WorldWideScience

Sample records for group children aged

  1. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guven, Selcuk; Frattini, Antonio; Onal, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    in the participating centres in the PCNL Global Study, as categorised in different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: •  The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Study was conducted from November 2007 to December 2009, and included 96 centres and >5800 patients. •  All children aged ≤14 years...... was preferred in 22 patients (20.5%). The overall mean operative duration was 97.02 min; blood transfusion rate, fever and stone-free rates were 9%, 14% and 70.1%, respectively. •  A comparison of the paediatric PCNL cases according to age groups showed no statistically significant differences between...... the subgroups for patient characteristics, co-morbidities, renal anomalies, or previous surgical history. •  In the evaluation of the operative details, the mean sheath size and nephrostomy tube size were larger in school-age children than the preschool children (P= 0.01 and 0.002, respectively...

  2. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  3. [Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in asthmatic children of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xue-Li; Liang, Fan-Mei; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of obesity on pulmonary function in newly diagnosed asthmatic children of different age groups. Two hundred and ninety-four children with newly diagnosed asthma were classified into preschool-age (obese, overweight, and normal-weight subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI). All the children underwent pulmonary function tests, including large airway function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC%) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%)] and small airway function tests [maximal expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25%), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50%), and maximal expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75%)]. The school-age group showed lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% than the preschool-age group (Pchildren in the school-age group had lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% compared with their counterparts in the preschool-age group (Pchildren in the school-age group showed lower FVC% and MEF50% than those in the preschool-age group. However, all the pulmonary function parameters showed no significant differences between the obese children in the preschool-age and school-age groups. In the preschool-age group, FVC%, FEV1%, and MEF75% of the obese children were lower than those of the normal-weight children. In the school-age group, only FVC% and FEV1% showed differences between the obese and normal-weight children (Pobesity on the pulmonary function varies with age in children with asthma, and the effect is more obvious in those of preschool age.

  4. SCHOOL AGED THERAPEUTIC GROUP THERAPY IN CHILDREN- PARENTS AND- TEACHERS INCREASED MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL-AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Istiana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School aged called as intelectual time in industrial development stage. Industrial development stage is important in human development stages. The purpose of this tudy was to know the effect of school aged therapeutic group therapy to mental development. Method: The design was quasi experimental pre-post test with control group. One hundred and sixteen children at 9–11 years old were used as sample of this study that divided to 38 children on first intervention group (childparents, 36 children on second intervention group (child-teacher and 40 children on control group. Result: Result of the study showed that cognitive, psychomotor and industrial development ability had increased significantly after therapeutic group therapy was given (p-value < 0.005 in intervention group. Discussion: The study was recomended in child-parents and child-teacher to increase mental development in school aged children.

  5. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  6. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  7. Visual acuity and refraction by age for children of three different ethnic groups in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Janine Carter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize refractive errors in Paraguayan children aged 5-16 years and investigate effect of age, gender, and ethnicity. METHODS:The study was conducted at 3 schools that catered to Mennonite, indigenous, and mixed race children. Children were examined for presenting visual acuity, autorefraction with and without cycloplegia, and retinoscopy. Data were analyzed for myopia and hyperopia (SE ≤-1 D or -0.5 D and ≥2 D or ≥3 D and astigmatism (cylinder ≥1 D. Spherical equivalent (SE values were calculated from right eye cycloplegic autorefraction data and analyzed using general linear modelling. RESULTS: There were 190, 118, and 168 children of Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race ethnicity, respectively. SE values between right/left eyes were nonsignificant. Mean visual acuity (VA without correction was better for Mennonites compared to indigenous or mixed race children (right eyes: 0.031, 0.090, and 0.102 logMAR units, respectively; P<0.000001. There were 2 cases of myopia in the Mennonite group (1.2% and 2 cases in the mixed race group (1.4% (SE ≤-0.5 D. The prevalence of hyperopia (SE ≥2 D was 40.6%, 34.2%, and 46.3% for Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race children. Corresponding astigmatism rates were 3.2%, 9.5%, and 12.7%. Females were slightly more hyperopic than males, and the 9-11 years age group was the most hyperopic. Mennonite and mixed race children were more hyperopic than indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: Paraguayan children were remarkably hyperopic and relatively free of myopia. Differences with regard to gender, age, and ethnicity were small.

  8. Hospital admissions due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions among children by age group and health region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Holanda Prezotto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE to describe hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in children under five years of age in the State of Paraná, Brazil by condition type, age group and health region. METHOD a temporal ecological study was conducted using data from the Unified Health System Hospital Information System for the period 2000 to 2011. Conditions were grouped in accordance with the list of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Brazil. RESULTS there was an increase in the rate of admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in all age groups in 50% of the health regions, with a marked increase in children under the age of one. Pneumonia, gastroenteritis and asthma were the main causes of admissions. There was an increase in the proportion of overall admissions accounted for by pneumonia and gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION the increase in admissions reveals the need for actions to improve access to primary healthcare and provide effective treatment of the main ambulatory care sensitive conditions in order to prevent hospital admissions among children.

  9. Dental caries among children in Georgia by age, gender, residence location and ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Margvelashvili, V; Bilder, L; Kalandadze, M; Gordon, M; Margvelashvili, M; Zini, A

    2014-09-01

    To provide prevalence data for dental caries in Georgia. This World Health Organization pathfinder survey was conducted among 1,351 (6, 12 and 15 year-old) Georgian children, representing the main ethnic groups in urban and rural locations. Caries was analysed at univariate and multivariate levels, according to age, gender, urban/rural locality and ethnic group. Caries experience levels among 6-year-olds were dmft = 4.57, sd 3.42 (14.8% caries-free); DMFT = 2.04 (sd 2.02) among 12-year-olds (31.1% caries-free); and DMFT = 3.51 (sd 3.14) for the 15-year-olds (17.7% caries-free). Urban children at ages 6 and 12 years were more likely to be caries-free and have both lower levels of caries-experience and higher levels of filled or restored teeth. In multivariate regression analyses, most age groups showed a significant contribution from residence location. No differences were found by age and no consistent differences were detected by ethnic group. These data should provide the baseline for formulating and conducting public oral health efforts in Georgia, with emphases on rural residence locations.

  10. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  11. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection in different age groups of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Singh Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hepatitis A is one of the most common causes of hepatitis in the pediatric age group and the most common cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF among children in India. Hepatitis A is a waterborne disease. High endemicity obviates the need for vaccine in the community. Aims: We studied 116 children in the outpatient department (OPD to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV, total antibodies, and the effect of various demographic and water sanitation variables on it. Settings and Design: Children attending the pediatric OPD with minor problems in a medical college hospital were chosen for this study. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and seroepidemiologic investigative study. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of randomly selected children were collected and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test was done for the detection of total anti-HAV antibodies, [both immunoglobulin M (IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG], using a commercially available ELISA kit. "Dia.Pro" (Diagnostic Bioprobes srl via Columella n° 31 20128 Millano, Italy. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-square test using Epi Info software 3.5.4 version (2012 [Center for disease control and prevention (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia (USA]. Results: Seroprevalence in children from the upper social class was 54.5% versus 87.2% in the lower social class (P = 0.00075. 90.9% of the children with rural background were seropositive compared to 77.1% of children with urban background. The mother′s education above and below secondary level had a seropositivity for HAV in children up to 69.23% and 87.1%, respectively. The method of water treatment using boiled water, mechanical filtration, filtration plus ultraviolet (UV light treatment, and no treatment had a seropositivity of 50.0%, 83.33%, 37.5%, and 84%, respectively, (P = 0.0036. Seropositivity was the highest when the water source was municipal bore well pipeline (88

  12. Importance of Introducing Simple Drama Games to Kindergarten Children of the First Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šinko Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of introducing simple drama games to kindergarten children of the first age group. Based on the knowledge and experience of experts from countries where such games are played and used in kindergartens on a daily basis, we can clearly talk about a positive impact they have on child's cognitive, emotional, social, and motor development. As examples of good practice, we showcase the findings of theses by students of Preschool Education at the Faculty of Education in Maribor.

  13. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  14. Pulmonary valve balloon valvuloplasty compared across three age groups of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Shamsi Ghaffari,1 Mohammed Reza Ghaffari,2 Ali Reza Ghaffari,3 Somaie Sagafy11Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, 2Department of Tuberculosis and Lung Research, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of treating pulmonary stenosis with percutaneous valvuloplasty, and to compare them among three childhood age groups. All children under 15 years of age who had undergone pulmonary valve balloon valvuloplasty in Madani Heart Center from 2005–2009 were enrolled in this study. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL. Mean (± standard deviation age of patients was 55.5 ± 47.4 months. Two-thirds of the subjects had moderate pulmonary valve stenosis. Balloon valvuloplasty failed in nearly one-fifth of the treated patients. There were 17 failures and two cases of mortality, descriptively less frequent among children >5 years; however, the observed difference was not statistically significant. Mild pulmonary valve insufficiency was a common finding.Keywords: childhood cardiology, pulmonary stenosis, percutaneous valvuloplasty

  15. Characteristic sonographic and follow up features of thyroid nodules according to children age groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Bo Da; Chang, Yun Woo; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We analyzed the spectrum and the significance of pediatric thyroid nodules depicted on sonography and evaluated the follow-up change according to the age group. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic features of 82 nodules in 69 patients (6.6%) among 1282 children less than 13 years of age without a palpable lesion, from January 2006 to January 2013. Patients were divided into three age groups; infants, preschoolers, and schoolers. Thyroid nodules were evaluated according to their sonographic characteristics (simple cyst, colloid cyst, solid mass, or intrathyroid thymus) and the changes detected at follow-up (disappearance, decrease in size, no change or increase in size) were reported. There was a significant difference in the nodule patterns among the age groups (p < 0.001). The nodules in infants included a simple cyst (n = 12), a solid mass (n = 12), or an intra-thyroid thymus (n = 9). The preschoolers had a simple cyst (n = 11), a colloid cyst (n = 5), a solid mass (n = 3) or an intra-thyroid thymus (n = 5). However, the schoolers had a simple cyst (n = 2), a colloid cyst (n = 18), and a solid mass (n = 5), but there was no case of intra-thyroid thymus. Follow-up of 38 cases revealed significant differences among the age groups (p = 0.018). The nodules in infants showed findings such as disappearance of nodules (n = 9) and no change (n = 10) on follow-up sonography. In preschoolers, the nodules had disappeared (n = 2), decreased in size (n = 1), and showed no change (n = 11). However, the nodules in schoolers were found to be decreased in size (n = 1), show no change (n = 2), and increased in size (n = 2). The proven pathologic finding was benign in four patients. There were significant differences in the prevalence and the interval change of thyroid nodules among infants, preschoolers, and schoolers. A large series of intrathyroid thymus was seen in infants and preschoolers, and masses did not increase in size in these age groups. The frequency of a

  16. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  17. Evaluation of cardiac function in a group of small for gestational age school-age children treated with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-02-09

    Small for gestational age (SGA) patients have an increased risk of developing a cardiovascular pathology, as well as a metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate the cardiac morphology and function of SGA children treated with growth hormone (GH), identifying changes that could potentially have long-term consequences. We selected 23 SGA school-age patients and 23 healthy children. We measured their weight, height, blood pressure and heart rate. Using transthoracic echocardiography, we evaluated cardiac chamber size, ascending and abdominal aortic diameter as well as the systolic and diastolic function of both ventricles. SGA children have a higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P<.05) without significant changes in their heart rate. They also have a thicker interventricular septum (SGA Z-score 1.57 vs. 0.89; P=.026) and a worse right ventricular systolic function, with a lower TAPSE (SGA Z-score -0.98 vs. 0.95; P=.000), as well as a lower blood flow rate in the pulmonary artery (SGA 0.85m/s vs. 0.97m/s; P=.045). No significant difference was observed in the patients' left ventricular function. SGA patients' ascending aortic diameter was greater (SGA Z-score -1.09 vs. -1.93; P=.026), whereas the systolic abdominal aortic diameter was smaller (SGA Z-score-0.89 vs. -0.19; P=.015). We found functional and morphological cardiac changes in SGA school-age patients treated with GH. It is important to follow-up this patient group in order to determine if these changes contribute to an increased cardiac morbidity in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative position of the mandibular foramen in different age groups of children: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonacha K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the relative position of the mandibular foramen (MF and to evaluate the measurement of gonial angle (GoA and its relationship with distances between different mandibular borders in growing children between 3 and 13years of dental age. Materials and methods: The radiographs were traced to arrive at six linear and two angular measurements from which the relative position of the MF was assessed and compared in different age groups to determine the growth pattern of the mandible and changes in the location of the MF. Results: The distances between the MF and the anterior plane of the ramus were greater than that between MF and posterior plane of the ramus through all stages. There was a maximum increase in the vertical dimensions of the mandible compared with the horizontal dimensions, particularly in the late mixed dentition period. Conclusion: The mandible and its growth did not alter the position of the MF, both vertically and horizontally, in relation to different landmarks, and more obtuse GoA indicated an increased growth potential of the mandible. This has major implications in the inferior alveolar nerve block technique when used in children.

  19. The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Denis P.

    1975-01-01

    Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)

  20. A POPULATION BASED STUDY OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS IN CHILDREN AMONG AGE GROUP OF 7-15 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Refractive error is the most common cause of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness. Very early detection and treatment of visual impairment in children results in a reduction in the number of school children with poor sight being uncorrected. AIM To study the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among children of 7-15 years of age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 958 children of age group 7-15 years were examined during a time period of 1 year from June 2014 to May 2015. The examination included visual acuity, slit lamp examination, auto refractometer, keratometry, A-Scan Biometry and fundoscopic examination. Patients were then taken to assess the refractive error under the cycloplegic effect of 1% homatropine by streak retinoscopy. Hyperopia was defined as spherical power of >+2.00 D, Myopia as -0.50 D. RESULTS Visual impairment (VA of 6/12 or worse in better eye was present in 8.14% of the children examined. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism was 4.70%, 1.24%, 2.2% respectively, Myopia was commonly seen in older age group children. CONCLUSION Refractive error was the main cause of visual impairment in children between 7-15 years. Myopia was the most common refractive error particularly in older children. Uncorrected refractive errors among children have a considerable impact on learning and their academic achievement. Diagnosis and correction of refractive error is the most effective form of eye care. As it is an easily treatable cause of visual impairment, effective strategies should be developed to eliminate refractive error in children.

  1. Gene expression profiles predictive of outcome and age in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A Children's Oncology Group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Kang; C.S. Wilson (Carla); R. Harvey (R.); I.-M. Chen (I.-Ming); M.H. Murphy (Maurice); S.R. Atlas (Susan); E.J. Bedrick (Edward); M. Devidas (Meenakshi); A.J. Carroll; B.W. Robinson (Blaine); R.W. Stam (Ronald); M.G. Valsecchi (Maria Grazia); R. Pieters (Rob); N.A. Heerema (Nyla); J.M. Hilden (Joanne); C.A. Felix (Carolyn); G.H. Reaman (Gregory); B. Camitta (Bruce); N.J. Winick (Naomi); W.L. Carroll (William); S.D. Dreyer; S.P. Hunger (Stephen); S.F. Willman (Sami )

    2012-01-01

    textabstractGene expression profiling was performed on 97 cases of infant ALL from Children's Oncology Group Trial P9407. Statistical modeling of an outcome predictor revealed 3 genes highly predictive of event-free survival (EFS), beyond age and MLL status: FLT3, IRX2, and TACC2. Low FLT3 expressio

  2. Impact of Hearing Loss on Daily Life Style and Schooling among Children between 5 and 15 Years Age-Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiteshree C Patel, Mohua Moitra, Anjali Modi, Jaymin Contractor, S L Kantharia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Hearing”- one of the five special senses with which a human is gifted. At times, due to variety of reasons, this sense is impaired. Hearing impairment of any degree has a profound effect on children. It delays development of speech, slows educational progress and leads to being stigmatized. Objectives: To document the impact of hearing loss in daily life style and schooling of children between 5 and 15 years age-group. Materials & methods: This was cross- sectional study done in Children between 5 and 15 years age-group with hearing loss, coming to an ENT OPD, New Civil Hospital, Surat during the period of 1st August 2011 to 31 July 2012. Results: A total of 246 children were studied. Mean age of the study population was 9±3.46 years. Most common impactin life of children with hearing loss was that “they were not admitted to school by their parents” (31.3%. Among them, 84.4% had congenital deafness and 15.6% had acquired deafness. This difference was statistically significant. (p= 0.002, x2= 8.63. As per parents’ perception, academic performance of the children was significantly associated with type of school (normal Vs deaf & mute school” (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Most common impact was that “children being not admitted to school” and “children were lagging behind in studies”. Among the congenitally deaf children, the quality of life was significantly better in those who attended these special schools (p<0.001.

  3. Sleep Patterns and Sleep Problems Among Preschool and School-Aged Group Children in a Primary Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe sleep patterns and sleep problems among preschool and school aged group children in a primary care setting in Iran. Material & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in two primary care pediatric clinics in Tehran from March 2006 to September 2006.Findings: Sleep patterns of 215 children studied (101 were in preschool age group; 2-6 years old, and 114 were in primary school age group; 7-12 years old. Sleep problems were common in study group, as follows: bedtime problems 21.05%-56.44%, excessive daytime sleepiness 26.73%-42.98%, awakening during the night 13.86%-32.46%, regularity and duration of sleep 17.54%-27.72%, sleep-disordered breathing 10.53%-17.82%.Conclusion: These high frequencies of sleep problems in children explains the importance and burden of sleep disorders in children  which unfortunately are not noticed by primary care providers in Iran and inadequate attention to them may have negative consequences on a host of functional domains, including mood, behavior, school performance, and health outcomes.

  4. Laparoscopic renal surgery in infants and children: is it a feasible and safe procedure for all pediatric age groups?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco T. Denes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although laparoscopy is considered the mainstay for most renal procedures in adults, its role in the pediatric population is still controversial, especially for smaller children. We reviewed our experience in pediatric renal laparoscopic surgery in three pediatric age groups in an attempt to identify if age has an impact on feasibility and surgical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 1995 to May 2006, 144 pediatric laparoscopic renal procedures were performed at our institution. The charts of these patients were reviewed for demographic data, urologic pathology and surgical procedure, as well as perioperative complications and post-operative outcomes. The findings were stratified into 3 groups, according to patient age (A: < 1 year, B: 1 to 5 years and C: 6-18 years. RESULTS: Median age of the patients was 4.2 years (42 days - 18 years. We performed 54 nephrectomies, 33 nephroureterectomies, 19 upper pole nephrectomies, 11 radical nephrectomies, 22 pyeloplasties and 4 miscellaneous procedures. The 3 age groups were comparable in terms of the procedures performed. Conversion rates were 0%, 1.4% and 1.9% for groups A, B and C, respectively (p = 0.72. Incidence of perioperative complications was 5%, 8.2% and 7.8% for age groups A to C, respectively (p = 0.88. CONCLUSIONS: Most renal procedures can be performed safely by laparoscopy in the pediatric population, with excellent aesthetic and functional outcomes. The morbidity related to the procedure was minimal irrespective of the age group.

  5. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  6. Cognitive correlates of psychosocial outcome following traumatic brain injury in early childhood: comparisons between groups of children aged under and over 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, James; Williams, W Huw; Yates, Phil; Slater, Alan

    2011-04-01

    Children with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) commonly present with socioemotional difficulties, as well as accompanying multiple cognitive impairments. Often difficulties worsen at around 10 years old. This change is associated with frontal system changes, and tests of executive function (EF) predict outcome. However, children with TBI sometimes present with socioemotional difficulties despite apparent cognitive recovery. Our aims were to explore potential cognitive and socioemotional effects following childhood TBI, before and after the age of 10 years. We also wanted to identify cognitive correlates of psychosocial dysfunction. Measures of cognitive function and socioemotional disturbance administered to 14 children with TBI aged 8-10 years, and 14 children with TBI aged 10-16 years, were compared to control data from 22 non-injured 8- to 10 year-olds and 67 non-injured 10- to 16-year-olds. Results indicated that only the older group of children with TBI were impaired in tests of EF, but significant socioemotional difficulties were commonly evident in both groups. Processing speed (as well as EF) was found to correlate with socioemotional disturbance. We conclude that poor processing speed may also index the risk of socioemotional difficulties, but our general findings indicate that cognitive functions relevant to socioemotional functioning are not readily testable in younger children and are not strongly associated with such outcomes as they may be in adults.

  7. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful.

  8. Cobalamin and folate deficiencies among children in the age group of 12-59 months in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia is a major public health problem among children under 5 years of age in India. Cobalamin and folate deficiencies play an important role in the etiology of anemia. This study was done to assess the prevalence of cobalamin and folate deficiencies among children in the age group of 12-59 months. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 470 children were included. Non-fasting venous blood samples were collected from each child for the estimation of serum cobalamin and folate levels. Pattern of dietary consumption of the each child was assessed with the help of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ method. Results: The median levels (interquartile range of serum cobalamin (n = 469 and folate (n = 416 were found to be 275 (202-427 pg/ml and 3.02 (2.02-4.94 ng/ml, respectively. The overall prevalence of cobalamin and folate deficiencies was found to be 180/469 [38.4%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 34.1-42.8%] and 263/416 (63.2%; 95% CI: 58.5-67.7%, respectively. Conclusions: A high prevalence of cobalamin and folate deficiencies was found in children under 5 years of age.

  9. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDREN IN THE AGE GROUP 6 MONTHS TO 60 MONTHS WITH LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : Infections of the respiratory tract are perhaps the most common human ailments. Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI has quite a high morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries 1 ARI is responsible for about 30 - 50 percent of visits to health facilities and for about 20 - 40 percent of hospital admissions. Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality in children worldwide. Because mortality due to pneumonia in developing countries is attributable mainly to bacterial etiology , IM NCI strategy recommends the use of antibiotics when a child presented with tachypnea as defined previously . AIMS : To re - define or refine tachypnea as a specific indicator of bacterial pneumonia. To identify other clinical predictors for identifying bacteri al pneumonia. DESIGNS : The study was designed to be done in two phases . In the first phase it is to be carried out as a descriptive study of children presenting with fever and respiratory distress in the OPD to identify the specific markers for bacterial p neumonia. In the second phase presenting clinical features in children with radiological pneumonia will be analysed to validate the findings from Phase I. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This was a hospital based study and was conducted in Sri Manakula V inayagar Me dical College and Hospital , Puducherry . The study included 100 Children in the age group 6 months to 5 years presenting in the out patients department with fever and respiratory distress Children attending the out - patient department on a fixed day of the w eek (Monday and who come under this study population during the study period were admitted and recruited in the study and informed verbal consent for participation was taken from the parents. Their clinical profiles were recorded as in phase I. All childr en coming under this study population were given antibiotics and supportive treatment. The cases were monitored for any worsening or improvement every 6 th hourly on day 1 and

  10. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  11. Consumption of fruits and vegetables in a group of valencian children of school age.

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Tamarit,; Alba Tamarit, E.; Gandía Balaguer, A.; Olaso González, G.; Vallada Regalado, E.; Garzón Farinós, Mª F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the last 25 years there has beena great change in the food habits in Spain.Objectives: To calculate and assess the consumption of fruits and vegetables in school children. To identify the type of desserts eaten and analyze the influence children have on the purchase of fruit andvegetables made by parents.Materials and methods: A survey was carried out on parents of primary school children. A total of 155 questionnaires were handed into the school, obtaining a sample of 116 co...

  12. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  13. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  14. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  15. DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a middle-childhood-aged group of Malaysian children using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Ahmadi; Mohamed Sharif Mustaffa; Amirmudin Udin; AliAkbar Haghdoost

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always...

  16. Pattern of injury mortality by age-group in children aged 0–14 years in Scotland, 2002–2006, and its implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone David H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the epidemiology of injuries in children is essential for the planning, implementation and evaluation of preventive measures but recent epidemiological information on injuries in children both in general and by age-group in Scotland is scarce. This study examines the recent pattern of childhood mortality from injury by age-group in Scotland and considers its implications for prevention. Methods Routine mortality data for the period 2002–2006 were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland and were analysed in terms of number of deaths, mean annual mortality rates per 100,000 population, leading causes of death, and causes of injury death. Mid-year population estimates were used as the denominator. Chi-square tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results 186 children aged 0–14 died from an injury in Scotland during 2002–06 (MR 4.3 per 100,000. Injuries were the leading cause of death in 1–14, 5–9 and 10–14 year-olds (causing 25%, 29% and 32% of all deaths respectively. The leading individual causes of injury death (0–14 years were pedestrian and non-pedestrian road-traffic injuries and assault/homicide but there was variation by age-group. Assault/homicide, fire and suffocation caused most injury deaths in young children; road-traffic injuries in older ones. Collectively, intentional injuries were a bigger threat to the lives of under-15s than any single cause of unintentional injury. The mortality rate from assault/homicide was highest in infants ( Conclusion Injuries continue to be a leading cause of death in childhood in Scotland. Variation in causes of injury death by age-group is important when targeting preventive efforts. In particular, the threats of assault/homicide in infants, fire in 1–4 year-olds, pedestrian injury in 5–14 year-olds, and suicide in 10–14 year-olds need urgent consideration for preventive action.

  17. DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a middle-childhood-aged group of Malaysian children using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Ahmadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV, in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always experienced of the Malay version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale - Child version (SCAS-C. Method Six hundred children aged 9-11 and 424 of their parents completely answered the child or parent versions of the SCAS. Results Results indicated that the internal reliability of subscales were moderate to adequate. Significant correlations between child and parent reports supported the measure's concurrent validity. Additionally, anxiety levels in this Malaysian sample were lower than among South-African children and higher than among their Western peers. There were both similarities and differences between symptom items reported as often or always experienced by Malaysian students and by children from other cultures. Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of the existence of five inter-correlated factors for anxiety disorders based on SCAS-C. Conclusion Although some of the instrument's psychometric properties deviated from those observed in some other countries, it nevertheless appears to be useful for assessing childhood anxiety symptoms in this country.

  18. Short- and Long-Term Effects of CBT-I in Groups for School-Age Children Suffering From Chronic Insomnia: The KiSS-Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Bihlmaier, Isabel; Velten-Schurian, Kerstin; Poets, Christian F; Hautzinger, Martin

    2016-09-20

    This intervention study evaluates the short- and long-term effects of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in groups for school-age children and their parents, named the KiSS-program. CBT-I was implemented in three sessions for children and three sessions for parents. All in all, 112 children with chronic childhood insomnia were randomly assigned to a wait-list (WL) control or treatment condition. According to subjective measures as well as objective wrist actigraphy, children in the CBT-I condition reported greater improvements in sleep behavior immediately after the treatment compared to the WL group. Improvements in sleep behavior after CBT-I persisted over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up assessments. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial that provides evidence for the long-term effectiveness of CBT-I in treating school-age children with chronic insomnia.

  19. Does the Age and Familiarity of the Informant Group Influence the Tendency of 3- and 4-year-old Children to Conform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Nicola; Stevenson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to explore whether the age and the familiarity of the individuals comprising a group majority influenced the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to conform. Participants were presented with 2 variants of a novel task in which they were required to judge which of 3 line-drawn tigers had the greatest number of stripes. The participants made their judgments in 2 contexts, first after viewing 5 informants perform the task incorrectly, and second without viewing the responses of other individuals. The informants comprised a group of familiar children, a group of unfamiliar children, a group of familiar adults, or a group of unfamiliar adults. The results showed that the children displayed selective conformity with respect to informant age, readily adopting the incorrect response when it was indicated by an adult majority, but failing to do so when the same incorrect response was indicated by a majority of children. In contrast the familiarity of the individuals comprising the majority had little influence on the tendency of children to conform. These results suggest that children are not blanket conformists, rather they respond selectively depending on characteristics of the individuals comprising the group majority.

  20. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  1. Evaluation of status of trace and toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) of normal and anemic children of two age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Anemia affects a substantial portion of the world's population, provoking severe health problems as well as important economic losses to the region in which this condition is found. This study was designed to compare the levels of essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of anemic children (n = 132) with age range 1-5 and 6-10 years of both genders. For a comparative study, 134 non-anemic age- and sex-matched children as control subjects, residing in the same city, were selected. The metals in the biological samples were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The proposed method was validated using certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The results indicated significantly lower levels of iron, copper, and zinc in the biological samples as compared to the control children of both genders (p = 0.01-0.008). The mean values of lead and cadmium were significantly high in all three biological samples of anemic children as compared to non-anemic children of both age groups (p = 0.005-0.001). The ratios of essential metal to toxic metals in the biological samples of anemic children of both age groups were significantly lower than that of controls. Deficiency of essential trace metals and high level of toxic metals may play a role in the development of anemia in the subjects under study.

  2. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL NUMBER OF LIVING CHILDREN AMONG MARRIED WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA IN MUMBAI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KG Makade

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Marriages and having children is a universal phenomenon in India and in slum areas of cities there is a tendency to have more number of children in married women due to many interrelated causes. In the current study we have tried to explore some of the reasons for having more number of children in urban slum area. Objective: To study the effect of education,age at marriage of women and socioeconomic status of the family onnumber of children among married women of reproductive age group in a slum area of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional observational study was carried out in the field practice area of an Urban Health Training Centre of a teaching hospital in Mumbai. Results:A sample of 342 women was taken by random sampling. Questionnaire was administered in the local language.It was found that illiteracy, marriage before 18 years of age and low socioeconomic status,are significantly associated with more than 3living children.Out of these, socioeconomic status of the family had the greatest influence on bearing of the total number of children, followed by the age of women at marriage and then educational status of the women. Conclusion:Improvement in education, socioeconomic status and increasing the age at marriage can prove to be very effective for the control of population.

  3. Slovenian guidelines for physical activity in children and adolescents in the age group 2–18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bratina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has many favourable influences on the general health of children, teenagers and adults. Regular physical activity can reduce morbidity and mortality. By the help of regular physical activity body weight can be reduced, lean body mass increased, there are data on the improvement of total cholesterol levels – increase in HDL cholesterol and decrease in LDL cholesterol, improved insulin sensitivity and increased bone density. Physical activity in early childhood can be an important step toward the lifestyle and general health in adulthood. An active lifestyle helps to prevent obesity in teenagers, and on the other hand reduces mortality in adulthood. It is very important that children start early (before the age of 12 with regular physical activity, and that physical activity is continued during teenage years and the adulthood. Children who are physical active rarely smoke and drink alcohol beverages. Cardiorespiratory or aerobic exercises and muscle strength training are extremely important for chronically ill children; it reduces tiredness and improves the quality of life. This paper presents guidelines for regular physical activity in healthy children and adolescents.

  4. DETERMINATION OF LIFE QUALITY OF HEALTHY CHILDREN AT THE AGE GROUP OF 4-7 YEARS ACCORDING TO THEIR PARENTS’ VIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Beker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thus this study aims to investigate life quality of healthy children at the age group of 4-7 years who received/still receive pre-school education according to their parents’ views by means of general life quality criteria. This is a descriptive research. The study group included parents of 78 healthy children between the ages of 4-7 years who received or still receive pre-school education. “KINDL”4-7 Age Family Form was used to collect data as parents would assess life quality of their children indirectly. SPSS 15.0 package program was used to analyze the data. Mann-Whitney U Test and Kruskal-Wallis H Test were used to determine whether there is a difference between scale scores related to socio-demographic features. According to parents’ views, the factors on which children have highest life quality are “family” (  =83.21, “kindergarten” (  =82.82, “emotional well-being” (  =81.99, “social relationships” (  =81.67, respectively. The lowest factors are “self-esteem” (  =75.00 and “physical well-being” (  =69.94, respectively. Total score average of KINDL is (  = 79.10. Parents’ views about life quality of their children (general scale scores do not statistically significantly differ by gender and age of children and children number in family (p>0.05. Results which obtained from the research is important in the sense tahat to show what is the level of healty children wcich taken pre-scholl education and continue to take. And what they are affected. And then in the sense that to the effect of reducing in the problems of life quality which will be lived at next time.

  5. Patterns of Ageism in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs John

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines age-based stereotypes in accordance with the Stereotype Content Model in four different age groups: schoolchildren, adolescents, adults and the elderly. Participants were asked to rank graphic portraits of both genders of four age clusters in terms of warmth and competence. The hypothesis that age groups, besides a positive evaluation of their own age cluster, would rate old people in an increasingly negative way as they themselves get older, was not confirmed. On the contrary, young children seem to have the most extreme prejudice against older people. Interestingly, adults and elderly appear to evaluate their own age cluster rather negatively too. Other relations between age groups indicate that ageism does not only affect old people and that it can include positive stereotypes as well. It is also argued, that ageism may have a changing pattern throughout the lifespan.

  6. [Prevalence of myopia and increase trend in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in Han ethnic group in China, 2005-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y H; Liu, H B; Wang, Z H; Yang, Z P; Xu, R B; Yang, Z G; Ma, J

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand and evaluate the prevalence of myopia and its trend in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in Han ethnic group in China from 2005 to 2014, and provide evidence for the prevention of myopia. Methods: The data of 2005, 2010 and 2014 Chinese National Students Constitution and Health Surveys were collected. The children and adolescents with complete detection data of binoculus were selected as study subjects. The sample size of three studies were 233 108, 215 319 and 212 743, respectively. The method of curve fitting was used to simulate the myopia detection increase model and analyze the gender and area specific myopia detection increase trends and characteristics from 2005 to 2014. Results: The overall myopia detection rate increased gradually in the children and adolescents aged 7 to 18, which was 47.5% in 2005, 55.5% in 2010 and 57.1% in 2014, respectively. The increase slowed in 2014. A"parabola" shape of myopia detection increase rate was observed. Myopia detection rate increased with age before puberty and decreased with age after puberty gradually. A"cross phenomenon" of myopia detection increase was observed in boys and girls between urban and rural areas. The increase of myopia detection was mainly in urban students before puberty and in rural students after puberty. The age of myopia prevalence peak has become earlier constantly in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years from 2005 to 2014, which was 13 years old in 2005, 12 years old in 2010 and 11 years old in 2014. The increase rate was about 7%. During 2005-2014, the increase rate of myopia detection gradually increased in younger students and tended to zero in older students. Conclusion: The detection rate of myopia was still high in children and adolescents in China. The age of myopia prevalence peak has become earlier gradually.

  7. Pityriasis versicolor in the pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a mild chronic infection of the skin caused by Malassezia yeasts. Although it is primarily seen in adults, children are often affected in the tropics . METHODS: Over a period of 2 years, children (up to the age of 14 years who were clinically and mycologically diagnosed as PV were included in the study. The clinical and epidemiological pattern in different age groups was noted. RESULTS: PV in this age group formed about 31% of the total cases of PV; 4.8% cases presented in infancy. The commonest site of involvement was the face in 39.9% of the cases. Most of the cases presented in summer months. CONCLUSIONS: PV is not an uncommon disease among children in the tropics. There is a sudden resurgence of cases in the hot monsoons and even infants are not spared.

  8. Children's rights and a sample study on accidents in children groups aged 0-5 years old in the light of parents' responsibility in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcioglu, Omur; Aksoy, Sahin; Gunduz, Tarik

    2004-04-01

    Most frequent reasons for the accidents seen in children under 5 years of age who have a right to be cared and protected are negligence and carelessness. In this study, judicial cases were compiled from children between the age of 0 to 5, who had been injured due to severe family negligence. Files of cases were obtained from archives with file numbers, indicating cases obtained from the records of the hospital and police were studied retrospectively. The gender, age, and type of application of patients, the type of interference, and the results obtained from the procedure were studied. This study encompasses the results of cases at Osmangazi University Training, Practice and Research Hospital, Eskisehir, Turkey, between September 1999 and March 2001. Forty of 113 cases (35.4%) were due to poisoning from drugs. The main reasons were unawareness of children regarding the harm of drugs, putting drugs in reach of children and easy access to drugs from pharmacies without prescription. On the other hand, the recognition of international measures by the Turkish government is a guarantee for the children's rights. Our study implies that, as suggested by other researchers, the investigation of measures to prevent injuries due to negligence and the application of these measures will certainly improve the welfare of society.

  9. Genodermatoses in paediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sunil

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern of genodermatoses in paediatric age group was studied. The relative incidence of genodermatoses in paediatric dermatology out patient department was 0.62%. The commonest genodermatoses observed was ichthyosis.

  10. [Psychological functions in children treated for acute lymphatic leukemia. A 5-year follow-up of three different age groups of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossen, A

    1997-05-30

    All the children, five girls and ten boys aged 8-16 years, mean 11 years, with acute lymphoblastic leukemia which had been diagnosed in 1980, 1981 or 1983 and was still in remission in 1990, were examined. The treatment included intratecal methotrexate, but no irradiation. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 4.5 years. All the WISC-R IQ-scores were within the normal range (mean Full Scale IQ 109, range 93-142). Six children had a high negative Verbal/Performance split score (mean +/- 23, range -15 to -33). This indicated dysfunction in verbal compared with nonverbal problem solving ability. Only one child had a high positive WISC-R split score (+23). Except for one child, all the scores on the Visual-Motor Integration Test were within the normal range. The Achenbach checklists were completed by parents and teachers. A small increase was found in the total problem scores, but most of the children were evaluated as well adapted.

  11. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey's honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined.

  12. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002017.htm School-age children development To use the sharing features on this page, ... of children ages 6 to 12. Information PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT School-age children most often have smooth and strong motor skills. ...

