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Sample records for group discussions role

  1. Literature Discussion Groups: The Role of Teacher Talk in Discussing Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teacher talk influenced the way issues of race, culture, and disability were addressed in literature discussion groups. Discussions of one teacher with two groups of students, of varying reading levels, were studied. The research questions were: 1) How does the teacher's perspective on the students…

  2. Groups of Groups: The Role of Group Learning in Building Social Capital. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Bell, Rowena; Falk, Ian

    The Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia is investigating the elements of social capital and developing a set of indicators that show when social capital is building. The indicators can be used where groups or organizations with a shared purpose engage in productive interactions that benefit not only the individual member groups…

  3. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  4. Summaries of group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    Group discussions following the presentations of reports on the remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay resources are presented. The parameters to be investigated by the remote sensors and the specifications of the sensors are described. Specific sensors for obtaining data on various aspects of the ecology are identified. Recommendations for establishing a data bank and additional efforts to obtain increased understanding of the ecology are submitted.

  5. Small group discussion: Students perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-08-01

    Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1(st) year medical students of 2014-2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods.

  6. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  7. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  8. Cultural Ways of Constructing Knowledge: The Role of Identities in Online Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Learning scientists and the CSCL community have argued that knowledge construction is a process of collective thinking; a process that is simultaneously personal and social that requires group cognition. However, while CSCL researchers have investigated situated knowledge in the process of collective thinking, little work has been done to fully…

  9. Cultural Ways of Constructing Knowledge: The Role of Identities in Online Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Learning scientists and the CSCL community have argued that knowledge construction is a process of collective thinking; a process that is simultaneously personal and social that requires group cognition. However, while CSCL researchers have investigated situated knowledge in the process of collective thinking, little work has been done to fully…

  10. The Influence of Collaborative Group Work on Students' Development of Critical Thinking: The Teacher's Role in Facilitating Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis Chun-Lok; To, Helen; Leung, Kit

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of group work in a teaching intervention can effectively foster students' critical thinking skills. Building upon Kuhn's critical thinking model, the research involved comparison of pretest and post-test results for 140 secondary four (10th grade) students in Hong Kong on two…

  11. Group discussion improves lie detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadav Klein; Nicholas Epley

    2015-01-01

    ... identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions...

  12. Which Cognitive Processes Support Learning during Small-Group Discussion? The Role of Providing Explanations and Listening to Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    Seventy students participated in an experiment to measure the effects of either providing explanations or listening during small group discussions on recall of related subject-matter studied after the discussion. They watched a video of a small group discussing a problem. In the first experimental condition, the video was stopped at various points…

  13. Which cognitive processes support learning during small-group discussion? The role of providing explanations and listening to others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSeventy students participated in an experiment to measure the effects of either providing explanations or listening during small group discussions on recall of related subject-matter studied after the discussion. They watched a video of a small group discussing a problem. In the first

  14. Group discussion improves lie detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-06-16

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment.

  15. [Development of clinical trial education program for pharmaceutical science students through small group discussion and role-playing using protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imakyure, Osamu; Shuto, Hideki; Nishikawa, Fumi; Hagiwara, Yoshifuka; Inoue, Sachiko; Koyanagi, Taeko; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2010-08-01

    The acquirement of basic knowledge of clinical trials and professional attitude in their practices is a general instructional objective in the Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education. Unfortunately, the previous program of clinical trial education was not effective in the acquirement of a professional attitude in their practices. Then, we developed the new clinical trial education program using protocol through small group discussion (SGD) and roll-playing. Our program consists of 7 steps of practical training. In step 1, the students find some problems after presentation of the protocol including case and prescription. In step 2, they analyse the extracted problems and share the information obtained in SGD. In steps 3 and 5, five clinical case scenarios are presented to the students and they discuss which case is suitable for entry to the clinical trial or which case corresponds to the discontinuance criteria in the present designed protocol. In steps 4 and 6, the roll-playing is performed by teachers and students as doctors and clinical research coordinators (CRC) respectively. Further, we conducted a trial practice based on this program for the students. In the student's self-evaluation into five grades, the average score of the skill acquisition level in each step was 3.8-4.7 grade. Our clinical trial education program could be effective in educating the candidates for CRC or clinical pharmacists.

  16. Interteaching: Discussion Group Size and Course Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Jacob C.; Saville, Bryan K.; Van Patten, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have yet to examine whether discussion group size affects student performance in an interteaching-based course. In the current study, we addressed this question by manipulating discussion group size (smaller groups of 2 students vs. larger groups of 4 students) across 2 sections of an undergraduate psychology course. We found no…

  17. Dr. Irvin Yalom Discusses Group Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1989-01-01

    In this interview, Dr. Irvin Yalom, director of the Adult Psychiatry Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine, discusses his beginnings as a group psychotherapist, current issues in group work, and the future of group work. (Author/TE)

  18. National GAP Conference 2007-Discussion Groups Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Joan M.; Lamb, Berton Lee

    2010-01-01

    We led two discussion groups during the 2007 National GAP Conference. These discussion groups provided information to help develop a survey of National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) data users. One group discussed technical issues, and the second group discussed the use of GAP data for decisionmaking. Themes emerging from the technical issues group included concerns about data quality, need for information on how to use data, and passive data distribution. The decisionmaking discussion included a wide range of topics including the need to understand presentation of information, the need to connect with and understand users of data, the revision of GAP's mission, and the adaptability of products and data. The decisionmaking group also raised concerns regarding technical issues. One conclusion is that a deep commitment to ongoing information transfer and support is a key component of success for the GAP program.

  19. The role of support groups in facilitating families in coping with a genetic condition and in discussion of genetic risk information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Gillian; Metcalfe, Alison; Coad, Jane; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-09-01

      Giving children and young people information about genetic conditions and associated risk has been shown to be important to their identity, coping and decision making. Parents, however, find talking to their children difficult, and support from health professionals is often not available to them.   To explore the role of support groups in family coping, and in assisting parents' communication about risk with children in families affected by an inherited genetic condition.   Semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory and informed by models focusing on aspects of family communication.   Affected and unaffected children and their parents, from families affected by one of six genetic conditions, that represent different patterns of inheritance, and variations in age of onset, life expectancy and impact on families.   Parents often sought support they did not receive elsewhere from support groups. They identified benefits, but also potential disadvantages to this involvement. These related to the specific condition and also whether groups were run solely by parents or had professional input. Support groups rarely helped directly with family communication, but attendance often stimulated family discussion, and they provided information that improved parents' confidence in discussing the condition.   Support groups should be seen only as additional to the support offered by health and social care professionals. An increased understanding of the role of support groups in assisting families with genetic conditions has been highlighted, but further work is needed to explore more fully how this may be made more sustainable and far-reaching. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Enhancing Understanding and Interest through Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Group discussion allows students to learn how to "talk to someone." Through group discussion, students can acquire or refine a broad range of attributes, from basic oratory skills to a more sophisticated development of communicative competence to embracing and valuing dialogic interchange and reflexivity. In this article, the author explains how…

  1. Medical Students' Attitudes Toward Non-Adherent Patients Before and After a Simulated Patient-Role Activity and Small-Group Discussion: Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelPrete, Angela; Giordano, Christin; Castiglioni, Analia; Hernandez, Caridad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study seeks to explore whether the documented decline in medical student empathy can be prevented or slowed using simulated patient-role activities and small-group discussions about the patient experience of living with a chronic illness. Methods First-year students (M1, n = 118) at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine (UCFCOM) participated in a simulated patient-role activity resembling the experience of a patient with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The activity included taking daily "medication," participating in moderate exercise, and maintaining a low carbohydrate diet. At the end of the simulated patient-role activity, students took part in a small-group discussion about their experiences. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: Student Version (JSPE:S) before and after the activity. Additionally, fourth-year students (M4) at UCFCOM completed the JSPE:S to serve as the control, as this class completed the curriculum without any simulated patient-role activities. Results A total of 86 responses out of 118 possible M1 participants (73% response rate) were received. Of these, 62 surveys were completed and were therefore used for statistical analysis. A dependent sample t-test revealed no statistically significant increase on pre-activity (M = 111.15, SD = 8.56) and post-activity (M = 111.38, SD = 9.12) empathy scores (p = .78). A positive correlation was revealed to exist between pre- and post-activity empathy scores (r = 0.72, p students, our findings suggest that on a short-term scale, empathy levels were not affected by the activity.

  2. Teaching Organizational Behavior Through Discussion Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Stephen; Hamblin, Anthony C.

    1978-01-01

    An educational experiment in teaching organizational behavior to undergraduates in England is reported, with focus on the value and limitations of a systematic form of discussion-group learning based upon a framework outlined by Fawcett Hill. (LBH)

  3. Summary of Study Group Session Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between gravitational physiology and calcium metabolism is examined. The role of gravity on the problems of bone response, low gravity environments, calcium in plants, and the potential in animal systems for alterations in nerve and muscle function as variations in extracellular calcium levels occurred are discussed. Innovative materials for experiments on interactions between calcium and gravity, experiments that could utilize ionospheres or calcium-measuring dyes, and specific gravity calcium experiments are also addressed.

  4. Group reports. The recommendations proposed by the seven discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1989-01-01

    GROUP 1 — Discussion leader S.H. Sohmer — Organization and the ideal format of a large Flora (over 10,000 species) The Working Group first recognized that there are really two major categories of Flora projects serving quite different needs in the Malesian region: the local/national projects that

  5. Assessing clinical competency: reports from discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnwald, Grant; Stone, Elizabeth; Bristol, David; Fuentealba, Carmen; Hardie, Lizette; Hellyer, Peter; Jaeger, Laurie; Kerwin, Sharon; Kochevar, Deborah; Lissemore, Kerry; Olsen, Christopher; Rogers, Kenita; Sabin, Beth; Swanson, Cliff; Warner, Angeline

    2008-01-01

    This report describes proposed new models for assessment of eight of the nine clinical competencies the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education requires for accreditation. The models were developed by discussion groups at the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges' Clinical Competency Symposium. Clinical competencies and proposed models (in parentheses) are described. Competency 1: comprehensive patient diagnosis (neurologic examination on a dog, clinical reasoning skills); Competency 2: comprehensive treatment planning (concept mapping, computerized case studies); Competency 3: anesthesia, pain management (student portfolio); Competency 4: surgery skills (objective structured clinical examination, cased-based examination, "super dog" model); Competency 5: medicine skills (clinical reasoning and case management, skills checklist); Competency 6: emergency and intensive care case management (computerized case study or scenario); Competency 7: health promotion, disease prevention/biosecurity (360 degrees evaluation, case-based computer simulation); Competency 8: client communications and ethical conduct (Web-based evaluation forms, client survey, communicating with stakeholders, telephone conversation, written scenario-based cases). The report also describes faculty recognition for participating in clinical competency assessments.

  6. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  7. The influence of ethnic group composition on focus group discussions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwood, Nan; Ellmers, Theresa; Holley, Jess

    2014-01-01

    ... of importance to them in their own words [2]. They are particularly useful for gaining insight from minority ethnic groups [1, 3] because of their sensitivity to cultural variables [2, 4]. One of the main differences between focus groups and one-to-one interviews is the interaction between participants. Focus group participants can...

  8. Role Modelling in MOOC Discussion Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecking, Tobias; Chounta, Irene-Angelica; Hoppe, H. Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    To further develop rich and expressive ways of modelling roles of contributors in discussion forums of online courses, particularly in MOOCs, networks of forum users are analyzed based on the relations of information-giving and information-seeking. Specific connection patterns that appear in the information exchange networks of forum users are…

  9. Analysis of roles and groups in blogosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Gliwa, Bogdan; Zygmunt, Anna; Koźlak, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    In the paper different roles of users in social media, taking into consideration their strength of influence and different degrees of cooperativeness, are introduced. Such identified roles are used for the analysis of characteristics of groups of strongly connected entities. The different classes of groups, considering the distribution of roles of users belonging to them, are presented and discussed.

  10. Simulating social dilemmas: promoting cooperative behavior through imagined group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    A robust finding in social dilemmas research is that individual group members are more likely to act cooperatively if they are given the chance to discuss the dilemma with one another. The authors investigated whether imagining a group discussion may represent an effective means of increasing cooperative behavior in the absence of the opportunity for direct negotiation among decision makers. Five experiments, utilizing a range of task variants, tested this hypothesis. Participants engaged in a guided simulation of the progressive steps required to reach a cooperative consensus within a group discussion of a social dilemma. Results support the conclusion that imagined group discussion enables conscious processes that parallel those underlying the direct group discussion and is a strategy that can effectively elicit cooperative behavior. The applied potential of imagined group discussion techniques to encourage more socially responsible behavior is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Clinton H.; Alder, G. Stoney

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of shared information and group discussion on ethical judgment when no structure is imposed on the discussion to encourage ethical considerations. Discussants were asked to identify arguments for and against a variety of business behaviors with ethical implications. A group moderator solicited and recorded arguments…

  12. The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Clinton H.; Alder, G. Stoney

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of shared information and group discussion on ethical judgment when no structure is imposed on the discussion to encourage ethical considerations. Discussants were asked to identify arguments for and against a variety of business behaviors with ethical implications. A group moderator solicited and recorded arguments…

  13. Learning Physics in Small-Group Discussions--Three Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benckert, Sylvia; Pettersson, Sune

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of students learning of physics during group discussions around context-rich problems in introductory physics courses at university level. We present the results from video recordings of student groups solving three different problems. We found that group discussions around physics problems can lead to…

  14. Increasing Social Presence in Online Learning through Small Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcaoglu, Mete; Lee, Eunbae

    2016-01-01

    Social presence is difficult to achieve, but an imperative component of online learning. In this study, we investigated the effect of group size on students' perceptions of social presence in two graduate-level online courses, comparing small group versus whole class discussions. Our results indicated that when in small group discussions, students…

  15. Focus group discussion: a tool for health and medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2008-03-01

    Focus group discussion is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gather to discuss a specified topic or an issue to generate data. The main characteristic of a focus group is the interaction between the moderator and the group, as well as the interaction between group members. The objective is to give the researcher an understanding of the participants' perspective on the topic in discussion. Focus groups are rapidly gaining popularity in health and medical research. This paper presents a general introduction of the use of focus groups as a research tool within the context of health research, with the intention of promoting its use among researchers in healthcare. A detailed methodology for the conduct of focus groups and analysis of focus group data are discussed. The potentials and limitations of this qualitative research technique are also highlighted.

  16. The group discussion effect: integrative processes and suggestions for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    One of the most consistent findings in experimental social dilemmas research is the positive effect group discussion has on cooperative behavior. At a time when cooperation and consensus is critical to tackle global problems, ranging from debt to deforestation, understanding the dynamics of group discussion is a pressing need. Unfortunately, research investigating the underlying processes and implementation of the effect has been inconclusive. The authors present a critical review of existing explanations and integrate these perspectives into a single process model of group discussion, providing a more complete theoretical picture of how interrelated factors combine to facilitate discussion-induced cooperation. On the basis of this theoretical analysis, they consider complimentary approaches to the indirect and feasible implementation of group discussion. They argue that such strategies may overcome the barriers to direct discussion observed across a range of groups and organizations.

  17. Searching for Intertextual Connections in Small Group Text Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Feng-ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the sources for and intentions of intertextuality made by 10 groups of Taiwanese university students in the process of discussing two American stories. Two types of data, small group text discussions and oral interviews, were gathered. The results indicated that participants used diverse sources of intertextual links, and with…

  18. The power of talk : Developing discriminatory group norms through discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a

  19. The power of talk : Developing discriminatory group norms through discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Postmes, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a

  20. Group Discussions and Test-Enhanced Learning: Individual Learning Outcomes and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions…

  1. Group Discussions and Test-Enhanced Learning: Individual Learning Outcomes and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions…

  2. The power of talk: developing discriminatory group norms through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura G E; Postmes, Tom

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a negative societal stereotype (relative to individual rumination in Studies 1 and 3 and alternative discussions in Studies 2 and 3) increases intentions to engage in discrimination against the out-group target of the stereotype. This is mediated by the formation of an in-group norm which supports discrimination (Study 1) and the extent to which the discussion validates the stereotype (Study 2). A fourth study manipulated the extent to which consensus on the negative stereotype was reached through discussion. When the discussion ended in consensus, participants have greater intention to undertake collective action against the stereotyped out-group, mediated by a congruent in-group norm. These results provide evidence that the process by which discussion increases intergroup discrimination is via the formation of discriminatory local group norms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Facilitating Meaningful Discussion Groups in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Lindsey; Ogden, Meridith; Kelly, Laura Beth

    2015-01-01

    This Teaching Tips describes a yearlong process of facilitating meaningful discussion groups about literature with first-grade students in an urban Title I school. At the beginning of the year, the teacher provided explicit instruction in speaking and listening skills to support students with the social skills needed for thoughtful discussion. She…

  4. Values and Commitments Underlying Discussion. Professional Development on Discussion: Group Images in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Eileen

    The Discussion Development Group (DDG) at Moray House College of Education, Scotland, is a resource center designed as an open learning system to provide inservice training, consultancy support, and resources on classroom discussion. A case study involving 17 teachers and recently conducted by the DDG explored features of process innovation and…

  5. Learning What Works: Promoting Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Anna F.; Dao, Jennifer N.; González, Gloriana

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers have designed lessons for students who will be working in groups to discuss and solve a problem. After investing time in constructing an interesting problem, creating strategically designed groups, and introducing the problem carefully, teachers may be left wondering how to help students collaborate to make sense of mathematical…

  6. Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Bert

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N?=?98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provid...

  7. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  8. Analysis of the Characteristics of Discussion Materials that Promote Group Discussion in the Medical Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Hee; Jeon, Woo Taek

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the characteristics of discussion materials that promote student participation in discussions, satisfaction with student instruction, and tutor intervention in the medical humanities. We surveyed 117 premedical students and 7 tutors who attended 4-week group discussions in the medical humanities in 2010. We described the discussion materials using the following 4 characteristics as independent variables: material type, level of understanding, interest, and quantity. Dependent variables were: student participation in the discussion, student instruction satisfaction, and tutor intervention. Correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and crosstab were performed using SPSS 15.0. The correlation between the characteristics of the discussion materials differed by grade. When the books were chosen as the discussion material in the instruction of first-year premedical students, the correlation between level of understanding, interest, and quantity was negative. Higher levels of understanding of the material and interest in the material led to an increase in discussion participation among both first- and second-year premedical students. Higher levels of understanding and interest of the discussion material also increased student satisfaction with the instruction, regardless of grade. Finally, levels of understanding of the material affected the degree of tutor intervention. Tutors intervened more often in discussions with first-year premedical students than with second-year premedical students. Differences in grades and the understanding of the discussion material should be considered when choosing discussion materials. Further study is required to continue the development of the discussion model and improve methods of facilitate discussion among students in the medical humanities.

  9. How Introverts versus Extroverts Approach Small-Group Argumentative Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Explored in two studies disparities between how students with different degrees of extroversion and introversion engaged in small-group discussions requiring construction and critique of arguments. Found that extroverted students exhibited a greater tendency to use conflictual discourse, whereas introverted students worked with one another…

  10. Academic Discourse Socialization through Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the nature of small-group discussion and explores how it fosters oral academic discourse socialization in a TESOL postgraduate course. The participants included four native-English speaking and six non-native English Speaking postgraduate students at a state university in the U.S. The findings revealed that small-group…

  11. Academic Discourse Socialization through Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the nature of small-group discussion and explores how it fosters oral academic discourse socialization in a TESOL postgraduate course. The participants included four native-English speaking and six non-native English Speaking postgraduate students at a state university in the U.S. The findings revealed that small-group…

  12. Extending Students' Mathematical Thinking during Whole-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Nesrin; Kline, Kate; Grant, Theresa J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that extending students' mathematical thinking during whole-group discussions is a challenging undertaking. To better understand what extending student thinking looks like and how teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) supports teachers in their efforts to extend student thinking, the teaching of six experienced…

  13. Lexical Bundles: Facilitating University "Talk" in Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chan Swee; Kashiha, Hadi; Tan, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Group discussion forms an integral language experience for most language learners, providing them with an opportunity to express themselves in a naturalistic setting. Multi-word expressions are commonly used and one of them is lexical bundles. Lexical bundles are types of extended collocations that occur more commonly than we expect; they are…

  14. Extending Students' Mathematical Thinking during Whole-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Nesrin; Kline, Kate; Grant, Theresa J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that extending students' mathematical thinking during whole-group discussions is a challenging undertaking. To better understand what extending student thinking looks like and how teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) supports teachers in their efforts to extend student thinking, the teaching of six experienced…

  15. Forming a Turbomachinery Seals Working Group - An Overview and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal to form a Turbomachinery Seals Working Group is discussed. Survey responses regarding the purpose, membership, and meeting frequency are presented as well as the areas of expertise and experience of the respondents. The types of seals used, designed, or sold, current work, and technical challenges of turbomachinery seals, their materials, analysis, geometry, manufacturing, maintenance, testing, and incorporation into engine systems are also presented.

  16. Supervised Group Discussion To Teach Investigation Of An Epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudarssanane M.B

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of investigation of an epidemic was taught to three successive batches of medical students using the data of an actual local outbreak of gastro â€" enteritis. The method used was supervised group discussion using audio â€" visual aids. The objectives achieved about the conduct of the sessions and the suggestions given by the students for improvement have also been highlighted.

  17. Discussions of Fatherhood in Male Batterer Treatment Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Veteläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine how men who have perpetrated violence toward their partners and participated in batterer group talked about being a father and how they perceived their own fatherhood. The discussion in the group was analyzed qualitatively by using the methods of content analysis. In traditional fatherhood, they talked about avoidant, passiveness, distant, indifference, and authoritative controlling ways of acting. These men also created an image of themselves as active and caring fathers, thus including empathy and nurture in the concept of fatherhood. This new fatherhood was considered an achieved goal and an objective for the men as being a father. Talking about fatherhood in these groups is important as fatherhood and relations to children are both an important motivator toward nonviolence.

  18. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical

  19. Social Network Analysis of an Online Melanoma Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Kathleen T.; McCray, Alexa T.; Safran, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We have developed tools to explore social networks that share information in medical forums to better understand the unmet informational needs of patients and family members facing cancer treatments. We define metrics that demonstrate members discussing interleukin-2 receive a stronger response from the melanoma discussion group than a typical topic. The interleukin-2 network has a different topology than the melanoma network, has a higher density, and its members are more likely to have a higher intimacy level with another member and a lower inquisitiveness level than a typical melanoma user. Members are more likely to join the interleukin-2 network to answer a question than in the melanoma network (probability =.2 ±.05 p-value=.001). Within the melanoma network 20% of the questions posed to the community do not get an answer. In the interleukin-2 network, 1.3% of the questions (one question) do not get a response. PMID:21347134

  20. Audience design through social interaction during group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Shane L; Fay, Nicolas; Maybery, Murray

    2013-01-01

    This paper contrasts two accounts of audience design during multiparty communication: audience design as a strategic individual-level message adjustment or as a non-strategic interaction-level message adjustment. Using a non-interactive communication task, Experiment 1 showed that people distinguish between messages designed for oneself and messages designed for another person; consistent with strategic message design, messages designed for another person/s were longer (number of words) than those designed for oneself. However, audience size did not affect message length (messages designed for different sized audiences were similar in length). Using an interactive communication task Experiment 2 showed that as group size increased so too did communicative effort (number of words exchanged between interlocutors). Consistent with a non-strategic account, as group members were added more social interaction was necessary to coordinate the group's collective situation model. Experiment 3 validates and extends the production measures used in Experiment 1 and 2 using a comprehension task. Taken together, our results indicate that audience design arises as a non-strategic outcome of social interaction during group discussion.

  1. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  2. Online Group Discussion pada Mata Kuliah Teknologi Pembelajaran Fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuberti Yuberti

    2015-10-01

    penawaran akses internet yang menggiurkan demi menarik minat penggunanya. Beberapa fenomena tersebut menunjukkan semakin banyak kalangan yang memanfaatkan internet dan menjadikanya sebagai gaya hidup untuk berintaksi, bersosialisasi, belajar dan mendapatkan informasi. Meluasnya pemanfaatan internet bisa menjadi potensi besar dalam pengembangan pembelajaran dengan sistem online memungkinkan pebelajar untuk mengakses infromasi secara fleksibel tanpa terbatas waktu dan tempat. Diskusi tidak lagi terjadi secara tatap muka, namun dapat terus berlangsung meskipun dalam lingkungan maya. Sebagaimana pelaksanaan metode pembelajaran maya lainnya. Pelaksanaannya diskusi online itu sendiri pada dasarnya mengadopsi dari metode pembelajaran diskusi tatap muka. Kata kunci: online group discussion, teknologi pembelajaran

  3. Are balanced groups better? : Belbin roles in collaborative learning groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meslec, M.N.; Curseu, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    In a sample of 459 students organized in 84 groups this study tests the impact of group role balance on teamwork quality and three performance indicators in collaborative learning groups (group cognitive complexity, perceived performance and objective performance). The results show that group role

  4. Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-02-07

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provided to a discussion group, and that test-enhanced learning leads to better learning than the discussion groups, independent of retention interval. Moreover, we examined whether memory and learning might be influenced by the participants' need for cognition (NFC). The results showed that those scoring high on NFC remembered more than those who scored low. To conclude, testing trumps discussion groups from a learning perspective, and the discussion groups were also the least beneficial learning context for those scoring low on NFC.

  5. Increasing Student Participation in Online Group Discussions via Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…

  6. Increasing Student Participation in Online Group Discussions via Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…

  7. Creating Spaces for Critical Transformative Dialogues: Legitimising Discussion Groups as Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Groves, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Focussed dialogue (as lived and living practices) can have a powerful role in renewing professional practice, advancing its sustainability and development as administrative and political systems colonise the practices of teachers and teacher educators. However, participating in discussion groups for many teachers, including those in academia, is…

  8. Students discussing their mathematical ideas: Group-tests and mind-maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pijls; D. de Kramer

    2008-01-01

    In an explorative research project, teachers experimented with new ideas to make their students discuss (i.e. show, explain, justify and reconstruct their work) their mathematical ideas with each other. Two kind of special tasks were developed: group tests and mind maps. Also, the role of the teache

  9. Responding to Financial Reductions Reports from the Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Institutional Management in Higher Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The discussions of participants of a workshop concerning the effects of retrenchment on teaching and research, institutional policies, and institutional operations in European higher educational institutions are summarized. (MSE)

  10. Pretest online discussion groups to augment teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jonathan; Hasbargen, Barbara; Miziniak, Halina

    2010-01-01

    Tests and final examination scores of three semesters of control students in a nursing foundation course were compared with tests and final examination scores of three semesters of participating students. Participating students were offered access to an asynchronous pretest online discussion activity with a faculty e-moderator. While the simplified Bloom's revised taxonomy assisted in creating appropriate preparatory test and final examination questions for pretest online discussion, Salmon's five-stage online method provided direction to the e-moderator on how to encourage students to achieve Bloom's higher-order thinking skills during the pretest online discussions. Statistical analysis showed the pretest online discussion activity had a generally positive impact on tests and final examination scores, when controlling for a number of possible confounding variables, including instructor, cumulative grade point average, age, and credit hours.

  11. The "Us" in Discuss: Grouping in Literature Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes one middle school teacher's use of literature circles using heterogeneous grouping. It begins with a brief rationale for using literature circles in the language arts classroom. Next, it describes techniques to form literature circles. Then, it shares how to build and establish a supportive environment within each group. It…

  12. [The Mechanism of Free-Floating Discussion in a Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing Supervisory Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsien-Hsien

    2015-06-01

    Although the free-floating discussion format is widely used in group therapy, the application of this format in the context of supervisory groups has yet to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanisms involved in facilitating and learning the free-floating discussion format in a supervisory group. A phenomenological approach was used to investigate the group content and personal feedback of a psychiatric-nurse supervisory group. The group held on 12 sessions. Each session was conducted once weekly and lasting 150 minutes. The findings identified the functions of free-floating discussions in the context of supervisory groups as: embodied interaction and initiation by handling. Embodied interaction included: reflection on the experience of the other, sense of body, and present action. Initiation by handling included: facilitating the self-narrative, following the lead of the group, and reflecting in accordance with the group. The role of the facilitator is to parallel process rather than to lead in order to produce practical wisdom. Free-floating discussion and self-evidence from initiation by handling has the potential to promote spontaneity, creativity, and self-confidence in clinical practice and to promote deep learning.

  13. Puerperal Group A Streptococcal Infections: A Case Series and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary T. Busowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puerperal group A streptococcal infections, a major postpartum killer during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, have become (fortunately rare. We describe a cluster of 4 serious peripartum group A streptococcal infections occurring within the past five years at a single medical center. These cases were not epidemiologically linked and serve to illustrate the continuing risk of these potentially fulminant infections.

  14. A Blueprint for Implementing Small-Group Collaborative Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Jones, Lisa; Proctor, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of the Common Core in many states across the country means we need to explore instructional approaches that promote student language use in order to meet many of the complex linguistic standards that comprise the Common Core. In this Teaching Tip, we provide a blueprint for a 4-week collaborative discussion mini-unit that a second…

  15. Studying Problem Solving through Group Discussion in Chat Rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Kozlova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we use a chat conversations’ corpus to study the process of resolving language problems. Our corpus includes chat conversations which took place between LSP students engaged in correcting errors in their peers’ summaries. The participants worked in groups and used the Windows Messenger program for communication within the group. Their task also included making use of electronic dictionaries and other reference materials. The conversations’ corpus obtained as a result of this exercise was analyzed holistically for possible indicators of each particular stage of the problem solving process. Later these indicators were validated throughout the entire corpus. Each problem solving process was thus represented as a chain of indicators and acceptability was determined for each error correction. The resulting problem solving chains were used to prove our hypotheses concerning internal and external support in text reproduction.

  16. The Effect of Instructional Methods (Lecture-Discussion versus Group Discussion) and Teaching Talent on Teacher Trainees Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrofin; Degeng, Nyoman Sudana; Ardhana, Wayan; Setyosari, Punaji

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine difference in the effect of instructional methods (lecture-discussion versus group discussion) and teaching talent on teacher trainees student learning outcomes. It was conducted by a quasi-experimental design using the factorialized (2 x 2) version of the nonequivalent control group design. The subjects were…

  17. Interprofessional working or role substitution? A discussion of the emerging roles in emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Rebecca

    2012-08-01

    This article presents a discussion of emerging non-medical roles in emergency care against the current policy context and the issues of role substitution and interprofessional working. Non-medical roles in emergency care have grown internationally in response to an increasing demand for emergency care services and to address the growing importance of the quality healthcare agenda. The blurring of role boundaries between professional groups has become more common. Data sources.  Searches were made of three electronic databases; CINAHL, Medline and EMBASE. The literature relating to interprofessional healthcare roles, and new roles in emergency care was searched from 1980 to 2010 and underpinned the discussion. A theoretical framework that has emerged from the literature is that task, role substitution and interprofessional working lie on a spectrum and evolving non-medical roles can be plotted on the spectrum, usually starting at one end of the spectrum under task substitution and then potentially moving in time towards true interprofessional working. There is still a great deal of progress to be made until non-medical roles in emergency care can truly be encompassed under the umbrella of interprofessional working and that a more robust critical mass of evidence is required to substantiate the theory that interprofessional working within teams contributes to effective, cost-effective care and better patient outcomes. It is essential to understand the underlying motivation, policy context and key drivers for the development of new nursing and non-medical roles. This allows services to be established successfully, by understanding and addressing the key predicable barriers to implementation and change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Group Roles and the Gifted Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willings, David

    1983-01-01

    Gifted students can perform a variety of roles in groups, and it is important for career choice and satisfaction that the role chosen be a natural one. Gifted students may function best and contribute most in the role of exemplar or eccentric rather than in more traditionally conceived leadership roles. (CL)

  19. A Brief Discussion on the Role of Group Norm in Ideological and Political Work%浅谈在思想政治工作中发挥群体规范的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘和祥; 陶秀军; 吴时国

    2011-01-01

    群体规范具有一种公认的社会力量,在功能上与思想政治工作具有很大的一致性。为了有效开展思想政治工作,需要开发和运用群体规范理论,积极发挥群体规范作用,以构建完善的群体制度约束人,以树立高尚的群体新风引导人,以宣传正确的群体舆论监督人,以创建优秀的群体文化凝聚人。%Group norm is a recognized social force,which has a great consistency with ideological and political work with respect to its function.In order to effectively carry out ideological and political work,we need to develop and apply group norm theory,build perfect group system constraint,foster a new noble group atmosphere,propaganda right public opinion and create excellent culture.

  20. The Role of Renormalization Group in Fundamental Theoretical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Shirkov, Dmitri V.

    1997-01-01

    General aspects of fundamental physics are considered. We comment the Wigner's logical scheme and modify it to adjust to modern theoretical physics. Then, we discuss the role and indicate the place of renormalization group in the logic of fundamental physics.

  1. Patients' views on improving sickle cell disease management in primary care: focus group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuburi, Ghida; Phekoo, Karen J; Okoye, Nv Ogo; Anie, Kofie; Green, Stuart A; Nkohkwo, Asaah; Ojeer, Patrick; Ndive, Comfort; Banarsee, Ricky; Oni, Lola; Majeed, Azeem

    2012-12-01

    To assess sickle cell disease (SCD) patient and carer perspectives on the primary care services related to SCD that they receive from their general practitioner (GP). A focus group discussion was used to elicit the views of patients about the quality of care they receive from their primary health-care providers and what they thought was the role of primary care in SCD management. The focus group discussion was video recorded. The recording was then examined by the project team and recurring themes were identified. A comparison was made with notes made by two scribes also present at the discussion. Sickle Cell Society in Brent, UK. Ten participants with SCD or caring for someone with SCD from Northwest London, UK. Patients' perceptions about the primary care services they received, and a list of key themes and suggestions. Patients and carers often bypassed GPs for acute problems but felt that GPs had an important role to play around repeat prescriptions and general health care. These service users believed SCD is often ignored and deemed unimportant by GPs. Participants wanted the health service to support primary health-care providers to improve their knowledge and understanding of SCD. Key themes and suggestions from this focus group have been used to help develop an educational intervention for general practice services that will be used to improve SCD management in primary care.

  2. Effects of Tagcloud-Anchored Group Discussions on Pre-Service Teachers' Collaborative Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yuan; Xie, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Group discussions are critical for students constructing new understanding and knowledge in both classroom and distance education. Tagclouds can provide an intuitive overview about the group's collective knowledge and could potentially be used as an anchor for group discussions. The effect of using tagclouds as anchors for group discussions was…

  3. Effect of Small Group Discussion in Residency Education Versus Conventional Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tabrizi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:There are various methods of training for medical students in different colleges. Fast knowledge transfer and maximum learning are the main goals of education. Due to the limited time and also high volume of content knowledge during residency, using the best methods of training can play an important role in enhancing the skills of residents. In the current study, small group discussion as a teaching method was compared with the traditional method. Methods:In this cohort study, two groups of residents that had finished a 4-year course of orthopedic residency training programs in Tabriz and Urmia universities of medical sciences was being examined. They were divided in two groups. In order to compare the impact of the training on residents, it was compared with the result of the State Board standardized exam. The number of residents passing the written test and the Objective Structural Clinical Examination (OSCE per year have been identified and compared with the groups under investigation. Results:Fifty-one residents, including 4 women (7.8% and 47 men (92.2%, were studied for this purpose. Success rate for the small group discussion in the written exam was 59.2% and in the OSCE was 24% (95% CI. On the other hand, the success rates for the group who were trained in the traditional way were 37% and 16.6% in the written exam and OSCE, respectively. In both cases the differences were significant. Conclusion:The small group discussion method is an effective method in residency training in surgical fields that increases medical students’ learning abilities compared to traditional methods of education.

  4. discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. Poznyak

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a version of Robust Stochastic Maximum Principle (RSMP applied to the Minimax Mayer Problem formulated for stochastic differential equations with the control-dependent diffusion term. The parametric families of first and second order adjoint stochastic processes are introduced to construct the corresponding Hamiltonian formalism. The Hamiltonian function used for the construction of the robust optimal control is shown to be equal to the Lebesque integral over a parametric set of the standard stochastic Hamiltonians corresponding to a fixed value of the uncertain parameter. The paper deals with a cost function given at finite horizon and containing the mathematical expectation of a terminal term. A terminal condition, covered by a vector function, is also considered. The optimal control strategies, adapted for available information, for the wide class of uncertain systems given by an stochastic differential equation with unknown parameters from a given compact set, are constructed. This problem belongs to the class of minimax stochastic optimization problems. The proof is based on the recent results obtained for Minimax Mayer Problem with a finite uncertainty set [14,43-45] as well as on the variation results of [53] derived for Stochastic Maximum Principle for nonlinear stochastic systems under complete information. The corresponding discussion of the obtain results concludes this study.

  5. Students discussing their mathematical ideas: the role of the teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijls, Monique; Dekker, Rijkje

    2011-12-01

    This article adds to current research on enhancing student discourse in mathematics teaching specifically in secondary schools but with equal relevance to elementary schools. Three mathematics teachers in secondary education were confronted with the question of how to encourage students to discuss their work with each other in the daily practice of their mathematical lessons. In response to this question the teachers devised three different approaches to encourage student discourse. One of the teachers chose to experiment with another setting to perform mathematical tasks that involved students working together on a group test. The second teacher experimented with a new kind of help when students were working on their maths tasks and asked for assistance. The third created a new setting in which the teacher (temporarily) did not provide mathematical hints and the students had to solve their own problems. The three teachers were very motivated, but they all had difficulties in not giving explanations themselves when supporting their students in their collaborative mathematical learning. They found that temporarily diminishing their product help stimulated discussion between students. It also became clear that the process of teacher reflection and follow-up discussions with the researcher/observers promoted changes of practice.

  6. Choosing none of the above: Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  7. Choosing none of the above : Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  8. The influence of group discussion on performance judgments: rating accuracy, contrast effects, and halo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jerry K; Loveland, James M

    2008-03-01

    The authors investigated the effect of group discussion, such as may occur formally in panel interview scenarios, assessment centers, or 360-degree feedback situations, on judgments of performance. Research on group polarization suggests that the effect of group discussion combined with raters' preexisting impressions of ratees or interviewees should result in an extremitization of impressions. Thus, the authors hypothesized that group discussion would (a) make ratings less accurate, (b) polarize impressions that were already good or poor as reflected by greater contrast effects, and (c) increase positive halo. Results indicated that group discussion resulted in less accurate ratings and greater contrast effects. Additional analyses suggested that group discussion increased positive halo. The authors discuss implications for research on group or panel judgments.

  9. Adaptive group coordination and role differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Roberts

    Full Text Available Many real world situations (potluck dinners, academic departments, sports teams, corporate divisions, committees, seminar classes, etc. involve actors adjusting their contributions in order to achieve a mutually satisfactory group goal, a win-win result. However, the majority of human group research has involved situations where groups perform poorly because task constraints promote either individual maximization behavior or diffusion of responsibility, and even successful tasks generally involve the propagation of one correct solution through a group. Here we introduce a group task that requires complementary actions among participants in order to reach a shared goal. Without communication, group members submit numbers in an attempt to collectively sum to a randomly selected target number. After receiving group feedback, members adjust their submitted numbers until the target number is reached. For all groups, performance improves with task experience, and group reactivity decreases over rounds. Our empirical results provide evidence for adaptive coordination in human groups, and as the coordination costs increase with group size, large groups adapt through spontaneous role differentiation and self-consistency among members. We suggest several agent-based models with different rules for agent reactions, and we show that the empirical results are best fit by a flexible, adaptive agent strategy in which agents decrease their reactions when the group feedback changes. The task offers a simple experimental platform for studying the general problem of group coordination while maximizing group returns, and we distinguish the task from several games in behavioral game theory.

  10. Investigating the purpose of an online discussion group for health professionals: a case example from forensic occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Crystal; Duncan, Edward A S

    2013-07-03

    Thousands of health-related online discussion groups are active world-wide however, very little is known about the purpose and usefulness of such groups. In 2003 an online discussion group called 'forensic occupational therapy' was established in the United Kingdom. This group was examined to gain an understanding of the purpose and use of online discussion groups for health professionals who may be practically and geographically isolated from others in similar areas of practice. Following a case study design, descriptive characteristics on members' locations and number of posts were collected from the forensic occupational therapy online discussion group. Eight years of posts (2003-2011) were examined using a theoretical thematic analysis process to identify and describe the purposes for which members were using the group. Members from 20 countries contributed to the discussion group; the vast majority of posts being from members in the United Kingdom. Activity within the group was consistently high for the first five years however, activity within the group declined in the final three years. Six purposes for which members use the online discussion group were identified: seeking and giving advice, networking, requesting and sharing material resources, service development, defining the role of occupational therapists, and student learning. Findings suggest that health professionals in specialized and often isolated areas of practice are keen to connect with colleagues and learn from each other's experiences. The main purposes for which the online discussion group was used could be summarized as communication, information sharing and networking; though activity within the group declined significantly during the last three years of the data collection period. This raises questions about the sustainability of online discussion groups within the rapidly developing social media environment.

