for the analysis; the second section describes the case studies in structured analysis steps. The role of WASP is discussed in the third part. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  5. Integrated resource planning for the rational use of energy in Slovenia. Overview of analysis with discussion of the role of WASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbancic, A [Energy Efficiency Centre, Jozef Stefan Inst., Ljubjana (Slovenia)

    1997-09-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) for the regional use of energy in Slovenia is presented in this paper. The main objective of the analysis is the improvement of the overall energy efficiency in Slovenia. Emphasis of the IRP analysis is given on: 1) comparison of demand and supply options and 2) embedding of the planning procedure into a structured analysis procedure to make the planning process more transparent. The Wien Automatic System Planning package (WASP) will be sued in the modeling framework for determining the optimal expansion plan for different demand patterns. This paper provides an overview of the IRP project for Slovenia. The paper consists of three sections. The first section aims at giving an insight on the motivations for the analysis; the second section describes the case studies in structured analysis steps. The role of WASP is discussed in the third part. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  6. Sustaining leaders of cancer support groups: the role, needs, and difficulties of leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, Phyllis; Ussher, Jane; Kirsten, Laura; Hobbs, Kim; Smith, Katharine; Wain, Gerald; Sandoval, Mirjana; Stenlake, Annie

    2005-01-01

    Cancer support groups are an important source of support for cancer patients, yet little is known about the characteristics of, and barriers to, effective leadership, and the training needs of both professionally trained and untrained leaders. This study explored the views of 179 leaders of 184 cancer support groups in NSW, Australia, regarding these issues. Four hundred and sixteen members of 50 groups selected from the larger cohort completed questionnaires eliciting the importance of group processes, including leader qualities, and satisfaction with group leadership. Finally, members of nine groups participated in focus groups regarding effective group processes. The importance of the leader(s) was emphasized in all stages of the research. Fifty-nine percent of group leaders were currently experiencing a difficulty, primarily related to infrastructure or group process. Three characteristics of effective leaders were identified: educational qualities, facilitation skills, and personal qualities. There is clearly a need to develop and evaluate effective interventions to maintain leaders in these roles, if the proven benefits for cancer patients are to be protected.

  7. How do adolescent girls and boys perceive symptoms suggestive of endometriosis among their peers? Findings from focus group discussions in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jhumka; Cardoso, Lauren F; Harris, Courtney S; Dance, Arielle D; Seckin, Tamer; Baker, Nina; Ferguson, Yvonne O

    2018-06-04

    Symptoms of endometriosis, including pelvic pain, back and nerve pain, and gastrointestinal pain, often begin in adolescence. Yet, research on the experience of these debilitating symptoms among young people is scarce. Of particular concern is the influence of adolescent girls' social context. This study qualitatively examined how, among adolescents, endometriosis and symptoms suggestive of endometriosis is perceived at the family, peer/school and community/society levels. Eight focus groups were conducted; vignettes were used to elicit participants' perceptions of factors that may shape girls' experiences of endometriosis. Data were analysed using constant comparison analysis. An ethnically diverse sample of girls and boys ages 14-18 (n=54) residing in New York City. Fifteen themes emerged and were distilled to eight cross-cutting factors that influence perceptions of endometriosis at different levels of the ecological model: distrust of community healthcare providers, societal stigma of menstruation, peer stigma of endometriosis symptoms, distrust of school healthcare providers, lack of endometriosis knowledge among peers and school personnel, inequitable gender norms, invisibility of symptoms and the stigma of teen sex among parents. Further, these factors may compound symptoms' impact on individual girl's social, educational and emotional well-being. Findings underscore the importance of understanding the social environment of girls experiencing symptoms suggestive of endometriosis and educating and engaging their peers, family and school personnel to create a supportive, informed social climate. Efforts should specifically include stigma reduction campaigns targeted towards female and male adolescents. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. The family physician's perceived role in preventing and guiding hospital admissions at the end of life: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyniers, Thijs; Houttekier, Dirk; Pasman, H Roeline; Stichele, Robert Vander; Cohen, Joachim; Deliens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Family physicians play a pivotal role in providing end-of-life care and in enabling terminally ill patients to die in familiar surroundings. The purpose of this study was to explore the family physicians' perceptions of their role and the difficulties they have in preventing and guiding hospital admissions at the end of life. Five focus groups were held with family physicians (N= 39) in Belgium. Discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Five key roles in preventing and guiding hospital admissions at the end of life were identified: as a care planner, anticipating future scenarios; as an initiator of decisions in acute situations, mostly in an advisory manner; as a provider of end-of-life care, in which competency and attitude is considered important; as a provider of support, particularly by being available during acute situations; and as a decision maker, taking overall responsibility. Family physicians face many different and complex roles and difficulties in preventing and guiding hospital admissions at the end of life. Enhancing the family physician's role as a gatekeeper to hospital services, offering the physicians more end-of-life care training, and developing or expanding initiatives to support them could contribute to a lower proportion of hospital admissions at the end of life. © 2014 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  9. The C of the BRICS: China’s Role in the Consolidation of the Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Luna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The following article will address the strategic importance of the BRICS’ agreement for China, as well as the role China plays within the group. Firstly, it analyzes the development of the BRICS as a coalition of countries that, in the beginning, were united around a shared economic objective and then, over time, evolved to a point at which each member state was responding to their own strategic interest. Secondly, China is often an object of international criticism for its own development process, and this paper will address the benefit that China gains from the BRICS agreement. The agreement diffuses international tension, promotes cooperation among member states, and defends its development plans. Lastly, the paper argues that China should refrain from exerting a leadership role within the BRICS group, but rather should focus on serving as an agent for consolidation and cohesion among the group.

  10. The important role of civil society groups in eco-innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2012-01-01

    the role of civil society groups in eco-innovation by addressing the following research questions: Why is it necessary to stress that civil society groups are as important as university, industry and government in eco-innovation? What inspiration can “triple helix twins” and “quadruple helix” provide when...... groups are not only foundations for developing innovation – they can be actors themselves; the existence of semi-governmental organizations in the Chinese case company, which is categorized under the concept of NGOs, shows the limitations of the concept of civil society groups in exposing important......, as they are helpful not only to provide pressure and push industry onto a green track, but also as supporters and carriers of green business. Corporate social responsibility is proposed as a stepping-stone to engage civil society groups in broader eco-innovation activity. Originality/value – The paper starts...

  11. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Colin J.; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic’s peak. We found children aged 11–12y, 13–14y and 8–10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak’s ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11–12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak’s ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8–10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8–14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation. PMID:26278132

  12. Classical group theory adapted to the mechanism of Pt3Ni nanoparticle growth: the role of W(CO)6 as the "shape-controlling" agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, M; Ignaszak, A

    2016-01-07

    Classical group theory was applied to prove the Pt3Ni crystallographic transformation from Platonic cubic to Archimedean cuboctahedral structures and the formation of Pt3Ni polypods. The role of W(CO)6 as a shape-controlling agent is discussed with respect to the crystallographic features of the clusters and superstructures generated as control samples.

  13. The role of genetics in stroke risk factors; the discussion of two rare genetic syndroms associated with stroke and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Kılıç Çoban

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is defined as a focal or at times global neurological impairment of sudden onset, that lasts more than 24 hours or that leads to death. The nonmodifiable risk factors for stroke include age, race, gender and acquired risk factors include smoking, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Previous studies have shown that these mentioned risk factors might be responsible for approximately 50% of patients presenting stroke. However for the remaining half of the stroke patients no risk factors could be detected and genetics might be responsible for this group. In this manuscript we would like to present 2 cases who were being followed-up with the rare genetic syndromes as Marfan syndrome and Robinow syndrome respectively. These patients presented to our clinic with stroke and no identifiable risk factors other than these genetic syndromes could be detected. By this case-series we would like to further discuss the relationship between genetic syndromes and stroke.

  14. Ambivalence, prejudice and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups: The moderating role of attitude basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, Sandro; Gerłowska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments explored the relations between prejudice (suppression), (cognitive) ambivalence and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups. The current work argues that expressing out-group ambivalence based on cognitive, but not affective, information is a strategy to justify one's otherwise suppressed prejudice, which may ultimately "cover" the discriminatory nature of out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies. Two experiments show that (1) participants evaluating the out-group in a normative context inducing prejudice suppression are more likely to self-report ambivalent beliefs rather than ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group as compared with participants whose prejudice expression is induced and (2) high-prejudice participants compared with low-prejudice participants are more prone to out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies when these latter are self-reported after the expression of ambivalent beliefs but not ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group, and when the expression of their prejudicial evaluations is salient but not when it is not. In light of the extent to which ambivalent attitudes towards out-groups are often seamlessly integrated into public discourse, the implications of the findings are discussed not only for intergroup research but also at the societal level.

  15. Dual Identity and Prejudice: The Moderating Role of Group Boundary Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Past work suggested that dual identity was effective to reduce prejudice. This study extended research on dual identity and prejudice by identifying a boundary condition in this relationship, that is, group permeability. In Study 1, we replicated previous studies with Chinese individuals and found that inducing dual identity (emphasizing subgroup differences and a common nation identity), compared to the control condition, decreased the urban residents’ prejudice against rural-to-urban migrants. In Study 2, we manipulated the group boundary permeability using the Hukou system reform, and found that when the group boundary was permeable, dual identity was effective in reducing prejudice against rural-to-urban migrants. However, this effect vanished in the condition where the group boundary was impermeable. These results point to the importance of inducing dual identity under specific conditions for research on decreasing prejudice. Some practical implications of the findings for urbanization and immigration are discussed. PMID:28261130

  16. The Role of Public Interaction with the Juno Mission: Documentation, Discussion, Selection and Processing of JunoCam Images of Jovian Cloud Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Hansen, Candice; Momary, Thomas; Bolton, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Among the many "firsts" of the Juno mission is the open enlistment of the public in the operation of its visible camera, JunoCam. Although the scientific thrust of the Juno mission is largely focused on innovative approaches to understanding the structure and composition of Jupiter's interior, JunoCam was added to the payload largely to function in the role of education and public outreach (E/PO). For the first time, the public was able to engage in the discussion and choice of targets for a major NASA mission. The discussion about which features to image is enabled by a continuously updated map of Jupiter's cloud system while Jupiter is far enough from the sun to be observable by non-professional astronomers. Contributors range from very devoted astrophotographers to telescope and video 'hobbyists'. Juno therefore engages the world-wide amateur-astronomy community as a vast network of co-investigators, whose products stimulate conversation and global public awareness of Jupiter and Juno's investigative role. Contributed images also provide a temporal context to inform the Juno atmospheric investigation team of the state and evolution of the atmosphere. The contributed images are used to create s global map on a bi-weekly basis. These bi-weekly maps provide the focus for ongoing discussion about various planetary features over a long time frame. Approximately two weeks before Juno's closest approach to Jupiter on each orbit ("perijove" or PJ), starting in mid-November of 2016 in preparation for PJ3 on December 11, the atmospheric features that have been under discussion and available to JunoCam on that perijove were nominated for voting, and the public at large voted on where to point JunoCam's "elective" features. In addition, JunoCam provides the first close-up images of Jupiter's polar regions from a non-oblique viewpoint for the first time in over 40 years since the passage of Pioneer 11 over Jupiter's north pole. The Juno mission science team also provides

  17. Penerapan Metode Role Playing Dalam Meningkatkan Motivasi Belajar Anak Usia Play Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Anita Alfiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSalah satu faktor penting dalam kegiatan belajar (KBM untuk anak usia play group adalah guru yang memahami berbagai macam karakterisik peserta didik dan peduli terhadap kebutuhan anak didiknya.Namun Dari hasil penelitian dan kenyataan di lapangan, menunjukkan bahwa pelaksanaan kegiatan belajar mengajar (KBM untuk anak-anak usia play group masih banyak kelemahan dan kekurangannya karenanya  guru juga harus mampu menguasai teknik dan metode dalam  mengajar B untuk anak.Anak didik pada usia play group.Dengan demikian, metode pembelajaran merupakan alat untuk menciptakan proses belajar mengajar.Subana dan Sunarti (2000 : 20 Berpendapat metode adalah rencana penyajian bahan yang menyeluruh dengan urutan yang sistematis berdasarkan approach tertentu. Jadi metode merupakan cara melaksanakan pekerjaan, sedangkan approach, dapat tumbuh beberapan metode. Role Playing adalah suatu cara penguasaan bahan-bahan pelajaran melalui pengembangan imajinasi dan penghayatan siswa. Pengembangan imajinasi dan penghayatan dilakukan siswa dengan memerankannya sebagai tokoh hidup atau benda mati. Permainan ini pada umumnya dilakukan lebih dari satu orang, hal itu bergantung kepada apa yang diperankan.Role Playing yakni memainkan peranan dari peran-peran yang sudah pasti berdasarkan kejadian terdahulu, yang dimaksudkan untuk menciptakan kembali situasi sejarah/peristiwa masa lalu, menciptakan kemungkinan-kemungkinan kejadian masa yang akan datang, menciptakan peristiwa mutakhir yang dapat diperkaya atau mengkhayal situasi pada suatu tempat dan atau waktu tertentu. berarti metode (Role Playing adalah metode pembelajaran yang di dalamnya menampakkan adanya perilaku pura-pura dari siswa yang terlihat dan atau peniruan situasi dari tokoh-tokoh sejarah sedemikian rupa. Dengan demikian  metode Bermain Peran (RolePlayingadalah metode yang melibatkan siswa untuk pura-pura memainkan peran/ tokoh yang terlibat dalam proses sejarah. Teknik ini juga digunakan untuk dapat

  18. The role of high mobility group box 1(HMGB1)in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingjie Chen; Xiaofeng Guan; Xiaocong Zuo; Jianglin Wang; Wenjun Yin

    2016-01-01

    High mobility group box 1(HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that can bind to DNA and act as a co-factor for gene transcription. When released into extracellular fluid, it plays a proinflammatory role by acting as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule(DAMP)(also known as an alarmin) to initiate innate immune responses by activating multiple cell surface receptors such as the receptor for advanced glycation end-products(RAGE) and toll-like receptors(TLRs), TLR2, TLR4 or TLR9. This proinflammatory role is now considered to be important in the pathogenesis of a wide range of kidney diseases whether they result from hemodynamic changes, renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, kidney tissue fibrosis or inflammation. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of HMGB1 in kidney diseases and how the HMGB1-mediated signaling pathway may constitute a new strategy for the treatment of kidney diseases.

  19. Biological role in the transformation of platinum-group mineral grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Frank; Zammit, Carla M.; Shar, Sahar S.; Etschmann, Barbara; Bottrill, Ralph; Southam, Gordon; Ta, Christine; Kilburn, Matthew; Oberthür, Thomas; Ball, Andrew S.; Brugger, Joël

    2016-04-01

    Platinum-group elements are strategically important metals. Finding new deposits is becoming increasingly difficult owing to our limited understanding of the processes that affect their mobility in surface environments. Microorganisms have been shown to promote the mobility of metals around ore deposits. Here we show that microorganisms influence the mobility of platinum-group elements in mineral grains collected from Brazil, Australia and Colombia. Scanning electron microscopy showed biofilms covering the platinum-group mineral grains. The biofilms contained abundant platinum-group element nanoparticles and microcrystalline aggregates, and were dominated by Proteobacteria, many of which were closely related to known metal-resistant species. Some platinum-group mineral grains contained carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium and iodine, suggesting the grains may be biogenic in origin. Molecular analyses show that Brazilian platinum-palladium grains hosted specific bacterial communities, which were different in composition from communities associated with gold grains, or communities in surrounding soils and sediments. Nano-phase metallic platinum accumulated when a metallophillic bacterium was incubated with a percolating platinum-containing medium, suggesting that biofilms can cause the precipitation of mobile platinum complexes. We conclude that biofilms are capable of forming or transforming platinum-group mineral grains, and may play an important role for platinum-group element dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments.

  20. Role of functional groups on Aspergillus niger biomass in the detoxification of hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvekar, Sneha; Vaidya, Varsha K

    2009-10-01

    Chromium (VI) contamination is not uncommon, especially near industries involved in leather tanning, chrome painting, metal cleaning and processing, wood preservation and alloy preparation. The mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of Chromium (VI) necessitate effective remedial processes. Difficulties associated with chemical and physical techniques to remediate a Chromium (VI) contaminated site to EPA recommended level (50 ppm), in addition to higher costs involved, assert the need for bioremedial measures. Biosorption can be one such solution to clean up heavy metal contamination. The objective of this study was to examine the main aspects of a possible strategy for the removal of Chromium (VI), employing Aspergillus niger biomass. The roles played by amines, carboxylic acids, phosphates, in Chromium (VI) biosorption were studied. Amino and the carboxy groups on the fungal cell wall play an important role in sorption. However, the role of carboxy group was far less than amino group. Surface adsorption of Chromium (VI) was also seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) thus indicating involvement of ion-exchange and surface adsorption mechanism in removal of Chromium (VI) ions.

  1. When high achievers and low achievers work in the same group: the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Lam, Shui-fong; Chan, Joanne Chung-yan

    2008-06-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the inconsistent effects of heterogeneous ability grouping on students in small group work such as project-based learning. The present research investigated the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning. At the student level, we examined the interaction effect between students' within-group achievement and group processes on their self- and collective efficacy. At the group level, we examined how group heterogeneity was associated with the average self- and collective efficacy reported by the groups. The participants were 1,921 Hong Kong secondary students in 367 project-based learning groups. Student achievement was determined by school examination marks. Group processes, self-efficacy and collective efficacy were measured by a student-report questionnaire. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to analyse the nested data. When individual students in each group were taken as the unit of analysis, results indicated an interaction effect of group processes and students' within-group achievement on the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy. When compared with low achievers, high achievers reported lower collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of low quality. However, both low and high achievers reported higher collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of high quality. With 367 groups taken as the unit of analysis, the results showed that group heterogeneity, group gender composition and group size were not related to the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy reported by the students. Group heterogeneity was not a determinant factor in students' learning efficacy. Instead, the quality of group processes played a pivotal role because both high and low achievers were able to benefit when group processes were of high quality.

  2. Donation Behavior toward In-Groups and Out-Groups: The Role of Gender and Moral Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Page Winterich; Vikas Mittal; William T. Ross Jr.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how two important social identities--gender identity and moral identity--result in differential donations to in-groups and out-groups. Results from three studies indicate that moral identity importance tends to increase donations to out-groups (Iraq, Indonesia) and not to in-groups (London, New Orleans). However, this occurs only for consumers with a feminine gender identity. For consumers with a masculine gender identity, moral identity importance increases donations to the in...

  3. High-fidelity simulation among bachelor students in simulation groups and use of different roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thidemann, Inger-Johanne; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-12-01

    Cost limitations might challenge the use of high-fidelity simulation as a teaching-learning method. This article presents the results of a Norwegian project including two simulation studies in which simulation teaching and learning were studied among students in the second year of a three-year bachelor nursing programme. The students were organised into small simulation groups with different roles; nurse, physician, family member and observer. Based on experiences in different roles, the students evaluated the simulation design characteristics and educational practices used in the simulation. In addition, three simulation outcomes were measured; knowledge (learning), Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning. The simulation was evaluated to be a valuable teaching-learning method to develop professional understanding and insight independent of roles. Overall, the students rated the Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning as high. Knowledge about the specific patient focus increased after the simulation activity. Students can develop practical, communication and collaboration skills, through experiencing the nurse's role. Assuming the observer role, students have the potential for vicarious learning, which could increase the learning value. Both methods of learning (practical experience or vicarious learning) may bridge the gap between theory and practice and contribute to the development of skills in reflective and critical thinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture; La realizacion de grupos de discuion en un proceso combinado de evaluacion interna de cultura de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  5. Group learning capacity: The roles of open-mindedness and shared vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi eLord

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Open-mindedness is a construct that is considered a key foundational aspect of learning in individuals, groups and organizations. Also known as critical inquiry or reflection, open-mindedness is believed to increase learning through examination of prior beliefs, decisions and mistakes, and also through openness to new ideas. Renowned theorists including Dewey and Argyris have emphasized the relationship between open-mindedness and learning, yet little quantitative research has tested it or examined moderators of the linkage. The setting for the current study is that of endowment investment committees at U.S. universities and colleges who need to make knowledgeable and well-reasoned decisions about the composition of investment portfolios. Findings indicate that open-mindedness has a positive, significant effect on group learning capacity and also that shared vision, which represents the group’s collective purpose and direction, moderates that relationship. The literature review and discussion offer insights about how open-mindedness is related to the research on group conflict, and how shared vision differs from concepts such as interpersonal cohesiveness and conformity that have been associated with groupthink. A review of relevant research from the fields of organizational learning, group dynamics, and absorptive capacity provides context for the development of the hypotheses and the discussion of findings.

  6. The diagnostic role of gut feelings in general practice A focus group study of the concept and its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Weijden Trudy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners sometimes base clinical decisions on gut feelings alone, even though there is little evidence of their diagnostic and prognostic value in daily practice. Research into these aspects and the use of the concept in medical education require a practical and valid description of gut feelings. The goal of our study was therefore to describe the concept of gut feelings in general practice and to identify their main determinants Methods Qualitative research including 4 focus group discussions. A heterogeneous sample of 28 GPs. Text analysis of the focus group discussions, using a grounded theory approach. Results Gut feelings are familiar to most GPs in the Netherlands and play a substantial role in their everyday routine. The participants distinguished two types of gut feelings, a sense of reassurance and a sense of alarm. In the former case, a GP is sure about prognosis and therapy, although they may not always have a clear diagnosis in mind. A sense of alarm means that a GP has the feeling that something is wrong even though objective arguments are lacking. GPs in the focus groups experienced gut feelings as a compass in situations of uncertainty and the majority of GPs trusted this guide. We identified the main determinants of gut feelings: fitting, alerting and interfering factors, sensation, contextual knowledge, medical education, experience and personality. Conclusion The role of gut feelings in general practice has become much clearer, but we need more research into the contributions of individual determinants and into the test properties of gut feelings to make the concept suitable for medical education.