  13. Prediction of Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation Skills of 4-5 Age Group Children with Parent-Child Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine whether personal attributes, family characteristics of the child and parent-child relations predict children's emotional understanding and emotion regulation skills. The study was conducted with relational screening model, one of the screening models. Study sample included 423 children between the…

  14. A STUDY OF DERMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN RELATION TO PERSONAL HYGIENE AND NUTRITIONAL INDICATORS AMONG GOVT. HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 11 - 16 YRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Mai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Skin disorders affect 20 - 30% of the general population at any one time. Personal hygiene, nutrition and Socio demographic factors play pivotal roles in determining the pattern of skin disease. Very few studies provide information on the prevalence and det erminants of skin disease among children of school going age group in India There are hardly any studies focusing on children of Hyderabad. Hence, the following study was carried out to determine the prevalence of dermatological disorders among school chil dren of age group 11 - 16 yrs . AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the prevalence of dermatological disorders among Govt. high school children in relation with personal hygiene, nutritional status and socio demographic indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A cross - sectional study was conducted and the study subjects included students of Govt. high school located at Musheerabad, belonging to class VI to IX. A total of 100 students have been studied and the study period was from 19 th Nov to 25 th Nov 2011.the sample size was calculated from prevalence shown in various studies (50% skin disorders, with an allowable error of 20% of P. Data collection included personal hygiene questionnaire, clinical examination, magnifying lens, measuring tape and a weighing machine. Prevalence of common skin diseases was calculated and statistical analysis was done. RESULTS : The proportion of skin disorders is seen to be 77% of the total study. The proportion of skin disorders is higher in females (p<0.05, mid ado lescent age (p<0.05, fathers being heavy workers and working mothers, hostel residence (p<0.05 and infrequent head bath. The proportion of skin disorders is not seen to be influenced by BMI - for - age and bathing frequency. Common dermatological disorders e licited were Pytiriasis simplex capillitii (27%, Acne vulgaris (22%, Pediculosis capitis (18%, Pytiriasis alba (14% and Scabies (11%. CONCLUSION : Skin disease constitutes a public

  15. Stick with your group: young children's attitudes about group loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Antonia; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2014-10-01

    For adults, loyalty to the group is highly valued, yet little is known about how children evaluate loyalty. We investigated children's attitudes about loyalty in a third-party context. In the first experiment, 4- and 5-year-olds watched a video of two groups competing. Two members of the losing group then spoke. The disloyal individual said she wanted to win and therefore would join the other group. The loyal individual said she also wanted to win but would stay with her group. Children were then asked five forced-choice questions about these two individuals' niceness, trustworthiness, morality, and deservingness of a reward. The 5-year-olds preferred the loyal person across all questions; results for the 4-year-olds were considerably weaker but in the same direction. The second experiment investigated the direction of the effect in 5-year-olds. In this experiment, children answered questions about either a loyal individual, a disloyal individual, or a neutral individual. Children rated both the loyal and neutral individuals more positively than the disloyal individual across a number of measures. Thus, whereas disloyal behavior is evaluated unfavorably by children, loyal behavior is the expected norm. These results suggest that, at least from 5 years of age, children understand that belonging to a group entails certain commitments. This marks an important step in their own ability to negotiate belonging and become trustworthy and reliable members of their social groups.

  16. A STUDY TO FIND OUT PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 5 TO 16 YEARS IN WESTERN RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Makwana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypertension is very common disease, commonly associated with high morbidity and mortality. Its origin is thought to be in childhood and goes undetected unless specifically looked for during this period. Early detection of hypertension and its precipitating or aggravating factors are key factors, so further complications of hypertension can be prevented. MATERIALS AND METHODS Apparently, healthy-looking school children in the age group of 5 to 16 years from various schools in Jodhpur district were screened for the study. A total of 5000 students were enrolled in the present study in a period from June 2012 to August 2014. Children with chronic illnesses and those who were on long-term medications, congenital anomalies and diagnosed to be obese and hypertensive secondary to other causes were excluded from study. Detailed history regarding age, sex, family history of obesity and hypertension, socioeconomic status had taken using predesigned proforma. Various anthropometric parameters like height, weight, waist circumference were measured and Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP were recorded in both sexes. Hypertension was defined as SBP or DBP exceeding the 95th percentile for age, gender and height. Three readings were taken in succession with an interval of 1½ to 2 minutes. The average of the three readings was calculated and recorded in the proforma. Those children in whom blood pressure was found abnormal for respective age and gender were re-examined on two different occasions at an interval of 1 to 2 weeks. RESULTS A total of 5000 school children included in the present study. Out of them, 243 (4.86% children were detected as hypertensive as per study protocols. Majority of these, 143 (58.43% were females from families residing in urban areas. Study revealed that most hypertensive children were from joint family with higher socioeconomic status. There was strong association with family history of

  17. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  18. Effects of Group Norms on Children's Intentions to Bully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    A minimal group study examined the effect of peer group norms on children's direct and indirect bullying intentions. Prior to an inter-group drawing competition, children (N = 85) aged seven and nine years were assigned to a group that had a norm of out-group dislike or out-group liking. Results indicated that, regardless of group norms, the…

  19. 75 FR 27141 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ45 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the...

  20. Technology use and interest among low-income parents of young children: differences by age group and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Taren M; Ward, Wendy L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bokony, Patti; Pettit, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    To examine demographic differences in frequency of use of technologies and interest in receiving nutrition information via technology by low-income parents and caregivers. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Head Start and state-funded child care programs. A total of 806 parents and caregivers from low-income families. A 20-item survey assessed frequency of use and interest in technologies (dependent variables) and collected participant age and ethnicity (independent variables). Multivariate ANOVA analysis investigated whether age, ethnicity, and their interactions were related to frequency of use and interest in technology types. Daily rates of usage for Internet, text messaging, and cell phone use were over 60%. However, Twitter and blogs were accessed daily by effects for ethnicity (Wilks' λ = .85; F = 3.13; P < .001) and age (Wilks' λ = .89; F = 2.29; P < .001) were observed. Facebook, e-mail, texting, and smartphone applications may be innovative modalities to engage with low-income parents and caregivers aged ≤ 45. However, some strategies may be ineffective for reaching Hispanic families as they reported less use of the Internet, Facebook, and e-mail as well as less interest in e-mail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Children's Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    In Study 1, 167 English children aged 6-8 or 9-11 evaluated peer English or French soccer fans that were loyal or partially disloyal. In Study 2, 149 children aged 5-11 made judgments about generic inclusion norms between and within competitive groups. In both studies, children's understanding of intergroup inclusion/exclusion norms (group nous)…

  2. A comparative study of two mouthrinses on plaque and gingivitis in school children in the age group of 13-16 years in Bangalore city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, K; Veeresha, K L; Hiremath, S S

    2007-01-01

    Research and clinical evidence indicate that most forms of plaque associated periodontal disease start as inflammatory lesions of the gingiva which if left untreated, may progress and eventually involve and compromise the entire periodontal attachment apparatus of the affected teeth. A study was conducted to assess the effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride on plaque accumulation and gingivitis in comparison with a chlorhexidine mouthrinse alone in a group of school children aged 13-16 years in Bangalore city. This combination along with the well established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries presents an important contribution to dental public health. The results suggest that the chlorhexidine-sodium fluoride mouthrinse potentially possesses a significant effect on inhibition of plaque accumulation and gingivitis. This combination along with the well-established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries, presents an important contribution to dental public health.

  3. A comparative study of two mouthrinses on plaque and gingivitis in school children in the age group of 13-16 years in Bangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Research and clinical evidence indicate that most forms of plaque associated periodontal disease start as inflammatory lesions of the gingiva which if left untreated, may progress and eventually involve and compromise the entire periodontal attachment apparatus of the affected teeth. A study was conducted to assess the effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride on plaque accumulation and gingivitis in comparison with a chlorhexidine mouthrinse alone in a group of school children aged 13-16 years in Bangalore city. This combination alongwith the well established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries presents an important contribution to dental public health. The results suggest that the chlorhexidine-sodium fluoride mouthrinse potentially possesses a significant effect on inhibition of plaque accumulation and gingivitis. This combination along with the well-established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries, presents an important contribution to dental public health.

  4. PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY, PAEDIATRIC METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AMONG CHILDREN IN THE AGE GROUP OF 10-16 YEARS IN PRIVATE SCHOOLS OF SHIMLA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmol Gupta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paediatric obesity is a complex and growing global problem which is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries like India and considered an important predecessor to NCD multi-morbidity due to changing life style as a result of rapid urbanisation and mechanisation. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, paediatric metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors among children in the age group of 10-16 years in private schools of Shimla city. MATERIALS AND METHODS At total of 2100 adolescents attending school (aged 10-16 years participated in this cross-sectional study. All the anthropometric, clinical and biochemical assessment was done after proper consent. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed by using IOTF guidelines and the metabolic syndrome was determined by the Paediatric International Diabetic Federation definition modified for age group. RESULTS The prevalence of overweight, obesity and paediatric metabolic syndrome was 14.5%, 4.1% & 4.3% respectively. In the groups with PMS, hypertension, waist circumference, and TG were significantly higher, and HDL-C was significantly lower. Significant difference was observed in gender, physical activity level, metabolic equivalent, consumption of junk food & time spent on TV in the distribution of overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION Our study highlights the possible role of change in the dietary pattern and physical activity pattern in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in early stage of life. Collective efforts of parents and schools are required to institute early preventive measures to reduce progression towards obesity and its future complications.

  5. The Peer Attitudes toward Children Who Stutter Scale: Reliability, Known Groups Validity, and Negativity of Elementary School-Age Children's Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter (PATCS) scale (Langevin, M., & Hagler, P. (2004). Development of a scale to measure peer attitudes toward children who stutter. In A.K. Bothe (Ed.), Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: empirical bases and clinical applications (pp. 139-171). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence…

  6. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  7. COMPARISON BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL COST INDEX IN HEALTHY NORMAL CHILDREN AS AGAINST AMBULATORY SPASTIC DIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY (WITH AND WITHOUT ORTHOSIS IN THE AGE GROUP 6 TO 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swatia Bhise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy of rehabilitation program for subjects with orthosis with objective measurement. The study aiming to objectively compare the PCI and walking speed of normal children with ambulatory spastic diaplegic. Also we aimed to analyze whether BMIhad impact on energy cost. Methods: 41 normal children and 41 community walking spastic diaplegic aged between 6 to 18 yrs. were assessed to compare the PCI. Speed of walking and heart rate were checked constantlyboth barefoot and in shoes in normal children and with and without conventional AFO in children with spastic diaplegic at their chosen velocities over four consecutive lengths of a 12.5m walkway i.e. total 50m.,Pre and Post readings are taken. Heart rate is affected by speed; PCI with speed of walking and heart rate was calculated for each child. Results: The mean PCI in shoes and barefoot was same in normal children i.e. 0.05 ±0.039beats/meter. The PCI for children with pathological gait i.e. spastic diaplegic without orthosis and with orthosis is 0.199 ±0.176 and 0.104± 0.093beats/meter appreciably greater than that for normal children(p less than 0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that walking with orthosis in spastic diplegic CP children showed higher costs of energy and slower walking speed compared normal children with age matched. The PCI of walking, with orthosis in children with spastic Diplegic cerebral palsy is less as compared to without orthosis i.e. gait is more energy efficient with orthosis. BMI doesn’t show any correlation with PCI further study may require.

  8. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  9. Parenting School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Parenting School-Age Children Page Content Article Body During ... in her achievements. This can contribute to her self-esteem, not only because of her accomplishments in the ...

  10. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  11. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  12. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  13. CLINICAL PROFILE OF RHEUMATIC FEVER AND RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE IN CHILDREN UNDER 15 YEARS AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context ( Back ground Acute Rheumatic fever and Rheumatic heart disease are the most common acquired childhood heart disease in India. It is well established that 2 D Echo cardiography is more sensitive in picking up minor degrees of valvular regurgitation than clinical examination . AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical profile of “Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic heart disease“ & correlate it with Echocardiographic fin dings in Children under 15 years age group presenting to a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS OF STUDY: Thirty six cases of Acute Rheumatic fever, which includes eight cases of first attack and twenty eight cases of reactivation of Rheumatic fev er were studied over a period of two years in paediatric medical wards, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam. The revised (1992 modified Jones criteria with the 1988 WHO modification was taken as a criterion to diagnose Acute Rheumatic fever . RESULTS : Peak age of Acute Rheumatic fever and Chronic Rheumatic heart disease is between 5 - 10 years (55.8%. No sex variation has been observed. Fever and joint involvement are the most common clinical manifestations (87.5%each in first attack cases. Active cardi tis (75% the second most common manifestation , followed by arthralgia (25% and sore throat (25% , chorea , chest pain , abdominal pain were infrequent manifestations found to be 12.5% each. None of the cases had Erythema marginatum. CONCLUSION : In the pres ent study the clinical findings were correlated with that of previous studies and Echocardiographic findings were correlated well as far as moderate to severe lesions. Further Echocardiography was proved to be more sensitive in detecting even trivial or mi ld aortic regurgitation and mitral or aortic stenosis.

  14. Study the Age of Hearing Loss Diagnosis and the Related Factors in a Group of School-Age Children in Baghch-e-Ban School of Hard of Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ahmadi

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation of the age of hearing loss diagnosis in every society is recommended to be compared with standard criteria to establish common dirth in management and rehabilitation. This study was conducted in order to determine the age of hearing loss diagnosis with respect to common criteria in Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing children in Tehran.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 445 children in stages 2, 6 and 10 of Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing participated. the research was performed by means of the three-stages questionaires that children filled with help of their parents.Results: The mean age of detection of hearing loss in both acquired and congenital hearing loss in children was 3.5 year-old. while the age in which hearing loss was doubted was 1.8 year-old. In another word the mean age of hearing loss detection decreased as the hearing loss increases(in moderate- profound hearing loss(P<0.01. Conclusion: among the refrence sources for refering children with hearing loss the least refering was related to physicians. Adversly the mean age of doubting and detection of hearing loss increased in children with family history of hearing loss.(P<0.01. Meanwhile no relationship was detected between the age of diagnosis of hearing loss and the number of deaf members in the family(P<0.02.

  15. The relationship between sports activities and permanent incisor crown fractures in a group of school children aged 7-9 and 11-13 in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinbaş, Tuğba; Yildirim, Gözde; Sönmez, Hayriye

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the distribution, aetiology of the crown fractures of permanent anterior teeth in children aged 7-9 and 11-13 years and to identify the role of participation in sports associated with crown fractures. The study population comprised 2570 students from 10 primary schools randomly selected from five municipalities in Ankara, Turkey. Two paediatric dentists examined all permanent maxillary and mandibular incisors for evidence of fracture and completed a standardized examination form to obtain information on the age, gender, severity of incisor injury and frequency and type of sports participation for each child, as well as whether or not children used mouthguards during sports activities. Chi-square and z-tests were used to determine differences. A total of 191 (7.43%) of the 2570 subjects examined were affected by dental trauma. The proportion of fractured incisors was significantly higher in males than in females among older children (P < 0.01). Out of a total of 222 fractured teeth, 84% involved the maxillary central incisors. Bicycling caused significantly higher rates of crown fractures than other types of sports (P < 0.05). The percentage of incisal fractures caused by sports-related accidents was 14.14%. The number of children interested in sports is high, and the sports chosen are generally contact sports. The high rate (14.14%) of crown injuries caused by sports activities supports these findings.

  16. Preschool-aged children's jumps: imitation performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Ramanantsoa, Marie-Martine; Golomer, Eveline

    2010-04-01

    Imitative behavior underlaid by perception and action links during children's development in complex locomotor skills has been the object of relatively few studies. In order to explore children's motor coordination modes, 130 children divided into five age groups from 3.5 to 7.5 years were instructed to imitate jumping tasks in spontaneous motor situation and in various imitative contexts by an adult providing verbal orders and gestural demonstrations. Their conformity to the model, stability and variability scores were coded from a video analysis when they performed jumps with obstacles. To evaluate their postural-motor control level, the durations of the preparatory phase and jumping flights were also timed. Results showed that all age groups generated the demonstrator's goal but not necessarily the same coordination modes of jumping. In imitation with temporal proximity, the model helped the youngest age groups to adopt his coordination modes and stabilized only the oldest age groups' performances starting from 5.5 years old, without effect on learning imitation. Differences between the youngest and oldest children in the jump duration suggested that the reproduction of a complex motor activity such as jumping with a one foot take-off would require resolution and adjustment of main postural stability.

  17. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  18. A Hospital Based Study to Establish the Correlation between Recurrent Wheeze and Vitamin D Deficiency Among Children of Age Group Less than 3 Years in Indian Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Santosh; Rana, Rishabh Kumar; Sheth, Ronak; Mauskar, Anupama V

    2016-02-01

    Early childhood wheezing is a heterogeneous condition, which has several phenotypic expressions and a complex relationship with the development of asthma later in life. New studies indicate the prevalence of recurrent wheeze to be associated with Vitamin D deficiency. This has not been explored in Indian settings widely, mandating this exploration. To determine the severity of Vitamin D deficiency and its association with recurrent wheeze in children less than 3 years of age. Consecutive type of non-probability sampling was followed for selection of study subjects with a total sample size to be 122 children in the Hospital setting. A pre- formed, pre- tested, structured interview schedule was used to obtain information. Estimation of 25 (OH) Vitamin D was done using ELISA method. Kit used for estimation was DLD Diagnostika GMBH 25(OH) Vitamin D ELISA from Germany. Standard statistical tools were used including Logistic regression analysis, and ROC curve, p value feeding and delaying of complementary feeding beyond 6 months of age are significant predictors of Vitamin D deficiency and have indirect association with increased incidence of wheezing in children. The study concluded that Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of recurrent wheezing.

  19. Eating late in the evening is associated with childhood obesity in some age groups but not in all children: the relationship between time of consumption and body weight status in U.S. children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranz Sibylle

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies in adults indicate a positive correlation between eating later in the day and overall energy intake as well as body weight status. Thus, the time of food intake may be a risk factor in childhood obesity. This study was designed to describe the proportion of energy consumed in the time from 4 pm to midnight measured in two-hour increments and to determine a potential association between the time of proportion of energy consumed and body weight status. Methods Dietary, anthropometric, and socio-demographic data of 2–18 year olds (N = 11,072 of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2004 was examined to describe the proportion of total energy consumed within two-hour time periods between 4 pm and midnight. To examine the potential association between eating later in the day and body weight status, generalized estimating equations (GEE models were used to quantify the effect of time trends (proportion of total energy consumed in each 2-hour time period from 4 pm to 11.59 pm on body weight status. Analysis was conducted in the total sample and in subgroups stratified by sex, ethnic group (Non-Hispanic white, Non-Hispanic black, Mexican American, Other Hispanic, and Other Race including multi-racial and age group (2–5, 6–11, and 12–18 year olds. Complex sample survey analysis were used to assess differences at a significance level of p-value Results Proportion of energy consumed varied by sex, ethnic group, and age groups between 4 pm and 11.59 pm. Compared to healthy weight children, overweight school-age children consumed significantly higher while overweight adolescents consumed significantly lower proportions of total daily energy with each advancing two-hour time increment. Conclusion The association between the circadian rhythm of eating and body weight status needs to be investigated further to examine the effect of time of consumption on the risk of childhood obesity

  20. Ethnic helping and group identity : A study among majority group children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, Jellie; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Two vignette studies were conducted on children's evaluations of ethnic helping. In the first study, 272 native Dutch children (mean age = 10.7) evaluated a child who refused to help in an intra-group context (Dutch-Dutch or Turkish-Turkish) or inter-group context (Dutch-Turkish or Turkish-Dutch). C

  1. Ethnic Helping and Group Identity: A Study among Majority Group Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, J.; Thijs, J.T.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two vignette studies were conducted on children's evaluations of ethnic helping. In the first study, 272 native Dutch children (mean age = 10.7) evaluated a child who refused to help in an intra-group context (Dutch-Dutch or Turkish-Turkish) or inter-group context (Dutch-Turkish or Turkish-Dutch). C

  2. Ethnic Helping and Group Identity: A Study among Majority Group Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, J.; Thijs, J.T.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two vignette studies were conducted on children's evaluations of ethnic helping. In the first study, 272 native Dutch children (mean age = 10.7) evaluated a child who refused to help in an intra-group context (Dutch-Dutch or Turkish-Turkish) or inter-group context (Dutch-Turkish or Turkish-Dutch). C

  3. Comparison on three classification techniques for sex estimation from the bone length of Asian children below 19 years old: an analysis using different group of ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, M F; Yusuf, Suhaila M; Kadir, M R Abdul; Haron, H

    2015-02-01

    Sex estimation is used in forensic anthropology to assist the identification of individual remains. However, the estimation techniques tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed sex estimation on living individual child below 19 years old using the length of 19 bones of left hand applied for three classification techniques, which were Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) multilayer perceptron. These techniques were carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian population data set. All the 19 bones of the left hand were measured using Free Image software, and all the techniques were performed using MATLAB. The group of age "16-19" years old and "7-9" years old were the groups that could be used for sex estimation with as their average of accuracy percentage was above 80%. ANN model was the best classification technique with the highest average of accuracy percentage in the two groups of age compared to other classification techniques. The results show that each classification technique has the best accuracy percentage on each different group of age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Peer Group Rejection and Children's Outgroup Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David

    2010-01-01

    Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…

  5. AN ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS FOR CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES IN CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 0 - 10 YEARS : A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Congenital heart diseases (CHDs affect approx 6 – 8 infants per1000 live births have multifactorial origin. Various studies attribute number of maternal (e.g. family history of congenital heart diseases , consanguinity , febrile illness , co - morbidities like diabetes or hypertension and fetal factors (prematurity , LBW , chromosomal abnormality for development of CHDs. There is paucity of data in India; hence this study was conducted to evaluate risk factors in causation of CHDs in children. METHOD: It was a case control study conducted from Mar to Aug 2012 among children up to 10 ye ars of age attending tertiary care hospital in Maharashtra , India. A total of 75 cases of CHDs and equal number of matched controls were included in the study. RESULTS: The mean age of cases was 19 months and that of controls 18 months. Male to female rati o was 1.5:1 among cases and 1.7:1 among controls. VSD was the commonest cardiac anomaly found in 37(49.33% cases. In neonatal characteristics , cases had significantly increased number of prematurity and low birth weight as , compared to control(p=0.006 , O R - 3.25(95% CI 1.35 - 8.25 and(p<0.001 , OR - 3.86 (95% CI 1.85 - 8.11 respectively. Twenty six (35% children among cases were born of consanguineous marriage while 8(11% in controls and association was found statistically significant [p<0.01 , OR - 4.44 (95% C.I =1.75 - 12.24]. Similar associations were seen with family history of congenital heart diseases [OR 4.10(95% C.I=1.34 - 14.97 , co - morbidities [p=0.02 , OR - 2.7 (95% CI 1.1 - 6.93]. CONCLUSION: Our study showed maternal factors like consanguinity , family histor y of congenital heart diseases , co - morbidities like gestational diabetes , hypertension and drug intake during pregnancy were significant underlying risk factors for development of CHDs in children.

  6. Biological age as a basis for determining prenozological states in elementary school-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchenko T.G.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of determining the biological age (BA in elementary school-age children as an important criterion for prenozological diagnostics is justified from the theoretical as well as practical prospective. The classification of prenozological states based on the BA is presented. The experiment features data of 159 children aged 7-10 years. Analyses of the obtained mean functional age (FA data shows deviation from the calendar age (CA in all age and gender groups which enables to diagnose prenozological state of elementary school-age children.

  7. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  8. Group A rotavirus and bacterial agents associated with diarrhoea-induced hospitalisations in children below 5 years of age in Jammu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gazal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of 210 faecal samples collected from children below 5 years attending different hospitals in Jammu and exhibiting clinical signs of diarrhoea, 41.9% samples were found positive for group A rotavirus by RNA-PAGE. Escherichia coli isolated in the study belonged to nine serogroups, out of which O69 was most frequent, being present in 12.38% samples. E. coli serogroups well recognised as enteropathogens viz. O69, O20 and O153 were present in 27.6% samples. Other bacterial pathogens associated with diarrhoea were present in 8.09% samples, out of which Shigella spp. was found in 4.76% samples followed by Salmonella spp. (2.38% and Pseudomonas spp. (0.95%.

  9. The Special Value of Children's Age-Mixed Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the normal social play of children involves kids of various ages. Our human and great-ape ancestors most likely lived in small groups with low birth rates, which made play with others of nearly the same age rare. Consequently, the evolutionary functions of children's social play are best understood by examining…

  10. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  11. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students…

  12. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  13. Influence of mixed-age grouping on children's social development: A longitudinal study%混龄编班对幼儿社会性发展影响的追踪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文洁; 徐翠凤; 王异芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of mixed-age grouping on children's social development, and to provide evidence for developing children's social ability. Methods A total of 112 children (61 boys, 51 girls) were recruited in the longitudinal study. All the participants were examined twice at half-a-year interval by their teachers. Results On the self-knowledge and perseverance tasks, children in mixed-age class performed better than those in same-age class. But there were no significant differences on the emotion and independence tasks. For the entire, children in middle group performed better than those in junior group. After half a year, children scored higher than at the beginning. Conclusion Mixed-age grouping to some extent is helpful for preschoolers' social development.%目的 了解混龄编班对3~5岁幼儿社会性发展的影响,为促进幼儿社会性发展提供依据.方法 追踪北京师范大学实验幼儿园望京分园112名小班和中班幼儿(男61名,女51名),以0.5a为时间点,采用教师评定的方式,测查混龄编班对幼儿社会性发展的影响.结果 在自我认识和坚持性项目上,混龄班幼儿成绩显著好于同龄班(F(1,110)=5.51,F(1.111)=5.26,P值均<0.05);而在情绪和独立性项目成绩上差异无统计学意义.从整体上看,中班幼儿表现好于小班幼儿,幼儿在0.5a的表现好于开始时.结论 混龄编班在幼儿社会性发展中起到一定作用.

  14. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Glenn Schellenberg

    Full Text Available We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills.

  15. Children and Sports: Choices for All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child's age, maturity and abilities in mind. Ages 2 to 5 Toddlers and preschoolers are beginning ... usually best. Try: Running Tumbling Throwing Catching Swimming Ages 6 to 9 As children get older, their ...

  16. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3–10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development. PMID:28233820

  17. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia

    2017-02-24

    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3-10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development.

  18. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia

    2017-02-01

    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3-10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development.

  19. intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parasitic and mental development of children who are most vulnerable, (2) .... in both male and female school children compared with a marked ... irrespective of the sex - an indicator of nutritional instability (P<0.05). AGE ..... its role in iron deficiency in .African children ... Physical activity and growth of Kenya school children.

  20. An exploration of the mechanisms of change following an integrated group intervention for stuttering, as perceived by school-aged children who stutter (CWS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughter, Sarah; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    To explore the process of change and role of resilience following an integrated group intervention for children who stutter (CWS). Using an exploratory multiple case study design, this research sought to identify the most significant changes perceived by seven participants following therapy, the mechanisms of change, and the role of resilience in the process of change. Quantitative measurements of resilience were combined with qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of qualitative data showed that cognitive and emotional change was a key driver for therapeutic change, enabled by the shared experience of the group and a positive therapeutic environment. These changes were generalised into clients' real-world experiences, facilitated by their support network. Quantitative data demonstrated a statistically reliable positive change in overall Resiliency scores for four participants and reduced impact of stuttering scores on OASES-S for all participants, maintained at 12 month follow-up. This study demonstrates the importance of adopting an integrated approach in therapy for CWS, which incorporates Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) as a key component, to facilitate change and build resilience. These results are unique to this cohort of CWS and further investigation into the use of CBT and the process of change may be warranted. The reader will be able to (1) describe the integrated intervention used in this study (2) define the most significant change following therapy for the participants involved (3) summarise the key factors that facilitated change during the therapy process (as perceived by the participants). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Longitudinal Study on the Influence of Mixed-age Grouping in the Development of Children's Cognition%混龄编班对幼儿认知发展影响的追踪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱珍; 徐春燕; 王异芳

    2012-01-01

    To examine mixed-age grouping' s influence on the development of children' s cognition, there were 124 participants in the longitudinal study. All the participants were measured twice in half-a-year interval. The results indicated that "the performances of children in mixed-age class were better than those in same-age class on concrete cognition tasks (e. g. recognizing space and shape) and abstract cognition tasks (e. g. classification and number concept). In concrete cognition(e. g. recognizing shape and plant) and abstract cognition ( e. g. number concept and time) , children scored higher in time 2 than time 1. The performances of children in middle group were better than those in junior group in recognizing shape, animal, plant and number concept. All the results suggested that preschoolers' cognitive ability grew with age and mixed-age grouping to some extent promoted it.%研究采用短期追踪(以半年为时间间隔)考察了编班形式对124名中、小班幼儿认知发展的影响.结果发现,在具体认知指标(空间知觉、形状辨认)和抽象认知指标(特征分类、数概念)上,混龄班幼儿的表现显著好于同龄班;在具体认知指标(形状辨认、植物命名)和抽象认知指标(时间知觉、数概念)上,幼儿在时间点2上的表现显著好于时间点1;在具体认知指标(形状辨认、动物认知和植物命名)和抽象认知指标(数概念)上,中班幼儿的表现显著好于小班.这些研究结果表明,混龄编班对幼儿认知发展具有一定的促进作用.

  2. WEATHER SENSITIVITY OF KINDERGARTEN AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAZSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are sensitive to the changes of weather. Our study is carried out on effects of weather changes on children’s behaviour in 29 kindergarten groups in Eger. The kindergarten nurces were asked to characterise the behaviour of the children group every day during three month, from March 2011 to May 2011. Marks from 1 to 5 were defined, giving 3 to average behaviour, 2 and 4 to worse and to better than average one. Marks 1 and 5 were retained for extremely good or bad behaviour of the group on the given day. The components evaluated separately were as follows: i- Playing, array or disarray: How do they play? Do they keep the array, or make chaos? ii- Sleeping: Normally, children of this age sleep for a few hours after lunch, but sometimes they do not want to do so. We looked after how it depends on the actual weather. iii- Aggression: Sometimes, some children are more aggressive than the others, but on other days these children do not show aggressive attitude. Was this the case on the given day? iv- Activity: How were children motivated for activities on the given day? In order to compare these marks, provided by the kindergarten groups, with weather and its changes, front analysis was performed every day, based on temperature data at the 925 hPa and 850 hPa levels. Besides that, surface observations of temperature, sunshine, humidity were also incorporated into the search for weather relatedness of the children’s behaviour.

  3. Age Group Differences in Perceived Age Discrimination: Associations With Self-Perceptions of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giasson, Hannah L; Queen, Tara L; Larkina, Marina; Smith, Jacqui

    2017-08-01

    From midlife onwards, age stereotypes increasingly underlie social judgments and contribute to age-based discrimination. Whereas many studies compare differences between young and older adults in reports of age discrimination or sensitivity to age stereotypes, few consider age group differences among adults over 50. We form subgroups corresponding to social age group membership (early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old) and examine differences in reported experiences of everyday age discrimination and associations with self-perceptions of aging. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS: N = 15,071; M Age = 68, range 50-101), multivariate logistic regression was used to examine experiences of everyday discrimination attributed to age, and associations between age discrimination and self-perceptions of aging, in four age groups: early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old. People in the early midlife group (aged 50-59) reported more experiences of unfair treatment than the older age groups but were less likely to attribute their experiences to age discrimination. After controlling for covariates, individuals in all age groups who perceived their own aging positively were less likely to report experiences of age discrimination. The magnitude of this effect, however, was greatest in the early midlife group. Findings support proposals that midlife is a pivotal life period when individuals adjust to life events and social role transitions. Future longitudinal studies will provide further insight into whether positive self-perceptions of aging are especially important in this phase of the life course.

  4. [Group A streptococcal perineal infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, M; Levy, C; Romain, O; Schlemmer, C; Béchet, S; Bonacorsi, S; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Perineal diseases in children are usually caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). If the natural course of untreated cases is not known, it is well known that symptoms do not resolve spontaneously and can persist often for many months, until appropriate diagnosis and effective treatment are instituted. Furthermore, failures and recurrences after penicillin treatment are frequent. From 2009 to 2014, 165 perineal infections (median age: 48 months, extremes: 0.4-139) were enrolled by 15 pediatricians: 4 balanitis, 29 vulvo-vaginal diseases and 132 perianal infections. Painful defecation, anal fissures and macroscopic blood in stools were significantly more frequent in GAS perianal infections than negative GAS infections (p<0.01). The performance of GAS-rapid antigen test compared to the GAS culture was : sensitivity 97 % [CI 95 %: 89-100 %], specificity 76 % [CI 95 %: 66-84 %], negative predictive value 97 % [CI 95 %: 91-100 %], positive predictive value 71 % [CI 95 %: 60-80 %].

  5. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  6. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  7. Inclusion, children's groups, music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla; Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    2016-01-01

    the children! Initially by rocking in time to the rhythm, and then with dance moves or spontaneous singing. In this chapter, we demonstrate how music and music activities can be used as a means of including vulnerable children in school or preschool settings. Based on experiences from music therapy, we have......Music has a rare ability to affect us directly. Pulse and rhythms make us move, and notes and harmonies inspire and express our inner emotions in a direct and immediate way that goes beyond what words or even other art forms can rarely achieve (Panksepp & Trevarthen, 2009). Music creates...... a delightful build-up of tension or soothes us, and its narrative character gives rise to mental imagery or memories. Music brings people together and helps build communities across languages and common divides. And – not least – music captures children’s immediate attention, so when the music starts, so do...

  8. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  9. AUDIOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN GERIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesh

    2015-05-01

    : PTA and SRT values are similar in both the groups. Early old age groups presented with mild to severe types of deafness and loss in lower frequencies. Late old aged people showed profound hearing l oss and increased thresholds in higher frequencies. SRT estimation seemed more sensitive than calculating PTA in the persons above 85 years. Females showed 5 to 10 dB lower PTA values than males in all ages.

  10. Young Children's Understanding of the Limits and Benefits of Group Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Michelle; Friedman, Ori

    2017-02-20

    Group ownership is ubiquitous-property is owned by countries, corporations, families, and clubs. However, people cannot understand group ownership by simply relying on their conceptions of ownership by individuals, as group ownership is subject to complexities that do not arise when property is individually owned. We report 6 experiments investigating whether children ages 3 to 6 (N = 540) understand group ownership. In Experiments 1 and 2 children were asked who different objects belong to, and they appropriately judged that certain objects are more likely to belong to a group than to individual people. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated whether children understand the limits of group ownership. Children saw vignettes where agents modified or depleted property. Children ages 3 and older understood that individual members of a group should not deplete group-owned property, and children ages 5 and 6 understood that individual members should not modify group-owned property. Finally, Experiments 5 and 6 investigated whether children understand the benefits of group ownership. Children ages 5 and 6 judged that it is more acceptable for a group member to take group property than for a nonmember to do this, and children ages 4 to 6 judged that group members can take more group resources than can nonmembers. Together, these results are informative about how children conceive of group ownership rights, and about children's conceptions of groups. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. 45 CFR 147.120 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is provided for children of participants who have not attained age 26. The plan limits children who... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 147... MARKETS § 147.120 Eligibility of children until at least age 26. (a) In general—(1) A group health...

  12. Do children trust based on group membership or prior accuracy? The role of novel group membership in children's trust decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashi, Fadwa B; Mills, Candice M

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments examined how an informant's group membership can influence children's trust decisions. Participants (3- to 7-year-olds, N=162) were assigned to either the red or blue group based on their selection of a red or blue apron and watched an in-group and out-group informant provide conflicting names for a set of novel objects. When asked which informant they would prefer to rely on for new information, nearly all age groups trusted the in-group informant. Children then watched as each informant varied in accuracy by labeling either all or none of four familiar items accurately and were then asked which informant's labels they preferred for learning new information. When the in-group informant had previously demonstrated accuracy, children continued to trust the in-group informant for new information. In contrast, when the in-group informant had previously demonstrated inaccuracy, children were unsure who to trust, with only 6- and 7-year-olds showing a decrease in their trust for the inaccurate in-group informant. These findings demonstrate that group membership can skew how children encode new information and can make children uncertain about whom to trust for information.

  13. Group Hypnotherapy With Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others

    The impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled children was explored. Three hypnotic training sessions and instructions for six weeks of daily self-hypnotic practice containing suggestions for imagery related to improvement in these areas were given to 15 children, their…

  14. Group in social work with the aged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowy, L.

    1962-01-01

    Aspects of human behavior, including drives, needs, developmental tasks, aspirations, and wants, which are relevant for social work practice and for which the group is an indispensable instrumentality are discussed. Specific areas treated include common human needs, role and ego functioning, the roles of the social worker, and the differential impact of setting. Several ways in which groups can be used with the aged are outlined, including alleviation of isolation and aloneness and help in coping with the problem of loss of social identity, physical and mental loss, and the problem of lack of future. Groups can also be used to develop new social roles within the limits of present-day social instrumentalities, to develop a linkage of past, present, and future in relation to associational groups (e.g., family, peers) and to help create a new self-image of older adults which can be transmitted to society. It is pointed out that since most older persons who could benefit from group associations do not venture out on their own to join groups, social agencies have a responsibility to move out from their intramural confinement to the places where the elderly live.

  15. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  16. 29 CFR 2590.715-2714 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... participants who have not attained age 26. The plan limits children who are older than age 18 to the HMO option... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 2590.715... Requirements § 2590.715-2714 Eligibility of children until at least age 26. (a) In general—(1) A group...

  17. Age and learning environment: Are children implicit second language learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study crosses instruction condition with age, teaching forty children aged 5;3 to 7;11 and forty adults an artificial mini-language under implicit or explicit training conditions. Participants produced novel sentences and judged sentence grammaticality equally well in either condition, but both children and adults in the explicit training condition developed greater awareness of the mini-language's structures - and greater awareness was associated with better performance for both age groups. Results show that explicit instruction affects children and adults in the same way, supporting the hypothesis that age differences in implicit vs. explicit L2 learning are not exclusively caused by maturation, but also influenced by instruction.

