WorldWideScience

Sample records for group behavioral analyses

  1. Consumer Brand Choice: Individual and Group Analyses of Demand Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C.

    2006-01-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast…

  2. Sectorial Group for Incident Analyses (GSAI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galles, Q.; Gamo, J. M.; Jorda, M.; Sanchez-Garrido, P.; Lopez, F.; Asensio, L.; Reig, J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the UNESA Nuclear Energy Committee (CEN) proposed the creation of a working group formed by experts from all Spanish NPPs with the purpose of jointly analyze relevant incidents occurred in each one of the plants. This initiative was a response to a historical situation in which the exchange of information on incidents between the Spanish NPP's was below the desired level. In june 2009, UNESA's Guide CEN-29 established the performance criteria for the so called Sectorial Group for Incident Analyses (GSAI), whose activity would be coordinated by the UNESA's Group for Incident Analyses (GSAI), whose activity would be coordinated by the UNESA's Group of Operating Experience, under the Operations Commission (COP). (Author)

  3. Consumer brand choice: individual and group analyses of demand elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-03-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated for individual consumers with data from all or only 1 product category (intra-consumer elasticities), and for each product category using all data points from all consumers (overall product elasticity) or 1 average data point per consumer (interconsumer elasticity). In addition to this, split-sample elasticity coefficients were obtained for each individual with data from all product categories purchased during weeks 1 to 8 and 9 to 16. The results suggest that: 1) demand elasticity coefficients calculated for individual consumers purchasing supermarket food products are compatible with predictions from economic theory and behavioral economics; 2) overall product elasticities, typically employed in marketing and econometric research, include effects of interconsumer and intraconsumer elasticities; 3) when comparing demand elasticities of different product categories, group and individual analyses yield similar trends; and 4) individual differences in demand elasticity are relatively consistent across time, but do not seem to be consistent across products. These results demonstrate the theoretical, methodological, and managerial relevance of investigating the behavior of individual consumers.

  4. Power System Oscillatory Behaviors: Sources, Characteristics, & Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dosiek, Luke A. [Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pierre, John W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-05-17

    This document is intended to provide a broad overview of the sources, characteristics, and analyses of natural and forced oscillatory behaviors in power systems. These aspects are necessarily linked. Oscillations appear in measurements with distinguishing characteristics derived from the oscillation’s source. These characteristics determine which analysis methods can be appropriately applied, and the results from these analyses can only be interpreted correctly with an understanding of the oscillation’s origin. To describe oscillations both at their source within a physical power system and within measurements, a perspective from the boundary between power system and signal processing theory has been adopted.

  5. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; Bogt, Tom Ter; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-04-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music preferences revealed six taste groups: Middle-of-the-road (MOR) listeners, Urban fans, Exclusive Rock fans, Rock-Pop fans, Elitists, and Omnivores. A seventh group of musically Low-Involved youth was added. Multivariate analyses revealed that when gender, age, parenting, school, and peer variables were controlled, Omnivores and fans within the Exclusive Rock groups showed relatively high scores on internalizing YSR measures, and social, thought and attention problems. Omnivores, Exclusive Rock, Rock-Pop and Urban fans reported more externalizing problem behavior. Belonging to the MOR group that highly appreciates the most popular, chart-based pop music appears to buffer problem behavior. Music taste group membership uniquely explains variance in both internalizing and externalizing problem behavior.

  6. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K

    2017-08-01

    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  8. Theoretical behaviorism meets embodied cognition : Two theoretical analyses of behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to do three things: First, to provide a review of John Staddon's book Adaptive dynamics: The theoretical analysis of behavior. Second, to compare Staddon's behaviorist view with current ideas on embodied cognition. Third, to use this comparison to explicate some outlines for a

  9. Event group importance measures for top event frequency analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Three traditional importance measures, risk reduction, partial derivative, nd variance reduction, have been extended to permit analyses of the relative importance of groups of underlying failure rates to the frequencies of resulting top events. The partial derivative importance measure was extended by assessing the contribution of a group of events to the gradient of the top event frequency. Given the moments of the distributions that characterize the uncertainties in the underlying failure rates, the expectation values of the top event frequency, its variance, and all of the new group importance measures can be quantified exactly for two familiar cases: (1) when all underlying failure rates are presumed independent, and (2) when pairs of failure rates based on common data are treated as being equal (totally correlated). In these cases, the new importance measures, which can also be applied to assess the importance of individual events, obviate the need for Monte Carlo sampling. The event group importance measures are illustrated using a small example problem and demonstrated by applications made as part of a major reactor facility risk assessment. These illustrations and applications indicate both the utility and the versatility of the event group importance measures