  7. Voices from School and Home: Arkansas Parents and Students Talk about Preparing for the World of Work and the Potential for Youth Apprenticeship. A Report on Focus Group Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs for the Future, Inc., West Somerville, MA.

    This report summarizes several group discussions with parents of high school students, high school students, and nursing students regarding the world of work and the advantages and disadvantages of a youth apprenticeship program. Section I is an executive summary that describes the methodology, summarizes key attitudes toward youth apprenticeships…

  8. The radiographer's role in child protection: Comparison of radiographers perceptions by use of focus groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Michaela; Reeves, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is taken from a larger study whose aims were to devise a holistic picture of how diagnostic radiographers approach child protection issues and to explore how radiographers and other professionals see the role of radiographers in the chain of evidence in relation to child protection as this applies to children who present at the Imaging Department with suspected non-accidental injuries (NAI). A focus group methodology was used with focus groups being conducted in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The results indicated that both United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland radiographers agreed that they had a role in child protection; however, they identified a wide interpretation as to the extent of that role. Although radiographers in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland work within different legal systems there were themes identified which were common to both countries. Although radiographers referred to a duty to the child as to all patients, no radiographer specifically mentioned the system and child care law under which it is assumed they operate. This research revealed an area which would benefit from more detailed research using a wider audience. However, the study revealed a need for training in relation to possible NAI indicators and the correct procedure for documenting their suspicions and initiating an NAI referral

  9. On the relative role of different age groups in influenza epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Colin J; Chaves, Sandra S; Wallinga, Jacco; Lipsitch, Marc; Finelli, Lyn; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-12-01

    The identification of key "driver" groups in influenza epidemics is of much interest for the implementation of effective public health response strategies, including vaccination programs. However, the relative importance of different age groups in propagating epidemics is uncertain. During a communicable disease outbreak, some groups may be disproportionately represented during the outbreak's ascent due to increased susceptibility and/or contact rates. Such groups or subpopulations can be identified by considering the proportion of cases within the subpopulation occurring before (Bp) and after the epidemic peak (Ap) to calculate the subpopulation's relative risk, RR=Bp/Ap. We estimated RR for several subpopulations (age groups) using data on laboratory-confirmed US influenza hospitalizations during epidemics between 2009-2014. Additionally, we simulated various influenza outbreaks in an age-stratified population, relating the RR to the impact of vaccination in each subpopulation on the epidemic's initial effective reproductive number R_e(0). We found that children aged 5-17 had the highest estimates of RR during the five largest influenza A outbreaks, though the relative magnitude of RR in this age group compared to other age groups varied, being highest for the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. For the 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 influenza B epidemics, adults aged 18-49, and 0-4 year-olds had the highest estimates of RR respectively. For 83% of simulated epidemics, the group with the highest RR was also the group for which initial distribution of a given quantity of vaccine would result in the largest reduction of R_e(0). In the largest 40% of simulated outbreaks, the group with the highest RR and the largest vaccination impact was children 5-17. While the relative importance of different age groups in propagating influenza outbreaks varies, children aged 5-17 play the leading role during the largest influenza A epidemics. Extra vaccination efforts for this group may contribute

  10. Remodelling core group theory: the role of sustaining populations in HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy; Foss, Anna M; Hossain, Mazeda; Cox, Andrew; Vickerman, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Core group theory describes the central role of groups with high rates of sexual partner change in HIV transmission. Research illustrates the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of commercial sex, and that some men involved in the organisation or policing of sex work regularly have sex with sex workers. These findings are used to explore gaps in core group theory. Evidence from developing countries on the duration that women sell and men buy sex was reviewed. Simple compartmental dynamic models were used to derive analytical expressions for the relative HIV equilibrium levels among sex workers and partners, incorporating partner change rates and duration in commercial sex settings. Simulations explored the degree to which HIV infection can be attributable to men with low partner change rates who remain in sex work settings for long periods, and their influence on the impact of HIV intervention. Partner change rates and duration of time in a setting determine equilibrium HIV levels. Modelling projections suggest that men with low mobility can substantially contribute to HIV prevalence among sex workers, especially in settings with prevalences group theory. Men who control the sex industry and regular clients may form an important 'sustaining population' that increases infection and undermines the impact of intervention. Intervention activities should include these groups, and examine the social organisation of sex work that underpins many of these relationships.

  11. Summary of presentations and discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence discussed its theme entitled 'Link between research, development and demonstration (RD and D) and stakeholder confidence'. It was remarked that regulators need a technical demonstration to aid in evaluating the safety case. Local stakeholders appreciate the opportunity to visualise technological arrangements. In both cases, demonstration adds to confidence in the feasibility of solutions. Some believe there is an important role for analogues in communication with stakeholders, if handled with integrity. To explore and benchmark current practices, it was decided to hold a topical session at the 9. regular meeting of the FSC on 4 June 2008 regarding the use of analogues for confidence building. The session opened with an introductory presentation by the session rapporteur. This incorporated input provided for the purpose by FSC members in cooperation with their country's representative to the NEA RWMC 'Integration Group on the Safety Case'. Three speakers then presented the various uses of analogues by implementers, regulators and scientists to build their own confidence; a fourth speaker dealt with the experience of using natural analogues in public information. The presentations addressed the use of analogues in the field of geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate level (ILW-LL) radioactive waste. Then the FSC participants split into two working groups for discussion. The outcome of these discussions was reported in plenary on 6 June 2008 and it was agreed to publish proceedings of the session. The present summary, prepared by the session rapporteur with input from the NEA Secretariat, captures the main points heard in the course of the event. It combines data from the formal presentations and remarks made in discussion. The latter represent viewpoints expressed by a group whose primary focus is not natural analogues but rather stakeholder interests. The summary and viewpoints

  12. Support for Kurdish language rights in Turkey : The roles of ethnic group, group identifications, contact, and intergroup perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çelebi, Elif; Verkuyten, Maykel; Smyrnioti, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    The question of Kurdish language rights has been a central issue in the Turkish–Kurdish conflict. The current study examined endorsement of Kurdish language rights in relation to intergroup factors (i.e. group identifications, cross-group friendships, perceived discrimination, and perceived

  13. Role of Self-help Groups in Promoting Inclusion and Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Kumaran

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:This study examined the role of self help groups in addressing some of the problems faced by persons with disabilities such as social exclusion, discrimination, lack of awareness about their rights and privileges, and absence of livelihood programmes.Method: One hundred persons with disabilities were randomly drawn for the study from 50 self help groups in 2 districts that were covered under a popular poverty alleviation programme implemented by the state of Andhra Pradesh  in India.  An interview schedule was used to collect information.Results: Before joining the group, some of the persons with disabilities were mostly confined to their houses, and viewed as less productive and incapable of leading a ‘normal’ life. After joining the groups, they came out of their seclusion and started to work together for their collective welfare and development. They gained knowledge about their rights and privileges and started income generation activities with the help of loans made available to them.  They gained better acceptance within their families, but attitudes of their communities was slower to change. A feeling that “disability is not inability” seemed to have been internalized among the members of the groups.Conclusion: Self-help groups can be very effective in helping persons with disabilities to come out of their isolation and in promoting their participation and inclusion in societal mainstream.Key Words: Self-help group, persons with disabilitiesdoi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.78

  14. Regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of ageing nuclear power plants. A compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme within which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in such a manner as to ensure the broadest international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for the relatively general wording of the main principles and sometimes causes problems when these principles are applied in the design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation in specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often these leave some questions unanswered and their practical application on a case-by-case basis is necessary. To assist in the application and interpretation of the NUSS Safety Standards and Safety Guides, the preparation of a number of Safety Practices publications has been commenced. Ibis publication is intended to assist regulators and also operating organizations. It is a compilation of the reports of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions which considered regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of the ageing of nuclear power plants. Therefore names of participated countries in this documents are those at time of 1991/92 Peer Group discussions. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and examples of good regulatory practices that were recommended by senior regulators in the Peer Group discussions. The purpose of this publication is to provide a compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions relating to operational plant. This document the covers practices in the 20 countries participating in this round of Peer Group discussions. The document is a synopsis of

  15. Regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of ageing nuclear power plants. A compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    In 1974 the IAEA established a Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme within which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in such a manner as to ensure the broadest international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for the relatively general wording of the main principles and sometimes causes problems when these principles are applied in the design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation in specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often these leave some questions unanswered and their practical application on a case-by-case basis is necessary. To assist in the application and interpretation of the NUSS Safety Standards and Safety Guides, the preparation of a number of Safety Practices publications has been commenced. Ibis publication is intended to assist regulators and also operating organizations. It is a compilation of the reports of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions which considered regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of the ageing of nuclear power plants. Therefore names of participated countries in this documents are those at time of 1991/92 Peer Group discussions. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and examples of good regulatory practices that were recommended by senior regulators in the Peer Group discussions. The purpose of this publication is to provide a compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions relating to operational plant. This document the covers practices in the 20 countries participating in this round of Peer Group discussions. The document is a synopsis of

  16. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Abbasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation for learning. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher did not give the students ready knowledge, but pointed out the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught them to gain knowledge. This demands from the philologist the choice of effective forms of working with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this connection a special attention should be paid to the lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used during the Russian language lessons. The specificity of using this method in class for teaching Russian as a foreign language, its basic functions (teaching, developing, educating are considered. The key rules for conducting a discussion at the Russian language classes, the main and additional functions-roles of the teacher, the participants, the minute-taker are analyzed. The advantages of the discussion in Russian in comparison to the discussion in the students’ native language are summarized.

  17. Altered alkaline phosphatase activity in obese Zucker rats liver respect to lean Zucker and Wistar rats discussed in terms of all putative roles ascribed to the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, V; Tarantola, E; Ferrigno, A; Gringeri, E; Barni, S; Vairetti, M; Freitas, I

    2011-02-08

    Biliary complications often lead to acute and chronic liver injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Bile composition and secretion depend on the integrated action of all the components of the biliary tree, starting from hepatocytes. Fatty livers are often discarded as grafts for OLT, since they are extremely vulnerable to conventional cold storage (CS). However, the insufficiency of donors has stimulated research to improve the usage of such marginal organs as well as grafts. Our group has recently developed a machine perfusion system at subnormothermic temperature (20°C; MP20) that allows a marked improvement in preservation of fatty and even of normal rat livers as compared with CS. We sought to evaluate the response of the biliary tree of fatty liver to MP20, and a suitable marker was essential to this purpose. Alkaline phosphatase (AlkP, EC 3.1.3.1), frequently used as marker of membrane transport in hepatocytes and bile ducts, was our first choice. Since no histochemical data were available on AlkP distribution and activity in fatty liver, we have first settled to investigate AlkP activity in the steatotic liver of fatty Zucker rats (fa/fa), using as controls lean Zucker (fa/+) and normal Wistar rats. The AlkP reaction in Wistar rats was in accordance with the existing data and, in particular, was present in bile canaliculi of hepatocytes in the periportal region and midzone, in the canals of Hering and in small bile ducts but not in large bile ducts. In lean ZR liver the AlkP reaction in Hering canals and small bile ducts was similar to Wistar rat liver but hepatocytes had lower canalicular activity and besides presented moderate basolateral reaction. The difference between lean Zucker and Wistar rats, both phenotypically normal animals, could be related to the fact that lean Zucker rats are genotypically heterozygous for a recessive mutated allele. In fatty liver, the activity in ductules and small bile ducts was unchanged, but most hepatocytes

  18. Altered alkaline phosphatase activity in obese Zucker rats liver respect to lean Zucker and Wistar rats discussed in terms of all putative roles ascribed to the enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bertone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Biliary complications often lead to acute and chronic liver injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. Bile composition and secretion depend on the integrated action of all the components of the biliary tree, starting from hepatocytes. Fatty livers are often discarded as grafts for OLT, since they are extremely vulnerable to conventional cold storage (CS. However, the insufficiency of donors has stimulated research to improve the usage of such marginal organs as well as grafts. Our group has recently developed a machine perfusion system at subnormothermic temperature (20°C; MP20 that allows a marked improvement in preservation of fatty and even of normal rat livers as compared with CS. We sought to evaluate the response of the biliary tree of fatty liver to MP20, and a suitable marker was essential to this purpose. Alkaline phosphatase (AlkP, EC 3.1.3.1, frequently used as marker of membrane transport in hepatocytes and bile ducts, was our first choice. Since no histochemical data were available on AlkP distribution and activity in fatty liver, we have first settled to investigate AlkP activity in the steatotic liver of fatty Zucker rats (fa/fa, using as controls lean Zucker (fa/+ and normal Wistar rats. The AlkP reaction in Wistar rats was in accordance with the existing data and, in particular, was present in bile canaliculi of hepatocytes in the periportal region and midzone, in the canals of Hering and in small bile ducts but not in large bile ducts. In lean ZR liver the AlkP reaction in Hering canals and small bile ducts was similar to Wistar rat liver but hepatocytes had lower canalicular activity and besides presented moderate basolateral reaction. The difference between lean Zucker and Wistar rats, both phenotypically normal animals, could be related to the fact that lean Zucker rats are genotypically heterozygous for a recessive mutated allele. In fatty liver, the activity in ductules and small bile ducts was unchanged, but

  19. Role modelling of clinical tutors: a focus group study among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Goulston, Kerry; Oates, Kim

    2015-02-14

    Role modelling by clinicians assists in development of medical students' professional competencies, values and attitudes. Three core characteristics of a positive role model include 1) clinical attributes, 2) teaching skills, and 3) personal qualities. This study was designed to explore medical students' perceptions of their bedside clinical tutors as role models during the first year of a medical program. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed Year 1 of the Sydney Medical Program in 2013. A total of nine focus groups (n = 59) were conducted with medical students following completion of Year 1. Data were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes. Students identified both positive and negative characteristics and behaviour displayed by their clinical tutors. Characteristics and behaviour that students would like to emulate as medical practitioners in the future included: 1) Clinical attributes: a good knowledge base; articulate history taking skills; the ability to explain and demonstrate skills at the appropriate level for students; and empathy, respect and genuine compassion for patients. 2) Teaching skills: development of a rapport with students; provision of time towards the growth of students academically and professionally; provision of a positive learning environment; an understanding of the student curriculum and assessment requirements; immediate and useful feedback; and provision of patient interaction. 3) Personal qualities: respectful interprofessional staff interactions; preparedness for tutorials; demonstration of a passion for teaching; and demonstration of a passion for their career choice. Excellence in role modelling entails demonstration of excellent clinical care, teaching skills and personal characteristics. Our findings reinforce the important function of clinical bedside tutors as role models, which has implications for faculty development and

  20. Task Performance in Small Group Settings: The Role of Group Members' Self-Efficacy And Collective Efficacy and Group's Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Jerrine Z. N.; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Klassen, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study extends the literature by investigating the relative salience of self- and collective efficacy in predicting group performance among early adolescents in Indonesia. A total of 435 early adolescents (mean age 11.70 years, 53% female) were randomly assigned to groups of three to four and completed three group tasks (task 1:…

  1. Role of ''standard'' fine-group cross section libraries in shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbin, C.R.; Roussin, R.W.; Oblow, E.M.; Cullen, D.E.; White, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.

    1977-01-01

    The Divisions of Magnetic Fusion Energy (DMFE) and Reactor Development and Demonstration (DRDD) of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) have jointly sponsored the development of a 171 neutron, 36 gamma ray group pseudo composition independent cross section library based upon ENDF/B-IV. This library (named VITAMIN-C and packaged by RSIC as DLC-41) is intended to be generally applicable to fusion blanket and LMFBR core and shield analysis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate this library as a possible candidate for specific designation as a ''standard'' in light of American Nuclear Society standards for fine-group cross section data sets. The rationale and qualification procedure for such a standard are discussed. Finally, current limitations and anticipated extensions to this processed data file are described

  2. Ingroup/Outgroup Attitudes and Group Evaluations: The Role of Competition in British Classroom Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L. Lam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children’s intergroup bias is one of the consequences of their readiness to categorise people into ingroups and outgroups, even when groups are assigned arbitrarily. The present study examined the influence of intergroup competition on children’s ingroup and outgroup attitudes developed within the minimal-group setting in British classrooms. One hundred and twelve children in two age groups (6-7- and 9-10-year-olds were assessed on classification skills and self-esteem before being allocated to one of two colour “teams.” In the experimental condition, children were told that the teams would have a competition after two weeks and teachers made regular use of these teams to organise activities. In the control condition, where no competition ensued, teachers did not refer to “teams.” Then children completed trait attributions to their own-team (ingroup and other-team (outgroup members and group evaluations. It was found that children developed positive ingroup bias across conditions, but outgroup negative bias was shown only by 6-7-year-olds in the experimental condition, particularly if they lost the competition, where they evaluated their team more critically. Better classification skills were associated with less negativity towards the outgroup in the experimental condition. Findings are discussed in relation to relevant theoretical premises and particulars of the intergroup context.

  3. Explaining Lifelong Loyalty: The Role of Identity Fusion and Self-Shaping Group Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Martha; Buhrmester, Michael; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Pledging lifelong loyalty to an ingroup can have far-reaching behavioural effects, ranging from ordinary acts of ingroup kindness to extraordinary acts of self-sacrifice. What motivates this important form of group commitment? Here, we propose one especially potent answer to this question-the experience of a visceral sense of oneness with a group (i.e., identity fusion). In a sample of British football fans, a population in which high levels of lifelong loyalty are thought to be common, we first examined the hypothesised relationship between fusion and perceptions of lifelong loyalty to one's club. We further explored the hypothesis that fusion and lifelong loyalty are not merely a reflection of past time investment in a group, but also reflect a deeper, memory-based process of feeling personally shaped by key group events, both euphoric and dysphoric. We found broad support for these hypotheses. Results suggest that feeling personally self-shaped by club events (e.g., crucial wins and losses), rather than time invested in the club, leads to greater identity fusion to one's club. In turn, fusion engenders a sense of lifelong club loyalty. We discuss our findings in relation to the growing literature on the experiential origins of intense social cohesion.

  4. Explaining Lifelong Loyalty: The Role of Identity Fusion and Self-Shaping Group Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Newson

    Full Text Available Pledging lifelong loyalty to an ingroup can have far-reaching behavioural effects, ranging from ordinary acts of ingroup kindness to extraordinary acts of self-sacrifice. What motivates this important form of group commitment? Here, we propose one especially potent answer to this question-the experience of a visceral sense of oneness with a group (i.e., identity fusion. In a sample of British football fans, a population in which high levels of lifelong loyalty are thought to be common, we first examined the hypothesised relationship between fusion and perceptions of lifelong loyalty to one's club. We further explored the hypothesis that fusion and lifelong loyalty are not merely a reflection of past time investment in a group, but also reflect a deeper, memory-based process of feeling personally shaped by key group events, both euphoric and dysphoric. We found broad support for these hypotheses. Results suggest that feeling personally self-shaped by club events (e.g., crucial wins and losses, rather than time invested in the club, leads to greater identity fusion to one's club. In turn, fusion engenders a sense of lifelong club loyalty. We discuss our findings in relation to the growing literature on the experiential origins of intense social cohesion.

  5. The Role of Internal Audit in Optimization of Corporate Governance at the Groups of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent financial scandals have demonstrated that the risk of accounting fraud may be vague in any type of economic system. In this context, transparency of information, indispensable element for competitiveness in the market is an efficient operation of systems of corporate governance and especially of control systems. All these must be appropriate in the legislation in terms of external information. The issue of governance will thus be seen as a fundamental pillar against pressures which induce at the fraud as a result of lack of transparency of information flows. In all models of corporate governance, external regulations cover a primary role in ensuring the effectiveness of controls, but remain central the responsibility of entities to adopt a virtuous mechanism as an internal control profile. An example in this sense of "best practice" may be represented by the multinational companies that have known to harmonize the national rules with the typical instruments of other models of governance. The authors have established that the main objective in this work is the evaluation model of governance already existing in a group of companies in accordance with the principles of corporate governance. In the first part of the work it was made a comparitive analysis between the models of corporate governance, focusing on the role of transparency of communication, the primary tool in prevention of frauds, the link between information and prevention of frauds being independent of the model of corporate governance adopted, by the structure of organization and the control mechanisms. The work continued throughout the first part, with the role of internal audit in preventing the accounting fraud, given that any type of government, regardless of how it is configured and the reference market in which we find, to be considered efficiently must provide an appropriate control mechanisms, able to intervene in critical situations and to protect the interests of all

  6. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  7. O papel de coordenador de grupos The role of group coordinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia de Arruda Andaló

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os trabalhos com grupos, instrumental valioso nos espaços institucionais, vêm sofrendo um processo de banalização de cunho tecnicista. Este artigo pretende ser uma contribuição à reflexão sobre a coordenação de grupos. Afasta-se dos estudos sobre a personalidade dos coordenadores, propondo seu entendimento como o de mediadores entre o nível vivencial e a compreensão crítica. Isso aponta seu caráter constitutivo nos processos grupais.The work with groups, a valuable tool in institutional spaces, is becoming more and more vulgarized because of a tendency toward a mere technical approach. This article is intended to be a contribution to group coordination. It keeps away from the study of the coordinators personality, suggesting that they be understood as mediators between experiencing and critical understanding. Thus pointing out their constructive role in group processes.