  11. Investigating the purpose of an online discussion group for health professionals: a case example from forensic occupational therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Thousands of health-related online discussion groups are active world-wide however, very little is known about the purpose and usefulness of such groups. In 2003 an online discussion group called ‘forensic occupational therapy’ was established in the United Kingdom. This group was examined to gain an understanding of the purpose and use of online discussion groups for health professionals who may be practically and geographically isolated from others in similar areas of practice. Methods Following a case study design, descriptive characteristics on members’ locations and number of posts were collected from the forensic occupational therapy online discussion group. Eight years of posts (2003–2011) were examined using a theoretical thematic analysis process to identify and describe the purposes for which members were using the group. Results Members from 20 countries contributed to the discussion group; the vast majority of posts being from members in the United Kingdom. Activity within the group was consistently high for the first five years however, activity within the group declined in the final three years. Six purposes for which members use the online discussion group were identified: seeking and giving advice, networking, requesting and sharing material resources, service development, defining the role of occupational therapists, and student learning. Conclusions Findings suggest that health professionals in specialized and often isolated areas of practice are keen to connect with colleagues and learn from each other’s experiences. The main purposes for which the online discussion group was used could be summarized as communication, information sharing and networking; though activity within the group declined significantly during the last three years of the data collection period. This raises questions about the sustainability of online discussion groups within the rapidly developing social media environment. PMID:23822895

  12. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  13. Challenges in the doctor-patient relationship: 12 tips for more effective peer group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hamish

    2015-09-01

    In New Zealand, almost all general practitioners are members of peer groups, which provide opportunities for both clinical discussion and collegial support. This article proposes that peer groups can also be a useful medium for exploring specific challenges within the doctor-patient relationship. However, the peer group culture needs to be receptive to this particular goal. Structured discussion can help peer group members explore interpersonal issues more thoroughly.

  14. Human dimensions in bedside teaching: focus group discussions of teachers and learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Subha; Orlander, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this shift. Yet, essential clinical skills, professionalism, and humanistic patient interactions are best taught at the bedside. Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this decline. This study explored perceptions of teachers and learners on the value of bedside teaching and the humanistic dimensions of bedside interactions that make it imperative to shift clinical teaching back to the bedside. Focus group methodology was used to explore teacher and learner opinions. Four teacher groups consisted of (a) Chief Residents, (b) Residency Program Directors, (c) skilled bedside teachers, and (d) a convenience group of other Department of Medicine faculty at Boston University School of Medicine. Six learner groups consisted 2 each of 3rd-year students, PGY1 medicine residents, and PGY2 medicine residents. Each discussion lasted 60 to 90 minutes. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods. Teachers and learners shared several opinions on bedside teaching, particularly around humanistic aspects of bedside interactions. The key themes that emerged included (a) patient involvement in discussions, (b) teachers as role models of humanism, (c) preserving learner autonomy, (d) direct observation and feedback of learners at the bedside, (e) interactions with challenging patients, and (e) admitting limitations. Within these themes, participants noted some behaviors best avoided at the bedside. Teachers and learners regard the bedside as a valuable venue in which to learn core values of medicine. They proposed many strategies to preserve these humanistic values and improve bedside teaching. These strategies are essential for true patient-centered care.

  15. The Effect of Small Group Discussion on Cutoff Scores during Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deunk, Marjolein I.; van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Bosker, Roel J.

    2014-01-01

    Standard setting methods, like the Bookmark procedure, are used to assist education experts in formulating performance standards. Small group discussion is meant to help these experts in setting more reliable and valid cutoff scores. This study is an analysis of 15 small group discussions during two standards setting trajectories and their effect…

  16. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  17. Promoting Thinking, Problem-Solving and Reasoning during Small Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The study reports on the types of questioning strategies teachers use to promote thinking, problem-solving and reasoning during small group discussions. The study also reports on the types of discourses students use to problem-solve and reason during their small group discussions. An audiotape of one class lesson from the three teachers included…

  18. Relevant prior knowledge moderates the effect of elaboration during small group discussion on academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion

  19. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  20. A Tentative Study of Agreement among University Freshmen in Oral English Group Discussions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨非

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find out how university freshmen came to an agreement in oral English. There were twenty groups in two classes of freshmen who took part in this activity and got involved in the classroom discussions and after-class communications. The classes were divided into groups of six members. The results of the research showed that while the freshmen got involved in the group discussions, they used social communicative skills to reach a final agreement.

  1. A Tentative Study of Agreement among University Freshmen in Oral English Group Discussions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨非

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find out how university freshmen came to an agreement in oral English. There weretwenty groups in two classes of freshmen who took part in this activity and got involved in the classroom discussions and after-classcommunications. The classes were divided into groups of six members. The results of the research showed that while the freshmen gotinvolved in the group discussions, they used social communicative skills to reach a final agreement.

  2. Analysing group interaction in focus group research: Impact on content and the role of the moderator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Grønkjær

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between group participants is considered the distinct advantage and hallmark of focus group research. It is therefore necessary to include the social interaction dynamics in analysing focus group data. Little information is however available on analysis of the social interaction in the group and the analytical outcome for the content of the data. This paper contributes to the discussion of the value of participant interaction in focus group research by analysing sequences of interaction collected recently during a research project. This project utilized focus groups to investigate the perceptions and meanings of alcohol use in Denmark. As a frame for analysing group interaction, elements of conversation analysis were used. The aim of this paper is to illustrate group interaction and its impact on the content of focus group data, and highlight the role and some of the challenges posed by group interaction for moderating the focus group discussion. The interaction analyses led to the construction of four interactional events: Negotiating and constructing normality in interaction, disagreement and/or consensus, homogeneity and the impact on interaction and content, and coming to and making sense of a dead-end (including the risk of hierarchical issues. The interactional events are followed by considerations on the impact they may have on the role of the moderator.

  3. Discussing Patient Management Online: The Impact of Roles on Knowledge Construction for Students Interning at the Paediatric Ward

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Bram; Van Winckel, Myriam; Valcke, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to explore the use of asynchronous discussion groups during medical students' clinical rotation in paediatrics. In particular, the impact of role assignment on the level of knowledge construction through social negotiation is studied. Case-based asynchronous discussion groups were introduced to enhance reflection…

  4. Cutting the Cord: Student-Led Discussion Groups in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, John; McGuinness, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of leaderless group discussions and peer assessment in undergraduate classes to develop teamwork skills and the capacity for independent thought and action students will need on the job. (SK)

  5. Discussing group work in the EFL classroom from a Chinese cultural perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊宇; 张冬瑜

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the EFL teachers, particularly those western teachers, who are teaching in China, to obtain a better understanding of group work by exploring and discussing its use from a Chinese cultural perspective.

  6. Student satisfaction and self-assessment after small group discussion in a medical ethics education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Shin, Jwa-Seop

    2009-09-01

    Small group discussions are useful tools in medical ethics education. We aimed to assess student satisfaction with specific components of a small group discussion and to evaluate student self-assessment of the objectives of education. A structured questionnaire was developed after a literature review and a focus group interview. Components of the small group discussion were categorized by discussion case (self, other), individual activities (self-study, making materials, presentation experience), and group activities (preclass/in-class/postclass/plenary discussion, instructor's comments). The items for student self-assessment were: "To specify ethical issue in actual practice", "To get new knowledge", "To consider doctor's entity", "Empathy to others", "To get multidimensional viewpoint", "Viewpoint change", "To deliver my thought clearly", and "Ability to confront the medical ethics dilemma in the future". After the survey, an in-depth interview was performed to determine the reason behind the students' answers. A total of 121 students responded, for whom overall satisfaction and self-assessment were high. Students reported greater satisfaction with self-case, presentation experience, in-class discussion, and instructor's comments but less satisfaction with self-study before class and postclass discussion. Student self-assessment was highest in the ability to specify an ethical issue and lowest for viewpoint change and self-confidence. After multivariate analysis, higher student self-assessment was associated with greater satisfaction with the small group discussion. To improve the quality of medical ethics education, close investigation and monitoring of each component of the small group discussion and student achievement are essential, as is continuous feedback.

  7. Social Skills and Leadership Abilities among Children in Small-Group Literature Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Janine L.

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood educators are attempting to shift from the dominant "recitation" format of discussions found in today's classrooms. This study draws on reader response, and sociocognitive and sociocultural theories to investigate children's perceptions of social skills and leadership moves after participating in small-group discussions of…

  8. Advances and bottlenecks in modelling the greenhouse climate: summary of a group discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seginer, I.; Bakker, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of a group discussion at the symposium 'Models in protected cultivation' held in Wageningen, August 1997. The discussion focused on the reasons for the relatively limited acceptance and application of greenhouse climate models, especially in commercial practice. The discussi

  9. Indian Youth Speak about Tobacco: Results of Focus Group Discussions with School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arima; Arora, Monika; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were conducted as a formative assessment for Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, multicomponent, school-based trial to prevent and control tobacco use among youth in India. Forty-eight FGDs were conducted with students (N…

  10. Using the Self-Consciousness Scale to Predict Student Discussion Group Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Michael G.; Keller, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    This study used the Self-Consciousness Scale to test the hypothesis that socially anxious people could seek to avoid embarrassment and do poorly in small group discussions as a result. Those people high in private self-consciousness (lacking concern for social evaluation) would participate more in discussions. Findings supported the hypothesis.…

  11. Using Multimodal Presentation Software and Peer Group Discussion in Learning English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-jung

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an application of multimedia in a blended learning environment in which students engaged in multimodal presentations and peer group discussion. Students' presentation files were commented upon by their peers on the discussion board and scored by the researcher, based on questions developed by Levy and Kimber (2009) to apply…

  12. Attitudes and Language Use in Group Discussions on Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Folkesson, Anne-Mari

    2016-01-01

    The school systems of many countries have been pervaded by student-centred pedagogy making students' small group discussion a common feature of the classroom practice.However, there is a lack of studies focussing different modes of discussion for the purpose of finding out whether some modes are more beneficial than others. Hence, the aim of this…

  13. Literacy and Technology: Integrating Technology with Small Group, Peer-Led Discussions of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Genya

    2012-01-01

    This review examines research of computer-mediated small group discussion of literature. The goal of this review is to explore several instructional formats for integrating print-based and new literacies skills. First, the theoretical foundations for the shift from teacher-led to student led discussion are outlined. Research exploring ways in…

  14. Learning through Discussions: Comparing the Benefits of Small-Group and Large-Class Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin; Wilson, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on teaching and learning heralds the benefits of discussion for student learner outcomes, especially its ability to improve students' critical thinking skills. Yet, few studies compare the effects of different types of face-to-face discussions on learners. Using student surveys, we analyze the benefits of small-group and large-class…

  15. Social Skills and Leadership Abilities among Children in Small-Group Literature Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Janine L.

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood educators are attempting to shift from the dominant "recitation" format of discussions found in today's classrooms. This study draws on reader response, and sociocognitive and sociocultural theories to investigate children's perceptions of social skills and leadership moves after participating in small-group discussions of…

  16. Gender Issues on the Information Highway: An Analysis of Communication Styles in Electronic Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Paolo

    A study investigated gender differences in language use in electronic mail discussion groups. A review of research on discourse analysis identifies areas in which gender differences are found in interpersonal interaction and language use in general, and how these reflect differences in socialization. Research on electronic discussion groups…

  17. A Glimpse of Interactional Strategies Used in Group Discussion in the EFL Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林美笑

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of literature review, this paper discusses what interactional strategies are in group discussions conducted in the EFL classroom. Two frameworks for interactional strategies are investigated to explore the types of interactional strategies. This aims to shed light upon the analysis of interactional features in face-to-face communication.

  18. Students discussing their mathematical ideas: the role of the teacher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls, M.; Dekker, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article adds to current research on enhancing student discourse in mathematics teaching specifically in secondary schools but with equal relevance to elementary schools. Three mathematics teachers in secondary education were confronted with the question of how to encourage students to discuss t

  19. Intellectual Role Taking: Supporting Discussion in Heterogeneous Elementary Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert

    2006-01-01

    One of the major challenges of teaching whole class lessons in heterogeneous classrooms rests in finding ways to engage all participants in the conversation. Intellectual role taking, an approach developed and studied in the teaching of elementary science and history lessons, provides one possibility for handling this perennial pedagogical…

  20. Theorising Dyslexic Student Discussion/Action Groups in UK Higher Education: Research in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jenny; Herrington, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This "research in practice" analyses the experience of operating discussion/action groups with dyslexic students in higher education in three British universities which reflects a shift from the practice of developing "support groups" to a more developmental, proactive stance. It does so in the current UK legislative context…

  1. Designing a bone health and soy focus group discussion guide based on the health belief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focus groups were used to assess the knowledge and skills of women in order to support curricula development. The Health Belief Model was applied to the discussion guide to enhance focus group findings and applications. Constructs related to perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers...

  2. The Effects of L1 and L2 Group Discussions on L2 Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Blake; Evans, Moyra Sweetnam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of post-reading group discussions in both first (L1) and second (L2) languages on L2 reading comprehension. The participants were fifteen Japanese university students of intermediate-level English. Three cohorts read four English texts and produced individual written recalls. Group 1 (the control…

  3. Using a Facebook Group as a Forum to Distribute, Answer and Discuss Content: Influence on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Britt, Virginia G.; Beard, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using a Facebook group to increase preservice teachers' knowledge when one was used as a forum to share, answer, and discuss content-related questions in a technology course required for all students seeking teacher licensure. Further, it examined the students' prior use of Facebook groups, how the…

  4. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  5. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content.

  6. Discussion on Teacher’s Role under Life Threatening Circumstances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭璐

    2014-01-01

    This paper first reviewed a controversial case in which a teacher ran away from his students in a earthquake. Several ed-ucational ethnic questions were aroused from the case: Is protecting students part of teacher ’s job? To what extent should it be applied? etc. Then the author aims to answer these questions based on a real case study from philosophical perspective, that is, ana-lyzing teacher’s role (i) as a human being; (ii) as a educator; (iii) as a educatee. Finally the paper concludes that teachers should protect their students even under life threatening circumstances.

  7. [Adaptation of peer evaluation to small group discussion (SGD) and its validity for summative evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Sone, Tomomichi; Yanada, Kazuo; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Kurio, Wasako; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Yamamoto, Yumi; Maeda, Sadaaki

    2012-01-01

    We adopted peer evaluation (mutual evaluation between students) for small group discussion (SGD) among first graders. The peer evaluation criteria were 5 grade scales for 5 fields: "preparation," "remark," "listening," "activeness," and "role." A comparison with tutor evaluation clarified the validity of peer evaluation for summative evaluation. Although the average of peer evaluation (4.2 (4.0-4.4)) was higher than that of tutor evaluation (3.8 (3.7-4.1)) (p=0.0601, Mann-Whitney U test), the value of the correlation coefficient between peer evaluation and summative evaluation of SGD (average 0.35 (0.12-0.54)) was almost the same as that of the coefficient between tutor evaluation and summative evaluation of SGD (average 0.36 (0.24-0.42)) (p=0.6761, Mann-Whitney U test). Principal component analysis showed that the tutor could not evaluate "remark" and "listening" independently, while students evaluate "listening" independently from other evaluation criteria. The combination of peer and tutor evaluation may be multilateral evaluation for SGD. The questionnaire about peer evaluation for students showed that they recognized the value of peer evaluation and favorably accepted its use.

  8. The role of the fifth digit in music: discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, D K

    1992-12-01

    The increasing digital skill made manifest in the development of instrumental music is reviewed and supports the hypothesis that the fifth digit was belatedly used even when a suitable instrument had already become established. With notable exceptions, such as the harp, it appears that progressive improvements in instrument design was influenced by the need to utilize the fifth digits. Its greater use was accomplished in overlapping stages of increasing dexterity, of which the highest is exemplified by the left hand of the violinist. The apparent evolutional background of these observations is discussed. It is proposed that man has an inherent atavistic tendency to ignore the fifth digit and this view agrees with its neglect in gesture and sign language.

  9. Gatekeeper role of gastroenterologists and surgeons in recognising and discussing familial colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Kirsten F L; Dekker, Evelien; Smets, Ellen M A; Aalfs, Cora M

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to gain insight into the gatekeeper role of surgeons and gastroenterologists (including residents) during a first consultation at a tertiary gastro-intestinal centre regarding referral for genetic counselling, and to test the feasibility of a checklist for indications for referral. Consecutive patients were invited before and after introduction of a checklist, to complete a questionnaire assessing their perception of discussing cancer genetic topics. Initial consultations were audiotaped to assess the quality of this discussion by gastroenterologists and surgeons. Data on completeness of the checklist and referral were collected from medical files. No significant differences were found between the Before and After group regarding patients' reports of discussing cancer in the family (77%, n = 34 vs 89%, n = 33, p = 0.16). In 28% (n = 10) of the audiotaped consultations family history was adequately discussed, in 58% (n = 21) it was considered inadequate and in 14% (n = 5) of consultations it was not discussed at all. A checklist was present in 53% (n = 27) of the medical files. Of these, 5 (19%) were incomplete. Gastroenterologists and surgeons (in training) have difficulty in fulfilling their gatekeeper role of recognizing patients at familial risk for CRC. Although they often discuss familial cancer during the initial consultation, their exploration seems insufficient to reveal indications for referral for genetic counselling. Therefore, healthcare professionals should not only understand genetics and the importance of cancer family history, but also be effective in the communication of this subject to enable more adequate referral of patients for genetic counselling.

  10. Talking Mats in a discussion group for people with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Lisa; Mellgren, Elin; Hartelius, Lena; Ferm, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the function of Talking Mats (TM) in a discussion group for people with Huntington's disease (HD). Four persons with HD and their group leader participated. The group was videotaped during four discussions, two with and two without TM. A mixed method quantitative and qualitative study was implemented by evaluating the conversations using the protocol Effectiveness Framework of Functional Communication by analyzing the number of follow-up questions and by post discussion interviews. The results showed improved effectiveness of communication for all participants and an increased number of follow-up questions, both from the group leader and from some of the participants. All participants and the leader were positive regarding the use of TM but there were also drawbacks. TM could be useful in discussion groups for people with HD. An increased number of follow-up questions when TM is used may lead to a deeper understanding within the group. This study is the first of its kind and more research in the area is needed. [Box: see text].

  11. Defibrillation beliefs of rural nurses: focus group discussions guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, T A; Mosel Williams, L; Mummery, K

    2005-01-01

    The endorsement of the chain of survival concept and early defibrillation has challenged health professionals to reconsider their beliefs about how they respond to in-hospital resuscitation. In the rural context, where 24 hour coverage is not available nurse-initiated defibrillation is expected. Despite literature and policy change in Australia to allow nurses to initiate defibrillation, there is no current research that uses a systemic theoretical approach to investigate the specific beliefs of nurses and their use of defibrillators. The purpose of this study was to elicit a beginning understanding of the defibrillation beliefs of rural nurses. This research used focus groups within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior to describe the defibrillation beliefs of rural registered nurses. The sites selected for this study were two acute care hospitals in rural Australia (RRMA Classification). Each of these hospitals was in located 'other rural areas' (RRMA Classification) in separate towns and had 25 and 30 beds. The study sample consisted of 10 females and two males. Focus group questions were designed to elicit salient beliefs within the theoretical framework. Three constructs of behavioral, normative and control beliefs guided the development of the question and analysis of the discussions. In accordance with the authors of the theoretical framework, content analysis was used to analyse the data from the study. Two behavioral beliefs, four control beliefs and four normative belief categories were elicited. Two behavioral beliefs categories emerged from the open-ended question: 'What, if any are the advantages of you being able to use a defibrillator?' Participants were congruent when discussing the advantages of nurses initiating defibrillation. The two categories were 'quicker response times' (15 responses) and 'increased success with resuscitation' (8 responses). Participants were asked to identify any events that might influence their decision to use

  12. Health information, credibility, homophily, and influence via the Internet: Web sites versus discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoming; Walther, Joseph B; Pingree, Suzanne; Hawkins, Robert P

    2008-07-01

    Despite concerns about online health information and efforts to improve its credibility, how users evaluate and utilize such information presented in Web sites and online discussion groups may involve different evaluative mechanisms. This study examined credibility and homophily as two underlying mechanisms for social influence with regard to online health information. An original experiment detected that homophily grounded credibility perceptions and drove the persuasive process in both Web sites and online discussion groups. The more homophilous an online health information stimulus was perceived as being, the more likely people were to adopt the advice offered in that particular piece of information.

  13. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol

    2017-06-09

    Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and

  14. The Hampstead Clinic at work. Discussions in the Diagnostic Profile Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Minutes of the Hampstead Clinic's Diagnostic Profile Research Group during a fifteen-month period (1964-1965) are reviewed and discussed. A wide range of topics were considered and discussed, with a special focus on the affective life, object relations, and ego function of atypical children in comparison to the early ego functions and differentiation of normal and neurotic children. These lively clinical and theoretical discussions and their implications for therapeutic work with a wide range of children, demonstrate the multifaceted leadership and contributions of Anna Freud as teacher, clinician, and thinker, and of the Hampstead Clinic as a major center for psychoanalytic studies.

  15. Facilitating dental student reflections: using mentor groups to discuss clinical experiences and personal development

    OpenAIRE

    Koole, Sebastiaan; Christiaens, Véronique; Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the consensus on the importance of reflection for dental professionals, a lack of understanding remains about how students and clinicians should develop their ability to reflect. The aim of this study was to investigate dental students’ and mentors’ perceptions of mentor groups as an instructional method to facilitate students’ reflection in terms of the strategy’s learning potential, role of the mentor, group dynamics, and feasibility. At Ghent University in Belgium, third- and fourt...

  16. Effects of communication strategy training on EFL students’ performance in small-group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Benson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted with regard to communication strategy training and performance on communicative tasks (Lam, 2009; Nakatani, 2010; Naughton, 2006. This study aims to add to the literature by examining how two strategies, clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation, and two methods of teaching the strategies, affected the interactional sequences and overall group discussion performance of EFL students at a university in Japan. Pre and posttreatment small-group discussions were recorded for assessment, and a stimulated recall interview was administered to determine the participants’ perceptions of their learning and language use. Posttest results reveal that the experimental groups that were taught predetermined phrases aimed at clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation employed such phrases more frequently than the control group. However, this employment of phrases did not lead to higher gains in group discussion skills as the control group enjoyed the largest gains from pre to posttest. The researchers consider the findings in light of previous research, and conclude with recommendations for future research on the topic with special regard to research design.

  17. Investigation on Roles in Group Work of College English Chassroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙倩; 张杨

    2009-01-01

    Group work has been being widely welcomed by scholars and college English teachers when it was introduced into Chinese college English classrooms which usually contain more than 60 students, probably because group discussions or cooperative work provide more chances for Chinese college students to involve in the class teaching and learning and get them more opportunities to practice their oral English so as to promote their English competent. However, little attention has been paid to what kind of group work arrangement is more effective on making students more engaged in the task as teachers expect in China. This investigation will help answer the question that whether students should be informed their roles in group work through longitudinal qualitative research, the class observation and interviews specifically. Comparison will be taken between two classes to figure out the better way of arranging group work in college English classes.

  18. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkel, R.; Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts i

  19. Tagging Thinking Types in Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Effects on Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellens, T.; Van Keer, H.; De Wever, B.; Valcke, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study focuses on the use of thinking types as a possible way to structure university students' discourse in asynchronous discussion groups and consequently promote their learning. More specifically, the aim of the study is to determine how requiring students to label their contributions by means of De Bono's (1991) thinking hats…

  20. Upper Secondary Students in Group Discussions about Physics and Our Presuppositions of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    In this article we report on a group activity, based on previous work [Hansson & Redfors: 2006b, "Science & Education" (accepted)], in an upper secondary physics class in Sweden. The aim was to engage students in a discussion about which presuppositions that are really necessary for physics. During the activity the students were to decide about…

  1. Examination of Students' Small Groups Discussion in Argumentation Process: Scientific and Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Esra Kabatas; Cevik, Ebru Ezberci

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine processes experienced by students of different achievement levels in small group discussions in argumentation applications conducted in scientific and socio-scientific issues. Case study which is a qualitative research design was used for the study. In this line, a success test including mechanical subjects…

  2. Quantifying the Effect of Discussion Group Membership on Technology Adoption and Farm Profit on Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Thia; Heanue, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Participatory extension, specifically farm discussion groups, has become a very popular form of agricultural extension in Ireland. The purpose of this article is to assess its effectiveness in promoting the adoption of new technologies and improving farm profit. Design/Methodology/Approach: Following a review of the background and theory…

  3. A Framework for Conducting Critical Dialectical Pluralist Focus Group Discussions Using Mixed Research Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    Although focus group discussions (FGDs) represent a popular data collection tool for researchers, they contain an extremely serious flaw: FGD researchers have ultimate power over all decisions made at every stage of the research process--from the conceptualization of the research, to the planning of the research study, to the implementation of the…

  4. A High-Leverage Language Teaching Practice: Leading an Open-Ended Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for more practice-based teacher education, this study investigated the way in which two high-performing novice world language teachers, one in Spanish and one in Latin, implemented a high-leverage teaching practice, leading an open-ended group discussion. Observational data revealed a number of constituent micro-practices. The…

  5. Communicating for Diversity: Using Teacher Discussion Groups to Transform Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Mare, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    The author argues that in order to create space for authentic multicultural engagement in the face of Eurocentric norms, teachers should form discussion groups that follow five basic guidelines: engage, don't enrage; be comfortable with negative emotion; watch for and change unproductive language; talk about everything; and engage in classroom…

  6. Evaluating Impact of Small-Group Discussion on Learning Utilizing a Classroom Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flosason, Thorhallur O.; McGee, Heather M.; Diener-Ludwig, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Classroom response systems (also referred to as clickers) can enhance learning outcomes and are generally viewed favorably by students and instructors alike. The current study used an alternating treatments design to examine whether discussing questions in small groups before responding to clicker questions during lecture improved accurate…

  7. Talk in the Science Classroom: Using Verbal Behaviour Analysis as a Tool for Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne; Booth, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study following on from a curriculum development activity with teachers and children in primary school classrooms, using a framework for group discussion developed by Huthwaite International. The Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University and Huthwaite International worked with teachers from three…

  8. Online Reflective Group Discussion--Connecting First Year Undergraduate Students with Their Third Year Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Annetta K. L.

    2011-01-01

    University professional programs seek to develop students as reflective practitioners. The ability to critically reflect is often assumed to occur along the way. The explicit development of critical reflective skills among students is challenging. This study describes the utilization of online group discussion for critical reflection and provides…

  9. Talking Science: The Research Evidence on the Use of Small Group Discussions in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Judith; Hogarth, Sylvia; Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Robinson, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two systematic reviews of the use and effects of small group discussions in high school science teaching. Ninety-four studies were included in an overview (systematic map) of work in the area, and 24 studies formed the basis of the in-depth reviews. The reviews indicate that there is considerable diversity in the…

  10. Influence of a Teacher's Scaffolding Moves during Child-Led Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadallah, May; Anderson, Richard C.; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim; Miller, Brian W.; Kim, Il-Hee; Kuo, Li-Jen; Dong, Ting; Wu, Xiaoying

    2011-01-01

    The influence of one teacher's scaffolding moves on children's performance in free-flowing child-led small-group discussions was investigated. Three moves were examined: prompting for and praising the use of evidence, asking for clarification, and challenging. Lag sequential analysis was applied to a corpus of over 5,300 speaking turns during 30…

  11. The Influence of Group Discussion on Students' Responses and Confidence during Peer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bill J.; Koretsky, Milo D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer instruction is an active-learning pedagogy in which students answer short, conceptually based questions that are interspersed during instruction. A key element is the group discussion that occurs among students between their initial and final answers. This study analyzes student responses during a modified form of peer instruction in two…

  12. Quantifying the Effect of Discussion Group Membership on Technology Adoption and Farm Profit on Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Thia; Heanue, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Participatory extension, specifically farm discussion groups, has become a very popular form of agricultural extension in Ireland. The purpose of this article is to assess its effectiveness in promoting the adoption of new technologies and improving farm profit. Design/Methodology/Approach: Following a review of the background and theory…

  13. A High-Leverage Language Teaching Practice: Leading an Open-Ended Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for more practice-based teacher education, this study investigated the way in which two high-performing novice world language teachers, one in Spanish and one in Latin, implemented a high-leverage teaching practice, leading an open-ended group discussion. Observational data revealed a number of constituent micro-practices. The…

  14. Preparing for microbicide trials in Rwanda: Focus group discussions with Rwandan women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Veldhuijzen; J. Nyinawabega; M. Umulisa; B. Kankindi; E. Geubbels; P. Basinga; J. Vyankandondera; J. van de Wijgert

    2006-01-01

    The acceptability and feasibility of microbicide studies and future microbicide use are influenced by existing norms and values regarding sexual and contraceptive behaviour. In preparation for microbicide research in Rwanda, focus group discussions were conducted to assess sexual and contraceptive b

  15. Evaluating Impact of Small-Group Discussion on Learning Utilizing a Classroom Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flosason, Thorhallur O.; McGee, Heather M.; Diener-Ludwig, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Classroom response systems (also referred to as clickers) can enhance learning outcomes and are generally viewed favorably by students and instructors alike. The current study used an alternating treatments design to examine whether discussing questions in small groups before responding to clicker questions during lecture improved accurate…

  16. The Influence of Group Discussion on Students' Responses and Confidence during Peer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bill J.; Koretsky, Milo D.

    2011-01-01

    Peer instruction is an active-learning pedagogy in which students answer short, conceptually based questions that are interspersed during instruction. A key element is the group discussion that occurs among students between their initial and final answers. This study analyzes student responses during a modified form of peer instruction in two…

  17. Women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group incorporating yoga and facilitated group discussion: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Frances; Hornibrook, Julie

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a small qualitative research study which explored women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group that incorporated yoga and facilitated discussion. The group is offered through a community based feminist non-government women's health Centre in Northern NSW Australia. The purpose of the research was to explore women's experiences of attending this pregnancy and postnatal group. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to explore women's experiences of attending the group. Fifteen women participated in individual, in-depth face-to-face interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was undertaken to analyse the qualitative data. Six themes were developed, one with 3 subthemes. One theme was labelled as: 'the pregnancy and motherhood journey' and included 3 sub-themes which were labelled: 'preparation for birth', 'connecting with the baby' and 'sharing birth stories.' The other five themes were: 'feminine nurturing safe space', 'watching and learning the mothering', 'building mental health, well-being and connections', the "group like a rock and a seed' and 'different from mainstream'. This research adds to the overall body of knowledge about the value of yoga in pre and postnatal care. It demonstrates the value of sharing birth stories and the strong capacity women have to support one another, bringing benefits of emotional and social well-being, information, resources and support derived from group based models of care. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Teaching medical ethics: problem-based learning or small group discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Akram; Adeli, Seyyed-Hassan; Taziki, Sadegh-Ali; Akbari, Valliollahe; Ghadir, Mohammad-Reza; Moosavi-Movahhed, Seyyed-Majid; Ahangari, Roghayyeh; Sadeghi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Mirzaee, Mohammad-Rahim; Damanpak-Moghaddam, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Lecture is the most common teaching method used in ethics education, while problem-based learning (PBL) and small group discussion (SGD) have been introduced as more useful methods. This study compared these methods in teaching medical ethics. Twenty students (12 female and 8 male) were randomly assigned into two groups. The PBL method was used in one group, and the other group was taught using the SGD method. Twenty-five open-ended questions were used for assessment and at the end of the course, a course evaluation sheet was used to obtain the students' views about the advantages and disadvantages of each teaching method, their level of satisfaction with the course, their interest in attending the sessions, and their opinions regarding the effect of teaching ethics on students' behaviors. The mean score in the PBL group (16.04 ± 1.84) was higher than the SGD group (15.48 ± 2.01). The satisfaction rates in the two groups were 3.00 ± 0.47 and 2.78 ± 0.83 respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Since the mean score and satisfaction rate in the PBL group were higher than the SGD group, the PBL method is recommended for ethics education whenever possible.

  19. Facebook Discussion Groups Provide a Robust Worldwide Platform for Free Pathology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Amer, Sadiq M; Yahia, Nejib Ben; Costa, Felipe D'Almeida; Noatay, Manu; Qiao, Jian-Hua; Rosado, Flavia G; Rosen, Yale; Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Gardner, Jerad M

    2017-05-01

    - Facebook (Menlo Park, California) is one of many online sites that provide potential educational tools for pathologists. We have each founded Facebook groups dedicated to anatomic pathology, in which members can share cases, ask questions, and contribute to discussions. - To report our experiences in founding and maintaining these Facebook groups and to characterize the contributed content. - We circulated a survey among the group founders, then compiled and analyzed the responses. - The groups varied in membership and in the quality of member contribution. Most posts were of pathology cases, although other topics (such as research articles) were also shared. All groups remained active and received posts from users all over the world, although all groups had many noncontributing members and received unwanted messages (which were screened and removed). Most founders were glad they had founded the groups because they provided an opportunity to both teach and learn. - Each analyzed Facebook group had a different character, and some downsides exist, but the groups all provided a no-cost way for pathologists and others across the world to interact online with many colleagues.

  20. An online monogenic diabetes discussion group: supporting families and fueling new research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Marie E; Carmody, David; Philipson, Louis H; Greeley, Siri Atma W

    2015-11-01

    Many online support groups are available for patients with rare disorders, but scant evidence is available on how effectively such groups provide useful information or valuable psychosocial support to their participants. It is also unclear to what extent physicians and researchers may learn more about these disorders by participating in such groups. To formally assess the utility of the Kovler Monogenic Diabetes Registry online discussion group for patients and families affected by KATP channel-related monogenic neonatal diabetes in providing psychosocial and informational support and in identifying concerns unique to patients with this rare form of diabetes. We qualitatively analyzed all 1,410 messages from the online group that consisted of 64 participants affected by KATP channel monogenic diabetes and 11 researchers. We utilized the Social Behavior Support Code to assign each message to a support category and deductive thematic analysis to identify discussion topics addressed by each message. 44% of messages provided/requested informational support, whereas 31.4% of the messages contained psychosocial/emotional support. The most popular topics of postings to the forums were diabetes treatment (503 messages) and neurodevelopmental concerns (472 messages). Participation in the discussion led researchers to modify survey instruments and design new studies focusing on specific topics of concern, such as sleep. We demonstrate that an online support group for a monogenic form of diabetes is an effective informational tool that also provides psychosocial support. Participation by researchers and care providers can inform future research directions and highlight issues of patient concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Malaysian cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction: focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W Y; Wong, Y L; Zulkifli, S N; Tan, H M

    2002-12-01

    This qualitative study aimed to examine cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction (ED) utilizing focus group discussion. Six focus groups consisting of 66 men, 45-70-y-old were conducted-two Malay groups (n=18), two Chinese groups (n=25) and two Indian groups (n=23). Participants were purposely recruited from the general public on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analysis software ATLASti. The Malay and Chinese traditional remedies for preventing or treating ED are commonly recognized among all races. Many have a negative perception of someone with ED. Malay and Chinese men tended to blame their wife for their problem and thought that the problem might lead to extra-marital affairs, unlike the Indian men who attributed their condition to fate. Malays would prefer traditional medicine for the problem. The Chinese felt they would be more comfortable with a male doctor whilst this is not so with the Malays or Indians. Almost all prefer the doctor to initiate discussion on sexual issues related to their medical condition. There is a need for doctors to consider cultural perspectives in a multicultural society as a lack of understanding of this often contributes to an inadequate consultation.

  2. Qualitative research methods in drug abuse research: discussing the potential use of focus group in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Carlini-Cotrim

    1996-01-01

    Descreve-se e discute-se o grupo focal, método qualitativo de coleta de dados de ampla aplicação na Saúde Pública. Especial ênfase é conferida às potencialidades do uso do grupo focal em investigações, na área de abuso de drogas.The focus group, a qualitative research method useful for Public Health investigation, is described and discussed. The potential application of the focus group method in drug abuse research in Brazil is emphasized.

  3. Making Space to Sensemake: Epistemic Distancing in Small Group Physics Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Conlin, Luke D

    2015-01-01

    Students in inquiry science classrooms face an essential tension between sharing new ideas and critically evaluating those ideas. Both sides of this tension pose affective risks that can discourage further discussion, such as the embarrassment of having an idea rejected. This paper presents a close discourse analysis of three groups of undergraduate physics students in their first discussions of the semester, detailing how they navigate these tensions to create a safe space to make sense of physics together. A central finding is that students and instructors alike rely on a common discursive resource, epistemic distancing, to protect affect while beginning to engage with ideas in productive ways. The groups differ in how soon, how often, and how deeply they engage in figuring out mechanisms together, and these differences can be explained, in part, by differences in how they epistemically distance themselves from their claims. Implications for research include the importance of considering the coupled dynamic...

  4. Traditional male circumcision in Uganda: a qualitative focus group discussion analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sabet Sarvestani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The growing body of evidence attesting to the effectiveness of clinical male circumcision in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission is prompting the majority of sub-Saharan African governments to move towards the adoption of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. Even though it is recommended to consider collaboration with traditional male circumcision (TMC providers when planning for VMMC, there is limited knowledge available about the TMC landscape and traditional beliefs. METHODOLOGY AND MAIN FINDINGS: During 2010-11 over 25 focus group discussions (FGDs were held with clan leaders, traditional cutters, and their assistants to understand the practice of TMC in four ethnic groups in Uganda. Cultural significance and cost were among the primary reasons cited for preferring TMC over VMMC. Ethnic groups in western Uganda circumcised boys at younger ages and encountered lower rates of TMC related adverse events compared to ethnic groups in eastern Uganda. Cutting styles and post-cut care also differed among the four groups. The use of a single razor blade per candidate instead of the traditional knife was identified as an important and recent change. Participants in the focus groups expressed interest in learning about methods to reduce adverse events. CONCLUSION: This work reaffirmed the strong cultural significance of TMC within Ugandan ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that there is an opportunity to evaluate the involvement of local communities that still perform TMC in the national VMMC roll-out plan by devising safer, more effective procedures through innovative approaches.

  5. Adding to the mix: Students use of Facebook groups and blackboard discussion forums in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the use of Facebook in learning and teaching in higher education. Facebook was used as a venue for online discussion to support the existing Learning Management System (in this case Blackboard in the unit Internet Collaboration and Organisation as part of the Internet Communications degree taught fully online through Open Universities Australia (OUA. Students’ posts to both Facebook and the Blackboard discussion forum were analysed for content, length, and when throughout the study period they were posted. This is significant as much of the previous work in this area has relied on students self-reporting, rather than direct observation of student behaviour. These results were then compared to earlier instances of the same unit that ran within the previous twelve months, one fully online with OUA only using the Blackboard discussion group, and a second taught at Curtin University with both blended learning for students at the University’s Bentley campus as well as fully online for external students, that utilised both Blackboard and Facebook. The results show that Facebook greatly increases the level of student activity in online discussions, both absolutely and in the level of sustained activity across the unit’s study period. Facebook groups also had a different pattern of content from Blackboard. In Blackboard discussion is more focused on the set unit learning content, in Facebook students were using the groups to discuss administration and assignments and also bring in additional material from outside the units set learning materials. Facebook posts, while more sustained over the semester, were shorter in length. This study found that the addition of a Facebook discussion forum does not noticeably impact on the use of Blackboard’s discussion forum, but rather adds a new dimension to the mix of online interaction. The paper concludes that there is value in using both of these forums for student

  6. Factors Influencing Iranian Untrained EFL Raters' Rating Group Oral Discussion Tasks: A Mixed Methods Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasimeh Nouhi Jadesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a mixed methods design, the present study attempted to identify the factors influencing Iranian untrained EFL raters in rating group oral discussion tasks. To fulfil this aim, 16 language learners of varying proficiency levels were selected and randomly assigned to groups of four and performed a group discussion task. Thirty two untrained raters were also selected based on their volunteer participations. They listened to the audio files of the group discussions and assigned a score of one to six to each language learners based on their own judgments. They also provided comments on each language learners’ performance pointing to why they assigned such scores. The researchers had an interview with the raters after the rating session as well. The quantitative phase investigated whether linguistic features of accuracy, fluency, complexity and amount of talk were attended to by the raters in terms of having any relationship to the scores the raters assigned. Speech rate as an index of fluency and amount of talk turned out to be significantly correlated with the scores. Of more importance was the qualitative phase with the aim of identifying other factors that may account for the scores. The comments provided by the raters on each score and the interviews were codified based on Content Analysis (CA approach. It was found that the raters attend not only to the linguistic features in rating oral group discussions, but they are also sensitive to the interactional features like the roles the participants take in groups tasks and the overall interaction patterns of the groups. The findings of this study may shed light on group oral assessment in terms of training the raters rating group oral tests and developing rating scales specific for group oral assessment. Persian Abstract:پژوهش حاضر، با بهره گیری از روش تحقیق ترکیبی به بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر ارزیابان آموزش ندیده

  7. Observing real-world groups in the virtual field: The analysis of online discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, David C

    2016-09-01

    This article sets out to establish the naturalistic study of online social communication as a substantive topic in social psychology and to discuss the challenges of developing methods for a formal analysis of the structural and interactional features of message threads on discussion forums. I begin by outlining the essential features of online communication and specifically discussion forum data, and the important ways in which they depart from spoken conversation. I describe the handful of attempts to devise systematic analytic techniques for adapting methods such as conversation and discourse analysis to the study of online discussion. I then present a case study of a thread from the popular UK parenting forum Mumsnet which presents a number of challenges for existing methods, and examine some of the interactive phenomena typical of forums. Finally, I consider ways in which membership categorization analysis and social identity theory can complement one another in the exploration of both group processes and the rhetorical deployment of identities as dynamic phenomena in online discussion.

  8. How Do Students Define Their Roles and Responsibilities in Online Learning Group Projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen C.; Morgan, Kari; Cameron, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the processes of group role formation in online class settings. Qualitative analysis was used to code chat logs and discussion threads in six undergraduate Family and Consumer Sciences online courses that required online group projects. Four themes related to the process of group role formation emerged:…

  9. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    discussions with community pharmacists in the capital area Reykjavík and rural areas were employed to answer the research question: How has the pharmacists' societal role evolved after the legislation and what are the implications for pharmacy practice? The results showed firstly that the public image......, the results showed that the pharmacists have difficulties reconciling their technical paradigm with a legislative and professional will specifying customer and patient focus. This study describes the challenges of a new legislation with a market focus for community pharmacists whose education emphasized...... technical skills. This account of the changes in the drug distribution system in Iceland highlights some of the implications for pharmacists internationally....