  10. Event group importance measures for top event frequency analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-31

    Three traditional importance measures, risk reduction, partial derivative, nd variance reduction, have been extended to permit analyses of the relative importance of groups of underlying failure rates to the frequencies of resulting top events. The partial derivative importance measure was extended by assessing the contribution of a group of events to the gradient of the top event frequency. Given the moments of the distributions that characterize the uncertainties in the underlying failure rates, the expectation values of the top event frequency, its variance, and all of the new group importance measures can be quantified exactly for two familiar cases: (1) when all underlying failure rates are presumed independent, and (2) when pairs of failure rates based on common data are treated as being equal (totally correlated). In these cases, the new importance measures, which can also be applied to assess the importance of individual events, obviate the need for Monte Carlo sampling. The event group importance measures are illustrated using a small example problem and demonstrated by applications made as part of a major reactor facility risk assessment. These illustrations and applications indicate both the utility and the versatility of the event group importance measures.

  11. Protest behavior: Individual and group factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadullina E.R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normative and nonnormative collective actions are the consequence of differences in estimation of political situation. The article regards the predictors in selection of normative (participation in meetings, signing petitions, etc. vs. nonnormative (strike, violent actions, etc. forms of protest behavior (perception of unfairness, self-efficacy, social identity, ideas of out-group. The carried out analysis showed that high self-efficacy, idea of out-group members as equal participants of interaction and experiencing of emotion of anger lead to the choice of various normative protest behavior. Low self-efficacy, steady social identity (including politicized identity, experiencing the emotion of contempt to out-group members often lead to choice of nonnormative forms. In conclusion the article regards the link of various predictors with the choice of individual and group forms of protest and analyzes the possible directions for further empirical studies.

  12. Introduction: Multilingual Behavior in Youth Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Normann Jørgensen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This introduction reviews some of the major work on bilingual and multilingual children and adolescents in Scandinavia, from Kotsinas (1985 and Boyd (1985 to the present. The introduction was originally published in J. N. Jørgensen (ed. 2001: Multilingual behavior in Youth Groups, Copenhagen Studies in Bilingualism, The Køge Series, Volume K11, Danish University of Education.

  13. Behaviors of Problem-Solving Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennis, Warren G

    1958-01-01

    The results of two studies are contained in this report in summary form. They represent the first parts of a program of research designed to study the effects of change and history on the on the behaviors of problem-solving Groups...

  14. Group colocation behavior in technological social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloë Brown

    Full Text Available We analyze two large datasets from technological networks with location and social data: user location records from an online location-based social networking service, and anonymized telecommunications data from a European cellphone operator, in order to investigate the differences between individual and group behavior with respect to physical location. We discover agreements between the two datasets: firstly, that individuals are more likely to meet with one friend at a place they have not visited before, but tend to meet at familiar locations when with a larger group. We also find that groups of individuals are more likely to meet at places that their other friends have visited, and that the type of a place strongly affects the propensity for groups to meet there. These differences between group and solo mobility has potential technological applications, for example, in venue recommendation in location-based social networks.

  15. Adolescents' perception of peer groups: Psychological, behavioral, and relational determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungyoon; Foote, Jeremy; Wittrock, Zachary; Xu, Siyu; Niu, Li; French, Doran C