  8. Do medical students generate sound arguments during small group discussions in problem-based learning?: an analysis of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to a framework of hypothetico-deductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Yoon, Bo Young

    2017-06-01

    Hypothetico-deductive reasoning (HDR) is an essential learning activity and a learning outcome in problem-based learning (PBL). It is important for medical students to engage in the HDR process through argumentation during their small group discussions in PBL. This study aimed to analyze the quality of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to each phase of HDR in PBL. Participants were 15 first-year preclinical students divided into two small groups. A set of three 2-hour discussion sessions from each of the two groups during a 1-week-long PBL unit on the cardiovascular system was audio-recorded. The arguments constructed by the students were analyzed using a coding scheme, which included four types of argumentation (Type 0: incomplete, Type 1: claim only, Type 2: claim with data, and Type 3: claim with data and warrant). The mean frequency of each type of argumentation according to each HDR phase across the two small groups was calculated. During small group discussions, Type 1 arguments were generated most often (frequency=120.5, 43%), whereas the least common were Type 3 arguments (frequency=24.5, 8.7%) among the four types of arguments. The results of this study revealed that the students predominantly made claims without proper justifications; they often omitted data for supporting their claims or did not provide warrants to connect the claims and data. The findings suggest instructional interventions to enhance the quality of medical students' arguments in PBL, including promoting students' comprehension of the structure of argumentation for HDR processes and questioning.

  9. Role of protein-bound carbonyl groups in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggins, J; Furth, A J

    1997-08-22

    Several mechanisms have been postulated for the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) from glycated proteins; they all feature protein-bound carbonyl intermediates. Using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), we have detected these intermediates on bovine serum albumin, lysozyme and beta-lactoglobulin after in vitro glycation by glucose or fructose. Carbonyls were formed in parallel with AGE-fluorophores, via oxidative Maillard reactions. Neither Amadori nor Heyns products contributed to the DNPH reaction. Fluorophore and carbonyl yields were much enhanced in lipid-associated proteins, but both groups could also be detected in lipid-free proteins. When pre-glycated proteins were incubated in the absence of free sugar, carbonyl groups were rapidly lost in a first-order reaction, while fluorescence continued to develop beyond the 21 days of incubation. Another unexpected finding was that not all carbonyl groups were blocked by aminoguanidine, although there was complete inhibition of reactions leading to AGE-fluorescence. It is suggested that carbonyls acting as fluorophore precursors react readily with aminoguanidine, while others are resistant to this hydrazine, possibly because they are involved in ring closure. Factors influencing the relative rates of acyclisation and hydrazone formation are discussed, together with possible implications for antiglycation therapy.

  10. Challenging Medical-Legal Norms: The Role of Autonomy, Confidentiality and Privacy in Protecting Individual and Familial Group Rights in Genetic Information

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie, Graeme

    2001-01-01

    In this article, Laurie discusses the impact of generating genetic information, and what the consequences are of this for individuals, and family members, whose familial genetic information is shared. The authors considers who controls access to such information, the rights and interests that arise from a group claim to familial data. The competing "right to know" versus "the right not to know" are examined in relation to genetic data, along with the role of confidentiality and autonomy. Fi...

  11. The role of enterprise asset management system in the PVO group's business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervinen, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation describes the role of the Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) and Enterprise Document Management (EDM) in the PVO Group's business. The use of the functionality of the EAM (Immpower) and EDM (Documentum) is not limited only to the plant maintenance. All power plants and some other business functions and units will use the system in the future for financial management, activity based costing, purchasing, of materials, office supplies and fuel, invoice matching, project budgeting and costing, real estate management etc. The technical service concept of IT solution is also described in this presentation. The Information Management Strategy development as background to the project is also outlined together with the company information. The benefits of the common EAM system and related business process needs are also described. (orig.)

  12. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  13. The role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) in the diabetic retinopathy inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Yang, Lu; Lv, Jinlei; Huang, Xu; Yi, Jinglin; Pei, Chonggang; Shao, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of the late phase diabetes, and also a common cause of blindness. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) is considered to be an inflammatory mediator in the late phase that promotes inflammation and neovascularization in diabetes. Therefore, this paper discussed the role of HMGB-1 in diabetic retinopathy inflammation and neovascularization. 96 adult SD rats were randomly divided into control and diabetes group. The diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptomycin (0.1 mol/L). Western blot was applied to determine HMGB-1 and its receptor RAGE and TLR2 protein expression in the serum. TUNEL was used to detect retinal apoptosis. Immunofluorescence was performed to test HMGB1 protein expression in retina. HBGM-1 and RAGE expression in diabetic rat retina was significantly higher than the control (P detection showed that diabetic rat retinal cells presented obviously higher apoptosis rate (P diabetic rat retinal cells (P diabetic retinopathy by binding with RAGE receptor to accelerate rat retinal cells apoptosis.

  14. Staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in quality improvement: a focus group discussion study at two hospital settings in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Helena; Mazzocato, Pamela; Glaser, Daniel; Keller, Christina; Unbeck, Maria

    2017-06-06

    To explore healthcare staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in improvement efforts. Two focus group discussions were performed. Two settings were included: a rheumatology department and an orthopaedic section both situated in Sweden. Healthcare staff and managers (n=13) from the two settings. Two workshops were performed, one at each setting. Workshops were initiated by a short introduction to simulation modelling. Results from the respective simulation model were then presented and discussed in the following focus group discussion. Categories from the content analysis are presented according to the following research questions: how and when simulation modelling can assist healthcare improvement? Regarding how, the participants mentioned that simulation modelling could act as a tool for support and a way to visualise problems, potential solutions and their effects. Regarding when, simulation modelling could be used both locally and by management, as well as a pedagogical tool to develop and test innovative ideas and to involve everyone in the improvement work. Its potential as an information and communication tool and as an instrument for pedagogic work within healthcare improvement render a broader application and value of simulation modelling than previously reported. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Establishing global policy recommendations: the role of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Philippe; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Salisbury, David

    2011-02-01

    The vaccine landscape has changed considerably over the last decade with many new vaccines and technological developments, unprecedented progress in reaching out to children and the development of new financing mechanisms. At the same time, there are more demands and additional expectations of national policy makers, donors and other interested parties for increased protection through immunization. The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), which broadens the previous scope of immunization efforts, sets a number of goals to be met by countries. The WHO has recently reviewed and adjusted both its policy making structure and processes for vaccines and immunization to include an enlarged consultation process to generate evidence-based recommendations, thereby ensuring the transparency of the decision making process and improving communications. This article describes the process of development of immunization policy recommendations at the global level and some of their impacts. It focuses on the roles and modes of operating of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, which is the overarching advisory group involved with the issuance of policy recommendations, monitoring and facilitating the achievement of the GIVS goals. The article also describes the process leading to the publication of WHO vaccine position papers, which provide WHO recommendations on vaccine use. WHO vaccine-related recommendations have become a necessary step in the pathway to the introduction and use of vaccines, especially in developing countries and, consequently, have a clear and significant impact.

  16. Health Care and Women's Empowerment: The role of Self Help Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chakravarty

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last couple of decades the concept of Self Help Groups (SHGs and its potential as an effective tool to alleviate poverty and empower women has garnered considerable interest worldwide. Considering the importance given by policy makers across various nations to the group approach while conceptualizing, formulating and implementing any scheme or programme for the welfare of marginalized and underprivileged sections of the society (especially women, we identified the need to critically examine and explore the role of SHGs in the empowerment of women with a special emphasis on health status. To date, the functioning of SHGs has essentially been viewed only from an economic perspective. The existing approach puts encourages the economic development of women, with SHGs a mechanism to achieving this. However, how these economic benefits are being translated into the change in women’s status, particularly their health status, remains unexplored and ultimately unaddressed. This working research paper attempts to review the scope and limitations of SHGs in improving women’s health and empowerment based upon empirical work undertaken in the Jharkhand state of India. Our paper also explores the extent to which SHGs can be involved in attaining better health status for women, and thereby point the way for further research.   

  17. The role of group education on quality of life in patients with a stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntas, Y E; Kement, M; Gezen, C; Eker, H H; Aydin, H; Sahin, F; Okkabaz, N; Oncel, M

    2012-11-01

    Stoma education has been traditionally given in a one-to-one setting. Since 2007, daily group education programmes were organised for stoma patients and their relatives by our stoma therapy unit. The programmes included lectures on stoma and stoma care, and social activities in which patients shared their experiences with each other. Patients were also encouraged to expand interaction with each other and organise future social events. A total of 72 patients [44 (61.1%) male with a mean (± SD) age of 56.8 ± 13.6 years] with an ileostomy (n= 51, 70.8%), a colostomy (n= 18, 25.0%) or a urostomy (n= 3, 4.2%) were included in the study. Patients were asked to answer a survey (SF-36) face-to-face before the initiation of the programme, which was repeated 3 months later via telephone call. The comparison of pre-education and post-education SF-36 scores revealed a statistically significant improvement in all 8-scale profiles, but not in vitality scale, and both psychometrically-based and mental health summary measures. Analyses disclosed that married patients and those who were living at rural districts seem to have the most improvement in life quality particularly in bodily pain, general health and role-emotional scales and mental health summary measure. In our opinion, group educations may be beneficial for stoma patients, and stoma therapy units may consider organising similar activities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Bioenergetics and ATP Synthesis during Exercise: Role of Group III/IV Muscle Afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxterman, Ryan M; Layec, Gwenael; Hureau, Thomas J; Morgan, David E; Bledsoe, Amber D; Jessop, Jacob E; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the group III/IV muscle afferents in the bioenergetics of exercising skeletal muscle beyond constraining the magnitude of metabolic perturbation. Eight healthy men performed intermittent isometric knee-extensor exercise to task failure at ~58% maximal voluntary contraction under control conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl to attenuate group III/IV leg muscle afferents (FENT). Intramuscular concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and pH were determined using phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS). The magnitude of metabolic perturbation was significantly greater in FENT compared with CTRL for [Pi] (37.8 ± 16.8 vs 28.6 ± 8.6 mM), [H2PO4] (24.3 ± 12.2 vs 17.9 ± 7.1 mM), and [ATP] (75.8% ± 17.5% vs 81.9% ± 15.8% of baseline), whereas there was no significant difference in [PCr] (4.5 ± 2.4 vs 4.4 ± 2.3 mM) or pH (6.51 ± 0.10 vs 6.54 ± 0.14). The rate of perturbation in [PCr], [Pi], [H2PO4], and pH was significantly faster in FENT compared with CTRL. Oxidative ATP synthesis was not significantly different between conditions. However, anaerobic ATP synthesis, through augmented creatine kinase and glycolysis reactions, was significantly greater in FENT than in CTRL, resulting in a significantly greater ATP cost of contraction (0.049 ± 0.016 vs 0.038 ± 0.010 mM·min·N). Group III/IV muscle afferents not only constrain the magnitude of perturbation in intramuscular Pi, H2PO4, and ATP during small muscle mass exercise but also seem to play a role in maintaining efficient skeletal muscle contractile function in men.

  19. Role of Dispersive Fluorous Interaction in the Solvation Dynamics of the Perfluoro Group Containing Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Saptarsi; Chaterjee, Soumit; Halder, Ritaban; Jana, Biman; Singh, Prashant Chandra

    2017-08-17

    Perfluoro group containing molecules possess an important self-aggregation property through the fluorous (F···F) interaction which makes them useful for diverse applications such as medicinal chemistry, separation techniques, polymer technology, and biology. In this article, we have investigated the solvation dynamics of coumarin-153 (C153) and coumarin-6H (C6H) in ethanol (ETH), 2-fluoroethanol (MFE), and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) using the femtosecond upconversion technique and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to understand the role of fluorous interaction between the solute and solvent molecules in the solvation dynamics of perfluoro group containing molecules. The femtosecond upconversion data show that the time scales of solvation dynamics of C6H in ETH, MFE, and TFE are approximately the same whereas the solvation dynamics of C153 in TFE is slow as compared to that of ETH and MFE. It has also been observed that the time scale of solvation dynamics of C6H in ETH and MFE is higher than that of C153 in the same solvents. MD simulation results show a qualitative agreement with the experimental data in terms of the time scale of the slow components of the solvation for all the systems. The experimental and simulation studies combined lead to the conclusion that the solvation dynamics of C6H in all solvents as well as C153 in ETH and MFE is mostly governed by the charge distribution of ester moieties (C═O and O) of dye molecules whereas the solvation of C153 in TFE is predominantly due to the dispersive fluorous interaction (F···F) between the perfluoro groups of the C153 and solvent molecules.

  20. The Role and Education of Dental Care Professionals in Identifying Domestic Violence: Report of an Audience Participation Exercise and Round Table Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Susan J.; Quinn, Barry; Reynolds, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a major public problem affecting 30% of women over 16. Three quarters of victims have violence to the head and neck, and therefore the role of the dentist is paramount in DV identification. Only one-third of dental schools in the UK include DV in their curricula and there is a need to introduce effective education for the…

  1. Evaluation of the role of access providers. Discussion of Dutch Pirate Bay case law and introducing principles on directness, effectiveness, costs, relevance, and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.; van der Meulen, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Internet service providers (ISPs) play a pivotal role in contemporary society because they provide access to the Internet. The primary task of ISPs – to blindly transfer information across the network – has recently come under pressure, as has their status as neutral third parties. Both the public

  2. Using a Classic Paper by Bell as a Platform for Discussing the Role of Corollary Discharge-Like Signals in Sensory Perception and Movement Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecala, Aaron L.

    2014-01-01

    Decades of behavioral observations have shown that invertebrate and vertebrate species have the ability to distinguish between self-generated afferent inputs versus those that are generated externally. In the present article, I describe activities focused around the discussion of a classic American Physiological Society paper by Curtis C. Bell…

  3. The Role of Discussion Boards in Facilitating Communities of Inquiry: A Case of ICT and Sociology Courses at Zagreb School of Economics and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic-Maslac, Karmela; Magzan, Masha; Juric, Visnja

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the use of technology to design an electronic learning community for students. The importance of social experience in education and social participation through communication is examined through discussion boards of two different freshmen courses offered at Zagreb School of Economics and Management (ZSEM). Effectiveness and…

  4. The effect of device number and role assignment on social group dynamics in location-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Giakalis, Alexandros Panagiotis; Jørgensen, Nicolai Melgaard

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of being disengaged in group work is commonly defined as social loafing. This disengagement can be reduced by various factors, such as group members having individual accountability in the form of unique tasks. This paper examines social loafing in a collaborative mobile game in groups...... of three users. The game promotes individual accountability in role differentiation on a shared tablet, and these roles are compared to a condition without roles. Another condition tested if a shared tablet would reduce social loafing, compared to individual tablets for each group member. The game...... was tested on 41 students from 7th to 8th grade. Using a tablet each showed significantly more instances of social loafing compared to sharing one. The results show no significant difference for role assignment....

  5. Frontalunterricht oder interaktive Gruppenarbeit? Ein Vergleich des Lernerfolgs und der studentischen Evaluation für das Fach Biochemie [Didactic lecture or interactive group discussion? A comparison of the learning success and the student evaluation in biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadmon, Martina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Interactive, student-centered teaching methods have replaced traditional teacher-centered didactic formats in many modern medical curricula in the past few years. However, in the natural sciences such as biochemistry, interactive teaching methods are not well proven. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of the teaching format on the performance of undergraduate students in biochemistry and their evaluation of the respective format. Methods: A total of 421 second-year students were randomized into two groups: The control group was taught in a traditional lecture-like format, whereas the study group dealt with the same topic in an interactive group discussion. At the end of each lesson, students performed a multiple-choice test and completed a questionnaire. The same MCQ test was repeated 4–6 weeks after the last lesson. Results: Students who were taught in a lecture-like format performed significantly better in the first MCQ test immediately after the lesson than students taught in the interactive format. However, in the second MCQ test, there was no difference between the two groups. In the questionnaire, students rated the lecture-based course significantly better than the interactive group discussion. Conclusion: One reason why students prefer a didactic lecture to an interactive group discussion might be due to the subject biochemistry, which is strongly knowledge-based. Students perceived that the transfer of knowledge by a professional lecturer was more effective than the knowledge obtained in a student-centered discussion group. Other reasons might be the method of assessment and the overall design of the curriculum. [german] Zielsetzung: Interaktive, Lerner-orientierte Unterrichtsmethoden werden vielfach mit moderner und guter Lehre in Verbindung gebracht und ersetzen zunehmend konventionellen, Lehrer-zentrierten Frontalunterricht. In naturwissenschaftlichen Fächern, wie Biochemie, sind interaktive

  6. Some more evidence in the discussion of the ambiguities surrounding consumer perceived value and consumer satisfaction: A new perspective on the role of mass communication theories

    OpenAIRE

    Spais, George S.; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to test two alternative models in order to investigate whether customer value and satisfaction represent two theoretically and empirically distinct concepts. We address the core research themes of our study using a survey. This paper contributes to marketing research by introducing a new parameter (the examination of the mass communication theories) at the growing discussion about the ambiguities surrounding marketing constructs, such as consumer perceived...

  7. Investigating electronic word-of-mouth effects on online discussion forums: the role of perceived positive electronic word-of-mouth review credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Wen-Hai; Wang, Kai-Yu; Hsu, Li-Chun; Huang, Su-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has been an important factor influencing consumer purchase decisions. Using the ABC model of attitude, this study proposes a model to explain how eWOM affects online discussion forums. Specifically, we propose that platform (Web site reputation and source credibility) and customer (obtaining buying-related information and social orientation through information) factors influence purchase intentions via perceived positive eWOM review credibility, as well as product and Web site attitudes in an online community context. A total of 353 online discussion forum users in an online community (Fashion Guide) in Taiwan were recruited, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses. The results indicate that Web site reputation, source credibility, obtaining buying-related information, and social orientation through information positively influence perceived positive eWOM review credibility. In turn, perceived positive eWOM review credibility directly influences purchase intentions and also indirectly influences purchase intentions via product and Web site attitudes. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.

  8. When none of us perform better than all of us together: the role of analogical decision rules in groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Meslec

    Full Text Available During social interactions, groups develop collective competencies that (ideally should assist groups to outperform average standalone individual members (weak cognitive synergy or the best performing member in the group (strong cognitive synergy. In two experimental studies we manipulate the type of decision rule used in group decision-making (identify the best vs. collaborative, and the way in which the decision rules are induced (direct vs. analogical and we test the effect of these two manipulations on the emergence of strong and weak cognitive synergy. Our most important results indicate that an analogically induced decision rule (imitate-the-successful heuristic in which groups have to identify the best member and build on his/her performance (take-the-best heuristic is the most conducive for strong cognitive synergy. Our studies bring evidence for the role of analogy-making in groups as well as the role of fast-and-frugal heuristics for group decision-making.

  9. Gender-Role Identity and Perceived Peer Group Acceptance among Early Adolescents in Belgian Mixed and Single-Sex Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on survey data, this paper explores the association between early adolescents' gender-role identity and sense of peer group acceptance, and how this association may vary as a function of the gender context of the school. Two indicators of gender-role identity were included in the analysis: in one measure the items reflect features of…

  10. The Role of Praise and Worship Activities in Spiritual Well-Being: Perceptions of a Pentecostal Youth Ministry Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshabalala, Bhekani G.; Patel, Cynthia J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the role of "praise and worship" activities in the spiritual well-being of a select group of Pentecostal youth. Forty youth members completed an adapted version of the Spiritual Well-being Scale (SWBS) and a questionnaire. In addition to ranking "praise and worship" activities, they were asked about the roles that…

  11. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Cassidy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF, 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema.Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender, their family members (eight groups, community members (four groups and program volunteers (four groups who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector.Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF.

  12. Elucidating and Regulating the Acetoin Production Role of Microbial Functional Groups in Multispecies Acetic Acid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Na; Wang, Li-Juan; Wu, Lin-Huan; Gong, Jin-Song; Yu, Yong-Jian; Li, Guo-Quan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone) formation in vinegar microbiota is crucial for the flavor quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, a traditional vinegar produced from cereals. However, the specific microorganisms responsible for acetoin formation in this centuries-long repeated batch fermentation have not yet been clearly identified. Here, the microbial distribution discrepancy in the diacetyl/acetoin metabolic pathway of vinegar microbiota was revealed at the species level by a combination of metagenomic sequencing and clone library analysis. The results showed that Acetobacter pasteurianus and 4 Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus brevis) might be functional producers of acetoin from 2-acetolactate in vinegar microbiota. Furthermore, A. pasteurianus G3-2, L. brevis 4-22, L. fermentum M10-3, and L. buchneri F2-5 were isolated from vinegar microbiota by a culture-dependent method. The acetoin concentrations in two cocultures (L. brevis 4-22 plus A. pasteurianus G3-2 and L. fermentum M10-3 plus A. pasteurianus G3-2) were obviously higher than those in monocultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while L. buchneri F2-5 did not produce more acetoin when coinoculated with A. pasteurianus G3-2. Last, the acetoin-producing function of vinegar microbiota was regulated in situ via augmentation with functional species in vinegar Pei After 72 h of fermentation, augmentation with A. pasteurianus G3-2 plus L. brevis 4-22, L. fermentum M10-3, or L. buchneri F2-5 significantly increased the acetoin content in vinegar Pei compared with the control group. This study provides a perspective on elucidating and manipulating different metabolic roles of microbes during flavor formation in vinegar microbiota. Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone) formation in vinegar microbiota is crucial for the flavor quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, a traditional vinegar produced from cereals. Thus, it is of interest to

  13. Emerging Genetic Counselor Roles within the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries: as Industry Interest Grows in Rare Genetic Disorders, How are Genetic Counselors Joining the Discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tessa; Brewster, Stephanie Jo; Towne, Meghan; Campion, MaryAnn W

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry (BPI) has focused drug development at the mass-market level targeting common medical issues. However, a recent trend is the development of therapies for orphan or rare disorders, including many genetic disorders. Developing treatments for genetic disorders requires an understanding of the needs of the community and translating genomic information to clinical and non-clinical audiences. The core skills of genetic counselors (GCs) include a deep knowledge of genetics and ability to communicate complex information to a broad audience, making GCs a choice fit for this shift in drug development. To date there is limited data defining the roles GCs hold within this industry. This exploratory study aimed to define the roles and motivation of GCs working in BPI, assess job satisfaction, and identify translatable skills and current gaps in GC training programs. The authors surveyed 26 GCs working in BPI in the United States; 79 % work for companies focused on rare disorders. GC positions in BPI are growing, with 57 % of respondents being the first GC in their role. GCs in BPI continue to utilize core genetic counseling competencies, though 72 % felt their training did not fully prepare them for BPI. These data suggest opportunities for exposure to BPI in GC training to better prepare future generations of GCs for these career opportunities. GC satisfaction was high in BPI, notably in areas traditionally reported as less satisfying on the National Society for Genetic Counselors Professional Status Survey: salary and advancement opportunities. BPI's growing interest in rare disorders represents a career opportunity for GCs, addressing both historic areas of dissatisfaction for GCs and BPI's genomic communication needs.