  10. Qualitative findings from focus group discussions on hand hygiene compliance among health care workers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Sharon; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-10-01

    It is accepted by hospital clinical governance that every clinician's "duty of care" includes hand hygiene, yet globally, health care workers (HCWs) continue to struggle with compliance. Focus group discussions were conducted to explore HCWs' barriers to hand hygiene in Vietnam. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs from 6 public hospitals across Hanoi, Vietnam. Discussions included participants' experiences with and perceptions concerning hand hygiene. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and then translated into English. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Expressed frustration with high workload, limited access to hand hygiene solutions, and complicated guidelines that are difficult to interpret in overcrowded settings were considered by participants to be bona fide reasons for noncompliance. No participant acknowledged hand hygiene as a duty of care practice for her or his patients. Justification for noncompliance was the observation that visitors did not perform hand hygiene. HCWs did acknowledge a personal duty of care when hand hygiene was perceived to benefit her or his own health, and then neither workload or environmental challenges influenced compliance. Limited resources in Vietnam are amplified by overcrowded conditions and dual bed occupancy. Yet without a systematic systemic duty of care to patient safety, changes to guidelines and resources might not immediately improve compliance. Thus, introducing routine hand hygiene must start with education programs focusing on duty of care. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Small Student-Led Discussion Groups as an Adjunct to a Course in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)

  12. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-02-15

    As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health.

  13. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  14. Life in groups: the roles of oxytocin in mammalian sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Beery, Annaliese K

    2013-12-11

    In recent decades, scientific understanding of the many roles of oxytocin (OT) in social behavior has advanced tremendously. The focus of this research has been on maternal attachments and reproductive pair-bonds, and much less is known about the substrates of sociality outside of reproductive contexts. It is now apparent that OT influences many aspects of social behavior including recognition, trust, empathy, and other components of the behavioral repertoire of social species. This review provides a comparative perspective on the contributions of OT to life in mammalian social groups. We provide background on the functions of OT in maternal attachments and the early social environment, and give an overview of the role of OT circuitry in support of different mating systems. We then introduce peer relationships in group-living rodents as a means for studying the importance of OT in non-reproductive affiliative behaviors. We review species differences in oxytocin receptor (OTR) distributions in solitary and group-living species of South American tuco-tucos and in African mole-rats, as well as singing mice. We discuss variation in OTR levels with seasonal changes in social behavior in female meadow voles, and the effects of OT manipulations on peer huddling behavior. Finally, we discuss avenues of promise for future investigation, and relate current findings to research in humans and non-human primates. There is growing evidence that OT is involved in social selectivity, including increases in aggression toward social outgroups and decreased huddling with unfamiliar individuals, which may support existing social structures or relationships at the expense of others. OT's effects reach beyond maternal attachment and pair bonds to play a role in affiliative behavior underlying "friendships", organization of broad social structures, and maintenance of established social relationships with individuals or groups.

  15. Life in groups: the roles of oxytocin in mammalian sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison eAnacker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, scientific understanding of the many roles of oxytocin in social behavior has advanced tremendously. The focus of this research has been on maternal attachments and reproductive pair-bonds, and much less is known about the substrates of sociality outside of reproductive contexts. It is now apparent that oxytocin influences many aspects of social behavior including recognition, trust, empathy, and other components of the behavioral repertoire of social species. This review provides a comparative perspective on the contributions of oxytocin to life in mammalian social groups. We provide background on the functions of oxytocin in maternal attachments and the early social environment, and give an overview of the role of oxytocin circuitry in support of different mating systems. We then introduce peer relationships in group-living rodents as a means for studying the importance of oxytocin in non-reproductive affiliative behaviors. We review species differences in oxytocin receptor distributions in solitary and group-living species of South American tuco-tucos and in African mole-rats, as well as singing mice. We discuss variation in oxytocin receptor levels with seasonal changes in social behavior in female meadow voles, and the effects of oxytocin manipulations on peer huddling behavior. Finally, we discuss avenues of promise for future investigation, and relate current findings to research in humans and non-human primates. There is growing evidence that oxytocin is involved in social selectivity, including increases in aggression toward social outgroups and decreased huddling with unfamiliar individuals, which may support existing social structures or relationships at the expense of others. Oxytocin’s effects reach beyond maternal attachment and pair bonds to play a role in affiliative behavior underlying friendships, organization of broad social structures, and maintenance of established social relationships with individuals

  16. [Role of creative discussion in the learning of critical reading of scientific articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Aguilar, Héctor; Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo; Pérez-Cortés, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    To compare two active educational strategies on critical reading (two and three stages) for research learning in medical students. Four groups were conformed in a quasi-experimental design. The medical student group, related to three stages (critical reading guide resolution, creative discussion, group discussion) g1, n = 9 with school marks > 90 and g2, n = 19 with a learning in our students.

  17. Two recommendations to the Teaching of EFL Extensive Reading: Group Discussion and Suitable Reading Material Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2008-01-01

    <正>This paper is going to review the way in which EFL extensive reading is usually taught at mainly college level in China; and then make two recommendations in terms of classroom activity and the selection of extensive reading material for the purpose of trying to get students better involved in classroom activity, and to arouse their interest in reading. Group discussion and suitable reading material selection are suggested to be adopted in the traditional extensive reading class to improve the classroom atmosphere and the teaching & learning effects.

  18. Activities in a social networking-based discussion group by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Na; Wang, Xiangping; Zhang, Rongchun; Liu, Zhiguo; Liang, Shuhui; Yao, Shaowei; Tao, Qin; Jia, Hui; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2017-10-01

    Online social networking is increasingly being used among medical practitioners. However, few studies have evaluated its use in therapeutic endoscopy. Here, we aimed to analyze the shared topics and activities of a group of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) doctors in a social networking-based endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography discussion group (EDG). Six ERCP trainers working in Xijing Hospital and 48 graduated endoscopists who had finished ERCP training in the same hospital were invited to join in EDG. All group members were informed not to divulge any private information of patients when using EDG. The activities of group members on EDG were retrospectively extracted. The individual data of the graduated endoscopists were collected by a questionnaire. From June 2014 to May 2015, 6924 messages were posted on EDG, half of which were ERCP related. In total, 214 ERCP-related topics were shared, which could be categorized into three types: sharing experience/cases (52.3%), asking questions (38.3%), and sharing literatures/advances (9.3%). Among the 48 graduated endoscopists, 21 had a low case volume of less than 50 per year and 27 had a high volume case volume of 50 or more. High-volume graduated endoscopists posted more ERCP-related messages (P=0.008) and shared more discussion topics (P=0.003) compared with low-volume graduated endoscopists. A survey showed that EDG was useful for graduated endoscopists in ERCP performance and management of post-ERCP complications, etc. A wide range of ERCP-related topics were shared on the social networking-based EDG. The ERCP-related behaviors on EDG were more active in graduated endoscopists with an ERCP case volume of more than 50 per year.

  19. Using Video for Professional Development: The Role of the Discussion Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Alf

    2013-01-01

    Past research into the use of video for professional development has failed to problematise or theorise sufficiently the role of the discussion facilitator. It has been reported consistently that it can be hard or take time to establish norms for discussion of video but little has been said about reasons why, or the role of the discussion…

  20. Exploring the Effect of Scripted Roles on Cognitive Presence in Asynchronous Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesova, Larisa; Slavin, Margaret; Lim, Jieun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of scripted roles on students' level of cognitive presence in asynchronous online threaded discussions. A quantitative content analysis was used to investigate: (1) what level of cognitive presence is achieved by students' assigned roles in asynchronous online discussions; (2) differences…

  1. Stakeholders' Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    Full Text Available An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana.Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data.There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service.Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved.

  2. Equine Welfare Assessment: Exploration of British Stakeholder Attitudes Using Focus-Group Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V; Hockenhull, Jo; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Barr, Alistair R S; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    The equine industry in Great Britain has not been subject to the same pressures as the farming industry to engage with welfare assessment, but this may change as concern about equine welfare increases. Stakeholder attitudes toward welfare assessment may impact the implementation of welfare assessment practices. Focus-group discussions regarding welfare assessment were conducted with 6 equine stakeholder groups: leisure horse owners (caregivers; n = 4), grooms (n = 5), veterinary surgeons (n = 3), welfare scientists (n = 4), welfare charity workers (n = 5), and professional riders (n = 4). Three themes emerged from the discussions: (a) Participants predominantly interpreted welfare assessment as a means of identifying and correcting poor welfare in an immediate way; (b) participants believed that horse welfare varied over time; and (c) attributes of the assessor were viewed as an important consideration for equine welfare assessment. The views of equine industry members give insight into the value welfare assessments may have to the industry and how equine welfare assessment approaches can achieve credibility within the industry and increase the positive impact of welfare assessments on equine welfare.

  3. Role Orientation of Shanghai World Expo Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Reporter: What is the development goal for Shanghai World Expo (Group) Co., Ltd.? Mr. Chen Xianjin: Our goal lies in 2 aspects: one is how to hold a successful world expo; the other is how to achieve World Expo Group into a 1st-class enterprise in China with most competitiveness. The 2 goals take overall development of Shanghai into consideration, while Shanghai Expos

  4. Supervisors and Subordinates Personality Traits and Group Roles: Predictors of Group Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Līva van Skotere

    2012-01-01

    SUPERVISORS’ AND SUBORDINATES’ PERSONALITY TRAITS AND GROUP ROLES: PREDICTORS OF GROUP EFFECTIVENESS Abstract The goal of the present study was to clarify the relationship between supervisors’ personality traits, subordinates’ personality traits, supervisors’ roles and subordinates’ roles and their importance for predicting group effectiveness in customer service groups performing an additive task. In a sample of 252 employees within 31 work group in a bank personality traits and formal...

  5. Examining the Effects of Text Genre and Structure on Fourth-and Fifth-Grade Students' High-Level Comprehension as Evidenced in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyi; Murphy, P. Karen; Firetto, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a rich literature on the role of text genre and structure on students' literal comprehension, more research is needed regarding the role of these text features on students' high-level comprehension as evidenced in their small-group discussions. As such, the present study examined the effects of text genre (i.e., narrative and…

  6. 刍议小组合作对科学课堂教学的提升作用及实施要点%Discussion on the Role of Group Cooperation in Improv-ing Science Classroom Teaching and the Key Points for Its Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠宁

    2015-01-01

    Group cooperation plays a role in promoting the con-sciousness of competition, collective awareness and innovation a-bility. The implementation of group cooperation teaching model in science classroom should pay attention to the labor distribution of group members, so as to comprehensively cultivate students' habit of scientific exploration and improve the teaching quality based on the stimulation mechanism. This paper analyzes the properties of science classroom and the promoting role of group cooperation for classroom teaching, and explores the key points for its implementation, hoping to provide a reference for the classroom teaching reform of middle school science.%小组合作对科学课堂教学有着竞争意识、集体意识、创新能力等诸多提升作用,科学课堂中小组合作教学模式的实施要注重小组成员的分工,全面培养学生科学探究习惯,配合激励机制提升教学质量。本文分析了科学课堂的性质及小组合作对课堂的提升作用,并就实施要点进行了探讨,希望能为中学科学课堂教学改革提供参考。

  7. Social network activation: the role of health discussion partners in recovery from mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L; Pescosolido, Bernice A

    2015-01-01

    In response to health problems, individuals may strategically activate their social network ties to help manage crisis and uncertainty. While it is well-established that social relationships provide a crucial safety net, little is known about who is chosen to help during an episode of illness. Guided by the Network Episode Model, two aspects of consulting others in the face of mental illness are considered. First, we ask who activates ties, and what kinds of ties and networks they attempt to leverage for discussing health matters. Second, we ask about the utility of activating health-focused network ties. Specifically, we examine the consequences of network activation at time of entry into treatment for individuals' quality of life, social satisfaction, ability to perform social roles, and mental health functioning nearly one year later. Using interview data from the longitudinal Indianapolis Network Mental Health Study (INMHS, N = 171), we focus on a sample of new patients with serious mental illness and a group with less severe disorders who are experiencing their first contact with the mental health treatment system. Three findings stand out. First, our results reveal the nature of agency in illness response. Whether under a rational choice or habitus logic, individuals appear to evaluate support needs, identifying the best possible matches among a larger group of potential health discussants. These include members of the core network and those with prior mental health experiences. Second, selective activation processes have implications for recovery. Those who secure adequate network resources report better outcomes than those who injudiciously activate network ties. Individuals who activate weaker relationships and those who are unsupportive of medical care experience poorer functioning, limited success in fulfilling social roles, and lower social satisfaction and quality of life later on. Third, the evidence suggests that social networks matter above and

  8. Exploration and Practice of Improving College Students’Speaking Com-petence through Group Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jin-zhong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of English teaching is not only to make the students learn new words and grammar, answer multiple- choice questions to get good scores, but also to enhance the students’abilities of the integrated application of English, speaking and listen⁃ing in particular. The ultimate goal of learning English is to use English to communicate with others in the future jobs and real life. However, the non-English majors have great trouble speaking English in class and in real life. Such ways as Socratic dialogues, cause analysis and questionnaire are used to investigate the reasons. In order to improve speaking ability, group discussion is used in class. In consequence, the students have more interest, motivation, courage and confidence in speaking English. Meanwhile, they have also established the concept of using what they learned in class, in practical work and real life.

  9. Multiplicity: discussion points from the Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry multiplicity expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alan; Fletcher, Chrissie; Atkinson, Gary; Channon, Eddie; Douiri, Abdel; Jaki, Thomas; Maca, Jeff; Morgan, David; Roger, James Henry; Terrill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Committee of Health and Medicinal Products issued a concept paper on the need to review the points to consider document on multiplicity issues in clinical trials. In preparation for the release of the updated guidance document, Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry held a one-day expert group meeting in January 2013. Topics debated included multiplicity and the drug development process, the usefulness and limitations of newly developed strategies to deal with multiplicity, multiplicity issues arising from interim decisions and multiregional development, and the need for simultaneous confidence intervals (CIs) corresponding to multiple test procedures. A clear message from the meeting was that multiplicity adjustments need to be considered when the intention is to make a formal statement about efficacy or safety based on hypothesis tests. Statisticians have a key role when designing studies to assess what adjustment really means in the context of the research being conducted. More thought during the planning phase needs to be given to multiplicity adjustments for secondary endpoints given these are increasing in importance in differentiating products in the market place. No consensus was reached on the role of simultaneous CIs in the context of superiority trials. It was argued that unadjusted intervals should be employed as the primary purpose of the intervals is estimation, while the purpose of hypothesis testing is to formally establish an effect. The opposing view was that CIs should correspond to the test decision whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Individual to Collaborative: Guided Group Work and the Role of Teachers in Junior Secondary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Lui, Wai-mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper, through discussion of a teaching intervention at two secondary schools in Hong Kong, demonstrates the learning advancement brought about by group work and dissects the facilitating role of teachers in collaborative discussions. One-hundred and fifty-two Secondary Two (Grade 8) students were divided into three pedagogical groups, namely…

  11. Individual to Collaborative: Guided Group Work and the Role of Teachers in Junior Secondary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Lui, Wai-mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper, through discussion of a teaching intervention at two secondary schools in Hong Kong, demonstrates the learning advancement brought about by group work and dissects the facilitating role of teachers in collaborative discussions. One-hundred and fifty-two Secondary Two (Grade 8) students were divided into three pedagogical groups, namely…

  12. Group Health Education in Inpatient Rehabilitation: Patients' Role Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Andrea C.; Ullrich, Antje; Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Group health education is an important aspect of medical rehabilitation. While interaction and active involvement are important characteristics of group health education, little is known about patients' understanding of their role in this form of education. This study explored patients' understanding of their role in group health…

  13. Factors influencing food choices of adolescents: findings from focus-group discussions with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, D; Story, M; Perry, C; Casey, M A

    1999-08-01

    To assess adolescents' perceptions about factors influencing their food choices and eating behaviors. Data were collected in focus-group discussions. The study population included 141 adolescents in 7th and 10th grade from 2 urban schools in St Paul, Minn, who participated in 21 focus groups. Data were analyzed using qualitative research methodology, specifically, the constant comparative method. Factors perceived as influencing food choices included hunger and food cravings, appeal of food, time considerations of adolescents and parents, convenience of food, food availability, parental influence on eating behaviors (including the culture or religion of the family), benefits of foods (including health), situation-specific factors, mood, body image, habit, cost, media, and vegetarian beliefs. Major barriers to eating more fruits, vegetables, and dairy products and eating fewer high-fat foods included a lack of sense of urgency about personal health in relation to other concerns, and taste preferences for other foods. Suggestions for helping adolescents eat a more healthful diet include making healthful food taste and look better, limiting the availability of unhealthful options, making healthful food more available and convenient, teaching children good eating habits at an early age, and changing social norms to make it "cool" to eat healthfully. The findings suggest that if programs to improve adolescent nutrition are to be effective, they need to address a broad range of factors, in particular environmental factors (e.g., the increased availability and promotion of appealing, convenient foods within homes schools, and restaurants).

  14. Teacher Identity and the Marketizised Society. Discursive Constructions in Teachers’ Discussion Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Irisdotter Aldenmyr

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the latest decennium, there have been several and gradual changes in the Swedish and other European school systems. The steering system has become more decentralized and the entire school system is now a part of the freedom of trade. Schools are competing with each other and this has, according to previous research, an effect on how teachers think about, and carry out their everyday activities (Gerwitz et al. 1995; Irisdotter 2006. How teachers think about themselves, their students and the educational task is of great importance for the social climate of the classroom and, in the longer run, society in general. The current study dicusses how teachers‘ identities and self-understandings are influenced by the marketization of society. The material analysed consists of group discussions in three different teacher groups in compulsory school in Sweden. Questions raised are: Can teachers work within the context of marketization and yet relate to it with an attitude of self-awareness and critical reflection? And how can teachers deal with both traditional teacher values and progressive, democratic values that may be in conflict with the conditions of a marketizised school system?

  15. Hydroxyl groups in nonmetamict chevkinite-(Ce):a crystal chemical discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhuming; Franz Pertlik; Michel Fleck

    2008-01-01

    The minerals of chevkinite group were commonly considered to be anhydrous minerals. The infrared absorption spectrum of natural nonmetamict chevkinite-(Ce) from the aegirine-alkali granite, Mianning, Sichuan Province, China, exhibited two broad peaks in the 3600-2800 cm-1 region owing to the OH stretching. The corresponding H2O content required for the charge balance in formula was 1.27%. The O-H ··· O bond lengths maight cover from 0.2658 to 0.2794 nm by the correlated OH stretching energies. An electrostatic charge balance for chevkinite-(Ce) based on the assigned site-population from chemical data was calculated without the hydrogen contribution. The resulting empirical bond-valence sum on O6, O8, O2, O3, O5, and O4 ranged from 1.73 to 1.95 vu. The partial substitution of O by OH may occur in four atom sites: O6, O2, O4, and O5. The small differences in the bond-valence sums between the supposed donors and acceptors may mean a mixed donor/acceptor role of the involved oxygen atoms. The IR spectral features between 3394 and 3035 cm-1 consisted of various hydrous species at different structural sites and orientations. The OH groups in the chevkinite-(Ce) appeared to be involved in local charge imbalance in the structure and to be present when the mineral crystallized hydrothermally.

  16. Communication of geohazard risks by focus group discussions in the Mount Cameroon area, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Marmol, M.-A.; Suh Atanga, M. Bi; Njome, S.; Mafany Teke, G.; Jacobs, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The inappropriate translation of scientific information of geohazard (volcanic, landslide and crater lake outgassing) risks to any local population leaves people with incongruent views of the real dangers. Initial workshops organized under the supervision of the VLIR-OI (Flemish Interuniversity Council - Own Initiatives) members have led to the deployment of billboards as requested and drawn up by the locals. The VLIR-OI project has also organized focus group discussions (FGD) with the local stakeholders to find out in various cities, the state of preparedness, the response to emergency situations, the recovery from the emergency and the mitigation. Researchers have preferred open discussion with the local population and its representatives in order to elicit information that otherwise might not be found on a structured questionnaire. FGD provide a meaningful interactive opportunity to collect information and reflection on a wide range of input. The method provides an insight into problems that require a solution through a process of discovering the meaning attributed to certain events or issues. In this research four cardinal points as preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation (Fothergill, 1996) guided the FGD. The population (i.e. local town councils) were constituted by a mix of chiefs, engineers, technicians and civil servants and government officials. In all the three city councils concerned, the engineers in charge complained about the lack of strategic planning, and about the missing of an elaborated strategy for disasters. They are aware of the existence of an organigram in the "Département de l'Action Civile" in Yaounde but never received any "strategic" document. Therefore inappropriate actions might be taken by the municipalities themselves. Fortunately all people interrogated at the FDG always mentioned solidarity in any event. Fothergill, 1996, Gender, Risk, and Disasters, Intern. Jour. of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.14, n°1, 33-56

  17. Images of Environmental Management: Competing Metaphors in Focus Group Discussions of Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2012-04-01

    In managing environmental problems, several countries have chosen the management by objectives (MBO) approach. This paper investigates how focus group participants from the Swedish environmental administration used metaphors to describe the mode of organization needed to attain environmental objectives. Such analysis can shed light on how an MBO system is perceived by actors and how it works in practice. Although the Swedish government intended to stimulate broad-based cooperation among many actors, participants often saw themselves as located at a certain "level," i.e., "higher" or "lower," in the MBO system—that is, their conceptions corresponded to a traditional, hierarchical interpretation of MBO. Prepositions such as "in" and "out" contributed to feelings of inclusion and exclusion on the part of MBO actors. However, horizontal metaphors merged with vertical ones, indicating ongoing competition for the right to interpret how the system of environmental objectives should best be managed. The paper concludes that any organization applying MBO could benefit from discussing alternate ways of talking and thinking about its constituent "levels."

  18. Barriers to asymptomatic screening and other STD services for adolescents and young adults: focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leone Peter A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major public health problem among young people and can lead to the spread of HIV. Previous studies have primarily addressed barriers to STD care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of our study was to identify perceptions about existing barriers to and ideal services for STDs, especially asymptomatic screening, among young people in a southeastern community. Methods Eight focus group discussions including 53 White, African American, and Latino youth (age 14–24 were conducted. Results Perceived barriers to care included lack of knowledge of STDs and available services, cost, shame associated with seeking services, long clinic waiting times, discrimination, and urethral specimen collection methods. Perceived features of ideal STD services included locations close to familiar places, extended hours, and urine-based screening. Television was perceived as the most effective route of disseminating STD information. Conclusions Further research is warranted to evaluate improving convenience, efficiency, and privacy of existing services; adding urine-based screening and new services closer to neighborhoods; and using mass media to disseminate STD information as strategies to increase STD screening.

  19. The lay user perspective on the quality of pharmaceuticals, drug therapy and pharmacy services--results of focus group discussions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    : The lay perspective emphasizes a definite split between lay and expert views on the value and quality of pharmaceuticals, drug therapy and pharmacy services, as well as in their assessment of risk. Participants voiced spontaneous criticism of the roles of both physicians and pharmacists in drug therapy......BACKGROUND: This article presents the results of a study on quality of pharmacy services and perceived risk of pharmaceuticals. The results presented here are part of a multi-study evaluation of major changes in drug distribution in Iceland. OBJECTIVES: This sub-study addressed the question: what...... is the lay user perspective on pharmaceuticals and pharmacy services, including their perception of risk? METHODS: To answer this question, seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in Iceland following new drug distribution legislation in 1996. RESULTS...

  20. Exploring Reflective Teaching through Informed Journal Keeping and Blog Group Discussion in the Teaching Practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insuasty Edgar Alirio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a study which examined how student teachers could be empowered as more reflective practitioners through journal keeping and blog group discussions. It was carried out with six student teachers who developed their practicum over six months. Data were collected through journals, blogs, metaphors, conferences and a questionnaire. The results demonstrated that student teachers enriched their perceptions about what reflective teaching implied. Furthermore, journal keeping was approached as an informed process by virtue of which student- teachers could go beyond the descriptive documentation of what happened in their classes. Their journal entries also revealed reflective references, most of which were mainly focused on evaluating teaching, diagnosing and solving problems. Este artículo reporta los resultados de un estudio que examinó cómo se podía potenciar los practicantes como docentes más reflexivos a través del uso de diarios y discusiones mediante blogs. En el estudio participaron seis practicantes, quienes desarrollaron sus prácticas durante seis meses. Los datos se recogieron a través de diarios, blogs, metáforas, conferencias y cuestionarios. Los resultados demostraron que los practicantes enriquecieron sus percepciones acerca de lo que significa la enseñanza reflexiva. Por otra parte, el diligenciamiento del diario, el cual se hizo como un proceso informado, les permitió ir más allá de una etapa descriptiva y enfocarse en la evaluación del proceso de enseñanza, la identificación y solución de los problemas que surgieron en la clase.

  1. In-Class Reflective Group Discussion as a Strategy for the Development of Students as Evolving Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Annetta Kit Lam

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine perceptions of three cohorts of third year undergraduate students (n = 65) on in-class reflective group discussion as a critical reflective approach for evolving professionals. Reflective group discussions were embedded into a final year course within the University of Queensland Bachelor of Oral…

  2. Talking while Computing in Groups: The Not-so-Private Functions of Computational Private Speech in Mathematical Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, William; Moschkovich, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Students often voice computations during group discussions of mathematics problems. Yet, this type of private speech has received little attention from mathematics educators or researchers. In this article, we use excerpts from middle school students' group mathematical discussions to illustrate and describe "computational private…

  3. Talking while Computing in Groups: The Not-so-Private Functions of Computational Private Speech in Mathematical Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, William; Moschkovich, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Students often voice computations during group discussions of mathematics problems. Yet, this type of private speech has received little attention from mathematics educators or researchers. In this article, we use excerpts from middle school students' group mathematical discussions to illustrate and describe "computational private…

  4. Qualitative assessment of student-teacher communication using focus group discussion in a Dental College in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The communication between faculty and students is a vital component of optimal facilitation of knowledge and learning. Various factors influence this dynamic. Aim: To assess communication levels between students and teachers in a dental college scenario via focus group discussion. Materials and Methods: The focus group discussion consisted of 10 groups; 5 groups representing the teachers, and 5 groups representing the students. Each group consisted of 6 participants. Hence there were a total of 30 teacher and 30 student participants. Focus group discussion was conducted for each of the groups for 30–45 min duration in the presence of a moderator and a note-taker. Open-ended questions were put across by the moderator to initiate and continue the discussions. The hand-written data taken by the note-taker were transcribed onto a computer on the same day of the discussion. Based on the transcription, domains were created for the student and teacher groups. Results: The issues raised by both the teacher and student groups in this focus group discussion were broadly classified into the following themes: (1 Past versus current scenario, (2 attitudes toward communication and learning, (3 hindrances to effective communication, and (4 potential solutions. Conclusions: Focus group discussion exposed many differences in the perceptions of teachers and students to communication. Each group, however, felt that bridging the teacher-student communication barrier was crucial to improve the teaching-learning experience. Many constructive solutions were provided by both the groups which can help to improve the quality of teaching-learning experience resulting in better quality of education.

  5. Elaboration during Problem-Based Group Discussion: Effects on Recall for High and Low Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    Although elaboration has been investigated frequently, there is little evidence for the beneficial effect of elaboration in problem-based learning. A controlled experiment tested the effect of elaboration during problem-based discussion on recall. Sixty-seven students observed a video-recorded, problem-based discussion. In one experimental…

  6. Patient advisory groups in practice improvement: sample case presentation with a discussion of best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Bender, Robert O; Bruce, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Using patient advisory groups can affect practice changes and create a patient-centric focus for a primary care practice. A successful patient advisory group has been developed for our primary care clinics. Utilizing this group, we have implemented practice improvement changes that have had a significant impact in patient care. This will be demonstrated in a case presentation involving the implementation of depression care managers at our practice sites. We will review key "best practices," as defined by the group, regarding size, composition, and meeting frequency that can be used for the development of a clinical patient advisory group.

  7. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-18

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. This is the first European

  8. Comparison of effect between group discussion and educational booklet on Iranian nursing students' attitude and practice toward patient privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Faraji, Mona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects between group discussion and educational booklet on nursing students' attitude and practice toward patient privacy in Iran. A two-group, pre-test and post-test design study was conducted in 2015. The study was conducted on 60 nursing students in Kashan, Iran who were randomly allocated into two groups to be trained on patient privacy either through group discussion or by an educational booklet. The students' attitude and practice was assessed before and after the education using a questionnaire and a checklist. Data analysis was performed through paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and independent samples t-tests. Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the group designated to group discussion and that designated to the educational booklet in the mean overall score of attitude (P=0.303) and practice (P=0.493) toward patient privacy. After the intervention, the mean attitude score significantly increased in the two groups (P=0.001). Moreover, the students' practice score increased in the discussion group while it did not significantly change in the booklet group (P=0.001). Both methods were effective on the students' attitude; however, the educational booklet did not affect their practice toward patient privacy. Group discussion can effectively improve the students' attitude and practice toward patient privacy.

  9. Comparison of effect between group discussion and educational booklet on Iranian nursing students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study aimed to compare the effects between group discussion and educational booklet on nursing students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy in Iran. Methods A two-group, pre-test and post-test design study was conducted in 2015. The study was conducted on 60 nursing students in Kashan, Iran who were randomly allocated into two groups to be trained on patient privacy either through group discussion or by an educational booklet. The students’ attitude and practice was assessed before and after the education using a questionnaire and a checklist. Data analysis was performed through paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and independent samples t-tests. Results Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the group designated to group discussion and that designated to the educational booklet in the mean overall score of attitude (P=0.303 and practice (P=0.493 toward patient privacy. After the intervention, the mean attitude score significantly increased in the two groups (P=0.001. Moreover, the students’ practice score increased in the discussion group while it did not significantly change in the booklet group (P=0.001. Conclusion Both methods were effective on the students’ attitude; however, the educational booklet did not affect their practice toward patient privacy. Group discussion can effectively improve the students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy.

  10. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  11. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  12. Sex, Pregnancy and Contraception: A Report of Focus Group Discussions with Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugland, Barbara W.; Wilder, Kathleen J.; Chandra, Anita

    Findings in this report summarize the first phase of a larger, multi-year study that is combining qualitative and quantitative methods to outline a conceptual framework to guide future demographic/fertility research, pregnancy prevention programs and policies. Twelve focus groups--involving a multiculturally representative group of male and female…

  13. The important role of civil society groups in eco-innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss, theoretically and practically, the role of civil society groups in eco-innovation. Design/methodology/approach – Starting from a discussion on the emergence of “triple helix twins”, “quadruple helix” and “N-tuple helices”, this paper discusses...... the role of civil society groups in eco-innovation by addressing the following research questions: Why is it necessary to stress that civil society groups are as important as university, industry and government in eco-innovation? What inspiration can “triple helix twins” and “quadruple helix” provide when...... arguing for a fourth actor of civil society groups in eco-innovation? How are civil society groups affecting eco-innovation practice and what does it tell us about the relation between civil society groups and the triple helix actors? In addressing the “How” question the authors draw on examples of eco...

  14. The role of financial groups in Russia's banking crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the role of financial groups in financial crises, and then applies the lessons learnt to Russia though a detailed analysis of the ruble collapse, the GKO default and the banking crisis.

  15. Dealing with Sex Roles in Groups: A Developmental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Clarke G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A model of individual developments is described and a framework is presented for developing group environments that match the developmental levels of women and men who are dealing with sex role issues. (Author/KS)

  16. Comparative study of problem based learning versus structured group discussion in teaching pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveesh M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: PBL and SGD are effective small group methods for teaching undergraduate medical students. However learning outcome with PBL is better than SGD. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1877-1880

  17. The critical value of focus group discussions in research with women living with HIV in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E

    2010-05-01

    This article is based on a critical ethnography about HIV and gender-based issues of power and violence conducted in Malawi in 2008. In all, 72 women living with HIV were recruited from four antiretroviral treatment clinics, three rural and one urban, to participate in 12 focus groups. Informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, we analyze the process and products of these focus groups to interrogate their capacity to facilitate collective engagement with the social and structural realities confronting women in a resource-limited, highly AIDS-affected country. We present exemplars to show how women together created collective narratives to mobilize individuals to action. Findings indicate that focus groups can be used innovatively to benefit both the research and the participants, not only as a critical method of inquiry with marginalized groups but also as a forum in which validating dialogue, mutual support, and exchange of strategic information can generate transformative change to improve women's lives.

  18. [A discussion on setting up target age group for immunization against leptospirosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, J T; Wang, S S; Lan, W L

    1995-08-01

    This paper presented the lesson of setting up a false immunization priority age group for leptospirosis which failed to prevent the leptospirosis outbreak. Our experience was that in the rice paddy field type endemic area the priority age group for the vaccination against leptopirosis should be 15 to 34 year olds followed by 35 years old or above. There was no preventive effect in the vaccination for the children 14 years old or yaunger, to our observation.

  19. Clarifying and discussing successful aging at work and the active role of employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I clarify and further discuss 4 issues raised by Zacher in critically analyzing my perspective on successful aging at work and the active role of employees. First, I argue that the sustainability concept is a valuable and useful concept to better understand successful aging at work,

  20. Discussing Women's Reproductive Health, Religion, Roles and Rights: Achieving Women's Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix de

    1995-01-01

    A health education program in Brazil trained 26 women as community health educators. Only four used their roles to foster social change. Discussing women's reproductive health in the context of religion and social values contributed to successful training; economic and political empowerment was hampered by perpetuation of traditional role…

  1. Using Facebook Groups to Encourage Science Discussions in a Large-Enrollment Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; McGinnis, Gene; Bryant, Dana; Cole, Megan; Kovacs, Jennifer; Stovall, Kyndra; Lee, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This case study reports the instructional development, impact, and lessons learned regarding the use of Facebook as an educational tool within a large enrollment Biology class at Spelman College (Atlanta, GA). We describe the use of this social networking site to (a) engage students in active scientific discussions, (b) build community within the…

  2. Students' Evaluation of Google Hangouts through a Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…

  3. English Discussion Groups: A Means for the Military to Understand Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    Each role will dominate his time and energy at any given moment as situations and stimulus dictate. Bob may need to react as a father to his children ...enable the military a “What do you call a person who speaks two languages?” Bilingual . “What do you call a person who speaks three

  4. The fundamental managerial challenges in the role of a contemporary district nurse: A discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComiskey, Florence

    2017-10-02

    This article examines some of the fundamental challenges facing the district nurse in delivery of the managerial aspects of her role in contemporary practice. It discusses the personal attributes that are essential for this role to ensure safe, effective and compassionate leadership and management. The communication skills and ethos underpinning collaborative multidiscilplinary team work and person-centred care are discussed. Issues that compromise positive and productive team working are identified, and strategies dealing with conflict and also change management are debated. These factors are interrelated with the everyday demands of caseload management, the development of educational needs to meet the demands of increased complexity in care needs, and the place of technology in modern health care. It is evidenced that sustained organisational support for this role is more important than ever, due to increasing demand and decreasing capacity. Potential solutions to these challenges are offered to assist the contemporary district nurse.

  5. Children's Behaviors and Emotions in Small-Group Argumentative Discussion: Explore the Influence of Big Five Personality Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting

    2009-01-01

    The assessment and structure of personality traits and small group learning during classroom discussions are both research fields that have undergone fast development in the past few decades. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between individual personality characteristics and performance in discussions, especially with…

  6. Effectiveness of interactive discussion group in suicide risk assessment among general nurses in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yi-Yin; Yeh, Mei Chang; Huang, Lian-Hua; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-11-01

    The evidence of suicide prevention training for nurses is scarce. Strategies to enhance general nurses' ability in suicide risk assessment are critical to develop effective training programs in general medical settings. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of an interactive discussion group in a suicide prevention training program for general nurses. In this randomized study with two groups of pre-post study design, the sample was recruited from the Medical, Surgical, and Emergency/Intensive Care Sectors of a 2000-bed general hospital via stratified randomization. Among the 111 nurses, 57 participants randomly assigned to the control group received a two-hour baseline suicide gatekeeper lecture, and 54 participants assigning to the experimental group received an additional five-hour group discussion about suicide risk assessment skills. Using a case vignette, the nurses discussed and assessed suicide risk factors specified in a 10-item Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale during a group discussion intervention. The findings revealed that the nurses achieved significant and consistent improvements of risk identification and assessment after the intervention without influencing their mental health status for assessing suicide risks. The result suggested an effective approach of interactive group discussion for facilitating critical thinking and learning suicide risk assessment skills among general nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Influence in Online Health Discussions: An Evaluation of Online Graduate Student Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin Kay

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a field experimental design assessing online support groups testing hypotheses derived from the social identification model of deindividuation effects (SIDE; Lea & Spears, 1992) and social information processing theory (SIP; Walther, 1992). Specifically, it is predicted that individuals in an online support…

  8. An Annotated Bibliography of Materials Designed and Organized for Adult Use in Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, John W.

    This first annotated bibliography of materials designed and organized for adult use in disucssion groups includes both book and nonbook material. Areas dealt with are: art, censorship, change, child guidance, communication, crime, democracy, economics, education, evolution, food, foreign affairs, forgetting, generation gap, gold, good and evil,…

  9. Making Foundational Assumptions Transparent: Framing the Discussion about Group Communication and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Renee A.; Seibold, David R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors seek to augment Dean Hewes's (1986, 1996) intriguing bracketing and admirable larger effort to "return to basic theorizing in the study of group communication" by making transparent the foundational, and debatable, assumptions that underlie those models. Although these assumptions are addressed indirectly by Hewes, the…

  10. Making Meaning with Friends: Exploring the Function, Direction and Tone of Small Group Discussions of Literature in Elementary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The merits of decentralized small groups has been questioned in literature and by practicing teachers; thus this study shows the academic and identity work children do as they attempt to make meaning in these spaces. This study explores the affordances and drawbacks of decentralized small group discussion contexts in a multiage (3rd/4th) grade…

  11. Examining the Impact of Novel Pre-activity Tasks on Macroskills: The Case of Group Discussion on Writing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of most researchers in the field of second and foreign language teaching is lessening the problems and eliminating the hinders on the way of learning a language. Writing is considered as one of the most challenging and complicated tasks for learners to perform particularly when they have to write in a second or foreign language. Numerous studies were done on the importance of the pre-writing stage and activities which are directly and indirectly related to the theme of the writing. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to examine the effects of group discussion as a pre- activity task on writing ability. To this aim, 27 Iranian EFL learners, who were at the same level –intermediate- studying at Shokuh and Safir Institutes, Birjand, Iran were chosen randomly. Two groups- one control and one experimental group- were studied. In control group the conventional method was used in teaching writing, while in experimental group, group discussion pre-activity task was administered. After 16 sessions, the obtained data of the pretests and posttests was analyzed by SPSS software. According to the results, researcher strongly concluded that group discussion has no significant effect on writing ability of Iranian intermediate learners. This study can help teachers and syllabus designers in choosing and applying an effective pre-activity task. Keywords: writing ability, pre-activity task, group discussion, EFL learners

  12. Phases and Changes: Using I Ching as a Source of Generative Metaphors in Teaching Small Group Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, G. Richard; Chang, Hui-Ching

    1992-01-01

    This essay describes the use of I Ching hexagrams as a focus to improve the ability of college student groups to evolve creative solutions and improve decision-making skills. The philosophy of I Ching is briefly explained, and examples are given of hexagram interpretations which are applicable to group discussion and problem solving. (DB)

  13. Who's in charge: role clarity in a Midwestern watershed group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floress, Kristin; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Ayres, Janet

    2011-10-01

    Studies of collaborative watershed groups show that effective leadership is an important factor for success. This research uses data from in-depth interviews and meeting observation to qualitatively examine leadership in a Midwestern collaborative watershed group operating with government funding. One major finding was a lack of role definition for volunteer steering-committee members. Lack of role clarity and decision-making processes led to confusion regarding project management authority among the group, paid project staff members, and agency personnel. Given the important role of government grants for funding projects to protect water quality, this study offers insight into leadership issues that groups with Clean Water Act Section 319 (h) funds may face and suggestions on how to resolve them.

  14. Roundtable discussion: what is the future role of the private sector in health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The role for the private sector in health remains subject to much debate, especially within the context of achieving universal health coverage. This roundtable discussion offers diverse perspectives from a range of stakeholders – a health funder, a representative from an implementing organization, a national-level policy-maker, and an expert working in a large multi-national company – on what the future may hold for the private sector in health. Discussion The first perspective comes from a health funder, who argues that the discussion about the future role of the private sector has been bogged down in language. He argues for a ‘both/and’ approach rather than an ‘either/or’ when it comes to talking about health service provision in low- and middle-income countries. The second perspective is offered by an implementer of health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa. The piece examines the comparative roles of public sector actors, private sector actors and funding agencies, suggesting that they must work together to mobilize domestic resources to fund and deliver health services in the longer term. Thirdly, a special advisor working in the federal government of Nigeria considers the situation in that country. He notes that the private sector plays a significant role in funding and delivering health services there, and that the government must engage the private sector or forever be left behind. Finally, a representative from a multi-national pharmaceutical corporation gives an overview of global shifts that are creating opportunities for the private sector in health markets. Summary Overall, the roundtable discussants agree that the private sector will play an important role in future health systems. But we must agree a common language, work together, and identify key issues and gaps that might be more effectively filled by the private sector. PMID:24961806

  15. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    New legislation went into effect in Iceland in March 1996 making it the first Nordic country to liberate their drug distribution system. The term liberalization implies the abolishment of the professional monopoly in that ownership was not tied to the pharmacy profession anymore. Focus group disc...... technical skills. This account of the changes in the drug distribution system in Iceland highlights some of the implications for pharmacists internationally....