  18. A STUDY OF PROFILE AND PATTERNS OF “JOINT INVOLVEMENT” IN UNDER 15 YEARS AGE GROUP CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RHEUMATIC FEVER AND RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani Shankar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT (BACKGROUND: Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart disease is the most common acquired childhood heart disease diagnosis made in India. Poly Arthritis is one of the common manifestations of the disease and making it one among many differential diagnoses for sub - acute arthritis. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To study the profile and patterns of joint involvement in children with Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart dise ase. MATERIALS & METHODS: The Study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital for 2 years period on less than 15 years children diagnosed as Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart disease as per Jones criteria (U pdated 1992. RESULTS: Joint involvement is one of the common manifestations of Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart disease. In our study Joint involvement is found in 50% cases (18 out of 36 cases i.e., 87.5% (7 out of 8cases of first attack cases and 39.28 %( 11 out 28 cases of reactivation cases. Further we found Polyarthritis is the predominant pattern of joint involvement. CONCLUSION: Basing on the results of our study we conclude that Joint involvement was observed in majority of cases, more so in first attack cases of Acute Rheumatic fever. Further Polyarthritis is the predominant pattern in our study. We found Knee Joint involvement as most common joint to be involved in children with Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart disease.

  19. STUDY OF RISK FACTORS AND LABORATORY PROFILE IN UNDER 15 YEARS AGE GROUP CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RHEUMATIC FEVER AND RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : BACKGROUND : Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart disease is the most common acquired child hood heart disease diagnosis made in India and is consistently associated with poverty and overcrowding. There is no single symptom , sign or laboratory test that is diagnostic of Acute Rheumatic fever and carditis . Revised , edited and updated Jones criteria are guidelines to assist practitioners and are not a substitute for clinical judgment . The main concern in liberalizing these criteria in developed countries may be over diagnosis of Acute Rheumatic fever. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To study the risk factors and laboratory profile in children with Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart d isease. MATERIALS & METHODS: The Study was conducted for 2 years period in a tertiary care hospital on less than 15 years children diagnosed as Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart disease. RESULTS: In our study all the cases (100% , 36 cases belongs to Lower socio economic status. Overcrowding is noted in all 36 cases (100% and we noticed rural predilection in 91.7% (33 cases cases. CONCLUSION: Basing on the results of our study we conclude that lower socio economic status , overcrowding (100% cases a nd rural predilection (91.7% are frequent associate risk factors of Acute Rheumatic fever / Rheumatic Heart disease. Further we found Anemia (88.89% , positive C.R.P (86.11% , and A.S.O titer more than 400 I.U/ml in (69.44% as common laboratory abnormali ties.

  20. Can a Targeted, Group-Based CBT Intervention Reduce Depression and Anxiety and Improve Self-Concept in Primary-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Cunningham, Enda

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of a 10 session, group-based, early-intervention cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Connections) on anxiety, depression and self-concept in nine 8-11 year old pupils in Northern Ireland. The intervention was facilitated by a teacher, education welfare officer and two classroom assistants, with…

  1. Pain management in pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Namrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of pain in palliative care of children is somewhat different from that in adults.The use of opioids in pediatric palliative care presents some unique challenges. Confident and rational use of opioids, illustrated by WHO Guidelines is essential for adequate management of pain in children with life limiting conditions.

  2. Social identity and the development of children's group attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, D; Flesser, D

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed predictions drawn from social identity theory (SIT; Tajfel & Turner) concerning the acquisition of young children's intra- and intergroup attitudes and cognitions. In a minimal group study, 5- and 8-year-old children (N = 258) were arbitrarily assigned to teams that varied in their drawing ability (social status). In addition, the study varied the extent to which the children believed they could change teams (social mobility) and whether the team had additional positive qualities beyond their drawing skill (social change). The children subsequently rated their liking for, and similarity to, the ingroup and the outgroup and the extent to which they wished to change groups. Consistent with SIT and research with adults, the results indicated that children as young as 5 years of age were sensitive to the status of their social group, and that ingroup status has important implications for both their desire to remain group members as well as their perceived similarity to other group members. The extent to which the findings provide support for SIT and the intergroup similarities between adults and children are discussed.

  3. Anthropometric assessment of a Middle Eastern group of autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagwa A Meguid; Wafaa A Kandeel; Khaled E Wakeel; Aly A El-Nofely

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth abnormalities are uniquely associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, the extent to which growth abnormalities are present has hardly been investigated. The current study aims to compare the differences in anthropometric parameters in a group of autistic Egyptian children and the healthy normal population. Methods: We recruited 100 children with ASD from the Outpatient Clinic for "Autistic Children" at the Medical Research Hospital of Excellence, National Research Centre in Cairo, Egypt. They were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Of these children at age of 3-10 years, 71 were males and 29 females. Eight anthropometric parameters were assessed in view of data of the healthy Egyptians of pertinent sex and age. Results: Weight and body mass index increased because of a signifi cant increase in subcutaneous fat thickness. This tendency with a probable decrease in muscle mass was more evident in male or in older children, likely resulting from sedentary life style and food selectivity. Conclusions: The Z head circumference score and its variance signifi cantly increased especially in males or older children, suggesting the relative overgrowth of the brain in a substantial percentage of Egyptian children with autism. We concluded that increased fat composition in Egyptian autistic children with decreased muscle mass necessitates tailoring a specially designed food supplementation program to ameliorate the severity of autism symptoms.

  4. Families with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  5. Factors possibly affecting prognosis in children with Wilms' tumor diagnosed before 24 months of age: A report from the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) Wilms Tumor Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Paolo; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Terenziani, Monica; Bisogno, Gianni; Collini, Paola; Di Martino, Martina; Melchionda, Fraia; Mosa, Clara; Nantron, Marilina; Perotti, Daniela; Puccio, Giuseppe; Serra, Annalisa; Catania, Serena; Spreafico, Filippo

    2017-06-09

    Children with Wilms' tumor (WT) aged under 24 months (infants) have a better prognosis than older patients. Our aim was to study the epidemiology of this age group, with focus on the modality of diagnosis, tumor size, and association with malformations/syndromes, seeking to understand if any of these factors might be related to prognosis. Infants diagnosed with WT between 2003 and February 2010 were evaluated. A query form was used to collect data on the modality of WT diagnosis (symptomatic or incidental), tumor volume, maximum diameter, site, and stage. Data were collected for 117 of 124 WT infants registered. Twenty-four cases had an incidental diagnosis (ID) of renal mass, usually arising from an abdominal ultrasound performed for other reasons, and 93 had been diagnosed based on clinical signs/symptoms. The incidental cohort displayed unifocal disease, mean tumor diameter 5.52 cm, mean tumor volume 84.30 ml, and 14 patients showed associated malformations. Symptomatic patients had mean maximum tumor diameter of 10.18 cm, mean tumor volume of 451.18 ml, and six had associated malformations. Our study showed that 20% of the infants had an ID of WT; they had a relatively smaller nonmetastatic tumor and a higher rate of malformations than infants of the symptomatically diagnosed group, but we did not detect any difference in age at diagnosis between the two groups. Conversely, we found a significant difference in the 5-year event-free survival rate (P = 0.018) between infants under 1 year (96%), more frequently associated with congenital malformations, and infants 1-2 years (80%). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Relative weights of the backpacks of elementary-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Benjamin P; Bryant, Judith B

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students (56% girls; 88% car or bus riders) participated. Their school backpacks were weighed, and their age, gender, and mode of transportation to school were recorded. Only 40% of the sample carried backpacks that were less than 10% of their body weights. Five percent of the students' backpacks exceeded 20% of their body weights. Neither age group nor gender significantly predicted relative backpack weight or relative weight levels. Recommendations are made for ways to reduce the weight these young children carry.

  7. Dental age estimation in Brazilian HIV children using Willems' method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rafael Boschetti; da Silva Assunção, Luciana Reichert; Franco, Ademir; Zaroni, Fábio Marzullo; Holderbaum, Rejane Maria; Fernandes, Ângela

    2015-12-01

    The notification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Brazilian children was first reported in 1984. Since that time more than 21 thousand children became infected. Approximately 99.6% of the children aged less than 13 years old are vertically infected. In this context, most of the children are abandoned after birth, or lose their relatives in a near future, growing with uncertain identification. The present study aims to estimate the dental age of Brazilian HIV patients in face of healthy patients paired by age and gender. The sample consisted of 160 panoramic radiographs of male (n: 80) and female (n: 80) patients aged between 4 and 15 years (mean age: 8.88 years), divided into HIV (n: 80) and control (n: 80) groups. The sample was analyzed by three trained examiners, using Willems' method, 2001. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to test intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and Student paired t-test was used to determine the age association between HIV and control groups. Intra-examiner (ICC: from 0.993 to 0.997) and inter-examiner (ICC: from 0.991 to 0.995) agreement tests indicated high reproducibility of the method between the examiners (Page estimation of both HIV and healthy children with unknown age.

  8. Prevalence of flat foot in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martin; Kotz, Rainer; Ledl, Thomas; Hauser, Gertrude; Sluga, Maria

    2006-08-01

    Our aim with this study was to establish the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 3- to 6-year-old children to evaluate cofactors such as age, weight, and gender and to estimate the number of unnecessary treatments performed. A total of 835 children (411 girls and 424 boys) were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis of flat foot was based on a valgus position of the heel and a poor formation of the arch. Feet of the children were scanned (while they were in a standing position) by using a laser surface scanner, and rearfoot angle was measured. Rearfoot angle was defined as the angle of the upper Achilles tendon and the distal extension of the rearfoot. Prevalence of flexible flat foot in the group of 3- to 6-year-old children was 44%. Prevalence of pathological flat foot was flat foot decreases significantly with age: in the group of 3-year-old children 54% showed a flat foot, whereas in the group of 6-year-old children only 24% had a flat foot. Average rearfoot angle was 5.5 degrees of valgus. Boys had a significant greater tendency for flat foot than girls: the prevalence of flat foot in boys was 52% and 36% in girls. Thirteen percent of the children were overweight or obese. Significant differences in prevalence of flat foot between overweight, obese, and normal-weight children were observed. This study is the first to use a three-dimensional laser surface scanner to measure the rearfoot valgus in preschool-aged children. The data demonstrate that the prevalence of flat foot is influenced by 3 factors: age, gender, and weight. In overweight children and in boys, a highly significant prevalence of flat foot was observed; in addition, a retarded development of the medial arch in the boys was discovered. At the time of the study, > 90% of the treatments were unnecessary.

  9. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane F. Maggi; Lívia C. Magalhães; Alexandre F. Campos; Bouzada,Maria Cândida F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory...

  10. Group aquatic aerobic exercise for children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M; O'Neil, Margaret E

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's diagnoses included autism spectrum disorder, myelomeningocele, cerebral palsy, or other developmental disability. More than half of the children ambulated independently without aids. Children swam laps and participated in relay races and games with a focus of maintaining a defined target heart rate zone. The strengthening component consisted of exercises using bar bells, aquatic noodles, and water resistance. The following outcomes were measured: half-mile walk/run, isometric muscle strength, timed floor to stand 3-meter test, and motor skills. Complaints of pain or injury were systematically collected. Significant improvements in the half-mile walk/run were observed, but not for secondary outcomes of strength or motor skills. The mean program attendance was 80%, and no injury was reported. Children with disabilities may improve their cardiorespiratory endurance after a group aquatic aerobic exercise program with a high adult:child ratio and specific goals to maintain training heart rates.

  11. Art therapy focus groups for children and adolescents with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafstrom, Carl E; Havlena, Janice; Krezinski, Anthony J

    2012-06-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for numerous psychological and social challenges. We hypothesized that art therapy focus groups would enhance the self-image of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Sixteen children with epilepsy, ages 7-18 years, were recruited from pediatric neurology clinics at the University of Wisconsin to participate in four art therapy sessions. Pre-group assessments included psychological screens (Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale; Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale; Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale) and art therapy instruments (Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale; Seizure Drawing Task; Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment). Developmental levels of drawings were significantly below age-expected standards. Following completion of focus groups, a repeat Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale showed no differences between pre- and post-test scores on any measure of this scale. However, subjects and parents were uniformly positive about their group experiences, suggesting a qualitative benefit from participation in art therapy focus groups.

  12. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  13. Short term memory development : Differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppenol, G.V.; Bouwmeester, S.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in

  14. On the relative role of different age groups in influenza epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Worby

    2015-12-01

    While the relative importance of different age groups in propagating influenza outbreaks varies, children aged 5–17 play the leading role during the largest influenza A epidemics. Extra vaccination efforts for this group may contribute to reducing the epidemic's impact in the whole community.

  15. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhu

    Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4

  16. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  17. 不同年龄组健康小儿磁共振全身扩散加权成像的表现%Whole body diffusion-weighted MR imaging in children of different age groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓凡; 秦阳; 朱凯; 刘鑫春

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the findings of whole body diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-DWI)in children of different age groups,in order to obtain the basic reference for the diagnosis of clinical diseases.Methods:70 healthy children (0~15y of age)were divided into 3 groups according to age:less than 12 m,12m to 5y and more than 5y.Consent was signed by parents and agreed to accept body magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI).Difference of signal intensities on WB-DWI of different age groups were compared and correlation analysis was performed.Results:Bilateral lungs,mediastinum,liver,pancreas and soft tissue showed low signal intensity whereas brain,spleen,kidney,scrotum and fulfilled urinary bladder showed high signal intensity.No obvious difference could be revealed in different organs.The signal intensity of metaphysis and diaphysis in long bones of extremities reduced gradually following increase of age.On WB-DWI, inconspicuous bone structure of extremities was found in infants 1m of age.High signal intensity of metaphysis could be seen in 66.7% of infants around 1m of age;in 43.4% of 1~5y;7.7% in 5~15y of age.High signal intensity in diaphysis of long bone was assessed in 28.6% of infants 2~12m,17.3% in 1~5y and basically vanished in 5~15y of age.Lymph nodes in the neck,axilla,submandibular region,iliac region as well bowel in mid-lower abdomen,pelvis presented as high signal in-tensities on WB-DWI.Conclusion:WB-DWI can be used as a non-invasive whole body examination in children,the examina-tion could be completed in a relatively short period of time.The images can fulfill the requirement of clinical diagnosis.Un-derstanding of the normal manifestations of WB-DWI in children could lay the foundation for its clinical diagnostic applica-tion.%目的:探讨不同年龄组健康小儿全身扩散加权成像(WB-DWI)表现,为此技术应用于临床疾病的诊断奠定基础。方法:70例健康体检儿,年龄1个月~15

  18. Socioeconomic status and cell aging in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Belinda L; Fernandez, Jose R; Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2012-06-01

    Theory suggests that chronic stress associated with disadvantaged social status may lead to acceleration in the rate of decline in physiological functioning. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cell aging, in children. We examined SES and LTL in 70 white and black US children aged 7-13 who participated in the community-based AMERICO (Admixture Mapping for Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes) study. LTL was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Parental education was positively associated with child LTL, net of controls for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and family income. Compared to children with at least one college-educated parent, children whose parents never attended college had telomeres shorter by 1,178 base pairs, which is roughly equivalent to 6 years of additional aging. Socioeconomic disparities in cell aging are evident in early life, long before the onset of age-related diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variability in neurocognitive performance: Age, gender, and school-related differences in children and from ages 6 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Renata; Gonçalves, Hosana Alves; Pureza, Janice da Rosa; Viapiana, Vanisa Fante; Fonseca, Flavia Dos Passos; Salles, Jerusa Fumagali; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2017-04-20

    Cognitive development in children presents peculiarities according to groups of age, gender, and type of school. Few studies have been investigating the effects of all these factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the main effects and the interactions of age, gender, and type of school in 419 children from ages 6 to 12 years old evaluated by the Child Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NEUPSILIN-Inf). Older children, children in private schools and girls presented better results. Interactions between all three independent variables were observed in different cognitive domains. The results highlight both the heterogeneity and the influence of multiple factors in children's neuropsychological development.

  20. Screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Howell and Davis's (2011) model that predicts whether stuttering in eight-year old children will persist or recover by teenage was adapted for screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering. Stuttering-severity scores were used to predict whether children belonged to fluent or stuttering groups. Predicted group assignments were compared for models in which severity measures were made with whole-word repetitions excluded or included. The best model for distinguishing children who stutter (CWS) from fluent children was validated across a wide range of ages. Stuttering-severity scores from CWS (222 for development, and 272 for validation, of the models) and fluent children (103 for development, and 25 for validation, of the models) were employed. Models were developed that predicted prognosis and screened CWS and fluent children. All these analyses were conducted both with whole-word repetitions excluded and included in the stuttering-severity scores. The model that screened fluent children from all CWS which excluded whole-word repetitions was validated for children across a range of ages. All models achieved around 80% specificity and sensitivity. Models in which whole-word repetitions were excluded were always better than those which included them. Validation of the screening for fluency with whole-word repetitions excluded classified 84.4% of fluent children, and 88.0% of CWS, correctly. Some of these children differed in age from those used to develop the model. Howell and Davis's risk factor model for predicting persistence/recovery can be extended to screen school-aged children for fluency. After reading this article, participants will be able to: (1) describe the difference between finding group differences and risk factor modeling in stuttering research; (2) summarize the strengths and weaknesses of stuttering severity instrument version three; (3) discuss how validation of diagnostic and screening models for fluency can be performed; (4) see how risk

  1. Intervenção fonoaudiológica com gêneros textuais em um grupo de escolares Speech Therapy intervention with textual genders in a group of school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Caroline Brisch Schneider

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: terapia com gêneros textuais em um grupo de escolares. OBJETIVOS: analisar os resultados terapêuticos a partir da introdução de gêneros textuais como funcionamento terapêutico em um grupo de escolares com queixa de distúrbios de aquisição da linguagem escrita. PROCEDIMENTOS: participaram deste estudo cinco sujeitos, matriculados na 5ª ou 6ª série do ensino fundamental, em escolas distintas da rede pública de ensino da cidade de Santa Maria/RS, com idade entre 10 e 13 anos e histórico de fracasso escolar e repetência. A análise da produção textual com temática livre foi realizada por meio do protocolo de Lubian (2007. A intervenção terapêutica se deu entre setembro de 2007 e junho de 2008. Ao término do trabalho terapêutico a produção textual foi novamente analisada segundo o mesmo protocolo. RESULTADOS: o trabalho com gêneros textuais facilitou a motivação para ler e escrever e teve, como consequência, a melhoria da progressão e coesão textuais, além da adequação dos aspectos formais da escrita como ortografia e pontuação. O trabalho em grupo foi essencial para que os integrantes pudessem ressignificar os sentidos atribuídos à queixa a partir de constante diálogo com troca de experiências de situações escolares e familiares. CONCLUSÃO: a terapia com gêneros textuais foi motivador para outras práticas de leitura e escrita no grupo estudado. Além disso, o estudo de casos demonstra que não se tratam de distúrbios, mas práticas de letramento insuficientes.BACKGROUND: therapy with textual genders in a group of school children. PURPOSE: to analyze the therapeutic results from the introduction of textual genders as a therapeutical tool in a group of children with difficulties in the acquisition of written language. PROCEDURES: five children enrolled in 5th and 6th grades in distinct schools of public education in the city of Santa Maria/RS, age group ranging between 10 and 13 years and a school

  2. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  3. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  4. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Agata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  5. Eating late in the evening is associated with childhood obesity in some age groups but not in all children: the relationship between time of consumption and body weight status in U.S. children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Stephanie; Wagstaff, David A; Kranz, Sibylle

    2009-01-01

    Background Some studies in adults indicate a positive correlation between eating later in the day and overall energy intake as well as body weight status. Thus, the time of food intake may be a risk factor in childhood obesity. This study was designed to describe the proportion of energy consumed in the time from 4 pm to midnight measured in two-hour increments and to determine a potential association between the time of proportion of energy consumed and body weight status. Methods Dietary, anthropometric, and socio-demographic data of 2–18 year olds (N = 11,072) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 was examined to describe the proportion of total energy consumed within two-hour time periods between 4 pm and midnight. To examine the potential association between eating later in the day and body weight status, generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were used to quantify the effect of time trends (proportion of total energy consumed in each 2-hour time period from 4 pm to 11.59 pm) on body weight status. Analysis was conducted in the total sample and in subgroups stratified by sex, ethnic group (Non-Hispanic white, Non-Hispanic black, Mexican American, Other Hispanic, and Other Race including multi-racial) and age group (2–5, 6–11, and 12–18 year olds). Complex sample survey analysis were used to assess differences at a significance level of p-value childhood obesity. Especially longitudinal studies in diverse child populations would help elucidate the importance of time of eating on obesity. PMID:19460145

  6. Unique transcriptomic response to sepsis is observed among patients of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Steven L; López, María Cecilia; Baker, Henry V; Larson, Shawn D; Efron, Philip A; Sweeney, Timothy E; Khatri, Purvesh; Moldawer, Lyle L; Wynn, James L

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially at the extremes of age. To understand the human age-specific transcriptomic response to sepsis, a multi-cohort, pooled analysis was conducted on adults, children, infants, and neonates with and without sepsis. Nine public whole-blood gene expression datasets (636 patients) were employed. Age impacted the transcriptomic host response to sepsis. Gene expression from septic neonates and adults was more dissimilar whereas infants and children were more similar. Neonates showed reductions in inflammatory recognition and signaling pathways compared to all other age groups. Likewise, adults demonstrated decreased pathogen sensing, inflammation, and myeloid cell function, as compared to children. This may help to explain the increased incidence of sepsis-related organ failure and death in adults. The number of dysregulated genes in septic patients was proportional to age and significantly differed among septic adults, children, infants, and neonates. Overall, children manifested a greater transcriptomic intensity to sepsis as compared to the other age groups. The transcriptomic magnitude for adults and neonates was dramatically reduced as compared to children and infants. These findings suggest that the transcriptomic response to sepsis is age-dependent, and diagnostic and therapeutic efforts to identify and treat sepsis will have to consider age as an important variable.

  7. Antipsychotic Prescriptions for Children Aged 5 Years or Younger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lòpez-De Fede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged ≤5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged ≤5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.

  8. Manifestations of sexual abuse in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, M M

    1995-01-01

    All adults who interact with preschool children need to be aware of possible indicators of sexual abuse. This information is especially important to advanced practice psychiatric/mental health nurses who interact with preschool-aged children in clinical, therapeutic, educational, research, legal, and community settings and to other nurses working in pediatric settings. Because there are few, if any, absolute physical indicators of child sexual abuse, the identification of empirically based emotional and behavioral indicators is important. This article reviews six studies that sought to identify such indicators for the preschool population. Studies reviewed confirm that not all sexually abused children are equally traumatized. When sexually abused children were compared to groups of non-sexually abused children receiving psychiatric services only one discriminating variable consistently arose. When overt sexual behavior, inappropriate for age, is manifested by a preschool-aged child, sexual abuse should be suspected. The identification of manifestations of sexual abuse in preschool-aged children is an appropriate topic for nursing research.

  9. OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN ADOLOSCENT AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Adolescent pregnancy is a common problem encountered in developing countries like India due to early age of marriage. This was seen in women with lower socioeconomic status. Many studies have shown conflicting results . AIM OF THE STUDY : To study the maternal and fetal effects of ad olescent pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHO DS : This is a hospital based retrospective study done in Yenepoya Medical C ollege over a period of 18 months. All patients with age between 10 - 19 years were included. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Multiple gestation, patients w ith chronic diseases like, chronic hypertension and diabetes, congenital heart disease and chronic renal disease. RESULTS : Teenage pregnancies are associated with increased incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight babies, delivery by forceps of vacuum , caesarean section and low APGAR at birth . CONCLUSION : Teenage women are more likely to have anaemia, preterm birth, low birth weight babies, delivery by forceps or vacuum or by caesarean section. Good family support, preconceptional counselling, regular antenatal care may improve the perinatal outcome to some extent.

  10. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Child Care and Development Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  11. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  12. Treating Asthma in Children Ages 12 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating asthma in children ages 12 and older Treating asthma in children ages 12 and older requires different steps than in younger children. Get tips ... Common signs and symptoms of asthma in children ages 12 and older may include: Cough Wheezing, a ...

  13. Evaluation of status of cadmium, lead, and nickel levels in biological samples of normal and night blindness children of age groups 3-7 and 8-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Sirajuddin; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Shah, Faheem; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Arain, Mohammad Balal

    2011-09-01

    The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial, and particular consideration has been given to childhood trace metals toxicity, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. This study was designed to compare the levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) in scalp hair, blood, and urine of night blindness children age ranged 3-7 and 8-12 years of both genders, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment, for the determination of Cd, Pb, and Ni in biological samples of night blindness children. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The digests of all biological samples were analyzed for Cd, Pb, and Ni by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated significantly higher levels of Cd, Pb, and Ni in the biological samples (blood, scalp hair, and urine) of male and female night blindness children, compared with control subjects of both genders. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating toxicity of trace metals in biological samples of night blindness children.

  14. The Impact of Audience Age and Familiarity on Children's Drawings of Themselves in Contrasting Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…

  15. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  16. Language growth in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, the results of a longitudinal study of two age-groups of Dutch-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and an intervention study examining a metalinguistic approach for older school-age children with SLI are reported. Grammatical development of school-age chil

  17. Swedish parents' activities together with their children and children's health: a study of children aged 2-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, Leeni T; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2014-11-01

    Nordic children's health has declined. Studies show that parents' engagement in children's leisure-time activities might provide beneficial health outcomes for children. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Swedish parents' activities together with their children, the parents' experiences of time pressure and their children's health. Data of 1461 Swedish children aged 2-17 years old that were collected in the NordChild study of 2011 were used. We analyzed physical health, diseases and disabilities, psychosomatic health and well-being, and the parents' experiences of time pressure; and we calculated the associations between parental activity together with the child and health indicators. Activities that were significantly and positively associated with children's health at ages 2-17 years of age were: playing and playing games; going to the cinema, theatre, and sporting events; reading books; playing musical instruments/singing; sports activities; watching TV/video/DVD. Playing video games or computer games, driving child to activities and going for walks were significantly and positively associated at age groups 7-12 years and 13-17 years. Activities that were negatively associated with health were: surfing/blogging on the Internet, going shopping and doing homework. Parents who were not experiencing time pressures had a higher level of activity together with their children. The parental experience of time pressure was associated with work time, with less homework activity and more symptoms in children. The family and home are important settings for the development of children's health we found eight parental activities together with their children that promoted the children's health parents' working time and their time pressure experiences affected their activities with their children there is a need for an increased focus on parental activities that are positively associated with children's health. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of

  18. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.

  19. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelinka J; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P; Sival, Deborah A

    2014-06-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo SD 3y 11mo). The investigated scales involved the commonly applied International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS), and PEG-board tests. We investigated the interrelatedness between individual ataxia scales, the influence of age and sex, inter- and intra-observer agreement, and test-retest reliability. Spearman's rank correlations revealed strong correlations between ICARS, SARA BARS, and PEG-board test (all pataxia rating scales are reliable, but should include age-dependent interpretation in children up to 12 years of age. To enable longitudinal interpretation of quantitative ataxia rating scales in children, European paediatric normative values are necessary. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  1. The effect of exercise on cardiovascular risk markers in Mexican school-aged children: comparison between two structured group routines Efecto del ejercicio sobre marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular en escolares mexicanos: comparación entre dos rutinas grupales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Balas-Nakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effects of two groups of exercise routines on cardiovascular disease risk markers. Material and Methods. An intervention study was conducted with 319 Mexican school-aged children in which routines were implemented Monday through Friday for 12 weeks. Routine A was the reference group, with 20 min of less intense activity and routine B was the new group with 40 min of aerobic exercises. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, fat mass percentage (FM%, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipids, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured before and after the intervention. Results. Routine A had an effect on diastolic pressure, while routine B had an effect on BMI, FM%, blood pressure and triglycerides. Routine B had a greater effect on blood pressure than routine A. The prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both groups. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise is an effective health promotion strategy to reduce some cardiovascular disease risk markers.Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de dos rutinas grupales de ejercicio sobre marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular. Material y métodos. Intervención en 319 escolares mexicanos. Las rutinas fueron implementadas por 12 semanas (rutina A (referencia: 20 min con ejercicios menos intensos vs rutina B (nueva: 40 min con ejercicios aeróbicos. Se midieron al inicio y al final el índice de masa corporal (IMC, masa grasa (%MG, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, lípidos, lipoproteínas, glucosa e insulina. Resultados. La rutina A tuvo efecto sobre la presión diastólica; la B tuvo efecto sobre el IMC, %MG, presión arterial y triglicéridos. La rutina B tuvo mayores efectos en la presión arterial que la rutina A. Las prevalencias de obesidad, hipertensión arterial e hipertrigliceridemia disminuyeron en ambos grupos. Conclusiones. El ejercicio aeróbico es una estrategia de promoción exitosa para reducir algunos marcadores de riesgo

  2. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  3. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  4. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  5. Influence of hearing age and understanding verbal instructions in children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đoković Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing age is defined as a period of using any amplification. Most researches indicate that hearing age influences the developmental rate of auditory and speech-language abilities in deaf children, especially when cochlear implantation was performed before the age of three. This research is aimed at analyzing the influence of hearing age on understanding verbal instructions in children with cochlear implants. The sample consists of 23 children with cochlear implants and 21 children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 10. Hearing age of children with cochlear implants was between 2 and 7 years. Token Test with toys, adapted for children with hearing impairments, was used to analyze understanding verbal instructions. The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences between children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 7, on all subtests and the total score regardless of the hearing age (sub1 p<0.001, sub2 p<0.000, sub3 p<0.001, total score p<0.000. No statistically significant differences were determined on any of the subtests in children aged between 7.1 and 10, regardless of the hearing age. Comparative results analysis within the experimental group of children with different hearing age indicates that the difference in understanding verbal instructions between these two groups is not statistically significant.

  6. Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases.

  7. Children in residential care: development and validation of a group climate instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L.L. Strijbosch; G.H.P. van der Helm; M.E.T van Brandenburg; M. Mecking; I.B. Wissink; G.J.J.M. Stams

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and validation of the Group Climate Instrument for Children aged 8 to 15 years (GCIC 8-15), which purports to measure the quality of group climate in residential care. Methods: A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on data of 117 children in Dutch

  8. Children in residential care: development and validation of a group climate instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbosch, E.L.L.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; van Brandenburg, M.E.T; Mecking, M.; Wissink, I.B.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and validation of the Group Climate Instrument for Children aged 8 to 15 years (GCIC 8-15), which purports to measure the quality of group climate in residential care. Methods: A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on data of 117 children in Dutch

  9. The Coming of Age in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Carol; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Briefly discusses the concept of ageism, the stereotyping of groups of people on the basis of age, and lists resources including books, articles and organizations which can be used to combat ageism. (BR)

  10. Pattern of skin diseases in paediatric age group and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 300 patients from first day of life to 17 years of age were analysed for pattern of skin disorders. School going children formed majority (41.3% of cases followed by preschool children (32%. Infections formed the commonest disorder (31 % followed by eczemas (24%, papulosquamous disorders (12%, infestation (8.6% and urticaria (5.3% while vitiligo, acne vulgaris, alopecia areata and genodermatoses were seen in 2.7% cases each.

  11. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander K R van Zon

    Full Text Available The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender.The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and

  12. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  13. [A discussion on setting up target age group for immunization against leptospirosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, J T; Wang, S S; Lan, W L

    1995-08-01

    This paper presented the lesson of setting up a false immunization priority age group for leptospirosis which failed to prevent the leptospirosis outbreak. Our experience was that in the rice paddy field type endemic area the priority age group for the vaccination against leptopirosis should be 15 to 34 year olds followed by 35 years old or above. There was no preventive effect in the vaccination for the children 14 years old or yaunger, to our observation.

  14. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed.

  15. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  16. Latina Mothers’ Perceptions of Healthcare Professional Weight Assessments of Preschool-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Alma D.; Slusser, Wendelin M.; Barreto, Patricia M.; Rosales, Norma F.; Kuo, Alice A.

    2010-01-01

    To understand Latina mothers’ definitions of health and obesity in their children and perceptions of physician weight assessments. 24 low-income Spanish speaking Mexican mothers of children ages 2–5 years were recruited to participate in 4 focus groups. Half of the mothers had overweight or obese children and half had healthy weight children. Focus group comments were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. Themes and supporting comments were identified independently by 3 reviewers fo...

  17. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  18. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of

  19. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioec

  20. Nutritional status survey of children with autism and typically developing children aged 4-6 years in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Nannan; Zhao, Dong; Wu, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4-6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (Z WH) and BMI for age Z-score (Z BMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism.

  1. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  2. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  3. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age.

  4. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  5. [Characteristics of group A streptococcal meningitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, C; Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S; Béchet, S; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) meningitis in children are rare. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical, biological and outcome data on GAS meningitis recorded in the Bacterial Meningitis (BM) French Surveillance Network (GPIP/ACTIV). From 2001 through 2012, 4,564 children suffering from proven bacterial meningitis were recorded in the data base. Among them, 0.7 % were GAS infections. The median age was 5.6 years. A history of community acquired infection before the onset of GAS meningitis was frequent. Apart from the identification of the bacterial species, GAS meningitis were clinically and biologically indistinguishable from meningitis caused by other pathogens notably S. pneumoniae. Case fatality rate was 8 %.

  6. Redefining meaningful age groups in the context of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geifman, Nophar; Cohen, Raphael; Rubin, Eitan

    2013-12-01

    Age is an important factor when considering phenotypic changes in health and disease. Currently, the use of age information in medicine is somewhat simplistic, with ages commonly being grouped into a small number of crude ranges reflecting the major stages of development and aging, such as childhood or adolescence. Here, we investigate the possibility of redefining age groups using the recently developed Age-Phenome Knowledge-base (APK) that holds over 35,000 literature-derived entries describing relationships between age and phenotype. Clustering of APK data suggests 13 new, partially overlapping, age groups. The diseases that define these groups suggest that the proposed divisions are biologically meaningful. We further show that the number of different age ranges that should be considered depends on the type of disease being evaluated. This finding was further strengthened by similar results obtained from clinical blood measurement data. The grouping of diseases that share a similar pattern of disease-related reports directly mirrors, in some cases, medical knowledge of disease-age relationships. In other cases, our results may be used to generate new and reasonable hypotheses regarding links between diseases.

  7. Evaluation of the Teaching of English to German Children of Pre-School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Schonbein, Gisela

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some reasons offered for the ease with which young children learn a second language. Children of kindergarten age can learn language in a playlike atmosphere in groups no larger than 10-12 children. Pronunciation is the outstanding skill, but comprehension and active speaking also show favorable results. (PJM)

  8. Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Anna C; Davies, Mark R; Anampiu, Kirimi; Morpeth, Susan C; Nyongesa, Sammy; Mwarumba, Salim; Smeesters, Pierre R; Efstratiou, Androulla; Karugutu, Rosylene; Mturi, Neema; Williams, Thomas N; Scott, J Anthony G; Kariuki, Samuel; Dougan, Gordon; Berkley, James A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the extent of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the serotypes that cause disease, we analyzed surveillance data for 64,741 hospital admissions in Kilifi, Kenya, during 1998-2011. We evaluated incidence, clinical presentations, and emm types that cause invasive GAS infection. We detected 370 cases; of the 369 for which we had data, most were skin and soft tissue infections (70%), severe pneumonia (23%), and primary bacteremia (14%). Overall case-fatality risk was 12%. Incidence of invasive GAS infection was 0.6 cases/1,000 live births among neonates, 101/100,000 person-years among children <1 year of age, and 35/100,000 among children <5 years of age. Genome sequencing identified 88 emm types. GAS causes serious disease in children in rural Kenya, especially neonates, and the causative organisms have considerable genotypic diversity. Benefit from the most advanced GAS type-specific vaccines may be limited, and efforts must be directed to protect against disease in regions of high incidence.

  9. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  10. Minimal groups increase young children's motivation and learning on group-relevant tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the "puzzles child" or children in a control condition. Experiment 2 showed that this boost in motivation occurred only when the group was associated with the task. In Experiment 3, children assigned to a minimal group associated with word learning learned more words than children assigned an analogous individual identity. The studies demonstrate that fostering shared motivations may be a powerful means by which to shape young children's academic outcomes.

  11. Fluency remediation in dyslexic children: does age make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Brenbati, Federica; Donini, Roberta

    2008-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether older dyslexic children may obtain fewer gains on fluency and accuracy with respect to their younger peers after specific remediation.Changes in accuracy and fluency of a group of children with a diagnosis of dyslexia attending third and fourth grades were compared with those obtained by a group of children attending the sixth, seventh or eighth grade in two different treatments, one based on the Balance model (Bakker) and the second based on the automatization of syllable recognition (sublexical).Among all comparisons between the gains in accuracy and fluency obtained by the two groups, only the younger group in the sublexical treatment obtained a statistically significant gain with respect to their older peers' accuracy in reading words.These outcomes suggest that, at least for the chronological ages and types of treatments considered in this study, older children with dyslexia may obtain comparable gains to their younger peers, suggesting that 'it is never too late' to remediate reading fluency and accuracy.

  12. Growth, bone maturation, and biochemical changes in Brazilian children from two different socioeconomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, E D; Round, J M; Jones, D A

    1986-10-01

    A study of blood biochemistry related to skeletal growth in 900 Brazilian children aged 7 to 17 yr is reported. Two groups were studied, a privileged and underprivileged sample. Anthropometry and measures of bone maturation in the control group were comparable with American and British standards. Underprivileged children showed growth impairment and delay in bone maturation. No signs of rickets were found in either group. Plasma calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and total protein did not differ in the two groups of Brazilian children. Plasma alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus were abnormal in the underprivileged children. Alkaline-phosphatase activity and phosphorus levels did not fall towards adult levels after the predicted age of the adolescent spurt for underprivileged children. Menarche was delayed in the underprivileged girls.

  13. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  14. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  15. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  16. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... belly Has had a recent injury to the abdomen Is having trouble breathing Call your provider if ...