  14. Determinants of pro-environmental consumption. The role of reference groups and routine behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Heinz; Kuehling, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of pro-environmental consumption, focusing on the role of reference groups and routine behavior. We study the factors that explain whether or not people have installed residential solar energy equipment or have subscribed to green-electricity programs, and the factors that influence the intensity of buying organic food. In addition to demographic characteristics and environmental attitudes, we consider the following categories of determinants: economic and cognitive factors (income, estimated price premium, level of information on environmentally-friendly goods); consumption patterns of reference persons; own consumption patterns in the past. Using a unique data set from a survey conducted in the region of Hanover, Germany, we find the following: (1) Economic and cognitive factors are significant covariates of all three kinds of pro-environmental consumption. Their influence is greatest in the case of green electricity. (2) Consumption patterns of reference persons are significant covariates of all three kinds of pro-environmental consumption. Their influence is greatest in the case of organic food. (3) The intensity of buying organic food is greater the longer people have been consumers of these goods. (author)

  15. The Role of Nuclear Suppliers Group in Preventing the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.; Medakovic, S.

    2008-01-01

    The non-proliferation regime today is a pretty heterogeneous system of measures and different ways of control of nuclear material production, transport and use, as well as nuclear activities and technology in general. In its basis are the Statute of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Non-proliferation Treaty. However, the development of a nuclear technology and technological progress in the world in general, poses the need for more efficient and much more concrete systems of control of nuclear material and activities. One of organizations which covers these issues is Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), founded in 1991 with goal to assemble all states suppliers, regardless are they signatories of Non-proliferation Treaty or not. The important thing is that NSG do not rely only to the list of limitations for traffic of the equipment which is directly related to nuclear activities, but also to so call dual use equipment, i.e. equipment which could be, besides its primary purpose, converted to some nuclear activities. Concerning continuous technological development, and also the actual political situation in the world, these lists are continuously amended. In this presentation the principles and methods of work of NSG are analyzed, together with the role of the Republic of Croatia as its member as from 2005.(author)

  16. The role of nuclear suppliers group in preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medakovic, S.; Cizmek, A.; Horvatic, M.; Ilijas, B.

    2009-01-01

    The non-proliferation regime today is a pretty heterogeneous system of measures and different ways of control of nuclear material production, transport and use, as well as nuclear activities and technology in general. In its basis are the Statute of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Non-proliferation Treaty. However, the development of a nuclear technology and technological progress in the world in general, poses the need for more efficient and much more concrete systems of control of nuclear material and activities. One of organizations which cover these issues is Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), founded in 1991 with goal to assemble all states suppliers, regardless are they signatories of Non-proliferation Treaty or not. The important thing is that NSG do not rely only to the list of limitations for traffic of the equipment which is directly related to nuclear activities, but also to so call dual use equipment, i.e. equipment which could be, besides its primary purpose, converted to some nuclear activities. Concerning continuous technological development, and also the actual political situation in the world, these lists are continuously amended. In this presentation the principles and methods of work of NSG are analyzed, together with the role of the Republic of Croatia as its member.(author)

  17. Focused development of advanced practice nurse roles for specific patient groups in a Swiss university hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichiger, Elisabeth; Zumstein-Shaha, Maya; Schubert, Maria; Herrmann, Luzia

    2018-02-01

    Background: To cover future health care needs of the population, new care models are necessary. The development of advanced nursing practice (ANP) offers the opportunity to meet these challenges with novel services. At the Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, ANP services and corresponding advanced practice nurse (APN) roles have been developed since 2011. Purpose: The aim is to develop innovative and evidence based ANP services to supplement health care for specific patient groups and their family members with the goal to improve safety and achieve better outcomes. Methods: Project-based ANP services are developed in close collaboration of clinical departments and the Nursing Development Unit (NDU) of the Directorate of Nursing. Structure, process and outcome data are collected for evaluation. Findings: Currently, five ANP services are established and running, eight more are in the developmental phase. Most services address the long term care of patients with chronic illnesses and their family members. Ten APNs work between 10 % and 80 %, three are leading an ANP-team. APNs work over 50 % in direct clinical practice, primarily in counselling. An ANP network connects APNs and NDU, promoting synergy and exchange. Conclusions: The available resources often constitute a challenge for the development of ANP services. Vital for the long-term success are an adequate extent of the position, the support by department directorate, the conceptual framework that is implemented across the whole hospital, and the development within project structures.

  18. The Role of Perceived In-group Moral Superiority in Reparative Intentions and Approach Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó, Zsolt P.; Mészáros, Noémi Z.; Csertő, István

    2017-01-01

    Three studies examined how members of a national group react to in-group wrongdoings. We expected that perceived in-group moral superiority would lead to unwillingness to repair the aggression. We also expected that internal-focused emotions such as group-based guilt and group-based shame would predict specific, misdeed-related reparative intentions but not general approach motivation toward the victim groups. In Study 1, facing the in-group’s recent aggression, participants who believed that...

  19. The Role of Quality Health Services and Discussion about Birth Spacing in Postpartum Contraceptive Use in Sindh, Pakistan: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Tappis

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth, stagnant contraceptive prevalence, and high unmet need for family planning present significant challenges for meeting Pakistan's national and international development goals. Although health behaviors are shaped by multiple social and environmental factors, research on contraceptive uptake in Pakistan has focused on individual and household determinants, and little attention has been given to community characteristics that may affect access to services and reproductive behavior.Individual and community determinants of contraceptive use were identified using multivariable multilevel logistic regression to analyze data from a 2014 cross-sectional survey of 6,200 mothers in 503 communities in Sindh, Pakistan.Only 27% of women who had given birth in the two years before the study reported using contraceptives. After adjusting for individual and community characteristics, there was no difference in the odds of contraceptive use between urban and rural women. Women who had delivered at a health facility had 1.4 times higher odds of contraceptive use than women who delivered at home. Those who received information about birth spacing from a doctor or relatives/friends had 1.81 and 1.38 times higher odds of contraceptive use, respectively, than those who did not. Living in a community where a higher proportion of women received quality antenatal care and where discussion of birth spacing was more common was significantly associated with contraceptive use. Community-wide poverty lowered contraceptive use.Quality of care at the community level has strong effects on contraceptive use, independent of the characteristics of individual households or women. These findings suggest that powerful gains in contraceptive use may be realized by improving the quality of antenatal care in Pakistan. Community health workers should focus on generating discussion of birth spacing in the community. Outreach efforts should target communities where

  20. The Role of Quality Health Services and Discussion about Birth Spacing in Postpartum Contraceptive Use in Sindh, Pakistan: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappis, Hannah; Kazi, Anis; Hameed, Waqas; Dahar, Zaib; Ali, Anayat; Agha, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Rapid population growth, stagnant contraceptive prevalence, and high unmet need for family planning present significant challenges for meeting Pakistan's national and international development goals. Although health behaviors are shaped by multiple social and environmental factors, research on contraceptive uptake in Pakistan has focused on individual and household determinants, and little attention has been given to community characteristics that may affect access to services and reproductive behavior. Individual and community determinants of contraceptive use were identified using multivariable multilevel logistic regression to analyze data from a 2014 cross-sectional survey of 6,200 mothers in 503 communities in Sindh, Pakistan. Only 27% of women who had given birth in the two years before the study reported using contraceptives. After adjusting for individual and community characteristics, there was no difference in the odds of contraceptive use between urban and rural women. Women who had delivered at a health facility had 1.4 times higher odds of contraceptive use than women who delivered at home. Those who received information about birth spacing from a doctor or relatives/friends had 1.81 and 1.38 times higher odds of contraceptive use, respectively, than those who did not. Living in a community where a higher proportion of women received quality antenatal care and where discussion of birth spacing was more common was significantly associated with contraceptive use. Community-wide poverty lowered contraceptive use. Quality of care at the community level has strong effects on contraceptive use, independent of the characteristics of individual households or women. These findings suggest that powerful gains in contraceptive use may be realized by improving the quality of antenatal care in Pakistan. Community health workers should focus on generating discussion of birth spacing in the community. Outreach efforts should target communities where the demand for

  1. Renaissance of criticism on the concept of brain death--the role of legal medicine in the context of the interdisciplinary discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, L; Bockholdt, B; Verhoff, M A; Heinze, S; Parzeller, M

    2016-03-01

    In the practice of legal medicine in Germany, the assessment of brain death is of minor importance and attracts little attention. However, since several years, international criticism on the concept of brain death has culminated. By reviewing literature and the results of a questionnaire distributed among the participants of the 93rd Annual Congress of the Germany Society of Legal Medicine, the state of knowledge and the current views on brain death were evaluated. Literature search of recent publications regarding brain death was performed (PubMed database, references of legal medicine, Report of the President's Council on Bioethics, USA 2008). A questionnaire was developed and distributed among the participants of the Congress. The assumption that individual and brain death are synonymous is criticized. Internationally, there are trends to harmonize the very different clinical criteria to assess brain death. The diagnostic advantage of novel techniques such as CT angiography is controversially discussed. It becomes apparent that procedures which record the blood flow and perfusion of the brain will be applied more in the future. Regrettably, these developments are not described in the literature of legal medicine. Moreover, among German forensic scientists, different views concerning brain death exist. The majority favors its equivalent treatment with individual death. The thanatological background can be improved concerning certain aspects of brain death as well as its legal implications. Teaching and research in legal medicine should include the subject brain death. Expertise in forensic science may contribute to the interdisciplinary discussion on brain death. The transfer of actual knowledge, also on disputed ethical aspects of thanatology, to physicians of all disciplines is of great importance.

  2. The role of religious leaders in promoting acceptance of vaccination within a minority group: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijs, W.L.M.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Kerrar, S.; Velden, K. van der; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although childhood vaccination programs have been very successful, vaccination coverage in minority groups may be considerably lower than in the general population. In order to increase vaccination coverage in such minority groups involvement of faith-based organizations and religious leaders has been advocated. We assessed the role of religious leaders in promoting acceptance or refusal of vaccination within an orthodox Protestant minority group with low vaccination coverage in T...

  3. The Effectiveness of Role Theory Based Group Counseling on Family Function of Families With Slow-Learning Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فرناز حوله کیان

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group counseling based on the role theory on function of families with slow-learningchildren. The present study is a Quasi - experimental research with pre-test and post - test, and with experimental and control groups. Statistical population in cludes all mothers of slow - learning children in thecity of Hamadan. A sample of 30 subjects selected through available sampling method from high schools with equal numbers of both genders. Based on cloning features were allocated in experimental and control groups. The experimental group received 10 group counseling and control group was placed in the waiting list. Data collection instrument is family function questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, covariance analysis and t-test were applied to analyze data. It was found that there is a significant difference between post-test of experimental and control group (p<0/001. t-test showed significant difference in effectiveness of role theory group counseling for mothers with slow-learning girl and boy (p<0/001. So we can conclude that group counseling based on the role theory is effective on improving the function of families with slow-learning children. In addition, this effectivenessis different for families of slow-learning children based on the gender of child.

  4. The Formation of Group Affect and Team Effectiveness : The Moderating Role of Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanghe, Jacqueline; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    In the current research we use the social identity perspective to enhance our understanding of group affect (i.e. a collectively shared pattern of affective states among group members). Because higher identification (i.e. the extent to which group members define themselves in terms of their group

  5. Changing the story the role of the narrative in the success or failure of terrorist groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mellen, Brian C.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis focuses on the nexus between a terrorist group's narrative and the group's success or failure in achieving its strategic goals. This work theorizes that the interaction of competing narratives exerts a systematic impact on the ability of the terrorist group to achieve its strategic goals through the influence that the narratives have over a group's members, the group's adversary, and the affected population. Although a te...

  6. National Advisory Groups and their role in immunization policy-making processes in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, H; Wichmann, O; D Ancona, F

    2013-12-01

    During the twenty-first century, the development of national immunization programmes (NIP) has matured into robust processes where evidence-based methodologies and frameworks have increasingly been adopted. A key role in the decision-making and recommending processes is played by National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In a survey performed among European Union member states, Norway and Iceland, in February 2013, 85% of the 27 responding countries reported having established a NITAG, and of these, 45% have formal frameworks in place for the systematic development of vaccination recommendations. Independent of whether a formal framework is in place, common key factors are addressed by all NITAGs and also in countries without NITAGs. The four main factors addressed by all were: disease burden in the country, severity of the disease, vaccine effectiveness or efficacy, and vaccine safety at population level. Mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness analyses are still not common tools. Differences in the relative weighting of these key factors, differences in data or assumptions on country-specific key factors, and differences in existing vaccination systems and financing, are likely to be reasons for differences in NITAG recommendations, and eventually NIPs, across Europe. Even if harmonization of NIPs is presently not a reasonable aim, systematic reviews and the development of mathematical/economic models could be performed at supranational level, thus sharing resources and easing the present work-load of NITAGs. Nevertheless, it has been argued that harmonization would ease central purchase of vaccines, thus reducing the price and increasing access to new vaccines. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Adolescent Religiosity and Psychosocial Functioning: Investigating the Roles of Religious Tradition, National-Ethnic Group, and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi E. Stolz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized data from over 9,300 youth from 11 national or within-nation ethnic groups to evaluate the relationship between youth religiosity and youth social outcomes (social initiative, antisocial behavior and psychological outcomes (self-esteem and depression considering the roles of religious tradition, national-ethnic group, and gender. We created national-ethnic group by religious tradition (NEG × RT combinations, partitioned religiosity into between-group and within-group components, and performed a series of mixed model regressions for each outcome. The levels of all four outcomes of interest differed significantly across NEG × RT groups, and these differences were attributable to national-ethnic group rather than religious tradition. Youth reports of antisocial behavior and self-esteem were predicted by between-group religiosity. Additionally, within-group religiosity predicted all four outcomes, indicating that the protective role of religiosity functions in a comparative, or relative, manner with youth who are more religious than others in their group reaping the most benefits.

  8. A study on the role of influence group in public policy making

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Monavarian; Mojtaba Amiri; Narges Sadat Razavimehr

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, learning more about influence groups on public policy making is one of most important subjects of management science. Governments are the primary sources for public policy making but influenced groups participate indirectly and while they remain out of power, they put pressure on many decisions. Some of participants in public policy making are not influenced groups but mostly, due to their participation in policy public making matter are called influenced groups. This research, from...

  9. The role of motivation and cultural dialects in the in-group advantage for emotional vocalisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disa eSauter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that nonverbal emotional communication via both facial and vocal information is more accurate when expresser and perceiver are from the same cultural group. Two accounts have been put forward to explain this finding: According to the dialect theory, culture-specific learning modulates the largely cross-culturally consistent expressions of emotions. Consequently, within-group signalling benefits from a better match of the "emotion dialect" of the expresser and perceiver. However, it has been proposed that the in-group advantage in emotion recognition could instead arise from motivational differences in the perceiver, with perceivers being more motivated when decoding signals from members of their own group. Two experiments addressed predictions from these accounts. Experiment 1 tested whether perceivers' ability to accurately judge the origin of emotional signals predicts the in-group advantage. For perceived group membership to affect the perceivers' motivation, they must be able to detect whether the signal is coming from an in-group or out-group member. Although an in-group advantage was found for in-group compared to out-group vocalisations, listeners were unable to reliably infer the group membership of the vocaliser. This result indicates that improved recognition of in-group signals can occur also when the perceiver is unable to judge whether signals were produced by in- or out-group members. Experiment 2 examined the effects of expected and actual group membership of signals on emotion recognition by manipulating both orthogonally. The actual origin of the stimulus was found to significantly affect emotion recognition, but the believed origin of the stimulus did not. Together these results support the notion that the in-group advantage is caused by culture-specific modulations of nonverbal expressions of emotions, rather than motivational factors.

  10. The Differential Roles of Parents in the Family, as Reported by a Group of Iranian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakkori, Abbas; Mehryar, Amir H.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relative roles of Iranian mothers and fathers in responding to various socialization needs of their offspring. Findings indicated a considerable degree of parental role differentiation, with mothers being dominant in the supportive-emotional areas and fathers taking responsibility for the authoritative-punitive aspects. (Author)

  11. Peer Group Affiliation of Children: The Role of Perceived Popularity, Likeability, and Behavioral Similarity in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; Olthof, Tjeert; Hoeksma, Jan B.; Goossens, Frits A.; Smits, Marieke S. I.; Koot, Hans M.

    2010-01-01

    To understand children's peer group affiliation, this study examined to what extent children in naturally occurring groups resemble each other on bullying, likeability, and perceived popularity. Participants were fourth- to sixth-grade pupils (N = 461). Peer groups were identified using the social cognitive map procedure. Resemblance on bullying,…

  12. Culture, Role and Group Work: A Social Network Analysis Perspective on an Online Collaborative Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Karen; Mather, Richard; Dalrymple, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the patterns of network dynamics within a multicultural online collaborative learning environment. It analyses the interaction of participants (both students and facilitators) within a discussion board that was established as part of a 3-month online collaborative course. The study employs longitudinal probabilistic social…

  13. the Role of Muslim Groups in Combating Terrorism in Indonesia: a Study of the Nahdlatul Ulama Under the New Order

    OpenAIRE

    Baharruddin

    2015-01-01

    Thank you very much for Hasanuddin University This paper focuses on the role of Muslim groups especially Nahdlatul Ulama in combating terrorism in Indonesia. Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) is one of the largest Islamic organization in Indonesia. It has many followers and sympathizers in Indonesia. Therefore, NU has the important role to participate in fighting terrorism in Indonesia. The series bombings incident in Indonesia have happened since after the 11 September 2001 World Trade Centre and Pent...

  14. The role of medical group practice administrators in the adoption and implementation of Medicare's physician quality reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulam, Robert; Kralewski, John; Dowd, Bryan; Gans, David

    2016-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the factors influencing the adoption of quality assurance (QA) programs by medical group practices, few have focused on the role of group practice administrators. To gain insights into the role these administrators play in QA programs, we analyzed how medical practices adopted and implemented the Medicare Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the largest physician quality reporting system in the United States. We conducted focus group interviews in 2011 with a national convenience sample of 76 medical group practice administrators. Responses were organized and analyzed using the innovation decision framework of Van de Ven and colleagues. Administrators conducted due diligence on PQRS, influenced how the issue was presented to physicians for adoption, and managed implementation thereafter. Administrators' recommendations were heavily influenced by practice characteristics, financial incentives, and practice commitments to early adoption of quality improvement innovations. Virtually, all who attempted it agreed that PQRS was straightforward to implement. However, the complexities of Medicare's PQRS reports impeded use of the data by administrators to support quality management. Group practice administrators are playing a prominent role in activities related to the quality of patient care--they are not limited to the business side of the practice. Especially, as PQRS becomes more nearly universal after 2014, Medicare should take account of the role that administrators play, by more actively engaging administrators in shaping these programs and making it easier for administrators to use the results. More research is needed on the rapidly evolving role of nonphysician administration in medical group practices. Practice administrators have a larger role than commonly understood in how quality reporting initiatives are adopted and used and are in an exceptional position to influence the more appropriate use of these resources if

  15. Social influence in the theory of planned behaviour: the role of descriptive, injunctive, and in-group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Smith, Joanne R; Terry, Deborah J; Greenslade, Jaimi H; McKimmie, Blake M

    2009-03-01

    The present research investigated three approaches to the role of norms in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Two studies examined the proposed predictors of intentions to engage in household recycling (Studies 1 and 2) and reported recycling behaviour (Study 1). Study 1 tested the impact of descriptive and injunctive norms (personal and social) and the moderating role of self-monitoring on norm-intention relations. Study 2 examined the role of group norms and group identification and the moderating role of collective self on norm-intention relations. Both studies demonstrated support for the TPB and the inclusion of additional normative variables: attitudes; perceived behavioural control; descriptive; and personal injunctive norms (but not social injunctive norm) emerged as significant independent predictors of intentions. There was no evidence that the impact of norms on intentions varied as a function of the dispositional variables of self-monitoring (Study 1) or the collective self (Study 2). There was support, however, for the social identity approach to attitude-behaviour relations in that group norms predicted recycling intentions, particularly for individuals who identified strongly with the group. The results of these two studies highlight the critical role of social influence processes within the TPB and the attitude-behaviour context.