  16. Effectiveness of group discussions and commitment in improving cleaning behaviour of shared sanitation users in Kampala, Uganda slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwebaze, Innocent K; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Access to and use of hygienic shared sanitation facilities is fundamental in reducing the high risk of diseases such as diarrhoea and respiratory infections. We evaluated the effectiveness of group discussions and commitment in improving the cleaning behaviour of shared sanitation users in three urban slums in Kampala, Uganda. The study follows the risk, attitudes, norms, abilities and self-regulation (RANAS) model of behaviour change and some factors of the social dilemma theory. A pre-versus post-intervention survey was conducted in three slums of Kampala, Uganda, between December 2012 and September 2013. From the pre-intervention findings, users of dirty sanitation facilities were randomly assigned to discussions, discussions + commitment and control interventions. The interventions were implemented for 3 months with the aim of improving cleaning behaviour. This paper provides an analysis of 119 respondents who belonged to the intervention discussion-only (n = 38), discussions + commitment (n = 41) and the control (no intervention, n = 40) groups. Compared to the control, discussions and discussions + commitment significantly improved shared toilet users' cleaning behaviour. The rate of improvement was observed through behavioural determinants such as cleaning obligation, cleaning ease, cleaning approval and affective beliefs. Our study findings show that group discussions and commitment interventions derived from RANAS model of behaviour change are effective in improving the shared sanitation users' cleaning behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M

    1999-01-01

    New legislation went into effect in Iceland in March 1996 making it the first Nordic country to liberate their drug distribution system. The term liberalization implies the abolishment of the professional monopoly in that ownership was not tied to the pharmacy profession anymore. Focus group...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly...

  18. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Afandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions

  19. Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies. After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.

  20. Discussion on Group Learning%浅谈小组合作学习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳萍

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely used in many countries in the world a kind of creative teaching theory and strategy. Refers to two or more than twostudents or groups,in order to achieve a common purpose in action are matched with each other.%合作学习是目前世界上许多国家普遍采用的一种富有创意的教学理论与方略,是指两个或两个以上的学生或群体,为了达到共同的目的而在行动上相互配合的过程。

  1. Media Memories in Focus Group Discussions - Methodological Reflections Instancing the Global Media Generations Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Hug

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medienereignisse wie auch die Einführung und Verbreitung neuer Medientechnologien und Formate bringen mannigfaltige Wege des „Eintretens von Medien ins Leben“ mit sich. Im Projekt Globale Mediengenerationen (GMG wurden Medienerinnerungen aus der Kindheit im Kontext von Gruppendiskussionen am Beispiel dreier Generationen aus verschiedenen Ländern aller Kontinente untersucht. Dabei wurden medienbezogene Wissensbestände von drei Alterskohorten globaler Generationen analysiert. Der Artikel diskutiert methodologische Aspekte des Projekts und komplexe und selektive Prozesse des Erinnerns vergangener Ereignisse. Er untersucht Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede des GMG-Ansatzes mit dem dokumentarischen Ansatz von Ralf Bohnsack, die beide in der Wissenssoziologie von Karl Mannheim verwurzelt sind. Darüber hinaus wird Medialität als basale methodologische Kategorie in Erwägung gezogen, nicht nur im Hinblick auf die Klärung begrifflicher Grundlagen, sondern auch als inhärente Dimension von Forschungsprozessen. Media events in general and the introduction and divulgence of new media technologies and formats in particular implicate various (new ways of “media entering life.” In the Global Media Generations (GMG research project, articulation of individuals’ memories of childhood experiences with the media was afforded by context of focus groups of three generations in different countries of six continents. In this project media related knowledge segments of different age cohorts have been analyzed and interpreted. The article deals with methodological questions of the project and complex processes of ‘remembering’ past events. It explores commonalities and differences of the GMG approach with Ralf Bohnsack’s documentary approach, both rooted in the sociology of knowledge of Karl Mannheim. Furthermore, mediality is taken into consideration as a basic methodological category, which means that it is perceived not only as subject matter to

  2. Perspectives on Positioning, Interaction, and Learning in Small-Group Discussion: Possibilities for Extending the Analytic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Wilson, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    In this forum piece, we respond to Karin Due's study of social dynamics in groups of students in physics class and gender issues that play out in this context. We discuss two threads that appear in Due's paper: one pertains to patterns of talk within groups and how these patterns open up possibilities for learning, the other pertains to…

  3. Great Expectations: How Role Expectations and Role Experiences Relate to Perceptions of Group Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark A; Irving, P Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Many athletes experience a discrepancy between the roles they expect to fulfill and the roles they eventually occupy. Drawing from met expectations theory, we applied response surface methodology to examine how role expectations, in relation to role experiences, influence perceptions of group cohesion among Canadian Interuniversity Sport athletes (N = 153). On the basis of data from two time points, as athletes approached and exceeded their role contribution expectations, they reported higher perceptions of task cohesion. Furthermore, as athletes approached and exceeded their social involvement expectations, they reported higher perceptions of social cohesion. These response surface patterns-pertaining to task and social cohesion-were driven by the positive influence of role experiences. On the basis of the interplay between athletes' role experiences and their perception of the group environment, efforts to improve team dynamics may benefit from focusing on improving the quality of role experiences, in conjunction with developing realistic role expectations.

  4. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara

    2012-01-01

    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  5. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  6. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  7. Video Modeling of Cooperative Discussion Group Behaviors with Students with Learning Disabilities in a Secondary Content-area Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-mediated instructional strategies such as cooperative learning are commonly used in general education classrooms in secondary schools; however, students with disabilities often lack the group interaction and discussion skills necessary to fully benefit from evidence-based interventions. The present study used a multiple baseline across…

  8. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  9. Conversation and compliance: role of interpersonal discussion and social norms in public communication campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lauren B; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Chaudhuri, Sonal T; Lapsansky, Charlotte; Bhanot, Anurudra; Murphy, Sheila T

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the role of interpersonal discussion and social norms in a public health campaign, the BBC Condom Normalization Campaign, designed to promote conversation and change the public perception of condom use in India. Drawing upon the integrative model of behavioral prediction, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and descriptive norms were predicted to relate to behavioral intentions to use condoms. It is important to note that the valence of discussion was hypothesized to relate to each of these more proximal predictors. The authors used structural equation modeling to test the model on 3 separate samples of Indian men between the ages of 15 and 49 years: (a) high-risk men who had sex with nonspouses; (b) low-risk, sexually inactive, unmarried men; and (c) low-risk, monogamous, married men. Results were similar for low- and high-risk audiences, with valence of discussion about condoms predicting condom-related attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective and descriptive social norms with respect to condom use, which, in turn, predicted behavioral intent to use condoms. These findings underscore the need to take not only the frequency but also the valence of interpersonal discussion into account when assessing the effect of health campaigns. Implications for theory and design of future public communication campaigns are explored.

  10. Educational Outcomes of Small-Group Discussion Versus Traditional Lecture Format in Dental Students' Learning and Skills Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.

  11. Using standardized patient with immediate feedback and group discussion to teach interpersonal and communication skills to advanced practice nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Esther Ching-Lan; Chen, Shiah-Lian; Chao, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Chih

    2013-06-01

    Interpersonal and communication skills (IPCS) are essential for advanced practice nursing (APN) in our increasingly complex healthcare system. The Standardized Patient (SP) is a promising innovative pedagogy in medical and healthcare education; however, its effectiveness for teaching IPCS to graduate nursing students remains unclear. We examined the effectiveness of using SP with SP feedback and group discussion to teach IPCS in graduate nursing education. Randomized-controlled study. First-year APN students in Taiwan. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental (SP assessments with SP feedback and group discussion) or control (SP assessments only) group. There were two outcome indicators: IPCS and student learning satisfaction (SLS). The IPCS were assessed before and after the study in interviews with the SPs. SLS was measured when the study ended. All participants expressed high SLS (94.44%) and showed significant (p ≤ 0.025) improvements on IPCS total scores, interviewing, and counseling. However, there were no significant differences between groups. Qualitative feedback from encounters with SPs is described. Using SPs to teach IPCS to APN students produced a high SLS. The students learned and significantly improved their IPCS by interviewing SPs, but future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of SP feedback and group discussions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison the Effect of Student-Based Group Discussion and Lecture Methods Teaching on Midwifery Student\\'s Learning Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghapour SA.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: True learning needs the utilization of proper teaching methods leading to students’ interests in the learning activities to gain useful learning experiences. Therefore, it is needed to reform the traditional teaching methods and to use new student-focused methods by the educational systems.  The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the student-focused group discussion method and lecture method on the learning level in the Midwifery students. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 72 third-semester Midwifery bachelor students of Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, were selected via census method to participate in the theoretical clinical pregnancy course presented as lecture and group discussion methods in 2014. The final test was done after the end of the training courses. And, material durability test was done 8 weeks after the end of the course sessions. Data was analyzed, using SPSS 16 software and Wilcoxon Non-parametric Test. Findings: There was a significant difference between the mean scores of all the sessions conducted through lecture method (45.00±8.00 and group discussion method (57.00±10.00; p=0.0001. There was a significant difference in the material durability after 8 weeks between the mean scores of lecture (24.50±13.90 and group discussion (35.10±13.10 methods (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Standard student-focused group discussion training affects the midwifery students’ learning more than the lecture method does and there is higher information durability.  

  13. Who is the competent physics student? A study of students' positions and social interaction in small-group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-06-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students. The analysis was based on gender theory viewing gender both as a process and a discourse. Specifically discursive psychology analysis was used to examine how students position themselves and their peers within discourses of physics and gender. The results of the study reveal how images of physics and of "skilled physics student" were constructed in the context of the interviews. These discourses were reconstructed in the students' discussions and their social interactions within groups. Traditional gendered positions were reconstructed, for example with boys positioned as more competent in physics than girls. These positions were however also resisted and challenged.

  14. Realising Graduate Attributes in the Research Degree: The Role of Peer Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Elke; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of peer support groups (PSGs) in realising graduate attributes in the research degree. The literature indicates that top-down embedding of graduate attributes has met with only limited success. By taking a bottom-up approach, this paper shows that PSGs offer an opportunity to improve the graduate attribute outcomes of…

  15. The role of parental attitudes and provider discussions in uptake of adolescent vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Vaughn I; Rehm, Susan J; Aalsma, Matthew C; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-01-29

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental vaccine attitudes, the number of specific vaccines discussed with a provider, and immunization outcomes including discussing immunization with their teen, knowledge of adolescent vaccine schedule, and their son or daughter being up-to-date on recommended vaccines using a nationally weight sample. Parents completed an internet-based survey between December 2012 and January 2013 and we computed a vaccine attitude scale (higher scores indicating stronger and more positive attitudes toward vaccination of teen) for each parent and categorized them into one of three groups: low (n=76), medium (n=207) or high (n=215). We also constructed a vaccine discussion scale representing the number of vaccines discussed with their adolescent's physician. Parents who were identified as having high vaccine attitudes were significantly more likely to report their physician talked with them about a particular vaccine. Using logistic regression and controlling for respondent's gender and age, income, and teen's gender, we found medium as compared to low-attitude parents had a 6.21 (95%CI=3.08, 12.51) greater odds of reporting that their teen had all recommended vaccines. Similarly, high as compared to low-attitude parents reported a 23.02 (95% CI=11.27, 46.99) greater odds of having a teen who was up-to-date on recommended vaccines. We detected that for each additional vaccine discussed, there was a 1.24 (95%CI=1.11, 1.39) increase in odds of the teen having all recommended vaccines. Parental immunization attitudes and provider discussion about vaccines are key ingredients to improving immunization rates among adolescents. While some parents may be reluctant to immunize their son or daughter with a recommended vaccine, vaccine-specific discussions between physicians and parents represent an important first step to continued discussions with providers regarding vaccination. Moreover, vaccine discussions must occur

  16. The Discussions around Precision Genetic Engineering: Role of and Impact on Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic researchers are advancing in their abilities to extract precise genetic information from biological and human entities bringing genetic research steps closer to accurately modifying genes of biological entities, including that of humans. In this analytical essay, we focus on the discussions about precision genetic intervention that have taken place since March 2015 as they pertain to disabled people. We focus on two areas; one being the role of disabled people in the recent gene editing discussions and the second being the utility of existing legal instruments. Within our first focus we address the following questions: (a What is the visibility of disabled people in the gene-editing discussions that have taken place since March 2015? (b What has been the impact of those discussions on disabled people? (c Were social problems which disabled people face taken into account in those discussions; (d How does the reality of engagement with disabled people in these discussions fit with science, technology and innovation governance discourses that ask for more stakeholder, bottom up and anticipatory involvement? Within our second focus we address the following questions: (a What is the utility of the United Nations Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD; and (b What is the utility of existing legal instruments covering genetic interventions: for preventing negative social consequences of genetic engineering developments for disabled people. We argue that (a the genetic engineering debates since March 2015 have portrayed disabled people dominantly through a medical lens; (b that the governance of science, technology and innovation of genetic engineering including anticipatory governance and responsible innovation discourses has not yet engaged with the social impact of gene editing on disabled people; (c that few scholars that focus on the social situation of disabled people are visible in the governance discussions of gene

  17. The role of religious, social and political groups in palliative care in Northern Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallnow Libby

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The local community has played an important and central role in the development and determination of palliative care services in Northern Kerala. This article looks at the history of the collaboration and how palliative care services have evolved over the past 4 years from 2001 to 2005. The contribution of groups such as nongovernmental organizations, charities and religious groups is outlined and benefits gained by each side discussed.

  18. Towards More Precise Design Guidance: Specifying and Testing the Functions of Assigned Student Roles in Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Alyssa Friend; Saghafian, Marzieh; Padmanabhan, Poornima

    2012-01-01

    While assigning student roles is a popular technique in online discussions, roles and the responsibilities allocated to them have not been consistently assigned. This makes it difficult to compare implementations and generate principled guidance for role design. This study critically examined frequently assigned student roles and identified a set…

  19. Fit Minded College Edition Pilot Study: Can a Magazine-Based Discussion Group Improve Physical Activity in Female College Freshmen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitteri, Katelyn; Huberty, Jennifer; Ehlers, Diane; Bruening, Meg

    Initial efficacy of a magazine-based discussion group for improving physical activity (PA), self-worth, and eating behaviors in female college freshmen. Randomized control trial. A large university in southwestern United States. Thirty-seven female college freshmen were randomized to the intervention (n = 17) and control groups (n = 20) in September 2013. Participants completed an 8-week magazine-based discussion group program, Fit Minded College Edition, adapted from Fit Minded, a previously tested theory-based intervention. Education on PA, self-worth, and nutrition was provided using excerpts from women's health magazines. Participants also had access to a Web site with supplementary health and wellness material. The control group did not attend meetings or have access to the Web site but received the magazines. Interventions focusing on concepts of self-worth with less focus on weight and appearance may promote long term PA participation and healthy eating behaviors in college women. Self-reported PA, global self-worth, knowledge self-worth, self-efficacy, social support, eating behaviors (ie, fruit/veggie/junk food/sugar-sweetened beverage consumption), satisfaction, and Web site usage. Mean age of participants was 18.11 (SD = 0.32) years. Time × Intervention effects were observed for PA minutes per week (Partial η = 0.34), knowledge self-worth (Partial η = 0.02), and daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (Partial η = 0.17) (P < .05), with the intervention group reporting greater increases in PA and knowledge self-worth and greater decreases in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. A magazine-based discussion group may provide a promising platform to improve health behaviors in female college freshmen.

  20. Exploring the Role of `Gendered' Discourse Styles in Online Science Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Florence R.; Kapur, Manu; Madden, Sandra; Shipe, Stefanie

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we examined whether gendered discourse styles were evidenced in online, synchronous, physics collaborative learning group discussions, and the extent to which such discourse patterns were related to the uptake of ideas within the group. We defined two discourse styles: the oppositional/direct style, theorized to be the socialized discourse pattern typically used by males, and the aligned/indirect style, theorized to be the socialized discourse pattern typically used by females. Our analysis indicates the presence of both styles in these chats and the styles were generally utilized along theorized, gendered lines. However, we also observed male use of the stereotypically 'feminine' discourse style and female use of the stereotypically 'masculine' discourse style. Moreover, we found no main effect for discourse style on the uptake of ideas. The findings indicate that, contrary to prior research in both face-to-face science classroom settings and online physics settings, ideas were taken up at relatively similar rates regardless of the gendered discourse style employed. Design implications of this study are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.

  1. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as "individual publications"). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, Paltmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group.

  2. Individual to collaborative: guided group work and the role of teachers in junior secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Lui, Wai-mei

    2016-05-01

    This paper, through discussion of a teaching intervention at two secondary schools in Hong Kong, demonstrates the learning advancement brought about by group work and dissects the facilitating role of teachers in collaborative discussions. One-hundred and fifty-two Secondary Two (Grade 8) students were divided into three pedagogical groups, namely 'whole-class teaching', 'self-directed group work' and 'teacher-supported group work' groups, and engaged in peer-review, team debate, group presentation and reflection tasks related to a junior secondary science topic (i.e. current electricity). Pre- and post-tests were performed to evaluate students' scientific conceptions, alongside collected written responses and audio-recorded discussions. The results indicate that students achieved greater cognitive growth when they engaged in cooperative learning activities, the interactive and multi-sided argumentative nature of which is considered to apply particularly well to science education and Vygotsky's zone of proximal development framework. Group work learning is also found to be most effective when teachers play a role in navigating students during the joint construction of conceptual knowledge.

  3. Gay-Straight Alliances as settings to discuss health topics: individual and group factors associated with substance use, mental health, and sexual health discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V P; Heck, N C; Yoshikawa, H; Calzo, J P

    2017-06-01

    Sexual minority (e.g. lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning; LGBQ) and gender minority (e.g. transgender) youth experience myriad health risks. Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based settings where they may have opportunities to discuss substance use, mental health, and sexual health issues in ways that are safe and tailored to their experiences. Attention to these topics in GSAs could aid in developing programming for these settings. Among 295 youth from 33 Massachusetts high-school GSAs (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgender female, 68% White, Mage = 16.06), we examined how often youth discussed these topics within their GSA and identified factors associated with having more of these discussions. Youth and GSAs as a whole varied in their frequency of discussing these topics. Youth who accessed more information/resources in the GSA and did more advocacy more frequently engaged in discussions around substance use, mental health and sexual health. Youth who reported greater victimization more often discussed substance use and mental health, but not sexual health. Finally, GSAs whose members collectively reported greater victimization more frequently discussed these topics. These findings can assist the development of health programming to be delivered within GSAs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sustainable development and CERN’s role: Panel discussion at the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    On Thursday 21 June, on the occasion of the UN Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development, some ambitious ecological projects involving CERN and its technologies will be presented in an afternoon of lectures and discussions in the Globe. The event is an opportunity for people at CERN to discuss the Organization’s green credentials and their ecological impact on life in the local area.   “The Globe was seen as a metaphor for the planet and a symbol of sustainable development when it was known as the ‘Palace of Equilibrium’ at Expo02 in Switzerland. Now here at CERN, it is the perfect place to host a debate on the role of technology and innovation in this area," enthuses Bernard Pellequer, who is in charge of event planning for the venue. On the afternoon of 21 June, speakers will present several ambitious projects, such as the eco-neighbourhood “Les Vergers”, the Vernes lake in ...

  5. The Moderator as an Emerging Democratic Intermediairy: The Role of the Moderator in Internet Discussions about Public Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Edwards (Arthur)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA common approach towards the role of the moderator in Internet discussions is to see him as a filter. In this article I want to show that the moderator in government-initiated Internet discussions about public issues can be seen as a democratic intermediary, and that this role has the p

  6. Selective traditions in group discussions: teachers' views about good science and the possible obstacles when encountering a new topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Sund, Per

    2016-11-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about what content that should be taught in science education and there are different views among teachers about what represent good science content. However, teachers are not isolated individuals making their own interpretations, but are part of institutionalised systems building on patterns in the selection of teaching goals and content. Earlier research shows that teachers teach in alignment with different selective traditions, which can be understood as well-developed teaching habits. Individual teachers seem to develop their personal habits on the basis of the contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers. In order to find out which content teachers find representative for science education, we asked nine teachers to take part in group interviews to talk about what they value as "good" science content. The participants were grouped according to their selective traditions expressed in earlier studies. The method was used to dynamically explore, challenge and highlight teachers' views. The starting point for the group discussions is national tests in science. In Sweden, national tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in secondary school science (year 9) in 2009. One overarching aim of these tests is to support the implementation of the science curricula and to include for example knowledge about socio-scientific issues (SSI). The content of the tests can consequently be seen as important for teachers to consider. The findings show that `resistance' to including SSI is not just an issue for individual teachers. As individuals teachers can create many kinds of obstacles, but still be interested in integrating SSI in their science teaching. However, in group discussions the teachers tend to collectively adopt the scientific rational discourse. This discourse is what joins them and creates their common identity as science teachers. In turn, they seek to free scientific knowledge from social knowledge

  7. Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Kangas, M; Perini, S

    2016-03-01

    Co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes and poorer response to psychological and pharmacological treatments in older adults. However, there is a paucity of research focused on testing the efficacy of the co-morbid treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults using psychological interventions. Accordingly, the primary objective of the current study was to test the effects of a group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program in treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in a sample of older age adults. A total of 133 community-dwelling participants aged ⩾60 years (mean age = 67.35, s.d. = 5.44, male = 59) with both an anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder, as assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS), were randomly allocated to an 11-week CBT group or discussion group. Participants with Mini-Mental State Examination scores group × time interaction effects emerged at post-treatment only for diagnostic severity of the primary disorder, mean severity of all anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and all disorders, and recovery rates on primary disorder. Group CBT produced faster and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression on diagnostic severity and recovery rates compared to an active control in older adults.

  8. 小组讨论及研讨会总结%Summary of Working Group Discussion and the Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This composition collects the discussion conclusions of each group during the seminar.Each group discussion has a topic,and each group sends an expert giving a speech in the summary meeting to report the outcome of the discussion.All of the outcomes put forward the direction and methods in the development of industrialised housing in Chongqing,and also set up a basis for the work of the next stage of this project.%文章汇集了研讨会小组讨论的各组总结,每小组有一个论题,并由一名相关专家在讨论总结会上发言,报告本小组的讨论成果。这些讨论成果指出了在重庆开展住宅产业化的方向和途径,为项目下一步工作的开展奠定了良好的基础。此外,还包括研讨会的总结,提出了重庆实施住宅产业化的具体意见。

  9. EFEKTIVITAS METODE BUZZ GROUP DISCUSSION UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PERILAKU PEMBERANTASAN SARANG NYAMUK IBU-IBU PKK KELURAHAN SRAGEN TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Nuristia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD adalah penyakit menular yang berbahaya yang dapat menimbulkan kematian dalam waktu singkat dan sering menimbulkan wabah serta kepanikan masyarakat. Pemberian informasi tentang pemberantasan sarang nyamuk (PSN dengan metode Buzz Group Discussion diharapkan dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan dan merubah perilaku masyarakat menjadi lebih baik yang diharapkan dapat dilakukan oleh kader PKK sehingga dapat ditularkan kepada masyarakat lain. Jenis penelitian ini bersifat Quasi eksperimental. Subjek dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok eksperimen sebanyak 18 orang diberi metode buzz group disscussion dan kelompok kontrol sebanyak 18 orang diberi metode ceramah. Hasil uji perbedaan posttest perilaku antara kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol didapatkan dengan p value sebesar 0,000 lebih kecil dari 0,05 dan diperoleh nilai rata-rata post test kelompok sebesar 6,555 sedangkan pada kelompok kontrol diperoleh hasil post test dengan rata-rata sebesar  4,27, lebih kecil dari rata-rata posttesteksperimen. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa metode Buzz Group Discussion efektif dalam meningkatkan perilaku pemberantasan sarang nyamuk pada Ibu PKK di kelurahan Sragen Tengah, Kabupaten Sragen

  10. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Gregori M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manuela De Gregori,1-3,* Valeria Scotti,4,* Annalisa De Silvestri,4 Moreno Curti,4 Guido Fanelli,2,5,6 Massimo Allegri,2,5,6 Michael E Schatman,2,7 1Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 2Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research Group, Parma, Italy; 3Young Against Pain Group, Parma, Italy; 4Center for Scientific Documentation and Biometry Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 5Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Italy; 6Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy Service, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy; 7US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”. For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists, we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%, discussed

  11. Editorial research and the publication process in biomedicine and health: Report from the Esteve Foundation Discussion Group, December 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Ana; Malički, Mario; von Elm, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that there are more than twenty thousand biomedical journals in the world, research into the work of editors and publication process in biomedical and health care journals is rare. In December 2012, the Esteve Foundation, a non-profit scientific institution that fosters progress in pharmacotherapy by means of scientific communication and discussion organized a discussion group of 7 editors and/or experts in peer review biomedical publishing. They presented findings of past editorial research, discussed the lack of competitive funding schemes and specialized journals for dissemination of editorial research, and reported on the great diversity of misconduct and conflict of interest policies, as well as adherence to reporting guidelines. Furthermore, they reported on the reluctance of editors to investigate allegations of misconduct or increase the level of data sharing in health research. In the end, they concluded that if editors are to remain gatekeepers of scientific knowledge they should reaffirm their focus on the integrity of the scientific record and completeness of the data they publish. Additionally, more research should be undertaken to understand why many journals are not adhering to editorial standards, and what obstacles editors face when engaging in editorial research.

  12. The role of enterprise asset management system in the PVO group`s business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, J. [RAMSE Consulting Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation describes the role of the Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) and Enterprise Document Management (EDM) in the PVO Group`s business. The use of the functionality of the EAM (Immpower) and EDM (Documentum) is not limited only to the plant maintenance. All power plants and some other business functions and units will use the system in the future for financial management, activity based costing, purchasing, of materials, office supplies and fuel, invoice matching, project budgeting and costing, real estate management etc. The technical service concept of IT solution is also described in this presentation. The Information Management Strategy development as background to the project is also outlined together with the company information. The benefits of the common EAM system and related business process needs are also described. (orig.)

  13. 'Will I be able to have a baby?' Results from online focus group discussions with childhood cancer survivors in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J; Jervaeus, A; Lampic, C; Eriksson, L E; Widmark, C; Armuand, G M; Malmros, J; Marshall Heyman, M; Wettergren, L

    2014-12-01

    What do adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer think about the risk of being infertile? The potential infertility, as well as the experience of having had cancer, affects well-being, intimate relationships and the desire to have children in the future. Many childhood cancer survivors want to have children and worry about possible infertility. For this qualitative study with a cross-sectional design, data were collected through 39 online focus group discussions during 2013. Cancer survivors previously treated for selected diagnoses were identified from The Swedish Childhood Cancer Register (16-24 years old at inclusion, ≥5 years after diagnosis) and approached regarding study participation. Online focus group discussions of mixed sex (n = 133) were performed on a chat platform in real time. Texts from the group discussions were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the main category Is it possible to have a baby? including five generic categories: Risk of infertility affects well-being, Dealing with possible infertility, Disclosure of possible infertility is a challenge, Issues related to heredity and Parenthood may be affected. The risk of infertility was described as having a negative impact on well-being and intimate relationships. Furthermore, the participants described hesitation about becoming a parent due to perceived or anticipated physical and psychological consequences of having had cancer. Given the sensitive topic of the study, the response rate (36%) is considered acceptable. The sample included participants who varied with regard to received fertility-related information, current fertility status and concerns related to the risk of being infertile. The results may be transferred to similar contexts with other groups of patients of childbearing age and a risk of impaired fertility due to disease. The findings imply that achieving parenthood, whether or not with biological children, is an area that

  14. Exploring views on long term rehabilitation for people with stroke in a developing country: findings from focus group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of long term rehabilitation for people with stroke is increasingly evident, yet it is not known whether such services can be materialised in countries with limited community resources. In this study, we explored the perception of rehabilitation professionals and people with stroke towards long term stroke rehabilitation services and potential approaches to enable provision of these services. Views from providers and users are important in ensuring whatever strategies developed for long term stroke rehabilitations are feasible and acceptable. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted involving 15 rehabilitation professionals and eight long term stroke survivors. All recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of qualitative research. Results Both groups agreed that people with stroke may benefit from more rehabilitation compared to the amount of rehabilitation services presently provided. Views regarding the unavailability of long term rehabilitation services due to multi-factorial barriers were recognised. The groups also highlighted the urgent need for the establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres. Family-assisted home therapy was viewed as a potential approach to continued rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors, given careful planning to overcome several family-related issues. Conclusions Barriers to the provision of long term stroke rehabilitation services are multi-factorial. Establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres and training family members to conduct home-based therapy are two potential strategies to enable the continuation of rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors. PMID:24606911

  15. The Role of Discussion Boards in a University Blended Learning Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Moreno Rosa Isabel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Discussion boards as tools in blended English language learning programs have unique characteristics when compared to other synchronous and asynchronous communication tools that are different. Therefore, it is important to investigate the way they operate, their role within a given program and the students’, teachers’ and tutors’ attitudes towards them. This paper contains the report of a study that took place in an English virtual program of a public university in Colombia. Students’ surveys and reflections, the tutor’s and teachers’ interviews and reflections were used to collect data. The results showed the main advantages and disadvantages of the use of the tool as well as ideas for new proposals to improve their use and, therefore, increase the students’ performance in the program.

    Los foros de discusión, como herramientas en programas de aprendizaje mixto de inglés, tienen características únicas en comparación con otras herramientas sincrónicas y asincrónicas de comunicación. En consecuencia, es importante indagar sobre la forma como funcionan, el papel dentro del programa y las percepciones que tienen los estudiantes, tutores y profesores acerca de ellos. En este artículo se reporta el estudio que se realizó en un programa virtual de inglés de una universidad pública en Colombia, en el primer semestre de 2010. Se recolectó información mediante encuestas y reflexiones de los estudiantes y entrevistas y reflexiones de los profesores. Los resultados muestran las principales ventajas y desventajas en el uso de esta herramienta e ideas para generar nuevas propuestas que mejoren su uso, para así incrementar el desempeño de los estudiantes en el programa.

  16. The Colombian conference of bishops and its participation in peace negotiations with insurgent groups: origins and discussions (1982-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristancho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the most representative academic works about the participation of the Colombian Bishops’ Conference in negotiations with insurgent groups during the eighties, focusing on their perspective about their vision of peace. In that sense, this paper analyses how the Colombian clergy adapted to the national reality their perspective of peace, identifying the main debates and the wide variety of answers, focusing on two main issues: the relevance of establishing a relationship between the need to address social issues with the overcoming of violence and the participation of bishops and priests in the talks with the insurgency. As a result of these discussions, the Colombian Catholic Church gained greater unity in action on peace and conflict.

  17. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, Selina K; Thomas, Kim S; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Leighton, Paul; Yong, Adrian Sw; Batchelor, Jonathan M

    2014-06-14

    Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world's population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to change.

  18. Retention of allied health professionals in rural New South Wales: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane Sheila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uneven distribution of the medical workforce is globally recognised, with widespread rural health workforce shortages. There has been substantial research on factors affecting recruitment and retention of rural doctors, but little has been done to establish the motives and conditions that encourage allied health professionals to practice rurally. This study aims to identify aspects of recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals using qualitative methodology. Methods Six focus groups were conducted across rural NSW and analysed thematically using a grounded theory approach. The thirty allied health professionals participating in the focus groups were purposively sampled to represent a range of geographic locations, allied health professions, gender, age, and public or private work sectors. Results Five major themes emerged: personal factors; workload and type of work; continuing professional development (CPD; the impact of management; and career progression. ‘Pull factors’ favouring rural practice included: attraction to rural lifestyle; married or having family in the area; low cost of living; rural origin; personal engagement in the community; advanced work roles; a broad variety of challenging clinical work; and making a difference. ‘Push factors’ discouraging rural practice included: lack of employment opportunities for spouses; perceived inadequate quality of secondary schools; age related issues (retirement, desire for younger peer social interaction, and intention to travel; limited opportunity for career advancement; unmanageable workloads; and inadequate access to CPD. Having competent clinical managers mitigated the general frustration with health service management related to inappropriate service models and insufficient or inequitably distributed resources. Failure to fill vacant positions was of particular concern and frustration with the lack of CPD access was strongly represented by

  19. Testing Belbin's Team Role Theory of Effective Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Jane S.; Stanton, Neville A.

    1999-01-01

    Belbin's theory that teams with a wide range of roles are more effective than those with role imbalance was tested with six teams composed of individuals with homogenous roles and six with mixed roles. Mixed teams performed better on team tasks. (SK)

  20. Analyzing the Learning Process of an Online Role-Playing Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse

    2012-01-01

    Instructional activities based on online discussion strategies have gained prevalence in recent years. Within this context, a crucial research topic is to design innovative and appropriate online discussion strategies that assist learners in attaining a deeper level of interaction and higher cognitive skills. By analyzing the process of online…

  1. "Pink Is a Girl's Color": A Case Study of Bilingual Kindergarteners' Discussions about Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jung

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined young bilingual students' discussions of picture books dealing with gender themes in a Spanish/English bilingual classroom. The study focused on the reading of five picture books by sixteen 5-year-old Mexican-origin children at a small charter school. The data were collected by…

  2. "Pink Is a Girl's Color": A Case Study of Bilingual Kindergarteners' Discussions about Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jung

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined young bilingual students' discussions of picture books dealing with gender themes in a Spanish/English bilingual classroom. The study focused on the reading of five picture books by sixteen 5-year-old Mexican-origin children at a small charter school. The data were collected by…

  3. A Discussion of the Developing Role of Educational Psychologists within Children's Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Kate; Woods, Kevin; Rooney, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper reflects upon the developing role of educational psychologists (EPs) within the local authority Children's Services, from the starting point that the EP role has, through numerous reviews, been clearly conceptualised. Detailing the philosophy and framework for the inception of Children's Services in England, the authors propose two…

  4. Bridges or Barriers? Conceptualization of the Role of Multiple Identity Gateway Groups in Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc. to affect the intergroup relations between the groups that represent the respective sources of the different identities (e.g., Blacks and Whites, country of origin and country of residence, etc. has not been examined to date. Accordingly, in this paper, we first systematically explore the potential of groups in which people identify with multiple social categories, or groups that are perceived as such by others, to play a role in intergroup dynamics. Next, we offer a theoretical framework outlining what functions groups of people with shared multiple identities may serve (as bridges or barriers by proposing how their presence may facilitate or deteriorate intergroup relations. Finally, we present recent empirical research examining how groups of people with shared multiple identities can act as gateways and bridge the cleft between two separate groups that represent the respective sources of their different identities, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the field of intergroup relations.

  5. Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2015-02-28

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.

  6. Machismo and Virginidad: Sex Roles in Latin America. Discussion Paper 79-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Julio

    The purpose of this paper is to present a view of Latin American males and females that describes the situation in Latin America more accurately than the current stereotypical view accepted in the United States. The author discusses the roots of the North American misconception, citing differences between Latin American and North American cultures…

  7. Maximizing Child Care Services: The Role of Owners and Boards. A Discussion Paper [and] Legislation Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E. Elaine; Ferguson, Tammy McCormick; Jacobs, John

    The Early Childhood Development Communique articulated a commitment to increasing positive outcomes for children from birth to age 6 in Canada. Noting that owners and boards of child care programs are charged with providing a quality service to young children and their families, this discussion paper articulates the owners' and boards'…

  8. The role of research in global food and nutrition security - Discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischler, F.; Wilkinson, D.; Benton, T.; Daniel, H.; Darcy-Vrillon, B.; Hedlund, K.; Heffernan, P.; Kok, E.J.; Saarela, M.; Jakubczyk, E.; Sorlini, C.; Swinnen, J.; Braun, von J.; Ash, K.; Rojas Briales, E.; Buckwell, A.; Frewen, M.; Karlsson, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present discussion document gives an overview of where European research can add the most value in relation to tackling food and nutrition security challenges and points to areas where we can expand our research potential. Moreover, it highlights the need to develop a governance structure that w

  9. Machismo and Virginidad: Sex Roles in Latin America. Discussion Paper 79-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Julio

    The purpose of this paper is to present a view of Latin American males and females that describes the situation in Latin America more accurately than the current stereotypical view accepted in the United States. The author discusses the roots of the North American misconception, citing differences between Latin American and North American cultures…

  10. The role of research in global food and nutrition security - Discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischler, F.; Wilkinson, D.; Benton, T.; Daniel, H.; Darcy-Vrillon, B.; Hedlund, K.; Heffernan, P.; Kok, E.J.; Saarela, M.; Jakubczyk, E.; Sorlini, C.; Swinnen, J.; Braun, von J.; Ash, K.; Rojas Briales, E.; Buckwell, A.; Frewen, M.; Karlsson, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present discussion document gives an overview of where European research can add the most value in relation to tackling food and nutrition security challenges and points to areas where we can expand our research potential. Moreover, it highlights the need to develop a governance structure that w

  11. Discussing Gender Roles and Equality by Reading "Max: The Stubborn Little Wolf"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Gilberto P.; Leija, María G.

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of this article, the authors share the story of Mr. Paredes, a fourth grade teacher in a bilingual classroom, who explains his approach in selecting particular pieces of children's literature that address gender roles and equity. His hope, he states, is that the students will be able to identify the stereotype and challenge…

  12. Discussing Gender Roles and Equality by Reading "Max: The Stubborn Little Wolf"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Gilberto P.; Leija, María G.

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of this article, the authors share the story of Mr. Paredes, a fourth grade teacher in a bilingual classroom, who explains his approach in selecting particular pieces of children's literature that address gender roles and equity. His hope, he states, is that the students will be able to identify the stereotype and challenge…

  13. What does being initiated severely into a group do? The role of rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Undergoing an admission process (an initiation) can induce exaggerated feelings about a group, but there is little research about the role of rewards. This study replicated Aronson and Mills' (1959) experiment. Seventy participants underwent either a severe initiation or a mild initiation. After the initiation, about half the sample received an extrinsic reward for merely completing the task. The remaining half did not receive an extrinsic reward. This was to vary the amount of dissonance. Initiation severity and reward condition had significant, noncrossing interactions. A reward led to higher group identity than no reward, supporting Levine and Moreland's (1994) group socialization model. A severe initiation did not lead to more group identity than a mild initiation; therefore, Aronson and Mills' findings were not replicated. Interestingly, a mild initiation followed by a reward led to more group identity than a severe initiation followed by a reward. Another unexpected finding was that the extrinsic reward made no difference to group identity if the initiation was severe. Effects on ratings of the discussion were nonsignificant. Future research needs to establish how new group members ponder the severity of the admission process during the cost-benefit calculation preceding their identification with a group.

  14. Role improvisation game/discussion as a means of forming family relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukova O. A.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes how to teach to college students the technology of pedagogical support as part of the pedagogical innovation course. This technology envisages subject-to subject interaction of participants and the use of methods of professional influence upon students. The purpose of using this technology in college is to form and to correct relationships in a family. The article describes different stages of realization of this technology, and defines timing of use of a role improvisat...

  15. Peer Groups as a Context for School Misconduct: The Moderating Role of Group Interactional Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy; Zarbatany, Lynne; Chen, Xinyin; Kinal, Megan; Boyko, Lisa

    2017-01-20

    Peer group interactional style was examined as a moderator of the relation between peer group school misconduct and group members' school misconduct. Participants were 705 students (Mage  = 11.59 years, SD = 1.37) in 148 peer groups. Children reported on their school misconduct in fall and spring. In the winter, group members were observed in a limited-resource task and a group conversation task, and negative and positive group interactional styles were assessed. Multilevel modeling indicated that membership in groups that were higher on school misconduct predicted greater school misconduct only when the groups were high on negative or low on positive interactional style. Results suggest that negative laughter and a coercive interactional style may intensify group effects on children's misconduct.

  16. Complexities in understanding the role of compensation-related factors on recovery from whiplash-associated disorders : discussion paper 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, Linda J.; Connelly, Luke B.; Spearing, Natalie M.; Cote, Pierre; Buitenhuis, Jan; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Study Design. Focused discussion. Objective. To present some of the complexities in conducting research on the role of compensation and compensation-related factors in recovery from whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and to suggest directions for future research. Summary of Background Data. There i

  17. A discussion: the future role of homeopathy in the National Health Service (NHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel Yu-Hin

    2011-07-01

    Homeopathy has been provided by the National Health Service in the UK for over 60 years, funded largely by taxpayer's money. However, in recent years, its provision has come under much criticism questioning its true value. Taking a neutral stance, arguments both for and against the provision of homeopathy on the NHS is presented. It includes issues such as the evidence and safety profile of homeopathy, but also takes into account costs and benefits of homeopathy in a wider perspective. Overall, the provision of homeopathy is justified as long as there is a need within the population, occupying a complementary role alongside conventional medicine.

  18. Discussion remarks on the role of wood and chitin constituents during carbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eIlnicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nature is a source of some biomaterials like wood and chitin which can be successfully transformed into chars of advanced structural/surface parameters. The manuscript is discursive and suggests that particular components of the materials (cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, alfa-chitin fibrils, mineral-protein matrix play a specific role in the manufacturing of porous chars. It is proposed that some of the components (hemicellulose and mineral-protein matrixes behave like a natural soft template during carbonization of wood and chitin. It is suggested why particular components and derivatives of wood and chitin (cellulose and chitosan can not form porous carbonaceous matrixes when are carbonized separately.