    2017-07-01

    Adolescents' social cognitive understanding of their social world is often inaccurate and biased. Focusing on peer groups, this study examines how adolescents' psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics influence the extent to which they accurately identify their own and others' peer groups. Analyses were conducted with a sample of 1481 seventh- and tenth-grade Chinese students who are embedded with 346 peer groups. Overall, females and older students had more accurate perceptions. In addition, lower self-esteem, higher indegree centrality, and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of one's own groups, whereas higher academic performance and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of others' groups. Implications for understanding the connection between adolescents' psychological and behavioral traits, social relationships, and social cognition are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. HOW HEALTHY IS THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG ATHLETES? A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Diehl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in sports during adolescence is considered a healthy behavior. The extent to which adolescent athletes engage in other healthful (or risky behaviors is less clear, however. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement to assess the frequency of risky behaviors among athletes in this age group. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and SCA Sociological Abstracts databases for observational studies published in English over the last twenty years on the frequency of selected risk behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, use of illicit drugs, unhealthy nutrition, and doping in adolescent athletes. Two independent reviewers selected articles following the PRISMA Statement. Behavior frequency was assessed as was comparability of study design and methods. When possible, meta- analyses were performed using data from subgroups of studies in which operational indicators were comparable. Seventy-eight articles met eligibility criteria. Although report of risky behaviors varied across studies, we observed overall, that studies tend to report higher alcohol use, less smoking, less recreational drug use, and more smokeless tobacco use in (high-involved athletes. Considerable heterogeneity was noted in study design, definition of target groups and use of operational indicators (I² ranged from 93.2% to 100%. Especially the higher prevalence of using alcohol and smokeless tobacco needs more attention in interventions targeted to this group. Overall, greater consensus on methods used to assess risky behaviors in adolescent athletes

  17. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Nicholas B; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  18. Advanced behavioral analyses show that the presence of food causes subtle changes in C. elegans movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eAngstman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a widely used and studied model organism, C. elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  19. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Comparison of Group and Individual Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Carolyn S.; And Others

    The relative efficacy of both group and individual cognitive behavior therapeutic approaches in treating anxiety and depression are evaluated and then compared to an interpersonal group therapy approach. The two major hypotheses are that group cognitive behavior therapy is at least as effective as individual cognitive behavior therapy, and that…

  20. Mining Behavioral Groups in Large Wireless LANs

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Wei-jen; Dutta, Debojyoti; Helmy, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    One vision of future wireless networks is that they will be deeply integrated and embedded in our lives and will involve the use of personalized mobile devices. User behavior in such networks is bound to affect the network performance. It is imperative to study and characterize the fundamental structure of wireless user behavior in order to model, manage, leverage and design efficient mobile networks. It is also important to make such study as realistic as possible, based on extensive measure...

  1. Three Essays Identifying Consumer Behavior by Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines consumer behavior in different markets. Six different types of Utah snow skiers, namely, half day, local, multiday, college and K-12 students, and season ticket holders, are analyzed in the first paper to determine their demand response to changes in prices, income, weather, transportation costs, and particular days. A…

  2. The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing aggression in patients with ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on ...

  3. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  4. Information behavior in dynamic group work contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Pierce, Linda G.

    2000-01-01

    personnel and documentation on C2. During data analysis, three important themes that highlight the why, what, how and consequences of information behavior in C2 emerged. The first is the concept of interwoven situational awareness consisting of individual, intragroup and intergroup shared understanding...... of the situation. Interwoven situational awareness appears to facilitate response to dynamic, constraint-bound situations. The second theme describes the need for dense social networks or frequent communication between participants about the work context and situation, the work process and domain...

  5. Groupe d'analyses et politiques économiques de Tunisie (GAPET ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tunisia's recent political transformation has provided an opportunity to promote debate on key economic and development issues. This project will support the creation of an independent economic policy group: Groupe d'analyses et politiques économiques de Tunisie. The group will promote evidence-based policy and ...

  6. Lessons from social network analyses for behavioral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, James N

    2011-03-01

    This study presents an overview of the rapidly expanding field of social network analysis, with an emphasis placed on work relevant to behavioral health clinicians and researchers. I outline how social network analysis is a distinct empirical methodology within the social sciences that has the potential to deepen our understanding of how mental health and addiction are influenced by social environmental factors. Whereas there have been a number of recent studies in the mental health literature that discuss social influences on mental illness and addiction, and a number of studies looking at how social networks influence health and behaviors, there are still relatively few studies that combine the two. Those that have suggest that mood symptoms as well as alcohol consumption are clustered within, and may travel along, social networks. Social networks appear to have an important influence on a variety of mental health conditions. This avenue of research has the potential to influence both clinical practice and public policy.