  16. Similar Symmetries: The Role of Wallpaper Groups in Perceptual Texture Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Halley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodic patterns and symmetries are striking visual properties that have been used decoratively around the world throughout human history. Periodic patterns can be mathematically classified into one of 17 different Wallpaper groups, and while computational models have been developed which can extract an image's symmetry group, very little work has been done on how humans perceive these patterns. This study presents the results from a grouping experiment using stimuli from the different wallpaper groups. We find that while different images from the same wallpaper group are perceived as similar to one another, not all groups have the same degree of self-similarity. The similarity relationships between wallpaper groups appear to be dominated by rotations.

  17. Making Cooperative Learning Groups Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James; De Jong, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of cooperative-learning groups with middle school students. Describes cooperative-learning techniques, including group roles, peer evaluation, and observation and monitoring. Considers grouping options, including group size and configuration, dyads, the think-pair-share lecture, student teams achievement divisions, jigsaw groups,…

  18. The Role of Preceptorship and Group Cohesion on Newly Licensed Registered Nurses' Satisfaction and Intent to Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontrager, Sarah; Hart, Patricia L; Mareno, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    Thirteen percent of newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs) vacate their first job after 1 year, and 37% report that they feel ready to change jobs. Turnover can lead to consistent and detrimental nursing shortages in nursing units, as well as increased costs for health care systems. A descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional design was used to understand how preceptor role effectiveness and group cohesion affect NLRNs' satisfaction and intent to stay. NLRNs reported high levels of perceived preceptor role effectiveness, group cohesion, and job satisfaction, with only moderate levels of intent to stay. Statistically significant relationships were found among preceptor role effectiveness, job satisfaction, and intent to stay, as well as among group cohesion, job satisfaction, and intent to stay. Preceptor role effectiveness and group cohesion are predictors of NLRNs' level of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a predictor of NLRNs' intent to stay. Effective preceptors and positive group cohesion are factors that are important to NLRNs' job satisfaction and intent to stay. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Role of Community Based Savings Groups (CBSGs) enhancing the utilization of community midwives in Chitral district of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorani, Qayyum Ali; Azam, Iqbal; Shaikh, Babar T; Ranasinghe, Tharanga; Abbas, Shazia; Wali, Shakeela; Rippey, Paul; Javed, Wajiha

    2013-10-11

    Maternal and infant mortality rates in the district of Chitral in Pakistan are alarmingly high. One of the major reasons for this is the inability of women to access skilled care due to the high costs associated with traveling and utilizing such services. The Aga Khan Health Services, Pakistan (AKHSP) in partnership with the national and provincial Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) program, deployed 28 community midwives (CMWs) in remote villages of Chitral district. This program has also established Community-Based Savings Groups (CBSGs) to support and facilitate access to MNCH services, in particular those delivered by the CMWs. CBSGs are a simple yet cost-effective and sustainable means of providing basic financial services to low income, marginalized, rural populations.The link between CBSGs and utilization of MNCH services is not well understood. This study will assess the relationship between women membership of CBSGs and their utilization of MNCH services, specifically those offered by CMWs, in the community. The research question will be answered through guided interviews of women in the target population who have delivered within one month. The outcome variable will be the utilization of full continuum of skilled MNCH care (disaggregated by 1+ ANC, 1+ PNC and skilled delivery). The primary independent variable of interest will be participation in a CBSG.Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) will be conducted to generate further understanding and information about the social and financial factors that contribute to health behavior and health provider decision-making during pregnancy.Analysis will be tailored to answer how CBSGs, directly or indirectly, facilitate greater financial and/or social access to CMW services for pregnant women. Furthermore, the extent to which financial or social empowerment through a CBSG leads to greater utilization of CMW services. The role of CBSGs and their interlink with the CMWs services to be replicated in other

  20. Accounting regulation and enforcement mechanisms: the auditor's role in the portuguese listed groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fialho Silva

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which the clauses for the exclusion of subsidiaries from consolidation are used, in order to assess the degree of compliance with accounting regulation and the effectiveness of the statutory auditor as an enforcement mechanism in case of observed non-compliance. The presentation of consolidated financial statements by Portuguese companies was not regulated in detail before the implementation of the EU's Seventh Directive and the general obligation to prepare consolidated accounts had not applied to Portuguese companies until 1991. Regulators have been responsible for the endorsement of accounting rules and managers are responsible for the information disclosed by Portuguese companies regarding the scope of group accounting. In practice, the scope of consolidation depends on the judgment of makers and managers of the parent company. Auditors may play a key role in the process of guaranteeing the correct application of prevailing standards and thus encompassing the enforcement of accounting regulations and contributing to the quality of disclosed information. Our sample includes the consolidated financial statements of all the Portuguese companies listed in the Lisbon Stock Exchange on December 31st for the year 1999, to which the Official Accounting Plan is applicable. Our conclusion is that diversity exists among accounting practices regarding the adopted group concept and the use of the clauses for excluding subsidiaries from consolidation. The role of the auditors as enforcement actors seems to be minor, as we did find few qualifications in their audit reports in the cases of observed non-compliance with the accounting regulation.Em Portugal não existiu regulamentação sobre informação consolidada até 1991, quando foi publicado o Decreto-Lei nº 238/91, de 2 de Julho, que transpôs para o ordenamento jurídico-contábil português as normas de consolidação de contas estabelecidas

  1. The role of blood groups in the development of diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagoz H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hatice Karagoz,1 Abdulsamet Erden,2 Ozerhan Ozer,2 Kubra Esmeray,2 Ali Cetinkaya,2 Deniz Avci,2 Samet Karahan,2 Mustafa Basak,2 Kadir Bulut,2 Hasan Mutlu,3 Yasin Simsek4 1Internal Medicine Department, Acibadem Kayseri Hospital, 2Internal Medicine Department, 3Medical Oncology Department, 4Endocrinology Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM postpartum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey.Patients and methods: A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O and Rh status (+/-. GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were

  2. The role of blood groups in the development of diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Hatice; Erden, Abdulsamet; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Bulut, Kadir; Mutlu, Hasan; Simsek, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM postpartum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey. A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/-). GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in 2012. There was a significant difference between the patients with GDM and control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups. Blood group AB was found to be higher in the patients with GDM compared to the control group (P=0.029). When the patients were compared according to the development of DM, the ratio of group O was higher than others, while the

  3. Using group role-playing games with gifted children and adolescents: A psychosocial intervention model

    OpenAIRE

    Rosselet, J. G.; Stauffer, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    Gifted children develop asynchronously, often advanced for their age cognitively, but at or between their chronological and mental ages socially and emotionally (Robinson, 2008). In order to help gifted children and adolescents develop and practice social and emotional self-regulation skills, we investigated the use of an Adlerian play therapy approach during pen-and-paper role-playing games. Additionally, we used Goffman's (1961, 1974) social role identification and distance to encourage par...

  4. Biculturalism and group identification : The Mediating Role of Identification in Cultural Frame Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Pouliasi, Katerina

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a study that examined cultural frame switching among bicultural Greek participants living in the Netherlands. The research demonstrated that self-evaluations, self-stereotypes, and attitudes toward family integrity and friendship were affected by cultural framing.

  5. Group differences in the legitimization of inequality: Questioning the role of social dominance orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Samuel; Carvacho, Héctor; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-03-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time. The SDO mediation hypothesis is supported in the case of hostile sexism. However, it is unsupported in the case of benevolent sexism and LMs relating to ethnic hierarchy, where there was no cross-lagged effect of SDO. Moreover, being in the dominant ethnic group is associated with more legitimization of ethnic hierarchy but less legitimization of gender hierarchy, which is inconsistent with the notion of a general orientation underpinning group differences in legitimation. There was mixed evidence for a reverse path whereby specific LMs mediate group differences in SDO across time. We argue for the need to find alternative ways to theorize ideological consensus and difference between groups. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Understanding the emergence of state goal orientation in organizational work groups: the role of leadership and multilevel climate perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Lisa

    2005-11-01

    This article attends to a broad range of practically significant employee motivations and provides insight into how to enhance individual-level performance by examining individual-level state goal orientation emergence in organizational work groups. Leadership and multilevel climate processes are theorized to parallel each dimension of state goal orientation to cue and ultimately induce the corresponding achievement focus among individual work group members. It is argued that the patterns of leader behavior, which elucidate the leader's achievement priority, shape group members' psychological and work group climate to embody this priority. Resulting multilevel climate perceptions signal and compel group members to adopt the ascribed form of state goal orientation. The quality of the leader-member exchange relationship is viewed as a means to clarify leader messages in the formation of group members' psychological climate and internalize these cues in the emergence of state goal orientation. Considerations for future research and practice are discussed. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Final plenary discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federline, M.

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this seminar was 'Strategy Selection for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities' and it was clear throughout that safety of D and D operations continues to be of importance in that selection, particularly in regard to the condition of the site and the risk it represents. In this context, it was specifically noted that a safety case for D and D needs to be kept under continuous review and needs to be flexible enough to accommodate appropriate modification as the work progresses and the nature of the risk changes. It was also noted that the hazard presented by a facility in decommissioning is normally significantly less than during the operating phase (for a reactor, for example, the fuel has been removed, there are no pressurised systems and no high operating temperatures). The changing plant configuration and the reduced hazard potential lead to the observation that the safety management arrangements also need appropriate adjustment from those employed during the operating phase. It was recalled that a Task Group of the WPDD is addressing safety issues on an ongoing basis. It was also clear from the detailed presentations that techniques for D and D are already available and that they have been successfully demonstrated in practice. Nevertheless, because the costs of dismantling nuclear facilities make up at least a third of the overall D and D costs, there seemed to be a strong case for continuing R and D in this area in order to improve the cost effectiveness of such techniques. It was noted, however, that the extent of such R and D is now somewhat limited and that further work is first required to identify the most effective areas for future R and D projects. Also, throughout the seminar, it was emphasised that strategy selection must remain flexible since it is highly dependent on financing, societal input, technical feasibility, waste management options, and regulatory processes. Against this well-established background, Allan Duncan, as

  8. Children's intergroup helping: The role of empathy and peer group norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, Jellie; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined children's (8- to 13-year-olds) intergroup helping intentions. In Study 1, 856 children indicated their intention to help national in-group or out-group peers in a high need situation and in either a public or private context. Results showed that children's empathic tendencies

  9. Analyzing Effective Communication in Mathematics Group Work: The Role of Visual Mediators and Technical Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryve, Andreas; Nilsson, Per; Pettersson, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing and designing productive group work and effective communication constitute ongoing research interests in mathematics education. In this article we contribute to this research by using and developing a newly introduced analytical approach for examining effective communication within group work in mathematics education. By using data from…

  10. Overcoming Cross-Cultural Group Work Tensions: Mixed Student Perspectives on the Role of Social Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmeier, Jenna; Rienties, Bart; Tempelaar, Dirk; Whitelock, Denise

    2018-01-01

    As universities worldwide rapidly internationalise, higher education classrooms have become unique spaces for collaboration between students from different countries. One common way to encourage collaboration between diverse peers is through group work. However, previous research has highlighted that cross-cultural group work can be challenging…

  11. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  12. The Roles of a University Professor in a Teacher Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Chin; Hung, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The opportunities in which university professors collaborate with the practicing school teachers in a teacher study group are few. This study investigated how a university professor facilitated a collaborative teacher study group to enhance teachers' professional growth. Five primary school teachers and a university professor collaborated on…

  13. Group Dynamics and Individual Roles: A Differentiated Approach to Social-Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Daryl

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a set of strategies to help teachers meet each child where he or she is in order to improve students' engagement, lead them to do their best work, and maximize their success. This article describes a differentiated classroom management approach based in group dynamics which focuses on the development of group norms…

  14. Strengthening the Role of Part-Time Faculty in Community Colleges. Focus Group Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Community College Student Engagement encourages colleges to hold focus groups with part-time and full-time faculty to learn about differences in the faculty and their experience at their college and to complement survey data. Survey responses tell the "what" about faculty's experiences; through conducting focus groups,…

  15. Plant-soil feedbacks: role of plant functional group and plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortois, R.; Schröder-Georgi, T.; Weigelt, A.; van der Putten, W.H.; De Deyn, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF), plant trait and functional group concepts advanced our understanding of plant community dynamics, but how they are interlinked is poorly known. To test how plant functional groups (FGs: graminoids, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes) and plant traits relate to PSF, we grew

  16. The Role of Social Identity Complexity in Inter-Group Attitudes among Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    To supplement research on adolescent social identities, the current study examined how social identity complexity relates to ethnic inter-group attitudes in a young adolescent sample (N = 97; "age range" = 12-14 years). Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap of groups with which youth align themselves. Descriptive…

  17. Reviewing the Role of Stakeholders in Operational Research: Opportunities for Group Model Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Stakeholders have always received much attention in system dynamics, especially in the group model building tradition, which emphasizes the deep involvement of a client group in building a system dynamics model. In organizations, stakeholders are gaining more and more attention by managers who try

  18. Memory for stereotype (in)consistent information : The role of in-group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, Bertjan; Spears, Russell; de Redelijkheid, Hans; van Onna, Joost

    Effects of identification with one's group on memory of stereotype consistent and inconsistent information about one's group were examined in two studies. In the first study, we focused on supporters of a low status soccer team, and observed that diehard fans were more likely to remember

  19. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  20. A study on the role of influence group in public policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monavarian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, learning more about influence groups on public policy making is one of most important subjects of management science. Governments are the primary sources for public policy making but influenced groups participate indirectly and while they remain out of power, they put pressure on many decisions. Some of participants in public policy making are not influenced groups but mostly, due to their participation in policy public making matter are called influenced groups. This research, from practical research purpose and method view, is a descriptive research and survey branch. The study investigates the effect of university based Iranian Sociological Association on public policy making. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some experts. The results of our survey indicate that that Iranian Sociological Association could influence on public policy making through elite and prominent leaders, self-knowledge and information, elective campaigns, stimulation and connecting with people and other groups.

  1. ROLES OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES IN AN EMERGING COUNTRY: CONTROL AND COORDINATION IN FAMILY BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ataay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maman (1999 proposed that, in countries in which business groups are dominant forms for organizing economic activities, the interlocking directorate is a managerial tool that can be prioritized to control and coordinate activities of their affiliated firms within the same groups and align their business objectives. This organizational connection appears to be an intentional strategy on the part of the groups‟ headquarters. In order to study the interlocking ties in Turkish family business groups (FBG, this study focused on interlocking directorates among listed firms in Turkey. The findings of preliminary study reveal that almost all of the interlocking ties were within the business groups (BG in our sample. This is the result of assignment of familyaffiliated and/or professional inside directors to the various boards of companies in the BG. We also found that compare to vertical ties; business groups are using more horizontal interlocking connections to bond their affiliated companies together.

  2. Identification of a group of Haemophilus influenzae penicillin-binding proteins that may have complementary physiological roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malouin, F.; Parr, T.R. Jr.; Bryan, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    [35S]penicillin bound to different Haemophilus influenzae proteins in assays performed at 20, 37, or 42 degrees C. Penicillin-binding proteins 3a, 3b, 4, and 4' formed a group characterized by their affinity for moxalactam, cefotaxime, and piperacillin. Penicillin-binding protein 4' showed specific properties that may reflect its complementary role in septation

  3. Alcohol Use among Italian University Students: The Role of Sensation Seeking, Peer Group Norms and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sensation seeking, peer group drinking and self-efficacy in refusing to drink alcohol in influencing alcohol consumption of a sample of 588 Italian university students. Results confirmed that heavy drinkers are typically males living in university residences. Alcohol use is more frequent among students with…

  4. Scientists Shaping the Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

  5. The time course of perceptual grouping: the role of segregation and shape formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razpurker-Apfeld, Irene; Kimchi, Ruth

    2007-07-01

    The time course of perceptual grouping was examined in two experiments, using a primed matching task. In different conditions, elements were grouped into columns/rows by common lightness, into a shape (triangle/ arrow or square/cross) by common lightness, and into a shape without segregation of elements. The results showed an early and rapid grouping into columns/rows by common lightness and into a shape when no segregation from other elements was involved. Goodness of shape (i.e., triangle/arrow vs. square/cross) had no influence on how early grouping was evident, but the relatively poorer shapes appeared to consolidate with time. In contrast, grouping into a shape that involved segregation and required resolving figure-ground relations between segregated units, as grouping into a shape by common lightness, consumed time, regardless of shape goodness. These results suggest that the time course of grouping varies as a function of the processes involved in it (e.g., segregation and shape formation) and the conditions prevailing for each process.

  6. The role of bridging organizations in environmental management: examining social networks in working groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A. Kowalski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The linkage of diverse sets of actors and knowledge systems across management levels and institutional boundaries often poses one of the greatest challenges in adaptive management of natural resources. Bridging organizations can facilitate interactions among actors in management settings by lowering the transaction costs of collaboration. The Center for Ocean Solutions (COS is an example of a bridging organization that is focused on linking actors within the ocean sciences and governance arena through the use of working groups. This research examines how network connections between group members affect working group functionality and, more specifically, whether cohesive network structures allow groups to more effectively achieve their goals and objectives. A mixed-methods approach, incorporating both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods, is employed to understand the structural characteristics of COS working groups. The study finds that cohesive network structures are not associated with increased working group functionality. Strong, centralized leadership is a better predictor of working group success in achieving goals and objectives.

  7. Role of the C-E owner group in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasper, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Combustion Engineering (C-E) owner group was formed in 1979 to address the technical and regulatory issues for plants with nuclear steam supply systems supplied by C-E that resulted from the accident at the Three Mile Island plant. The group addressed many of the immediate concerns from the accident including the response of C-E owner-group plants to small-break loss-of-coolant accidents, the use of power-operated relief valves, emergency operating procedure upgrades, as well as transient and accident responses. The group was successful in addressing these technical and regulatory issues with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in such a manner that C-E owner-group plants were not required to shut down or operate at reduced power levels. In recent years, the group has increasingly pursued programs for the benefit of its members rather than because of a regulatory commitment. The major current activities of the group are programs to support the design basis reconstruction of our member plants, improvements to emergency procedure guidelines, which are the basis for the emergency operating procedures used in our plants, a charging pump performance improvement program, various activities to reduce the number of unplanned reactor scrams at our plants, modeling of steam generator corrosion mechanisms to improve steam generator performance, and leak-before-break justification of reactor coolant system piping

  8. The role of multiple-group measurement invariance in family psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Justin L; McBride, Brent A; Laxman, Daniel J; Dyer, W Justin; Santos, Rosa M; Jeans, Laurie M

    2016-04-01

    Measurement invariance (MI) is a property of measurement that is often implicitly assumed, but in many cases, not tested. When the assumption of MI is tested, it generally involves determining if the measurement holds longitudinally or cross-culturally. A growing literature shows that other groupings can, and should, be considered as well. Additionally, it is noted that the standard techniques for investigating MI have been focused almost exclusively on the case of 2 groups, with very little work on the case of more than 2 groups, even though the need for such techniques is apparent in many fields of research. This paper introduces and illustrates a model building technique to investigating MI for more than 2 groups. This technique is an extension of the already-existing hierarchy for testing MI introduced by Meredith (1993). An example using data on father involvement in 5 different groups of families of children with and without developmental disabilities from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort dataset will be given. We show that without considering the possible differential functioning of the measurements on multiple developmental groups, the differences present between the groups in terms of the measurements may be obscured. This could lead to incorrect conclusions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Conflict between work and nonwork roles of employees in the mining industry: Prevalence and differences between demographic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie Steyl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: International researchers have increasingly recognised the interaction between work and nonwork roles as an interesting and important topic. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different work–nonwork conflict subscales and differences between demographic groups in work– nonwork conflict. Motivation for the study: Several studies have shown that demographic groups differ in their experiences of the interaction between work and family life. This may also be true of conflict between work and nonwork roles. The prevalence of work–nonwork conflict and nonwork– work conflict is also very important for organisations that may find the results very valuable for developing organisational and individual interventions and performance management in organisations. Research design, approach and method: The researchers chose a random sample of mining employees (n = 245 from a platinum mine in Rustenburg. The researchers used self-developed items similar to items developed in the Work–nonwork Interference Scale of Koekemoer, Mostert and Rothmann (2010 to measure conflict between work and various nonwork roles. The researchers used descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance to analyse the data. Main findings: Work–nonwork conflict was more prevalent than nonwork–work conflict. Work–family conflict was more prevalent than work–domestic conflict and work–religion/ spirituality conflict. The researchers found significant differences for marital status and language groups about work–nonwork conflict. Results showed that participants who spoke African languages experienced higher levels of private–work conflict. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations need to recognise the negative interference or conflict between work and nonwork roles for different demographic groups and address the prevalent work

  10. Overcoming cross-cultural group work tensions: mixed student perspectives on the role of social relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittelmeier, Jenna; Rienties, Bart; Tempelaar, Dirk; Whitelock, Denise

    As universities worldwide rapidly internationalise, higher education classrooms have become unique spaces for collaboration between students from different countries. One common way to encourage collaboration between diverse peers is through group work. However, previous research has highlighted

  11. A Study of the Communication Behaviors and Members' Roles in the Interaction Process of a Project-based Learning Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jane Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The infusion of information and communication technology into instruction has gained the foothold within many classrooms in higher education by its advantages to enable the variety and accessibility of school teaching and learning. However, to engage students with the technology enhanced learning experiences calls for attentions on more the processes than the mere outcome of technology use. This study examines the common phenomenon in college campus where network technology, group activities and project works are available with the intention to explore how student performance of teamwork and learning is affected by the micro factors of group compositions, members’ roles and their communication behaviors. Results show that the group performed most procedure-, task-, and social-communication behaviors during the execution stage than that of preparation and completion stages. Additionally, members’ roles performed and interfered within these stages positively affected the project performance to different extent. [Article content in Chinese; Extended abstract in English

  12. Why Are Some Ethnic Groups More Violent than Others? The Role of Friendship Network's Ethnic Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's…

  13. The role of economic evaluation in vaccine decision making : Focus on meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R.; Trotter, C.L.; Edmunds, W.J.; Postma, Maarten; Beutels, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several countries have experienced increases in the incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease. It can be controlled with older polysaccharide vaccines and particularly the recently developed conjugate vaccines. For 21 developed countries, we investigated the role that economic

  14. The role of diversity of life experiences in fostering collaborative creativity in demographically diverse student groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluut, H.; Curseu, P.L.