  17. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Armando

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature ( 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group that includes perinatologists, pediatricians, nutritionists, and pediatric endocrinologists since 10% to 15% will continue to have

  18. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    evaluate the effect of four extra school-based PE lessons per week on future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children aged 6 to 13(paper III). 4.To examine the prospective associations of cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) and direct and indirect indicators of adiposity with CVD risk factors...... cardiovascular health consequences and linked to subsequent morbidity and mortality in adolescence and adulthood. The issue is of growing concern for public health and therefore an important area for health researchers to address. Physical activity is essential for the wellbeing and normal growth of children...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups...

  19. Demirjian's system for estimating dental age among Northwestern Turkish children aged 4-16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercalikyalcinkaya, S; Dumlu, A; Bekiroglu, N; Kizilyel, G; Kargul, B

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of individual tooth formation stages in a group of northwestern Turkish children and to evaluate the suitability of Demirjian's method. dental ages (DAs) were assessed from 1,678 digital panoramic radiographs of healthy children (aged 4-16 years; 743 females and 935 males). Seven mandibular teeth were evaluated according to the Demirjian's eight-grade dental maturity scale by one examiner. Dental age was compared to chronologic age (CA) using a paired t-test. Intra- and inter-observer agreements were assessed with 250 OPGs. The mean difference between DA and CA was statistically significant among genders (p = 0.004), and it was 0.50 +/-1.90 years in girls and 0.77+/-1.86 years in boys. The mean DA was significantly higher (passessment of DA were 0.964 and 0.961, respectively, which is considered "substantial agreement". Results show that the mean DAs of the studied group of Turkish children are significantly higher than the CAs. Overestimation is notable at the beginning of puberty.

  20. The Nature-Nurture Controversy Revisited: Divorce and Gender as Factors in Children's Racial Group Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Guidubaldi, John

    1997-01-01

    Examined divorce and gender as factors in racial differences in performance of elementary age children on Hahnemann Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test, Vineland Teachers Questionnaire, and an interview. Found more racial group differences within the divorced…

  1. Diabetes technology and treatments in the paediatric age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalitin, S; Peter Chase, H

    2011-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases and its incidence has doubled during the last decade. The goals of intensive management of diabetes were established in 1993 by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (1). Children with T1D and their caregivers continue to face the challenge to maintain blood glucose levels in the near-normal range. It is important to prevent sustained hyperglycaemia which is associated with long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications and to avoid recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia, especially in young children, which may have adverse effects on cognitive function and impede efforts to achieve the recommended glycaemic targets. Advances in the use of technology that may help maintain the metabolic control goals for young people with T1D were centred on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) (2-4), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (5-7), and combining both technologies into a closed-loop system (8-10). The dilemma in paediatrics of patient selection for insulin pump therapy was found to be most successful in those with more frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and younger age prior to pump initiation (2). Similarly, those who used a dual-wave bolus probably paid closer attention to their management and had lower HbA1c levels (3). The advantage of using a pre-meal bolus to improve postprandial glucose levels was shown to offer another potential method to improve glycaemic control (4). SMBG is an important component of therapy in patients with diabetes, especially in the paediatric age group. Standard use of glucose meters for SMBG provides only intermittent single blood glucose levels, without giving the 'whole picture' of glucose variability during the 24 h, and especially during the night, when blood glucose levels are seldom measured. Therefore, the use of a device such as real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) that provides

  2. Examination of the Social Behavior of 4 Age Old Preschool Children According to Teacher Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amca, Dervise; Kivanç Öztug, Emine

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to compare the social behavior of children according to the teacher interviews. Screening model method has been used at this research which is one of the descriptive research methods. The study group of this research was created totally 691 children, from the age group of 4, which were observed at least 8 weeks…

  3. Irreducible Inguinal Hernias in the Paediatric Age Group | Ezomike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irreducible Inguinal Hernias in the Paediatric Age Group. ... Nigerian Journal of Medicine ... Irreducibility is an ever present risk in untreated inguinal hernias and its management remains an important part of pediatric surgery practice. When a ...

  4. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  5. Study of phonological awareness of preschool and school aged children with cochlear implant and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarianzadeh, Niloufar; Shahbodaghi, Mohammadrahim; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enables children to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities in their preschool and school years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether children who had cochlear implantation before 18 months of age will develop better skills in phonological awareness than children who had cochlear implants in 18-36 months of age. A third purpose of this study was to examine whether some factors like the child's age or sex would have any effects on developing of age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities. 48 children with 70 to 95 months of age who had been utilizing their cochlear implant(s) before 36 months of age (CI group) and 30 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Child's age had a significant effect on phonological awareness, but sex had absolutely no effect in each group. Children in the cochlear implanted group were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in the area of phonological awareness, especially in phonemic awareness. The age of implantation was another significant variable. Although children with a younger age at implantation got better scores in phonological awareness test, they were outperformed by their normal hearing peers in this area.

  6. Families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  7. Prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders in school-aged children in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablah, R; Velasco-Benítez, C A; Merlos, I; Bonilla, S; Saps, M

    2015-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in school-aged Salvadoran children using standardized diagnostic criteria. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs in school-aged children in El Salvador. A total of 395 children participated in the study (one public school and one private school). School children completed the Spanish version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III (QPGS-III), an age-appropriate and previously validated instrument for diagnosing FGIDs according to the Rome III criteria. Sociodemographic (age, sex, type of school) and familial (family structure and size, family history of gastrointestinal disorders) data were obtained. The mean age of the sample was 11.8 years ± 1.6 SD (median 10, range 8-15) and 59% of the participants were female. Eighty-one children met the diagnostic criteria for a FGID (20%). Defecation disorders were the most common group of FGIDs. Functional constipation was diagnosed in 10% of the children and 9.25% were diagnosed with abdominal pain-related FGIDs (most commonly IBS, 3.75%). IBS overlapped with functional dyspepsia in 11% of the cases. Children with FGIDs frequently reported nausea. Children attending private school and older children had significantly more FGIDs than children in public school and younger children. FGIDs are common in school-aged Salvadoran children. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-related differences in perceptuomotor procedural learning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Caroline; Catale, Corinne; Schmitz, Xavier; Quertemont, Etienne; Meulemans, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    Procedural learning is generally considered to proceed in a series of phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role during the initial step. From a developmental perspective, little is known about the development of procedural learning or the role played by explicit cognitive processes during learning. The main objectives of this study were (a) to determine whether procedural learning performance improves with age by comparing groups of 7-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults and (b) to investigate the role played by executive functions during the acquisition in these three age groups. The 76 participants were assessed on a computerized adaptation of the mirror tracing paradigm. Results revealed that the youngest children had more difficulty in adapting to the task (they were slower and committed more errors at the beginning of the learning process) than 10-year-olds, but despite this age effect observed at the outset, all children improved performance across trials and transferred their skill to a different figure as well as adults. Correlational analyses showed that inhibition abilities play a key role in the performance of 10-year-olds and adults at the beginning of the learning but not in that of 7-year-olds. Overall, our results suggest that the age-related differences observed in our procedural learning task are at least partly due to the differential involvement of inhibition abilities, which may facilitate learning (so long as they are sufficiently developed) during the initial steps of the learning process; however, they would not be a necessary condition for skill learning to occur. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  10. The Influence of Group Size on Children's Competitive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Nicholson, Catherine; Waite, Angela; Roy, Rosanne; Simpson, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that children would compete more playing competitive games in tetrads than in dyads. Found that male target children competed more in tetrads than in dyads; female target children did not show different levels of competition based on group size. Based on a global measure of smiling, the emotional atmosphere was less positive in…

  11. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  12. Formant frequencies of Malay vowels produced by Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Hua-Nong; Zourmand, Alireza; Chia, See-Yan; Yong, Boon-Fei; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

    2012-09-01

    The formant frequencies of Malaysian Malay children have not been well studied. This article investigates the first four formant frequencies of sustained vowels in 360 Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Generally, Malay female children had higher formant frequencies than those of their male counterparts. However, no significant differences in all four formant frequencies were observed between the Malay male and female children in most of the vowels and age groups. Significant differences in all formant frequencies were found across the Malay vowels in both Malay male and female children for all age groups except for F4 in female children aged 12 years. Generally, the Malaysian Malay children showed a nonsystematic decrement in formant frequencies with age. Low levels of significant differences in formant frequencies were observed across the age groups in most of the vowels for F1, F3, and F4 in Malay male children and F1 and F4 in Malay female children.

  13. Prescribing of medicines in the Danish paediatric population outwith the licensed age group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with off-label prescribing of medicines in a paediatric population. METHODS: We analysed spontaneous ADR reports for children from ages 0 to 17 years submitted to the Danish national ADR database from 1998 to 2007. We defined off-label pre......AIM: To identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with off-label prescribing of medicines in a paediatric population. METHODS: We analysed spontaneous ADR reports for children from ages 0 to 17 years submitted to the Danish national ADR database from 1998 to 2007. We defined off......-label prescribing as prescriptions outside the licensed age group. Off-label ADRs were categorized by therapeutic group, age of child, type and severity. The unit of analysis was one ADR. RESULTS: We analysed 4388 ADRs for children reported in the national database. Approximately 17% of reported ADRs were...... associated with off-label use, 60% of them serious. More than one half of off-label ADRs were reported in adolescents. Serious ADRs due to off-label prescribing are more likely to be reported for hormonal contraceptives (ATC group G), anti-acne preparations (ATC group D) and allergens (ATC group V...

  14. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Maggi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI, and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS. RESULTS: preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC-2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p = 0.002. In the CMMS (p = 0.034, the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75 and 103.0 (± 12.25 for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p = 0.001 and required more assistance from the caregiver (p = 0.010 than term children. CONCLUSION: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers.

  15. INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAILWAYS OPERATORS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaeva V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of some individual psychological characteristics of the drivers of rail transport in the age groups 25–34 and 35–45 years. We have identified a number of differences between the two age groups associated with both features individually-psychological sphere, and in the psycho-physiological features. Features of age-related psychological differences can be explained by the age characteristics of the representatives of each group; psycho-physiological features of age differences may reflect developed in the course of a long professional activity features. We have also developed adaptive strategies, consciously or unconsciously selected during the long-running monotonous activities and in small social groups (teams of drivers allow, on the one hand, higher quality performance of their professional duties, on the other — to avoid the harmful effects of stressful situations at work. It can be assumed that the composition of drivers age group 35– 45 years is the result of natural selection, when those who did not cope with this type of activity is simply dismissed or transferred to other kinds of professions

  16. A Comparison of the Age-MLU Relation in Normal and Specifically Language-Impaired Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Thomas; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mean length of utterance (MLU) and age were significantly correlated in both language impaired (N=24) and normal preschool children with rates of MLU change also similar for both groups of children. (DB)

  17. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier N. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.

  18. Oral Health: What Parents Can Do: School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Oral Health What Parents Can Do: School Age Children Past ... offices, clinics, and sometimes in schools. Read More "Oral Health" Articles Children's Dental Health / What Parents Can Do: ...

  19. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... on children's family characteristics, parents' socio-economic characteristics; and their dietary habits.

  20. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, A C

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.

  1. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Batan Alith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years. Methods: From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. Results: The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012; "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p < 0.001; "Have you discontinued your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008. In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups, whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups. Conclusions: In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  2. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alith, Marcela Batan; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years). From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador). The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012); "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008). In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups), whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups). In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  3. Dental age in children with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyskens, R.W.F.; Katsaros, C.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess dental age in children with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate and to compare this with a noncleft control group. DESIGN: Two-group, mixed-longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Cleft group from an academic center for cleft lip and palate treatment. Noncleft control group

  4. Dental age in children with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyskens, R.W.F.; Katsaros, C.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess dental age in children with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate and to compare this with a noncleft control group. DESIGN: Two-group, mixed-longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Cleft group from an academic center for cleft lip and palate treatment. Noncleft control group f

  5. Recapturing Hope: Elementary School Support Groups for Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    Considers the usefulness of elementary school support groups for children of alcoholics. Discusses identification of young children of alcoholics and offers suggestions for establishing support groups. Examines techniques for exploring feelings, building self-esteem, developing coping skills, managing stress, rehearsing decision making, and…

  6. Age-related postoperative morphine requirements in children following major surgery--an assessment using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Hole, P

    1996-01-01

    To investigate if small children require less morphine for postoperative analgesia than do older children and adolescents we analysed the morphine consumption pattern of 28 consecutive children on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following major surgery. The median age-specific morp......To investigate if small children require less morphine for postoperative analgesia than do older children and adolescents we analysed the morphine consumption pattern of 28 consecutive children on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following major surgery. The median age...... of this age group may have a higher total postoperative morphine requirement following major surgery than older children and adolescents....

  7. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood.

  8. Selected executive functions in children with ADHD in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at finding out whether at the early school age the effectiveness of executive functions distinguishes children with ADHD from those of the control group. Besides, the aim was to check to what extent the use of diagnostic methods evaluating executive functions in children at the early school age is justified. The analysis comprised cognitive flexibility, sustained attention, interference control and planning ability. Those methods of neuropsychological evaluation were used which are mostly applied to characterize executive functions: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, interference task based on the Stroop Interference Test, and tests of verbal fluency and Tower of London. The examined group consisted of 50 children aged 7-10: 25 children with hyperactivity of combined type and 25 children of the control group. Each group consisted of 23 boys and 2 girls. The average age in the criterial group was 8 years and 10 months (SD=10 months, whereas in the control group – 8 years and 6 months (SD=11 months. According to the obtained results, children with ADHD at early school age do not exhibit a wide spectrum of executive functions deficits, which is probably associated with immaturity of executive processes in all children of that age. The findings comprised only difficulties in inhibition of response, monitoring of activity, and ability of executive attention to intentional guidance of the mental effort depending on the task’s requirements. In investigations of children with ADHD at early school age the use of neuropsychological tests and trials designed for evaluation of executive functions is justified only in limited degree. They do not significantly distinguish between children with ADHD and children without this disorder, therefore the results may be mainly of descriptive, and not explanatory, value.

  9. AN INTEGRATIVE GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN. THE WIZARDING SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria Popescu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tendencies in child psychotherapy is the integration of various psychotherapeutic approaches and technical interventions belonging to different orientations. Based on the Harry Potter stories, the „Wizarding School” structured group therapy program is a 12-step integratively oriented program applicable in personal development, individual and group therapy for children aged 6 to 13 (at present being adapted for adult psychotherapy. The program takes place within a fairy tale, being therefore a type of informal hypnotic trance. The interventions are drawn from the lessons described in Harry Potter’s story at Hogwarts, based on the fundamental principles of child psychotherapy and including elements of play therapy, art therapy, hypnotherapy, cognitive- behavioural therapy, transactional analysis, supportive therapy, family therapy and person centred therapy. From a theoretical point of view the program is based on elements from a number of psychotherapeutic approaches, the main concept being that we need to create a therapeutic myth that is acceptable to a child. The program is not suitable for children with structural deficits, who have difficulties in making the difference between fantasy and reality.

  10. Young children's experiences of participating in group treatment for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernebo, Karin; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2016-01-01

    The risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) between caregivers is increased during early childhood. The adverse effects on the health and development of the youngest children may be severe. Effective and promising interventions for children who have experienced IPV have been developed and evaluated. However, there is a lack in knowledge about how the children themselves experience the interventions. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of group treatment designed to improve the psychological health of young children in the aftermath of family violence by elucidating the children's experiences of participating. Nine children, aged 4 to 6 years, were interviewed after participating in group programmes specifically designed for children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence. A semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions was used. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, to ensure a focus on the children's own views and experiences. Five master themes embracing the children's experiences were identified: joy - positive emotional experience of participation; security - feeling safe; relatedness - relationships within the group; to talk - externalised focus on the violence; and competence - new knowledge and skills. Theoretical and clinical implications and the benefit of including very young children's views and experiences in research are discussed.

  11. Danish Focus group protocol for children & adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, Michelle Nadia; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sansolios, Sanne

    2010-01-01

    the opportunity to explore the children’s knowledge and perception of a given subject. Thus recognizes the participants as experts of their world. FG’s have the additional advantages of minimize the possibility of the children responding to please the interviewer, and also remove the pressure from the individual...

  12. Effects of Age and Ritalin Dosage on the Mother-Child Interactions of Hyperactive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Observed the mother-child interactions of three age groups of hyperactive children (N=54) during free play and task settings using two dose levels of Ritalin. Results indicated that the interactions of hyperactive boys with their mothers improve with age, and that Ritalin produces further improvements regardless of age examined. (LLL)

  13. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  14. Is gluten challenge really necessary for the diagnosis of coeliac disease in children younger than age 2 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, V.M.; Nadort, van de C.; Gerritsen, S.; Kneepkens, C.M.F.; Kate, F.W. ten; Gijsbers, C.F.M.; Schweizer, J.J.; Nikkels, P.G.J.; Benninga, M.A.; Houwen, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD), gluten challenge is recommended for children under the age of 2 years at initial biopsy. The aim of the study was to investigate the diagnostic yield of gluten challenge in this group of children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included children aged 2

  15. Ageing and the group-reference effect in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon-Nyeon; Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines age differences in the memory benefits from group-referncing. While prior work establishes that the memory performance of younger and older adults similarly benefits from relating information to the self, this study assessed whether those benefits extend to referencing a meaningful group membership. Young and older adult participants encoded trait words by judging whether each word describes themselves, describes their group membership (selected for each age group), or is familiar. After a retention interval, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. The results indicate that group-referencing increased recognition memory performance compared to the familiarity judgements for both young and older groups. However, the group-reference benefit is limited, emerging as smaller than the benefit from self-referencing. These results challenge previous findings of equivalent benefits for group-referencing and self-referencing, suggesting that such effects may not prevail under all conditions, including for older adults. The findings also highlight the need to examine the mechanisms of group-referencing that can lead to variability in the group-reference effect.

  16. Evaluation of dental and bone age in iron-deficient anemic children of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Haridas, Harish; Hunsigi, Prahlad; Farooq, Umar; Erugula, Sridhar R.; Ealla, Kranti K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Dental and bone age is very essential for the dental practitioner in planning treatments and is an extra source of information for the pediatrician, orthopedician, and endocrinologist. There are few published data regarding collation between dental age, bone age, and chronological age in iron-deficiency anemic children. This study has been undertaken to evaluate and compare dental age, bone age, and chronological age in children with iron-deficiency anemia. Materials and Methods: One hundred iron-deficiency anemic children were selected in the age group of 8–14 years. Chronological age of the child was recorded by asking birth date from parents or checking school records. Dental age was calculated by Demirjians method and bone age was evaluated using Bjork, Grave, and Brown's method. Unpaired student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were the two statistical tests applied to compare dental, bone, and chronological age. Results: Dental and bone age was significantly lower (P < 0.001) compared to chronological age. The correlation between the three ages was positive in both sexes. Conclusion: Dental and bone age retardation was a significant feature in our sample of 100 iron-deficient anemic children. Bone age and dental age are valuable parameters in assessing the overall growth of the child. Further studies are required to corroborate our findings. PMID:27891309

  17. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  18. What Do Children Know about Their Futures: Do Children's Expectations Predict Outcomes in Middle Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallerod, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Are children's statements about their futures related to outcomes in middle age? In 1966 almost 13,500 children ages 12-13 were asked whether they thought their futures would be worse, similar or better as compared to others of their own age. It was shown that children with low, and surprisingly high, expectations did suffer from increased…

  19. Dental age assessment of Western Saudi children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshihri, Amin M.; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption for age estimation in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents (aged 2–20 years), for forensic odontology application. Materials and methods This cross-sectional survey analyzed orthopantomograms (OPGs) of the complete dentition (including root development) to estimate the deviation from chronological age. Each OPG was de-identified and analyzed individually and classified into age-groups by the lead author, using the methods of the Atlas of Tooth Development. Results OPGs from a total of 252 patients [110 (44%) males, 142 (56%) females] aged 2–20 years (24–240 months) were examined in this study. The average estimated and chronological ages of subjects differed significantly p 12 months. Conclusion This study, conducted in a sub-population of different origin than the UK sample used for the development of the London Atlas, identified variation in age estimates that may have significant impacts on results. The establishment of a composite international repository of atlas-based data for diverse ethnic sub-populations would be of great value to clinicians across the globe. PMID:26236126

  20. Dental age assessment of Western Saudi children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshihri, Amin M; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption for age estimation in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents (aged 2-20 years), for forensic odontology application. This cross-sectional survey analyzed orthopantomograms (OPGs) of the complete dentition (including root development) to estimate the deviation from chronological age. Each OPG was de-identified and analyzed individually and classified into age-groups by the lead author, using the methods of the Atlas of Tooth Development. OPGs from a total of 252 patients [110 (44%) males, 142 (56%) females] aged 2-20 years (24-240 months) were examined in this study. The average estimated and chronological ages of subjects differed significantly p 12 months. This study, conducted in a sub-population of different origin than the UK sample used for the development of the London Atlas, identified variation in age estimates that may have significant impacts on results. The establishment of a composite international repository of atlas-based data for diverse ethnic sub-populations would be of great value to clinicians across the globe.

  1. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces asthma in a group of children from the Caguas municipality of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jessica; Fernández, Mariola; García Fragoso, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the preferred method of infant nutrition. Its role in preventing childhood asthma is controversial. Determine whether breastfeeding protects against the development of bronchial asthma in children. A survey was answered by parents of children less than 18 years of age attending a Pediatric clinic at Cidra, Puerto Rico from July to December 2008. A group of 175 mothers were included in the study. The mean age was 28 years (range 14-50). The mean age of the children was 5 years. There was family history of asthma in 64% of the families. The prevalence of asthma in these children was 50%. Sixty-six percent of the mother's breastfed but only 27% did it exclusively. Children who were exclusively breastfed had a lower prevalence of asthma and milk protein allergy. This study correlates with literature reports linking exclusive breastfeeding to a reduction in asthma and other allergic diseases.

  2. Age-group differences in inhibiting an oculomotor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-11-01

    Age-group differences were examined in the delayed oculomotor response task, which requires that observers delay the execution of a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual cue. This task differs from antisaccade and attentional capture in that inhibition causes saccades to be postponed, not redirected. Older adults executed more premature saccades than young adults, but there were no age-group differences in latency or accuracy of saccades executed at the proper time. The results suggest that older adults are less capable of inhibiting a prepotent saccadic response, but that other aspects of visual working memory related to the task are preserved.

  3. Helping Aging Parents of Adult Children with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Allan V; Scogin, Forrest; Macneil, Gordon; Leeper, James; Wimberly, Joshua

    2010-10-01

    This manuscript reports the results of a study that pilot tested a home-delivered, multi-dimensional problem-solving intervention aimed at helping aging parental caregivers of adult children with schizophrenia. The results indicate that the participants (N=5) who received the 10-session intervention showed increased life satisfaction and emotional well being, and reduced feelings of burden, compared to those participants in the control group (N=10). If a planned larger scale evaluation of the intervention provides evidence of its effectiveness, practitioners could have a valuable new treatment tool to provide assistance to this caregiver population.

  4. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-10-17

    Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (Pdata suggest that age-associated adverse events should be considered in planning, monitoring, and regulating clinical trials.

  5. Young children's inclusion decisions in moral and social-conventional group norm contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T; Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2017-06-20

    Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm. Groups held either moral (equal or unequal resource allocation) or social-conventional (traditional or nontraditional) norms. In the moral contexts, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the moral concern for equality regardless of the peer's group membership or their group's specific norm. In the social-conventional contexts, however, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the conventional concern for maintaining traditions but only at the group-specific level. Furthermore, with age children increasingly based their inclusion decisions on normative concerns, rather than on group membership concerns, and differed in their inclusion decisions for ingroups and outgroups. Finally, children reasoned about their decisions by referencing concerns for fairness, group norms, and group membership, suggesting that preschool children weigh multiple concerns when deciding whom to include in their groups. Overall, the current study revealed differences in how preschool children weigh moral and social-conventional concerns in intergroup contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF OVARIAN TUMORS IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ovarian tumors are r are in children and constitute 1% of all childhood malignancies and 8% of abdominal tumors. Large cysts and those complicated by torsion make their presence clear by their symptomatology. However, ovarian pathology is still mostly discovered at laparotomy for presumptive appendicitis. Accurate diagnosis of these tumors at such a young age is a great challenge to surgeons and pathologists. This article reviews the clinical presentation, radiological imaging, gross and histopathological findings at the Pathol ogy Department of a Paediatric Referral centre in Hyderabad

  7. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  8. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  9. Seroprevalence study of anti diphtheria antibodies in two age-groups of Romanian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Coldea, Ileana-Luminiţa; Ilie, Anamaria; Stănescu, Aurora; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Diphtheria represents a serious infectious disease with high epidemic potential. It is a vaccine preventable disease (a minimum vaccine coverage of 95% for children of 1 year and 90% in adults could prevent the disease). Diphtheria vaccination is included in the National Immunization Program (NIP). Complete vaccination for children consists in DTaP (diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine) vaccine administration from the age of 2 months until 4 years and dT vaccine (tetanus toxoid and a reduced dose of diphtheria toxoid) at 14 years old. The aim of this paper was to highlight the protection against diphtheria of an age segment of the Romanian adult population (20 to 39 years old) using a seroprevalence study. The Romanian subjects were selected from two age groups: 20-29 years (n = 219) and 30-39 years (n = 229), representative for all counties of Romania. The commercial kit Anti-Diphtheria Toxoid ELISA (IgG) (EUROIMMUN) was used to detect the antibodies of IgG class against diphtheria toxoid in the sera obtained from our subjects. We detected a 56.6% rate of positive sera (> 0.1 IU/ml--protection level) for the 20-29 age group and 31.7% positivity for the 30-39 age group. These data show a low protection level against diphtheria of the Romanian adult population, which decreases with age. The serologic data on preventable vaccine diseases are useful in order to evaluate the success of the immunization programs.

  10. Children's Media Comprehension: The Relationship between Media Platform, Executive Functioning Abilities, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Children's media comprehension was compared for material presented on television, computer, or touchscreen tablet. One hundred and thirty-two children were equally distributed across 12 groups defined by age (4- or 6-years-olds), gender, and the three media platforms. Executive functioning as measured by attentional control, cognitive…

  11. Age Effects in a Study Abroad Context: Children and Adults Studying Abroad and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…

  12. Age Effects in a Study Abroad Context: Children and Adults Studying Abroad and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…

  13. Temperament and Friendship in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of three components of temperament (activity level, impulsivity, and soothability) on children's friendships was investigated. Children (40 girls, 35 boys) aged 43 to 69 months responded to a sociometric interview and teachers provided temperament ratings. The probability of children choosing particular classmates as friends was…

  14. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  15. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  16. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  17. Microscopic study of human spleen in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizamma Alex

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microscopic structure of spleen is variable depending on the developmental stage of the organ, and the age and immune status of the individual. The aim of the investigation was to study the microscopic structure of human spleen in different age groups, starting from a six month old foetus up to the eighth decade of life. Methods: Seventy formalin fixed human spleens obtained postmortem, were included in the study. They were classified into different age groups, in both sexes, for a detailed study of the microscopic details. Results: The white pulp of spleen showed peri-arteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS and lymphatic follicles. The corona or mantle zone and the germinal centre were discernible in many of the Malpighian bodies. The marginal zone separating the red pulp from the white pulp also could be clearly demarcated. The marginal sinus and peri-follicular zone could be seen in some sections only. The capsule thickness, trabecular network, cellularity of white pulp and red pulp, the connective tissue framework seen in the red pulp etc., showed variations in the different age groups. Conclusion: The microscopic structure of spleen varies in different age groups, with the PALS and the white pulp showing scanty cellularity in the six month foetus, and almost uniform cellularity in all areas of spleen at full term. Thereafter the follicles showed increase in its cellularity up to the third decade, and then seemed becoming progressively atrophic. Further studies are required on age related changes in the cellular architecture of this organ correlating with its functions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1701-1706

  18. Age- and sex-related emotional and behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorders: comparison with control children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Uno, Hiroyuki; Kawabe, Kentaro; Okada, Fumi; Saito, Isao; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Ueno, Shu-ichi

    2014-07-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often present with emotional and behavioral problems, which could change the clinical course, especially during childhood, and affect future quality of life. The aim of this study was to clarify the age- and sex-related differences of these problems in ASD. The study subjects were 173 patients with ASD (age: 4-16 years) and 173 age- and sex-matched community children (control group). The parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used for comparison of the emotional and behavioral problems between the two groups. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores were significantly higher in children with ASD than controls at all ages. The score of total difficulties was significantly higher in girls with ASD than in boys, while the score in male controls was significantly higher than in female controls. Age-related differences in emotional and behavioral problems were observed both in children with ASD and controls, but the characteristics were different: in children with ASD, emotional symptoms and peer problems in both sexes and conduct problems in girls increased significantly with age, while none of the problems in the controls changed with age except for a decrease in the score of hyperactivity/inattention developmentally in both sexes. Prosocial behaviors of children with ASD and controls showed small changes with age. Emotional and behavioral problems are common in children with ASD and showed age- and sex-related differences. Our study emphasizes the importance of recognizing those differences among children with ASD for early intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. Features of Chronic Bronchitis in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina L. Ignatova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases are assuming greater relevance and importance today. Chronic bronchitis is a self-nosology, which may precede the development of COPD, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The main problem in this disease is caused by late diagnosis and treatment due to the delay by patients in seeking medical help. The aim of the work was to study the distribution and exposure to tobacco smoke, especially chronic bronchitis, depending on various factors, including age. Methods: We examined 1779 persons, including 855 men and 924 women. The mean age of the population was 35.83±8.3 years. We conducted surveys and spirometry. The outcome was assessed after a bronchodilation test was performed with salbutamol 400 mcg. We performed all statistical analysis using software package Statistica 10. Results: We identified chronic bronchitis in 9.2% of the cases in the group of younger individuals and in 14.9% of the cases in the group of older individuals, during the active detection of chronic bronchitis using questionnaires. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was slightly higher among the younger (39.5% than the older persons (33.6%; the frequency of smoking in a group of chronic bronchitis was reliably higher. Also, in this group, the performance spirometry reliably decreased. Conclusions: Outpatient survey is an effective method of identifying chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a major risk factor in the group of young respondents and the prevalence of smoking is inversely related to the education level of the respondents, regardless of age. As the decline in the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is the main criterion diagnosis of COPD, it revealed significant declines in the FEV1 of the younger smoking individuals, which may help to predict the development of COPD in the older age group.

  20. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  1. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  2. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  3. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  4. Energy cost of activities in preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute energy cost of activities in children increase with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cos...

  5. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  6. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  7. Group Training for Parents of Children with Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Willie M.

    1986-01-01

    Ten mothers of children 8-12 with adjustment difficulties received group training in behavioral strategies and communication skills. After six weekly six-hour sessions, ratings on the Child Behavior Rating Scale and Family Adjustment Test indicated that the parents' children's perceptions of family functions, behavior, and adjustment were…

  8. Enamel defect of deciduous teeth in small gestational age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyanti S Syarif

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel defect could be caused by genetic and environmental factors in prenatal period. Meanwhile, prenatal malnutrition could also cause small gestational age (SGA. Small Gestational Age is the term used for a neonatal baby with birthweight below the -2SD normal value or 10th percentile on the intrauterine Lubchenco curve. This condition is due to intra-uterine growth restriction, and eventually ends up with several developmental defects of organs, including teeth. In fact, deciduous tooth development has a critical phase within this development period. Purpose: The aim of this study is not only to find out the incidence of enamel defect in SGA children, but also to know the percentage of SGA risk factor to develop enamel defect. Method: This was a epidemiology research with consecutive admission technique. It consisted of 153 SGA children aged 9–48 months. Next, the Ponderal index was used to assign SGA types, symmetrical or asymmetrical one-in this study 59 and 94 respectively. On the other hand, three hundred and ninety Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA children aged 4–48 months were also included in the study as a control group. Enamel defect then was determined by intraoral examination, classified into hypoplasia and hypocalcifications. Chi-square test was finally used to determine the relative risk ratio between the SGA and the control AGA children. Result: The result of this research showed that incidence of enamel defect in SGA children was 86.92%, meanwhile, that in AGA children was 23.08%, 66.00% of which were commonly suffered from hypocalcification. With p<0.05 it is also known that SGA children has the risk of enamel defect with hypocalcification, about 79% higher than AGA children. Conclusion: It could be concluded that 79% of SGA children had the risk of deciduous tooth enamel defect with hypocalcification as the most.Latar belakang: Defek email dapat terjadi karena faktor genetik dan lingkungan sistemik yang

  9. EL DESEMPEÑO SENSORIAL DE UN GRUPO DE PRE-ESCOLARES Y ESCOLARES CON DIFICULTADES EN LAS ACTIVIDADES COTIDIANAS Evaluation of sensory modulation in a children group of preschool and school age with deficits in daily activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio G María Helena

    2010-12-01

    , in correctly appreciating their abilities, and in taking responsibilities for their actions. Traditionally, assessment and intervention with these children has focused on the disability management. The ICF recognizes the individuality and the barriers and facilitators stemming from environmental and personal factors. Objectives. Compare the evaluation of children group with sensory integration deficit from the point of view of disability and CIF evaluation on daily activities deficits. Materials and Methods. The study was exploratory and descriptive, six pre-school and twenty-two students who attended SERH between September 2008 and March 2009. We compared and coded the score for each element of the sensory profile Based upon these; we evaluated bodily functioning and participation in daily activities. Results. The results demonstrate compatibility between the functions and participation activities and sections of sensory processing, but not, in relation to the factors for the specificity of the test. Characterization of sensory processing conditions is feasible with the combined use of references. Conclusion. This study shows that sensory stimulation can have a positive impact in development and performance of daily activities in disabled children. There is increasing need to provide appropriate treatment alternatives through proper professional and family education.

  10. Language Ability Groups in Bilingual Children: A Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gray, Shelley; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Classifying children into two language ability groups, with and without language impairment, may underestimate the number of groups with distinct language ability patterns, or, alternatively, there may be only a single group characterized by a continuum of language performance. The purpose of the current study was to identify the number…

  11. Young children's motor interference is influenced by novel group membership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, J.E. van; Endedijk, H.M.; Stapel, J.C.; Hunnius, S.

    2016-01-01

    From early childhood onward, individuals use behavior copying to communicate liking and belonging. This non-verbal signal of affiliation is especially relevant in the context of social groups and indeed both children and adults copy in-group more than out-group members. Given the societal importance

  12. Episodic memory, concentrated attention and processing speed in aging: A comparative study of Brazilian age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochele Paz Fonseca

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuropsychological studies on the processing of some specific cognitive functions throughout aging are essential for the understanding of human cognitive development from ages 19 to 89. Objectives: This study aimed to verify the occurrence of differences in the processing of episodic memory, concentrated attention and speed of attentional processing among four age groups of adults. Methods: A total of 136 neurologically healthy adults, aged 19-89, with 9 or more years of schooling, took part in the study. Participants were divided according to four age groups: young, middle-aged, elderly and oldest old adults. Subtests of the Brief Neuropsychological Evaluation Instrument (NEUPSILIN were applied for the cognitive assessment. Mean score of corrected answers and of response times were compared between groups by means of a one-way ANOVA test with post-hoc Scheffe procedures and ANCOVA including the co-variables of years of schooling and socio-economical scores. Results: In general, differences in performance were observed from 60 years old on. Only the episodic memory task of delayed recall reflected differences from the age of around 40 onwards and processing speed from around the age of 70 onwards. Thus, differences were found between the age groups regarding their cognitive performance, particularly between young adults and elderly adults, and young adults and oldest old adults. Conclusions: Our research indicates that the middle-aged group should be better analyzed and that comparative cross-sectional studies including only extreme groups such as young and elderly adults are not sufficient.

  13. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Diez Castilho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group.METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity.RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity was higher in private schools (37.3% than in public ones (32.9% and among males (37.5%, compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05. The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0 and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0. The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4 and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group.

  14. Human group A rotavirus infections in children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, S; Böttiger, B; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with similar to 40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children......One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with similar to 40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children...

  15. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Jennette P. Moreno; O’Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O; Baranowski, Janice; Woehler, Deborah; Kimbro, Rachel T.; Johnston, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. Methods This is a secondary analysis of 1651 elementary school children with complete biannual longitudinal data from kindergarten to the beginning of 5th grade. Heights and weights were ...

  16. Automated bone age assessment of older children using the radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.

    2008-03-01

    The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).

  17. Evaluation of human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits A and B in various age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, R; Caglar, K; Aybay, C

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits in various age groups. Antibodies against the intact diphtheria toxin and the diphtheria toxin subunits A and B were evaluated in 1319 individuals using a double-antigen ELISA. Although high levels of protection (83.6%, 95% CI 79.2-87.4) were found in children and adolescents, the middle-aged adult population was less protected (28.8%, 95% CI 24.3-33.6). An increase in age was associated with a decrease in the frequency of protected individuals in the 0-39-year age group (p antibodies against the intact toxin. In children aged antibodies were observed were found to correlate with the ages at which booster doses are administered. Overall, males appeared to be more protected than females (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.34-2.08, p antibody levels of > or =0.1 IU/mL against the intact toxin, but did not have protective antibody against subunit B. Determination of anti-subunit B antibody levels should help in evaluating the effectiveness of diphtheria boosters and other aspects of diphtheria immunity.

  18. [Evaluation of preventive group intervention for children of divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütkenhaus, P; Hasler-Kufner, P; Plaum, E

    1996-09-01

    Following the results of American intervention programs for children of divorce, the effects of a preventive group program for 10 to 12 year old children of divorced families were studied within a pretest-posttest design. The aim of the intervention was to decrease children's fears, increase their feelings of self-esteem and to improve the relationship to their parents. The program consists of 10 group-sessions about divorce related changes and experiences in the children families and 3 evenings for their parents. Subjects were 5 boys and 2 girls. The results show that after the intervention fears are decreased, feelings of self-esteem are increased and the subjective perception of the own family is more positive than before. The results are discussed in terms of the further development of interventions for children of divorce.