  19. Fostering group identification and creativity in diverse groups: the role of individuation and self-verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, William B; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Polzer, Jeffrey T; Milton, Laurie P

    2003-11-01

    A longitudinal study examined the interplay of identity negotiation processes and diversity in small groups of master's of business administration (MBA) students. When perceivers formed relatively positive impressions of other group members, higher diversity predicted more individuation of targets. When perceivers formed relatively neutral impressions of other group members, however, higher diversity predicted less individuation of targets. Individuation at the outset of the semester predicted self-verification effects several weeks later, and self-verification, in turn, predicted group identification and creative task performance. The authors conclude that contrary to self-categorization theory, fostering individuation and self-verification in diverse groups may maximize group identification and productivity.

  20. Teacher-student co-construction processes in biology: Strategies for developing mental models in large group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Oviedo, Maria Cecilia

    The aim of this study was to describe co-construction processes in large group discussions. Co-construction, as used here, is a process by which the teacher and the students work together to construct and evaluate mental models of a target concept. Data were collected for an in-depth case study of a single teacher instructing middle school students with an innovative curriculum on human respiration. Data came from transcripts of video taped lessons, drawings, and pre- and post-test scores. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted. In the quantitative analysis, differences in gains between one and two standard deviations in size were found between the pre- and post-test scores indicating that the students increased their understanding about human respiration. In the qualitative analysis, a generative exploratory method followed by a convergent coded method was conducted to examine teacher-student interaction patterns. The aim of this part was to determine how learning occurred by attempting to connect dialogue patterns with underlying cognitive processes. The main outcome of the study is a hypothesized model containing four layers of nested teaching strategies. Listed from large to small time scales these are: the Macro Cycle, the Co-construction Modes, the Micro Cycle, and the Teaching Tactics. The most intensive analysis focused on identifying and articulating the Co-construction Modes---Accretion Mode, Disconfirmation Mode, Modification Mode, Evolution Mode, and Competition Mode---and their relations to the other levels of the model. These modes can either describe the construction and evaluation of individual model elements or of entire models giving a total of ten modes. The frequency of these co-construction modes was then determined by coding, twenty-six hours of transcripts. The most frequent modes were the Accretion Mode and the Disconfirmation Mode. The teacher's and the students' contributions to the co-construction process were also examined

  1. An exploration of computer-simulated evolution and small group discussion on pre-service science teachers' perceptions of evolutionary concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ronald Douglas

    The primary goal of this study was to explore how the use of a computer simulation of basic evolutionary processes, in combination with small-group discussions, affected Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' perspectives of basic evolutionary concepts. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in a case study approach with 19 pre-service Intermediate/Senior science teachers at an Ontario university. Several sub-goals were explored. The first sub-goal was to assess Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' current conceptions of evolution. The results indicated that approximately two-thirds of the participants had a poor understanding of basic evolutionary concepts, with only 2 of the 19 participants demonstrating a strong comprehension. These results were found to be very similar to comparable samples of subjects from other research. The second sub-goal was to explore the relationships among Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' understanding of contemporary evolutionary concepts, their perspectives of the nature of science, and their intentions to teach evolutionary concepts in the classroom. Participants' knowledge of evolutionary concepts was found to be associated strongly with their intentions to teach evolution by natural selection (r = .42). However, knowledge of evolutionary concepts was not found to be associated with any particular science epistemology perspective. The third sub-goal was to analyze and to interpret the small-group discussions as members interacted with the simulation. The simulation was found to be highly engaging and a very effective method of encouraging participants to speculate, question, discuss and learn about important evolutionary concepts. Analyses of the discussions revealed that the simulation evoked a wide array of correct conceptions as well as misconceptions. The fourth sub-goal was to assess the extent to which creating a lesson plan on the topic of natural selection could affect

  2. The role of individuality in collective group movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert-Read, J E; Krause, S; Morrell, L J; Schaerf, T M; Krause, J; Ward, A J W

    2013-02-07

    How different levels of biological organization interact to shape each other's function is a central question in biology. One particularly important topic in this context is how individuals' variation in behaviour shapes group-level characteristics. We investigated how fish that express different locomotory behaviour in an asocial context move collectively when in groups. First, we established that individual fish have characteristic, repeatable locomotion behaviours (i.e. median speeds, variance in speeds and median turning speeds) when tested on their own. When tested in groups of two, four or eight fish, we found individuals partly maintained their asocial median speed and median turning speed preferences, while their variance in speed preference was lost. The strength of this individuality decreased as group size increased, with individuals conforming to the speed of the group, while also decreasing the variability in their own speed. Further, individuals adopted movement characteristics that were dependent on what group size they were in. This study therefore shows the influence of social context on individual behaviour. If the results found here can be generalized across species and contexts, then although individuality is not entirely lost in groups, social conformity and group-size-dependent effects drive how individuals will adjust their behaviour in groups.

  3. Helping clozapine help: a role for support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zita, David F; Goethe, John

    2002-01-01

    A successful clozapine support group operates from the principle that the drug is most successful when the person takes it as prescribed. The likelihood of initial and ongoing collaboration with treatment is increased when the tangible gains of the treatment can be experienced in the self and demonstrated in others. Clozapine support groups can advance the goals of collaboration and recovery.

  4. The role of work group in individual sickness absence behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Tordera, Nuria; Kivimäki, Mika; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of our two-year follow-up study was to examine the effect of the social components of the work group, such as group absence norms and cohesion, on sickness absence behavior among individuals with varying attitudes toward work attendance. The social components were measured using a questionnaire survey and data on sickness absence behavior were collected from the employers' records. The study population consisted of 19,306 Finnish municipal employees working in 1,847 groups (78% women). Multilevel Poisson regression modeling was applied. The direct effects of work group characteristics on sickness absence were mostly insignificant. In contrast, both of the social components of a work group had an indirect impact: The more tolerant the group absence norms (at both individual- and cross-level) and the lower the group cohesion (at the individual level), the more the absence behavior of an individual was influenced by his or her attitude toward work attendance. We conclude that work group moderates the extent to which individuals with a liberal attitude toward work attendance actually engage in sickness absence behavior.

  5. Life Cycle Leadership Theory vs. Theory on the Phases of Small Group Discussion: Comparisons, Contrasts, and Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Charles Thomas, Jr.

    The work of Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard on life-cycle leadership was compared and contrasted to three studies on group phase theories. The studies on group phases were conducted by Robert Bales and Fred Strodtbeck in 1951, Thomas Scheidel and Laura Crowell in 1964, and B. Aubrey Fisher in 1970. The two theoretical approaches were found to…

  6. A Multiple Group Measurement Model of Children's Reports of Parental Socioeconomic Status. Discussion Papers No. 531-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Robert D.; Mason, William M.

    An important class of applications of measurement error or constrained factor analytic models consists of comparing models for several populations. In such cases, it is appropriate to make explicit statistical tests of model similarity across groups and to constrain some parameters of the models to be equal across groups using a priori substantive…

  7. When Scientific Knowledge, Daily Life Experience, Epistemological and Social Considerations Intersect: Students' Argumentation in Group Discussions on a Socio-scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues in class have been proposed in an effort to democratise science in society. A micro-ethnographic approach has been used to explore how students elaborate arguments on a socio-scientific controversy in the context of small group discussions. Several processes of group argumentation have been identified. Students’ arguments were elaborated from scientific data, common ideas and epistemological and strategic considerations. Students’ social interactions influenced the patterns of argumentation elaborated within the group discussions. Implications of this study for the teaching of socio-scientific issues in class are discussed.

  8. Grooming network cohesion and the role of individuals in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Sueur, Cédric; Riedl, Katrin; Grossmann, Johannes; Call, Josep

    2011-08-01

    Social network analysis offers new tools to study the social structure of primate groups. We used social network analysis to investigate the cohesiveness of a grooming network in a captive chimpanzee group (N = 17) and the role that individuals may play in it. Using data from a year-long observation, we constructed an unweighted social network of preferred grooming interactions by retaining only those dyads that groomed above the group mean. This choice of criterion was validated by the finding that the properties of the unweighted network correlated with the properties of a weighted network (i.e. a network representing the frequency of grooming interactions) constructed from the same data. To investigate group cohesion, we tested the resilience of the unweighted grooming network to the removal of central individuals (i.e. individuals with high betweenness centrality). The network fragmented more after the removal of individuals with high betweenness centrality than after the removal of random individuals. Central individuals played a pivotal role in maintaining the network's cohesiveness, and we suggest that this may be a typical property of affiliative networks like grooming networks. We found that the grooming network correlated with kinship and age, and that individuals with higher social status occupied more central positions in the network. Overall, the grooming network showed a heterogeneous structure, yet did not exhibit scale-free properties similar to many other primate networks. We discuss our results in light of recent findings on animal social networks and chimpanzee grooming.

  9. Adjusting to living with multiple sclerosis: The role of social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuteau-Harrison, Sophie L; Haslam, Catherine; Mewse, Avril J

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is typically associated with life-long adjustment to wide-ranging, changeable symptoms and psychosocial disruption as all relationships are changed or lost. Despite accumulating evidence, the therapeutic impact of harnessing social group factors in MS management and rehabilitation remains largely unexplored. We investigated their role specific to adjusting to MS. A qualitative approach was used with thematic analysis to induce a rich and developing account of the impact of social groups on adjustment for 15 individuals with MS. An adjustment questionnaire was used to provide a framework for its organisation and discussion. The analysis revealed three themes associated with loss, change and social processes that influenced adjustment. These features distinguished between those who were more or less able to adjust, and resonated well with processes previously identified as central to identity loss and change. Social factors enhanced adjustment through easing transition between pre- and post-MS diagnosis lives. Notably, maintenance of pre-existing social roles and relationships was critical in providing a meaningful basis for integrating the old with new senses of self. The capacity to join new social groups was as key in adjustment as was awareness of having access to multiple social groups to avoid being solely defined by MS. These concepts provided a more stable grounding upon which to nurture value systems and employ collective support to counter the negative consequences of living with MS.

  10. Knowledge for Intelligence: Discussing the State and the Role of Building Data in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquinelli, A.; Guzzetti, F.

    2016-09-01

    The availability of integrated information on buildings is the premise for an effective assets management and the provision of innovative services to buildings users: such form of knowledge relies on the efficient exploitation of existing data, providing a complete overview on the state of buildings, and on the acquisition of real-time data flows, coming from sensor and mobile devices, reporting users behaviours. If, on the one hand, technology is progressively enabling the management of new huge streams of data, on the other hand the interconnection among traditional and well rooted datasets, the majority of which in charge of public administrations, is not always guaranteed. While, at European level, interoperability issues among public archives concerning buildings were properly addressed, and the relevance of geo-information is widely recognized, in Italy this process is still taking time to be undertaken. This paper discuss the current state of Building Information in Italy, outlining a possible path for the creation of a georeferenced Building Information System at municipal level, starting from the informative heritage available in existing databases, generated with different purposes and maintained by independent authorities: the idea is to solicit that digitalization process, started a decade ago with the "Digital Administration Code", through the proposition of real use cases that might be implemented once that public data on buildings are profitably combined together.

  11. Discussing advance preferences for end-of-life: The role of nurses and other health proffessionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolo García Palomares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Our society keeps on achieving goals regarding individual liberties. This fact has been reinforced since the law 41/2002 (basic law on patient rights, duties and autonomy regarding health information and documentation was approved on May 16th 2003. This law establishes the ethic boundaries not to be crossed regarding health attention. Additionally to the patient autonomy, this law includes the reference to the living wills, defined as an anticipated declaration about the desired care in case of loosing the capability to give an opinion about it when the end of life is coming.Literature makes clear that living wills are a phenomena in which not only the patients and the health professionals are involved, but the whole society.This article aims to revise the participation of the health and medical professionals in this process, as well as to think about the role of the health carer leading this process. The objective is not to reduce the caring process to a simple document signing, but to plan health decisions when the end of life is coming from a global conception of the caring process.

  12. The role of individuality in collective group movement

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert-Read, J. E.; Krause, S.; Morrell, L.J.; Schaerf, T. M.; Krause, J.; Ward, A.J.W

    2013-01-01

    How different levels of biological organization interact to shape each other's function is a central question in biology. One particularly important topic in this context is how individuals' variation in behaviour shapes group-level characteristics. We investigated how fish that express different locomotory behaviour in an asocial context move collectively when in groups. First, we established that individual fish have characteristic, repeatable locomotion behaviours (i.e. median speeds, vari...

  13. Agricultural producers’ groups in the Czech Republic: introductory review and discussion of the problem area economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vavřina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Each company is surrounded by the micro- and macro-environment affecting also its economic performance. These factors are not only individual accounting entries, but also analytical inputs as the internal company processes, management of costs or short-term financial decisions and specifically in the case of agriculture within the EU also the public subsidy schemes implemented through the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Groups of agricultural producers are created as a response to current market dynamics and the opportunity for each agricultural enterprise regardless the size. In this paper, the basis for agricultural cooperation is provided, traditional economic performance measures are presented and their applicability on the sample of agricultural producers’ groups and wholesale entities is empirically verified. Wholesale entities are analysed by its business activity and performance features to consider whether they are suitable peer group for comparing economic performance of examined agricultural producers’ group. Since the economic performance of agricultural producers’ groups directly affects the economic performance of all participating entities, and vice versa, their economic performance measurement may involve specific constraints. According to the structure and characteristics of agricultural producers’ groups may be inferred that whilst the common performance measurement techniques are applicable on the majority of companies, agricultural producers’ groups represent specific entities and therefore need adjusted performance measurement approach.

  14. The Effect of Education-Based Intervention Using Small Group Discussion in Empowering Adolescent Girls to Prevent Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemehsadat Seyed Nematollah Roshan

    2014-10-01

    Results: At baseline, independent T-test showed no significant difference between the two groups in the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and self efficacy, all of which could be regarded as empowerment process components (P>0.05. However, significant differences were observed after intervention. Also, the paired T-test showed a significant difference before and after the intervention in the test group in means of the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, self efficacy and, in the grand scheme, adolescent girls' empowerment (P

  15. Transformational leadership and group potency in small military units: The mediating role of group identification and cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Guiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined an exploratory model to assess the relationship between transformational leadership and group potency and analyze the mediating role of group identification and cohesion. The research was conducted with squads of the Spanish Army. The sample was composed of 243 members of 51 squads of operational units. Our findings highlighted the importance of the transformational leadership style of command of non-commissioned officers (NCOs due to its positive relationship with the group potency of the squad. We also analyzed the indirect relationships between transformational leadership and group identification and group cohesion and found that the latter variables played a mediating role between transformational leadership and group potency. The conclusions of this study are relevant due to the growing importance of transformational leadership and actions implemented at lower levels of the command chain for the success of missions of security organizations and defense.

  16. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Final briefing: Cost working group discussion session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The economic factors involved in the design and utilization of the space station are investigated. Topics include the economic benefits associated with research and production, the orbit transfer vehicle, and satellite servicing. Program costs and design options are examined. The possibilities of financing from the private sector are discussed.

  17. Role of Self-help Group in Substance Addiction Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prangya Paramita Priyadarshini

    2012-11-01

    Background: The Narcotics Anonymous (NA)/Alcoholic Anonymous(AA) is based on the philosophy of self-help, where the former addicts and recovering addicts share experiences, provide emotional support and do active monitoring through mentoring. In mentoring, a former addict with longer duration of drug-free life acts as a guide to the newly recovering addict. Objective: The objective was to study the effect of involvement in self help group upon addictís level of depression, functional social support, and anxiety. Method: The size of the sample was 60. 30 addicts were taken from rehabilitation centre and 30 were taken from self-help groups. ANOVA was used to analyze the result. Result: In all the criteria it was found that there exists a significant impact of Self-help group. Conclusion: Self-help group provide clients with a social network of individuals with similar problems and experiences, since most of these individuals may be isolated from society due to the social stigma attached to their addictions. The transition from being help recipients to being helpers enables recovering addicts to build their self-confidence and feelings of being wanted and desired in society, which facilitates their self-confidence and positive self-esteem.

  18. The role of cultural identity as a learning factor in physics: a discussion through the role of science in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Ivã; Pietrocola, Mauricio; Watanabe, Graciella

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, changes in society have deeply affected the internal organization and the main goals of schools. These changes are particularly important in science education because science is one of the major sources of change in peoples' lives. This research provided the opportunity to investigate how these changes affect the way teachers develop their classroom activities. In this work, we focus on science as part of the cultural identity of a society and how this identity affects the process of teaching and learning inside the classroom. Other works have shown that certain social characteristics such as gender, race, religion, etc., can create a cultural barrier to learning science. This results in an obstacle between those particular students and the science that is taught, hindering their learning process. We first aim to present the notion of identity in education and in other related fields such as social psychology and sociology. Our main purpose is to focus on identity in a school setting and how that identity affects the relationship students have with the science content. Next, we present and analyze an intervention in the subject of Modern and Contemporary Physics composed by a sequence of activities in a private school in the region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This intervention serves to illustrate how scientific topics may be explored while considering aspects of cultural differences as an obstacle. The intervention was completed in two steps: first, in the classroom with a discussion concerning scientific works and nationality of scientists, with one being a Brazilian physicist; second, taking students to visit a particle collider at the University of São Paulo. One of the results of our research was realizing that students do not perceive science as something representative of the Brazilian cultural identity. At the same time, the activity gave the students the opportunity to make the connection between doing physical sciences at an

  19. Uruguayan secondary school students speak up about tobacco: results from focus group discussions in and around Montevideo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin; Harrell, Melissa; Springer, Andrew; Medina, José; Martinez, Lucía; Perry, Cheryl; Estol, Diego

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative research study investigated intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors that shape young adolescent tobacco use behaviors in Uruguay. Focus groups were conducted in the summer of 2012 and fall of 2013 in four secondary schools in Montevideo, Uruguay, including two private schools and two public schools. A total of four focus groups were led in each school, composed of 4-6 students each, 16 focus groups in total. Data analysis utilized NVivo software and included deductive and inductive content analysis. Overwhelmingly, students reported that the onset of smoking occurred in the second year of secondary school. The primary intrapersonal factors that were found to be universal among respondents identified that smoking was a performance in groups, to garner attention from their peers. Students interviewed most often stated that the greatest interpersonal factors for smoking were to look older, as a rite of passage, and for group membership. Environmental factors cited most often indicate that they smoked during unsupervised time, either at night or around the short Uruguayan school day. Focus group interviews revealed that adolescents had easy access to cigarettes for purchase through small family owned grocery stores, even though laws exist preventing the sale of cigarettes to minors. Few differences were cited between strata related to cigarette use in adolescents. The differences that do exist are most apparent across gender, though there were a few observed differences when stratified by public and private school. Findings from this study indicate that key factors across ecological levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental) should be taken into consideration when designing tobacco prevention programs for youth in Uruguay. A multiple-component approach which addresses risk factors at all of these levels, implemented in schools, may be particularly well-suited to this setting.

  20. Positioning of Fifth Grade Students in Small-Group Settings: Naming Participation in Discussion-Based Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Ingrid S.

    2010-01-01

    Through the lens of Schegloff's (1996) Action Theory, this study examined the dynamics of four groups of fifth-grade students as they learned to talk about academic mathematical reasoning over the course of a school year using Freeze Frame Analysis (Leander & Rowe, 2006) to help map "talking spaces" and Critical Discourse Analysis to understand…

  1. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  2. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Methods: Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived…

  3. Assessment in Multicultural Groups : The Role of Acculturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Fons J.R.; Phalet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    On analyse le rôle de l’acculturation dans l’évaluation des groupes multiculturels. Des procédures standardisées doivent être développées pour prendre en compte la composition multiculturelle des sociétés contemporaines où les individus, relevants de références culturelles multiples, ne disposent pa

  4. Assessment in Multicultural Groups : The Role of Acculturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Fons J.R.; Phalet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    On analyse le rôle de l’acculturation dans l’évaluation des groupes multiculturels. Des procédures standardisées doivent être développées pour prendre en compte la composition multiculturelle des sociétés contemporaines où les individus, relevants de références culturelles multiples, ne disposent

  5. Who Is the Competent Physics Student? A Study of Students' Positions and Social Interaction in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students.…

  6. When Scientific Knowledge, Daily Life Experience, Epistemological and Social Considerations Intersect: Students' Argumentation in Group Discussions on a Socio-Scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues in class have been proposed in an effort to democratise science in society. A micro-ethnographic approach has been used to explore how students elaborate arguments on a socio-scientific controversy in the context of small group discussions. Several processes of group argumentation have been identified. Students' arguments…

  7. Who Is the Competent Physics Student? A Study of Students' Positions and Social Interaction in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students.…

  8. A discussion group program enhances the conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteroy-Kelly, Marcy A

    2007-01-01

    It has been well-established that discussion groups enhance student learning in large lecture courses. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of a discussion group program on the development of conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course. In the discussion group, students worked on problems based on topics discussed in lecture. The program was evaluated using three assessment tools. First, student responses to pre- and posttests were analyzed. The test question asked the students to demonstrate the relationships between 10 different but related terms. Use of a concept map to link the terms indicated an advanced level of conceptual reasoning skills. There was a 13.8% increase in the use of concept maps from pre- to posttest. Second, the students took a Likert-type survey to determine the perceived impact of the program on their conceptual reasoning skills. Many of the students felt that the program helped them understand and use the main course concepts to logically solve problems. Finally, average exam grades increased as the semester progressed. The average final grade in the course was 75%. Students enrolled in the course the previous year (where the lecture component of the course did not assess or reflect student learning in the discussion group) had an average final grade of 69%. The results of this study demonstrate that the discussion group program improves the conceptual reasoning skills of students enrolled in a large lecture-format introductory biology course.

  9. Identification of mistakes and their correction by a small group discussion as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Sridhar, M G; Soundravally, R; Setiya, Sajita; Babu, M Sathish; Niranjan, G

    2014-01-01

    Graduate medical students often get less opportunity for clarifying their doubts and to reinforce their concepts after lecture classes. The Medical Council of India (MCI) encourages group discussions among students. We evaluated the effect of identifying mistakes in a given set of wrong statements and their correction by a small group discussion by graduate medical students as a revision exercise. At the end of a module, a pre-test consisting of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) was conducted. Later, a set of incorrect statements related to the topic was given to the students and they were asked to identify the mistakes and correct them in a small group discussion. The effects on low, medium and high achievers were evaluated by a post-test and delayed post-tests with the same set of MCQs. The mean post-test marks were significantly higher among all the three groups compared to the pre-test marks. The gain from the small group discussion was equal among low, medium and high achievers. The gain from the exercise was retained among low, medium and high achievers after 15 days. Identification of mistakes in statements and their correction by a small group discussion is an effective, but unconventional revision exercise in biochemistry. Copyright 2014, NMJI.

  10. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Lena; Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-05-09

    Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members' evaluations of the discussions. Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others' experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a cancer experience.

  11. Review: Ralf Bohnsack, Aglaja Przyborski & Burkhard Schäffer (Eds. (2010. Das Gruppendiskussionsverfahren in der Forschungspraxis [The Group Discussion Technique in Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Schmidt-Pfister

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This edited volume comprises a range of studies that have employed a group discussion technique in combination with a specific strategy for reconstructive social research—the so-called documentary method. The latter is an empirical research strategy based on the meta-theoretical premises of the praxeological sociology of knowledge, as developed by Ralf BOHNSACK. It seeks to access practice in a more appropriate manner, namely by differentiating between various dimensions of knowledge and sociality. It holds that habitual collective orientations, in particular, are best accessed through group discussions. Thus this book does not address the group discussion technique in general, as might be expected from the title. Instead, it presents various contributions from researchers interpreting transcripts of group discussions according to the documentary method. The chapters are grouped into three main sections, representing different frameworks of practice and habitual orientation: childhood, adolescence, and organizational or societal context. A fourth section includes chapters on further, potentially useful ways of employing this particular technique and approach, as well as a chapter on teaching it in a meaningful way. Each chapter is structured in the same way: introduction to the research field and focus; methodological discussion; exemplary interpretation of group discussions; and concluding remarks. Whilst the transcripts referred to by the authors are very helpfully presented in the chapters, there is a lack of methodological reflection on the group discussion technique itself, which, as mentioned above, is only evaluated in regard to the documentary method. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110225

  12. Rodas de conversa sobre o trabalho na rua: discutindo saúde mental Conversation groups on outreach work: discussing mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Rios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo narra uma experiência de ensino com agentes comunitários de saúde em uma unidade do Programa de Saúde da Família da periferia de São Paulo. Com o objetivo de discutir temas de Saúde Mental relevantes para o trabalho cotidiano desses profissionais, criou-se um espaço de aprendizagem e construção de sentido para esses agentes. Em grupos de encontro quinzenais com uma psiquiatra e cerca de 20 agentes, discutiam-se casos clínicos e situações de vida e trabalho a partir dos quais era possível aprender conceitos básicos de Saúde Mental e pensar o papel e a identidade desses profissionais na comunidade. Ao final de um ano de experiência, avaliou-se que tal atividade é fundamental como apoio para o desenvolvimento do trabalho desses profissionais, e para o aprendizado de como lidar com aspectos subjetivos próprios e dos usuários, especialmente na periferia de grandes centros urbanos.This article describes a teaching experience with health community agents in a Family Health Program unit. In order to discuss important everyday mental health themes, a space for these agents was created, intended for learning and building up senses. Groups of 20 agents and a psychiatrist met every two weeks, to discuss clinical cases, and life and work situations which helped apprehend basic Mental Health concepts and to reflect on the role and identity of these professionals in the community. After one year, this activity was considered fundamental to support the work developed by the agents and to help them learn how to deal with their and the users' subjective aspects, especially in the periphery of large urban centers.

  13. A Qualitative Study on Role of Self Help Group in Women Empowerment in Rural Pondicherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Lopamudra, Singh Suresh K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacground: Women empowerment is an essential precondition for elimination of poverty. Many International and National bodies have stressed on women empowerment giving attention to their participation in society, decision-making, education and health. In India, Micro finance and Self Help Group (SHG intervention have brought tremendous change in the life of women at the grass root level. Currently around 1640 SHGs exist in Pondicherry and are successfully managed by women. Aim: To assess the role of Self-Help Groups in empowerment of women of rural Pondicherry. Methodology: It was a community based qualitatively study. Focus Group Discussions (FGD were conducted among six SHG groups (one each selected on feasibility basis. The SHG members’ perception of improvement in different pre determined domains were assessed. Content analysis was done manually and the key findings were noted. Results: The key responses were ‘increased participation in household decision making’, ‘gaining respect in family’, ‘increased savings’, ‘meeting family expenses’, ‘improved political knowledge’, ‘independence’, ‘confidence’ etc. They said to have gained respect and trust in society and were able to plan for the future of their families. Conclusions: Self Help Groups played very important role in Women empowerment and should be promoted for economic development of the country.

  14. Formulation of questions followed by small group discussion as a revision exercise at the end of a teaching module in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Zachariah; Koner, Bidhan Chandra; Sridhar, M G; Nandeesha, H; Renuka, P; Setia, Sajita; Kumaran, S Senthil; Asmathulla, S

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate medical students get fewer opportunities to clarify their doubts and to reinforce their understanding of concepts after lecture classes. There is no information available in the literature that addresses the question of usefulness of prior formulation of questions followed by small group discussion by undergraduate medical students as a revision exercise. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of formulation of objective type short answer questions by undergraduate medical students followed by small group discussion on the answers of the questions prepared as a revision exercise on their understanding of the topic "amino acid metabolism" and the retention of the gain after 15 days. At the end of a regular teaching module on the topic of amino acid metabolism, undergraduate medical students were asked to prepare 16 objective type short answer questions on the various aspects of the topic as homework. Small group discussions involving 12-14 students in each group and lasting one hour were conducted on the questions and answers prepared by them in the presence of a faculty member. The effects on low, medium, and high achievers were evaluated with multiple choice questions by pre-test and post-tests before and after the group discussion. Formulation of questions was highly effective in improving understanding on the topic for all the students. The overall mean post-test scores after the formulation of questions (12.6) and after the small group discussion that followed (14.7) were significantly higher than the mean pre-test score (8.5). For high achievers, the gain from formulation of questions was higher than the gain from small group discussion. Small group discussion was highly effective for all students. The gain from small group discussion was higher among the low and medium achievers in comparison with the high achievers. The gain from the exercise was retained among the low, medium, and high achievers after 15 days. In conclusion

  15. Using Negotiated Joining to Construct and Fill Open-ended Roles in Elite Culinary Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vaughn

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examines membership processes in groups operating in an uncertain environment that prevents them from fully predefining new members' roles. I describe how nine elite high-end, cutting-edge culinary groups in the U.S. and Europe, ranging from innovative restaurants to culinary R&D groups, use negotiated joining-a previously undocumented process-to systematically construct and fill these emergent, open-ended roles. I show that negotiated joining is a consistently patterned, iterative process that begins with a role that both aspirant and target group explicitly understand to be provisional. This provisional role is then jointly modified and constructed by the aspirant and target group through repeated iterations of proposition, validation through trial and evaluation, and selective integration of validated role components. The initially provisional role stabilizes and the aspirant achieves membership if enough role components are validated; otherwise the negotiated joining process is abandoned. Negotiated joining allows the aspirant and target group to learn if a mutually desirable role is likely and, if so, to construct such a role. In addition, the provisional roles in negotiated joining can support absorptive capacity by allowing novel role components to enter target groups through aspirants' efforts to construct stable roles for themselves, while the internal adjustment involved in integrating newly validated role components can have the unintended side effect of supporting adaptation by providing opportunities for the groups to use these novel role components to modify their role structure and goals to suit a changing and uncertain environment. Negotiated joining thus reveals role ambiguity's hitherto unexamined beneficial consequences and provides a foundation for a contingency theory of new-member acquisition.

  16. Using Negotiated Joining to Construct and Fill Open-ended Roles in Elite Culinary Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vaughn

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines membership processes in groups operating in an uncertain environment that prevents them from fully predefining new members’ roles. I describe how nine elite high-end, cutting-edge culinary groups in the U.S. and Europe, ranging from innovative restaurants to culinary R&D groups, use negotiated joining—a previously undocumented process—to systematically construct and fill these emergent, open-ended roles. I show that negotiated joining is a consistently patterned, iterative process that begins with a role that both aspirant and target group explicitly understand to be provisional. This provisional role is then jointly modified and constructed by the aspirant and target group through repeated iterations of proposition, validation through trial and evaluation, and selective integration of validated role components. The initially provisional role stabilizes and the aspirant achieves membership if enough role components are validated; otherwise the negotiated joining process is abandoned. Negotiated joining allows the aspirant and target group to learn if a mutually desirable role is likely and, if so, to construct such a role. In addition, the provisional roles in negotiated joining can support absorptive capacity by allowing novel role components to enter target groups through aspirants’ efforts to construct stable roles for themselves, while the internal adjustment involved in integrating newly validated role components can have the unintended side effect of supporting adaptation by providing opportunities for the groups to use these novel role components to modify their role structure and goals to suit a changing and uncertain environment. Negotiated joining thus reveals role ambiguity’s hitherto unexamined beneficial consequences and provides a foundation for a contingency theory of new-member acquisition. PMID:26273105

  17. Discussion on thermal dynamical-vacuum group deoxidization%热力--真空组合除氧的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德宁

    2015-01-01

    针对油田注汽锅炉水处理现在采用的真空——化学除氧法时,加化学药品来提高除氧效果致使蒸汽含盐量升高,影响蒸汽的品质,影响锅炉的寿命这一问题。本文探讨即能保证除氧效果又保证蒸汽的品质,延长锅炉的寿命,同时又降低生产成本的除氧方法。%According to the chemical deoxidization method - vacuum treatment of steam injection boiler in oil field water , the addition of chemicals to improve the removal effect of salinity resulted in increase of saltness in steam, steam quality, affect the service life of the boiler this problem. This paper discusses that can guarantee the removal effect and ensure the steam quality, prolongs the service life of the boiler, and reduce the production cost of deoxidization method.

  18. The Effect of Group Discussion on the Quality of Life and HbA1c Levels of Adolescents With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Mohamad; Memarian, Robabe; Mohammadi, Esa

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome and the most common endocrine disorder in childhood and adolescence. Diabetes occurs at any age but the highest outbreak is during ten to 15 years of age and 75% of the cases are diagnosed at the age 18. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a group discussion on the quality of life (QOL) and glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c) levels of adolescents with diabetes. This quasi-experimental study was performed on 56 adolescents with diabetes who were referred to Golabchi Diabetes Center in Kashan, Iran. After obtaining written informed consent from the patients, blood sample was drawn for measuring sugar and HbA1c levels. The participants completed the questionnaire regarding the QOL. Patients were randomly allocated to four groups. All the groups attended similar group discussion sessions, which were conducted according to the guidance of diabetic specialists. The groups' members followed the discussed instructions for four months. Then, another questionnaire was completed and blood sugar and HbA1c levels were measured again. The results were compared by paired-samples t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. After the group discussion sessions, in 56% of the patients the HbA1c levels (8.45 ± 1.35 and 6.98 ± 0.89 before and after intervention, respectively) and QOL were improved significantly. The mean age of these patients was 14.75 ± 1.80 years and the mean of daily insulin injection was 35.70 ± 13.42 units. Sharing experiences trough group discussions and receiving instructive feedbacks can improve the QOL and metabolic status of adolescents with diabetes.

  19. Teacher’s Role in Students’Group Work in College English Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊绘新

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of group work in China is aroused by the teaching reform and proposal of the New Curriculum Standard, in order to improve the language teaching and learning. However, in many cases group work is far less effective and de⁃sirable than it should have been. The effectiveness of group work depends on many factors in real language classroom setting. This paper mainly focuses on the factor of teacher’s role. The main implication of this paper is to suggest the appropriate teacher role in students’group work and put forward some skills in organizing group work in order to make group work more effective and significant.

  20. 高校网站群建设与管理探讨%Discussion on University Website Group Construction and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗南

    2015-01-01

    The construction and management of the University''s existing websites has brought a series of problems. The con-struction of the website group system, can avoid a group of websites bring about various drawbacks. This paper discusses the solutions of university website group construction and management.%高校现有网站的建设和管理带来了一系列问题,建设网站群系统,可以避免一群网站所带来的各种弊端.文章探讨了高校网站群建设与管理的解决方案.

  1. Use of Modified SOAP Notes and Peer-Led Small-Group Discussion in a Medical Physiology Course: Addressing the Hidden Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Jonathan; Hansen, Penelope A.; Nelson, Loren

    2006-01-01

    Peer leading of small-group discussion of cases; use of modified subjective, objective, assessment of physiology (SOAP) notes; and opportunities for self-assessment were introduced into a Medical Physiology course to increase students' awareness and practice of professional behaviors. These changes arose from faculty members' understanding of the…

  2. Perceptions of women, nurses, midwives and doctors about the use of video during birth to improve quality of care : focus group discussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lonkhuijzen, L.; Groenewout, M.; Schreuder, A.; Zeeman, G.; Scherpbier, A.; Aukes, L.; van den Berg, P.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: van Lonkhuijzen L, Groenewout M, Schreuder A, Zeeman G, Scherpbier A, Aukes L, van den Berg P. Perceptions of women, nurses, midwives and doctors about the use of video during birth to improve quality of care: focus group discussions. BJOG 2011; DOI:10.1111/j.1471-0528.201

  3. Designing Transferable Skills Inventory for Assessing Students Using Group Discussion: A Case Study of First Year Electrical and Electronics Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejaswani, K.; Madhuri, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    Employability skills among engineering graduates have been a concern due to their inability to perform on a professional platform to the employer's expected level. As they are higher cognitive skills, they are to be nurtured during the graduation period. Keeping this in view, group discussions are identified as one of the methods to elicit…

  4. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  5. The Role of Peer Group Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence and Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…

  6. Basic life support skill improvement with newly designed renewal programme: cluster randomised study of small-group-discussion method versus practice-while-watching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ji Ung; Lee, Tae Rim; Kang, Mun Ju; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-12-01

    For the basic life support (BLS) renewal course, we have devised a new educational programme entitled a small-group-discussion (SGD) programme using personalised video-based debriefing. We compared the efficacy in BLS skill improvement of the SGD programme with the currently used practice-while-watching (PWW) programme, which uses a standardised education video. This was a prospective, cluster randomised study, conducted in a single centre, over 6 months from May 2009 to October 2009. Training was performed in two groups of participants, each group with a different renewal education programme. The efficacy of the programmes was compared using the modified Cardiff test and skill-reporting manikins. Results from 2169 participants were analysed: 1061 in the SGD programme group and 1108 in the PWW programme group. There were no differences between groups on the pretest, either in compression or non-compression skills. However, on the post-test, the SGD programme gave better results for both compression skills and non-compression skills. The new SGD renewal programme is more effective than the PWW programme for improving skills in BLS renewal training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Bilingual asynchronous online discussion groups: design and delivery of an eLearning distance study module for nurse academics in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Mai, Van Anh Thi; Gray, Genevieve

    2012-04-01

    The advent of eLearning has seen online discussion forums widely used in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing education. This paper reports an Australian university experience of design, delivery and redevelopment of a distance education module developed for Vietnamese nurse academics. The teaching experience of Vietnamese nurse academics is mixed and frequently limited. It was decided that the distance module should attempt to utilise the experience of senior Vietnamese nurse academics - asynchronous online discussion groups were used to facilitate this. Online discussion occurred in both Vietnamese and English and was moderated by an Australian academic working alongside a Vietnamese translator. This paper will discuss the design of an online learning environment for foreign correspondents, the resources and translation required to maximise the success of asynchronous online discussion groups, as well as the rationale of delivering complex content in a foreign language. While specifically addressing the first iteration of the first distance module designed, this paper will also address subsequent changes made for the second iteration of the module and comment on their success. While a translator is clearly a key component of success, the elements of simplicity and clarity combined with supportive online moderation must not be overlooked.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Decrease Job Burnout in First-Year Internal Medicine Residents Using a Facilitated Discussion Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Fallar, Robert; Korenstein, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    Background Burnout is common in internal medicine (IM) trainees and is associated with depression and suboptimal patient care. Facilitated group discussion reduces burnout among practicing clinicians. Objective We hypothesized that this type of intervention would reduce incident burnout among first-year IM residents. Methods Between June 2013 and May 2014, participants from a convenience sample of 51 incoming IM residents were randomly assigned (in groups of 3) to the intervention or a control. Twice-monthly theme-based discussion sessions (18 total) led by expert facilitators were held for intervention groups. Surveys were administered at study onset and completion. Demographic and personal characteristics were collected. Burnout and burnout domains were the primary outcomes. Following convention, we defined burnout as a high emotional exhaustion or depersonalization score on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results All 51 eligible residents participated; 39 (76%) completed both surveys. Initial burnout prevalence (10 of 21 [48%] versus 7 of 17 [41%], P = .69), incidence of burnout at year end (9 of 11 [82%] versus 5 of 10 [50%], P = .18), and secondary outcomes were similar in intervention and control arms. More residents in the intervention group had high year-end depersonalization scores (18 of 21 [86%] versus 9 of 17 [53%], P = .04). Many intervention residents revealed that sessions did not truly free them from clinical or educational responsibilities. Conclusions A facilitated group discussion intervention did not decrease burnout in resident physicians. Future discussion-based interventions for reducing resident burnout should be voluntary and effectively free participants from clinical duties.

  9. Perturbative Yukawa theory at finite density: the role of masses and renormalization group flow at two loops

    CERN Document Server

    Palhares, Letícia F

    2008-01-01

    Yukawa theory at vanishing temperature provides (one of the ingredients for) an effective description of the thermodynamics of a variety of cold and dense fermionic systems. We study the role of masses and the renormalization group flow in the calculation of the equation of state up to two loops within the MSbar scheme. Two-loop integrals are computed analytically for arbitrary fermion and scalar masses, and expressed in terms of well-known special functions. The dependence of the renormalization group flow on the number of fermion flavors is also discussed.

  10. The effect of functional roles on group efficiency: Using multilevel modeling and content analysis to investigate computer-supported collaboration in small groups

    OpenAIRE

    Strijbos, Jan Willem; Martens, Rob; Jochems, Wim; Broers, Nick

    2004-01-01

    The usefulness of ‘roles’ as a pedagogical approach to support small group performance can be often read, however, their effect is rarely empirically assessed. Roles promote cohesion and responsibility and decrease so-called ‘process losses’ caused by coordination demands. In addition, roles can increase awareness of intra-group interaction. In this article, the effect of functional roles on group performance, efficiency and collaboration during computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL...

  11. Implementation status of self-assessment/peer-group discussion program: a bottom-up approach of monitoring/supervision in improving quality of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, K K; Bhuju, G B; Karkee, S B; Prasad, R R; Shrestha, N; Shrestha, A D; Das, P L; Chataut, B D; Shrestha, A; Suvedi, B K

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring/supervision is an essential component for improving the quality of health services including rational use of medicines. A new bottom-up approach of monitoring/supervision consisting of self-assessment/ peer-group discussion was found to be effective in improving prescribing practices. The new strategy significantly improved the prescribing practices based on standard treatment guidelines. The government has implemented it as a Program in primary health care services of Nepal. This article aims to share the implementation status of the self-assessment/peer-group discussion Program for improving the prescribing practices of common health problems and availability of drugs in the district health system. Concurrent mixed research design was applied for data collection. The data were collected at different levels of health care system using in-depth interviews, participatory observations and documentary analysis. The Management Division, Department of Health Services implemented the Program in 2009-10 and the PHC Revitalization Division, DoHs is the implementation division since 2010-11. The Program comprised revision of participant's and trainer's manuals, training of trainers and prescribers, finalisation of health conditions and indicators, distribution of carbon copy prescription pads, and conduction of peer-group discussions.The Program was implemented in number of districts. The government made the policy decision to implement the Program for monitoring prescribing practices and the availability of free drugs in districts. However, it has covered only few districts and needs escalation to cover all 75 districts of the country.