  7. The Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Group Cohesiveness and Workplace Deviance Behavior of Turkish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaydin, Çigdem; Sirin, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a structural model for organizational citizenship behavior, group cohesiveness and workplace deviance behavior. The study group consists of 639 Turkish teachers working in primary and secondary public schools. In the study, the "Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale" and the "Group Cohesiveness…

  8. Group Play Therapy with Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Group Behaviors and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2002-01-01

    Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…

  9. Analyses of the Collapse Behavior of a Spacer Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Myung-Geun; Na, Geum Ju; Jag, Yeon-Hui; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jong-Bong; Kim, Jaeyoug

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the protection capability of a spacer grid assembly for impact load, a hammer impact test has been carried out. The crush strength is measured in the hammer impact test. Song et al. carried out the experiment and finite element analysis for the hammer impact test for various weld line depth. Park et al. designed the spacer grid shape to get required crush strength via finite element analysis. Song et al. also optimized the spacer grid shape to maximize the crush strength, and carried out the finite element analysis for the hammer impact test considering the weld properties. Kim et al. carried out finite element analysis for various guide tube hole shape and compared the crush shape and crush strength. In this study, the effect of shape defect on the crush behavior in the hammer impact test is investigated. The spacer grid cannot be exactly the square. Therefore a lateral displacement (imperfection) is imposed to square spacer grid and then hammer impact is carried out. The effect of the lateral imperfection on the crush strength is investigated. The effect of the shape defect on the crushing behavior in the hammer impact test is investigated by finite element analysis. It is shown that the collapse become severe as the lateral imperfection displacement increases, especially when the imperfection is greater than or equal to 0.7 mm

  10. Effects of Group Awareness and Self-Regulation Level on Online Learning Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Szu, Yu-Chin; Lai, Ching-Neng

    2016-01-01

    Group awareness can affect student online learning while self-regulation also can substantially influence student online learning. Although some studies identify that these two variables may partially determine learning behavior, few empirical studies or thorough analyses elucidate the simultaneous impact of these two variables (group awareness…

  11. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  12. Observations of Student Behavior in Collaborative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeffrey P.; Brissenden, Gina; Lindell, Rebecca S.; Slater, Timothy F.; Wallace, Joy

    In an effort to determine how our students were responding to the use of collaborative learning groups in our large enrollment introductory astronomy (ASTRO 101) courses, we systematically observed the behavior of 270 undergraduate students working in 48 self-formed groups. Their observed behaviors were classified as: (i) actively engaged; (ii) watching actively; (iii) watching passively; and (iv) disengaged. We found that male behavior is consistent regardless of the sex-composition of the groups. However, females were categorized as watching passively and or disengaged significantly more frequently when working in groups that contained uneven numbers of males and females. This case study observation suggests that faculty who use collaborative learning groups might find that the level of student participation in collaborative group learning activities can depend on the sex-composition of the group.

  13. Exploration of Support Behavior in Counseling Groups with Counseling Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Yoni; Shechtman, Zipora; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the types of support expressed in counseling groups attended by trainee counselors. Support is a crucial factor in human life in general, and in groups in particular, yet little is known about the type of support presented in counseling groups. Type of support was categorized by means of the Social Support Behavior Code (SSBC;…

  14. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2007-01-01

    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  15. Group rational-emotive and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, A

    1992-01-01

    The theory of rational-emotive therapy (RET) and of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is briefly explained and is applied to group therapy. It is shown how RET and CBT therapy groups deal with transference, countertransference, levels of group intervention, process versus content orientation, identifying underlying group process themes, here-and-now activation, working with difficult group members, activity levels of therapist and group members, and other group problems. Although they particularly concentrate on people's tendencies to construct and create their own "emotional" difficulties, RET and CBT group procedures fully acknowledge the interactions of human thoughts, feelings, and actions and active-directively employ a variety of cognitive, emotive, and behavioral group therapy techniques.