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative learning becomes a key instructional tool in a variety of educational settings, from primary to higher education. This paper examines the role of demographic diversity (gender and nationality) on collaborative creativity. A self report questionnaire is used to evaluate students’ life

  15. Social Identity and the Transition to Entrepreneurship: The Role of Group Identification with Workplace Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Goethner, Maximilian; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Cantner, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    What role does social identity play in the transition from employed work to entrepreneurship? It was expected that social identity affects the cognitive processes that, according to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), underlie the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Focusing on academic scientists' intentions to commercialize research…

  16. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  17. ‘This will bring shame on our nation’: The role of anticipated group-based emotions on collective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lee; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S.R.

    2013-01-01

    In three studies we examined whether the anticipation of group-based guilt, shame and anger predicts the desire to undertake collective action against a proposed ingroup transgression. In Studies 1 (N = 179) and 2 (N = 186), the relation between appraising a proposed ingroup transgression as illegitimate and collective action was mediated (or partially mediated) by anticipated group-based shame and anger. In Study 3 (N = 128) participants with high self-investment group identification were less willing to engage in collective action against the prospective ingroup transgression when aversive anticipated group-based emotions were made salient. This effect was mediated by anticipated group-based shame. We discuss the implications of these results with regard to collective action and the morality of intergroup behavior. PMID:23690650

  18. Blood Group Antigens C, Lub and P1 May Have a Role in HIV Infection in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Modisa Sekhamo; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi Omoniyi

    2016-01-01

    Botswana is among the world's countries with the highest rates of HIV infection. It is not known whether or not this susceptibility to infection is due to genetic factors in the population. Accumulating evidence, however, points to the role of erythrocytes as potential mediators of infection. We therefore sought to establish the role, if any, of some erythrocyte antigens in HIV infection in a cross-section of the population. 348 (346 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive) samples were obtained from the National Blood Transfusion Service as residual samples, while 194 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory. Samples were grouped for twenty three antigens. Chi-square or Fischer Exact analyses were used to compare the frequencies of the antigens in the two groups. A stepwise, binary logistic regression was used to study the interaction of the various antigens in the light of HIV-status. The Rh antigens C and E were associated with HIV-negative status, while blood group Jka, P1 and Lub were associated with HIV-positive status. A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis yielded group C as the most significant protective blood group while Lub and P1 were associated with significantly higher odds ratio in favor of HIV-infection. The lower-risk-associated group C was significantly lower in Africans compared to published data for Caucasians and might partially explain the difference in susceptibility to HIV-1. The most influential antigen C, which also appears to be protective, is significantly lower in Africans than published data for Caucasians or Asians. On the other hand, there appear to be multiple antigens associated with increased risk that may override the protective role of C. A study of the distribution of these antigens in other populations may shed light on their roles in the HIV pandemic.

  19. Genetic educational needs and the role of genetics in primary care: a focus group study with multiple perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vleuten Cees

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available evidence suggests that improvements in genetics education are needed to prepare primary care providers for the impact of ongoing rapid advances in genomics. Postgraduate (physician training and master (midwifery training programmes in primary care and public health are failing to meet these perceived educational needs. The aim of this study was to explore the role of genetics in primary care (i.e. family medicine and midwifery care and the need for education in this area as perceived by primary care providers, patient advocacy groups and clinical genetics professionals. Methods Forty-four participants took part in three types of focus groups: mono-disciplinary groups of general practitioners and midwives, respectively and multidisciplinary groups composed of a diverse set of experts. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified. Results Four themes emerged regarding the educational needs and the role of genetics in primary care: (1 genetics knowledge, (2 family history, (3 ethical dilemmas and psychosocial effects in relation to genetics and (4 insight into the organisation and role of clinical genetics services. These themes reflect a shift in the role of genetics in primary care with implications for education. Although all focus group participants acknowledged the importance of genetics education, general practitioners felt this need more urgently than midwives and more strongly emphasized their perceived knowledge deficiencies. Conclusion The responsibilities of primary care providers with regard to genetics require further study. The results of this study will help to develop effective genetics education strategies to improve primary care providers' competencies in this area. More research into the educational priorities in genetics is needed to design courses that are suitable for postgraduate and master programmes for

  20. Role of high mobility group box-1 and protection of growth hormone and somatostatin in severe acute pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.F. [Department of Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wu, M. [Department of Surgery, Jinshan Pavilion Forest Hospital, Shanghai (China); Ma, B.J.; Cai, D.A.; Yin, B.B. [Department of Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-09-12

    In this study, we investigated the potential role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the effects of growth hormone (G) and somatostatin (S) in SAP rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 each: sham-operated, SAP, SAP+saline, SAP+G, SAP+S and SAP+G+S. Ileum and pancreas tissues of rats in each group were evaluated histologically. HMGB1 mRNA expression was measured by reverse transcription-PCR. Levels of circulating TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were also measured. In the SAP group, interstitial congestion and edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and interstitial hemorrhage occurred in ileum and pancreas tissues. The levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and endotoxin were significantly up-regulated in the SAP group compared with those in the sham-operated group, and the 7-day survival rate was 0%. In the SAP+G and SAP+S groups, the inflammatory response of the morphological structures was alleviated, the levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were significantly decreased compared with those in the SAP group, and the survival rate was increased. Moreover, in the SAP+G+S group, all histological scores were significantly improved and the survival rate was significantly higher compared with the SAP group. In conclusion, HMGB1 might participate in pancreas and ileum injury in SAP. Growth hormone and somatostatin might play a therapeutic role in the inflammatory response of SAP.

  1. Role of high mobility group box-1 and protection of growth hormone and somatostatin in severe acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.F.; Wu, M.; Ma, B.J.; Cai, D.A.; Yin, B.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the effects of growth hormone (G) and somatostatin (S) in SAP rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 each: sham-operated, SAP, SAP+saline, SAP+G, SAP+S and SAP+G+S. Ileum and pancreas tissues of rats in each group were evaluated histologically. HMGB1 mRNA expression was measured by reverse transcription-PCR. Levels of circulating TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were also measured. In the SAP group, interstitial congestion and edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and interstitial hemorrhage occurred in ileum and pancreas tissues. The levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and endotoxin were significantly up-regulated in the SAP group compared with those in the sham-operated group, and the 7-day survival rate was 0%. In the SAP+G and SAP+S groups, the inflammatory response of the morphological structures was alleviated, the levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were significantly decreased compared with those in the SAP group, and the survival rate was increased. Moreover, in the SAP+G+S group, all histological scores were significantly improved and the survival rate was significantly higher compared with the SAP group. In conclusion, HMGB1 might participate in pancreas and ileum injury in SAP. Growth hormone and somatostatin might play a therapeutic role in the inflammatory response of SAP

  2. EXAMINING THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENT IN A COMPREHENSIVE SAMPLE OF COMPACT GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Charlton, Jane C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Hibbard, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Compact groups, with their high number densities, small velocity dispersions, and an interstellar medium that has not been fully processed, provide a local analog to conditions of galaxy interactions in the earlier universe. The frequent and prolonged gravitational encounters that occur in compact groups affect the evolution of the constituent galaxies in a myriad of ways, for example, gas processing and star formation. Recently, a statistically significant 'gap' has been discovered in the mid-infrared (MIR: 3.6-8 μm) IRAC color space of compact group galaxies. This gap is not seen in field samples and is a new example of how the compact group environment may affect the evolution of member galaxies. In order to investigate the origin and nature of this gap, we have compiled a larger sample of 37 compact groups in addition to the original 12 groups studied by Johnson et al. (yielding 174 individual galaxies with reliable MIR photometry). We find that a statistically significant deficit of galaxies in this gap region of IRAC color space is persistent in the full sample, lending support to the hypothesis that the compact group environment inhibits moderate specific star formation rates. Using this expanded sample, we have more fully characterized the distribution of galaxies in this color space and quantified the low-density region more fully with respect to MIR bluer and MIR redder colors. We note a curvature in the color-space distribution, which is fully consistent with increasing dust temperature as the activity in a galaxy increases. This full sample of 49 compact groups allows us to subdivide the data according to physical properties of the groups. An analysis of these subsamples indicates that neither projected physical diameter nor density shows a trend in color space within the values represented by this sample. We hypothesize that the apparent lack of a trend is due to the relatively small range of properties in this sample, whose groups have already been

  3. Examining the Role of Environment in a Comprehensive Sample of Compact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Charlton, Jane C.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Hibbard, John E.

    2012-03-01

    Compact groups, with their high number densities, small velocity dispersions, and an interstellar medium that has not been fully processed, provide a local analog to conditions of galaxy interactions in the earlier universe. The frequent and prolonged gravitational encounters that occur in compact groups affect the evolution of the constituent galaxies in a myriad of ways, for example, gas processing and star formation. Recently, a statistically significant "gap" has been discovered in the mid-infrared (MIR: 3.6-8 μm) IRAC color space of compact group galaxies. This gap is not seen in field samples and is a new example of how the compact group environment may affect the evolution of member galaxies. In order to investigate the origin and nature of this gap, we have compiled a larger sample of 37 compact groups in addition to the original 12 groups studied by Johnson et al. (yielding 174 individual galaxies with reliable MIR photometry). We find that a statistically significant deficit of galaxies in this gap region of IRAC color space is persistent in the full sample, lending support to the hypothesis that the compact group environment inhibits moderate specific star formation rates. Using this expanded sample, we have more fully characterized the distribution of galaxies in this color space and quantified the low-density region more fully with respect to MIR bluer and MIR redder colors. We note a curvature in the color-space distribution, which is fully consistent with increasing dust temperature as the activity in a galaxy increases. This full sample of 49 compact groups allows us to subdivide the data according to physical properties of the groups. An analysis of these subsamples indicates that neither projected physical diameter nor density shows a trend in color space within the values represented by this sample. We hypothesize that the apparent lack of a trend is due to the relatively small range of properties in this sample, whose groups have already been

  4. UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF BEHAVIOR AND COGNITIONS IN A GROUP EXERCISE SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of the present study examined whether individuals with different exercise behaviors (classified by attendance experienced different or similar cognitive patterns. It was hypothesized that different behavior would lead to different cognitive appraisals. It was predicted that there would be a difference between the three behavioral frequency groups with regard to self-efficacy measures and goal measures. The second purpose of the study was to describe, evaluate and observe whether social factors were associated with participating in exercise in groups. It was hypothesized that those who engage in exercise classes would elicit a social focus. Participants for the study included 39 females who registered in-group fitness classes at a mid-sized university. Attendance over the 10-week course was assessed and participants completed a self-report questionnaire during week seven. The attendance data were used to create 3 exercise frequency groups (regular attenders, sporadic attenders, and dropouts based on ACSM's exercise guidelines. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, means and frequencies were used to describe the data. There were no significant differences on measures of self-efficacy, goal measures, enjoyment, and external motivation among the three groups (all p's > 0.05. An analysis of the whole group (N=39 discovered a low social focus and high ratings of self-efficacy. Continued research is necessary to investigate the benefit of social support in a group exercise setting, as well as to better understand how self-regulation through self-efficacy and goal factors influences and is influenced by actual behavior.

  5. Predicting psychological ripple effects: the role of cultural identity, in-group/out-group identification, and attributions of blame in crisis communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagondahalli, Deepa; Turner, Monique Mitchell

    2012-04-01

    Incidents of intentional food contamination can produce ripple effects in consumers such as reduced trust and increased anxiety. In their postcrisis communication, food companies often direct the blame at the perpetrator in an effort to mitigate potential losses and regain consumer trust. The attempt to placate consumers may, in itself, potentially create psychological ripple effects in message readers. This study examined the interacting influence of two message characteristics: identity of the perpetrator of the crime (in-group/out-group membership), and the attribution of blame (reason why the perpetrator committed the crime), with message receiver characteristic (cultural identity) on psychological ripple effects such as blame, trust, anxiety, and future purchase intention. Results indicated that although group membership of the perpetrator was not significant in predicting outcomes for the organization, the attribution communicated in the message was. American message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when personal dispositional attributions were made about the perpetrator. Asian message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when situational attributions were made about the perpetrator. Lowered trust in the company and increased anxiety correlated with lower purchase intent for both American and Asian message receivers. Implications for crisis message design are discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. The Role of Support Groups, Advocacy Groups,andOther Interested Parties in Improving the Care of Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Pleas and Warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee PeterA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era of advocacy groups, it seems appropriate to contemplate how best to utilize them for patient benefit in the management of those with disorders of sex development (DSD, including those with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Such interactions, to be constructive, require a spirit of cooperation to optimize outcomes. A traditional view of advocacy groups as a type of defender of patients' rights appears outdated and it is time that the benefits of their participation be fully realized. Open dialogue with all patients/families, including those who feel harmed by prior care are paramount. We discuss several recent examples of interactions that illustrate how dialogue in the name of "advocacy" can have a negative impact on developing a framework for ongoing constructive dialogue and actions. Such approaches completely change the dynamics of subsequent interactions. Physicians involved in the care of individuals with DSD, including those with CAH, and patients should be aware of confrontational techniques and legal implications that may be used by some advocacy groups. Hopefully recent efforts to promote a multidisciplinary care approach for patients with DSD/CAH will continue to foster mutual cooperation between team members, where the common goal is improving patient/family outcomes and quality of life.

  7. The Role of Support Groups, Advocacy Groups, and Other Interested Parties in Improving the Care of Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Pleas and Warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Houk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of advocacy groups, it seems appropriate to contemplate how best to utilize them for patient benefit in the management of those with disorders of sex development (DSD, including those with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Such interactions, to be constructive, require a spirit of cooperation to optimize outcomes. A traditional view of advocacy groups as a type of defender of patients' rights appears outdated and it is time that the benefits of their participation be fully realized. Open dialogue with all patients/families, including those who feel harmed by prior care are paramount. We discuss several recent examples of interactions that illustrate how dialogue in the name of “advocacy” can have a negative impact on developing a framework for ongoing constructive dialogue and actions. Such approaches completely change the dynamics of subsequent interactions. Physicians involved in the care of individuals with DSD, including those with CAH, and patients should be aware of confrontational techniques and legal implications that may be used by some advocacy groups. Hopefully recent efforts to promote a multidisciplinary care approach for patients with DSD/CAH will continue to foster mutual cooperation between team members, where the common goal is improving patient/family outcomes and quality of life.

  8. Facial Asymmetry-Based Age Group Estimation: Role in Recognizing Age-Separated Face Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Taj, Imtiaz Ahmad; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Ratyal, Naeem Iqbal

    2018-04-23

    Face recognition aims to establish the identity of a person based on facial characteristics. On the other hand, age group estimation is the automatic calculation of an individual's age range based on facial features. Recognizing age-separated face images is still a challenging research problem due to complex aging processes involving different types of facial tissues, skin, fat, muscles, and bones. Certain holistic and local facial features are used to recognize age-separated face images. However, most of the existing methods recognize face images without incorporating the knowledge learned from age group estimation. In this paper, we propose an age-assisted face recognition approach to handle aging variations. Inspired by the observation that facial asymmetry is an age-dependent intrinsic facial feature, we first use asymmetric facial dimensions to estimate the age group of a given face image. Deeply learned asymmetric facial features are then extracted for face recognition using a deep convolutional neural network (dCNN). Finally, we integrate the knowledge learned from the age group estimation into the face recognition algorithm using the same dCNN. This integration results in a significant improvement in the overall performance compared to using the face recognition algorithm alone. The experimental results on two large facial aging datasets, the MORPH and FERET sets, show that the proposed age group estimation based on the face recognition approach yields superior performance compared to some existing state-of-the-art methods. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Learning through Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin

    2004-01-01

    Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…

  10. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris

    2016-10-28

    Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating

  11. Structure-Activity Relationship of Curcumin: Role of the Methoxy Group in Anti-inflammatory and Anticolitis Effects of Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haixia; Du, Zheyuan; Wang, Weicang; Song, Mingyue; Sanidad, Katherine; Sukamtoh, Elvira; Zheng, Jennifer; Tian, Li; Xiao, Hang; Liu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Guodong

    2017-06-07

    Curcumin, a dietary compound from turmeric, has beneficial effects on inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Most previous studies have focused on the structure-activity relationship of the thiol-reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups of curcumin, so little is known about the roles of methoxy groups in biological activities of curcumin. Here we synthesized a series of curcumin analogues with different substitution groups (R = H-, Br-, Cl-, F-, NO 2 -, CH 3 -, and OH-) to replace the methoxy group and evaluated their biological effects in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin, Cur-OH, and Cur-Br (25 μM) suppressed 74.91 ± 0.88, 77.75 ± 0.89, and 71.75 ± 0.90% of LPS-induced NO production, respectively (P 0.05). In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, the Cur-Br analogue also showed a beneficial effect the same as curcumin (P 0.05). Together, the analogues have dramatically different effects on inflammation, supporting that the substitution group on the methoxy position plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin. The methoxy group is a potential structural candidate for modification to design curcumin-based drugs for inflammatory diseases.

  12. Primary social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL small group interventions: a qualitative study of factors affecting implementation and the role of Local Authority support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Humphrey

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to examine the factors affecting implementation of social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL small group interventions in primary schools and to explore the role of support from Local Authorities (LAs in the implementation process. Telephone interviews were conducted with lead SEAL staff in 12 LAs across England as part of a larger national evaluation of this educational initiative. Data were transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Subsequently, a tentative model was developed to document the relationship between the nature of support provided by LAs (e.g. training events, developing/providing additional materials, factors affecting implementation at school level (e.g. school readiness, the profile of SEAL and perceived barriers to success (e.g. misconceptions about the purpose of small group interventions. These findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature on the implementation of social-emotional initiatives and interventions in education.

  13. Human resource assignment and role representation mechanism with the "cascading staff-group authoring" and "relation/situation" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Y; Sasaki, Y; Kinoshita, A

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported the access control mechanism and audit strategy of the "patient-doctor relation and clinical situation at the point-of-care" model with multi-axial access control matrix (ACM). This mechanism overcomes the deficit of ACM in the aspect of data accessibility but does not resolve the representation of the staff's affiliate and/or plural membership in the complex real world. Care groups inside a department or inter-department clinical team plays significant clinical role but also spend great amount of time and money in the hospital. Therefore the impact of human resource assignment and cost of such stakeholders to the hospital management is huge, so that they should be accurately treated in the hospital information system. However multi-axial ACM has problems with the representation of staff groups due to static parameters such as department/license because staffs belong to a group rather temporarily and/or a medical staff may belong to plural groups. As a solution, we have designed and implemented "cascading staff-group authoring" method with "relation and situation" model and multi-axial ACM. In this mechanism, (i) a system administrator certifies "group chief certifying person" according to the request and authorization by the department director, (ii) the "group chief certifying person" certifies "group chief(s)", (iii) the "group chief" recruits its members from the medical staffs, and at the same time the "group chief" decides the profit distribution policy of this group. This will enable medical staff to access EMR according to the role he/she plays whether it is as a department staff or as a group member. This solution has worked successfully over the past few years. It provides end-users with a flexible and time-to-time staff-group authoring environment using a simple human-interfaced tool without security breach and without system administration cost. In addition, profit and cost distribution is clarified among departments and

  14. The role of motivation and cultural dialects in the in-group advantage for emotional vocalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    It is well-established that non-verbal emotional communication via both facial and vocal information is more accurate when expresser and perceiver are from the same cultural group. Two accounts have been put forward to explain this finding: According to the dialect theory, culture-specific learning

  15. The Role of Breakfast in the American Family Diet by Income Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (USDA) concerning breakfast consumption in families and the kinds of food chosen. Found that 85% of families reported having breakfast; most of those reporting no breakfast came from lowest income group. Consumption of cereals, fruits and juices increased with income; consumption…

  16. A quick needs assessment of key stakeholder groups on the role of family medicine in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sanders

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Zambia is a nation of nine million people, and has too few physicians to meet the country’s health needs. Following the strategy of other sub-Saharan countries, Zambia has developed a training programme in family medicine to help improve the medical competencies of its physician workforce. A needs assessment was undertaken to better understand the landscape into which Zambian family medicine is being placed. Methods. In 2014, a nine-question survey in Likert-scale format was developed, validated, and then delivered to four stakeholder groups: (i practicing clinical physicians, (ii the general public, (iii the University of Zambia’s School of Medicine’s academic faculty and (iv medical students. The needs assessment was delivered through several different mechanisms: via web-based service, to respondents’ email addresses; in paper form, to population samples of convenience; and verbally, through face-to-face encounters. Results. The number of stakeholders from each group who responded to the needs assessment were: clinical physicians, 27; general public, 15; academic faculty, 14; and medical students, 31. Five of the nine survey statements achieved super-majority consensus, with >66% of stakeholders in each group agreeing. Two additional statements achieved a simple-majority consensus with >50% agreement within each stakeholder group. Conclusion. This survey suggests that there is a broad-based a priori understanding of family medicine in Zambia, and general agreement that its presence would be valuable to Zambia’s healthcare system.