  12. The Influence of Setting on Findings Produced in Qualitative Health Research: A Comparison between Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Groups about HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina Graffigna

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus their analysis in this article on online focus groups (FGs, in an attempt to describe how the setting shapes the conversational features of the discussion and influences data construction. Starting from a review of current dominant viewpoints, they compare face-to-face discussion groups with different formats of online FGs about AIDS, from a discourse analysis perspective. They conducted 2 face-to-face FGs, 2 chats, 2 forums, and 2 forums+plus+chat involving 64 participants aged 18 to 25 and living in Italy. Their findings seem not only to confirm the hypothesis of a general difference between a face-to-face discussion setting and an Internet-mediated one but also reveal differences among the forms of online FG, in terms of both the thematic articulation of discourse and the conversational and relational characteristics of group exchange, suggesting that exchanges on HIV/AIDS are characterized by the setting. This characterization seems to be important for situating the choice of tool, according to research objectives, and for better defining the technical aspects of the research project.

  13. Moral Disengagement, Normative Beliefs of Peer Group, and Attitudes Regarding Roles in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana; Correia, Isabel; Marinho, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how moral disengagement, empathy, belief in a just world, and peer group normative beliefs regarding the roles of bully and defender of the victim are associated with attitudes regarding the roles of the bully and the defender of the victim. Two hundred ninety-two students from grades 6-9 participated. Results showed that…

  14. Frontalunterricht oder interaktive Gruppenarbeit? Ein Vergleich des Lernerfolgs und der studentischen Evaluation für das Fach Biochemie [Didactic lecture or interactive group discussion? A comparison of the learning success and the student evaluation in biochemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kadmon, Martina; Harter, Cordula; Schellberg, Dieter; Möltner, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    ...: A total of 421 second-year students were randomized into two groups: The control group was taught in a traditional lecture-like format, whereas the study group dealt with the same topic in an interactive group discussion...

  15. 浅谈中国的团购网站及其发展%Discussion on the situation and development of group-buying websites in china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左倪娜

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, group-buying websites have sprung up like bamboo shoots after a spring shower. Group-buying has a great influence on people' s life and become a hot issue on our daily life. This paper analyzed and discussed the current situation of group-buying websites of China, the existing problem and its development perspective.%近年来,团购网站犹如雨后春笋不断涌现,“团购”活动影响着人们生活,成为人们关注和讨论的热点问题。文章对中国团购网站的现状、存在的问题以及团购网站的发展前景进行分析和探讨。

  16. CONFLICTING ROLE OF LAND OFFICE AND FORESTRY DEPARTMENT: A COMPARATIVE DISCUSSION REGARDING TO FOREST OFFENCES PREVENTION IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Uzair Azizan

    2017-05-01

    , forest, forest offences, penalties, monitoring, enforcement, overlapping of power Citation: Azizan, M.U., Bing, T.S., Raid, M.M., Mohammad, M.T.S, Hussin, K., Rahman, M.M.G.A., and Nadzri, M.I. (2017. Conflicting Role of Land Office and Forestry Department: A Comparative Discussion Regarding to Forest Offences Prevention in Malaysia. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 15(1, 11-19, doi:10.14710/jil.15.1.11-19

  17. Enhancing the Doctoral Journey: The Role of Group Supervision in Supporting Collaborative Learning and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenge, Lee-Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of group supervision within doctoral education, offering an exploration of the experience of group supervision processes through a small-scale study evaluating both student and staff experience across three cohorts of one professional doctorate programme. There has been very little research to date exploring…

  18. Pedagogy of Work-Based Learning: The Role of the Learning Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Sabina; Mills, Vince; Tuff, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role of learning from participation in a group of work-based learners. Design/methodology/approach: This study relies on qualitative data obtained from a survey of perspectives of students on two work-based learning programmes. A group of 16 undergraduate and seven postgraduate students…

  19. The Role of Public and Self-Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Shechtman, Zipora; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Public and self-stigmas have been implicated as factors in the underutilization of individual counseling. However, group counseling is also underutilized, and yet scholars know very little about the role of different types of stigma on attitudes toward seeking group counseling. Therefore, the current study examined the relationships between public…

  20. The Role of Communication in Group Decision-Making Efficacy: A Task-Contingency Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Randy Y.

    1990-01-01

    Argues importance of communication for group decision-making performance and its impact on such performance are function of three task characteristics: structure, information requirement, and evaluation demand. Identifies task circumstances in which group communication can be expected to play role in determining decision-making performance, as…

  1. On the relative role of different age groups in influenza epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Worby

    2015-12-01

    While the relative importance of different age groups in propagating influenza outbreaks varies, children aged 5–17 play the leading role during the largest influenza A epidemics. Extra vaccination efforts for this group may contribute to reducing the epidemic's impact in the whole community.

  2. Only connect--the role of PLHIV group networks in increasing the effectiveness of Ugandan HIV services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ian; Nakiyemba, Alice; Seeley, Janet; Bitira, David; Gitau-Mburu, D

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Uganda has experienced rapid growth in networked groups of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who provide support, engage in advocacy, treatment and care and raise the profile of HIV in the public domain. This qualitative study focused the benefits of joining a networked group, relationships between groups, impact of networked groups on the community and shaping private and public experience living with HIV. Data were collected from two Ugandan districts, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), observation and reviews of group records and archives. Respondents (n=46) were adults living with HIV, and members of rural and urban PLHIV groups. Narratives from PLHIV (n=27) were gathered, and records from PLHIV group service-registers (n=20) reviewed. Key Informants (n=15) were purposively selected for interview, based on participation in PLHIV groups, utilisation of network services and their positions as key stakeholders. FGDs were held with network support agents (NSAs), members of PLHIV groups, and their leaders. Following qualitative analysis, findings suggest that for respondents, PLHIV networks enhance the impact and effectiveness of individual groups: the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. For groups, being part of a wider network allows for diversity of service delivery, and well-defined roles for individuals to participate in community support and sensitisation, with a reduction in the experience of stigma. We conclude that networking PLHIV groups is an effective strategy for improving the quality and reach of community-based HIV services. Governments should be encouraged to support networks and include them in policy-making at the national level. Local and regional groups should explore further ways to collaborate and expand support to PLHIV in Uganda.

  3. Discuss on the Operation Mode of Group Purchase Websites in our country%我国团购网站的运营模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向红

    2012-01-01

    互联网技术的快速发展,催生了许多新的电子商务运营模式,团购网站的兴起,OTO的普及,使得网上团购成为时下最流行的购物方式,团购网站带给消费者更低的价格,更自由、更个性化的商品或服务,大量的消费者喜爱团购也给商家和团购网站带来了极大的名气和快速增长的销量,但网络团购异常繁荣的背后也隐藏着若干问题。本文探讨我国团购网站的运营模式,分析目前存在的问题,并提出解决问题的建议对策。%The rapid development of Internet technology,has spawned a lot of new e-commerce operation mode,group purchase websites arisen,the popularity of OTO,making online group purchase became the most popular way of shopping,group purchase websites bring lower prices,more free and more personalized commodity or service for consumers,many consumers'group purchase has also brought great fame and the rapid growth of sales for merchants and group purchase websites,but the network group purchase abnormal prosperous backside hidden problems.This paper discusses group purchase websites operating mode in our country,the analysis of the existing problems,and put forward suggestions and countermeasures to solve the problems.

  4. Why aren't women choosing STEM academic jobs? Observations from a small-group discussion at the 2016 American Society for Microbiology annual meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Elizabeth M

    2017-03-01

    This commentary summarizes a small-group discussion that recently occurred at the American Society for Microbiology annual general meeting, ASM Microbe, in Boston, Massachusetts, on 16-20 June 2016, on the topic 'why are so few women choosing to become academics?' Specifically, the discussion focused on asking what the actual and perceived barriers to academic STEM careers women face, and possible solutions to address them which would make women more likely to seek out academic careers. The conclusions reached suggest that, despite improvement in recent years, women and minorities still face complex barriers to STEM academic careers, and further research is needed to determine the best solutions to this problem. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Patient-based outcome analysis is important to determine the success of total knee arthroplasty: result of a focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharia B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Balaji Zacharia, Manu Paul, Mohammed Thanveeruddin Sherule Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India Background: Total knee replacement (TKR results in an excellent outcome in terms of pain relief. The reporting of outcomes was traditionally focused on implant survivorship and objective outcomes such as range of motion, knee stability, and radiographic alignment. However, patients and doctors had differing perceptions of all domains of outcome, especially subjective quality of life domains such as emotions and social functioning. In this study, we tried to find out the expectations of Indian patients regarding TKR and assess the level of satisfaction among our patients from their view point using focus group discussion (FGD, and whether these expectations have an impact on outcomes and patient satisfaction. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India, in November 2014. Patients between the ages 60 and 65 years who met inclusion criteria were selected. A total of 50 patients were selected for FGDs. Among them, 42 patients participated in FGD. The remaining eight did not appear for the discussion. A total of four FGD sessions were conducted. Results and discussion: It was found that there is a discrepancy between the satisfaction levels of patient and surgeon. There is a difference in satisfaction level achieved depending on socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural characteristics. Conclusion: Newer methods of TKR outcome assessment combining radiological outcome, surgeon-based assessment, and patient satisfaction based on their socioeconomic status and cultural characteristics should be developed for different populations. Keywords: focus group discussion, total knee arthroplasty, patient-specific objectives

  6. Fall risk awareness and safety precautions taken by older community-dwelling women and men--a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pohl

    Full Text Available Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women's and men's understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls.A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively.Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one's fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was "Safety precautions through fall risk awareness". Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts.The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples' conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes.

  7. Natural resources as an area of protection in LCA - outcomes of the discussion by the working group on resources within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, T.; Fantke, Peter; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    The topic of resources as an area of protection (AoP) in life cycle assessment (LCA) is being discussed within an expert group under the umbrella of the Life Cycle Initiative by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC......). The AoP ‘Natural Resources’ is neither well defined nor agreed upon. Furthermore, there is currently no life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method available that is able to consist ently assess impacts at midpoint and endpoint level across different resource categories (minerals/metals and fossil fuels...

  8. Discussion on Application of Hydroxyl Group Control to Special Glass Production%浅析-OH控制在特种玻璃生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈发伟

    2012-01-01

    主要介绍了玻璃中羟基含量对玻璃性能的影响,以及高档电子玻璃生产中羟基控制的重要意义,同时分析了空气助燃的窑炉和纯氧窖炉中影响玻璃液羟基含量的因素,并综述了实际生产中调整玻璃液中羟基含量的重要手段。%The effect of hydroxyl group content on glass performance and the significance of hydroxyl group control for production of high grade electronic glass were discussed in details. The influence factors of hydroxyl concentration in glass melt in both air and pure-oxygen combustion furnaces were analyzed The important measures in practical production for controlling hydroxyl concentration in glass melt were reviewed.

  9. ClimateQUAL® and Thinklets: Using ClimateQUAL® with Group Support Systems to Facilitate Discussion and Set Priorities for Organizational Change at Criss Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hillyer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article discusses a series of actions taken by the Criss Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha to implement organizational change, using the ClimateQUAL® survey and facilitated discussions with ThinkTank™ group decision software. The library had experienced significant changes over a five-year period, with a renovation of the facility and three reorganizations resulting in a 50% staff turnover. Recognizing the strain that years of construction and personnel changes had placed on the organization, there was a desire to uncover the mood of the employees and reveal the issues behind low morale, uneasiness, and fear.Methods – In November 2009, the library conducted a ClimateQUAL® survey to develop a baseline to assess the effectiveness of any changes. After the results were distributed to library faculty and staff, a series of two-hour facilitated discussions was held to gather opinions and ideas for solutions using thinkLets, a pattern language for reasoning toward a goal. The group support system ThinkTank™ software was loaded onto computers, and employees were able to add their ideas anonymously during the sessions. Finally, 12 employees (29% completed a four-question survey on their perceptions of the facilitated discussions.Results – The facilitated discussions returned 76 sub-themes in 12 categories: staffing and scheduling issues, staff unity/teamwork, communication, goodwill/morale, accountability, decision-making, policy issues, skills and training, leadership, ergonomics/physical work environment, respect, and bullying. An advisory team culled the 76 sub-themes into 40 improvement strategies. Five were implemented immediately, and the remaining 35 were scheduled to be presented to the faculty and staff via an online survey. Participants’ perceptions of the facilitated discussions were mixed. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they did not feel safe speaking out about issues, most

  10. Building positive self-image in adolescents in foster care: the use of role models in an interactive group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K

    1998-01-01

    In a previous article (Yancey, 1992), the literature on identity development in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups was summarized. It was postulated that the social maladaptation of adolescents in residential group foster care is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial/ethnic socialization. The present article describes the development of a pilot preventive mental health intervention, the PRIDE (Personal and Racial/ethnic Identity Development and Enhancement) program, designed to provide components of parenting that are necessary for promoting positive self-image in ethnically marginalized adolescents and that are typically lacking in the group foster care milieu. PRIDE utilizes successful, ethnically relevant role models in interactive group sessions to create a significant cognitive and emotional experience for teens. While the utility of role modeling for at-risk youth is widely accepted, there is little research on the packaging, delivery, and influence of this intervention modality. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a "hybrid" role-modeling approach (intermediate in intensity of exposure and cost between one-to-one mentoring and career-day programs). Implications for further research on this type of intervention are discussed.

  11. Focusing on SSI's risk and radiation protection criteria. A report based on discussions in focus groups in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [BMD Research (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The project was a result of the authority's continued work on the 1998 regulations on protection of human health and the environment in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The idea behind the project, to involve persons from the municipalities participating in SKB's site selection investigation in focus group discussions, was that the questions and points of views that emerged in the discussions could serve as a basis for the authority's work of producing general guidelines associated with the regulations. The finished report would then be handed over to an expert group at the authority which answered or commented on the issues raised, and made a report on this to the participating municipalities Oskarshamn and Oesthammar. The result of discussions in two focus groups in Oskarshamn municipality and two in Oesthammar municipality in October 2002 is presented here, together with a presentation of the project's purpose and organisation. The results are presented in three main sections. The first concentrates on radiation and radioactivity since the task in the discussion groups was to attempt to clarify the issues and problems observed in this area in order to contribute to the authority's work of developing the general guidelines. The second section, on understanding of concepts, measurement, risk and safety, illustrates that the frequently asked and 'simple' knowledge related questions are only the tip of the iceberg where many of the participants have also thought about the more complex contexts and the fundamental problems in the risk and safety analysis, its validity and use. The third section of the report focuses primarily on content and information aspects. It provides a number of ideas about how information on current problems and important issues can be improved, how knowledge can be deepened in the site selection municipalities and how working methods in the process can be developed. The report mainly

  12. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible.

  13. Evaluation of factors influencing on non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life in Bushehr Port using focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exclusive breast feeding in the early years of life is one of the most important factors in growth and development of infants. Therefore, exclusive breast feeding is recommended during the first six months of life. For determining the effective factors of non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life, we used focus group discussion by participation of 60 mothers who had an infant under 6 months age and enjoyed non-exclusive breast feeding. Mothers divided into eight groups considering their occupation and number of child. All groups reported scanty of mother’s milk, mother’s occupation, mother’s illness, mother’s comfort, wrong beliefs, infant’s illness, doctors and health care providers recommendations, infant’s dependency to feeding bottle and pacifiers as the most frequent factors in using nonexclusive breast feeding. All mothers believed that health care centers, relatives and older members of family, books and pamphlets, mass media, physicians were their effective sources of awareness and promotion of exclusive breast feeding. Considering the presented ideas in all groups, it is realized that mothers during their pregnancy have sparse information about exclusive breast feeding and because of lack of enough essential training, some socio – cultural beliefs affects non-exclusive breast feeding. Mass media and especial training programs should be implemented to promote exclusive breast feeding in Bushehr Port.

  14. Challenges for achieving safe and effective radical cure of Plasmodium vivax: a round table discussion of the APMEN Vivax Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt; Bobogare, Albino; Dysoley, Lek; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Pasaribu, Ayodhia P; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Jambert, Elodie; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Commons, Robert; Auburn, Sarah; Marfurt, Jutta; Devine, Angela; Aktaruzzaman, Mohammad M; Sohel, Nayeem; Namgay, Rinzin; Drukpa, Tobgyel; Sharma, Surender Nath; Sarawati, Elvieda; Samad, Iriani; Theodora, Minerva; Nambanya, Simone; Ounekham, Sonesay; Mudin, Rose Nanti Binti; Da Thakur, Garib; Makita, Leo Sora; Deray, Raffy; Lee, Sang-Eun; Boaz, Leonard; Danansuriya, Manjula N; Mudiyanselage, Santha D; Chinanonwait, Nipon; Kitchakarn, Suravadee; Nausien, Johnny; Naket, Esau; Duc, Thang Ngo; Do Manh, Ha; Hong, Young S; Cheng, Qin; Richards, Jack S; Kusriastuti, Rita; Satyagraha, Ari; Noviyanti, Rintis; Ding, Xavier C; Khan, Wasif Ali; Swe Phru, Ching; Guoding, Zhu; Qi, Gao; Kaneko, Akira; Miotto, Olivo; Nguitragool, Wang; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Battle, Katherine; Howes, Rosalind E; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Duparc, Stephan; Bhowmick, Ipsita Pal; Kenangalem, Enny; Bibit, Jo-Anne; Barry, Alyssa; Sintasath, David; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra; Sibley, Carol H; McCarthy, James; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Baird, J Kevin; Price, Ric N

    2017-04-05

    The delivery of safe and effective radical cure for Plasmodium vivax is one of the greatest challenges for achieving malaria elimination from the Asia-Pacific by 2030. During the annual meeting of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network Vivax Working Group in October 2016, a round table discussion was held to discuss the programmatic issues hindering the widespread use of primaquine (PQ) radical cure. Participants included 73 representatives from 16 partner countries and 33 institutional partners and other research institutes. In this meeting report, the key discussion points are presented and grouped into five themes: (i) current barriers for glucose-6-phosphate deficiency (G6PD) testing prior to PQ radical cure, (ii) necessary properties of G6PD tests for wide scale deployment, (iii) the promotion of G6PD testing, (iv) improving adherence to PQ regimens and (v) the challenges for future tafenoquine (TQ) roll out. Robust point of care (PoC) G6PD tests are needed, which are suitable and cost-effective for clinical settings with limited infrastructure. An affordable and competitive test price is needed, accompanied by sustainable funding for the product with appropriate training of healthcare staff, and robust quality control and assurance processes. In the absence of quantitative PoC G6PD tests, G6PD status can be gauged with qualitative diagnostics, however none of the available tests is currently sensitive enough to guide TQ treatment. TQ introduction will require overcoming additional challenges including the management of severely and intermediately G6PD deficient individuals. Robust strategies are needed to ensure that effective treatment practices can be deployed widely, and these should ensure that the caveats are outweighed by  the benefits of radical cure for both the patients and the community. Widespread access to quality controlled G6PD testing will be critical.

  15. Perceptions of an ideal point-of-care test for sexually transmitted infections--a qualitative study of focus group discussions with medical providers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Hsieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A point-of-care test (POCT for sexually transmitted infections (STIs, which offers immediate diagnosis resulting in patients receiving diagnosis and treatment in a single visit, has the ability to address some of the STI control needs. However, needs assessment from STI experts and end users about currently available STI POCTs and their future new development has not been evaluated since World Health Organization Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative was formed over 15 years ago. Therefore, our objective was to explore the perceptions of the ideal types of STI POCT for use in health care settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A qualitative study, encompassing eight focus groups, was conducted from March 2008 through April 2009. Participants included 6 STD clinic directors, 63 clinicians, and 7 public health/laboratory/epidemiology professionals in the STI field. Discussion topics included currently available POCT, perceived barriers to using POCT in clinics, priority STI for the development of new POCT, and characteristics of the ideal POCT. All discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes raised as barriers for current POCT included complexity, long time frames of the so-called "rapid" test, multiple time-driven steps, requiring laboratory technician, difficulty in reading result, interruption of workflow, unreliability, and invasiveness. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified as the priority organism for development of a new STI POCT. Themes indicated for the ideal POCT included rapid turnaround (up to 20 minutes, ease of use, non-invasive, accurate (preferred sensitivity and specificity in the range of high 90s, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA-waived, user-friendly (for both patients and staff, compact, durable, and sturdy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Focus group discussions with STI experts and professionals highlighted chlamydia as the top priority pathogen for POCT development, and

  16. [Practical nursing training in the University School of Nursing of the Community of Madrid. Opinion of students and health professionals. Qualitative study with discussion groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Andrés, Cristina; Alameda Cuesta, Almudena; Albéniz Lizarraga, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    In the nursing schools, the contrast between what is taught in the classrooms and what is practiced at the health care centers usually creates a great deal of confusion on the part of the students. The objective of this research is to ascertain the opinion of the students and of the professionals at the health care centers where they are doing their training with regard thereto in order to detect their problems and see what differences exist between primary and specialized care. This research was conducted throughout the first half of 2000 employing qualitative methodology, by means of four discussion groups comprised of students, former students, primary care training advisors and nursing professionals at the hospitals where the students of the school in question are doing their nursing training. The initial involvement employed was indirect. The comments of the nursing students and of their training advisors with regard to the practice nursing during the diploma studies reveal dissatisfaction on the part of both of these groups. In all of the groups point out anxiety as the leading factor involved in their teaching as well as learning activities and during professional training. The lack of identification as a group of professionals seems to be related to the lack of recognition on the part of the others, the demand for a degree being granted for their college studies and for the setting up of specialities would contribute to their social recognition and, as a result thereof, to their identification as a professional group. Until a solution is provided to the anxiety which the nursing professionals feel with regard to their professional practice, which they pass on to their students during nursing training, it will not be possible to achieve a higher degree of satisfaction with nursing training experiences either on the part of the training advisors or on the part of the students.

  17. Measurement of the velocity of a quantum object: A role of phase and group velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Mikaila; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.

    2017-08-01

    We consider the motion of a quantum particle in a free space. Introducing an explicit measurement procedure for velocity, we demonstrate that the measured velocity is related to the group and phase velocities of the corresponding matter waves. We show that for long distances the measured velocity coincides with the matter wave group velocity. We discuss the possibilities to demonstrate these effects for the optical pulses in coherently driven media or for radiation propagating in waveguides.

  18. Political tolerance of homosexuals: the role of group attitudes and legal principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggle, E D; Ellis, A L

    1994-01-01

    Individuals' attitudes toward and acceptance of general legal principles were assessed along with their willingness to extend application of these principles to various social and political groups, including homosexuals. Respondents then indicated their attitudes toward various social and political groups, including the groups to whom they had applied the general principles. Regression analyses were used to determine to what degree acceptance of the general principle and attitude toward the social group predicted application of the general principle to the group. For disliked groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and Nazis, individuals' acceptance of the general principle alone predicted the specific application. For homosexuals, however, the application of the general principle was affected both by acceptance of the general principle and by individuals' attitudes toward homosexuals. The implications of this difference in light of research addressing the cognitive and affective nature of attitudes and attitude change is discussed.

  19. Manifestations of Differential Cultural Capital in a University Classroom: Views from Classroom Observations and Focus Group Discussions in a South African University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmore Mutekwe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based predominantly on Pierre Bourdieu’s social and cultural reproduction theory, particularly his notions of cultural capital and symbolic violence, this paper explores how first year post graduate Diploma in Higher Education (PGDHE university students from diverse socio-linguistic backgrounds differ in the levels at which they understand and express themselves in classroom activities. The paper’s thesis is that the diverse nature of South African classrooms presents a number of challenges not only for students but also for educators in terms of the use of English as a medium of instruction or the language for learning and teaching (LOLT. Owing to the fact that the South African Language in Education Policy (LiEP of 1997 empowers both learners and educators in schools to use any of the eleven South African official languages as a LOLT wherever that is reasonably possible, students whose English backgrounds were deficient in enculturating them in the use of English as a learning tool often encounter challenges in expressing their ideas in the classroom, whether in writing or in oral presentations. The discussion is anchored in the data elicited through two data collection methods, lesson observations in a Diploma in Higher Education, Research class composed of students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and through focus group discussion sessions with 40 multi-ethnic Diploma in Higher Education students from the same classroom. The data management and analysis for this study was done thematically, with views emerging from the observations and focus group discussions being clustered into superordinate themes for convenience of the discussion of the findings. The findings of this study were that students from affluent socio-economic backgrounds who enter university with a rich and relevant English linguistic capital, values and attitudes enjoy an enormous advantage compared to their counterparts whose social class and linguistic

  20. Teaching engineering ethics using role-playing in a culturally diverse student group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Robert H

    2006-04-01

    The use of role-playing ("active learning") as a teaching tool has been reported in areas as diverse as social psychology, history and analytical chemistry. Its use as a tool in the teaching of engineering ethics and professionalism is also not new, but the approach develops new perspectives when used in a college class of exceptionally wide cultural diversity. York University is a large urban university (40,000 undergraduates) that draws its enrolment primarily from the Greater Toronto Area, arguably one of the most culturally diverse cities in the world, embracing the largest percentage of Canada's immigration. Among the area's five million inhabitants, 50% identify themselves as a visible minority born outside Canada, while over 100 languages and dialects are spoken daily. Although students admitted from this international pool have usually been exposed to western attitudes during secondary education and are rapidly assimilated into Canadian culture, responses to specific ethical issues are strongly influenced by their prior culture. Two and three-part scripts for case studies based on NSF or original scenarios were written to illustrate issues such as gifts, attitudes towards women and ethnic minorities, conflict of interest, whistle-blowing, sexual harassment, individual rights, privacy, environment, intellectual property, and others. Following the presentation, the actors lead group discussion based on previously specified questions. Once the initial shyness and reluctance of some cultures has been overcome through the building of rapport, students have written original scripts based on hypothetical or prior personal situations. The method is now being adopted in a short course format to assist the professional integration of foreign trained engineers.

  1. Role Of Abo Blood Groups In The Infection Rate Of Dandruff Caused By Pityrosporum Ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar S Gokul

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty subjects in the general population were studied for the possible role of ABO blood groups in the infection and asymptomatic carriage rate of Pityrosporum ovale. Out of 160, 149 were positive for P. ovale in culture. Of them, 57 had dandruff and 6 had seborrhoic dermatitis. The remaining 86 were harbouring P. ovale asymptomatically. The rate of infection was almost in identical proportion with the rate of asymptomatic carrier state of P.ovale. Our study also revelated that blood group O subjects may be the most susceptible, followed by AB group. The incidence of dandruff was relatively high in males when compared to females.

  2. The Idiap Wolf corpus: exploring group behaviour in a competitive role-playing game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Chittaranjan, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the Idiap Wolf Database. This is a audio-visual corpus containing natural conversational data of volunteers who took part in a competitive role-playing game. Four groups of 8-12 people were recorded. In total, just over 7 hours of interactive conversational data was collecte

  3. The Protective Role of Group Identity: Sectarian Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Emotion Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of…

  4. Using Groups to Change the Department Head Role: An Organization Development Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Sheila; London, Chad; Huisman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description and analysis of how one Canadian institution used groups of department heads as change agents to address their most acute department head role tensions. It is demonstrated that this institution's change initiative aligned very closely to the recommendations proposed, in both the literature pertaining to…

  5. The Role of Discourse in Group Knowledge Construction: A Case Study of Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the role of discourse (verbal elements of language) and Discourse (nonverbal elements related to the use of language, such as ways of thinking, valuing, and using tools and technologies) in the process of group knowledge construction of mechanical engineering students. Data included interviews, participant…

  6. Recontextualizing the Role of the Facilitator in Group Interaction in the Outdoor Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Ina

    2009-01-01

    The traditional role of the facilitator in outdoor education is frequently seen as outside the group of participants, either in a position of power over the participants or detached and passive. Following an ethnographic study at a residential outdoor centre, an in-depth analysis of the facilitation process was carried out, which revealed that the…

  7. Teachers' Roles in Infants' Play and Its Changing Nature in a Dynamic Group Care Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeesun

    2013-01-01

    Using a qualitative research approach, this article explores teachers' roles in infants' play and its changing nature in an infant group care setting. Three infant teachers in a child care center were followed over three months. Observations, interviews, ongoing conversations, emails, and reflective notes were used as data sources. Findings…

  8. Using Groups to Change the Department Head Role: An Organization Development Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Sheila; London, Chad; Huisman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description and analysis of how one Canadian institution used groups of department heads as change agents to address their most acute department head role tensions. It is demonstrated that this institution's change initiative aligned very closely to the recommendations proposed, in both the literature pertaining to…

  9. Gauging the gaps in student problem-solving skills: assessment of individual and group use of problem-solving strategies using online discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L; Mitchell, Steven M; Osgood, Marcy P

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted help to groups and to individual students. This method of assessing performance has a high interrater reliability, and senior students, with training, can serve as reliable graders. We have been able to measure improvements in many students' problem-solving strategies, but, not unexpectedly, there is a population of students who consistently apply the same failing strategy when there is no faculty intervention. This new methodology provides an effective tool to direct faculty to constructively intercede in this area of student development.

  10. The role of the thiol group in protein modification with methylglyoxal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA M. AĆIMOVIĆ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde with elevated production in hyperglycemia. It reacts with nucleophilic Lys and Arg side-chains and N-terminal amino groups causing protein modification. In the present study, the importance of the reaction of the Cys thiol group with methylglyoxal in protein modification, the competitiveness of this reaction with those of amino and guanidine groups, the time course of these reactions and their role and contribution to protein cross-linking were investigated. Human and bovine serum albumins were used as model systems. It was found that despite the very low levels of thiol groups on the surface of the examined protein molecules (approx. 80 times lower than those of amino and guanidino groups, a very high percentage of it reacts (25–85 %. The amount of reacted thiol groups and the rate of the reaction, the time for the reaction to reach equilibrium, the formation of a stable product and the contribution of thiol groups to protein cross-linking depend on the methylglyoxal concentration. The product formed in the reaction of thiol and an insufficient quantity of methylglyoxal (compared to the concentrations of the groups accessible for modification participates to a significant extent (4 % to protein cross-linking. Metformin applied in equimolar concentration with methylglyoxal prevents its reaction with amino and guanidino groups but, however, not with thiol groups.

  11. Aiming to be a breastfeeding mother in a neonatal intensive care unit and at home: a thematic analysis of peer-support group discussion in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niela-Vilén, Hannakaisa; Axelin, Anna; Melender, Hanna-Leena; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-10-01

    Preterm infants are usually breastfed less than full-term infants, and successful breastfeeding requires a supportive environment and special efforts from their mothers. A breastfeeding peer-support group, utilising social media, was developed for these mothers in order to support them in this challenge. Mothers were able to discuss breastfeeding and share experiences. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants based on the postings in peer-support group discussions in social media. The actively participating mothers (n = 22) had given birth <35 gestational weeks. They were recruited from one university hospital in Finland. The social media postings (n = 305) were analysed using thematic analysis. A description of the process of breastfeeding a preterm infant from the point of view of a mother was created. The process consisted of three main themes: the breastfeeding paradox in hospital, the 'reality check' of breastfeeding at home and the breastfeeding experience as part of being a mother. The mothers encountered paradoxical elements in the support received in hospital; discharge was promoted at the expense of breastfeeding and pumping breast milk was emphasised over breastfeeding. After the infant's discharge, the over-optimistic expectations of mothers often met with reality - mothers did not have the knowledge or skills to manage breastfeeding at home. Successful breastfeeding was an empowering experience for the mothers, whereas unsuccessful breastfeeding induced feelings of disappointment. Therefore, the mothers of preterm infants need evidence-based breastfeeding counselling and systematic support in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and at home. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Do we have a moral responsibility to compensate for vulnerable groups? A discussion on the right to health for LGBT people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2016-11-26

    Vulnerability is a broad concept widely addressed in recent scholarly literature. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are among the vulnerable populations with significant disadvantages related to health and the social determinants of health. Medical ethics discourse tackles vulnerability from philosophical and political perspectives. LGBT people experience several disadvantages from both perspectives. This article aims to justify the right to health for LGBT people and their particular claims regarding healthcare because they belong to a vulnerable group. Rawls' theory of justice and Norman Daniels' normal functioning approach will be discussed in this context. Despite the fact that the right to health can be justified by Daniels' normal functioning approach, there is still a theoretical gap in justifying the right to health for particular vulnerable populations such as LGBT peopleand discussing society's duty to compensate for these disadvantages. In search of solid theoretical grounds for the justification of the right to health for LGBT people, the present author takes the opportunity to utilize Daniels' flexible definition of normal functioning to show that normal functioning not only varies by age but also by different states of human existence, including sexual orientation and gender identity, and to propose replacing the life span approach with normal states of human existence.

  13. Patient-based outcome analysis is important to determine the success of total knee arthroplasty: result of a focus group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Balaji; Paul, Manu; Thanveeruddin Sherule, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) results in an excellent outcome in terms of pain relief. The reporting of outcomes was traditionally focused on implant survivorship and objective outcomes such as range of motion, knee stability, and radiographic alignment. However, patients and doctors had differing perceptions of all domains of outcome, especially subjective quality of life domains such as emotions and social functioning. In this study, we tried to find out the expectations of Indian patients regarding TKR and assess the level of satisfaction among our patients from their view point using focus group discussion (FGD), and whether these expectations have an impact on outcomes and patient satisfaction. This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India, in November 2014. Patients between the ages 60 and 65 years who met inclusion criteria were selected. A total of 50 patients were selected for FGDs. Among them, 42 patients participated in FGD. The remaining eight did not appear for the discussion. A total of four FGD sessions were conducted. It was found that there is a discrepancy between the satisfaction levels of patient and surgeon. There is a difference in satisfaction level achieved depending on socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural characteristics. Newer methods of TKR outcome assessment combining radiological outcome, surgeon-based assessment, and patient satisfaction based on their socioeconomic status and cultural characteristics should be developed for different populations.

  14. Picture Novelty Influences Response Selection and Inhibition: The Role of the In-Group Bias and Task-Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Mahmud, Waich; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Al-Amin, Md. Mamun

    2016-01-01

    The human visual system prioritizes processing of novel information, leading to faster detection of novel stimuli. Novelty facilitates conflict resolution through the enhanced early perceptual processing. However, the role of novel information processing during the conflict-related response selection and inhibition remains unclear. Here, we used a face-gender classification version of the Simon task and manipulated task-difficulty and novelty of task-relevant information. The novel quality of stimuli was made task-irrelevant, and an in-group bias was tightly controlled by manipulation of a gender of picture stimuli. We found that the in-group bias modulated the role of novelty in executive control. Novel opposite-sex stimuli facilitated response inhibition only when the task was not demanding. By contrast, novelty enhanced response selection irrespective of the in-group factor when task-difficulty was increased. These findings support the in-group bias mechanism of visual processing, in cases when attentional resources are not limited by a demanding task. The results are further discussed along the lines of the attentional load theory and neural mechanisms of response-inhibition and locomotor activity. In conclusion, our data showed that processing of novel information may enhance executive control through facilitated response selection and inhibition. PMID:27788213

  15. The dual roles of functional groups in the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Cole, Ivan S; Zhao, Dongyuan; Li, Qin

    2016-04-14

    The photoluminescent properties of graphene nanoparticle (named graphene quantum dots) have attracted significant research attention in recent years owing to their profound application potential. However, the photoluminescence (PL) origin of this class of nanocarbons is still unclear. In this paper, combining direct experimental evidence enabled by a facile size-tunable oxygenated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesis method and theoretical calculations, the roles of the aromatic core, functional groups and disordered structures (i.e. defects and sp(3) carbon) in the PL of oxygenated GQDs are elucidated in detail. In particular, we found that the functional groups on GQDs play dual roles in the overall emission: (1) they enable π* → n and σ* → n transitions, resulting in a molecular type of PL, spectrally invariable with change of particle size or excitation energy; (2) similar to defects and sp(3) carbon, functional groups also induce structural deformation to the aromatic core, leading to mid-gap states or, in other words, energy traps, causing π* → mid-gap states → π transitions. Therefore, functional groups contribute to both the blue edge and the red shoulder of GQDs' PL spectra. The new insights on the role of functional groups in PL of fluorescent nanocarbons will enable better designs of this new class of materials.

  16. The C of the BRICS: China’s Role in the Consolidation of the Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Luna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The following article will address the strategic importance of the BRICS’ agreement for China, as well as the role China plays within the group. Firstly, it analyzes the development of the BRICS as a coalition of countries that, in the beginning, were united around a shared economic objective and then, over time, evolved to a point at which each member state was responding to their own strategic interest. Secondly, China is often an object of international criticism for its own development process, and this paper will address the benefit that China gains from the BRICS agreement. The agreement diffuses international tension, promotes cooperation among member states, and defends its development plans. Lastly, the paper argues that China should refrain from exerting a leadership role within the BRICS group, but rather should focus on serving as an agent for consolidation and cohesion among the group.

  17. Participatory rural appraisal approaches: an overview and an exemplary application of focus group discussion in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Uddin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Different tools and techniques of participatory approaches are the basic way of conducting qualitative research especially in the field of applied social science. Focus Group Discussion (FGD is one of the main Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA technique often used in combination with others to achieve desired goals. Considering this concept, this paper attempts to review the PRA approach and then application of FGD, in combination with matrix scoring and ranking to identify problems and causes of climate change along with possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. A group of 20 students at post graduate level under the faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture at Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany those from different corner of the world was considered as target people of the study. The results concluded that “unpredictable weather events” was ranked as the present outstanding visible climate change problem caused by “human activities”. However, it was noted that if alternative renewable energy sources are exploited, this could contribute to solving the present climate change problem. This finding might have the good reference for the policy makers in the same line not only for developing countries but also for developed countries.

  18. 基于视知觉理论的建筑群体表情初探%Brief Discussion on Building Group Expression Based on Visual Perception Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 张伟

    2012-01-01

      According to disorderly and repetitive City Scape under the context of current urban construction, this paper Consider the thought of ‘building group' as the media of Architectural design and Architectural design.On this basis,it puts forward the concept of ‘building group expression’and make preliminary inquiry to it according to the visual perception gestalt theory, hoping to research the important role of it in shaping city style and feature from a new perspective.%  针对当前城市建设背景下中千城一面、杂乱无章的城市面貌,该文提出以“建筑群体”思想作为连接建筑设计与城市规划的中间层次,在此基础上提出“建筑群体表情”的概念,并根据视知觉完形理论对其进行了初步的探究,希望从新的角度思考其在塑造城市风貌方面的的重要作用。

  19. Review of the Effects of Housing Place on Individual and Social Development and Academic Success of University Students by Focus Group Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal ARLI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Students who are entitled to get into a university in our country usually live with their families. However, when a student gets into a university which is far away or when it is difficult to go and return, one of the problems which their family has to solve is housing. Housing place alternatives might be government owned hostel, private hostel or houses for rent. The young student who has lived with their family until that age may find themselves in a different environment. This life might make the young people gain socialization, sense of responsibility and sharing, being able to manage their lives in the community - and it might also make them gain qualifications like being able to make discrimination between good and bad. The basic objective of this research is to identify the effects of housing place on individual and social development. The research has been applied to the students of Kocaeli University, Karamürsel Vocational High School . For the research, five focus group discussions have been carried out, each of which is formed of 8 participants and one assistant. In the study which was carried out based on question and answer, 3 general to special questions were directed . Group members have been formed of students who stay in house and hostel also students who stay with their own family. Maximum diversity sampling has been executed. According to the results, it appears that most essential contributions of staying in a hostel are mainly information sharing, growing mature, learning about recognizing human beings, being able to make discrimination between good and bad, learning about trusting, learning about making more moderate spending, and being able to make decisions freely. Besides, participants stated that any type of environment was available for studying both in governmental hostel and in housing environment, and studying in groups increases their successes.

  20. 析基于博弈论的网络团购问题%Discussion on Online Group-buying Based on Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟微微

    2011-01-01

    作为新时代的产物,网络团购深受消费者与商家的喜欢。消费者通过网络平台自发组团与商家进行交易,亦或通过各类网站申请成为会员,直接参团购买。但就是这种改变传统的商业模式引发当前的种种质疑。文章通过博弈理论,分析网络团购的问题关键,并进一步探讨解决问题的方法,以促进网络团购的健康发展。%Online group-buying,which is the product of this new era,has been deeply loved by both consumers as well as businesses.Through the platform of network,the consumer can either voluntarily join the buying group and together they trade with the businesses or he(or she) can apply for the membership of some website and directly deal with the businesses.However,it is this kind of business-customer mode,which changes the traditional way of buying,that causes series of problems.This paper attempts to analyze the key issue of online group-buying on the basis of game theory and discuss further solutions to the issue,trying to promote its healthy development in the future.