  16. Moving beyond a limited follow-up in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Christenhusz, Lieke C.A.; Seydel, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions typically use a dichotomous outcome criterion. However, achieving behavioral change is a complex process involving several steps towards a change in behavior. Delayed effects may occur after an intervention period ends, which can

  17. Sexual behavior in pregnancy: comparing between sexual education group and nonsexual education group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannakosit, Salakjit; Phupong, Vorapong

    2010-10-01

    Sexuality usually decreases during pregnancy. To evaluate sexual behavior during pregnancy, comparing two groups. One had sexual education and the other had none. After randomizing two groups of pregnant women, they completed self-administered questionnaires regarding attitudes and sexual behavior before and during pregnancy. Sexual education was provided in one group and a second self-administered questionnaire was completed 12 weeks later. Responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Comparison of change of sexual behavior between two groups was analyzed using chi-square and student t-tests. The change in frequency of coitus during pregnancy was compared between the sexual education group and the noneducation group. There was no statistically difference in changes of sexual behavior between the two groups. There was a reduction in frequency of coitus (90.6% vs. 94.9%, P>0.05) between the nonsexual education group and the sexual education group and no statistically significant change in mean reduction of sexual desire (8.9 vs. 4.4, P>0.05), sexual arousal (14.3 vs. 13.1, P>0.05), satisfaction from coitus (15.4 vs. 7.2, P>0.05), and orgasm from coitus (12.3 vs. 12.3, P>0.05). The change of sexual behavior during pregnancy in the sexual education group was not different from that in the nonsexual education group. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ranjbar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.

  19. The Effects of Psychodrama and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Based Group Work on Test Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Taspinar Goveci

    2017-04-01

    In the analyses relating to comparison; in terms of total exam anxiety, perception, delusion sublevel and trait anxiety points of the students, psychodrama techniques applied in the first group have been more affective with reference to the cognitive behavioral techniques applied in the second group. No meaningful difference has been detected when two experimental groups have been compared according to continuity anxiety points. [JCBPR 2017; 6(1.000: 22-30

  20. Integrating a Social Behavior Intervention during Small Group Academic Instruction Using a Total Group Criterion Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group…

  1. Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Rae

    2011-01-01

    In organizational behavior and management survey courses, students are likely to maximize certain career-appropriate knowledge when their classroom groups are leadered rather than leaderless. Using leadered groups facilitates the learning of the professional and managerial skills associated with formal leadership while reducing some problematic…

  2. Group Development for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Sylvia; Guetzloe, Eleanor

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses effective techniques for teaching students with emotional disturbances and/or behavior disorders in group settings. Three stages of group development are described with specific teaching strategies for each stage identified and related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, including needs for safety and trust, belonging and…

  3. Network Approach to Autistic Traits: Group and Subgroup Analyses of ADOS Item Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George M.; Montazeri, Farhad; de Bildt, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    A network conceptualization might contribute to understanding the occurrence and interacting nature of behavioral traits in the autism realm. Networks were constructed based on correlations of item scores of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule for Modules 1, 2 and 3 obtained for a group of 477 Dutch individuals with developmental disorders.…

  4. Network Approach to Autistic Traits : Group and Subgroup Analyses of ADOS Item Scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, George M.; Montazeri, Farhad; de Bildt, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    A network conceptualization might contribute to understanding the occurrence and interacting nature of behavioral traits in the autism realm. Networks were constructed based on correlations of item scores of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule for Modules 1, 2 and 3 obtained for a group of

  5. Connection Between Group Conformity and Free Sex Behavior in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia, Trida

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is to test empirically the connection between group conformity and free sex in adolescence. The method was using 59 statements of group conformity scale and 60 statements of free sex behavior in adolescence. The score was giving depend on favorable and unfavorable statements. Coefficient validity for group conformity was from 0,2551-0,6274 and 0,8038 for coefficient reliability. Coefficient validity for free sex behavior in adolescence was from 0,3706-0,7953 and 0,956...

  6. Cognitive behavioral group therapy versus psychoeducational intervention in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardelli, Isabella; Bloise, Maria Carmela; Bologna, Matteo; Conte, Antonella; Pompili, Maurizio; Lamis, Dorian A; Pasquini, Massimo; Fabbrini, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether cognitive behavioral group therapy has a positive impact on psychiatric, and motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assigned 20 PD patients with a diagnosis of psychiatric disorder to either a 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group or a psychoeducational protocol. For the neurological examination, we administered the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the non-motor symptoms scale. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed by means of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impressions. Cognitive behavioral group therapy was effective in treating depression and anxiety symptoms as well as reducing the severity of non-motor symptoms in PD patients; whereas, no changes were observed in PD patients treated with the psychoeducational protocol. CBT offered in a group format should be considered in addition to standard drug therapy in PD patients.