  19. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  20. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Slater

    Full Text Available Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  1. Group Rhythmic Synchrony and Attention in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K Khalil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchrony, or the coordinated processing of time, is an often-overlooked yet critical context for human interaction. This study tests the relationship between the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting with the ability to attend in 102 elementary schoolchildren. Impairments in temporal processing have frequently been shown to exist in clinical populations with learning disorders, particularly those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting—an instance of the type of temporal processing necessary for successful interaction and learning—would be correlated with the ability to attend across the continuum of the population. A music class is an ideal setting for the study of interpersonal timing. In order to measure synchrony in this context, we constructed instruments that allowed the recording and measurement of individual rhythmic performance. The SWAN teacher questionnaire was used as a measurement of attentional behavior. We find that the ability to synchronize with others in a group music class can predict a child’s attentional behavior.

  2. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  3. Sociodemographic profile of speech and language delay up to six years of age in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST. The prevalence of speech and language delay in each age group was calculated and also analyzed in the sociodemograhic profile. Results: A total of 102 children were studied in which 13.7% had language delay. 18% had questionable language delay and 15.7% had suspect language delay. Though among language delay mixed type was more, children had more difficulty in doing expressive items. Language delay was also found to be more prevalent in males, single child, first born child and children of working mothers. Parental age, education or socioeconomic status was not found to be related to language delay. Conclusion: The 13.7% prevalence of language delay in the children indicates the need of early identification and for it a simple screening tool like LEST is a must during the routine evaluation of young children in pediatric clinics. Health care givers and parents should ensure that babies grow up in a language rich, nurturing and stimulating environment right from birth onwards.

  4. Reliability of Tethered Swimming Evaluation in Age Group Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A; Batalha, Nuno; Marques, Mário C; Morouço, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of tethered swimming in the evaluation of age group swimmers. The sample was composed of 8 male national level swimmers with at least 4 years of experience in competitive swimming. Each swimmer performed two 30 second maximal intensity tethered swimming tests, on separate days. Individual force-time curves were registered to assess maximum force, mean force and the mean impulse of force. Both consistency and reliability were very strong, with Cronbach’s Alpha values ranging from 0.970 to 0.995. All the applied metrics presented a very high agreement between tests, with the mean impulse of force presenting the highest. These results indicate that tethered swimming can be used to evaluate age group swimmers. Furthermore, better comprehension of the swimmers ability to effectively exert force in the water can be obtained using the impulse of force. PMID:25114742

  5. Reliability of Tethered Swimming Evaluation in Age Group Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaro Nuno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of tethered swimming in the evaluation of age group swimmers. The sample was composed of 8 male national level swimmers with at least 4 years of experience in competitive swimming. Each swimmer performed two 30 second maximal intensity tethered swimming tests, on separate days. Individual force-time curves were registered to assess maximum force, mean force and the mean impulse of force. Both consistency and reliability were very strong, with Cronbach's Alpha values ranging from 0.970 to 0.995. All the applied metrics presented a very high agreement between tests, with the mean impulse of force presenting the highest. These results indicate that tethered swimming can be used to evaluate age group swimmers. Furthermore, better comprehension of the swimmers ability to effectively exert force in the water can be obtained using the impulse of force.

  6. Children's Subjective Identification with Social Groups: A Group-Reference Effect Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark; Sani, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    A study is reported that seeks to examine 5-, 7-, and 10-year-old children's internalization of in-groups within the self-concept. Methodologically, the study draws upon the self-reference effect, extending it to the group-level identity. In particular, it was found that participants' encoding of information with reference to in-groups (family,…

  7. Polycomb group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell aging and malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Karin; de Haan, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Protection of the transcriptional "stemness" network is important to maintain a healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment during the lifetime of the organism. Recent evidence shows that fundamental changes in the epigenetic status of HSCs might be one of the driving forces behind many age-related HSC changes and might pave the way for HSC malignant transformation and subsequent leukemia development, the incidence of which increases exponentially with age. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key epigenetic regulators of HSC cellular fate decisions and are often found to be misregulated in human hematopoietic malignancies. In this review, we speculate that PcG proteins balance HSC aging against the risk of developing cancer, since a disturbance in PcG genes and proteins affects several important cellular processes such as cell fate decisions, senescence, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair.

  8. Group play therapy for improving mental coping ability in children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian WANG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the role of group play therapy in the improvement of mental coping ability in children with asthma. Methods Forty-four asthmatic children with behavior problems were randomly divided into experimental group (n=25 and control group (n=19. All children received two tests. The tools in this research were Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Coping with a Disease Questionnaire (CODI. Before intervention, both groups received pretest. Members from the experimental group were provided with counseling for 3 months, once every two weeks for a total of 6 times, while during this period the members of the control group had not any experimental intervention.After intervention, the two groups received posttest. Five patients dropped out, and 39 went through this research (20 in experimental group and 19 in control group. The effects of group play therapy on behavior problems and coping strategy of children with asthma were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant differences in the general information (age, sex, education, parents' marriage status and family structure and basic score of CBCL and CODI between the two groups (P > 0.05. After intervention, the scores of social problems, social withdrawal, depression, compulsive behavior, aggressive behavior and immature and total behavior problem score dropped significantly in experimental group (P < 0.05 while there were no significant changes in control group. And the scores of acceptance, avoidance and emotional reaction increased significantly in experimental group (P < 0.05 while there were no significant changes in control group. Conclusions Group play therapy can improve the children's confidence and interpersonal adaptability and emotion management capacity, thus correcting deviant behavior, ameliorate coping strategy, improving mental coping capability, and promote the development of mental health in children with asthma.

  9. Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: Effects of age and language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de

    2003-01-01

    differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children......Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance...

  10. The relation of age to the severity of Type I diabetes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman H Al-Fifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between the age and severity of Type 1 diabetes in children 0 - 5 years and more than 5 years of age admitted to Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia over a 7-year period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of children less than 13 years of age with Type 1 diabetes admitted to the Pediatric Department, between 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2006. Results: A total of 181 children with Type1 diabetes were admitted to the hospital during this period. Of these, 27.6% were children 5 years or less, while 72.4% were more than 5 years of age. The duration of symptoms was longer in younger children compared to older patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 31.4% of the younger children, and in 15.3% of the children more than 5 years old. Hospital stay was also longer in children less than 5 years of age. Most significant differences were in the younger children′s group and affected the biochemical test results. Conclusion: The present study showed that more younger children present to the hospital late, and in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis compared to older patients. Efforts should be directed at improving the knowledge and skills of the primary health care personnel to be able to diagnose and refer these cases earlier.

  11. Fairness overrides group bias in children's second-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Dunham, Yarrow

    2017-04-01

    Adults and children show ingroup favoritism in their 3rd-party punishment of cooperative norm violations, suggesting that group loyalty importantly shapes enforcement of cooperation. Ingroup favoritism additionally influences punishment of unfairness in the 2-party ultimatum game, in which people are directly affected by unfair behavior. However, the directionality of this relationship is unclear: In some cases, people are more forgiving of ingroup unfairness, whereas in others they are less forgiving. Here we aim to disambiguate this relationship by studying its origins in development, asking whether ingroup favoritism influences children's offers to others and whether it affects their responses to being treated unfairly. Six- to 10-year-olds played a group-based ultimatum game after being assigned to minimal groups and made proposals to-and responded to offers from-members of their in- and outgroups. We tested children's real bargaining behavior in the absence of deception. Results showed that, regardless of group membership, children's primary concern lay with fairness: Participants regularly offered equal splits and were more likely to reject unfair offers than fair offers. Consistent with past work, older children made more generous proposals than did younger children. Although our group manipulation successfully induced ingroup bias in participants, neither children's proposals nor responses were influenced by group membership. This suggests that second-party punishment of fairness norm violations is unbiased early in development and points to the potentially important role of experience with different groups in shaping later emerging bias in norm enforcement. We discuss implications for theories regarding when and to what extent group bias influences cooperation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Analysis of a support group for children of parents with mental illnesses: managing stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Brenda M; McKeever, Patricia; Seeman, Mary; Boydell, Katherine M

    2014-09-01

    We report an ethnographic analysis of a psycho-education and peer-support program for school-aged children of parents with mental illnesses. We conducted a critical discourse analysis of the program manual and observed group interactions to understand whether children shared program goals predetermined by adults, and how, or if, the intervention was responsive to their needs. Children were expected to learn mental illness information because "knowledge is power," and to express difficult feelings about being a child of a mentally ill parent that was risky. Participants used humor to manage group expectations, revealing how they made sense of their parents' problems, as well as their own. Suggestions are made for determining good mental health literacy based on children's preferences for explaining circumstances in ways they find relevant, and for supporting children's competencies to manage relationships that are important to them. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The effect of group play therapy on social-emotional skills in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinekesh, Ahdieh; Kamalian, Mehrnoush; Eltemasi, Masoumeh; Chinekesh, Shirin; Alavi, Manijeh

    2013-12-24

    Childhood is important and critical period in human life. The foundation of ego is shaped in childhood. Play therapy is one of the successful strategies to help children with inner conflicts problems. This method of psychotherapy is base on the normal learning processes of children, provides solutions to relieve feelings of stress, and expands self-expression. Group play therapy can enhance the self-awareness, self- regulation, social communication, empathy and adoptability in children. Present study investigated the effects of play therapy on relational and emotional skills of pre-school children. For this purpose, the total numbers of 372 pre-school children were randomly selected, and divided into two equal groups (case and control). In next step, the BUSSE-SR methodology was used for evaluation and comparison of self-awareness, self-regulation, social interaction, empathy, adoptability, and control groups. Pre-test were performed for both groups and case group was involved in-group play therapy. According to the results of post-test, correlation of variables between case-control groups was examined by multivariate analysis of covariance. Frequency of boys and girls in our sample were 51.3 and 48.7 percent, respectively. The mean age of children was 5.1±0.6 year. According to the results of present study, play therapy significantly enhanced the social-emotional skills (Pskills and communicate with others.

  14. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  15. Evaluation of Thyroid Diseases by Hormonal Analysis in Pediatric Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana A Shah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among endocrine disorders commonly encountered in pediatric age group, thyroid diseases are more frequent. Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the major problems in this age with worldwide incidence of 1:3000-4000 live birth and in India it is 1:2500-2800. Objectives: The aim of this study is to know the prevalence of thyroid diseases in newborn and children by hormonal evaluation. Methodology: We have studied 50 children suspected of having signs and symptoms of thyroid diseases. Hormonal evaluation was done by the estimation of serum TSH, T3 and T4. Results: Out of total 50 children, 16 were detected with abnormal hormone level and diagnosed having thyroid diseases. Out of 16 affected children, 4 had congenital hypothyroidism (25%, 6 had subclinical or acquired hypothyroidism (37.5%, 3 had autoimmune thyroiditis (18.75% and 3 had goiter with graves disease (18.75%. Conclusion: Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the major preventable thyroid disease if diagnosed early. Other thyroid diseases commonly seen in pediatric age are subclinical hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, goiter and rarely hyperthyroidism. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 367-370

  16. Peer Groups, Social Identity, and Children's Bullying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Amanda L.; Nesdale, Drew

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on social identity theory, this study explored the impact of the peer group on childhood bullying. Participants were 351 students, aged 8 to 13 years. Involvement in bullying, friendship group membership, norms of particular groups, and intra-group positions (prototypical vs. peripheral) were determined using peer reports. Results revealed…

  17. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. T...

  18. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity.

  19. KNOWLEDGE OF EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVES AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND As per data from WHO, 21.6 million unsafe abortions occurred globally in 2008, out of which 47,000 women died from abortionrelated complications, contributing to 13% of global maternal mortality. (1 Emergency contraceptive can be used after intercourse to prevent pregnancy in case of unprotected intercourse, contraceptive failure or sexual assault. A considerable proportion of these abortions can be prevented by the timely use of emergency contraception. OBJECTIVES To study the knowledge of emergency contraceptives among women of reproductive age group. METHODS This is a government hospital-based prospective study done for a period of 3 months. The study included 500 women of reproductive age group (16 years to 40 years attending OPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of IGMC and RI, Pondicherry. A predesigned questionnaire is provided to women asking about awareness regarding emergency contraceptives. RESULTS Majority of them were between 20 and 30 years of age, 59.6% were from urban background and 86.8% were educated; 66% of them had used regular method of contraception some time in their life, but the awareness level of emergency contraceptives was found to be only 5.4% of which only 2% (n=10 had ever used emergency contraceptives. CONCLUSION Emergency contraceptives is an effective means of preventing unwanted pregnancies, but unfortunately majority of women lack awareness about the emergency methods. Efforts should be focused on providing health education regarding EC among females through media and health professionals.

  20. School-age outcomes in children with birth weights under 750 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, M; Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Eiben, R; Schatschneider, C; Mercuri-Minich, N

    1994-09-22

    Since the mid-1980s, increasing numbers of children with birth weights under 750 g have survived to school age. We matched a regional cohort of 68 surviving children born from 1982 through 1986 with birth weights under 750 g (mean, 670 g; gestational age, 25.7 weeks) with 65 children weighting 750 to 1499 g at birth and 61 children born at term. Growth, neurosensory status, and functioning at school age in the three groups were compared. Associations of biologic and social risk factors with major developmental outcomes were examined by means of logistic-regression analyses. Children with birth weights under 750 g were inferior to both comparison groups in cognitive ability, psychomotor skills, and academic achievement. They had poorer social skills and adaptive behavior and more behavioral and attention problems. The mean (+/- SD) Mental Processing Composite score for the cohort was 87 +/- 15, as compared with 93 +/- 14 for children with birth weights of 750 to 1499 g and 100 +/- 13 for children born at term (P Children with birth weights under 750 g who survive represent a subgroup of very-low-birth-weight children who are at high risk for neurobehavioral dysfunction and poor school performance.

  1. 云南省15个少数民族7岁以下儿童贫血情况调查分析%A survey on anemia among children under 7 years of age from 15 minority ethnic groups in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚莉琴; 邹团标; 刘锦桃; 全星; 陈谦; 杨发斌; 忽丽莎; 赵钟鸣; 王兴田

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解云南省少数民族儿童贫血的水平和分布特征.方法 采取随机整群抽样方法,调查云南省15个少数民族及汉族13 336名7岁以下儿童贫血情况.结果 云南省15个特有少数民族7岁以下儿童贫血患病率13.6%;不同民族间有差异(x2=716.33,P<0.01),最高的是景颇族(26.6%),最低的是白族(3.5%).不同地区有差异,靠边境地域的州市贫血患病率高,德宏州居首(23.8%),内地州市贫血患病率低,最低的县市是福贡县(2.7%).男童贫血患病率高于女童,男童为13.8%,女童为12.1%;在不同年龄组内各民族贫血患病率差异有统计学意义(6个月~<1岁:x2=70.52,P<0.01;1 ~<2岁:x2=185.86,P<0.01;2~ <5岁:x2 =296.12,P <0.01;5~<6岁:x2=107.11,P<0.01;6~<7岁:x2=185.02,P<0.01),最高的是德昂族,1~<2岁时达59.0%,变化趋势为:高峰在6个月~<1岁组,以后渐下降,6岁后又上升.结论 云南省15个特有少数民族7岁以下儿童贫血患病率13.6%;不同地州不同民族的贫血患病率不同,相差较大;不同年龄段内不同民族的贫血患病率不同,相差较大,患病率为高峰在6个月~1岁组,以后渐下降,6岁后又上升.贫血患病率与民族和地域有关.%Objective To investigate the level and distribution characteristics of anemia of the minority ethnic group children in Yunnan.Method The cases with anemia were surveyed from 13 336 samples of 15 minority ethnic groups and Han children in Yunnan by Taking the method of random cluster sampling.Result The prevalence of anemia among the children under 7 years of age of 15 ethnic groups of minority in Yunnan was 13.6%.There are differences among the different ethnic groups (x2 =716.33,P <O.01),the highest was 26.6% in Jingpo,the lowest was 3.5% in Bai.There were differences among the different regions,the prevalence of anemia was high in the border regions City,the highest was 23.8% in Dehong; the

  2. Socioeconomic determinants of iron-deficiency anemia among children aged 6 to 59 months in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Chakrabarty, Suman; Bharati, Premananda

    2015-03-01

    The extent of anemia and its socioeconomic determinants among the preschool children (6-59 months old) in India have been studied in this article. Relevant data are taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey. The initial analysis reveals some interesting features. The most affected children are in the age-group of 6 to 23 months. Beyond this age a decreasing trend is observed up to the age of 48 to 59 months. The highest and the lowest prevalence of anemia have been found to be in the central and the northeast zones, respectively. The vulnerable groups are the children of illiterate parents and those belonging to the poor families in the rural areas. Categorical logistic regression also confirms that status of literacy and wealth of parents have strong negative association with the status of anemia of the children.

  3. The influence of group membership on young children's prosocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Harriet

    2017-08-08

    Young children can be extremely prosocial-willing to help and share with others and comfort them in distress. However, the origins of social problems like prejudice and discrimination also appear early in development. In this paper, I discuss research investigating how group membership affects children's tendency to be prosocial. Existing research on this topic has focused primarily on sharing behaviour and shown that, in general, children allocate more resources to members of their own groups. After reviewing this important literature, I make the case for extending research with young children to other forms of prosociality. This has the potential to inform our understanding of the mechanisms behind ingroup favouritism in prosociality and help us understand routes towards interventions to encourage more egalitarian behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  5. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  6. Age Peculiarities of the Course of Functional Biliary Disorders in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Pashchenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Functional pathology of biliary tract is widespread among children of different age. The main signs of functional biliary disorders in children are manifestations of dyspeptic, pain, asthenovegetative and cholestatic syndromes of various intensity. The research objective: to study the peculiarities of the biliary functional disorders in children of different age groups. Materials and methods. There were observed 85 children aged from 3 up to 17 years old with the confirmed diagnosis of functional biliary disorders. The patients’ examination included: anamnestic data, general clinical investigation, laboratory and instrumental studies. Among the examined children 44 children were aged from 3 up to 6 years old, 41 patients were aged from 7 up to 17 years old. Results of the research. The main causes of the disease among children of preschool age were the following: improper feeding (63.6 %, the acute infections of the alimentary system diseases in anamnesis (29.5 %, presence of the chro­nic infection foci (22.7 %. According to the result of the analysis of clinical manifestations there was established that in 88.6 % of children of preschool age hypokinetic functional biliary disorders prevailed, accompanied by persistent not intensive stomach ache and dyspeptic syndrome. Improper feeding (92.6 %, psychoemotional stress (43.9 %, hypodynamia (34.2 %, vegetative deregulation (24.3 % were the main reasons for the exacerbation of the disease among school children. In 48.7 % of children of school age there were diagnosed pancreatic disorders. Discussion of the research results. Therapeutic correction of functional biliary disorders in children is required to be carried out taking into account that in children of preschool age the hypokinetic functional biliary disorders prevailed, and in children of school age there was more often diagnosed functional pancreatic disorder of Oddi’s sphincter and hyperkinetic functional biliary

  7. Effectiveness of a Universal, Interdependent Group Contingency Program on Children's Academic Achievement: A Countywide Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Robert; Osborne, Karen J.; Dean, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal prevention program designed to increase academic engagement and to decrease disruptive behavior in elementary school-age children. Teachers and other school personnel use interdependent group contingencies to improve students' behavior in the classroom. Previous research indicates the GBG is efficacious…

  8. Evaluation of a group-based social skills training for children with problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.S.; Deković, M.; Prinzie, P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated a group-based training program in social skills targeting reduction of problem behaviors in N = 161 children between 7 and 13 years of age. The effects of the intervention were tested in a quasi-experimental study, with a follow-up assessment 12 months after an optional

  9. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  10. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  11. Correlation of dental age, skeletal age, and chronological age among children aged 9-14 years: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Palanisamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth can be one of the most uncertain variations, but understanding the same is very important for diagnosis and treatment planning. Skeletal age and dental age have been used to determine a child′s developmental age. Several researchers have evaluated the association between dental and skeletal maturity with chronologic age on different population. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether dental age estimation can be replaced for skeletal age estimation in the Dakshina Kannada population. Methods: A total of 104 samples equally distributed among both genders in the age group of 9-14 years were selected. Skeletal age was estimated using hand-wrist radiographs and Fishman′s skeletal maturation index and dental age was measured using Demirjian′s method. Results: Spearman′s rank-order correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between the skeletal maturity and dental maturity. The mean ages of male and female samples were determined as 11.89 ± 1.867 years and 12.21 ± 1.473 years, respectively. Chronological age was found to be positively correlated to dental age and skeletal age and found to be statistically significant (P < 0.01. The correlation between dental age and skeletal age was also found to be statistically significant with P < 0.001 and correlation coefficient of 0.683 and 0.704 for males and females. Conclusion: The present study showed a strong relation between the developmental ages in mixed dentition population; hence, dental age can be considered as a replacement in the study population.

  12. Language Maintenance and Loss in Preschool-Age Children of Mexican Immigrants: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark M.; Barrett, Karen C.; Jancosek, Elizabeth G.; Itano, Christine Yoshinaga

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors plotted the Spanish language usage of 10 preschool-age children over the course of 3 years and assigned them to one of two groups: language maintenance and language loss. The authors then compared the groups' scores on structured tasks, language behaviors, and language usage/exposure variables. They found that children…

  13. Hospital Admission Patterns in Children with CAH: Admission Rates and Adrenal Crises Decline with Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Louise Rushworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine patterns of hospitalisation for acute medical conditions in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Design. A retrospective study of hospitalisation using administrative data. Setting. All hospitals in NSW, Australia. Patients. All patients admitted with CAH and a random sample of admissions in patients aged 0 to 18 years without adrenal insufficiency (AI. Main Outcome Measures. Admissions and comorbidities by age and sex. Results. Of 573 admissions for medical problems in CAH children, 286 (49.9% were in males, and 236 (41.2% had a principal diagnosis of CAH or had an adrenal crisis (AC. 37 (6.5% ACs were recorded. An infection was found in 43.5% (n=249 of the CAH patient admissions and 51.7% (n=1613 of the non-AI group, p<0.001. Children aged up to one year had the highest number of admissions (n=149 and six ACs (four in males. There were 21 ACs recorded for children aged 1–5 years. Older CAH children had fewer admissions and fewer ACs. No in-hospital deaths were recorded. Conclusions. Admission for medical problems in CAH children declines with age. An AC was recorded in 6.5% of the admissions, with the majority of ACs occurring in the 1 to 5 years age group and there were no deaths.

  14. A Clinico - Aetiological Study Of Dermatoses In Paediatric Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sadhan K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred patients of the age group 0-12 years were studied for different types of dermatoses. Pyoderma (35.6%, scabies (22.4% and eczema (17.6% were the most common dermatological conditions, followed by molluscum contagiosum (4.6%, popular urticaria with insect bite (4%, vitiligo (3.4%, miliaria (2.8%, nevus (1.6%. Other dermatoses (8% were pityriasis rosea, wart, chicken pox, herpes zoster, acne vulgaris, leprosy, angular stomatitis, pruritus vulvae, psoriasis, candidiasis, condylomatalata, fixed drug relation, tinea capitis and corporis, phrynoderma, alopecia areata, phimosis, geographic tongue, trichotillomania, canitis, pediculosis, hypertrophic scar and pityriasis versicolor.

  15. Young Children's Motor Interference Is Influenced by Novel Group Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Johanna E; Endedijk, Hinke M; Stapel, Janny C; Hunnius, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    From early childhood onward, individuals use behavior copying to communicate liking and belonging. This non-verbal signal of affiliation is especially relevant in the context of social groups and indeed both children and adults copy in-group more than out-group members. Given the societal importance of inter-group interactions, it is imperative to understand the mechanistic level at which group modulations of copying occur early in development. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of novel group membership on young children's motor behavior during a simultaneous movement-observation and -execution task. Four- to six-year-olds (n = 65) first gained membership to one of two novel groups based on their color preference and put on a vest in their chosen color. Subsequently, they were instructed to draw a straight line back-and-forth on a tablet computer that was concurrently displaying a stimulus video in which a model moved her arm congruently or incongruently to the child's instructed direction. In half of the stimulus videos the model belonged to the in-group, while in the other half the model belonged to the out-group, as identified by the color of her dress. The deviations into the uninstructed direction of the children's drawings were quantified as a measure of how much observing the models' behaviors interfered with executing their own behaviors. The motor interference effect, namely higher deviations in the incongruent trials than in the congruent trials, was found only for the out-group condition. An additional manipulation of whether the models' arms followed a biological or non-biological velocity profile had little effect on children's motor interference. The results are interpreted in the context of the explicit coordinative nature of the task as an effect of heightened attention toward interacting with an out-group member. This study demonstrates that already during early childhood, novel group membership dynamically influences

  16. Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline P; Craig, Cathy M

    2012-09-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as indicated by a significant general motor impairment in the group with autism. However, sub-analysis of the M-ABC2 revealed that there were only 2 out of 8 subcomponent skills which showed universal significant specific deficits for the autism group; i.e. catching a ball and static balance. These results suggest that motor skill deficits associated with autism may not be pervasive but more apparent in activities demanding complex, interceptive actions or core balance ability.

  17. Could Visual Impairment in the Pediatric Age Group Be Reduced?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Ceyhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric age is the most important period for preventive eye care services and research. Vision loss in this period could cause a long life without sight and also significant financial and moral losses, in terms of people and society. Rational screening programs may reduce vision loss in childhood and this issue increases the value of the subject. Retinopathy of prematurity, congenital/infantile cataracts and glaucoma, optic nerve and retinal pathologies, refractive errors, amblyopia, and strabismus are the major clinical pictures causing visual loss in childhood. Using the epidemiological data, it could be estimated that every year approximately two to three thousand children suffer an ophthalmologic disease that causes significant visual loss. Regarding the refractive errors and amblyopia, it could be estimated that hundreds of thousands of children need ophthalmological follow-up in the country. For the timely treatment of these pathologies, a couple of short eye examination programs seem more realistic. Childhood vision loss in the country could be reduced, by informing pediatricians and family physicians and by proper guiding of the public opinion. Effective eye screening could be achieved with the implementation of simple methods like red reflex/Brückner test with ophthalmoscopy, or simultaneous (binocular retinoscopy and ophthalmoscopy of both eyes. Screening programs could be spread throughout the country by appropriate training of the physicians in the health institutions of the country. Screening programs will contribute to reduce the rate of visual disability by disseminating ophthalmologic practices throughout the country. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 195-201

  18. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  19. Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. Objectives In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. Patients and Methods In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predeterm...

  20. [Intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ma, Hong-Wei; Tian, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2009-10-01

    To study the intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The intelligence levels were tested by the Wechsler Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in 54 children with FGR and in 84 normal children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) in the FGR group were 105.9+/-10.3, 112.4+/-11.2 and 97.1+/-10.6 respectively, and they all were in a normal range. But the PIQ was significantly lower than that in the control group (104.8+/-10.5; pintelligence level of children with FGR is normal, but there are imbalances in the intelligence structure and dysfunctions in performance ability related to right cerebral hemisphere. Performance trainings should be done from the infancy in children with FGR.

  1. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  2. Developmental Coordination Disorder in School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in children, at 7 years of age, in a large UK birth cohort was determined using DSM-IV criteria, in a study at the University of Bristol, UK; and Utrecht University, Netherlands.

  3. Attentional performance, age and scholastic achievement in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Trautmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attentional processes in children play a critical role in daily school demands and accomplishments. Studies on the association of attentional processes with school achievement and age in healthy school children are scarce. The aim of the present study was to identify correlations between dimensions of attentional performance, scholastic achievement and age. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An extensive testing battery was used to assess a wide range of attentional dimensions. A principal component analysis revealed three factors that are related to attentional performance (distractibility, lapses of attention, cognitive speed. Age was negatively associated with distractibility, lapses of attention and cognitive speed, indicating that distractibility and lapses of attention decreased with age in healthy children and resulted in lower cognitive speed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Attentional processes in healthy children should be measured in relation to distractibility, lapses of attention and cognitive speed.

  4. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  5. Thai and American Fathers' Involvement with Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulananda, Oracha; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using the Paternal Involvement in Childcare Index, examined father involvement in caregiving and the socialization of preschool-age children in 40 Thai and 24 American families. American fathers were more likely than Thai fathers to be involved in child care and the socialization of their children. (MDM)

  6. Nasometry cooperation in children 4-6 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, P.; Hobbel, H. H. F.; van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; Korsten-Meijer, A. G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. Cooperation of young children, by nature, differs over ti

  7. Nasometry cooperation in children 4-6 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, P.; Hobbel, H. H. F.; van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; Korsten-Meijer, A. G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M.

    Objective: Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. Cooperation of young children, by nature, differs over

  8. Association of Birth Parameters with Refractive Status in a Sample of Caucasian Children Aged 4–17 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Akova-Budak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the association of birth parameters with refractive status in different age groups of Caucasian children. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 564 eyes of 282 children aged 4 to 17 years. All children underwent complete ophthalmologic examination. The children were divided into three groups according to their refractive status (emmetropia,myopia, and hyperopia, ages (4–7, 8-9, 10–12, and 13–17, and appropriateness for gestational age, respectively. Results. The mean age of the children was 9.2±2.8 (age range 4–17 years. The mean spheric equivalent was +0.3±1.7 (range: (−10.0–(+10.0 diopters. The mean birth weight and gestational age were 2681.1±930.8 grams (750–5000 grams and 37.2±3.7 weeks (25–42 weeks. According to multinominal logistic regression analysis, children with myopia were more likely to have higher birth weights than emmetropic children (OR: 1.0, 95% CI: 1.000–1.001, and P=0.028. The hypermetropes were found to be significantly small for gestational age between 13 and 17 years of age. Conclusion. Birth weight and appropriateness for gestational age as birth parameters may have an impact on development of all types of refractive errors. The hypermetropic children tended to be small for gestational age.

  9. [Stress in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, R G

    1994-10-01

    In April 1988, following preliminary research, Notre Dame Elementary School in Edmunston, N.B. initiated a pilot project entitled Management of Children's Stress. Using a three-dimensional process, parents, teachers and students collaborated to empower all students enrolled at the school to effectively manage their day-to-day stress. To prepare, the children, parents and teachers participated in nine- and 15-hour education sessions, respectively. Various techniques, including deep breathing exercises, stretching, relaxation techniques and listening to music, were considered. Visualization, maximizing the mind's potential to envision relaxing images, became the preferred technique. In addition to complementing other relaxation techniques used by the children, visualization facilitated their learning; developed and improved their concentration, motivation and self-confidence; gave them a positive self-image; and reduced health problems. The project has surpassed all expectations. In March 1993, it became part of a Quality of Life Education Project at the school.

  10. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls.

  11. Age-related outcomes of sleep apnea surgery in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, J S; Cohen, S R; Burstein, F D; Simms, C

    1997-05-01

    This study was designed to determine whether age at the time of surgery is an important influencing factor on outcomes following surgical correction of severe refractory obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in infants and children. Data were collected prospectively on 55 children, all with severe OSA refractory to conservative medical and surgical measures, who underwent combinations of soft-tissue and skeletal procedures aimed at relieving their airway obstruction. The study population was subdivided for analysis into three groups based on age at the time of surgery (> 36 months, > 12 to 36 months group demonstrated a significant improvement in respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea index, and lowest overnight oxygen saturation postoperatively. Only RDI improved significantly in the > 12 to 36 months group. Surgical management of severe refractory OSA in children age < or = 12 months is more difficult and less likely to succeed. The reasons for this are discussed and recommendations for management are given.

  12. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  13. [Effects of Meek skin grafting on patients with extensive deep burn at different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, H P; Niu, X H; Li, Q; Li, X L; Xue, J D; Cao, D Y; Han, D W; Xia, C D

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Meek skin grafting on patients with extensive deep burn at different age groups. Methods: Eighty-four patients with extensive deep burns conforming to the study criteria were hospitalized in our unit from April 2011 to April 2015. Patients were divided into children group (C, with age less than 12 years old), young and middle-aged group (YM, with age more than 18 years and less than 50 years old), and old age group (O, with age more than 55 years old) according to age, with 28 patients in each group. All patients received Meek skin grafting treatment. The use of autologous skin area, operation time, wound healing time, and hospitalization time were recorded. The survival rate of skin graft on post operation day 7, complete wound healing rate in post treatment week 2, and the mortality were calculated. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, t test, and χ(2) test. Results: The use of autologous skin area of patients in group C was (5.1±1.0)% total body surface area (TBSA), significantly less than (8.3±1.0)%TBSA and (8.3±1.4)%TBSA in groups YM and O, respectively (with t values 32.900 and 52.624, respectively, P values below 0.05). The operation time, wound healing time, and hospitalization time of patients in group C were (1.368±0.562) h, (9.6±0.6) and (32±11) d, significantly shorter than those in group YM [(3.235±0.011) h, (16.9±2.6) and (48±12) d, respectively] and group O [(3.692±0.481) h, (17.3±2.6) and (46±13) d, respectively, with t values from 4.350 to 21.160, P values below 0.05]. The survival rate of skin graft of patients on post operation day 7 in group C was (92±15)%, significantly higher than (81±10)% and (72±12)% in groups YM and O, respectively (with t values 5.509 and 3.229, respectively, P values below 0.05). The above indexes in groups YM and O were similar (with t values from 0.576 to 22.958, P values above 0.05). Complete wound healing rate in post treatment week 2 and the

  14. Group intervention for siblings of children with disabilities: a pilot study in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Tina; Nordgren, Ingrid; Rein, George; Sonnander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of a group intervention in a clinical setting designed to increase knowledge of disability and improve sibling relationship among siblings of children with disabilities. A self-selected sample of 54 younger and older siblings with typical development (ages 8-12 years) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (9), Asperger syndrome (7), autistic disorder (13), physical disability (8) and intellectual disability (17) participated in collateral sibling groups. The Sibling Knowledge Interview (SKI) and Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (SRQ) were administered pre- and post-intervention. SKI scores increased (p < 0.001) from pre- to post-intervention when merged diagnostic groups were compared. Comparisons of SRQ pre- and post-intervention scores across diagnostic sibling groups showed significantly different (p < 0.05) score patterns. The results were encouraging and contribute to further development of interventions meeting the needs of siblings of children with disabilities. In view of the limited empirical research on group interventions for siblings of children with disabilities future work is needed to investigate the effectiveness of such interventions. Particular attention should be given to siblings of children with autism and siblings of children with intellectual disability.

  15. Consumption of recommended food groups among children from medically underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Mitchell, Diane C; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Huang, Shirley H; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Stettler, Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    This cross-sectional study of 2- to 12-year-olds living in medically underserved areas examined the proportion of children meeting the food group intake recommendations for fruits, vegetables, total grains, dairy, and meat/meat alternatives by age group and body weight status. Based on 24-hour recalls collected between July 2004 and March of 2005, mean food group intake and deviation from the recommended intake amounts were determined (actual intake minus recommended intake). Measured weight and height were used to calculate body mass index z scores using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Data analyses were done for two age groups (2- to 5-year-olds and 6- to 12-year-olds) (n=214), by weight status categories (underweight or healthy weight [ or = 95th percentile]), and were repeated for the subset of children with biologically plausible reports. The majority of children lived in low-income households. More 2- to 5-year-olds met intake recommendations compared with 6- to 12-year-olds. Overall, the proportion of children meeting the food group intake recommendations was low with the exception of the meat group, which was met by 52% and 93% of the 2- to 5- and 6- to 12-year-old children, respectively. There was a positive association between the proportion of younger children meeting the fruits or total grains recommendation and increasing body weight. The data support the importance of community-level nutrition intervention programs to improve children's diet quality in low-income, medically underserved areas and suggest that such interventions may help reduce the risk of obesity.

  16. Development of in-group favoritism in children's third-party punishment of selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jillian J; McAuliffe, Katherine; Warneken, Felix

    2014-09-02

    When enforcing norms for cooperative behavior, human adults sometimes exhibit in-group bias. For example, third-party observers punish selfish behaviors committed by out-group members more harshly than similar behaviors committed by in-group members. Although evidence suggests that children begin to systematically punish selfish behavior around the age of 6 y, the development of in-group bias in their punishment remains unknown. Do children start off enforcing fairness norms impartially, or is norm enforcement biased from its emergence? How does bias change over development? Here, we created novel social groups in the laboratory and gave 6- and 8-year-olds the opportunity to engage in costly third-party punishment of selfish sharing behavior. We found that by age 6, punishment was already biased: Selfish resource allocations received more punishment when they were proposed by out-group members and when they disadvantaged in-group members. We also found that although costly punishment increased between ages 6 and 8, bias in punishment partially decreased. Although 8-y-olds also punished selfish out-group members more harshly, they were equally likely to punish on behalf of disadvantaged in-group and out-group members, perhaps reflecting efforts to enforce norms impartially. Taken together, our results suggest that norm enforcement is biased from its emergence, but that this bias can be partially overcome through developmental change.

  17. Resting-state oscillatory activity in children born small for gestational age: a magnetoencephalographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBoersma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG in 4-7 year old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA children with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA+; 6 boys, 7 girls; mean age 6.3 y (SD=0.9 and children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 7 boys, 3 girls; mean age 6.0 y (SD=1.2 participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used nonparametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed was significantly lower head circumference (HC and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth.