  1. 基于EVA视角下的报业集团绩效评价%Discussion on the Performance Evaluation of Press Group Based on EVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新星

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, China’s press industry is developing rapidly. At the same time of developing the traditional business, some press groups explore the cross-regional, cross-industrial, multi-faceted and multi-level development on the basis of their own resources. Their development level is being affected by mar⁃ket factors more and more obviously.But the traditional financial performance evaluation system based on the income, profit, net assets yield and others can not meet the needs of the modern press group ’s multi level gover⁃nance structure and diversification management . Taking the Economic Value Added (EVA) as the break⁃through point, this paper has done a preliminary discussion on the method and system of performance evaluation of press groups .%近年来,我国报业发展迅猛,一些报业集团在坚持发展传统主业的同时,依托自身资源优势进行了跨地区、跨行业、多方位、多层次的发展探索,其发展程度、发展水平受市场因素的影响也越来越明显。而传统的收入、利润、净资产收益率等财务绩效评价体系已满足不了现代报业集团多层级结构治理和多元化经营需要。本文以经济增加值(EVA)为切入点,对报业集团的绩效评价方法、体系进行了初步探讨。

  2. THE ROLE OF PATIENTS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC DISEASES: RESULTS OF THE FOCUS-GROUP STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Dimcheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of chronic diseases shall be considered a priority in the work of the global international institutions, which are related to health policies. In the search for effective and efficient solutions for the treatment of chronic diseases, scientists are developing different programs. In Bulgaria the continuous monitoring of chronically ill people is defined with the term dispensarization. The objective of the research is to analyze the place and the role of patients in the monitoring of their chronic diseases and how the concept of quality of life relates to this process.Method The research in focus groups is planned within a research project on the monitoring of chronic diseases. Five group discussions were held. The number of participants in all focus groups was sixty.Results The two discussed directions - the active role of the patient and the focus on the results are weak links in the current organization of the care for the chronically ill people. The topic of creating and adopting an Act of the patient was also presented, in which to be paid attention to the evaluation of the quality of life. In general was brought the need for a clear delineation of the roles and the competencies of everyone involved in the monitoring process of chronic diseases. The chronic disease cannot be defined only as a medical problem, as there are economic and social, including political consequences.Conclusions The management of the chronic disease requires coordination of doctor-patient interaction, a model of partnership and trust in the relations, self-management of the condition by the patients and their inclusion in the health team. The most important step to achieve this goal is the education of the patients, increasing their knowledge and motivation, psycho-emotional support, instilling hope and faith in the capacity of the patients.

  3. Incorporating single molecules into electrical circuits. The role of the chemical anchoring group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Edmund; La Rosa, Andrea; González, M Teresa; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Martín, Nazario

    2015-02-21

    Constructing electronic circuits containing singly wired molecules is at the frontier of electrical device miniaturisation. When a molecule is wired between a pair of electrodes, the two points of contact are determined by the chemical anchoring groups, located at the ends of the molecule. At this point, when a bias is applied, electrons are channelled from a metallic environment through an extremely narrow constriction, essentially a single atom, into the molecule. The fact that this is such an abrupt change in the electron pathway makes the nature of the chemical anchoring groups critically important regarding the propagation of electrons from the electrode across the molecule. A delicate interplay of phenomena can occur when a molecule binds to the electrodes, which can produce profound differences in conductance properties depending on the anchoring group. This makes answering the question "what is the best anchoring group for single molecule studies" far from straight forward. In this review, we firstly take a look at techniques developed to 'wire-up' single molecules, as understanding their limitations is key when assessing a molecular wire's performance. We then analyse the various chemical anchoring groups, and discuss their merits and disadvantages. Finally we discuss some theoretical concepts of molecular junctions to understand how transport is affected by the nature of the chemical anchor group.

  4. When High Achievers and Low Achievers Work in the Same Group: The Roles of Group Heterogeneity and Processes in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing-Yi Cheng, Rebecca; Lam, Shui-Fong; Chung-Yan Chan, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Background: There has been an ongoing debate about the inconsistent effects of heterogeneous ability grouping on students in small group work such as project-based learning. Aim: The present research investigated the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning. At the student level, we examined the interaction effect…

  5. [Promotion of nurses to academic management: discussing their role through the theory of adaptation (70's 80's)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Torres, Danelia

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research aimed to show the nurses role performed during the management challenge in nursing schools. A retrospective diachronic historical type study was conducted through data collection, critical evaluation and facts presentation based on Roy's adaptation theory. The study reveal that pioneer nurse managers achieved a professional projection inside the university academic scope, based on adaptation, interdependence, by transcending in optimal way between organization members and showing initially a compensatory adaptation level and later on integrated with innovation in the performance of manager's role, based on dialogue, with presence in several scenarios as well as participation in several sectors.

  6. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  7. Library faculty role in problem-based learning: facilitating small groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, R K; Helms, M E; Nouravarsani, R; Van Antwerp, M; Woelfl, N N

    1995-10-01

    Since 1986, the library faculty of the McGoogan Library of Medicine at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) has participated in small group activities during the week-long orientation for first-year medical students. This involvement paved the way for library faculty members to act as facilitators for small groups of medical students within the new problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum introduced in 1992 by the College of Medicine. The UNMC curriculum consists of traditional PBL groups as well as Integrated Clinical Experience (ICE) small groups. The ICE groups provide opportunities for discussion of the social and behavioral issues that arise in medicine, with the majority of the sessions designed to give students interviewing practice with simulated patients. The ICE small groups meet once a week with either one or two facilitators. Several library faculty members act as facilitators for ICE groups. As a result of this involvement, librarian contacts with College of Medicine faculty have grown in number and depth, there has been a corresponding increase in related activities with the first- and second-year medical students. Participation in ICE groups has caused some difficulties with respect to library work schedules, but it has been immensely rewarding and enriching in terms of professional growth. This paper describes the UNMC curriculum, the evolution and extent of the librarians' involvement, and the future involvement, ramifications, and challenges envisioned for McGoogan faculty and their medical library colleagues.

  8. Ambivalence, prejudice and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups: The moderating role of attitude basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, Sandro; Gerłowska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments explored the relations between prejudice (suppression), (cognitive) ambivalence and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups. The current work argues that expressing out-group ambivalence based on cognitive, but not affective, information is a strategy to justify one's otherwise suppressed prejudice, which may ultimately "cover" the discriminatory nature of out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies. Two experiments show that (1) participants evaluating the out-group in a normative context inducing prejudice suppression are more likely to self-report ambivalent beliefs rather than ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group as compared with participants whose prejudice expression is induced and (2) high-prejudice participants compared with low-prejudice participants are more prone to out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies when these latter are self-reported after the expression of ambivalent beliefs but not ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group, and when the expression of their prejudicial evaluations is salient but not when it is not. In light of the extent to which ambivalent attitudes towards out-groups are often seamlessly integrated into public discourse, the implications of the findings are discussed not only for intergroup research but also at the societal level.

  9. Making Biodiversity Conservation Happen: The Role of Environmental Education and Communication. A GreenCOM Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Turley, Pat

    This discussion paper is intended for policy makers, program managers, technical specialists, and others seeking new tools and ideas with which to achieve environmentally sustainable development. Effective techniques from the field of environmental education and communication (EE&C) that can help biodiversity conservationists and program managers…

  10. Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies / Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  11. Performance of human groups in social foraging: the role of communication in consensus decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Narraway, Claire; Hodgson, Lindsay; Weatherill, Aidan; Sommer, Volker; Sumner, Seirian

    2011-04-23

    Early hominids searched for dispersed food sources in a patchy, uncertain environment, and modern humans encounter equivalent spatial-temporal coordination problems on a daily basis. A fundamental, but untested assumption is that our evolved capacity for communication is integral to our success in such tasks, allowing information exchange and consensus decisions based on mutual consideration of pooled information. Here we examine whether communication enhances group performance in humans, and test the prediction that consensus decision-making underlies group success. We used bespoke radio-tagging methodology to monitor the incremental performance of communicating and non-communicating human groups (small group sizes of two to seven individuals), during a social foraging experiment. We found that communicating groups (n = 22) foraged more effectively than non-communicating groups (n = 21) and were able to reach consensus decisions (an 'agreement' on the most profitable foraging resource) significantly more often than non-communicating groups. Our data additionally suggest that gesticulations among group members played a vital role in the achievement of consensus decisions, and therefore highlight the importance of non-verbal signalling of intentions and desires for successful human cooperative behaviour.

  12. Self-stereotyping in the face of threats to group status and distinctiveness : The role of group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Doosje, B; Ellemers, N

    1997-01-01

    In four studies, effects of self-perceived or public-perceived threats to group status or group distinctiveness on self-stereotyping (defined as similarity to prototypical in-group members) were investigated for people with high or low in-group identification. The main prediction was that high and l

  13. Self-stereotyping in the face of threats to group status and distinctiveness : The role of group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Doosje, B; Ellemers, N

    In four studies, effects of self-perceived or public-perceived threats to group status or group distinctiveness on self-stereotyping (defined as similarity to prototypical in-group members) were investigated for people with high or low in-group identification. The main prediction was that high and

  14. Carboxylate groups play a major role in antitumor activity of Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chen; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping; Wang, Weijun

    2015-06-05

    In this paper, the structure difference between the polysaccharides isolated from fruit bodies (FGAP) and submerged fermentation system (SGAP) of Ganoderma applanatum was investigated by means of GPC, HPLC and IR, respectively. And their antitumor activities were evaluated against Sarcoma 180 in vivo. The results showed that FGAP and SGAP were typical polysaccharides with different molecular weights, monosaccharide components, and functional groups. Closely related to the distinct structures, FGAP exhibited a better antitumor activity than SGAP. Moreover, since FGAP contained carboxylate groups rather than SGAP, such groups were chemically introduced into SGAP (CSGAP) by carboxymethylation in order to identify their contribution to antitumor activity. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of CSGAP against Sarcoma 180 in vivo was significantly enhanced by comparison to the native SGAP and even higher than that of FGAP, suggesting that the carboxylate groups played a major role in antitumor activity of G. applanatum polysaccharide.

  15. Insights of health district managers on the implementation of primary health care outreach teams in Johannesburg, South Africa: a descriptive study with focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shabir; Derese, Anselme; Peersman, Wim

    2017-01-21

    Primary health care (PHC) outreach teams are part of a policy of PHC re-engineering in South Africa. It attempts to move the deployment of community health workers (CHWs) from vertical programmes into an integrated generalised team-based approach to care for defined populations in municipal wards. There has little evaluation of PHC outreach teams. Managers' insights are anecdotal. This is descriptive qualitative study with focus group discussions with health district managers of Johannesburg, the largest city in South Africa. This was conducted in a sequence of three meetings with questions around implementation, human resources, and integrated PHC teamwork. There was a thematic content analysis of validated transcripts using the framework method. There were two major themes: leadership-management challenges and human resource challenges. Whilst there was some positive sentiment, leadership-management challenges loomed large: poor leadership and planning with an under-resourced centralised approach, poor communications both within the service and with community, concerns with its impact on current services and resistance to change, and poor integration, both with other streams of PHC re-engineering and current district programmes. Discussion by managers on human resources was mostly on the plight of CHWs and calls for formalisation of CHWs functioning and training and nurse challenges with inappropriate planning and deployment of the team structure, with brief mention of the extended team. Whilst there is positive sentiment towards intent of the PHC outreach team, programme managers in Johannesburg were critical of management of the programme in their health district. Whilst the objective of PHC reform is people-centred health care, its implementation struggles with a centralising tendency amongst managers in the health service in South Africa. Managers in Johannesburg advocated for decentralisation. The implementation of PHC outreach teams is also limited by

  16. The role of angiogenesis in Group 3 medulloblastoma pathogenesis and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M; Keir, Stephen T; Venkatraman, Talaignair; Lascola, Christopher; Yeom, Kristen W; Nixon, Andrew B; Liu, Yingmiao; Picard, Daniel; Remke, Marc; Bigner, Darell D; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D

    2017-09-01

    Of the 4 medulloblastoma subgroups, Group 3 is the most aggressive but the importance of angiogenesis is unknown. This study sought to determine the role of angiogenesis and identify clinically relevant biomarkers of tumor vascularity and survival in Group 3 medulloblastoma. VEGFA mRNA expression and survival from several patient cohorts were analyzed. Group 3 xenografts were implanted intracranially in nude rats. Dynamic susceptibility weighted (DSC) MRI and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) were obtained. DSC MRI was used to calculate relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and flow (rCBF). Tumor vessel density and rat vascular endothelial growth factor alpha (VEGFA) expression were determined. Patient VEGFA mRNA levels were significantly elevated in Group 3 compared with the other subgroups (P < 0.001) and associated with survival. Xenografts D283, D341, and D425 were identified as Group 3 by RNA hierarchical clustering and MYC amplification. The D283 group had the lowest rCBV and rCBF, followed by D341 and D425 (P < 0.05). These values corresponded to histological vessel density (P < 0.05), rat VEGFA expression (P < 0.05), and survival (P = 0.002). Gene set enrichment analysis identified 5 putative genes with expression profiles corresponding with these findings: RNH1, SCG2, VEGFA, AGGF1, and PROK2. SWI identified 3 xenograft-independent categories of intratumoral vascular architecture with distinct survival (P = 0.004): organized, diffuse microvascular, and heterogeneous. Angiogenesis plays an important role in Group 3 medulloblastoma pathogenesis and survival. DSC MRI and SWI are clinically relevant biomarkers for tumor vascularity and overall survival and can be used to direct the use of antivascular therapies for patients with Group 3 medulloblastoma.

  17. Group learning capacity: the roles of open-mindedness and shared vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    Open-mindedness (OPM) is a construct that is considered a key foundational aspect of learning in individuals, groups and organizations. Also known as critical inquiry or reflection, OPM is believed to increase learning through examination of prior beliefs, decisions and mistakes, and also through openness to new ideas. Renowned theorists including Dewey and Argyris have emphasized the relationship between OPM and learning, yet little quantitative research has tested it or examined moderators of the linkage. The setting for the current study is that of endowment investment committees at U.S. universities and colleges who need to make knowledgeable and well-reasoned decisions about the composition of investment portfolios. Findings indicate that OPM has a positive, significant effect on group learning capacity (LCAP) and also that shared vision, which represents the group's collective purpose and direction, moderates that relationship. The literature review and discussion offer insights about how OPM is related to the research on group conflict, and how shared vision (SHV) differs from concepts such as interpersonal cohesiveness and conformity that have been associated with groupthink. A review of relevant research from the fields of organizational learning, group dynamics, and absorptive capacity provides context for the development of the hypotheses and the discussion of findings.

  18. Understanding the impact of subsidizing artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs in the retail sector--results from focus group discussions in rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah V Kedenge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in the potential of private sector subsidies to increase availability and affordability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs for malaria treatment. A cluster randomized trial of such subsidies was conducted in 3 districts in Kenya, comprising provision of subsidized packs of paediatric ACT to retail outlets, training of retail staff, and community awareness activities. The results demonstrated a substantial increase in ACT availability and coverage, though patient counselling and adherence were suboptimal. We conducted a qualitative study in order to understand why these successes and limitations occurred. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted, 9 with retailers and 9 with caregivers, to document experiences with the intervention. Respondents were positive about intervention components, praising the focused retailer training, affordable pricing, strong promotional activities, dispensing job aids, and consumer friendly packaging, which are likely to have contributed to the positive access and coverage outcomes observed. However, many retailers still did not stock ACT, due to insufficient supplies, lack of capital and staff turnover. Advice to caregivers was poor due to insufficient time, and poor recall of instructions. Adherence by caregivers to dosing guidelines was sub-optimal, because of a wish to save tablets for other episodes, doses being required at night, stopping treatment when the child felt better, and the number and bitter taste of the tablets. Caregivers used a number of strategies to obtain paediatric ACT for older age groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has highlighted that important components of a successful ACT subsidy intervention are regular retailer training, affordable pricing, a reliable supply chain and community mobilization emphasizing patient adherence and when to seek further care.

  19. When high achievers and low achievers work in the same group: the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Lam, Shui-fong; Chan, Joanne Chung-yan

    2008-06-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the inconsistent effects of heterogeneous ability grouping on students in small group work such as project-based learning. The present research investigated the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning. At the student level, we examined the interaction effect between students' within-group achievement and group processes on their self- and collective efficacy. At the group level, we examined how group heterogeneity was associated with the average self- and collective efficacy reported by the groups. The participants were 1,921 Hong Kong secondary students in 367 project-based learning groups. Student achievement was determined by school examination marks. Group processes, self-efficacy and collective efficacy were measured by a student-report questionnaire. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to analyse the nested data. When individual students in each group were taken as the unit of analysis, results indicated an interaction effect of group processes and students' within-group achievement on the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy. When compared with low achievers, high achievers reported lower collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of low quality. However, both low and high achievers reported higher collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of high quality. With 367 groups taken as the unit of analysis, the results showed that group heterogeneity, group gender composition and group size were not related to the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy reported by the students. Group heterogeneity was not a determinant factor in students' learning efficacy. Instead, the quality of group processes played a pivotal role because both high and low achievers were able to benefit when group processes were of high quality.

  20. Grouping in object recognition: the role of a Gestalt law in letter identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelli, Denis G; Majaj, Najib J; Raizman, Noah; Christian, Christopher J; Kim, Edward; Palomares, Melanie C

    2009-02-01

    The Gestalt psychologists reported a set of laws describing how vision groups elements to recognize objects. The Gestalt laws "prescribe for us what we are to recognize 'as one thing'" (Kohler, 1920). Were they right? Does object recognition involve grouping? Tests of the laws of grouping have been favourable, but mostly assessed only detection, not identification, of the compound object. The grouping of elements seen in the detection experiments with lattices and "snakes in the grass" is compelling, but falls far short of the vivid everyday experience of recognizing a familiar, meaningful, named thing, which mediates the ordinary identification of an object. Thus, after nearly a century, there is hardly any evidence that grouping plays a role in ordinary object recognition. To assess grouping in object recognition, we made letters out of grating patches and measured threshold contrast for identifying these letters in visual noise as a function of perturbation of grating orientation, phase, and offset. We define a new measure, "wiggle", to characterize the degree to which these various perturbations violate the Gestalt law of good continuation. We find that efficiency for letter identification is inversely proportional to wiggle and is wholly determined by wiggle, independent of how the wiggle was produced. Thus the effects of three different kinds of shape perturbation on letter identifiability are predicted by a single measure of goodness of continuation. This shows that letter identification obeys the Gestalt law of good continuation and may be the first confirmation of the original Gestalt claim that object recognition involves grouping.

  1. Roles Distribution and Group Identification in Sport Teams with Joint-Consistent Interaction Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Kolosov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents comparative analysis of differentiated space choice, presenting subjectively perceived ground of concrete athlete personal activity within Ukrainian National Fencing Team (13 women and 12 men. The received data gives reasons to believe that role repertoire of the team depends on team identification, but at the same time it has impact on activity redistribution inside the group, significant for competition actions regulation and optimal formation determination.

  2. Roles Distribution and Group Identification in Sport Teams with Joint-Consistent Interaction Mode

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Kolosov; S.M. Voutenko

    2012-01-01

    The article presents comparative analysis of differentiated space choice, presenting subjectively perceived ground of concrete athlete personal activity within Ukrainian National Fencing Team (13 women and 12 men). The received data gives reasons to believe that role repertoire of the team depends on team identification, but at the same time it has impact on activity redistribution inside the group, significant for competition actions regulation and optimal formation determination.

  3. Anemia and its determinants among women of reproductive age of a slum in Kolkata: A focus group discussion among health workers in a slum of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aparajita; Sarkar, Kaushik; Chowdhury, Ranadip; Ray, Arindam; Shahbabu, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among women of reproductive age. Progress toward reducing the burden of anemia has been little despite efforts through decades. We conducted this study to unearth the microlevel determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age. This qualitative study was conducted in Urban Health Centre (UHC), Chetla. A focus group discussion was held among all the eight health staffs, who were involved in reproductive and child health-related service delivery under UHC, Chetla. A thematic analysis of the transcript was performed. We found that socioeconomic factors like poverty and social neglect, diet and nutrition related factors, lack of personal hygiene, and worm infestation contributed to the burden of anemia, and this was reinforced by factors related to service delivery, such as lack of supply of drugs and supplements, and inadequate training of health workers as well as poor media accountability. Because of easy reversibility and implementation, health service delivery-related issues should be addressed closely through monitoring and evaluation and appropriate and timely action should be taken to improve the effectiveness of the services.

  4. The Role of Discussion Boards in a University Blended Learning Program (El papel de los foros de discusión en un programa universitario de aprendizaje mixto)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Moreno, Rosa Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Discussion boards as tools in blended "English language" learning programs have unique characteristics when compared to other synchronous and asynchronous communication tools that are different. Therefore, it is important to investigate the way they operate, their role within a given program and the students', teachers' and tutors'…

  5. Group learning capacity: The roles of open-mindedness and shared vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi eLord

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Open-mindedness is a construct that is considered a key foundational aspect of learning in individuals, groups and organizations. Also known as critical inquiry or reflection, open-mindedness is believed to increase learning through examination of prior beliefs, decisions and mistakes, and also through openness to new ideas. Renowned theorists including Dewey and Argyris have emphasized the relationship between open-mindedness and learning, yet little quantitative research has tested it or examined moderators of the linkage. The setting for the current study is that of endowment investment committees at U.S. universities and colleges who need to make knowledgeable and well-reasoned decisions about the composition of investment portfolios. Findings indicate that open-mindedness has a positive, significant effect on group learning capacity and also that shared vision, which represents the group’s collective purpose and direction, moderates that relationship. The literature review and discussion offer insights about how open-mindedness is related to the research on group conflict, and how shared vision differs from concepts such as interpersonal cohesiveness and conformity that have been associated with groupthink. A review of relevant research from the fields of organizational learning, group dynamics, and absorptive capacity provides context for the development of the hypotheses and the discussion of findings.

  6. The role of interest groups in the acid precipitation issue in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, R.

    1987-01-01

    Interest groups are one of the many institutions that participate in the formulation of public policy. In the context of the acid precipitation issue in Ontario, interest groups have contributed to the development of policy. This study outlines that contribution. Groups have been described and defined and an attempt has been made to demonstrate that they play an important role in policy formulation and strengthen the democratic system. Beginning largely as loosely structured ad hoc organizations, the groups involved in the issue evolved to form an effective coalition. They have been able to coordinate their activites, present a concise and consistent message, and gain expertise and respect in the environmental policy community. This sophisticated aspect of interest groups is balanced with a calculated use of media related techniques designed to influence public opinion and embarrass governments and industry. Groups perform three basic functions in society: communications, education, and legitimation. Within this context groups have identified and publicized acid rain to the extent that it is now easily recognized as an issue by the public and a priority on the political agenda for governments. Interest groups have educated their members, governments, and the general public on the environmental impact of acid rain and the consequences of inaction on the issue. They have participated in the formation of acid rain policies in Ontario and largely support government initiatives on the issue. They are now recognized as legitimate players in the environment policy community, which has necessarily expanded to meet their needs and demands. Groups will continue to be active not only in policy formulation but in implementing and monitoring of existing and emerging policy programs. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Do children trust based on group membership or prior accuracy? The role of novel group membership in children's trust decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashi, Fadwa B; Mills, Candice M

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments examined how an informant's group membership can influence children's trust decisions. Participants (3- to 7-year-olds, N=162) were assigned to either the red or blue group based on their selection of a red or blue apron and watched an in-group and out-group informant provide conflicting names for a set of novel objects. When asked which informant they would prefer to rely on for new information, nearly all age groups trusted the in-group informant. Children then watched as each informant varied in accuracy by labeling either all or none of four familiar items accurately and were then asked which informant's labels they preferred for learning new information. When the in-group informant had previously demonstrated accuracy, children continued to trust the in-group informant for new information. In contrast, when the in-group informant had previously demonstrated inaccuracy, children were unsure who to trust, with only 6- and 7-year-olds showing a decrease in their trust for the inaccurate in-group informant. These findings demonstrate that group membership can skew how children encode new information and can make children uncertain about whom to trust for information.

  8. Role of Gestalt grouping in selective attention: evidence from the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Martijn J M; Roelofs, Ardi

    2007-11-01

    Selective attention has been intensively studied using the Stroop task. Evidence suggests that Stroop interference in a color-naming task arises partly because of visual attention sharing between color and word: Removing the target color after 150 msec reduces interference (Neumann, 1986). Moreover, removing both the color and the word simultaneously reduces interference less than does removing the color only (La Heij, van der Heijden, & Plooij, 2001). These findings could also be attributed to Gestalt grouping principles, such as common fate. We report three experiments in which the role of Gestalt grouping was further investigated. Experiment I replicated the reduced interference, using words and color patches. In Experiment 2, the color patch was not removed but only repositioned (Gestalt grouping in selective attention.

  9. The dangerous role of silence in the relationship between trauma and violence: a group response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Suzanne B

    2015-01-01

    This article considers that somewhere in the space between violence and trauma is dangerous silence. Silence intensifies the impact of trauma, and trauma that goes unspoken, un-witnessed, and unclaimed too often "outs itself" as more violence to self or others. Relevant empirical evidence on the impact of civilian interpersonal violence, combat trauma, school shootings, bullying, and domestic violence confirms this tragic cycle. Crucial to addressing the danger of silence in this cycle, the article examines the centrality of silence existentially, neuropsychologically, psychologically, developmentally, interpersonally, and culturally in relation to violence. The bridge to voicing and assimilating the unspeakable is empathic connection with others. Drawing upon two different types of group programs, the article demonstrates that group can serve as that bridge. Group process has the potential to undo the dangerous role of silence in the relationship of trauma and violence.

  10. High-fidelity simulation among bachelor students in simulation groups and use of different roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thidemann, Inger-Johanne; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-12-01

    Cost limitations might challenge the use of high-fidelity simulation as a teaching-learning method. This article presents the results of a Norwegian project including two simulation studies in which simulation teaching and learning were studied among students in the second year of a three-year bachelor nursing programme. The students were organised into small simulation groups with different roles; nurse, physician, family member and observer. Based on experiences in different roles, the students evaluated the simulation design characteristics and educational practices used in the simulation. In addition, three simulation outcomes were measured; knowledge (learning), Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning. The simulation was evaluated to be a valuable teaching-learning method to develop professional understanding and insight independent of roles. Overall, the students rated the Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning as high. Knowledge about the specific patient focus increased after the simulation activity. Students can develop practical, communication and collaboration skills, through experiencing the nurse's role. Assuming the observer role, students have the potential for vicarious learning, which could increase the learning value. Both methods of learning (practical experience or vicarious learning) may bridge the gap between theory and practice and contribute to the development of skills in reflective and critical thinking.

  11. Galaxy Evolution in Hickson Compact Groups: The Role of Ram Pressure Stripping and Strangulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Yun, Min S; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta

    2008-01-01

    Galaxies in compact groups tend to be deficient in neutral hydrogen compared to isolated galaxies of similar optical properties. In order to investigate the role played by a hot intragroup medium (IGM) for the removal and destruction of HI in these systems, we have performed a Chandra and XMM-Newton study of eight of the most HI deficient Hickson compact groups. Diffuse X-ray emission associated with an IGM is detected in four of the groups, suggesting that galaxy-IGM interactions are not the dominant mechanism driving cold gas out of the group members. No clear evidence is seen for any of the members being currently stripped of any hot gas, nor for galaxies to show enhanced nuclear X-ray activity in the X-ray bright or most HI deficient groups. Combining the inferred IGM distributions with analytical models of representative disc galaxies orbiting within each group, we estimate the HI mass loss due to ram pressure and viscous stripping. While these processes are generally insufficient to explain observed HI ...

  12. Reconsidering the role of interaction in analyzing and reporting focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L

    2010-05-01

    In the two sections of this article, I examine aspects of the analysis and reporting of interaction in focus groups. In both sections, I argue that the essential importance of interaction for producing the data in focus groups does not correspond to any requirement that the analysis or the reporting of that data should emphasize interaction. With regard to analyzing interaction, the goals of the research should guide the analysis of the data, and those goals might or might not emphasize interaction. In particular, a great deal of focus group research is conducted for substantive and practical purposes, where the analysis typically requires little attention to the dynamics of interaction in those groups. With regard to reporting interaction, quotations from single individuals can often be the most efficient and effectives ways to accomplish an article's goals; however, I also discuss the kinds of situations where there are good reasons to report interaction among the participants. I conclude by briefly describing a different agenda for examining the importance of interaction in focus groups.

  13. A Brief Discussion on Role-playing Teaching Method%浅谈角色扮演教学法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海燕

    2015-01-01

    随着经济全球化的迅速发展,具有较强英语交际本领的应用型人才需求量越来越大,从而以培养学生英语交际能力为目标的教学逐步受到了高职院校的广泛关注。角色扮演教学法注重真实的语言训练,是英语教学中非常实用的教学方法。%With the rapid development of economic globalization, the demand for application-oriented talents with strong English communication skills is growing, so the teaching with the cultiva-tion of students' English communicative competence as the goal has gradually attracted the wide attention of higher vocational colleges. Role-playing teaching method pays attention to authen-tic language training, and is a very practical teaching method in English teaching.

  14. Role of gender norms and group identification on hypothetical and experimental pain tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Gregory J; Schwegler, Andria F; Theodore, Brian R; Fuchs, Perry N

    2007-05-01

    Previous research indicates that men typically tolerate more pain in experimental settings than women. One likely explanation for these group differences in pain tolerance is conformity to traditional, gender group social norms (i.e., the ideal man is masculine and tolerates more pain; the ideal woman is feminine and tolerates less pain). According to self-categorization theory, norms guide behavior to the degree that group members adopt the group identity. Therefore, high-identifying men are expected to conform to gender norms and tolerate more pain than high-identifying women who conform to different gender norms as a guide for their behavior. We conducted two studies to investigate whether gender group identification moderates individuals' conformity to pain tolerance and reporting norms. In the first study, participants indicated their gender identification and expected tolerance of a hypothetical painful stimulus. As anticipated, high-identifying men reported significantly greater pain tolerance than high-identifying women. No differences existed between low-identifying men and women. To determine if self-reported pain tolerance in a role-playing scenario corresponds to actual pain tolerance in an experimental setting, the second study examined pain tolerance to a noxious stimulus induced by electrical stimulation of the index finger. The experimental outcome revealed that high-identifying men tolerated more painful stimulation than high-identifying women. Further, high-identifying men tolerated more pain than low-identifying men. These results highlight the influence of social norms on behavior and suggest the need to further explore the role of norms in pain reporting behaviors.

  15. The role of instrumental versus macroseismic locations for earthquakes of the last century: a discussion based on the seismicity of the North-Western Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Solarino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Many seismological observatories began to record and store seismic events in the early years of the twentieth century, contributing to the compilation of very valued databases of both phase pickings and waveforms. However, despite the availability of the instrumental data for some of the events of the last century, an instrumental location for these earthquakes is not always computed; moreover, when available, the macroseismic location is strongly preferred even if the number of points that have been used for it is low or the spatial distribution of the observations is not optimal or homogeneous. In this work I show how I computed an instrumental location for 19 events which occurred in the Garfagnana-Lunigiana region (Northern Tuscany, Italy beginning from 1902. The location routine is based on a Joint Hypocentral Determination in which, starting from a group of master events, the systematic errors that may affect the data are summed up in the corrective factors complementing the velocity propagation model. All non-systematic errors are carefully checked and possibly discarded by going back to the original data, if necessary. The location is then performed using the classic approach of the inverse problem and solved iteratively. The obtained locations are then compared to those already available from other macroseismic studies with the aim to check the role to be attributed to the instrumental locations. The study shows that in most cases the locations match, in particular when considering the different significance of the location parameters, especially for the strongest events: the instrumental location provides the point where the rupture begins, while the macroseismic one is an estimate of the area where the earthquake possibly took place. This paper is not meant to discuss the importance and the necessity of macroseismic data; instead, the aim is to show that instrumental data can be used to obtain locations even for older

  16. Support for Kurdish language rights in Turkey : The roles of ethnic group, group identifications, contact, and intergroup perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çelebi, Elif; Verkuyten, Maykel; Smyrnioti, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    The question of Kurdish language rights has been a central issue in the Turkish–Kurdish conflict. The current study examined endorsement of Kurdish language rights in relation to intergroup factors (i.e. group identifications, cross-group friendships, perceived discrimination, and perceived out-grou

  17. The role of SH and S-S groups in Bacillus cereus beta-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K; Yoneda, I; Nanmori, T; Shinke, R; Morita, Y; Mikami, B

    1995-12-01

    The properties of sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide (S-S) groups in Bacillus cereus BQ10-S1 Spo III beta-amylase have been investigated to clarify their roles in the enzyme action. Two out of three cysteine residues in B. cereus beta-amylase were found to form an S-S bond, which was found to be located between Cys91 and Cys99 by the analysis of an S-S containing peptide. The replacement of the soybean beta-amylase model around L3 loop 1 revealed that the S-S bond is located at the root of this flexible loop that moves between open and closed forms during catalysis. The analysis of fluorescence labeled peptides revealed that the remaining free SH group was Cys331. Modification of Cys331 with N-ethylmaleimide or p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB) caused inactivation of the enzyme. The rate constants for the reactions were consistent with those of Cys343 in soybean enzyme. The binding affinity of the PCMB-modified enzyme to maltose was also decreased. These results indicate that the modification of Cys331, which exists as a free SH group in B. cereus beta-amylase caused inactivation by a similar mechanism to that in the case of Cys343 in soybean beta-amylase as assumed from the sequence homology. This cysteine residue has a common role in beta-amylases irrespective their origin.

  18. Role of Self-help Groups in Promoting Inclusion and Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Kumaran

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:This study examined the role of self help groups in addressing some of the problems faced by persons with disabilities such as social exclusion, discrimination, lack of awareness about their rights and privileges, and absence of livelihood programmes.Method: One hundred persons with disabilities were randomly drawn for the study from 50 self help groups in 2 districts that were covered under a popular poverty alleviation programme implemented by the state of Andhra Pradesh  in India.  An interview schedule was used to collect information.Results: Before joining the group, some of the persons with disabilities were mostly confined to their houses, and viewed as less productive and incapable of leading a ‘normal’ life. After joining the groups, they came out of their seclusion and started to work together for their collective welfare and development. They gained knowledge about their rights and privileges and started income generation activities with the help of loans made available to them.  They gained better acceptance within their families, but attitudes of their communities was slower to change. A feeling that “disability is not inability” seemed to have been internalized among the members of the groups.Conclusion: Self-help groups can be very effective in helping persons with disabilities to come out of their isolation and in promoting their participation and inclusion in societal mainstream.Key Words: Self-help group, persons with disabilitiesdoi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.78

  19. The role of narrative in discussing end-of-life care: eliciting values and goals from text, context, and subtext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amanda J; Rodriguez, Keri L

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative study of elderly veterans' perceptions of and preferences for end-of-life care. At a large urban Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital, we asked 30 veterans and 30 health care providers to define 4 terms in the VA form of the advance directive: life-sustaining treatment, terminal condition, state of permanent unconsciousness, and decision-making capacity. The veterans commonly used narratives to construct meaning, and analysis showed that the resulting texts had both a subtext (the values and goals driving the narrative) and a context (life experiences that filter and shape the current interpretation). We found that all 3 components--text, subtext, and context--are crucial to understanding the central theme of an individual's narrative and the decision-making processes associated with it. In this article we examine 1 lengthy narrative using Chafe's (1994) notion of intonation units. We then present a series of short narratives to demonstrate 3 subthemes that emerged from the data: quality of life versus quantity of life, benefit of treatment versus cost of treatment, and, most common, control versus lack of control. Our goal was to demonstrate the centrality and usefulness of storytelling in the patient-provider interaction when listeners are willing to consider the subtext and context of the story and its role in the decision-making process. As demonstrated in this study, deciphering people's stories gives us insight into their values, the mental constructs that drive their decision making, and the goals that they have for their own health care.

  20. Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A responsividade materna tem sido considerada como um elemento central para a compreensão do desenvolvimento infantil e este conceito tem sido articulado com a teoria do apego. Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir criticamente o papel de estudos transculturais sobre responsividade materna, à luz da teoria do apego, a partir da revisão da literatura recente sobre o tema. Considerando a teoria do apego um referencial valioso para investigações sobre interações mãe-bebê e responsividade materna, as conclusões apontam, basicamente, para três questões: 1 a teoria do apego precisa ser investigada em diferentes contextos socioculturais e receber validação transcultural; 2 pesquisas sobre responsividade materna devem considerar a discussão sobre a teoria do apego e diferenças culturais; 3 a inclusão do estudo da responsividade materna em referenciais teóricos que levem em conta variáveis socioculturais é necessária.Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  1. Role of group 3 innate lymphoid cells during experimental otitis media in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang Gun; Gong, Sung Ho; Kim, Hee-Bok; Song, Jae-Jun; Park, Joo Hyun; Lim, Yun-Sung; Park, Seok-Won

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) in the middle ear (ME) mucosal response to bacterial infection in a rat model. To confirm the role of ILC3 in bacterially induced otitis media (OM), the serum concentrations of IL-17 and IL-22 were determined by ELISA, and the tissue expression of IL-17 and IL-22 in infected ME mucosa was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Immunohistochemical staining of specific cell surface markers was also assessed to confirm the origin of the cells expressing IL-17 and IL-22. Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the surgically-induced animal model of OM. OM was induced by inoculation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae into the ME cavity of the rats. The rats were divided into four experimental groups: three infected groups and one control group. Infected groups were subdivided into sets of 5 rats, one for each of the three time points (1, 4 and 7 days post-inoculation). For determination of rat IL-17 and IL-22 levels in infected rats and control rats, infected or control ME mucosa sections were analyzed by immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies directed against IL-17 and IL-22. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3, RORγt, and NKp46 were also conducted on the samples to confirm the origin of cells expressing IL-17 and IL-22. IL-17 and IL-22 serum concentrations were significantly increased in the infected rats compared to control rats. Immunohistochemical staining revealed increased IL-17 and IL-22 expressions in all infected ME mucosae from the first day after inoculation. In addition, the results of tissue staining for the specific surface markers were negative for CD3 and NKp46, but were highly positive for RORγt. IL-17 and IL-22 revealed their association with the bacterially induced proliferative and hyperplastic responses of ME mucosa, which are characteristic features in pathogenesis of OM. Surface marker examination showed that the source cells for IL-17

  2. Explaining Lifelong Loyalty: The Role of Identity Fusion and Self-Shaping Group Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Martha; Buhrmester, Michael; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Pledging lifelong loyalty to an ingroup can have far-reaching behavioural effects, ranging from ordinary acts of ingroup kindness to extraordinary acts of self-sacrifice. What motivates this important form of group commitment? Here, we propose one especially potent answer to this question-the experience of a visceral sense of oneness with a group (i.e., identity fusion). In a sample of British football fans, a population in which high levels of lifelong loyalty are thought to be common, we first examined the hypothesised relationship between fusion and perceptions of lifelong loyalty to one's club. We further explored the hypothesis that fusion and lifelong loyalty are not merely a reflection of past time investment in a group, but also reflect a deeper, memory-based process of feeling personally shaped by key group events, both euphoric and dysphoric. We found broad support for these hypotheses. Results suggest that feeling personally self-shaped by club events (e.g., crucial wins and losses), rather than time invested in the club, leads to greater identity fusion to one's club. In turn, fusion engenders a sense of lifelong club loyalty. We discuss our findings in relation to the growing literature on the experiential origins of intense social cohesion.

  3. Ingroup/Outgroup Attitudes and Group Evaluations: The Role of Competition in British Classroom Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L. Lam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children’s intergroup bias is one of the consequences of their readiness to categorise people into ingroups and outgroups, even when groups are assigned arbitrarily. The present study examined the influence of intergroup competition on children’s ingroup and outgroup attitudes developed within the minimal-group setting in British classrooms. One hundred and twelve children in two age groups (6-7- and 9-10-year-olds were assessed on classification skills and self-esteem before being allocated to one of two colour “teams.” In the experimental condition, children were told that the teams would have a competition after two weeks and teachers made regular use of these teams to organise activities. In the control condition, where no competition ensued, teachers did not refer to “teams.” Then children completed trait attributions to their own-team (ingroup and other-team (outgroup members and group evaluations. It was found that children developed positive ingroup bias across conditions, but outgroup negative bias was shown only by 6-7-year-olds in the experimental condition, particularly if they lost the competition, where they evaluated their team more critically. Better classification skills were associated with less negativity towards the outgroup in the experimental condition. Findings are discussed in relation to relevant theoretical premises and particulars of the intergroup context.

  4. General discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The general discussion focuses on some aspects that are of overarching relevance for all the preceding chapters. The fi rst subject that is discussed is the relationship between systems theory and the philosophy of science. After a short summary of the principles of system science and the

  5. Role modelling of clinical tutors: a focus group study among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Goulston, Kerry; Oates, Kim

    2015-02-14

    Role modelling by clinicians assists in development of medical students' professional competencies, values and attitudes. Three core characteristics of a positive role model include 1) clinical attributes, 2) teaching skills, and 3) personal qualities. This study was designed to explore medical students' perceptions of their bedside clinical tutors as role models during the first year of a medical program. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed Year 1 of the Sydney Medical Program in 2013. A total of nine focus groups (n = 59) were conducted with medical students following completion of Year 1. Data were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes. Students identified both positive and negative characteristics and behaviour displayed by their clinical tutors. Characteristics and behaviour that students would like to emulate as medical practitioners in the future included: 1) Clinical attributes: a good knowledge base; articulate history taking skills; the ability to explain and demonstrate skills at the appropriate level for students; and empathy, respect and genuine compassion for patients. 2) Teaching skills: development of a rapport with students; provision of time towards the growth of students academically and professionally; provision of a positive learning environment; an understanding of the student curriculum and assessment requirements; immediate and useful feedback; and provision of patient interaction. 3) Personal qualities: respectful interprofessional staff interactions; preparedness for tutorials; demonstration of a passion for teaching; and demonstration of a passion for their career choice. Excellence in role modelling entails demonstration of excellent clinical care, teaching skills and personal characteristics. Our findings reinforce the important function of clinical bedside tutors as role models, which has implications for faculty development and

  6. Discussing the role of tropical and subtropical moisture sources in extreme precipitation events in the Mediterranean region from a climate change perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Krichak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme precipitation events in the Mediterranean region during the cool season are strongly affected by the export of moist air from tropical and subtropical areas into the extratropics. The aim of this paper is to present a discussion of the major research efforts on this subject and to formulate a summary of our understanding of this phenomenon, along with its recent past trends from a climate change perspective. The issues addressed are: a discussion of several case studies; the origin of the air moisture and the important role of atmospheric rivers for fueling the events; the mechanism responsible for the intensity of precipitation during the events, and the possible role of global warming in recent past trends in extreme weather events over the Mediterranean region.