  17. Conductance switching in a molecular device: The role of side groups and intermolecular interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Jeremy Philip; Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    We report first-principles studies of electronic transport in monolayers of Tour wires functionalized with different side groups. An analysis of the scattering states and transmission eigenchannels suggests that the functionalization does not strongly affect the resonances responsible for current...

  18. Attributions to Discrimination and Self-Esteem: The Role of Group Identification and Appraisals

    OpenAIRE

    Eccleston , Collette P.; Major , Brenda N.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This study tested the hypothesis that appraisals of discrimination (i.e. its perceived severity, global aspects, stability, and uncontrollability) mediate the relationship between attributions to discrimination and personal self-esteem. It also tested three models of how ethnic group identification is related to discrimination attributions, discrimination appraisals, and personal self-esteem. In ...

  19. Life Satisfaction Among Ethnic Minorities : The Role of Discrimination and Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2008-01-01

    For most immigrants and ethnic minority groups, everyday life in the country of settlement raises question of adaptation and belonging. Aside from factors such as lower income, lower education and poorer health, being an ethnic minority member carries additional factors that can lower general life

  20. Promoting Perceived Benefits of Group Projects: The Role of Instructor Contributions and Intragroup Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah; Barber, Larissa K.; Ferguson, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Group projects are often used in psychology courses to prepare students for future collaborative work. However, psychology alumni report that their education did not adequately prepare them for collaborative work. To better understand these perceptions, this study examined how instructor contributions (involvement and evaluation techniques)…

  1. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka, E-mail: agnieszka.mierczynska-vasilev@awri.com.au; Smith, Paul A., E-mail: paul.smith@awri.com.au

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Chemical surface composition affects behaviour of wine adsorption. • SO{sub 3}H and COOH groups adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds. • NH{sub 2} and NR{sub 3} groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. • Red wine constituents after filtration adsorbed more on NR{sub 3} and CHO surfaces. - Abstract: The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with −SO{sub 3}H and –COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas −NH{sub 2} and −NR{sub 3} groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on −NR{sub 3} and –CHO surfaces. The –OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  2. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical surface composition affects behaviour of wine adsorption. • SO_3H and COOH groups adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds. • NH_2 and NR_3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. • Red wine constituents after filtration adsorbed more on NR_3 and CHO surfaces. - Abstract: The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with −SO_3H and –COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas −NH_2 and −NR_3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on −NR_3 and –CHO surfaces. The –OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  3. Conformational differences between the methoxy groups of QA and QB site ubisemiquinones in bacterial reaction centers: a key role for methoxy group orientation in modulating ubiquinone redox potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Alexander T; O'Malley, Patrick J; Wraight, Colin A; Dikanov, Sergei A

    2013-07-09

    Ubiquinone is an almost universal, membrane-associated redox mediator. Its ability to accept either one or two electrons allows it to function in critical roles in biological electron transport. The redox properties of ubiquinone in vivo are determined by its environment in the binding sites of proteins and by the dihedral angle of each methoxy group relative to the ring plane. This is an attribute unique to ubiquinone among natural quinones and could account for its widespread function with many different redox complexes. In this work, we use the photosynthetic reaction center as a model system for understanding the role of methoxy conformations in determining the redox potential of the ubiquinone/semiquinone couple. Despite the abundance of X-ray crystal structures for the reaction center, quinone site resolution has thus far been too low to provide a reliable measure of the methoxy dihedral angles of the primary and secondary quinones, QA and QB. We performed 2D ESEEM (HYSCORE) on isolated reaction centers with ubiquinones (13)C-labeled at the headgroup methyl and methoxy substituents, and have measured the (13)C isotropic and anisotropic components of the hyperfine tensors. Hyperfine couplings were compared to those derived by DFT calculations as a function of methoxy torsional angle allowing estimation of the methoxy dihedral angles for the semiquinones in the QA and QB sites. Based on this analysis, the orientation of the 2-methoxy groups are distinct in the two sites, with QB more out of plane by 20-25°. This corresponds to an ≈50 meV larger electron affinity for the QB quinone, indicating a substantial contribution to the experimental difference in redox potentials (60-75 mV) of the two quinones. The methods developed here can be readily extended to ubiquinone-binding sites in other protein complexes.

  4. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  5. Session 1 - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  6. Delivery of core medical training: the role of a local faculty group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David; Dewhurst, Graeme

    2011-10-01

    All physicians who are training young doctors of the future recognise the current challenge of doing this in the NHS. The recently published Temple Report documents the challenge and some of the solutions. For Kent, Surrey and Sussex (KSS) Deanery, one of the responses was to implement a new structure and process at local level--the local faculty groups (LFGs)--to ensure appropriate curriculum delivery. This paper sets out the history, structure and purpose of LFGs, describes what happens during a LFG meeting in both open and closed sessions and presents feedback of learning from two years in action across 11 acute trusts in the South East Coast (SEC) strategic health authority area. The experience of trainers in SEC is that the local faculty group structure and associated processes is one strand in the more effective delivery of education in the current NHS environment.

  7. The role of isomorphous substitutions in natural selenides belonging to the pyrite group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindi, Luca; Cipriani, Curzio; Pratesi, Giovanni; Trosti-Ferroni, Renza

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports chemical and structural data of selenide minerals belonging to the pyrite group. Eighteen samples of minerals in this group with variable chemical composition (7 samples of penroseite, NiSe 2 ; 10 samples of krutaite, CuSe 2 ; 1 sample of trogtalite, CoSe 2 ) were studied by means of X-ray single-crystal diffraction and electron microprobe. On the basis of information gained from the chemical characterization, we can conclude that a complete solid solution between NiSe 2 and CuSe 2 exists in nature with the absence of pure end-members. Although verified only for the Ni-rich members, we also infer a solid solution between NiSe 2 and CoSe 2 . The unit-cell parameters were modeled using a multiple regression method as a function of the Co, Ni, and Cu contents

  8. The role of isomorphous substitutions in natural selenides belonging to the pyrite group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindi, Luca [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: luca.bindi@unifi.it; Cipriani, Curzio [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, Giovanni [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Trosti-Ferroni, Renza [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2008-07-14

    The present paper reports chemical and structural data of selenide minerals belonging to the pyrite group. Eighteen samples of minerals in this group with variable chemical composition (7 samples of penroseite, NiSe{sub 2}; 10 samples of krutaite, CuSe{sub 2}; 1 sample of trogtalite, CoSe{sub 2}) were studied by means of X-ray single-crystal diffraction and electron microprobe. On the basis of information gained from the chemical characterization, we can conclude that a complete solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CuSe{sub 2} exists in nature with the absence of pure end-members. Although verified only for the Ni-rich members, we also infer a solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CoSe{sub 2}. The unit-cell parameters were modeled using a multiple regression method as a function of the Co, Ni, and Cu contents.

  9. Friends forever? The Role of the Visegrad Group and European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Visegrad Group celebrated its 25th anniversary in February 2016. Established as an initiative of three statesmen from the Central and Eastern European (CEE region, this cooperation has experienced booms and crises. The aim of this paper is to analyse the function of this regional integration in the years following the end of bipolar system as Visegrad Group members headed down the road to Euro-Atlantic integration. To this end, I apply different theoretical approaches and attempt to explain the influence of key former politicians as well as new scenarios for the Visegrad Group’s position in the European Union. This analysis also covers the latest foreign policy changes and challenges facing CEE due to the involvement of a wider region that creates a counter-balance to the core EU. Statistical data and official documents from the Visegrad Group’s website strengthen these findings.

  10. [Role of multicenter study groups for clinical research in hematology and oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökbuget, N; Hoelzer, D

    2009-04-01

    During the past 25 years a highly effective infrastructure for clinical trials was developed in hematology. Following initial funding by the BMFT (Ministry for Research and Technology) a number of large multicenter study groups for leukemia and lymphoma were developed. Treatment results from these studies often represent the"gold standard". However, since no standard therapy is defined for these diseases, the study groups aim to treat all patients within treatment optimization trials (TOT) to combine research and care. They contribute considerably to quality control in therapy and diagnostics, e.g., by establishing central reference laboratories. The regulatory requirements for clinical trials were extended considerably after the activation of the 12th drug law and TOTs now have to fulfill requirements similar to registration trials in the pharmaceutical industry. Due to the considerable bureaucratic effort and increased costs, only few large multicenter trials could thereafter be initiated and a substantial disadvantage for independent academic research becomes clearly evident.

  11. Understanding the Role of Behavior and Cognitions in a Group Exercise Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Shrigley, Tina L.; Dawson, Kimberley A.

    2004-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study examined whether individuals with different exercise behaviors (classified by attendance) experienced different or similar cognitive patterns. It was hypothesized that different behavior would lead to different cognitive appraisals. It was predicted that there would be a difference between the three behavioral frequency groups with regard to self-efficacy measures and goal measures. The second purpose of the study was to describe, evaluate and observe wh...

  12. The role of cross-group friendship and emotions in adolescents' attitudes towards inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grütter, Jeanine; Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2017-03-01

    Most countries have started to educate students with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream schools, but it remains unclear how inclusive attitudes towards students with SEN can be promoted. This study investigated the role of adolescents' friendships and socio-moral competencies for their attitudes towards the inclusion of students with SEN. Specifically, we studied whether adolescents without SEN would develop more inclusive attitudes if they had close friendships with SEN students and if they expressed negative emotions about social exclusion. Adolescents' inclusive attitudes and their emotions were gathered from survey data of 1225 Swiss students aged 11-13. Social network data were collected to assess adolescents' friendship relationships. The results indicated that adolescents' friendship closeness with SEN students positively related to their inclusive attitudes. However, this was only true for adolescents who anticipated more negative than positive emotions if a student with SEN was excluded. These findings highlight the role of friendship relationships between adolescents with and without SEN and adolescents' socio-moral experiences for their attitudes towards the inclusion of peers with SEN. Thus, inclusive education may benefit from promoting friendships among students with and without SEN as well as adolescents' socio-moral competencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with -SO3H and -COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas -NH2 and -NR3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on -NR3 and -CHO surfaces. The -OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  14. The role of ABO blood groups in Crohn's disease and in monitoring response to infliximab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiao; Wang, Lingyun; Zhang, Shenghong; Feng, Ting; Li, Li; Chen, Baili; Chen, Minhu

    2016-09-01

    The variation in ABO blood groups is reported to be associated with multiple diseases. Infliximab (IFX) has been widely used in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). We aim to investigate the distribution of ABO blood groups in Chinese patients with CD and to explore its impact on response to IFX. Patients with CD were consecutively recruited to the study between 2007 and 2014. CD patients receiving IFX therapy were followed for at least two years. In 293 patients with CD, most patients (40.6%) had blood type O (119/293). The odds ratio (OR) of CD in blood type O patients was 1.06 (95%CI: 0.6-1.86; p=0.84) compared to all other blood types. Among those CD patients, 107 patients received IFX treatment. One year after the first course of IFX, a significant association was found between the overall ABO system and outcomes of IFX treatment (pblood type AB (OR=4.42, 95% CI: 1.04-18.76; p=0.044) were more likely to achieve mucosal healing, while CD patients with blood type A had a high risk of losing response (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.15-0.96; p=0.040). ABO blood groups are not associated with prevalence of CD. Patients with blood type AB had a better response to IFX while those with blood type A appeared to have a risk of losing response to IFX.

  15. Roles of acidic functional groups of carbon fiber surfaces in enhancing interfacial adhesion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2005-01-01

    The gas phase ozone treatment was used as a method to bind acidic oxygen functional groups on carbon fiber surfaces. The ozone treatment on carbon fibers was varied with the ozone concentration and treatment time. Surface analyses of the carbon fibers before and after treatments were performed by FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and dynamic contact angle measurements. Mechanical interfacial properties of the fibers/polymer composites were investigated by using critical stress intensity factor (K IC ) and critical energy release rate (G IC ) measurements. From the results of FT-IR and XPS, it was observed that the oxygen functional groups, such as -OH, O-C=O, C=O, and C-O, were attached on the carbon fiber surfaces after the ozone treatment. The mechanical interfacial properties of the composites also showed higher values than those of untreated composites. Ozone treatment is attributed to the increase of both the acidic functional groups and the degree of adhesion at interfaces between the fibers and polymeric resin in composites

  16. The role of host traits, season and group size on parasite burdens in a cooperative mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien Viljoen

    Full Text Available The distribution of parasites among hosts is often characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity with a small number of hosts harbouring the majority of parasites. Such patterns of aggregation have been linked to variation in host exposure and susceptibility as well as parasite traits and environmental factors. Host exposure and susceptibility may differ with sexes, reproductive effort and group size. Furthermore, environmental factors may affect both the host and parasite directly and contribute to temporal heterogeneities in parasite loads. We investigated the contributions of host and parasite traits as well as season on parasite loads in highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae. This cooperative breeder exhibits a reproductive division of labour and animals live in colonies of varying sizes that procreate seasonally. Mole-rats were parasitised by lice, mites, cestodes and nematodes with mites (Androlaelaps sp. and cestodes (Mathevotaenia sp. being the dominant ecto- and endoparasites, respectively. Sex and reproductive status contributed little to the observed parasite prevalence and abundances possibly as a result of the shared burrow system. Clear seasonal patterns of parasite prevalence and abundance emerged with peaks in summer for mites and in winter for cestodes. Group size correlated negatively with mite abundance while it had no effect on cestode burdens and group membership affected infestation with both parasites. We propose that the mode of transmission as well as social factors constrain parasite propagation generating parasite patterns deviating from those commonly predicted.

  17. Roles of the Amino Group of Purine Bases in the Thermodynamic Stability of DNA Base Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ichi Nakano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energetic aspects of hydrogen-bonded base-pair interactions are important for the design of functional nucleotide analogs and for practical applications of oligonucleotides. The present study investigated the contribution of the 2-amino group of DNA purine bases to the thermodynamic stability of oligonucleotide duplexes under different salt and solvent conditions, using 2'-deoxyriboinosine (I and 2'-deoxyribo-2,6-diaminopurine (D as non-canonical nucleotides. The stability of DNA duplexes was changed by substitution of a single base pair in the following order: G•C > D•T ≈ I•C > A•T > G•T > I•T. The apparent stabilization energy due to the presence of the 2-amino group of G and D varied depending on the salt concentration, and decreased in the water-ethanol mixed solvent. The effects of salt concentration on the thermodynamics of DNA duplexes were found to be partially sequence-dependent, and the 2-amino group of the purine bases might have an influence on the binding of ions to DNA through the formation of a stable base-paired structure. Our results also showed that physiological salt conditions were energetically favorable for complementary base recognition, and conversely, low salt concentration media and ethanol-containing solvents were effective for low stringency oligonucleotide hybridization, in the context of conditions employed in this study.

  18. Information contracting tools in a cancer specialist unit:the role of Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Marlow

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for high quality management information within the contracting process has driven many of the major developments in health service computing. These have often merged clinical and financial requirements, usually along patient-centred lines. In order to identify a common currency for a range of clinical activities that are inherently variable, price tariffs have been drawn up on the basis of 'episodes of care' within specialties. Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs were designed to meet the need for a common information currency. However, they were designed for acute care. The study on which this paper is based aims to examine their applicability to chronic care in a cancer specialist unit. The data were drawn from the patient information system within a major cancer unit. The focus of the investigation is encapsulated in the following questions: a Do HRGs really work as a grouping and costing methodology? b How relevant are HRG classifications for long-term patient care? The investigation demonstrated that not all HRGs are iso-resource within this environment. The findings from the data analysis are echoed by the NHS Executive's own evaluation . This does not negate advantages in their use. Furthermore, the development of Health Benefit Groups as information management tools, through a focus on health conditions and interventions rather than on purely on treatments, offers potential for greater validity within a chronic care situation.

  19. Engaging in extreme activism in support of others’ political struggles: The role of politically motivated fusion with out-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Beverly; Kimel, Sasha Y.; Obaidi, Milan; Shani, Maor; Thomsen, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Humans are a coalitional, parochial species. Yet, extreme actions of solidarity are sometimes taken for distant or unrelated groups. What motivates people to become solidary with groups to which they do not belong originally? Here, we demonstrate that such distant solidarity can occur when the perceived treatment of an out-group clashes with one’s political beliefs (e.g., for Leftists, oppressive occupation of the out-group) and that it is driven by fusion (or a feeling of oneness) with distant others with whom one does not share any common social category such as nationality, ethnicity or religion. In Study 1, being politically Leftist predicted European-Americans’ willingness to engage in extreme protest on behalf of Palestinians, which was mediated by fusion with the out-group. Next, in Study 2, we examined whether this pattern was moderated by out-group type. Here, Norwegian Leftists fused more with Palestinians (i.e., a group that, in the Norwegian context, is perceived to be occupied in an asymmetrical conflict) rather than Kurds (i.e., a group for which this perception is less salient). In Study 3, we experimentally tested the underlying mechanism by framing the Kurdish conflict in terms of an asymmetrical occupation (vs. symmetrical war or control conditions) and found that this increased Leftist European-Americans’ fusion with Kurds. Finally, in Study 4, we used a unique sample of non-Kurdish aspiring foreign fighters who were in the process of joining the Kurdish militia YPG. Here, fusion with the out-group predicted a greater likelihood to join and support the Kurdish forces in their fight against ISIS, insofar as respondents experienced that their political orientation morally compelled them to do so (Study 4). Together, our findings suggest that politically motivated fusion with out-groups underpins the extreme solidary action people may take on behalf of distant out-groups. Implications for future theory and research are discussed. PMID:29304156

  20. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Discussion of the nature, origin and role of the intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and origin of the intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon as determined through geologic mapping, crater statistics, and remotely sensed data are summarized. Implications of these results regarding scarp formation, absolute ages, and terrestrial planet surfaces are included. The role of the intercrater plains is defined and future work which might lead to a better understanding of these units and terrestrial planet evolution is outlined.

  1. The role of individualist and collectivist orientations on self-determined motivation: integrating self-determination theory and group processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rentzelas, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to examine the role of individualism and collectivism as situational group norms on intrinsic motivation. A further aim was to examine the effect of individual differences in individualist and collectivist orientations on the effect of autonomous motivation on intention and behaviour. This research integrated the concept of self-determined and intrinsic motivation as postulated in Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985a, 2000,2002), individualism and coll...

  2. Creating social spaces to tackle AIDS-related stigma: reviewing the role of church groups in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Gibbs, A

    2011-08-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS.

  3. Intra-Group Conflict and Teamwork Quality: The Moderating Role of Leadership Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru L. Curşeu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the extent to which task and relations oriented leadership moderate the impact of task and relationship conflict on teamwork quality. In a sample of 37 teams, the study shows that relationship oriented leadership is beneficial for dealing with relationship conflict, but it does not have the expected positive interaction effect with task conflict. The main practical implication of the results is that in order to mitigate the negative effects of intra-group conflict on teamwork quality the leadership style should fit the type of disagreement (task versus relational predominantly experienced by the teams.

  4. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  5. Using novel control groups to dissect the amygdala's role in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Avery, Suzanne N; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

    2011-07-01

    Williams syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder with an intriguing behavioral phenotype-hypersociability combined with significant non-social fears. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormalities in amygdala function in individuals with Williams syndrome compared to typically-developing controls. However, it remains unclear whether the findings are related to the atypical neurodevelopment of Williams syndrome, or are also associated with behavioral traits at the extreme end of a normal continuum. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare amygdala blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses to non-social and social images in individuals with Williams syndrome compared to either individuals with inhibited temperament (high non-social fear) or individuals with uninhibited temperament (high sociability). Individuals with Williams syndrome had larger amygdala BOLD responses when viewing the non-social fear images than the inhibited temperament control group. In contrast, when viewing both fear and neutral social images, individuals with Williams syndrome did not show smaller amygdala BOLD responses relative to the uninhibited temperament control group, but instead had amygdala responses proportionate to their sociability. These results suggest heightened amygdala response to non-social fear images is characteristic of WS, whereas, variability in amygdala response to social fear images is proportionate to, and might be explained by, levels of trait sociability.