  18. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF URINARY CONTINANCE AGES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN AND ENURETIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin BILBAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine the age of urinary continance of primary school students who had no enuresis problem and had secondary enuresis. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on four primary schools of Meram district which were selected by using simple random sample method. Totally, 1399 students who had no enuresis and had secondary enuresis were included to the study. The age of urinary continance of the students and presence of diurnal, nocturnal and continual enuresis in the secondary enuresis group were investigated. Results: The mean urinary continance age of the students was 22.0 ± 7.1 months. Urinary continance age of the male students was 1.2 months bigger than the female students. The prevalance of secondary enuresis was found as 5.6 %. The frequency of secondary enuresis in male students was 2.1 fold higher than in female ones. Of the 87 students with secondary enuresis, 18.4% was diurnal, 60.9 % was nocturnal and 20.7 % was continual enuresis. Conclusion: Toilet education should be given to children by their parents starting before 22 months of age, which was obtained as urinary continance age of primary school students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 41-49

  20. Iron Deposition in Duodenal Mucosa; A Review and Report of Three Cases in Pediatric Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Moatamed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Ferrous sulfate drops are routinely used in Iran in infants older than 6 months of age. Effect of ferrous sulfate drops in preventive or therapeutic doses on gastrointestinal mucosa of infants is not studied as yet. Upper gastrointestinal complications due to acute iron poisoning are well known in this age group. In this article, we reviewed published articles on iron deposition in upper gastro-intestinal tract and also introduce clinical, endoscopic and histological findings in three cases with iron deposition in duodenal mucosa. Cases Presentation:We encountered three cases of iron deposition in duodenal mucosa among about 8000 biopsies during a 10 year period which is a very low incidence despite routine use of iron supplement in children above 6 months of age in this country. One of our cases suffered from steatorrhea and another from failure to thrive, which raises concern about effects of iron deposition in small intestine. Conclusion:The clinical significance and effects of iron deposition in pediatric age group is yet to be elucidated. Iron deposition as a solitary finding is not reported in duodenal biopsies of infants as yet. Since iron supplement is widely used in this age group, it is justified to consider its deposition and possible effects on absorption.

  1. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  2. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  3. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group.

  4. Age Assessment in Children: A Novel Cameriere’s Stratagem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attiguppe, Prabhakar Ramasetty; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Mythri, P

    2016-01-01

    Aim Age is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of a person, especially in children. Age estimation plays an important part in treatment planning, forensic dentistry, legal issues, and paleodemographic research. The present study was an attempt to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population by using Cameriere’s India specific formula. Materials and methods This was a retrospective observational study to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population. A total of 150 panoramic radiographs of patients aged between 6 and 15 years, including both sexes, were selected. Age was calculated by measuring open apices of seven right or left mandibular teeth using Adobe Photoshop software. Results Statistical analysis was performed to derive a regression equation for estimation of age, which showed that, of the variables X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, s, N0, the variables N0 and X4 were statistically noteworthy. Hence, these two variables were used to derive the linear regression formula: Age = 10.522 + 0.712(N0) - 5.040(X4). The model was found to be statistically significant, F(2, 147) = 207.96, p < 0.001, and accounted for approximately 74% of the variance of age (R2 = 0.739, adjusted R2 = 0.735). Conclusion Cameriere’s method can be used for age assessment in children for forensic as well as legal contexts and based on these variables a reliable age estimation equation could be proposed specifically for Davangere population. How to cite this article Attiguppe PR, Yavagal C, Maganti R, Mythri P. Age Assessment in Children: A Novel Cameriere’s Stratagem. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):330-334. PMID:28127165

  5. The prevalence of lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance in Chinese children of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine lactose metabolism and lactase activity in Chinese children of different ages, prevalence of lactase deficiency (LD), and lactose intolerance (LI). Methods All 1168 healthy subjects between 3 and 13 years were recruited from schools in four large cities in China. They were screened by a 25 g lactose tolerance test.Some subjecls were challenged with .50 g milk powder on different days. Both indicators,the expiratory H2 concentration and intolerance symptoms, were analyzed. Results LD occurred in 38.5% of children in the 3-5 year age group, and 87% of the 7-8 year and 11-13 year old groups. The age of occurrence for LD may be at 7-8 years among Chinese children. The prevalence of LI among Chinese children was 12.2% alage 3-5 years, 33.1% at age 7-8 years, and 30.5% al age 11-13 years, respectively. Conclusion The results demonstrate that LD is very common in Chinese children from these four cities. LD and LI have a dose dependent response: lactose absorption and symptorms are based on lactase activity. The relationship between breast feeding history (or the history of cow milk intake) and lactase activity among Chinese children has not been established.

  6. INDIVIDUAL TYPICAL FEATURES OF MICROCIRCULATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anosov I. P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the question of primary school age children`s blood microcirculation in dependence on their individual typical features. We examined some 120 healthy children of 6-9 years, which were the students of secondary schools of the city of Melitopol. Anthropometric survey was conducted by the standard measurement scheme of longitudinal chest and weight parameters of the bodies of children. Diagnosis of body type (somatotype was conducted by the method of M. Chernorutskiy. According to the index of physical development - Pine index (PI, the children were divided into three somatic type: asthenic with IP> 30 gipersteni at PI <10 and normostenic type at 10 children of 6-9 years correspond to normoemic type. This pattern doesn’t change with age, and counts about of 51% from prepubertal age children; hypoemic type was registered for 48% of children, hyperemic type – for 1%

  7. Subsequent afebrile seizure in children who have a first seizure with fever after 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Young; Kim, Yeun-Hee

    2010-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the risk and the risk factors associated with subsequent afebrile seizures in 31 children who experienced their first seizure with fever after 6 years of age. The children were classified into two groups. Group I comprised children with their first seizure with fever after 6 years of age (n = 15). Group II comprised children who had febrile seizures before 5 years of age and who had recurrent seizures with fever after 6 years of age (n = 16). Of these 31 children, 7 (22.5%) had subsequent afebrile seizure. The cumulative probability of subsequent afebrile seizure was 13.3% at 6 months and 36 months in group I; in group II, the cumulative probability was 12.5% at 6 months, 18.8% at 18 months, 25% at 24 months, and 31.3% at 36 months. There was no significant difference in the risk for subsequent afebrile seizures between the two groups. There were no risk factors associated with an increased risk of subsequent afebrile seizures. If the first seizure with fever occurred after 6 years of age, this was a significant risk for subsequent afebrile seizure; the risk of seizure recurrence in this group appears to be similar to children who have persistent febrile seizures after 6 years of age, but far below that of children with first epileptic seizure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of sleep problems in preschool aged children: an adaptation of the children's sleep habits questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Penny; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel; Crowley, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of the children's sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ) when used with preschool and toddler age children. Mothers of 105 children ages 2-5 completed the CSHQ, the child behavior checklist (CBCL), and a sleep diary. Internal consistency for the original subscales on the CSHQ ranged from .55 to .82 and factor analysis resulted in four factors that tap into critical aspects of sleep. The concurrent validity of the revised scales of the CSHQ was adequate. Overall the results from this study suggest a revised factor structure may be more appropriate for use with preschool and toddler age children.

  9. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  10. GROUP OF HEARING MOTHERS OF DEAF CHILDREN: INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Fava de Quevedo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This experience report describes a group phenomenon, based upon a case study of a group of hearing mothers of deaf children. The weekly group, in operation for over three years, provides support for families with deaf children. At first, observations were made in the group for a subsequent analysis of the data and act on interventions. Categories containing the main features that emerged in the group were created in order to discuss the content found. The categories addressed by mothers included: independence/autonomy of the child; adolescence and sexuality; discovery of deafness and reorganization of family dynamics; and matters beyond the group goal. As for the categories related to the group process there are: resistance; containing function of the coordinator; transfer; interventions in the group field. The results lead to understanding the group as a facilitator and as a necessary support for the participants. Before that, interventions were carried out to expand the space for reflection offered by the group, which provides adaptations to the different situations experienced by the participants.

  11. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, Glenn D. [The Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville (Australia); Davison, Tanya E. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  12. Hepatitis B virus infection among different sex and age groups in Pakistani Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hayat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a serious health problem in the developing countries including Pakistan. Various risk factors are responsible for the spread of this infectious disease. Prevalence of HBV infection in apparently suspected individual of Punjab province of Pakistan was analyzed during January 2008 to December 2010. Current study was aimed to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of HBV infection. Methodology Four thousand eight hundred and ninety patients suffering from chronic liver disease were screened for the presence of HBV DNA using qualitative Real Time PCR methodology to confirm their status of infection. A predesigned standard questionnaire was filled for all the patients that included information about the possible risk factors. Results A total of 4890 ELISA positive patients were screened for Hepatitis B virus infection. Of these 3143 were positive for HBV, includes 68.15% males and 31.85% females. Male were observed to be more frequently infected as compared to the female with a positivity ratio of 2.14: 1. The rate of infection increases with the passage of time in the course of three years. Highest frequency of infection was found in the age of 21-30 was 34.93% followed by 23.83% in 31-40. Only (13.39% were belonging to the age group 11-20 year. The rate of infection declines with increasing age as shown by age groups 41-50 (16.13% and 51-60 (7.09%. While children aged 0-10 and very old >60 age groups were very less frequently 1.49% and 1.65% infected respectively. Important risk factors contributing to HBV spread include barber risk (23.60%, blood transfusion (4.04%, History of injection 26.19%, Reuse of syringes 26.60%, dental risk (11.20% and surgical procedure (4.26%. Among the entire respondents trend sharing personal items was very common. History of injection, barber risk, surgery and dental procedure and reuse of syringes appear as major risk factors for the transmission

  13. Age of Diagnosis Among Medicaid-Enrolled Children With Autism, 2001–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David S.; Morales, Knashawn H.; Xie, Ming; Lawer, Lindsay J.; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Marcus, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examined child- and county-level factors associated with age of diagnosis of autism among Medicaid-enrolled children and the change in age of diagnosis over time. Methods National Medicaid claims from 2002 to 2004 were used to identify age of diagnosis and characteristics of children younger than ten years old with a diagnosis of autism (ICD-9 codes 299, 299.0x, or 299.8x). These data were linked to county-level education and health care variables. Linear regression with random effects for state and county was used to examine associations between these variables and age of diagnosis. Results A total of 28,722 Medicaid-enrolled children newly diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder were identified. Their average age of diagnosis was 64.9 months. Adjusted average age of diagnosis dropped 5.0 months for autistic disorder and 1.8 months for other spectrum disorders during the study period. Asian children were diagnosed earlier than children in other racial or ethnic groups, although these differences were much more pronounced for other spectrum disorders than for autistic disorder. Children eligible for Medicaid through the poverty category were diagnosed earlier, on average, than children who were eligible through disability, foster care, or other reasons, although this difference decreased over time. Children in large urban or rural counties were diagnosed later than children in small urban or suburban counties. Conclusions Findings showed that diagnosis of autism occurs much later than it should among Medicaid-enrolled children, although timeliness is improving over time. Analyses suggest that most of the observed variation is accounted for by child-level variables, rather than county-level resources or state policies. PMID:20675842

  14. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, António, E-mail: pires1961@gmail.com; Martins, Paula [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Pereira, Ana Margarida [Laboratório de Fisiologia - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, Patricia Vaz; Marinho, Joana [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Marques, Margarida [Laboratório de Estatística da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem, Coimbra (Portugal); Castela, Eduardo [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel [Laboratório de Fisiologia - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-04-15

    Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001) and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001). In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs.

  15. Authoritarian parenting in individualist and collectivist groups: Associations with maternal emotion and cognition and children's self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E

    2006-03-01

    Mothers and children between the ages of 7 and 12, from individualist (Western European) and collectivist (Egyptian, Iranian, Indian, and Pakistani) backgrounds, completed assessments of children's self-esteem, maternal authoritarianism, and mothers' thoughts and feelings about their children. Collectivist mothers endorsed authoritarian parenting more than did individualist mothers but did not feel or think more negatively about their children, and collectivist children were not lower in self-esteem. Within both groups, maternal negative affect and cognition were associated with lower self-esteem in children. However, maternal authoritarianism was associated with maternal negative emotion and cognition only in the individualist group. The results suggest that maternal negative thoughts and feelings, associated with authoritarianism in individualist but not collectivist groups, may be more detrimental to children's self-esteem than is authoritarianism in and of itself. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Tooth brushing skills for the children aged 3-11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate tooth brushing management and ability of children in relation to age and gender. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 45 children, who attended Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at V.S Dental College and Hospital Bangalore. Children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I: 3-5 years, Group II: 6-8 years, and Group III: 9-11 years. Each child selected his/her favorite toothbrush and brushed his/her teeth under supervision of one instructor. The grip type during tooth brushing was recorded on a videotape and duration of tooth brushing also was noted. The data were analyzed in relation to the age and gender using the chi-square test. ANOVA was used to find if there is any significant difference between the mean brushing times in the different groups. Results: The results of statistical analysis showed that in all cases P> 0.05 for grip preferences and P < 0.001 between age groups 3-5 years and 9-11 years with respect to the mean brushing time. Conclusion: The required manual dexterity for tooth brushing was present in younger age groups.

  17. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Aissaoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia. Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years. Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age.

  18. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  19. Social Orders and Interactions among Children in Age-Mixed Classes in Primary Schools--New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Ethnographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The article synthesises data from two ethnographic projects, which both explore interactions of children in age-mixed groups in primary schools. It illuminates critical perspectives on social orders and children's interactions in age-mixed classes by showing how pupils in age-mixed groups become involved in power relations and how the teacher's…

  20. Randomized comparative trial of a social cognitive skills group for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorya, Latha V; Siper, Paige M; Beck, Todd; Soffes, Sarah; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph; Wang, A Ting

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a targeted social skills training group in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention, Seaver-NETT (Nonverbal communication, Emotion recognition, and Theory of mind Training), is a 12-session cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) for verbal, school-aged children targeting ASD-specific social behavioral impairments. Sixty-nine children with ASD, 8 to 11 years of age, with verbal IQs greater than 70, participated in a randomized comparative trial to examine the efficacy of NETT relative to a facilitated play group. Treatment outcomes included caregiver reports of social behavior and neuropsychological assessments of social cognition conducted by blinded raters. Outcomes were collected at baseline, endpoint, and 3 months posttreatment. Significant improvements were found on social behavior outcomes such as nonverbal communication, empathic responding, and social relations in the NETT condition relative to the active control at endpoint. Verbal IQ moderated the interaction effect on social behavior, with higher verbal IQ associated with improvements in the CBI condition. No significant improvements were found on social cognitive outcomes. No significant group differences were found at 3-month follow-up conducted with approximately half the sample (n = 34). These data indicate that targeted CBI social skills groups such as NETT improve social communication deficits in verbal, school-aged children with ASD. The moderating effects of high verbal IQ suggest a need to consider participant and treatment characteristics associated with outcomes in future studies. Clinical trial registration information-Neural and Behavioral Outcomes of Social Skills Groups in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder; https://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01190917. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth Patterns of Large for Gestational Age Children up to Age 4 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F. A.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Veldman, Karin; Bos, Arend F.; de Winter, Andrea F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To determine how growth of large for gestational age (LGA) preterm (PT) children was affected by their PT birth and their LGA status.METHODS:This is a community-based cohort study of 1302 PT and 489 full-term (FT) children, born 2002 and 2003.RESULTS:We found that growth in height, weight,

  2. Swimming and cardiovascular fitness in the older age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R J

    1975-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is an extraordinarily common and devastating disorder of middle aged and even young men in the United States and Western Europe. An increasing risk of developing the disease is associated with such factors as high blood pressure, obesity, high levels of cholesterol in the blood serum, cigarette smoking, certain behavioral patterns, decreased vital capacity and a low level of physical activity. There is much evidence to indicate that exercise may well help prevent heart attacks through such mechanisms as increasing heart efficiency, decreasing the level of serum cholesterol, decreasing obesity, decreasing high blood pressure and promoting psychic well-being. It is necessary, however, that the exercise be continued throughout life. Athletic activity in high school or college is of no help in later years. The exercise must be part of a regular scheduled year-round activity. It is suggested that swimming has many unique advantages for such an endeavor. The Amateur Athletic Union of the United States has developed competition in older age groups as a motivating force for the continuance of a regular training program of a healthful nature.

  3. [Evaluation of visual-motor integration functions in children between 6-15 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekok Kiliç, Ayda; Elmastas-Dikec, Banu; Can, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-motor integration skills are considered an essential domain of clinical and psycho-educational assessment. The goal of the present investigation is to provide the Turkish norms for the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Visual-Motor Integration Test (VMI-4th) for children and adolescents between the ages of 6-15 years as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. A total of 1887 children from elementary and high schools in the city of Bursa were recruited for this study. From this sample 44 children were re-tested 3-4 weeks following the first administration for test-retest reliability. Findings showed clear developmental trajectories in visual-motor integration skills. Significant performance increments were observed in six month intervals for ages 6 and 7. Starting from age 8, norms were established for each age group separately. Girls and boys performed similarly on the VMI-4. Test- retest correlation was modest but within an acceptable range. The age-based norms established for the VMI-4 in this study can be used to assess children between the ages of 6-15 years as part of a clinical neuropsychological and a psycho-educational assessment. The mean VMI scores presented in this study represent performance of children in middle and middle-upper socio-economic status and may not represent the normal performance range of children from lower SES.

  4. Phonology, rapid naming and academic achievement in very preterm children at eight years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wocadlo, Crista; Rieger, Ingrid

    2007-06-01

    To examine the impact and additive effect of phonology and rapid naming deficits on reading, spelling and mathematics achievement in a group of very preterm children at 8 years of age. All surviving children with a gestational age less than 30 weeks, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, in 1994 and 1995, were prospectively enrolled in developmental follow-up. Children with a neurosensory disability or a low intelligence score (FSIQacademic achievement were administered to a sample of 63 children. Twenty-four (38.1%) children showed low achievement in reading, spelling or mathematics. Of these, 18 (75%) children showed low achievement in reading. Reading achievement was significantly correlated to phonological awareness, rapid naming and expressive vocabulary. Children with phonological awareness and rapid naming deficits showed significantly more delay in reading than children without such deficits. Children who had rapid naming deficits were more likely to show multiple skill delays. Rapid naming showed significant, though modest correlations with immaturity and illness variables. Maternal education was significantly associated with achievement. Phonological awareness does predict reading performance in very preterm children. Rapid naming appears to be related to complex multiple academic delays, and may reflect a neurological timing or efficiency factor with effects independent of intelligence and significantly influenced by immaturity and illness.

  5. Development of an Age Band on the ManuVis for 3-Year-Old Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A M; Barsingerhorn, A D; Overvelde, A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N; Cox, R F A

    2017-08-01

    To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. 26 children with visual impairment (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 3 months); 17 boys) and 28 children with normal vision (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 4 months); 14 boys) participated in the study. The ManuVis age band for 3-year-old children comprised two one-handed tasks, two two-handed tasks, and a pre-writing task. Children with visual impairment needed more time on all tasks (p visual impairment and normal vision and between half-year age groups. Reference scores are provided for 3-year-old children with visual impairment to identify delayed fine motor development.

  6. A Comparative Study of Deep Neck Abscess with Regards to Anatomical Location and Age Groups Using CT and Clinical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Ho; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Young Tong; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Jou, Sung Shick [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate differences anatomical location and age groups on CT and clinical data in deep neck abscess. This study included 200 patients who underwent CT and were diagnosed with a deep neck abscess, from December 2005 to July 2010. Patients were divided into four groups by age (children, adolescent, adult, elderly). Next, the anatomic location, location multiplicity and clinical data regarding the deep neck abscesses were analyzed retrospectively. The deep neck abscesses observed were defined as superficial or deep and partitioned into sub-groups, with further analysis of their clinical data. The incidence of the parapharyngeal abscess was more frequent in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05). The masticator abscess was only observed among patients in the elderly group (p < 0.05). Multiple locations were observed with increased frequency in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05). Swelling in the neck was more frequently observed in children and elderly groups (p < 0.05), cervical lymphadenitis was frequently seen in children and adolescent groups (p < 0.05), and the incidence of symptoms including sore throat were significantly increased in adolescent and adult groups (p < 0.05). Location multiplicity was significantly higher in parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal, submandibular, danger, visceral and masticator spaces than other spaces (p < 0.05). With regards to anatomic location, neck swelling was more frequent in superficial group and sore throat was more frequent in deep group (p < 0.05). Deep neck abscess would show significant differences with regards to the abscess location, location multiplicity, and clinical symptoms according to age. The clinical symptoms observed are dependent on the anatomic location as defined by a superficial or deep abscess.

  7. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  8. Parental perception and management of school-age children's fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, A R

    1988-05-01

    Fever is a major childhood complaint. Parents have numerous means at their disposal to assess and manage childhood fevers. Previous studies of parents of infants and preschoolers have uncovered parental fears and misconceptions surrounding fever ("fever phobia"). A study of 84 parents of otherwise well school-age children revealed that these misconceptions remain, regardless of the child's age or parental level of education. The nurse practitioner must understand both parental fears and the body-temperature dynamics of children to successfully access and manage fever in the school-age child.

  9. Relação de escolaridade, faixa etária e profissão de mães com a oferta de chupeta e mamadeira a seus filhos Relationship of schooling level, age group and mother profession with offer of pacifier and baby's bottles to your children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Alves Silvério

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a relação do grau de escolaridade, faixa etária e a profissão das mães com a oferta de chupeta e mamadeira a seus filhos MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo 190 mães de crianças entre 0 e 10 anos de idade, com idades de 20 a 45 anos que responderam a um questionário com questões fechadas a respeito de profissão, nível de escolaridade e uso de chupeta e mamadeira de seus filhos RESULTADOS: não foi observada diferença significante entre o grau de escolaridade quanto ao uso de chupeta (p= 0,915. O uso de mamadeira foi significantemente maior nos filhos de mães com ensino superior (p= 0,0124. Não houve diferença significante quanto à faixa etária das mães e a presença desses hábitos nos filhos (chupeta: p=0,427; mamadeira: p=0,427; e, entre mães que trabalham em casa e que trabalham fora de casa (chupeta: p=0,061; mamadeira: p=0,798. Não houve diferença entre mães que trabalham na área da saúde e em outras áreas (chupeta: p=0,339; mamadeira: p=0,455 CONCLUSÃO: as mães com nível superior de escolaridade oferecem significantemente mais mamadeira aos seus filhos, o que não ocorreu quanto ao uso de chupeta. Não foi observada diferença significante quanto ao uso de chupeta e mamadeira em relação à faixa etária e profissão de mães.PURPOSE: to evaluate the relationships among schooling level, age group and mother profession with offer of pacifier and baby's bottles to your children. METHOD: 190 mothers with ages varying from 20 to 45 having children from 0 to 10 took part in this study. Mothers answered a questionnaire with questions regarding profession, schooling level and use of nipples and baby's bottles by their children. RESULTS: no significant differences were found between mothers having primary or secondary education and mothers with higher education regarding the use of nipples (p= 0.915. On the other hand, baby's bottle use was significantly higher among children of mothers with higher

  10. Age-related changes of muscle and plasma amino acids in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarqvist, Folke; Angsten, Gertrud; Meurling, Staffan; Andersson, Kerstin; Wernerman, Jan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore if changes in muscle and plasma amino acid concentrations developed during growth and differed from levels seen in adults. The gradient and concentrations of free amino acids in muscle and plasma were investigated in relation to age in metabolic healthy children. Plasma and specimens from the abdominal muscle were obtained during elective surgery. The children were grouped into three groups (group 1: amino acids analysed increased with age, namely taurine, aspartate, threonine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, as well as the total sums of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), basic amino acids (BAA) and total sum of amino acids (P amino acids correlated with age (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there is an age dependency of the amino acid pattern in skeletal muscle and plasma during growth.

  11. Using Matched Groups to Explore Child Behavior Problems and Maternal Well-Being in Children with down Syndrome and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hill, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Mothers of children with Down syndrome, autism, and mixed etiology intellectual disabilities, matched on child age, gender, and communication skills (n = 19 in each group) completed measures of their child's adaptive and problem behaviors, their own parenting stress, and positive perceptions of their child. Children with autism were rated as…

  12. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time points in 1018 mother-child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples....... Age acceleration (AA) was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal...... characteristics in pregnancy, namely smoking, weight, BMI, selenium and cholesterol level. Offspring of non-drinkers had higher AA on average but this difference appeared to resolve during childhood. The associations between sex, birth weight and AA found in ARIES were replicated in an independent cohort (GOYA...

  13. Comparative study of oral and intramuscular atropine sulphate as a premedicant in paediatric age group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari L

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.

  14. [Effects of Montessori education on the intellectual development in children aged 2 to 4 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Ling; Yan, Hong; Zuo, Ling; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xi-Ping

    2009-12-01

    To compare the effects of Montessori education and traditional education on the intellectual development in children aged 2 to 4 years. Children aged between 2 to 3 years who were enrolled in a kindergarten in September 2006 were randomly assigned to the Montessori education and the traditional education groups. In addition to receiving the traditional education, the Montessori education group participated in the two-hour Montessori pedagogical activities every day. The intellectual development was evaluated by the Neuropsychological Development Examination Format for Children Aged 0~6 years published by Capital Pediatrics Research Institute at enrollment and one year after the trial. There were no significant differences in the intelligence growth level between the Montessori education and the traditional education groups at enrollment. After one year, the levels of fine movements, adaptation ability, language, and social behavior developments in the Montessori education group were significantly higher than those in the traditional education group (pMontessori education group were also higher than those in the traditional education group (pMontessori education can promote the development of large motor ability, fine movements, language, and social behavior in children.

  15. Age-Related Benefits of Digital Noise Reduction for Short-Term Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of word learning for children with hearing loss (HL) in quiet and in noise compared to normal-hearing (NH) peers. The effects of digital noise reduction (DNR) were examined for children with HL. Method: Forty-one children with NH and 26 children with HL were grouped by age (8-9 years and 11-12 years). The children…

  16. Age as a factor in sensory integration function in Taiwanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chin-Kai Lin,1 Huey-Min Wu,2 Hsin-Yi Wang,3 Mei-Hui Tseng,4,5 Chung-Hui Lin61Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Research Center for Testing and Assessment, National Academy for Educational Research, New Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Special Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan; 4School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 6School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medical Science and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, TaiwanObjective: Sensory integration progresses along a normal developmental sequence. However, few studies have explored how age difference affects the way sensory integration functions in Taiwanese children as they develop. Therefore, this study aims to pinpoint the role of age in sensory integration.Method: A purposive sampling plan was employed. The study population comprised 1,000 Chinese children aged 36 to 131 months (mean = 74.48 months, standard deviation = 25.69 months. Subjects were scored on seven subsets of the Test of Sensory Integration Function (TSIF. An analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to identify differences between four age groups (ages 3−4, 5−6, 7−8, and 9−10 years, in the categories of the TSIF.Results: ANOVA revealed that age is a significant factor in each of the seven tasks of sensory integration associated with various stages of development. The effect of age was significant in all four groups for the subscale of Bilateral Integration Sequences. The function of sensory integration for the children aged 5−8 years did not produce statistically significant results for the subscale of Postural Movement, Sensory Discrimination, Sensory Seeking, or Attention and Activity. For the subscale of Sensory Modulation and Emotional

  17. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  18. Self-Perception of Aging and Satisfaction With Children's Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2017-09-01

    Those with self-beliefs in negative aging may desire a stronger support network to buffer against potential threats and may hence see their current network as less than adequate. This study investigated whether negative self-perception of aging is associated with increased dissatisfaction with children's support. Six hundred and forty Chinese older adults with at least one child and a total of 2,108 adult children rated the degree of support received from each child individually and the degree to which it met their expectation. Additionally, the participants responded to measures of self-perception of aging (both positive and negative), neuroticism, instrumental activities of daily living, chronic illnesses, financial strain, and living status. The multilevel dataset was analyzed using mixed-effects regression. Individuals who had a more negative self-perception of aging, who were younger, who lived alone, and who had fewer children provided lower support satisfaction ratings after support received from children was controlled for. Positive self-perception of aging was unrelated to support satisfaction. Neuroticism did not account for the relationship between negative self-perception of aging and support satisfaction. A negative self-perception of aging may create vulnerability to intergenerational tension that puts older people at risk of adverse psychological and physical health outcomes.

  19. Transient Elastography-Based Liver Stiffness Age-Dependently Increases in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhara, Daisuke; Cho, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Pediatric use of liver transient elastography (TE) is attractive for its non-invasiveness, but reference values have not been established. We aimed to determine reference values for TE in children. Methods In pediatric patients (1 to 18 years), TE (FibroScan®) with an M probe was used for both liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and measurement of hepatic fat deposition by using a controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). The patients were divided into three relevant age groups: preschoolers (1 to 5 years), elementary school children (6 to 11 years), and adolescents (12 to 18 years). Overweight or obese patients or those with known liver disease, elevated serum liver enzymes, or hepatic echogenic abnormality were excluded from the study. Results Among 139 children, 123 (88.5%; 62 male; median age, 11.7 years; age range, 1.3 to 17.2 years) were successfully subjected to M-probe TE without anesthesia. Median LSM increased with age: it was 3.4 kPa (2.3 to 4.6 kPa, 5th to 95th percentiles) at ages 1 to 5 years; 3.8 (2.5 to 6.1) kPa at ages 6 to 11; and 4.1 (3.3 to 7.9) kPa at ages 12 to 18 (P = 0.001). Median CAP was not age dependent: it was 183 (112 to 242) for ages 1 to 18 years. Conclusions M-probe TE is suitable in a wide age range of children from age 1 year up. In children without evidence of liver disease, LSM has an age-dependent increase, whereas CAP does not differ between ages 1 and 18. PMID:27861607

  20. Capturing Age-group Differences and Developmental Change with the BASC Parent Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Baptiste; Hein, Sascha; Luthar, Suniya S; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-07-01

    Estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change across distinct developmental periods is often challenged by the use of age-appropriate (but non-parallel) measures. We present a short version of the Behavior Assessment System (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998), Parent Rating Scales for Children (PRS-C) and Adolescents (PRS-A), which uses only their common-items to derive estimates of the initial constructs optimized for developmental studies. Measurement invariance of a three-factor model (Externalizing, Internalizing, Adaptive Skills) was tested across age-groups (161 mothers using PRS-C; 200 mothers using PRS-A) and over time (115 mothers using PRS-C at baseline and PRS-A five years later) with the original versus short PRS. Results indicated that the short PRS holds a sufficient level of invariance for a robust estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change, as compared to the original PRS, which held only weak invariance leading to flawed developmental inferences. Importance of test-content parallelism for developmental studies is discussed.

  1. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  2. Working with children from substance-affected families: the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bröning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Frequently, they experience violence, abuse and neglect in their families. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated program for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. Methods: A new group intervention for children from substance-affected families was developed and is currently being evaluated in a randomized-controlled multicenter study funded by the German Ministry of Health. The development process was simultaneously guided by theory, existing research knowledge and expert opinion. Promoting resilience in children affected by parental substance abuse is a key goal of the program. Results: The TRAMPOLINE manual describes a 9-session addiction-focused, modular group program for children aged 8 to 12 years with at least one substance-using parent. Weekly sessions last for 90 minutes and combine psychoeducational elements with exercises and role play. A two-session parent intervention component is also integrated in the program. Content, structure and theoretical background of the intervention are described. Discussion: TRAMPOLINE is a new interventive effort targeting children from substance-affected families. It is grounded in theory and practice. The results of the research in progress will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of a structured group prevention program for German children from substance-abusing families. Thus, the study will contribute to creating a broader and more effective system of preventive help for this high-risk target group.

  3. School Functioning of a Particularly Vulnerable Group: Children and Young People in Residential Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla González-García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the children and young people in residential child care in Spain are there as a consequence of abuse and neglect in their birth families. Research has shown that these types of adverse circumstances in childhood are risk factors for emotional and behavioral problems, as well as difficulties in adapting to different contexts. School achievement is related to this and represents one of the most affected areas. Children in residential child care exhibit extremely poor performance and difficulties in school functioning which affects their transition to adulthood and into the labor market. The main aim of this study is to describe the school functioning of a sample of 1,216 children aged between 8 and 18 living in residential child care in Spain. The specific needs of children with intellectual disability and unaccompanied migrant children were also analyzed. Relationships with other variables such as gender, age, mental health needs, and other risk factors were also explored. In order to analyze school functioning in this vulnerable group, the sample was divided into different groups depending on school level and educational needs. In the vast majority of cases, children were in primary or compulsory secondary education (up to age 16, this group included a significant proportion of cases in special education centers. The rest of the sample were in vocational training or post-compulsory secondary school. Results have important implications for the design of socio-educative intervention strategies in both education and child care systems in order to promote better school achievement and better educational qualifications in this vulnerable group.

  4. Effects of a music therapy group intervention on enhancing social skills in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, A Blythe

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that music therapy can improve social behaviors and joint attention in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); however, more research on the use of music therapy interventions for social skills is needed to determine the impact of group music therapy. To examine the effects of a music therapy group intervention on eye gaze, joint attention, and communication in children with ASD. Seventeen children, ages 6 to 9, with a diagnosis of ASD were randomly assigned to the music therapy group (MTG) or the no-music social skills group (SSG). Children participated in ten 50-minute group sessions over a period of 5 weeks. All group sessions were designed to target social skills. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and video analysis of sessions were used to evaluate changes in social behavior. There were significant between-group differences for joint attention with peers and eye gaze towards persons, with participants in the MTG demonstrating greater gains. There were no significant between-group differences for initiation of communication, response to communication, or social withdraw/behaviors. There was a significant interaction between time and group for SRS scores, with improvements for the MTG but not the SSG. Scores on the ATEC did not differ over time between the MTG and SSG. The results of this study support further research on the use of music therapy group interventions for social skills in children with ASD. Statistical results demonstrate initial support for the use of music therapy social groups to develop joint attention. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Theory of mind and specific language impairment in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI.

  6. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...... method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4...

  7. Dental Treatment Needs in Vancouver Inner-City Elementary School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Samim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the dental treatment needs of inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children and relate them to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods. A census sampling comprising 562 children from six out of eight eligible schools was chosen (response rate was 65.4%. Dental treatment needs were assessed based on criteria from the World Health Organization. Results. Every third child examined needed at least one restorative treatment. A higher proportion of children born outside Canada were in need of more extensive dental treatments such as pulp care and extractions compared to the children born in Canada. There were no statistically significant differences in dental treatment needs between age, gender, or income groups or between children with or without dental insurance (Chi Squared P>0.05. The best significant predictors (Linear Multiple Regression, P>0.05 of higher dental treatment needs were being born outside Canada, gender, time of last dental visit, and family income. Having dental insurance did not associate with needing less treatment. Conclusion. A high level of unmet dental treatment needs (32% was found in inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children. Children born outside Canada, particularly the ones who recently arrived to Canada, needed more extensive dental treatments than children born in Canada.

  8. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language.

  9. Event-based prospective memory across the lifespan: Do all age groups benefit from salient prospective memory cues?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer-Trendowicz, A.; Altgassen, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of cognitive control demands on prospective memory (PM) performance across the lifespan. Four different age groups (children, adolescents, young adults, old adults) worked on a computer-based picture categorization task as ongoing activity, while PM cue salienc

  10. The Effects of Learning Methods and Environmental Knowledge on Age 5-6 Naturalistic Intelligence (Experiment at AR – Ridho Nature Kindergaten Group B Tembalang Semarang)

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Mauladin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see the impact of learning methods and environmental knowledge on the naturalistic intelligence of children aged 5-6 years. This research was carried out at Ar-Ridho Nature Kindergarten Semarang, with a total sample of 60 children. This study used an experimental method. The results of this study are as follows: (1) The naturalist intelligence groups of children who were given handson method of learning was higher than in children given storyt...

  11. Age-related differences in brain electrical activity during extended continuous face recognition in younger children, older children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Glimmerveen, Johanna C; Franken, Ingmar H A; Martens, Vanessa E G; de Bruin, Eveline A

    2011-09-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with distracter faces. The children were required to make old vs. new decisions. Older children responded faster than younger children, but younger children exhibited a steeper decrease in latencies across the five repetitions. Older children exhibited better accuracy for new faces, but there were no age differences in recognition accuracy for repeated faces. For the N2, N400 and late positive complex (LPC), we analyzed the old/new effects (repetition 1 vs. new presentation) and the extended repetition effects (repetitions 1 through 5). Compared to older children, younger children exhibited larger frontocentral N2 and N400 old/new effects. For extended face repetitions, negativity of the N2 and N400 decreased in a linear fashion in both age groups. For the LPC, an ERP component thought to reflect recollection, no significant old/new or extended repetition effects were found. Employing the same face recognition paradigm in 20 adults (Study 2), we found a significant N400 old/new effect at lateral frontal sites and a significant LPC repetition effect at parietal sites, with LPC amplitudes increasing linearly with the number of repetitions. This study clearly demonstrates differential developmental courses for the N400 and LPC pertaining to recognition memory for faces. It is concluded that face recognition in children is mediated by early and probably more automatic than conscious recognition processes. In adults, the LPC extended repetition effect indicates that adult face recognition memory is related to a conscious and graded recollection process rather than to an automatic recognition process.

  12. Elevated level of serum osteopontin in school-age children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akelma, A Z; Cizmeci, M N; Kanburoglu, M K; Bozkaya, D; Catal, F; Mete, E; Kutukoglu, I; Namuslu, M

    2014-01-01

    The role of osteopontin (OPN) has not been elucidated in childhood asthma. Our purpose was to investigate whether OPN levels change due to allergic inflammation in pre-school and school-age children. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 42 healthy children and a total of 51 children with asthma were recruited. OPN levels and its association with clinical and laboratory parameters were investigated in the study population. The asthma group were divided into two groups with respect to age, ≤ 5-years (n = 23) and >5-years (n = 28), and labelled Asthma Group 1 and Asthma Group 2, respectively. OPN levels were compared between subgroups. Serum OPN levels were significantly higher in the asthma group when compared to the control group (p = 0.004). OPN levels were similar in Asthma Group 1 and control groups, whereas it was found to be higher in Asthma Group 2 (p>0.025, p = 0.001, respectively). In the >5-years age asthmatic group, OPN levels of the patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 15) were higher than those of the patients (n=13) without allergic rhinitis (p = 0.021). The study underscores the relationship between childhood asthma and OPN as the first study in the literature. In this study we found that OPN, which plays a role in Th2 mediated inflammation, may also play a role in childhood asthma. The fact that OPN levels do not increase in preschool-age children with asthma might be due to the transient wheezing in this group. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations between adenotonsillar hypertrophy, age, and obesity in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Tai Kang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contributions of adenoid and tonsil size to childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and the interactions between adenotonsillar hypertrophy, age, and obesity in children with OSA. METHODS: In total, 495 symptomatic patients were recruited. The patients were assigned to four groups according to age: toddler (age 1-3, n=42, preschool (age 3-6, n=164, school (age 6-12, n=200, and adolescence (age 12-18, n=89. All subjects had tonsil size graded by otolaryngologists, adenoid size determined on lateral radiographs (Fujioka method, and a full-night polysomnography. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, adenoid size, and tonsil size were compared in obese and non-obese children in the four age groups. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and OSA risk were estimated by multi-logistic regression. RESULTS: The AHI was positively related to tonsil grade (r=0.33, p <0.001 and adenoid size (r=0.24, p <0.01 in all patients. Tonsil grade was positively related to AHI in all four age groups. Adenoid size was positively related to AHI in the toddler, preschool, school groups, but not in the adolescent group (r=0.11, p=0.37. Tonsil grade and adenoid size were both positively related to AHI in obese and non-obese children. In the regression model, obesity (OR=2.89; 95% CI 1.47-5.68, tonsillar hypertrophy (OR=3.15; 95% CI 2.04-4.88, and adenoidal hypertrophy (OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.19-3.00 significantly increased OSA risk. CONCLUSIONS: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obesity are the major determinants of OSA in children. However, the influence of adenoid size decreases in adolescence.