  7. The modulating role of group stability on fitness effects of group size is different in females and males of a communally rearing rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebensperger, Luis A; Correa, Loreto A; León, Cecilia; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; Abades, Sebastian; Villegas, Álvaro; Hayes, Loren D

    2016-11-01

    Group size may influence fitness benefits and costs that emerge from cooperative and competitive interactions in social species. However, evidence from plural breeding mammals indicates that group size is insufficient to explain variation in direct fitness, implying other attributes of social groups were overlooked. We studied the natural population of a social rodent during 5 years to test the hypothesis that social stability - in terms of group composition - modulates the effects of increasing number of breeding females (a proxy of communal rearing) and males on the number of offspring weaned (sired) and on the number of offspring weaned (sired) surviving to breeding age (two proxies of direct fitness). We quantified the effects of social stability (measured as changes in female or male group members between mating and the onset of lactation) on these fitness measures. We used live trapping, telemetry and DNA markers to determine social and fitness measures. Social stability in degus was variable in terms of the number of changes in group composition across groups. Low stability was mostly due to mortality and emigration of group members. Results supported a modulating role of social stability on the relationship between group size and the number of offspring weaned (sired). Stability in female and male group composition were both modulators of fitness to females and males. The modulatory role of stability was sex specific, where high social stability was often fitness beneficial to the females. Instead, low social stability was fitness enhancing to the males.

  8. The effect of device number and role assignment on social group dynamics in location-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Jørgensen, Nicolai Melgaard; Poulsen, Mark Kronborg

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of being disengaged in group work is commonly defined as social loafing. This disengagement can be reduced by various factors, such as group members having individual accountability in the form of unique tasks. This paper examines social loafing in a collaborative mobile game in groups...... of three users. The game promotes individual accountability in role differentiation on a shared tablet, and these roles are compared to a condition without roles. Another condition tested if a shared tablet would reduce social loafing, compared to individual tablets for each group member. The game...

  9. The Role of Internal Audit in Optimization of Corporate Governance at the Groups of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent financial scandals have demonstrated that the risk of accounting fraud may be vague in any type of economic system. In this context, transparency of information, indispensable element for competitiveness in the market is an efficient operation of systems of corporate governance and especially of control systems. All these must be appropriate in the legislation in terms of external information. The issue of governance will thus be seen as a fundamental pillar against pressures which induce at the fraud as a result of lack of transparency of information flows. In all models of corporate governance, external regulations cover a primary role in ensuring the effectiveness of controls, but remain central the responsibility of entities to adopt a virtuous mechanism as an internal control profile. An example in this sense of "best practice" may be represented by the multinational companies that have known to harmonize the national rules with the typical instruments of other models of governance. The authors have established that the main objective in this work is the evaluation model of governance already existing in a group of companies in accordance with the principles of corporate governance. In the first part of the work it was made a comparitive analysis between the models of corporate governance, focusing on the role of transparency of communication, the primary tool in prevention of frauds, the link between information and prevention of frauds being independent of the model of corporate governance adopted, by the structure of organization and the control mechanisms. The work continued throughout the first part, with the role of internal audit in preventing the accounting fraud, given that any type of government, regardless of how it is configured and the reference market in which we find, to be considered efficiently must provide an appropriate control mechanisms, able to intervene in critical situations and to protect the interests of all

  10. Discussion of Several Properties on Leibniz-affine Group%Leibniz 仿射群若干性质的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾辉

    2015-01-01

    首先引入了Leibniz仿射群的概念;然后给出了G -仿射群是Leibniz仿射群的一个充要条件,得到了Leibniz仿射群上Leibniz张量和Leibniz括号的具体表达式;最后得到了Leibniz仿射群及其子流形与Leibniz左作用的相关性质。%The concept of Leibniz-affine group was introduced firstly,then a necessary and sufficient condition of a G-affine group being a Leibniz-affine group was given. And the concrete expressions of Leibniz tensor and Leibniz bracket on the Leibniz-affine group were obtained. Finally,some properties about Leibniz-affine group, its submanifolds and Leibniz-left action were proved.

  11. 大学英语课堂小组活动在英语教学中的探讨%Discussion on Group Work of College English Classroom in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳志群

    2014-01-01

    The successful application of Group work depends on many aspects of English classroom, and it is one method used in the English classroom. On the basis of two task types (required and optional information exchange tasks ) University students and their interaction will be discussed. The fact shows that more interactional modification comes from the required exchange. At the same time, the topic of task plays an important role in group work, which benefits university students ’language acquisition and English teachers’leaching.%大学英语课堂小组活动顺利进行取决于课堂环境中的许多方面,也是英语课堂常常用到的方法。在信息轮流交换型和信息自由提供型两种任务类型的基础上,来探讨参加课堂小组活动的大学生以及他们的交互影响。实际表明,更多的交互修正产生来自于轮流交换型任务。课堂活动在大学生的语言习以及英语教师的教学水平提高方面都起着重要作用。

  12. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  13. Functionalized ferrocenes: The role of the para substituent on the phenoxy pendant group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, José L.; Rullán, Jorge; Santos, Natasha; Jiménez, Jesús; Rivera, Joshua; Santana, Alberto; Briggs, Jon; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Matta, Jaime; Meléndez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Six ferrocenecarboxylates with phenyl, 4-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)phenyl, 4-fluorophenyl, 4-chlorophenyl, 4-bromophenyl, 4-iodophenyl as pendant groups were synthesized and fully characterized by spectroscopic, electrochemical and X-ray diffraction methods. The anti-proliferative activity of these complexes were investigated in hormone dependent MCF-7 breast cancer and MCF-10A normal breast cell lines, to determine the role of the para substituent on the phenoxy pendant group. The 4-fluorophenyl ferrocenecarboxylate is inactive in both cell lines while 4-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)phenyl ferrocenecarboxylate is highly cytotoxic in both cell lines. 4-chlorophenyl and 4-bromophenyl ferrocenecarboxylates have moderate to good anti-proliferative activity in MCF-7 and low anti-proliferative activity on normal breast cell line, MCF-10A whereas the 4-iodophenyl analog is highly toxic on normal breast cell line. The phenyl ferrocenecarboxylate has proliferative effects on MCF-7 and is inactive in MCF-10A. Docking studies between the complexes and the alpha-estrogen receptor (ERα) were performed to search for key interactions which may explain the anti-proliferative activity of 4-bromophenyl ferrocenecarboxylate. Docking studies suggest the anti-proliferative activity of these ferrocenecarboxylates is attributed to the cytotoxic effects of the ferrocene group and not to anti-estrogenic effects. PMID:27453588

  14. O papel de coordenador de grupos The role of group coordinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia de Arruda Andaló

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os trabalhos com grupos, instrumental valioso nos espaços institucionais, vêm sofrendo um processo de banalização de cunho tecnicista. Este artigo pretende ser uma contribuição à reflexão sobre a coordenação de grupos. Afasta-se dos estudos sobre a personalidade dos coordenadores, propondo seu entendimento como o de mediadores entre o nível vivencial e a compreensão crítica. Isso aponta seu caráter constitutivo nos processos grupais.The work with groups, a valuable tool in institutional spaces, is becoming more and more vulgarized because of a tendency toward a mere technical approach. This article is intended to be a contribution to group coordination. It keeps away from the study of the coordinators personality, suggesting that they be understood as mediators between experiencing and critical understanding. Thus pointing out their constructive role in group processes.

  15. Role of allyl group in the hydroxyl and peroxyl radical scavenging activity of S-allylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Perla D; Alvarez-Idaboy, J Raúl; Aguilar-González, Adriana; Lira-Rocha, Alfonso; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Galano, Annia

    2011-11-17

    S-Allylcysteine (SAC) is the most abundant compound in aged garlic extracts, and its antioxidant properties have been demonstrated. It is known that SAC is able to scavenge different reactive species including hydroxyl radical (•OH), although its potential ability to scavenge peroxyl radical (ROO•) has not been explored. In this work the ability of SAC to scavenge ROO• was evaluated, as well as the role of the allyl group (-S-CH(2)-CH═CH(2)) in its free radical scavenging activity. Two derived compounds of SAC were prepared: S-benzylcysteine (SBC) and S-propylcysteine (SPC). Their abilities to scavenge •OH and ROO• were measured. A computational analysis was performed to elucidate the mechanism by which these compounds scavenge •OH and ROO•. SAC was able to scavenge •OH and ROO•, in a concentration-dependent way. Such activity was significantly ameliorated when the allyl group was replaced by benzyl or propyl groups. It was shown for the first time that SAC is able to scavenge ROO•.

  16. Effect of using an audience response system on learning environment, motivation and long-term retention, during case-discussions in a large group of undergraduate veterinary clinical pharmacology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Michèle; Vrins, André; Harvey, Denis

    2009-12-01

    Teaching methods that provide an opportunity for individual engagement and focussed feedback are required to create an active learning environment for case-based teaching in large groups. A prospective observational controlled study was conducted to evaluate whether the use of an audience response system (ARS) would promote an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups, have an impact on student motivation and improve long-term retention. Group A (N = 83) participated in large group case discussions where student participation was voluntary, while for group B (N = 86) an ARS was used. Data collection methods included student and teacher surveys, student focus group interviews, independent observations and 1-year post-course testing. Results indicated that the use of an ARS provided an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups by favouring engagement, observation and critical reflection and by increasing student and teacher motivation. Although final exam results were significantly improved in group B, long-term retention was not significantly different between groups. It was concluded that ARS use significantly improved the learning experience associated with case-based discussions in a large group of undergraduate students.

  17. Team performance in cross-national groups: the moderated mediation role of group diversity faultlines and trust

    OpenAIRE

    Mach, Merce; Baruch, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the conditional effect of team composition on team performance; specifically, how collective team orientation, group consensus, faultline configurations and trust among team members explain the objective performance of project teams in cross-cultural contexts.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – Employing path analytical framework and bootstrap methods, the authors analyze data from a sample of 73 cross cultural project teams. Relying on ordinar...

  18. How intragroup dynamics affect behavior in intergroup conflict: the role of group norms, prototypicality, and need to belong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinel, W.; van Kleef, G.A.; van Knippenberg, D.; Hogg, M.A.; Homan, A.C.; Moffit, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the role of intragroup dynamics in intergroup conflict. In a computer-mediated negotiation experiment (N = 107), we investigated how a group representative’s standing in the group, group norm, and the representative’s need to belong influence behavior in intergroup negotiations.

  19. RISK IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EXTENSION PROGRAMMING - RESULTS OF FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS WITH DAIRY AND GREEN INDUSTRY MANAGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera; Harsh, Stephen B.; Mugera, Amin W.

    2003-01-01

    Employees are both a source of risk and means of addressing risk, and good employee management practices can increase risk resilience. Forty green industry managers and 22 dairy managers discussed personnel issues related to their industry. Influx of Hispanic labor has changed personnel management and the focus of risk management.

  20. Gauging the Gaps in Student Problem-Solving Skills: Assessment of Individual and Group Use of Problem-Solving Strategies Using Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L.; Mitchell, Steven M.; Osgood, Marcy P.

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted…

  1. Using Group Discussion with Taiwan's EFL College Students: A Comparison of Comprehension Instruction for Book Club, Literature Circles, and Instructional Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fu-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The research presented here involved a one-semester study; during this period of time, reading comprehension instruction representing three major discussion-centered approaches (Book Club, BC; Literature Circles, LC; Instructional Conversations, IC) was designed and implemented. The effectiveness of the three experimental approaches and one…

  2. Improving Students' Participation in Active Learning Methods: Group Discussions, Presentations and Demonstrations: A Case of Madda Walabu University Second Year Tourism Management Students of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Sewnet; Berhanu, Kassegn

    2015-01-01

    Education is a means by which people develop and acquire knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. It paves the way for development and plays a vital role (serves as a catalyst) in bringing socio-cultural, economical, technological, political and environmental advancements. The general objective of this study was to improve Second Year Tourism…

  3. Strategies to optimize medication use in the physician group practice: the role of the clinical pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Emily Beth; Hoang, Susan; Fisk, Albert W; Wilson-Norton, Jennifer L; Lawless, Nathan M; Louie, Clifton

    2009-01-01

    To (1) describe the role of clinical pharmacists in providing population-based pharmaceutical care as employees of a physician group practice, (2) describe the strategies used by pharmacists to optimize medication use, (3) quantify improvements in care, and (4) illustrate the calculations used to quantify cost savings. Community-based, multispecialty, physician group practice located in the north Puget Sound area between 2003 and 2007. Using four cornerstones (evidence-based medicine, therapeutic interchange, academic detailing, and a local pharmacy and therapeutics committee), the pharmacists provided population-based pharmaceutical care, leading generic switches, target drug programs, and prescription to over-the-counter medication switches. They also led disease management programs, managed drug recalls, implemented electronic health records, negotiated budgets with health plans, and led patient assistance programs and prior authorization programs to improve patient satisfaction. Implementing these strategies from the vantage point of a physician group presents a seldom-realized employment opportunity for pharmacists. The impact of these strategies is measured by process, use, and clinical outcomes metrics. These, in turn, are linked to incentive payments in the pay-for-performance environment or to a lowered per member, per month cost in the capitated environment. In 2006-2007, 71% of our hypertensive patients received generic agents compared with a network average for receiving generic agents of 43%, while the proportion of patients with controlled blood pressure increased from 45% to 60%. We saved $450,000 in inpatient costs for deep venous thrombosis. Clinical pharmacists employed in a physician group practice can optimize medication use, improve care, and reduce costs.

  4. How the Teacher Decide the Style of Group Discussion in Accordance with the Textbook%老师怎样根据课文的内容确定小组研讨的方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳

    2012-01-01

      本文简要论述了小组合作学习的优势,并在此基础上探讨了教师如何根据课文内容确定小组研讨的方式%  Based on the elaboration of the advantages of group cooperative learning, this paper discusses how the teacher de-cide the style of group discussion in accordance with textbook.

  5. The Role of Islamic Student Groups in the Reformasi Struggle: KAMMI (Kesatuan Aksi Mahasiswa Muslim Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Kraince

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an investigation of KAMMI's role in the reformasi movement with respect to its relationship with the nation, the umat, and the larger student movement. As it explores the pressures that have confronted Islamic students throughout the period, it addresses some of the most salient topics currently being debated in Indonesian society. Most importantly, it provides an analysis of KAMMI's stance toward the legitimacy of former president B. J. Habibie's government and its right to lead reform as opposed to the positions of several "radical' student groups which demanded the formation of a transitional government; its position on the politicization of Islamic symbols vis-à-vis  the activities of certain "hard-line" Islamist organizations; and its commitment to peaceful action and the rejection of the use of violence as a form of protest. In spite of its collegiality with right-wing Muslim organizations, several of which have been criticized as resistant to reform, self-interested, or politically opportunistic, KAMMI has made a critical contribution to the reform process. Most significantly, it has demonstrated that, contrary to what certain Islamic groups have urged, being a devout Muslim does not preclude struggling for democratic reform, nor voicing opposition to the government. Likewise, in spite of its solidarity with other student groups, several of which have been accused of being politically motivated, manipulated by partisan power brokers, or naively desirous of anarchy, KAMMI has shown that a student organization can apply strong pressure on national leaders, yet refrain from violent altercations which promote civil unrest and societal breakdown. The group's ongoing activities in reaction to the divisive conflicts that have erupted in the regions of Aceh, Ambon, and East Timor are also significant, yet have not been analyzed within the scope of this paper. Rather, the focus of this writing is on KAMMI's role in

  6. Potential role of high mobility group box 1 in viral infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haichao; Ward, Mary F; Fan, Xue-Gong; Sama, Andrew E; Li, Wei

    2006-01-01

    A nuclear protein, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is released passively by necrotic cells and actively by macrophages/monocytes in response to exogenous and endogenous inflammatory stimuli. After binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), or Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), HMGB1 activates macrophages/monocytes to express proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. Pharmacological suppression of its activities or release is protective against lethal endotoxemia and sepsis, establishing HMGB1 as a critical mediator of lethal systemic inflammation. In light of observations that many viruses (e.g., West Nile virus, Salmon anemia virus) can induce passive HMGB1 release, we propose a potential pathogenic role of HMGB1 in viral infectious diseases.

  7. 病案分组讨论教学法在临床心电图带教中的应用%Application of Medical Record Group Discussion Teaching Method in the Clinical Electrocardiogram Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂花

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the application of medical record group discussion teaching method in the clinical electro-cardiogram teaching. Methods 200 cases of school students majoring in clinic in 2014 were selected as the research ob-jects, and divided into two groups with 100 cases in each according to the admission number, the traditional group adopted the teaching model mainly in analysis and explanation of class medical record, the discussion group adopted medical record group discussion teaching model, and the final grades and students' evaluation of teaching model of the two groups were observed. Results The operation ability and medical record analysis ability in the traditional group were lower than those in the discussion group and the comparison between groups had statistical significance, P0.05);100名学生对该病案讨论模式的平均肯定率为92.3%。结论在临床心电图教学中应用病案分组讨论方式可增加学生对该学科自主学习意识,提升对心电图的了解与掌握,减少该学科学生期末的挂科率,有效增加临床学生对心电图的全面掌握和对疾病判断思维的培养。

  8. 医院集团财务集中管理探讨%Discussion into the Centralization of Financial Management of Hospital Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗庆华

    2015-01-01

    In order to configure the hospital asset rationally, exert the advantage of group and enhance the efficiency of capital operations, the financial management of hospital group must be centralized. The advantages of centralization of financial management were analyzed. The feasible schemes for centralization of financial management of hospital group were put forward. The attentive questions in the course of centralization of financial management were pointed out.%医院集团财务集中管理能更合理地配置医院资产、发挥集团优势及提高资本运营效率。该文分析财务集中管理的优点,提出医院集团财务集中管理的切实可行的实施方案,指出实行财务集中管理中应注意的问题。

  9. Characterizing Communication Networks in a Web-Based Classroom: Cognitive Styles and Linguistic Behavior of Self-Organizing Groups in Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellone-Smith, Pamela; Jablokow, Kathryn; Friedel, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explore the cognitive style profiles and linguistic patterns of self-organizing groups within a web-based graduate education course to determine how cognitive preferences and individual behaviors influence the patterns of information exchange and the formation of communication hierarchies in an online classroom. Network analysis…

  10. Catalytic conversion of aliphatic alcohols on carbon nanomaterials: The roles of structure and surface functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveritinova, E. A.; Zhitnev, Yu. N.; Chernyak, S. A.; Arkhipova, E. A.; Savilov, S. V.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials with the structure of graphene and different compositions of the surface groups are used as catalysts for the conversion of C2-C4 aliphatic alcohols. The conversions of ethanol, propanol- 1, propanol-2, butanol-1, butanol-2, and tert-butanol on carbon nanotubes, nanoflakes, and nanoflakes doped with nitrogen are investigated. Oxidized and nonoxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes, nanoflakes, and nanoflakes doped with nitrogen are synthesized. X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electronic microscopies, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, derivatographic analyses, and the pulsed microcatalytic method are used to characterize comprehensively the prepared catalysts. It was established that all of the investigated carbon nanomaterials (with the exception of nondoped carbon nanoflakes) are bifunctional catalysts for the conversion of aliphatic alcohols, and promote dehydration reactions with the formation of olefins and dehydrogenation reactions with the formation of aldehydes or ketones. Nanoflakes doped with nitrogen are inert with respect to secondary alcohols and tert-butanol. The role of oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing surface groups, and of the geometrical structure of the carbon matrix of graphene nanocarbon materials in the catalytic conversion of aliphatic alcohols, is revealed. Characteristics of the conversion of aliphatic alcohols that are associated with their structure are identified.

  11. Roles of functional groups of naproxen in its sorption to kaolinite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenglong; Bi, Erping

    2015-11-01

    The sorption of acidic anti-inflammatory drugs to soils is important for evaluating their fate and transformations in the water-soil environment. However, roles of functional groups of ionisable drugs onto mineral surfaces have not been sufficiently studied. In this study, batch experiments of naproxen (NPX, anti-inflammatory drug) and two kinds of competitors to kaolinite were studied. The Kd of naproxen to kaolinite is 1.30-1.62 L kg(-1). The n-π electron donor-acceptor (n-π EDA) interaction between diaromatic ring of naproxen (π-electron acceptors) and the siloxane oxygens (n-donors) of kaolinite is the dominant sorption mechanism. The carboxyl group of naproxen can contribute to the overall sorption. A conception model was put forward to elucidate to sorption mechanisms, in which the contribution of n-π EDA and hydrogen bond to overall sorption was quantified. These sorption mechanisms can be helpful for estimating the fate and mobility of acid pharmaceuticals in soil-water environment.

  12. Voluntary leadership roles in religious groups and rates of change in functional status during older adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal

    2014-06-01

    Linear growth curve modeling was used to compare rates of change in functional status between three groups of older adults: Individuals holding voluntary lay leadership positions in a church, regular church attenders who were not leaders, and those not regularly attending church. Functional status was tracked longitudinally over a 4-year period in a national sample of 1,152 Black and White older adults whose religious backgrounds were either Christian or unaffiliated. Leaders had significantly slower trajectories of increase in both the number of physical impairments and the severity of those impairments. Although regular church attenders who were not leaders had lower mean levels of impairment on both measures, compared with those not regularly attending church, the two groups of non-leaders did not differ from one another in their rates of impairment increase. Leadership roles may contribute to longer maintenance of physical ability in late life, and opportunities for voluntary leadership may help account for some of the health benefits of religious participation.

  13. Assessment of the role of a student-led surgical interest group in surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Buxey, Kenneth; Ashrafi, Akbar; Drummond, Katharine J

    2013-01-01

    We describe the development of a medical student surgical interest group, its initial evaluation, and future plans. The Surgical Students Society of Melbourne was formed in August 2008 by a group of senior medical students from the University of Melbourne. The Surgical Students Society of Melbourne seeks to provide additional surgical teaching and professional development for students interested in a career in surgery. It also aims to provide junior doctors with leadership and teaching opportunities to meet the requirements of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons for application to the Surgical Education and Training program. Its program also addresses contemporary workforce issues, such as women in surgery and rural surgery. The society runs a weekly teaching program during the semester and procedural and careers workshops throughout the year. A survey of students attending the teaching program was conducted by means of written and online questionnaires. The results suggest that the society has been successful in augmenting surgical education and providing opportunities to improve procedural skills, but also highlighted areas of the program that may be improved, including aspects of surgical professional development and role modeling. The Surgical Students Society initiative was generally very well received by students and shows great potential as a means for augmenting surgical education at the medical student level. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What is CCZN-armalcolite? A crystal-chemical discussion and an ad-hoc incursion in the crichtonite-minerals group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril Sabau

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The status of CCZN-armalcolite, commonly still believed to be a variety of armalcolite s.s., is questionable in view of partial evidence suggesting that it would represent a distinct phase, as initially claimed by its discoverers. Because of the rarity of the mineral, combined with its habitual small grain-size, no successful structural investigation could be undertaken so far. Therefore we attempted a chemical overview of existing and original data pertaining to CCZN-armalcolite. With the view of systematizing structure-composition relationships, we analyzed the topology of large cations – bearing close-packed oxides, while extending the nomenclature in use in order to accommodate further topologies. By using relevant chemical plots, a fair compositional match between CCZN-armalcolite and the crichtonite group minerals was demonstrated, as well as a chemical incompatibility with armalcolite. Stoichiometric crichtonite compositions and matching optical properties allowed identification of at least part of “CCZN-armalcolites” with the mineral loveringite of the crichtonite group. A detailed inspection of structure-composition relationships in crichtonites allowed an insight in their trends and range of chemical variation, as well as a comparison between them and a group of “CCZN-armalcolites” slightly differing from known crichtonites. These “CCZN-armalcolites” departing from normal chemical trends in crichtonites either represent an ordered variety of non-stoichiometric crichtonite or a new group of close-packed oxides. Their composition clustering around formula AM16O30 is temptingly consistent with an hypothetical structure intermediate between magnetoplumbites and crichtonites, based on close-packed stacking of layers made up by triangular clusters of octahedra, stuffed with large cations. A model of such a structure, not encountered so far in minerals, is outlined, displaying a hexagonal symmetry P , with a ≈ 7.45Å and c

  15. Discussion on Human Resource Management of Medical Group%集团型医疗机构人力资源管理的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林平平

    2016-01-01

    在现行医疗制度改革形势下,为使医疗资源被最大化利用,各医疗机构进行集团化的整合已成为新型的组织模式,随之医疗集团的人力资源管理也必须进行相应的改革创新。本文以台州恩泽医疗中心(集团)为例,介绍了医疗集团人力资源统一管理的实践探索,并由此带来的作用以及存在的一些难点问题。%Under the environment of current medical system reform, in order to maximize the use of medical resources, group integration of medical institutions has become a new organization model. Therefore, human resource management of the medical group should also have corresponding reform and innovation. This paper takes Taizhou Enze Medical Center (Group) as an example and introduces the exploration and practice of unified human resources management, the effect of management and some existing difficult problems.

  16. When none of us perform better than all of us together: the role of analogical decision rules in groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Meslec

    Full Text Available During social interactions, groups develop collective competencies that (ideally should assist groups to outperform average standalone individual members (weak cognitive synergy or the best performing member in the group (strong cognitive synergy. In two experimental studies we manipulate the type of decision rule used in group decision-making (identify the best vs. collaborative, and the way in which the decision rules are induced (direct vs. analogical and we test the effect of these two manipulations on the emergence of strong and weak cognitive synergy. Our most important results indicate that an analogically induced decision rule (imitate-the-successful heuristic in which groups have to identify the best member and build on his/her performance (take-the-best heuristic is the most conducive for strong cognitive synergy. Our studies bring evidence for the role of analogy-making in groups as well as the role of fast-and-frugal heuristics for group decision-making.

  17. 浅议陕西煤化集团并购重组工作%Discussion of mergers and acquisitions work in Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹贵武

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduced the main methods of mergers and acquisitions work , summarized the experiences of mergers and acquisitions work and analyzed the effects of mergers and acquisitions work during the development process of Shaanxi Coal and Chemical Industry Group .%介绍了陕煤化集团在发展过程中,实施并购重组工作的主要做法,总结了开展并购重组工作经验,并以具体实例说明了集团实施并购重组工作的效果。

  18. Role of the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group in coughing and swallowing in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Keisuke; Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Umezaki, Toshiro; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Hisa, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    The retrotrapezoid/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) located ventral to the facial nucleus plays a key role in regulating breathing, especially enhanced expiratory activity during hypercapnic conditions. To clarify the roles of the RTN/pFRG region in evoking coughing, during which reflexive enhanced expiration is produced, and in swallowing, during which the expiratory activity is consistently halted, we recorded extracellular activity from RTN/pFRG neurons during these fictive behaviors in decerebrate, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated guinea pigs. The activity of the majority of recorded respiratory neurons was changed in synchrony with coughing and swallowing. To further evaluate the contribution of RTN/pFRG neurons to these nonrespiratory behaviors, the motor output patterns during breathing, coughing, and swallowing were compared before and after brain stem transection at the caudal margin of RTN/pFRG region. In addition, the effects of transection at its rostral margin were also investigated to evaluate pontine contribution to these behaviors. During respiration, transection at the rostral margin attenuated the postinspiratory activity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Meanwhile, the late expiratory activity of the abdominal nerve was abolished after caudal transection. The caudal transection also decreased the amplitude of the coughing-related abdominal nerve discharge but did not abolish the activity. Swallowing could be elicited even after the caudal end transection. These findings raise the prospect that the RTN/pFRG contributes to expiratory regulation during normal respiration, although this region is not an essential element of the neuronal networks involved in coughing and swallowing. PMID:26203106

  19. Panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Author Given

    1975-01-01

    Panel discussion: summation and future projections. Introductory remarks by panelists followed by questions and comments from the floor. Panelists: Dr. Joseph Barnea (former director of Resources and Transport for the United Nations; energy consultant to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)); the Honorable Clyde F. Bel, Jr. (member of the Louisiana House of Representatives representing District 90 and New Orleans); Dr. David Lombard (acting chief of the Advanced Systems Branch of the Division of Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)); Fred C. Repper (vice-president of Central Power and Light Company in Corpus Christi, Texas); Dr. Hans Suter (environmental consultant in Corpus Christi, Texas; environmental columnist for the Corpus Christi Caller Times). Session chairman: Herbert Woodson.

  20. Discussion on the Group Cooperation in the Efficient Classroom%浅谈高效课堂中的小组合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琴; 刘爱枝

    2014-01-01

    改变学生学习方式是新一轮基础教育课程改革的核心,而合作学习是课改倡导的重要学习方式之一。让学生的行为、认知、情感参与到小组合作中来,使合作学习具有实效。%Changing students’learning style is the core of a new round of basic education curriculum reform, and cooperative learning is one of the important study way that curriculum reform advocates. Let the students’ behavior, cognition, emotion involved in the group work, make the cooperative learning results.

  1. Discussion on Connection Group of Three-phase Transformer%浅谈三相变压器的连接组别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于红

    2013-01-01

    三相变压器的联结组是三相变压器的难点问题之一,通过三相变压器绕组的联结,进一步的说明了三相变压器的联结组及其简单的判定方法---时钟序数表示法,最后对标准联结组进行了详细的说明。%The connection symbol is one of the difficult problems of three-phase transformer, through the connection of the three-phase transformer winding, the paper further illustrates the connection symbol and simple methods---clock ordinal notation of three-phase transformer, finally carries on the detailed instructions for standard connection group.

  2. Joking Culture: The Role of Repeated Humorous Interactions on Group Processes during Challenge Course Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Siharath, Kassidy; Bell, Steven; Nguyen, Kim; Baker, Carla

    2011-01-01

    When groups form, they develop their own culture from the shared meaning created from their interactions. Humor is part of every social group, and when repeatedly referenced, it forms a joking culture. The joking culture of small groups influences group processes by smoothing group interaction, forming a collective identity, separating the group…

  3. Discussion on stable increase of foreign trade of Datong Coal Mine Group%同煤集团稳定外贸增长初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓龙

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by the slow development of international economy,the spread of global economic crisis and the protectionism of international trade,the export of state-owned trade enterprises has been blocked seriously and the trade environment has been continually worsening.How to keep the stable increase of foreign trade business in such complex and severe environment was discussed from ac-tively utilizing preferential policies and actively expanding trade scope,and so on.%受世界经济放缓、全球金融危机蔓延以及国际贸易保护主义等不利因素影响,国有外贸企业出口严重受阻,贸易环境不断恶化。从积极争取利用优惠政策、积极拓展业务种类等方面探讨了在复杂和严峻的外贸形势下,如何保持外贸业务的稳定增长。

  4. An Investigation of Sex Roles, Dimensions of Interpersonal Attraction and Communication Behavior In a Small Group Communication Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Earl E.; McDowell, Carlene E.

    Biological sex, social area, task area, and psychological sex were used as independent variables when 72 high school students in speech communication classes rated themselves and other members of small discussion groups. The results for males, females, and composite groups revealed that psychological sex was a more significant discriminating…

  5. Children's Roles and Use of Evidence in Science: An Analysis of Decision-Making in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research project concerned with children engaging in scientific argumentation. Discussion activities were designed to enable groups of children to use evidence when making decisions. The findings show a variation in the success with which children construct scientific arguments; some groups debate most of the…

  6. Another Piece of the "Silence in PBL" Puzzle: Students' Explanations of Dominance and Quietness as Complementary Group Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Vicki J.; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Winning, Tracey A.

    2016-01-01

    A problem-based learning (PBL) assumption is that silence is incompatible with collaborative learning. Although sociocultural studies have reinterpreted silence as collaborative, we must understand how silence occurs in PBL groups. This essay presents students' explanations of dominance, leadership, and silence as PBL group roles. An ethnographic…

  7. Another Piece of the "Silence in PBL" Puzzle: Students' Explanations of Dominance and Quietness as Complementary Group Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Vicki J.; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Winning, Tracey A.

    2016-01-01

    A problem-based learning (PBL) assumption is that silence is incompatible with collaborative learning. Although sociocultural studies have reinterpreted silence as collaborative, we must understand how silence occurs in PBL groups. This essay presents students' explanations of dominance, leadership, and silence as PBL group roles. An ethnographic…

  8. Discussion on Comprehensive Budget Management of Group Enterprise%浅谈集团企业的全面预算管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖兴

    2011-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, our business has got rapid development, especially for large enterprise groups, there are nearly 30 enterprises list in top 500 global corporations. However, besides the number and size, the management level of enterprises still has a certain gap with international multinational corporations. This article describes related budget management theories and models in detail and proposes the improvement suggestions to the problems.%改革开放以来,我们企业得到了高速发展,特别是大型集团企业,目前已有将近30家栖身世界500强.但除了人数和规模以外,企业的综合管理水平还与国际跨国企业有一定差距.文章对企业通过全面预算的相关理论和模式管理进行了详细梳理,并就其中存在的问题给出了整改建议.

  9. The effect of device number and role assignment on social group dynamics in location-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Jørgensen, Nicolai Melgaard; Poulsen, Mark Kronborg

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of being disengaged in group work is commonly defined as social loafing. This disengagement can be reduced by various factors, such as group members having individual accountability in the form of unique tasks. This paper examines social loafing in a collaborative mobile game in groups...... was tested on 41 students from 7th to 8th grade. Using a tablet each showed significantly more instances of social loafing compared to sharing one. The results show no significant difference for role assignment....

  10. Discussion on higher vocational college website group construction and management%浅谈高职院校网站群的建设和管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪喜琴

    2012-01-01

    随着学校网站数量的不断增加,如何有效地组织和管理这些网站及其海量信息,已成为众多学校领导及信息主管所关心的问题,分析了当前高职院校网站的现状,提出了用Webplus技术建设与管理网站群的思路,它不仅方便了管理员的统一管理,而且提高了系统的安全性、稳定性、可扩展性、易使用性、美观性,同时也降低了网站的总体建设成本,是提升网站管理与绩效的有效手段.%With the increasing number of school website, how to effectively organize and manage the site as well as the mass of information, has become a large number of school leadership and information director concerns, this article analyzes the current higher vocational institute website present situation, put forward to use webplus technology to construction and management of website group train of thought, it is not only convenient for the administrator of the unified management, and to improve the system security, stability, scalability, usability, aesthetics, but also reduces the overall cost of website construction, is to promote the site management and performance of the effective means.

  11. The Formation of Group Affect and Team Effectiveness : The Moderating Role of Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanghe, Jacqueline; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2010-01-01

    In the current research we use the social identity perspective to enhance our understanding of group affect (i.e. a collectively shared pattern of affective states among group members). Because higher identification (i.e. the extent to which group members define themselves in terms of their group me

  12. Science in Discussions: An Analysis of the Use of Science Content in Socioscientific Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a normative pragmatics analysis of students' use of science content in eight socioscientific group discussions about human gene therapy. The specific focus of the paper is on the argumentative role that invocations of science had in the dialectics of the discussions. The analysis suggests that science content occasionally…

  13. Essential role of interleukin-1 signaling in host defenses against group B streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Carmelo; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Midiri, Angelina; Signorino, Giacomo; Domina, Maria; Lanza Cariccio, Veronica; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella; Teti, Giuseppe; Beninati, Concetta

    2014-09-09

    Signal transduction via MyD88, an adaptor protein engaged by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) family receptors, has a crucial role in host defenses against group B streptococcus (GBS). To examine the contribution of IL-1R signaling to MyD88-dependent host defenses, we analyzed GBS infection in type I IL-1R (IL-1RI)-deficient mice. Most of these animals displayed clinical signs of sepsis and neurological disease and died after a challenge with a bacterial dose that did not cause illness or death in any of the wild-type animals. Moreover, bacterial numbers in the blood and brains of the immunodefective mice were considerably increased. The ability of blood leukocytes or bone marrow-derived macrophages to kill GBS in vitro was not affected by a lack of IL-1RI. However, it was found in a newly developed model of GBS-induced peritoneal inflammation that IL-1 signaling selectively promoted the production of the chemokines KC and MIP-1α and neutrophil recruitment. Moreover, the secretion of KC and MIP-1α, but not tumor necrosis factor alpha, by peritoneal macrophages stimulated with GBS was significantly decreased in the absence of IL-1RI. Accordingly, the number of neutrophils in the blood and the concentration of myeloperoxidase, a neutrophil marker, in infected organs were severely reduced in the immunodefective mice during GBS disease, concomitantly with a reduction in tissue KC and MIP-1α levels. In conclusion, IL-1RI plays a crucial role in host defenses against GBS by inducing the high-level production of chemokines and the subsequent recruitment of neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes to infection sites. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a serious and frequent human pathogen. Experimental infection with this bacterium has been widely used to understand the mechanism whereby the body's first line of defense, represented by cells and molecules of the innate immune system, fights infections. In both humans and mice, defective

  14. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture; La realizacion de grupos de discuion en un proceso combinado de evaluacion interna de cultura de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  15. The role of diagnosticity in stereotype formation: perceiving group means and variances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, T E; Stangor, C

    1992-09-01

    Three experiments tested the hypotheses that while forming stereotypes of social groups, people abstract the central tendency and variability of different attribute dimensions to determine which ones best differentiate the groups and that more differentiating dimensions are more likely to become stereotypical in the sense of becoming strongly associated with the groups in memory. Supporting these hypotheses. Experiment 1 found that, after viewing behaviors performed by members of 2 groups, Ss characterized the groups more in terms of attribute dimensions indicating larger differences between the central tendencies of the groups, and Experiment 2 showed that this effect did not occur when Ss formed impressions of only 1 group. Experiment 3 found that Ss also characterized groups more in terms of attribute dimensions indicating lower within-group variability.

  16. Adolescent Religiosity and Psychosocial Functioning: Investigating the Roles of Religious Tradition, National-Ethnic Group, and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi E. Stolz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized data from over 9,300 youth from 11 national or within-nation ethnic groups to evaluate the relationship between youth religiosity and youth social outcomes (social initiative, antisocial behavior and psychological outcomes (self-esteem and depression considering the roles of religious tradition, national-ethnic group, and gender. We created national-ethnic group by religious tradition (NEG × RT combinations, partitioned religiosity into between-group and within-group components, and performed a series of mixed model regressions for each outcome. The levels of all four outcomes of interest differed significantly across NEG × RT groups, and these differences were attributable to national-ethnic group rather than religious tradition. Youth reports of antisocial behavior and self-esteem were predicted by between-group religiosity. Additionally, within-group religiosity predicted all four outcomes, indicating that the protective role of religiosity functions in a comparative, or relative, manner with youth who are more religious than others in their group reaping the most benefits.

  17. Are groups more or less than the sum of their members? The moderating role of individual identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Ainsworth, Sarah E; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to make a theoretical and empirical case for the importance of differentiated identities for group function. Research on groups has found that groups sometimes perform better and other times perform worse than the sum of their individual members. Differentiation of selves is a crucial moderator. We propose a heuristic framework that divides formation of work or task groups into two steps. One step emphasizes shared common identity and promotes emotional bonds. In the other step, which we emphasize, group members take increasingly differentiated roles that improve performance through specialization, moral responsibility, and efficiency. Pathologies of groups (e.g., social loafing, depletion of shared resources/commons dilemmas, failure to pool information, groupthink) are linked to submerging the individual self in the group. These pathologies are decreased when selves are differentiated, such as by individual rewards, individual competition, accountability, responsibility, and public identification. Differentiating individual selves contributes to many of the best outcomes of groups, such as with social facilitation, wisdom-of-crowds effects, and division of labor. Anonymous confidentiality may hamper differentiation by allowing people to blend into the group (so that selfish or lazy efforts are not punished), but it may also facilitate differentiation by enabling people to think and judge without pressure to conform. Acquiring a unique role within the group can promote belongingness by making oneself irreplaceable.

  18. A Model for Peer Group Counseling Based on Role-Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettkin, Larry; Snyder, Lester

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of group counseling was to promote new social learning involving identification with other group members, leading to expanded field perception and insight into the projection of thoughts, feelings and motives onto others. (Author)

  19. The Use of Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Edmund deS.; And Others

    Research on the use of discussion in adult education has been largely concerned with comparing it with the use of other instructional techniques and with measuring opinion change. Many studies, such as Kurt Lewin's study of food habits, have compared the effectiveness of group discussion as contrasted with lecture in changing opinions and…

  20. The role of motivation and cultural dialects in the in-group advantage for emotional vocalisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disa eSauter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that nonverbal emotional communication via both facial and vocal information is more accurate when expresser and perceiver are from the same cultural group. Two accounts have been put forward to explain this finding: According to the dialect theory, culture-specific learning modulates the largely cross-culturally consistent expressions of emotions. Consequently, within-group signalling benefits from a better match of the "emotion dialect" of the expresser and perceiver. However, it has been proposed that the in-group advantage in emotion recognition could instead arise from motivational differences in the perceiver, with perceivers being more motivated when decoding signals from members of their own group. Two experiments addressed predictions from these accounts. Experiment 1 tested whether perceivers' ability to accurately judge the origin of emotional signals predicts the in-group advantage. For perceived group membership to affect the perceivers' motivation, they must be able to detect whether the signal is coming from an in-group or out-group member. Although an in-group advantage was found for in-group compared to out-group vocalisations, listeners were unable to reliably infer the group membership of the vocaliser. This result indicates that improved recognition of in-group signals can occur also when the perceiver is unable to judge whether signals were produced by in- or out-group members. Experiment 2 examined the effects of expected and actual group membership of signals on emotion recognition by manipulating both orthogonally. The actual origin of the stimulus was found to significantly affect emotion recognition, but the believed origin of the stimulus did not. Together these results support the notion that the in-group advantage is caused by culture-specific modulations of nonverbal expressions of emotions, rather than motivational factors.