  6. Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

  7. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  8. Dually diagnosed patients' benefits of mutual-help groups and the role of social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth C; McKellar, John; Zemore, Sarah; Moos, Rudolf H

    2013-02-01

    There is debate about whether dually diagnosed patients benefit from mutual-help groups (MHGs), partly because social anxiety may make participation problematic. We examined dually diagnosed patients' participation in MHGs and outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 months post-treatment, and the extent to which social anxiety was associated with participation. We also examined whether MHG participation and social anxiety were related to outcomes, and whether social anxiety moderated associations between participation and outcomes. We found high rates of MHG participation. Among patients who attended at least one meeting, outcomes were positive. Social anxiety was not associated with levels of MHG participation, but more participation was associated with better outcomes. When social anxiety moderated associations between MHG participation and outcomes, patients with more social anxiety benefited more from participation. Treated dually diagnosed patients participate in, and benefit from, MHGs, and participation and benefits are comparable, or even strengthened, among more socially-anxious patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Role of Family Influences on Adolescent Smoking in Different Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although differing levels of family influences may explain some of the varying racial/ethnic trends in adolescent smoking behavior, clarification of which influences are protective against smoking may aid in the development of future ethnic-specific smoking prevention interventions. We sought to identify and compare the association of family influences on adolescent smoking among Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents in a cross-sectional national sample. Methods: Data from 6,426 parent–child dyads from Round 1 of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were analyzed. The association of family influences with ever-smokers and recent smokers was evaluated. Multinomial logistic regression using SUDAAN software was used. Results: While all measures of family influences except for parent–adolescent activities and intention to monitor were significantly protective against recent smoking and ever smoking among Whites, ethnic-specific family influence predictors of smoking were found in Blacks and Hispanics. Higher parental monitoring, higher intention to monitor, and higher connectedness were protective among Hispanics, while higher parental punishment and favorable attitude toward monitoring were protective against smoking among Blacks. For family influences significantly associated with protection against smoking, consistently greater protection was afforded against recent smoking than against ever smoking. Conclusions: Higher levels of family influences are protective against smoking among all racial/ethnic groups. There are consistencies in family influences on youth smoking; however, there may be specific family influences that should be differentially emphasized within racial/ethnic groups in order to protect against smoking behavior. Our results offer insight for designing strategies for preventing smoking in youth of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. PMID:22180584

  10. The role of group brain checkups using magnetic resonance imaging in pre-elderly with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai-Iwai, Eri; Ogawa, Fumiaki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Naruse, Shoji

    2006-01-01

    Care of elderly people is an important socio-economical issue for industrial nations. Stroke is the leading cause of elderly care and its major risk facters are silent brain infarcts and metabolic disorders such as hypertension. Recent progress in brain imaging techniques has enabled early detection of cerebrovascular disease. However, brain imaging of numerous patients is not feasible because the test is time consuming and costly. Furthermore, the epidemiology of silent cerebrovascular disease in hypertensive elderly people is not well-known. Thus, the present study aims to establish whether group brain check-up is effective and to assess the incidence of silent cerebrovascular disease in pre-elderly individuals with hypertension. We randomly enrolled 224 participants, aged 50- to 65-years-old, with hypertension detected during routine medical check-ups. All participants were free of neurological symptoms, or dementia as determined by the Mini Mental Status Examination. MRI was carried out by the simplified method of fast spin echo (FSE)-T2-weighted image (T2WI) and 3D-time of flight (TOF) MRA with Toshiba VISART1.5T, and diagnosed by 3 radiologists. Each imaging test required only 10 minutes and the cost was reduced to about 40-80% number of the usual cost for brain MRIs. The detection rate of abnormal findings was 77.6% (n=174) and that of cerebrovascular changes was 70.1% (n=159; 102 lacunae, 64 intracranial artery stenosis, and 27 cerebral aneurysm), which was much higher than previously reported in a study of random participants. In addition, follow-up questionnaires after the brain check-ups revealed that 86% of participants improved their awareness about health-related life-style. These findings indicate that the pre-elderly population with hypertension is at high-risk for silent cerebrovascular disease, and mass screening of this group using our simplified MRI may be an effective medical health strategy in aging society. (author)

  11. Peripheral Contour Grouping and Saccade Targeting: The Role of Mirror Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Sassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating shape contours in the visual periphery is vital to our ability to locate objects and thus make targeted saccadic eye movements to efficiently explore our surroundings. We tested whether global shape symmetry facilitates peripheral contour integration and saccade targeting in three experiments, in which observers responded to a successful peripheral contour detection by making a saccade towards the target shape. The target contours were horizontally (Experiment 1 or vertically (Experiments 2 and 3 mirror symmetric. Observers responded by making a horizontal (Experiments 1 and 2 or vertical (Experiment 3 eye movement. Based on an analysis of the saccadic latency and accuracy, we conclude that the figure-ground cue of global mirror symmetry in the periphery has little effect on contour integration or on the speed and precision with which saccades are targeted towards objects. The role of mirror symmetry may be more apparent under natural viewing conditions with multiple objects competing for attention, where symmetric regions in the visual field can pre-attentively signal the presence of objects, and thus attract eye movements.

  12. Discussion on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)

  13. Summary of discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides summaries of the discussions occurred during the second international workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage. It concerns the second accident scenario: a fire on board of a ship transporting enriched uranium hexafluoride along the Danube River. (A.L.B.)

  14. Discussion 2: David Dobbs

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, David; Murray-Rust, Peter; Hatcher, Jordan; Pollock, Rufus

    2010-01-01

    David Dobbs writes on science, medicine and culture. He has contributed to a diversity of publications, including Scientific American, Slate magazine, Wired, Audubon, Atlantic Monthly, and the New York Times magazine. He has also authored a number of books. Other participants in this discussion were Peter Murray-Rust, Jordan Hatcher, and Rufus Pollock.

  15. Summary and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes and discusses results of the longitudinal study that comprises this monograph issue. Results concern: (1) marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships in families with single and remarried mothers; (2) the relationship between parenting style and adolescent adjustment; and (3) the relationship between marital transitions and…

  16. WORKSHOP: Discussion, debate, deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid

  17. An uplifting discussion of T-duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Moore, Gregory W.

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that string theory has a T-duality symmetry relating circle compactifications of large and small radius. This symmetry plays a foundational role in string theory. We note here that while T-duality is order two acting on the moduli space of compactifications, it is order four in its action on the conformal field theory state space. More generally, involutions in the Weyl group W ( G) which act at points of enhanced G symmetry have canonical lifts to order four elements of G, a phenomenon first investigated by J. Tits in the mathematical literature on Lie groups and generalized here to conformal field theory. This simple fact has a number of interesting consequences. One consequence is a reevaluation of a mod two condition appearing in asymmetric orbifold constructions. We also briefly discuss the implications for the idea that T-duality and its generalizations should be thought of as discrete gauge symmetries in spacetime.

  18. Preventive and curative role of mezo-inosite B group vitamin in radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perepelkin, S.P.; Egorova, N.D.; Katsitadze, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of mezo-inosite (optically nonactive stereoisomer of inosite B group vitamine) having vitamin properties has been studied. Investigations were carried out with nonpedigree male rats. Mezo-inosite was used perorally in two variants of doses: according to the first variant - 2, 5, 10 mg per rat, according to the second variant - 1, 2, 2.5 and 5 mg per rat, which were conditionally named as doses of daily man organism demand, minimum therapeutic and therapeutic doses, respectively. Mezo-inosite was added into the rat ration for 21 days before irradiation and for 30-33 days after irradiation. The animals were exposed to 600 R total X-ray irradiation. Strong protective mezo-inosite effect (particularly at small doses, used in the second variant) in irradiation disease against a background of physiological diet application has been established. These data are confirmed by high animal survival, some increased duration of animal life,some more weight increase for the first ten-day period after irradiation and a comparatively better normalization of leucocytic composition of peripherical blood of the experimental animals, getting mezoinosite, in comparison with the controls

  19. Reducing legal fees in medical group practices. The role of health care alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, D M

    1995-01-01

    Conflict is a growth industry, particularly in an increasingly complex health care system. Litigation is the most common, and most costly, method of settling health care disputes. Highly adversarial, the process of litigation often generates as much, if not more, hostility than the original dispute. In addition, satisfaction with the outcome is very low. The challenge that has arisen is to manage the conflicts so that the underlying needs and interests of all the parties can best be met. Often the techniques and processes of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) can be successfully used in resolving these sorts of conflicts quickly, cheaply and with greater satisfaction for all parties. Various applications of ADR are currently being used or tested in a variety of health care disputes in the United States and Canada. Tremendous success has been achieved in mediating medical malpractice claims, medical staff disputes, economic credentialing conflicts, insurer relations issues and denial of coverage disputes. Professional relations and departmental staff disputes, partnership and employee conflicts, and organizational disputes within clinics, HMOs and large group practices have all been found particularly amenable to ADR. These are all situations in which everyone benefits from quick, non-hostile resolutions and on-going relationships can continue.

  20. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  1. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  2. Discussion with CERN Directorate

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Please note that the Discussion with CERN Directorate will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Prevessin 774-R-013 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.

  3. Pathways to suicidality across ethnic groups in Canadian adults: the possible role of social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D E; Colantonio, A; Rhodes, A E; Escobar, M

    2008-03-01

    Ethnicity is an important determinant of mental health outcomes including suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). Understanding ethnic differences in the pathways to suicidality is important for suicide prevention efforts in ethnically diverse populations. These pathways can be conceptualized within a social stress framework. The study examines ethnic differences in the pathways to suicidality in Canada within a social stress framework. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (CCHS 1.1) and path analysis, we examined the hypotheses that variations in (1) socio-economic status (SES), (2) sense of community belonging (SCB), (3) SES and SCB combined, and (4) SES, SCB and clinical factors combined can explain ethnic differences in suicidality. Francophone whites and Aboriginals were more likely to report suicidality compared to Anglophone whites whereas visible minorities and Foreign-born whites were least likely. Disadvantages in income, income and education, income and its combined effect with depression and alcohol dependence/abuse led to high rates even among the low-risk visible minority group. Indirect pathways for Asians differed from that of Blacks and South Asians, specifically through SCB. With the exception of SCB, Aboriginals were most disadvantaged, which exacerbated their risk for suicidality. However, their strong SCB buffered the risk for suicidality across pathways. Disadvantages in education, income and SCB were associated with the high risk for suicidality in Francophone whites. Francophone whites and Aboriginals had higher odds of suicidality compared to Anglophone whites; however, some pathways differed, indicating the need for targeted program planning and prevention efforts.

  4. The role of test-retest reliability in measuring individual and group differences in executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paap, Kenneth R; Sawi, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Studies testing for individual or group differences in executive functioning can be compromised by unknown test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliabilities across an interval of about one week were obtained from performance in the antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching tasks. There is a general trade-off between the greater reliability of single mean RT measures, and the greater process purity of measures based on contrasts between mean RTs in two conditions. The individual differences in RT model recently developed by Miller and Ulrich was used to evaluate the trade-off. Test-retest reliability was statistically significant for 11 of the 12 measures, but was of moderate size, at best, for the difference scores. The test-retest reliabilities for the Simon and flanker interference scores were lower than those for switching costs. Standard practice evaluates the reliability of executive-functioning measures using split-half methods based on data obtained in a single day. Our test-retest measures of reliability are lower, especially for difference scores. These reliability measures must also take into account possible day effects that classical test theory assumes do not occur. Measures based on single mean RTs tend to have acceptable levels of reliability and convergent validity, but are "impure" measures of specific executive functions. The individual differences in RT model shows that the impurity problem is worse than typically assumed. However, the "purer" measures based on difference scores have low convergent validity that is partly caused by deficiencies in test-retest reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Various Extractants in Removing Group-IIB Elements of Soils Incubated with EDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Karak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation undertaken to evaluate different extractant solutions viz. HCl, Mg(NO32, and DTPA with the range of concentration from 0.001 to 0.1N after incubation with group-IIB metals (Zn, Cd, and Hg and EDTA to understand the capability to remove Zn, Cd, and Hg from soils. Two noncontaminated soils, one acidic (GHL and the other alkaline (KAP, in reaction were taken from an agricultural field of West Bengal, India for this investigation. Experiments were conducted on these two soils spiked with ZnII, CdII, and HgII in concentrations of 612, 321, and 215 mg/kg for soil GHL and 778, 298, and 157 mg/kg for soil KAP, respectively, which simulate typical electroplating waste contamination. The removal of Zn, Cd, and Hg in soil GHL within the range of HCl concentrations was 8.2–16.5, 12.2–19.1, and 4.3–6.9 whereas these were 6.5–7.6, 8.5–14.1, and 3.2–5.2 in soil KAP. The removal of Zn, Cd, and Hg in soil GHL within the range of Mg(NO32 concentrations were 12.2–28.5, 19.1–24.6, and 18.2–19.1 whereas these were 9.1–12.1, 8.3–12.1, and 10.6–48.1 in soil KAP. For DTPA extractant, the percent removal of metal was found to be significantly higher than the other two extractants, which corroborates that DTPA is a better extractant for soil cleaning.

  6. The role of student surgical interest groups and surgical Olympiads in anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dydykin, Sergey; Kapitonova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Traditional department-based surgical interest groups in Russian medical schools are useful tools for student-based selection of specialty training. They also form a nucleus for initiating research activities among undergraduate students. In Russia, the Departments of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery play an important role in initiating student-led research and providing learners with advanced, practical surgical skills. In tandem with department-led activities, student surgical interest groups prepare learners through surgical competitions, known as "Surgical Olympiads," which have been conducted in many Russian centers on a regular basis since 1988. Surgical Olympiads stimulate student interest in the development of surgical skills before graduation and encourage students to choose surgery as their postgraduate specialty. Many of the participants in these surgical Olympiads have become highly qualified specialists in general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, and emergency medicine. The present article emphasizes the role of student interest groups and surgical Olympiads in clinical anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Laying hen performance in different production systems; why do they differ and how to close the gap? Results of discussions with groups of farmers in The Netherlands, Switzerland and France, benchmarking and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Maurer, V.; Galea, F.; Bestman, M.W.P.; Amsler, Z.; Visscher, J.; Vermeij, I.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Free range and organic systems expose the laying hen more to unexpected events and adverse climatic conditions than barn and cage systems. In France, The Netherlands and Switzerland the requirements for a hen suitable to produce in free range and organic systems were discussed with farmers. The

  8. Interactions of Kraft lignin and wheat gluten during biomaterial processing: evidence for the role of phenolic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtatip, Kaewta; Menut, Paul; Auvergne, Remi; Tanrattanakul, Varaporn; Morel, Marie-Helene; Guilbert, Stephane

    2010-04-14

    The chemical interactions between Kraft lignin and wheat gluten under processing conditions were investigated by determining the extent of the protein network formation. To clarify the role of different chemical functions found in lignin, the effect of Kraft lignin was compared with that of an esterified lignin, in which hydroxyl groups had been suppressed by esterification, and with a series of simple aromatics and phenolic structures with different functionalities (conjugated double bonds, hydroxyl, carboxylic acid, and aldehyde). The protein solubility was determined by using the Kjeldahl method. The role of the hydroxyl function was assessed by the significantly lower effect of esterified lignin. The importance of the phenolic radical scavenging structure is evidenced by the effect of guaiacol, which results in a behavior similar to that of the Kraft lignin. In addition, the significant effect of conjugated double bonds on gluten reactivity, through nucleophilic addition, was demonstrated.

  9. Discussion Club "Profitable Heritage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors and participants of the project and the expert community analyze the problems related to the realization of a big-scale concept of renovation of the historical center “Irkutsk Quarters”. They discuss preservation of wooden architecture of the city, changes in social functions of the territory, inclusion of the new facilities in the fabric of the area, as well as the problems of the territory’s tourist function and preservation of the identity of Irkutsk downtown.

  10. Energy research and development in the United Kingdom. Report of the Group set up by the Council of the Royal Society to examine, discuss and report on the Department of Energy Paper 'Energy R and D in the United Kingdom - A discussion document' (Energy Paper no. 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Following an Introduction and Summary, the report is in sections, entitled: energy supply and demand, and possible economic futures in the United Kingdom; energy sources available to the United Kingdom (coal; offshore oil; nuclear fission power; nuclear fusion power; alternative power sources, e.g. wave power, solar energy, tidal power); energy conservation; consequential energy R and D strategy. In connection with nuclear fission power it is the opinion of the group that sufficient approval for the UK single commercial fast breeder reactor project should be given so that all the necessary planning and practical studies can be started immediately. Safety and environmental problems should be intensively studied. The group would like to see a much stronger R and D programme concerned with the disposal of nuclear wastes. (U.K.)

  11. Panel discussion: Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake

  12. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  13. capital. A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  14. Results and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model

  15. A description of the "event manager" role in resuscitations: A qualitative study of interviews and focus groups of resuscitation participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katherine L; Parshuram, Christopher S; Ferri, Susan; Mema, Briseida

    2017-06-01

    Communication during resuscitation is essential for the provision of coordinated, effective care. Previously, we observed 44% of resuscitation communication originated from participants other than the physician team leader; 65% of which was directed to the team, exclusive of the team leader. We called this outer-loop communication. This institutional review board-approved qualitative study used grounded theory analysis of focus groups and interviews to describe and define outer-loop communication and the role of "event manager" as an additional "leader." Participants were health care staff involved in the medical management of resuscitations in a quaternary pediatric academic hospital. The following 3 domains were identified: the existence and rationale of outer-loop communication; the functions fulfilled by outer-loop communication; and the leadership and learning of event manager skills. The role was recognized by all team members and evolved organically as resuscitation complexity increased. A "good" manager has similar qualities to a "good team leader" with strong nontechnical skills. Event managers were not formally identified and no specific training had occurred. "Outer-loop" communication supports resuscitation activities. An event manager gives direction to the team, coordinates activities, and supports the team leader. We describe a new role in resuscitation in light of structural organizational theory and cognitive load with a view to incorporating this structure into resuscitation training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. From discussion to dismay

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Dear colleagues, We are not at the end of our troubles concerning the pension conditions offered by the Organization. As is our wont, we had prepared an article explaining the details of our proposals, different from those of the Administration. Unfortunately, there is no longer time for explanations. The Director of Administration is now preparing to impose his proposals. Despite some improvements, they remain, for us, unjustified and unacceptable, and we shall demonstrate this. The Staff Council cannot accept this way of doing things and we will denounce it. We now expect the Director-General to take position and play his role as representative of the Member States towards the personnel and EQUALLY as the representative of the personnel towards these same Member States. We shall come back to this. So that things are clear, we invite you to attend one of the four public meetings listed below. Your opinion is important to us. We shall ask for your support in a referendum that will take place from Tuesday 10 M...

  17. Round table discussion during session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, M.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the first session of the Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Accepting or refusing a person, an institution or a grouping as a legitimate Stakeholder who makes the decision and how? - How are the local partnerships built and organised? - How to obtain community support for the partnership's legitimate decisions/findings? - Experience teaches that no decision is reached solely by formal and legal processes. What role do informal processes play? - How can the informal procedures be accepted? Do they need to be made explicit? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. After the discussion, each table's findings were reported to the plenary. Most of the discussion concerned the local partnerships. Important findings were that the statutes for the partnerships were developed by the partnerships themselves and there were no legally binding rules handed down by the federal level. The partnerships are part of an informal process. A legally binding participation (i.e. within the EIA) will be initiated at a later stage. As the partnerships function outside of the formal legal procedure, they can function in a more flexible way. It was noted that the partnerships make recommendations, but it is not clear what the government will do with these recommendations. It was also argued that the process may cause conflicts between neighboring communities. As in other contexts visited by the FSC, the importance of the right of veto of the community was stressed, although this may cause a conflict between technical suitability and social acceptance. Access of the community to the local partnership is necessary. Finally it was accepted that time is needed to explain the recommendations to the broader community before any decisions are taken. (author)

  18. Role of the Group B antigen of Streptococcus agalactiae: a peptidoglycan-anchored polysaccharide involved in cell wall biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Caliot

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS is a leading cause of infections in neonates and an emerging pathogen in adults. The Lancefield Group B carbohydrate (GBC is a peptidoglycan-anchored antigen that defines this species as a Group B Streptococcus. Despite earlier immunological and biochemical characterizations, the function of this abundant glycopolymer has never been addressed experimentally. Here, we inactivated the gene gbcO encoding a putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate:lipid phosphate transferase thought to catalyze the first step of GBC synthesis. Indeed, the gbcO mutant was unable to synthesize the GBC polymer, and displayed an important growth defect in vitro. Electron microscopy study of the GBC-depleted strain of S. agalactiae revealed a series of growth-related abnormalities: random placement of septa, defective cell division and separation processes, and aberrant cell morphology. Furthermore, vancomycin labeling and peptidoglycan structure analysis demonstrated that, in the absence of GBC, cells failed to initiate normal PG synthesis and cannot complete polymerization of the murein sacculus. Finally, the subcellular localization of the PG hydrolase PcsB, which has a critical role in cell division of streptococci, was altered in the gbcO mutant. Collectively, these findings show that GBC is an essential component of the cell wall of S. agalactiae whose function is reminiscent of that of conventional wall teichoic acids found in Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, our findings raise the possibility that GBC-like molecules play a major role in the growth of most if not all beta-hemolytic streptococci.

  19. Role of the H-containing groups on the structural dynamics of Ti3C2Tx MXene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zhang, Xitian; Gao, Hong

    2018-05-01

    It is a confused problem in the literature that the c-axis value of Ti3C2 MXene changes with the synthesis procedure, but the part of the surface structures that plays the role of pillar to support the Ti3C2 layers and their variation rules remain controversial. In this work, we develop the structure models and formation mechanisms of Ti3C2Tx based on the density functional theory calculations and experimental results. While the c-axis values of the samples vary from about 1.9 to 2.9 nm, the corresponding pillars are determined by different distributions and proportions of the H-containing groups. The proportions of the H-containing groups that determine the c-axis value are formulated as the functions of the interlayer space, which can be used to quantitatively clarify the changes of the surface functional groups after the samples experiencing different treatments. The results can facilitate the in situ detections of the surface structures of MXenes during different treatments or electrochemical processes.

  20. Role of the catechol group in the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of virgin olive oil components in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, J P; Ruiz-Moreno, M I; Guerrero, A; López-Villodres, J A; Reyes, J J; Espartero, J L; Labajos, M T; González-Correa, J A

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the catechol group in the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of minor components of virgin olive oil in rat brain tissue. Hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (HT, 2 OH), tyrosol ethyl ether (Ty, 1 OH) and 3,4-di-ortho-methylidene-hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (MET, no OH) were compared. Oxidative stress was induced with ferrous salts (lipid peroxidation induction), diethylmaleate (depletion of glutathione) and hypoxia-reoxygenation in brain slices. Lipid peroxidation was inhibited in direct proportion to the number of OH groups: HT>Ty>MET. Exposure to HT led to partial recovery of the glutathione system after chemical inhibition or hypoxia-reoxygenation. All three compounds inhibited cell death in hypoxia-reoxygenation experiments (HT≥Ty>MET). Peroxynitrite formation (3-nitrotyrosine) and inflammatory mediators (prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1ß) were inhibited by all three compounds. In conclusion, the presence of OH groups in the molecule of these phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil is a determinant factor in their antioxidant effect in brain tissue, but this antioxidant effect is not the only explanation for their neuroprotective effect. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.