  15. Developmental Indicators of School-Age Children, Living in the Regions with Iodine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the results of studying developmental indicators of children living in the areas of iodine deficiency. The basic anthropometric parameters (height and weight, chest circumference were defined, the estimation of intellectual development in 819 children aged 7–16 years living in the regions with mild (472 persons and moderate (347 persons iodine deficiency was carried out. Examined children were standardized by major factors of developmental effect. Anthropometric measurements were carried out by standard methods. Maturity of intellectual functioning was determined using the fragment of R. Cattell test, indicators of mental activity — with proofreading test in conjunction with reading rate test. In all children we have carried out measurement of daily ioduria (Sandell — Kolthoff reaction, palpation of the thyroid gland, determination of its size and structure using ultrasound. It was found that the diet of children is characterized by deficiency of food rich in iodine. Iodized salt was used only by 1 of 50 families. Children living in the regions with moderate iodine deficiency in all age subgroups have lower rates of physical development. A third of children living in areas of iodine deficiency have disharmonic physical development. 13.8 % of children from the regions of iodine deficiency have changes in the majority of the studied cognitive functions. Leading disabilities in the whole group of children were memory impairment and fine motor skills disorders. The level of intellectual maturity, productivity and accuracy of human performance decreases with growing iodine deficiency.

  16. Analysis of the characteristics of pattern visual evoked potentials in different age groups of children with ametropic amblyopia%年龄对屈光不正性弱视儿童图形视觉诱发电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓东; 邸悦; 唐小菁

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析屈光不正性弱视儿童图形视觉诱发电位(PVEP)检测结果的特点及年龄对其的影响.方法 回顾性系列病例研究.等效球镜为远视的屈光不正性弱视患儿92例(184眼),按最佳矫正视力0.8~0.6、0.5~0.2、≤0.1三个级别分为轻度弱视组108眼,中度弱视组65眼,重度弱视组11眼.每组又以6岁为界进行分组,分为<6岁组和≥6岁组.采用视觉电生理检查系统检测PVEP,对弱视组间差异行单因素方差分析,同一程度弱视组中的不同年龄组间行独立样本t检验,比较不同弱视程度组间及不同年龄组间P100波潜伏期(LP100)及振幅(AP100)的差异.结果 随弱视程度加重,PVEP的LP100延长,三组间差异有统计学意义(F=151.30,P<0.01),两两间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).三组间AP100差异有统计学意义(F=13.59,P<0.05),两两比较示,重度组的AP100明显较其余两组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),中度组较轻度组低,但差异无统计学意义.轻度组中,年龄≥6岁组与<6岁组比较,LP100明显延长,AP100降低,差异有统计学意义(t=5.08、7.45,P<0.01);中度组也呈类似表现(t=4.68、4.27,P<0.01);重度组结果类似,但由于例数少,未进行统计分析.结论 PVEP的LP100、AP100可作为衡量儿童屈光不正性弱视严重程度的客观指标,同时对结果进行分析时应充分考虑年龄的影响.%Objective To analyze the characteristics of pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEPs) and the effect of age in children with ametropic amblyopia.Methods Ninety-two children (184 eyes) with hyperopic amblyopia (spherical equivalent refractions) were analyzed retrospectively.Subjects were categorized into three groups based on the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA): mild amblyopia group (0.8-0.6),108 eyes; moderate amblyopia group (0.5-0.2),65 eyes; severe amblyopia group (BCVA≤0.1),11 eyes.Each group was further divided into two subgroups based on age: <6 years

  17. Bilateral deep neck space infection in the paediatric age group: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songu, M; Demiray, U; Adibelli, Z H; Adibelli, H

    2011-06-01

    Deep neck space infections can occur at any age but require more intimate management in the paediatric age group because of their rapidly progressive nature. Concurrent abscess in distinct neck spaces has rarely been reported in healthy children. Herewith, a rare case of bilateral neck abscess is reported in a 16-month-old female and the clinical presentation and management are discussed with a review of the literature.

  18. Nutritional status and growth parameters of school-age Roma children in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Igor; Dimitrovska, Zlatanka; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Mikik, Vladimir; Efremova-Stefanoska, Vesna; Naunova-Spiroska, Daniela; Kendrovski, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Main objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of school age Roma children in Macedonia in order to detect precursors of possible health risks at an early age. The study was designed as a comparative case control study. Study group consisted of 229 Roma school children from the 1st and 272 from the 5th grade residing in different towns in Macedonia. The control group was recruited from other than Roma ethnic background and consisted of 283 children attending 1st and 356 children attending 5th grade. Every participant was measured for his/hers body height and weight. The t-test and Chi square (Chi2) were applied to test statistical significance of variables. The WHO's AnthroPlus software was applied to assess growth parameters and population at risk. There were significant differences in values of the body weight (p = 0.001) and height (p = 0.001) between Roma and non-Roma children attending the 1st grade of primary school. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age indexes of the 1st grade children significantly differred in in the same intervals of SD (> or = -2SD and or = -1SD and median; > +1SD and Roma and non-Roma 5th graders. Anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of Roma children in Macedonia are significantly different than those of their non-Roma peers. Their health risks are predominantly related to underweight. The parameters related to health risks of overweight or obesity are lower in Roma than in non-Roma children.

  19. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF SEIZURES (EPILEPSY IN PEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The study is aimed to reassess the role of CT in detecting various epileptogenic lesions with multi detector CT imaging, to know the value of CECT is evaluation of various lesions and to know the commonest CNS lesions ca using afebrile se i zures in Paediatric age group is the local population. METHODOLOGY: The study consists of 70 Pediatric patients suffering from afebrile seizures referred to Radio – diagnostic department S.V.R.R. Hospital at Tirupati for C.T. brain invest igation. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : A s our study is to evaluate epilepsy characterized by recurrent (more than two episodes seizures, with no immediate identifiable and avoidable cause (sleep deprivation, known metabolic disorders, alcohol withdrawal, pyrexia. Therefore we excluded patients below one month ago. Febrile convulsions, acute infections, toxic and known metabolic disorders Equipment used is Fourth generation Four slice CT with scan time 0.7 seconds Matrix size 640, gantry tilt 120, KV – 120 MAs – 100 to 200, Slice thickness 5mm and 2mm Auto power injector 3 to 3.5 ml per second. NECT : Continuous axial sections of brain, posterior fossa 3mm and rest of brain 5mm sections and 2mm sections were taken wherever necessary CECT is carried out logically in th ose cases which were inconclusive or ambiguous and NECT excluding more definite cases like congenital anomalies and calcified granulomas without peri lesion edema. IV CONTRAST : Non - ionic contrast medium at 1mg / kg body weight was used whenever indicated, n o adverse reactions were noted after injection of contrast medium and sedation was advised whenever the patient was un co - operative. RESULTS: In the present study we evaluated to cases of Pediatric Se i zures and observed and analyzed our findings with the available relevant clinical data and concluded that ; Out of 70 cases there are a Slight female Predilection 57%. And maximum incidence of Seizures was in the first 3 years, but

  20. Zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in a group of Egyptian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Magdy M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral syndrome of childhood characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There were many etiological theories showed dysfunction of some brain areas that are implicated in inhibition of responses and functions of the brain. Minerals like zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper may play a role in the pathogenesis and therefore the treatment of this disorder. Objective This study aimed to measure levels of zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comparing them to normal. Methods This study included 58 children aged 5-15 years with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder attending Minia University Hospital from June 2008 to January 2010. They were classified into three sub-groups: sub-group I included 32 children with in-attentive type, sub-group II included 10 children with hyperactive type and sub-group III included 16 children with combined type according to the DSM-IV criteria of American Psychiatric Association, 2000. The control group included 25 apparently normal healthy children. Results Zinc, ferritin and magnesium levels were significantly lower in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder than controls (p value 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02 respectively, while copper levels were not significantly different (p value 0.9. Children with inattentive type had significant lower levels of zinc and ferritin than controls (p value 0.001 and 0.01 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards magnesium and copper levels (p value 0.4 and 0.6 respectively. Children with hyperactive type had significant lower levels of zinc, ferritin and magnesium than controls (p value 0.01, 0.02 and 0.02 respectively with no significant difference between them as regards copper levels (p value 0.9. Children with combined type had significant lower levels of zinc and magnesium than controls (p value 0

  1. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi

    2011-01-01

    PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy...... and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14...

  2. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  3. Intervention for children with word-finding difficulties: a parallel group randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Wendy; Hughes, Lucy Mari; Masterson, Jackie; Thomas, Michael; Fedor, Anna; Roncoli, Silvia; Fern-Pollak, Liory; Shepherd, Donna-Lynn; Howard, David; Shobbrook, Kate; Kapikian, Anna

    2017-07-31

    The study investigated the outcome of a word-web intervention for children diagnosed with word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Twenty children age 6-8 years with WFDs confirmed by a discrepancy between comprehension and production on the Test of Word Finding-2, were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 11) and waiting control (n = 9) groups. The intervention group had six sessions of intervention which used word-webs and targeted children's meta-cognitive awareness and word-retrieval. On the treated experimental set (n = 25 items) the intervention group gained on average four times as many items as the waiting control group (d = 2.30). There were also gains on personally chosen items for the intervention group. There was little change on untreated items for either group. The study is the first randomised control trial to demonstrate an effect of word-finding therapy with children with language difficulties in mainstream school. The improvement in word-finding for treated items was obtained following a clinically realistic intervention in terms of approach, intensity and duration.

  4. A realização imaginária do desejo inconsciente num grupo terapêutico de crianças em idade pré-escolar Imaginary achievement of unconscious desire in a therapy group of pre-school-aged-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Silva Krug

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alguns teóricos têm observado que os grupos, assim como os sonhos, podem fornecer um espaço privilegiado para a realização imaginária de desejos inconscientes de seus membros. Por meio de relatos de sessões de um grupo terapêutico formado por crianças em idade pré-escolar, objetivou-se conhecer as formas de organização e de expressão do grupo que possibilitaram a realização imaginária de desejos inconscientes de seus membros. Mediante Análise Textual Qualitativa, constatou-se que a realização dos desejos foi possível pela articulação dinâmica entre desejos manifestos, formas de expressão e modos pelos quais o grupo organiza seus processos, influenciados pelas características do desenvolvimento psicossexual das crianças.A few theoreticians have observed that groups, as well as dreams, may provide a privileged space for the imaginary achievement of their members' unconscious desires. Through reports of sessions of a therapy group comprising children at pre-school age, this study aimed at learning the organization and expression forms of the group that rendered possible the imaginary achievement of their members' unconscious desires. Qualitative Textual Analysis led to find out that the achievement of desires was possible through the dynamic articulation among the expressed desires, forms of expressions and ways in which the group organizes its processes, influenced by the characteristics of the children's psychosexual development.

  5. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  6. Narrative spoken language skills in severely hearing impaired school-aged children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2013-11-01

    Cochlear implants have a significant positive effect on spoken language development in severely hearing impaired children. Previous work in this population has focused mostly on the emergence of early-developing language skills, such as vocabulary. The current study aims at comparing narratives, which are more complex and later-developing spoken language skills, of a contemporary group of profoundly deaf school-aged children using cochlear implants (n=66, median age=8 years 3 months) with matched normal hearing peers. Results show that children with cochlear implants demonstrate good results on quantity and coherence of the utterances, but problematic outcomes on quality, content and efficiency of retold stories. However, for a subgroup (n=20, median age=8 years 1 month) of deaf children without additional disabilities who receive cochlear implantation before the age of 2 years, use two implants, and are raised with one spoken language, age-adequate spoken narrative skills at school-age are feasible. This is the first study to set the goals regarding spoken narrative skills for deaf children using cochlear implants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study of Anaphylaxis Triggers by Age in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Min, Taek Ki; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Pyun, Bok Yang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Yu, Jinho; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Song, Tae Won; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hyung Young; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Hae Ran; Kim, Hye-Young; Ahn, Youngmin; Yum, Hye Yung; Suh, Dong In; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin-Tack; Kim, Jeong Hee; Park, Yong Mean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although anaphylaxis is recognized as an important, life-threatening condition, data are limited regarding its triggers in different age groups. We aimed to identify anaphylaxis triggers by age in Korean children. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records for children diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2009 and 2013 in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Results A total of 991 cases (mean age=5.89±5.24) were reported, with 63.9% involving patients younger than 6 years of age and 66% involving male children. Food was the most common anaphylaxis trigger (74.7%), followed by drugs and radiocontrast media (10.7%), idiopathic factors (9.2%), and exercise (3.6%). The most common food allergen was milk (28.4%), followed by egg white (13.6%), walnut (8.0%), wheat (7.2%), buckwheat (6.5%), and peanut (6.2%). Milk and seafood were the most common anaphylaxis triggers in young and older children, respectively. Drug-triggered anaphylaxis was observed more frequently with increasing age, with antibiotics (34.9%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.9%) being the most common causes. Conclusions The most common anaphylaxis trigger in Korean children was food. Data on these triggers show that their relative frequency may vary by age. PMID:27582405

  8. Utterance Complexity and Stuttering on Function Words in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richels, Corrin; Buhr, Anthony; Conture, Edward; Ntourou, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation between utterance complexity and utterance position and the tendency to stutter on function words in preschool-age children who stutter (CWS). Two separate studies involving two different groups of participants (Study 1, n = 30; Study 2, n = 30) were conducted. Participants were…

  9. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…

  10. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  11. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…

  12. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  13. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Naserbakht; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Maryam Rasoulain; Mohammad Salehi; Mirfarhad Ghalebandi; Mohammad Hosien Salarifar

    2011-01-01

    "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmar...

  14. Voice disorders in children, aged 5 to 7 years

    OpenAIRE

    Polutnik, Tjaša

    2013-01-01

    Dysphonia is a term for every unpleasant change which can be detected via hearing and the voice disorder is most frequently a consequence of recuperation after a respiratory infection and it can also occur due to an incorrect formation of sounds or throat disorders. The purpose of the research is to find out how often dysphonia occurs among children from the age of five to the age of seven and how illnesses or the individual way children talk influence the occurrence of dysphonia. The researc...

  15. Developmental trajectories of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E; Manders, E; Swillen, A; Zink, I

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Twelve monolingual Dutch-speaking children with WS aged 5.10 to 13.3 years were assessed by means of standardised structural language tests measuring receptive and expressive vocabulary and sentence comprehension and production. Pragmatic language was evaluated by means of an expressive referential communication task and a retelling test. All of these language abilities were re-evaluated with the same measures after a period of 18 to 24 months. Performance was compared to 12 children with IID pairwise matched for chronological age (CA) and non-verbal fluid reasoning (Gf) at Time 1. Non-verbal mental age (NVMA) was taken into account when delineating developmental trajectories. Children with WS outperformed children with IID on expressive vocabulary development. In contrast, sentence comprehension was significantly poorer than in children with IID at the second time point. Increased variability and rather poor performance on pragmatic language tasks were demonstrated in the WS group. Irrelevant and off-topic extraneous information transfer continued to be a syndrome-specific characteristic of children with WS. The data provide new insights into diverging developmental trajectories across language domains. Expressive structural language skills tend to progress more rapidly than receptive language skills in children with WS causing more distinctive language profiles over time. Some children with WS seem to benefit from the growth in expressive structural language abilities to enhance their expressive pragmatic language skills, while in some others these abilities remain challenging. This study highlights the need for continued follow-up of language challenges in

  16. Social Integration of 6-7 Year-Old Children in a Handball Initiation Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sburlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is observatory and aims at approaching the training process in 6-7-year-old children in handball in terms of socialization and its main objective is the creation of interpersonal relationships between the team players. By using the bibliographic study, sociometric test, analysis and interpretation of the data collected from 20 children (10 girls and 10 boys aged 6-7 years who were enrolled in a training program in which the group formation was intended to be achieved, we managed to validate the hypothesis according to which if we use in a 6-7-year-old group of children exercises for teaching handball, the level of social integration is improved. The conclusion emphasizes that the results to the second test prove the efficiency of the means of a collective nature.

  17. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  18. Metabolism of Oxycodone in Human Hepatocytes from Different Age Groups and Prediction of Hepatic Plasma Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, Timo; Tolonen, Ari; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Turpeinen, Miia; Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool) and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 h, and 1 μM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 μM). Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. The data suggests that there are no children-specific metabolites of oxycodone. Moreover, CYP3A activity seems to be the major determinant in metabolic clearance of oxycodone regardless of age group or individual variability in hepatocyte batches. PMID:22291644

  19. Loss to follow-up among children and adolescents growing up with HIV infection: age really matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kranzer

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Adolescents had higher rates of LTFU compared to other age-groups, with older adolescents at particularly high risk in all analyses. Age-updated analyses that examine movement across narrow age-bands are paramount in understanding how developmental heterogeneity in children affects HIV outcomes.

  20. Study of Incidence of Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumors as Per Age Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi S. Soni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: CNS tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Tumors of the central nervous system can be divided into primary intracranial tumours that arise from parenchyma of brain, pituitary gland, covering of brain & secondary intracranial tumours which represent local extension from regional tumours or metastasis from primary malignancy in the body. The most common location of the brain tumours in childhood is below the tentorium within the posterior cranial fossa. Materials and methods: Surgical specimen of central nervous system of children (0 to 14 year of age group received from August 2013 to November 2015, in the Tertiary care center, Ahmedabad were studied with keeping the following features in mind: Age, Sex and site of tumours. Results: Fifty eight cases of central Nervous system Tumours between the age of 0 to 14 years over a period of 2.5 years at civil hospital, Ahmedabad were studied. Incidence were more common in male (60.34% than female(39.66% 89.65% were intracranial to 10.35% were intraspinal tumours.Commonly encountered tumour in descending order of frequency were Medulloblastoma (27.58%, astrocytoma (24.13%, Ependymoma (20.68%. All medulloblastomas arose infratentorial, schwannomas arose intraspinal and meningiomas in cranial cavity are supratentorial. Conclusion: CNS Tumors constitute a large proportion of cancers in childhood. They differ from adult CNS tumors both histologically and location wise. Site of the tumor is significant as it can lead to fatal consequences

  1. Epidemiology of enuresis among school-age children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansakunachai, Tippawan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Sombuntham, Tasnawat; Kotchabhakdi, Nittaya

    2005-10-01

    Enuresis is a very common developmental problem in young children. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of enuresis in school-age children, to determine the factors associated with nocturnal enuresis, and to evaluate the parental strategies for managing enuresis. A randomly selected cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in eight elementary schools in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 3453 parents of children aged 5 through 15 years completed the questionnaires. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 70%. The prevalence of enuresis was 4.2% and that of nocturnal enuresis was 3.9%. The prevalence declined with increasing age from 10%, 5.3%, 3%, and 1.2% at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, respectively. There was no enuretic child at ages 13 through 15 years. The prevalence of bed-wetting was slightly more frequent in females than males. Nocturnal enuresis was also found to be significantly associated with the history of encopresis and positive family history of enuresis. There was no significant associated with parental education, birth order, socioeconomic status, diaper use, toilet training, and behavioral and school problems. Behavioral techniques mostly used by parents for management of their children with bed-wetting were ensuring that the child voids before bedtime (72.9%), waking the child up at night to void (61.8%), and evening water intake restriction (28.5%). The overall prevalence rate of nocturnal enuresis in Bangkok school-age children is lower than that of many previous studies reported from other countries. The significant differences in the prevalence reported by other countries' studies attributed to the criteria selection for ranges of age, definition of enuresis, genetic predisposition, and traditional and cultural background.

  2. Selective deficit in spatial location memory in extremely low birth weight children at age six: the PETIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Brandt, Jason; Ahronovich, Margot D; Baker, Robin; Erickson, Kristine; Litman, Fern R

    2012-01-01

    Spatial location memory has rarely been assessed in young children due to a scarcity of developmentally appropriate tests. This study sought to compare nonverbal learning and recall in children born extremely low birth weight (ELBW; children at early school age using a recently developed and adapted test. We administered a modification of the Hopkins Board to 210 children at age six; 84 born ELBW (35 born children had worse general cognition, item naming, delayed item recall, delayed location recall, and percent retention than term-born children. Delayed item recall and percent retention performances of ELBW children remained worse after correction for general cognition. ELBW groups (children in naming and delayed item recall with chronological age as covariate. Those born before 26 GW, but not 26-33 GW, performed worse than term-born children in delayed location recall and percent retention. Differences remained significant after controlling for gender, maternal education, and delivery type. All three groups' performance declined from final learning trial to delayed location recall, with a decline greater for less than 26 GW than term-born children. Extreme prematurity (spatial location memory deficit. The modified Hopkins Board discriminated high-risk preterm and term-born children at early school age and appears to be a useful test to measure this rarely studied cognitive capacity.

  3. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  4. Age of Diagnosis Influences Serologic Responses in Children with Crohn Disease: A Possible Clue to Etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, James; Kugathasan, Subra; Dubinsky, Marla; Mei, Ling; Crandall, Wallace; LeLeiko, Neal; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Rosh, Joel; Evans, Jonathan; Mack, David; Otley, Anthony; Pfefferkorn, Marian; Bahar, Ron; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Silber, Gary; Quiros, J. Antonio; Wrobel, Iwona; Nebel, Justin; Landers, Carol; Picornell, Yoanna; Targan, Stephan; Lerer, Trudy; Hyams, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is often associated with antibodies to microbial antigens. Differences in immune response may offer clues to the pathogenesis of the disease. AIM To examine the influence of age at diagnosis on serologic response in children with CD. METHODS Data were drawn from 3 North American multicenter pediatric IBD research consortia. At or shortly after diagnosis, pANCA, ASCA IgA, ASCA IgG, anti-ompC and anti-CBir1 were assayed. Results were compared as a function of age at CD diagnosis (0–7 years vs 8–15 years). RESULTS 705 children (79 <8 yr of age at diagnosis, 626 ≥8yr) were studied. Small bowel CD was less frequent in the younger group (48.7% vs 72.6%; p<0.0001) while colonic involvement was comparable (91.0% vs 86.5%). ASCA IgA and IgG were seen in <20% of those 0–7 yr compared to nearly 40% of those 8–15 yr (p<0.001), while anti-CBir1 was more frequent in the younger children (66% vs 54%, p<0.05). Anti-CBir1 detected a significant number of children in both age groups who otherwise were serologically negative. Both age at diagnosis and site of CD involvement were independently associated with expression of ASCA and anti-CBir1. CONCLUSIONS Compared to children 8–15 yr of age at diagnosis, those 0–7 yr are more likely to express anti-CBir1 but only half as likely to express ASCA. These age-associated differences in antimicrobial seropositivity suggest that there may be different, and as yet unrecognized, genetic, immunologic and/or microbial factors leading to CD in the youngest children. PMID:19107777

  5. Interactive effects of family socioeconomic status and body mass index on depression in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fu-Gong; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Depression is an important health problem in children and the onset of depression is occurring at a younger age than previously suggested. The associations of being overweight and low socioeconomic status in childhood depression have been well documented; nevertheless few studies have addressed the combined effects of socioeconomic status and body weight, with depression in school-age children. We intended to examine if the relationship between socioeconomic status and childhood depression could be modified by abnormal body weight. A cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 559 subjects from 29 elementary schools in Taiwan. A depression scale was used to determine the depression status. Children receiving governmental monetary assistance for after-school class were categorized as being in the lower socioeconomic group. Data for depression-related demographic characteristics, family and school variables were collected. Children in the lower socioeconomic status group have a higher prevalence of depression (23.5%) than those in higher socioeconomic status groups(16.4%). Being overweight demonstrates the opposite effect on depression risk in the different socioeconomic groups. In lower socioeconomic families, the risk of depression in overweight children is three times higher than that for normal weight children; whereas in higher socioeconomic families, overweight children have a lower risk for depression than normal weight children. We concluded that a qualitative interactive effect existed between being overweight and socioeconomic status with childhood depression. More attention should be paid to overweight children from lower socioeconomic status families to prevent depression in school-age children.

  6. Peak expiratory flow rate in healthy children aged 6-17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Høst, A H; Ibsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in a cross-sectional study in 861 healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years using a Mini Wright peak flowmeter. We found a strong correlation between PEFR and height, age and sex. The results were comparable with those from previous studies using...... coefficient in this large sample. Among healthy children without previous asthma, earlier episodes of recurrent wheezing were reported in 8.8% and a significantly lower PEFR was found in this group....

  7. The effect of age of cochlear implantation on vocal characteristics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kerry; Ducasse, Simone; Coetzee, Ashley; van der Linde, Jeannie; Louw, Anel

    2016-06-27

    Early cochlear implantation aids auditory feedback and supports better communication and self-monitoring of the voice. The objective of this study was to determine whether the age of cochlear implantation has an impact on vocal development in children implanted before age 4. The study consisted of 19 participants in total. All implant recipients (experimental group) were 3-5 years post-implantation, including four prelingual (0-2 years) and five perilingual (2-4 years) implant recipients. The control group consisted of 10 children whose hearing was within normal limits between the ages 3-6 years and 10 months, which was compared to the experimental group. Established paediatric norms were used for additional comparison. A questionnaire was used to gather information from each of the participant's caregivers to determine whether other personal and contextual factors had an impact on voice production. An acoustic analysis was conducted for each participant using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program of the Computerized Speech Lab. When the experimental group and the control group were compared, similar results were yielded for fundamental frequency and short-term perturbation (jitter and shimmer). More variability was noted in long-term frequency and amplitude measures, with significantly higher differences, and therefore further outside the norms, in the prelingual group when compared to the perilingual and control groups. In this study, age of implantation did not impact vocal characteristics. Further research should include larger sample sizes, with participants that are age and gender matched.

  8. Cognitive impairment in school-aged children with early trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Joana; Kapczinski, Flavio; Post, Robert; Ceresér, Keila M; Szobot, Claudia; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kapczinski, Natalia S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to traumatic events during childhood is often associated with the development of psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, and poor functioning in adulthood. However, few studies have examined cognitive function, including executive function, memory, and attention, in school-aged children with early trauma compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We recruited 30 medication-naive children between 5 and 12 years of age with a history of early severe trauma from a foster care home, along with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and were confirmed with a clinical interview. The neuropsychologic battery was tailored to assess broad cognitive domains such as learning/working memory, executive function, attention, verbal/premorbid intellectual functioning, and impulsivity. There was a higher prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of childhood trauma, although they rarely met all of the diagnostic criteria for a disorder. Moreover, lower estimated intellectual functioning scores were associated with subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of trauma, and they performed more poorly on the Digits Span Test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Edition, suggesting attention impairment. There is a high prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in school-aged children with trauma and an attention impairment, which may contribute to a cumulative deficit early in cognitive development. These findings further support the need for early interventions that can prevent cognitive impairment when childhood trauma occurs.

  9. Dietary and physical activity/inactivity factors associated with obesity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-07-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA.

  10. Sleep and Daytime Functioning: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Three Preschool-Age Comparison Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Thomas; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Tang, Karen; Goodlin-Jones, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep, sleepiness, and daytime performance in 68 children with autism, 57 children with intellectual disability (ID), and 69 typically developing preschool children. Children in the autism and ID groups had poorer daytime performance and behaviors than the typically developing children. Children in the ID group also were…

  11. Children with cerebral palsy and periventricular white matter injury: does gestational age affect functional outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Adrienne R; Randall, Melinda; Reid, Susan M; Lee, Katherine J; Imms, Christine; Rodda, Jillian; Eldridge, Beverley; Orsini, Francesca; Reddihough, Dinah

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine differences in functional profiles and movement disorder patterns in children aged 4-12 years with cerebral palsy (CP) and periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) born >34 weeks gestation compared with those born earlier. Eligible children born between 1999 and 2006 were recruited through the Victorian CP register. Functional profiles were determined using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Abilities Classification System (MACS), Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) and Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF). Movement disorder and topography were classified using the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE) classification. 49 children born >34 weeks (65% males, mean age 8 y 9 mo [standard deviation (SD) 2 y 2 mo]) and 60 children born ≤ 34 weeks (62% males, mean age 8 y 2 mo [SD 2 y 2 mo]) were recruited. There was evidence of differences between the groups for the GMFCS (p=0.003), FMS 5, 50 and 500 (p=0.003, 0.002 and 0.012), MACS (p=0.04) and CFCS (p=0.035), with a greater number of children born ≤ 34 weeks more severely impaired compared with children born later. Children with CP and PWMI born >34 weeks gestation had milder limitations in gross motor function, mobility, manual ability and communication compared with those born earlier.

  12. Is tuberculin testing before BCG vaccination necessary for children over three months of age?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, B

    2008-03-01

    In July 2007 Irish national policy changed such that children aged 3 months to 6 years no longer routinely require tuberculin (Mantoux) skin testing prior to BCG vaccination. Previous to that a tuberculin test was required in all children in this age group pre vaccination. While the previous policy was in place this study was conducted to assess the value of this test. The observation that children are frightened by the test (an injection into the skin) prompted the study. The author conducted a retrospective study of the results of 1,854 tuberculin tests performed as a prerequisite to BCG vaccination and found that only 0.7% of children had a positive test result (induration > 5mm). None of 107 children < 6 years of age tested positive. Those > 12 years were more likely to test positive than younger children (1.09% vs 0.4% respectively, p < 0.05). This study suggests that testing young children before BCG vaccination has a low yield of positive results and adds little to the detection of latent or active TB.

  13. Is Young Age a Limiting Factor When Training Balance? Effects of Child-Oriented Balance Training in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wälchli, Michael; Ruffieux, Jan; Mouthon, Audrey; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2017-06-12

    Balance training studies in children reported conflicting results without evidence for improvements in children under the age of eight. The aim of this study therefore was to compare balance training adaptations in children of different age groups to clarify whether young age prevents positive training outcomes. The effects of five weeks of child-oriented balance training were tested in 77 (38 girls; 39 boys) participants of different age groups (6-7, 11-12, and 14-15 years) and compared to age-matched controls. Static and dynamic postural control, explosive strength, and jump height were assessed. Across age groups, dynamic postural sway decreased (-18.7%; p = .012; η(2)p = .09) and explosive force increased (8.6%; p = .040; η(2)p = .06) in the intervention groups. Age-specific improvements were observed in dynamic postural sway, with greatest effects in the youngest group (-28.8%; p = .026; r = .61). In contrast to previous research using adult-oriented balance exercises, this study demonstrated for the first time that postural control can be trained from as early as the age of six years in children when using child-oriented balance training. Therefore, the conception of the training seems to be essential in improving balance skills in young children.

  14. Basic prerequisites of appearance and resocialization of children and young people of the risk group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тамара Василівна Говорун

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological factors of the appearance of young people of the "risk" group, the best practices of their resocialization have been determined. Children of vulnerable categories from young age have predispositions for acquiring properties and antisocial behavior caused by everyday stress in family life, conflict situations in school interaction. Youth is marked by lag in education, substance abuse, criminal acts, variance of exploitation. Psychocorrectional programs activate subjectivity of undergrads in anger management skills, education and communication

  15. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  16. Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghdadi, Ziad D. [Dept. of Preventive Dentistry, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-15

    Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.

  17. Personality traits and temporomandibular disorders in a group of children with bruxing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, C C; Vásquez, L M; Alvarez, M; Valencia, I

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the personality pattern, the anxiety level and the temporomandibular disorders (TMD) between bruxist and non-bruxist children with mixed dentition. Fifty-two subjects, with a mean age of 9.45 years (range 8-11) were evaluated and classified as bruxist (n = 26), according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and the presence of dental wear clinically visible, under the same conditions of artificial light and position. The control children (n = 26) did not present dental wear and did not accomplished all the AASM criteria. The personality pattern and the anxiety of the bruxist children were studied by means of the Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ) and the Conners' Parents Rating Scales (CPRS), respectively, and compared with the personality traits and the anxiety level of a non-bruxist population. The TMD were also evaluated using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) criteria. The data were analysed with the student's t-test, Fisher's exact test and chi-squared tests. A multivariated analysis was performed using a logistic regression with the stepwise likelihood ratio method. Compared with the controls, the bruxist children had significantly higher tension personality and were more anxiety prone. The bruxist children presented more TMD-related signs and symptoms than children in the control group. A strong correlation was found among bruxism, TMD, the high anxiety level and the high tension personality trait.

  18. Fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged 1-18 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available Fecal calprotectin (FC is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age.Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children's stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The children's weights and lengths were measured. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire regarding several clinical and sociodemographic factors.The FC concentrations were unevenly distributed; the median FC concentration was 174.3 μg/g (range: 6.0-1097.7 μg/g or 2.241 log10 μg/g (range: 0.775-3.041 log10 μg/g for all 288 children. The children were divided into several age groups: 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 12-18 months. The median FC concentrations for these age groups were 375.2 μg/g (2.574 log10 μg/g, 217.9 μg/g (2.338 log10 μg/g, 127.7 μg/g (2.106 log10 μg/g, 96.1 μg/g (1.983 log10 μg/g and 104.2 μg/g (2.016 log10 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between age and FC concentration was found (r=-0.490, p4 years.

  19. Social communication intervention for school-age children: rationale and description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine

    2005-08-01

    Children of school age with social communication problems form a growing population in need of speech-language intervention. These children have difficulty not just with interpersonal communication, which underpins peer relations, but also with oral and written aspects of the curriculum. The importance of intervention in the school years therefore cannot be underestimated. In this article, a framework and rationale for intervention based on a consideration of social communication as the interdependence of social interaction, social cognition, pragmatics, and language processing are presented. A method of intervention for children with social communication problems is described. The method is illustrated by reference to a study of children with pragmatic language impairments in the United Kingdom. Social communication impairments are not specific to one diagnostic group, and therefore the intervention framework given here is applicable to a range of children with interpersonal communication problems in the school years.

  20. Dental fluorosis severity in a group of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Yukie Fujibayashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in a group of school children in the city of Campo do Tenente (Parana, Brazil in order to compare the mean fluoride concentration in public water supply and discuss the effective values for fluoridation of water supply, as well as, the need of control of fluoride concentration within the water consumed by population. Material and methods: Firstly, 362 children enrolled in regular public schools, at elementary level, were examined by a single researcher, previously calibrated for Dean’s index application. From these, 90 children were affected by some degree of fluorosis, but only 40 returned the signed free and clarified consent form for participating in the research. Results: It was found that 42.5% of the children presented mild fluorosis and 32.5% moderate fluorosis. Moreover, it was observed that the average fluoride concentration in public water supply, in 2004, was 1.7 ppm of fluoride. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the need of a closer supervision of the city situation, by the inclusion of fluoridation external control and constant monitoring of the oral health status of the population.

  1. Age-related patterns of spine injury in children involved in all-terrain vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Beebe, Michael; Creek, Aaron T; Yantis, Matthew; Kelly, Derek M; Warner, William C

    2012-01-01

    With increases in use and power of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), there have been dramatic increases in both the number and severity of ATV-related injuries. The KIDS database showed a 240% increase in the number of children admitted to a hospital for an ATV-related injury between 1997 and 2006. Over the same time period, there was a 476% increase in the number of children with ATV-related spine injuries. To better understand the nature of these injuries, a series of pediatric ATV-related spine fractures at a regional pediatric trauma center were analyzed. Records and radiographs of children and adolescents who presented to a regional pediatric trauma center with a spine injury as a result of an ATV accident were reviewed. In addition to demographic data, information was collected regarding length of stay, Glasgow Coma Score, Pediatric Trauma Score, treatment type, associated injuries, and hospital charges. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on age and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons guidelines for ATV use: younger children (age, 0 to 15 y) and older children (age, 16 to 18 y). Fifty-three spine injuries were identified in 29 children (mean, 1.8 injuries/child) with an average age of 15.7 years; 16 (55%) had associated nonspine injuries and 13 had multiple spine injuries, contiguous in 9 and noncontiguous in 4. Four patients, all in the younger age group, had neurological injuries. Children older than 16 years had significantly lower Pediatric Trauma Scores and were more likely to have a thoracic spine fracture than younger children, who were more likely to have a lumbar fracture. Fourteen patients required surgery for their injuries, 7 for spine injuries and 7 for nonspine injuries; the mean hospital charge was almost $75,000 per patient. ATV-related spine injuries in children and adolescents are high-energy injuries with a high rate of associated spine and nonspine injuries. ATV-related spine injuries are different from other ATV-related injuries in

  2. THE STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS IN THE RURAL AREAS OF BUCOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ILEANA MORAR (BUMBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure analysis of population by age groups in the rural area of Bucovina desires to create a recent image of the rural population by age groups in the region of Bucovina , provided that after the year 2000 have occurred socio – economic changes with repercussions on the demographic component. The structure analysis by age group will be based on the share of population indicators on the major age groups, the share of population by age and quinquennial gender illustrated by age pyramid, the index of demographic aging and age-dependency ratio. This study is definitely needed in forecasting future regional development objectives and measures.

  3. [Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning.

  4. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  5. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2009 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  6. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Normative value of spleen size among school age children is important for objective assessment of the ... subjects were recruited from some primary and secondary schools within Nsukka metropolis and also ... technology have advanced the use of this modality ..... textbook of body measurement for sports and.

  7. How Elementary-Age Children Read Polysyllabic Polymorphemic Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Devin M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers of English appear to favor phonograms over grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) to read unknown words. For polysyllabic polymorphemic (PSPM) words, the morphophonemic nature of English means elementary-age children may focus on roots and affixes. Does developing readers' PSPM word reading accuracy relate to the morphological…

  8. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  9. The Prevalence of Reading Difficulties among Children in Scholar Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosita Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the prevalence of reading difficulties among children in scholar age and analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of learners who presented reading difficulties in central Italy. A sample of 623 students 7-11 aged, was assessed with the Italian MT standardized tests. Information on gender, age, handedness, and other socio-demographic variables were also gathered. The study showed that 11% of learners presented poor comprehension skills. The reading speed difficulties were more common than the reading correctness problems: about 7% of children vs 1% were dyslexics due to slow reading. There were no significant differences regarding gender, age. However, dominant hand and the school location seemed to affect the speed difficulties and the comprehension problems. The analyses showed that attending a school located in a rural area was statistically associated with the reading difficulties. Left-handed children were more likely to be slow decoders and/or poor comprehenders. These findings may be used in the early diagnosis of poor readers. These difficulties often have a chronic progression with substantial psychosocial limitations and psychological stress, so children with reading difficulties should be identified as early as possible.

  10. Developmental Coordination Disorder in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD in children, at 7 years of age, in a large UK birth cohort was determined using DSM-IV criteria, in a study at the University of Bristol, UK; and Utrecht University, Netherlands.

  11. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gallai, Beatrice; Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years), and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years). The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI) skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC). No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725), gender (P = 0.886), z-body mass index (P = 0.149), or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient) (P = 0.163). The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M-ABC evaluation and in pathologic performance on VMI Total Task compared to controls (P VMI Visual Task (P = 0.793), and VMI Motor Task (P = 0.213). Our findings pinpointed that PMNE should not be considered as a voiding disorder alone and, consequently, the children affected should be referred to specific rehabilitative programs that aim to improve motor coordination and visuomotor integration.

  12. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi; Rollo, Rodolfo; Sansolios, Sanne; Matusik, Pawel; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2011-10-01

    PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specific aim is to assess preschool children's physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy and Poland. The parents' and children's physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire filled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole's BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ(2) test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14.6 %) of overweight, followed by Poland (17.1%), while Italy shows the highest (21.2 %) (p < 0.0001). The Polish families show the highest rate of walking from home to kindergarten and back, followed by the Italians and, lastly, the Danish ones (p < 0.001). Almost all the Danish and Polish children, but only the 50.1 % of the Italians play outside (p < 0.001). During the weekdays, 34.9 % of Polish children, 22.2 % of Italians and 19.8 % of the Danish play outside more than one hour a day (p < 0.0001). During the weekend, 91.1 % of Polish children, 86.7 % of Danish children, but only 54.4 % of Italians play outside more than one hour (p < 0.0001). 53.5 % of Danish children, 31.9 % of Polish children, and 18.2 % of Italian ones practice sport (p < 0.0001). Danish children are the most active, the Polish are in the middle and the Italians are the least active. The difference in infrastructures (safety of walking streets, access to playgrounds/parks, etc.) can play an important role, in addition to cultural and social family characteristics, to the development of overweight.

  13. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi

    2011-01-01

    and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14......PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy.......6 %) of overweight, followed by Poland (17.1%), while Italy shows the highest (21.2 %) (p children, but only the 50...

  14. Behavioral problems and related factors in children of different aged patients with schizophrenia A cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the age growing, changes of behavioral problems in children whose parents had schizophrenia, differences of related factors and ways for particular intervention should be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To survey the behavioral problems in children of different aged patients with chizophrenia and investigate the correlation between behavioral problems and related factors in different aged groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Shandong Mental Health Center.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 364 patients with schizophrenia were selected from eleven psychiatric hospitals from June 1999 to June 2000. There were 179 males and 185 females, and their ages ranged from 28 to 45 years. All patients met modified diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia (the second edition),China Classification of Mental Diseases and Diagnostic Criteria. Meanwhile, children of the 364 patients were grouped based on their ages, including 6 - 11 years old group [n =217; 114 males and 103 females;mean age of(9±2) years] and 12 - 16 years old group [n =147; 99 males and 48 females; mean age of(14±1) years]. The Chinese norms of Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List were regarded as the normal control group.METHODS: Children who received self-made mental health related factors inventory and Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List were involved in this study. All children and their parents provided the confirmed consent. Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List was used for parents to mainly evaluate children, and the results manifested various behavioral problems based on different sexes and different ages. Self-made mental health related factors inventory contained questionnaires for parents and children, respectively. In this study,home situation of parents as well as personality characteristics and educational styles of children were mainly evaluated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Scores of Achenbach's Child Behavior Check List in different aged children; ② Scores of self-made mental health

  15. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  16. Effects of the Peer Group on the Development of Social Functioning and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; He, Yunfeng

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial mean ages = 9.5 and 12.7 years, N = 505), how the peer group contributed to social functioning and academic achievement and their associations. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and academic achievement were collected from multiple sources. Multilevel…

  17. Child maltreatment in Taiwan for 2004-2013: A shift in age group and forms of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Tsai; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2016-02-01

    Cases of child maltreatment are being increasingly reported in Taiwan. However, the trend or changes of child maltreatment in Taiwan are fragmentary and lack empirical evidence. This study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of substantiated child maltreatment cases from the previous decade, using mortality as an indicator to investigate the care of children who experienced substantiated maltreatment in the past to determine any new developments. Data for analysis and estimates were retrieved from the Department of Statistics in the Ministry of the Interior from 2004 to 2013. Trend analyses were conducted using the Joinpoint Regression Program. The child maltreatment rate in Taiwan was found to have nearly tripled from 2004 to 2013. A greater increase in the maltreatment of girls than boys and the maltreatment of aboriginal children than non-aboriginal children was noted from 2004 to 2013. When stratified by age group, the increase in maltreatment was most pronounced in children aged 12-17 years, and girls aged 12-17 years experienced the greatest increase in maltreatment. In terms of the proportional changes of different maltreatment forms among substantiated child maltreatment cases, child neglect was decreasing. The increase in sexual abuse was higher than for any other form of maltreatment and surpassed neglect by the end of 2013. Furthermore, the mortality rate of children with substantiated maltreatment record is increasing in Taiwan, whereas the mortality rate among children without any substantiated maltreatment record is decreasing. The results of this study highlight the need for policy reform in Taiwan regarding child maltreatment.

  18. Extending Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Detection to Older Age Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Labalue, Philippe; Erpicum, Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evident benefit in terms of reduced aneurysm-related mortality from screening programs of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 65 years and more. Recent studies in the United Kingdom and Sweden have shown a decline of the prevalence of AAA in the general population...... of Chaudfontaine (Liège, Belgium) on the population of elderly (n = 3,054). The participation rate was 36%. The 1,101 participants (722 men aged 65-85 years and 379 women aged 74-85 years) were examined by ultrasound scan. AAA was defined as an infrarenal aortic outer-outer diameter of at least 3 cm. Demographics...

  19. The relative age effect on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances in Turkish children aged between 8 and 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslofça Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of relative age on anthropometric properties and motor performance in Turkish children (girls n=423, boys n=601. Anthropometric measurement sites and techniques have been set out by the ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. A group of tests involved in Eurofit Test Battery and other standard tests were used. For each age, the data of those who were born within the first three months and the last three months of the year were compared. The MedCalc Statistics Program was used for the differentiation and variation percentages between two periods were studied (p≤ 0.001, p= 0.05. Consequently effect of relative age was observed on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances of Turkish girls and boys between 8 and 12 years old. Researchers, trainers, families, sports managers and organizers are advised to consider Effect of Relative Age.

  20. Weight, Length, and Body Mass Index Growth of Children Under 2 Years of Age With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Gabriela Serrano; Marques, Ilza Lazarini; de Barros, Suely Prietto; Arena, Eliane Petean; de Souza, Luiz

    2016-05-01

    To study the growth of length-for-age (L/A), weight-for-age (W/A), and body mass index (BMI) of children with cleft lip and palate receiving a normal diet; to establish specific growth curves for children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip (CLP/ICP) who had not undergone palatoplasty and for children with isolated cleft lip (ICL); and to assess if CLP/ICP growth differed from ICL growth and if CLP/ICP and ICL growth differed from growth for typical children. Prospective and cross-sectional study. Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Weight and length of 381 children with cleft lip and palate and who were younger than 2 years were recorded and used to calculate W/A, L/A, and BMI growth curves. The 2006 World Health Organization growth charts were used as a reference for typical children. All children received a normal diet for age. Children with CLP/ICP had median W/A and BMI growth curves below growth curves for typical children but showed spontaneous recovery starting at approximately 5 months of age, even with nonoperated cleft palate. Children with ICL had growth similar to that of typical children. Children with CLP/ICP, who initially had W/A and BMI values less than those of the ICL group, had W/A and BMI equal to or higher than the ICL group after 9 months of age. Children with CLP/ICP had impaired W/A and BMI growth with spontaneous recovery starting early in childhood. This study established specific W/A, BMI, and L/A growth curves for children with cleft lip and palate.

  1. Parents' Support during Different Writing Tasks: A Comparison between Parents of Precocious Readers, Preschoolers, and School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, Dorit; Besser-Biron, Shira

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to deepen the understanding of parental sensitivity to their children's abilities and the nature of their scaffolding during writing tasks. We compared the parent-child writing interactions of three groups: precocious readers (PRs), same age preschoolers (SA), and older children with the same reading level (SRL) as the PRs. Each of…

  2. Managing HCV infection in pediatric age group: Suggested recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in children is different from the adult infection in many ways, like natural course of the disease; duration, therapeutic response and side effects profile of the drug therapy; and prognosis. Special considerations include consideration on what could be the appropriate time to investigate a suspected child, when to institute drug therapy and how to prevent vertical transmission. Although over the past one decade many landmark studies have greatly increased our insight on this subject, yet we are far from developing a consensus statement. In this article, a concise yet comprehensive review of HCV infection in children - diagnosis and treatment - is given, followed by suggested recommendations at the end. It is hoped that these recommendations will help develop local guidelines on this subject.

  3. Some Educational Benefits of Freely Chosen Age Mixing among Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jay; Gray, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Observation of 200 children ages 4 to 19 attending a Massachusetts nongraded alternative school disclosed substantial age mixing. Younger children used older children to develop skills and acquire knowledge. Age mixing encouraged opportunities for creativity, helped match abilities, and fostered older children's sense of responsibility for younger…

  4. Cyberbullying and Primary-School Aged Children: The Psychological Literature and the Challenge for Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Ey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is an international issue for schools, young people and their families. Whilst many research domains have explored this phenomenon, and bullying more generally, the majority of reported studies appear in the psychological and educational literatures, where bullying, and more recently, cyberbullying has been examined primarily at the individual level: amongst adolescents and young people, with a focus on the definition, its prevalence, behaviours, and impact. There also is growing evidence that younger children are increasingly accessing technology and engaging with social media, yet there is limited research dedicated to this younger age group. The purpose of this paper is to report on a systematic literature review from the psychological and educational research domains related to this younger age group, to inform future research across the disciplines. Younger children require different methods of engagement. This review highlights the methodological challenges associated with this age group present in the psychological literature, and argues for a greater use of sociological, child-centred approaches to data collection. This review examined studies published in English, between 2009 and 2014, and conducted with children aged 5–12 years, about their experiences with cyberbullying. Searches were conducted on seven key databases using keywords associated with cyberbullying and age of children. A Google Scholar search also examined published and unpublished reports. A total of 966 articles and reports were retrieved. A random peer review process was employed to establish inter-rater reliability and veracity of the review. Findings revealed 38 studies reported specifically on children aged 5–12 years. The dominant focus of these articles was on prevalence of cyberbullying, established through survey methodology. Few studies noted impacts, understanding and behaviours or engaged children’s independent voice. This review

  5. Blood pressure differences by ethnic group among United States children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Cook, Nancy; Portman, Ron; Daniels, Steve; Falkner, Bonita

    2009-09-01

    Large differences in blood pressure (BP) by ethnic group are apparent among adults. There is uncertainty as to whether similar differences by ethnic group exist among children and, if so, the age of onset. BP measurements were obtained from 58 698 children at 78 556 visits using Pediatric Task Force data, a collection of 11 studies with BP data from children and adolescents age 1 to 17 years. Generalized estimating equation methods were used to identify sex-specific differences in body mass index (BMI)-adjusted rates of BP elevation and prehypertension by ethnic group. Significant BMI-adjusted differences in rates of BP elevation were found between Hispanic boys versus white boys (odds ratio: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.37; P=0.002). No overall significant differences were found between black boys versus white boys (odds ratio: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.12; P=0.49); however, there was significant effect modification (P=0.01) with significant differences found for normal-weight boys (BMI: or =85th percentile; OR black versus white: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.05; P=0.20). No overall ethnic group differences in BMI-adjusted rates of hypertension were found for girls. Ethnic differences in prevalence rates of pediatric BP elevation that are not explained by obesity are present, primarily in boys. Whether these differences are attributable to genetic or environmental factors is unknown.

  6. BLOOD PRESSURE DIFFERENCES BY ETHNIC GROUP AMONG U.S. CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Cook, Nancy; Portman, Ron; Daniels, Steve; Falkner, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    Large differences in blood pressure by ethnic group are apparent among adults. There is uncertainty as to whether similar differences by ethnic group exist among children and if so, the age of onset. Blood pressure (BP) measurements were obtained from 58,698 children at 78,556 visits using data from the Pediatric Task Force data, a collection of 11 studies with BP data from children and adolescents age 1–17. Generalized estimating equation methods were used to identify sex-specific differences in body mass index (BMI)-adjusted rates of BP elevation and pre-hypertension by ethnic group. Significant BMI-adjusted differences in rates of BP elevation were found between Hispanic boys vs. Caucasian boys (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.07–1.37, p=0.002). No overall significant differences were found between African-American (AA) boys vs. Caucasian (Cauc) boys (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.95–1.12, p=0.49); however, there was significant effect modification (p = 0.01) with significant differences found for normal weight boys (BMI ethnic group differences in BMI-adjusted rates of hypertension were found for girls. Ethnic differences in prevalence rates of pediatric BP elevation that are not explained by obesity are present, primarily in boys. Whether these differences are due to genetic or environmental factors is unknown. PMID:19652080

  7. Characterization of tinnitus in different age groups: A retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Al-Swiahb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize tinnitus in affected patients. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records from 470 consecutive patients who visited a tertiary care hospital for evaluation of chronic subjective tinnitus between January 2009 and June 2010 was performed. Patients were divided into three subgroups based on age. Clinical, audiological, and psychological characteristics of each subgroup were analyzed. Results: Of the 470 patients evaluated, 85 were less than 40, 217 between 40 and 60, and 168 above 60 years of age. Most patients were men and complained of unilateral, acute high-pitched tinnitus. Most patients above the age of 40 years complained of loud and annoying tinnitus and had worse stress and severity scores. Conclusions: Chronic tinnitus in older adults is subjectively louder, more annoying, and more distressing than that found in younger patients. We recommend considering age in the patient management plan.

  8. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  9. Cephalic measures in normal pre-school children 3 to 7-years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Diament

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study designed to determine standards for the Developmental Neurological Examination (DNE several measures of the head were also recorded. The study consisted in the examination of 200 children, half from each sex, 40 from each age group (3 to 7-years of age. These children were selected among 755 normal pre-school-age children, living in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. The criteria for selection were both anamnestic and clinic. The following measures of the head were recorded: cephalic perimeter, biauricular and antero-posterior distances (Diament, 1967. A new cephalic index (nCI was also determined (Diament, 1968. This index is useful in detecting changes in head shape mainly in cases of precocious cranioestenosis (Diament, 1968; Facure, 1972. The statistical analysis consisted in determining means and standard errors for each measure. For the new cephalic index it was shown through the Kruskal-Wallis test that there were no significant difference between age and sex. Therefore we considered all groups together to find out the tolerance region for the new index which turned out to be given by the interval: 0.848-1.002. This result is based in 186 cases since 14 were excluded because of some problems in the recording process. Therefore we expect with a confidence of 95% that the above interval covers 90% of the population, in the 3 to 7 years age-groups independently of sex.

  10. Prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children and it's association with children's sociodemographic and lifestyle in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.

  11. Play and video effects on mood and procedure behaviors in school-aged children visiting the pediatrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Nader, Sherwood; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Thoma, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines how different types of activities, including medical play, typical play, and videos, affect the mood and behaviors of children visiting a pediatric office. Seventy-two school-aged children visiting a pediatrician's office were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: medical play, medical information video, typical play, and nonmedical information video control. Children completed a mood self-report measure and their behaviors were recorded during triage by nurses. The medical information video improved the school-aged children's mood. Children in the medical information video displayed less difficult behaviors during procedures than the medical play group. The findings suggest that providing information about medical equipment through a video of a child engaging in medical play may benefit children visiting the pediatrician.

  12. Comorbid ADHD and anxiety affect social skills group intervention treatment efficacy in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Polacek, Carol; McMahon, Michele; Dygert, Karen; Spenceley, Laura; Dygert, Lindsay; Miller, Laura; Faisal, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    To assess the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on social skill treatment outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A community sample of 83 children (74 males, 9 females) with an ASD (mean age = 9.5 yr; SD = 1.2) and common comorbid disorders participated in 10-week social skills training groups. The first 5 weeks of the group focused on conversation skills and the second 5 weeks focused on social problem solving skills. A concurrent parent group was also included in the treatment. Social skills were assessed using the Social Skills Rating System. Ratings were completed by parents at pre- and posttreatment time periods. Children with ASD and children with an ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder improved in their parent reported social skills. Children with ASD and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder failed to improve. Psychiatric comorbidity affects social skill treatment gains in the ASD population.

  13. Self-perception of self-regulatory skills in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder aged 8-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Patrizia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Drechsler, Renate

    2010-12-01

    Several studies have reported a characteristic "positive illusory bias" in the self-evaluation of children with ADHD. However, results are controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether children with ADHD aged 8 to 10 years can rate their self-regulatory skills accurately when assessed with an age appropriate instrument. Twenty-seven children with ADHD and 27 matched normal control children completed the Self-rating Scale of Self-regulatory Function (SelfReg), a new rating scale that has been specifically designed for this age group. As expected, children with ADHD rated themselves significantly more dysfunctional than control children. In most domains, self-ratings of children with ADHD did not diverge from parent and teacher ratings to a greater extent than self-ratings of control children, although overall results indicated a moderate tendency toward a positive bias. When a cluster analysis based on discrepancies between children's and adults' evaluations was carried out, three groups with different self-rating patterns emerged: A "positive bias" group containing exclusively children with ADHD, a "negative bias" group containing both children with ADHD and control children, and the largest group of accurate self-raters which also included children from both diagnostic groups. It is concluded that overly positive self-judgments are not a ubiquitous finding in ADHD, but may be confined to a specific subgroup of children whose specific characteristics remain to be determined.

  14. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pyloriin school-aged Chinese in Taipei City and relationship between ABO blood groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzee-Chung Wu; Liang-Kung Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the seropositive rate of antibodies against H. pylori(anti-HP) in Taipei City and to compare the relationship of ABO blood groups and H. pylori infection.METHODS:In 1993, high school students in Shih-Lin District were randomly selected for blood samplings by their registration number at school. In addition, similar procedures were performed on the well-children clinics of Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Besides, randomly selected sera from the adults who took the physical examination were recruited for evaluation. Informed consents were obtained from all the subjects before blood samplings and parents were simultaneously informed for those who were younger than 18-year-old. Blood tests for anti-HP and ABO blood groupings were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Chi square tests were used for the comparisons between seroprevalence of H. pylori and ABO blood groups.RESULTS: Totally, 685 subjects were recruited (260 children aged 1-14 years, 425 high school students aged 15-18 years)were evaluated, and another 88 adult healthy volunteers were studied as well for comparison. The age-specific seropositive rate of anti-HP was 1.3 % at age 1-5 years,7.7 % at age 6-10 years, and 11.5 % at age 11-14 years.The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was abruptly increased in young adolescence: 18.6 % at age 15 years,28.1% at age 16 years, 32.4 % at age 17 years and 41.0%at age 18 years, respectively. In the 425 high school students,ABO blood groupings were performed, which disclosed 48.5 % (206/425) of blood group O, 24 % (102/425) of blood group A, 21.8 % (93/425) of blood group B and 5.6 %(24/425) of blood group AB. In comparison of the subjects with blood group O and the other blood groups, no statistical significance could be identified in the seroprevalence of H. pylori(P=0.99).CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection in Taipei City in adults is similar to the developed countries,and the abrupt increase of H. pylori during high

  15. Reference limits and behaviour of serum transferrin receptor in children 6-10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danise, P; Maconi, M; Morelli, G; Di Palma, A; Rescigno, G; Esposito, C; Avino, D; Talento, B

    2008-08-01

    Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) originates mostly from erythroblasts and lesser from reticulocytes. The usefulness of sTfR has been implicated in several clinical situations, mainly as a marker of accelerated erythropoiesis or iron deficiency. The assessment of sTfR may be useful in the period of rapid growth during infancy, childhood and adolescence. We evaluated sTfR and the other quantitative and qualitative parameters of the erythropoiesis (Hb, MCV, CHr, Ret-He) and of the iron storage (serum ferritin, sTfR/ferritin index) in a total of 916 children aged 6-10 years. Children were divided into three groups: (A) healthy children, (B) with storage iron deficiency (serum ferritin 3.3). We determined reference intervals by sex and by age in healthy children. sTfR showed a slight but statistically significant age related increase but did not show significant sex differences. We compared sTfR and the other parameters investigated in the three groups of children. sTfR is not a decisive parameter that can be utilized alone in discriminating the border-line situations between normal and pathologic ones but can help in completing the panel of tests in iron deficiency and in thalassaemia Beta trait carriers.

  16. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool.

  17. Salivary Alpha Amylase Activity in Human Beings of Different Age Groups Subjected to Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-01-01

    ... in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip...

  18. The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forugh Rafii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A good night’s sleep plays a key role in diseases resistance, injury prevention, and mood stability. The objective of this study was to examine relationship between sleep problems and accidental injury occurrences in school-aged children. Method. A retrospective study was conducted for comparing two groups of children. Children who have experienced injuries for at least two times during an academic year are the participants in the injury group (IG and those who have not experienced any kind of injuries are placed in the noninjury group (NIG. Data was collected through parent-reported sleep patterns and problems using Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ. Findings. The findings showed that global sleep problems were more in the IG than in the NIG. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the daytime sleepiness and sleep duration are the two major reasons for accidental injury. In addition, significant difference was seen between the sleep patterns of the two groups. Sleep duration was also shorter in the IG, and this group had a greater percentage (63% versus 41.1% of “short sleepers” (<9 h. Conclusion. There is a significant relationship between injury occurrence and sleep problems and sleep duration in Iranian school-aged children.

  19. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. Objectives: To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. Methods: We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001 and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001. In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. Conclusions: These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs.

  20. Patterns of Adverse Drug Reactions in Different Age Groups: Analysis of Spontaneous Reports by Community Pharmacists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mi Yu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age.ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9% ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female.Gastrointestinal system (34.4%, nervous system (14.4%, and psychiatric (12.1% disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%, anti-inflammatory products (10.5%, analgesics (7.2%, and antibacterials (7.1%. Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001, whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001. Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%, mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6% and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%, respectively.According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups.

  1. Physical exercises and massage influence on the organism of school age children with violations of carriage in a frontal plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruzhylo Galina Grigor'evna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researches results on the subject of efficiency evaluation of the physical exercises and massage influence on the carriage of school age (7 - 14years children are adduced. School age children total number of 20 (10 girls and 10 boys with backbone scoliotic curvatures of I - II degree took part in the experiment. There were applied: physical exercises (forming of carriage, unloading of spine, trunk muscles endurance development, exercises in an equilibrium, classic and segmentary massage. It is well-proven that a neat rehabilitation complex rendered effective influence on a carriage probed experimental group by comparison to the children of control group.

  2. An evaluation of a short questionnaire for parents about their school-aged children's global maturity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jan-Olov; Nordberg, Lillemor; Fried, Ingegärd; Edbom, Tobias; Ekman, Sophie; Rydelius, Per Anders

    2002-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate a questionnaire for parents concerning their school-aged children's global maturity level. Immature children (n = 29) as reported by their parents were compared to a control group (n = 68). Immaturity was linked to a reduced general knowledge, a childish body appearance, problems with the fine motor function and problems with peers. The index group also had on average a lower test result in total score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and more commission errors in the Continuous Performance Test, both test results indicating a lower mental age.

  3. epidemiology of streptococcus group a in school aged children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-06-01

    Jun 1, 2004 ... unknown. Objective: To ... Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart diseases were ... consequences are unknown in Pemba island. However ... heart diseases of probable rheumatic origin, as diagnosed ..... Microbiology Reviews.

  4. Structure of physical, psycho-physiological development and physical preparedness of children of preschool age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of determination of structure of physical development are resulted, psycho-physiological possibilities and physical preparedness of children of age-dependent groups, 1-2, 3-4 and 4-5 years. It is set that development of children from 1 to 5 years takes place getertimely. There is a considerable role of indexes in the initial probed age-dependent period (1-2 years there is a considerable role of indexes of physical development in development of physical qualities and psycho-physiological possibilities. In age 3-4 the role of level of development of physical qualities and psycho-physiological possibilities increases in the structure of complex preparedness, and in an age-dependent period 4-5 years again there is an increase of role of physical development with the maintain of role of physical preparedness and psycho-physiological possibilities.

  5. Asymptomatic Group A Streptococcus carriage in children with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, Isabela P Olivetti; Sanchez, Daniela Cristina Janolli; Di Francesco, Renata

    2016-07-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the most important bacterial cause of acute tonsillitis in children. Some children are chronic GAS carriers, and this carriage is poorly understood. We determined the frequency of GAS detection using a rapid antigen detection test in pediatric patients with indications for tonsillectomy due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy or recurrent GAS infections. Seventy-two patients underwent a tonsil swab for a rapid antigen detection test. The GAS rapid antigen detection test was positive in 18.1% of children. GAS was not associated with sex, age or previous history of recurrent tonsillitis. Also, the prevalence of GAS was similar between patients with either recurrent tonsillitis or tonsil hypertrophy. In our study, the GAS carriage rate was similar to other reports, and GAS carrier state was not correlated with recurrent tonsillitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social analogical reasoning in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gallagher, Natalie M; Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G; Krieg, Samantha; Dudley, Katherina; Ratto, Allison; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2017-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important mechanism for social cognition in typically developing children, and recent evidence suggests that some forms of analogical reasoning may be preserved in autism spectrum disorder. An unanswered question is whether children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning to social information. In all, 92 children with autism spectrum disorder completed a social content analogical reasoning task presented via photographs of real-world social interactions. Autism spectrum disorder participants exhibited performance that was well above chance and was not significantly worse than age- and intelligence quotient-matched typically developing children. Investigating the relationship of social content analogical reasoning performance to age in this cross-sectional dataset indicated similar developmental trajectories in the autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children groups. These findings provide new support for intact analogical reasoning in autism spectrum disorder and have theoretical implications for analogy as a metacognitive skill that may be at least partially dissociable from general deficits in processing social content. As an initial study of social analogical reasoning in children with autism spectrum disorder, this study focused on a basic research question with limited ecological validity. Evidence that children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning ability to social content may have long-range applied implications for exploring how this capacity might be channeled to improve social cognition in daily life.

  7. Audio Recorded Guided Imagery Method to Reduce Stress Hospitalisazation in School Age Children in Palu Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Masulili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalization is a condition of a person because of illness and hospital admission. Research objectives determine the influence of audio recorded guided imagery method to stress of hospitalization in school-age children in hospital in Palu. Quasi-experimental research design with pre and post test design with control group. The sample of children aged 7-12 years were 26 respondents intervention group and 26 control group respondents. Intervention is the method of audio recorded guided imagery, three times a day for two days (one session equal to15 minutes. The results showed the significant difference mean stress score of hospitalization after the intervention (Pv = 0.004. No contribution of confounding variables. Based on these results, audio recorded guided imagery intervention can be applied to care the sick pediatric in hospital.

  8. Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.

  9. CLINICO – EPIDEMIOLOGY OF U TI IN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a common , potentially serious , and often occult bacterial infections of childhood . UTI is more frequent in females than males at all ages with the exception of the neonatal period . Urinary tract infections imply invasion of urinary tract by pathogens which may involve the upper or lower urinary tract depending on the infection in kidney , bladder and urethra . OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of UTI in febrile children be low 5years of age and to know the aetiological profile of UTI among the same group of children with fever . METHODS: This cross sectional observational study included all febrile children from one month to 5years of age , admitted in Pediatric ward in MGM Me dical College , Kishanganj , Bihar . RESULTS: Overall incidence rate of UTI in the present study was 6% with maximum incidence in children <2years of age . Among culture positive cases majority (50% grew E . coli . DMSA revealed renal cortical scarring in 42 . 8 5% cases following UTI . CONCLUSION: From the present study it can be concluded that UTI is a common bacterial infection in infant and children . Rapid evaluation and treatment of UTI is important to prevent renal parenchymal damage and renal scarring or ren al failure .

  10. Development of interactions between sensorimotor representations in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Florian A; Clark, Jane E

    2014-04-01

    Reliable sensory-motor integration is a pre-requisite for optimal movement control; the functionality of this integration changes during development. Previous research has shown that motor performance of school-age children is characterized by higher variability, particularly under conditions where vision is not available, and movement planning and control is largely based on kinesthetic input. The purpose of the current study was to determine the characteristics of how kinesthetic-motor internal representations interact with visuo-motor representations during development. To this end, we induced a visuo-motor adaptation in 59 children, ranging from 5 to 12years of age, as well as in a group of adults, and measured initial directional error (IDE) and endpoint error (EPE) during a subsequent condition where visual feedback was not available, and participants had to rely on kinesthetic input. Our results show that older children (age range 9-12years) de-adapted significantly more than younger children (age range 5-8years) over the course of 36 trials in the absence of vision, suggesting that the kinesthetic-motor internal representation in the older children was utilized more efficiently to guide hand movements, and was comparable to the performance of the adults.

  11. Stimulant use for ADHD and relative age in class among children in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshen, Moshe B; Benis, Arriel; Keyes, Katherine M; Zoëga, Helga

    2016-06-01

    Diagnosis of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing. The present study sought to identify characteristics and medication treatment patterns of children with ADHD and compare them by relative age in class, sex, ethnicity, family size, sibling order, and other socioeconomic status, as well as find trends in disparity of pharmacotherapy. This study was based on data from 1 013 149 Clalit Health Services members aged 6-17 years during 2006-2011. Centrally acting sympathomimetic drug purchases were compared according to children's estimated relative age in class; youngest third (born August to November), middle third (born April to July), and oldest third (born December to March). Treatment trends were determined and compared according to sociodemographic and family-related factors. The overall prevalence of stimulant use in the population was 2.6% in 2006 and 4.9% in 2011. The annual incidence of stimulant use increased from 0.75% to 1.36%, rising more sharply among children in the older age groups (≥12) than among younger ones. Moreover, the youngest third of children in class was more likely to use medication than the oldest third (risk ratio (RR) 1.17, confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.23) or the middle third (RR 1.06, CI 1.01-1.11). Of the different ethnic sectors, incidence of stimulant use was highest among general Jewish (1.8% in 2011) and lowest among Arabs (0.37% in 2011). The use of stimulant medication is growing among children in Israel. Although the overall use does not exceed the estimated prevalence of ADHD among children, the appropriateness of prescribing to the Israeli pediatric population, especially to the youngest children in class, may be questionable. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Genetic risk factors for the development of osteonecrosis in children under age 10 treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Seth E; Mattano, Leonard A; Yang, Wenjian; Maloney, Kelly W; Smith, Colton; Liu, ChengCheng; Ramsey, Laura B; Fernandez, Christian A; Chang, Tamara Y; Neale, Geoffrey; Cheng, Cheng; Mardis, Elaine; Fulton, Robert; Scheet, Paul; San Lucas, F Anthony; Larsen, Eric C; Loh, Mignon L; Raetz, Elizabeth A; Hunger, Stephen P; Devidas, Meenakshi; Relling, Mary V

    2016-02-04

    Osteonecrosis is a dose-limiting toxicity in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Prior studies on the genetics of osteonecrosis have focused on patients ≥10 years of age, leaving the genetic risk factors for the larger group of children osteonecrosis in children osteonecrosis and 287 controls treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) standard-risk ALL protocol AALL0331 (NCT00103285, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00103285), with results tested for replication in 817 children osteonecrosis.

  13. VALUES OF LYMPHOCYTE SUBPOPULATIONS IN HEALTHY MACEDONIAN CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF FIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kareva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of demographic factors on a wide range of immunological variables demonstrate the importance of having normative data representative of particular patient population. There was no lymphocyte subpopulation data for Macedonian children and the purpose of this study was to establish such a data. Subject and methods: The study population consists of 87 healthy children. Subjects were grouped into four age categories as follows: group 1 age range 5d-10d (n=15; group 2 age range 1 mo-1 yr (n=18; group 3 age 1yr-2 yr(n=20 and group 4 age 2yr-5 yr(n=34 Monoclonal antibodies labeled with fluorochromes and immunofluorescent microscopy were used to detect cells bearing specific cell markers. Results: The mean lymphocyte cell count gradually fell with increasing age from 6,65x10^9/l in group 1, to 5,67x10^9/l in group 2, 4,55x10^9/l in group 3, and to 4,14x10^9/l in group 4. Absolute values of CD3, CD4 and CD20 positive cells decreased gradually with age. Significant differences in mean absolute values were observed for absolute lymphocyte counts between groups 1/2 and 1/4 (P<0,01 and groups 2/4(P<0,05; for CD3 positive lymphocytes between groups 1/3(P<0,05 and 1/4(P<0,01; for CD4 positive lymphocytes between groups 1/3 (P<0,05 and 1/4(P<0,01 and for CD20 positive lymphocytes between groups 1/3 and 3/4(P<0,05 and groups 1/4 (P<0,01. Significant difference for CD4/CD8 ratio and for percentage values of different lymphocyte subpopulations between the different age groups was not found. Conclusion: This data may serve as a reference range for studies of Macedonian pediatric subjects.

  14. Priority medicines for children : Exploring age-appropriate medicines and antibiotic use in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovska, V.

    2017-01-01

    Children are not small adults, but rather a distinct and heterogeneous patient group with specific therapeutic needs. Child development entails dynamic processes inherent to growth from birth into adulthood, and children face a scope of diseases different than those of adults.Accordingly, safe and e

  15. Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaklajić Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%, and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%, incontinence (93.49%, need for urgent voiding (68.13%, and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%. The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy.

  16. Analyzing false memories in children with associative lists specific for their age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Paula; Albuquerque, Pedro; Fernandez, Angel; Esteves, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments attempted to resolve previous contradictory findings concerning developmental trends in false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm by using an improved methodology--constructing age-appropriate associative lists. The research also extended the DRM paradigm to preschoolers. Experiment 1 (N=320) included children in three age groups (preschoolers of 3-4 years, second-graders of 7-8 years, and preadolescents of 11-12 years) and adults, and Experiment 2 (N=64) examined preschoolers and preadolescents. Age-appropriate lists increased false recall. Although preschoolers had fewer false memories than the other age groups, they showed considerable levels of false recall when tested with age-appropriate materials. Results were discussed in terms of fuzzy-trace, source-monitoring, and activation frameworks.

  17. Dental computed tomographic imaging as age estimation: morphological analysis of the third molar of a group of Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantekin, Kenan; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis

    2013-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is capable of providing accurate and measurable 3-dimensional images of the third molar. The aims of this study were to analyze the development of the mandibular third molar and its relation to chronological age and to create new reference data for a group of Turkish participants aged 9 to 25 years on the basis of cone-beam CT images. All data were obtained from the patients' records including medical, social, and dental anamnesis and cone-beam CT images of 752 patients. Linear regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulas for dental age calculation with chronological age and to determine the coefficient of determination (r) for each sex. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for the males (r2 = 0.80) and the females (r2 = 0.78). Computed tomographic images are clinically useful for accurate and reliable estimation of dental ages of children and youth.

  18. Disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use among children aged 1 to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Michelle L; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L

    2014-02-01

    Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27-6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child's usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children children.

  19. Which age group spends the most in a national park?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Age (and its changing structure amongst the wider population is one of the most relevant aspects required to better understand and forecast the needs, interests and associated consumption behaviours of tourists. This research used age to investigate the expenditure patterns amongst a sample of visitors to the Table Mountain National Park (TMNP, South Africa. In March 2010, visitors to the TMNP were found to differ significantly from those at other parks, as they were younger and most of them were foreigners. This study found that younger visitors (18–29 years were higher spenders when compared to those aged 30–49 years. As parks are generally visited by older people, this study showed the economic importance of the younger market. The research also made clear implications and recommendations for park management as to how to address these findings. Conservation implications: Conservation is dependent on funding. One of the main sources of income is tourism and tourism related activities. This research can assist marketers and managers to target the right markets in order to be more sustainable. This research also shows the importance of environmental education at an early age in order to grow awareness and to target the right markets.

  20. Polycomb group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell aging and malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klauke, Karin; de Haan, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Protection of the transcriptional "stemness" network is important to maintain a healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment during the lifetime of the organism. Recent evidence shows that fundamental changes in the epigenetic status of HSCs might be one of the driving forces behind many age-