  7. Cooperative behavior evolution of small groups on interconnected networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Keke; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Yang, Yeqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Small groups are modeled on interconnected networks. • Players face different dilemmas inside and outside small groups. • Impact of the ratio and strength of link on the behavioral evolution are studied. - Abstract: Understanding the behavioral evolution in evacuation is significant for guiding and controlling the evacuation process. Based on the fact that the population consists of many small groups, here we model the small groups which are separated in space but linked by other methods, such as kinship, on interconnected networks. Namely, the players in the same layer belong to an identical small group, while the players located in different layers belong to different small groups. And the players of different layers establish interaction by edge crossed layers. In addition, players face different dilemmas inside and outside small groups, in detail, the players in the same layer play prisoner’s dilemma, but players in different layers play harmony game. By means of numerous simulations, we study the impact of the ratio and strength of link on the behavioral evolution. Because the framework of this work takes the space distribution into account, which is close to the realistic life, we hope that it can provide a new insight to reveal the law of behavioral evolution of evacuation population.

  8. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  9. Influence of assessment setting on the results of functional analyses of problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Rispoli, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the

  10. Interpersonal processes in psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive behavioral group therapy: a systematic case study of two groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Foot, Meredith; Leite, Catherine; Maxwell, Hilary; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

    2011-09-01

    This mixed method systematic case study applied an interpersonal stage model of the therapeutic process to examine interpersonal processes among a highly adherent Group Psychodynamic-Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) therapist and a highly adherent Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) therapist and their groups of binge eating disordered (BED) patients. This is the first case study to apply the interpersonal stage model of psychotherapy to compare GCBT and GPIP methods and the first to apply the model to group therapy. Early-, middle-, and late-stage transcribed video recordings of sequential interactions among therapists and patients in each of these two time-limited group therapies were analyzed with the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). We also provide qualitative presentations of the transcripts from each stage as context for the quantitative analyses. BED patients in both groups achieved positive outcomes for binge eating and depression. Consistent with their treatment model, the GPIP therapist was more autonomy-giving, whereas the GCBT therapist was more controlling/directive. The GPIP therapist and her group had high levels of interpersonal complementary interaction sequences in the early stage followed by lower complementarity in the middle stage. The GCBT therapist and her group showed a high-low-high pattern of complementarity across the three stage of therapy. However, overall the GPIP group had higher levels complementarity than the GCBT group. This mixed method case study of group processes based on an interpersonal stage model of psychotherapy suggested specific therapist behaviors in each modality to maximize positive therapeutic interactions at each stage of group therapy. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. The neurogenetics of group behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdya, Pavan; Schneider, Jonathan; Levine, Joel D

    2017-01-01

    Organisms rarely act in isolation. Their decisions and movements are often heavily influenced by direct and indirect interactions with conspecifics. For example, we each represent a single node within a social network of family and friends, and an even larger network of strangers. This group membership can affect our opinions and actions. Similarly, when in a crowd, we often coordinate our movements with others like fish in a school, or birds in a flock. Contributions of the group to individual behaviors are observed across a wide variety of taxa but their biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. With the advent of powerful computational tools as well as the unparalleled genetic accessibility and surprisingly rich social life of Drosophila melanogaster, researchers now have a unique opportunity to investigate molecular and neuronal determinants of group behavior. Conserved mechanisms and/or selective pressures in D. melanogaster can likely inform a much wider phylogenetic scale. Here, we highlight two examples to illustrate how quantitative and genetic tools can be combined to uncover mechanisms of two group behaviors in D. melanogaster: social network formation and collective behavior. Lastly, we discuss future challenges towards a full understanding how coordinated brain activity across many individuals gives rise to the behavioral patterns of animal societies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Measured sections and analyses of uranium host rocks of the Dockum Group, New Mexico and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.E.; Drake, D.P.; Reese, T.J.

    1977-02-01

    This report presents 27 measured sections from the Dockum Group of Late Triassic age, in the southern High Plains of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas. Many of the measured sections are only partial; the intent in those cases was to measure the parts of sections that had prominent sandstone/conglomerate beds or that had uranium deposits. No attempt was made to relate rock color to a rock color chart; rock colors are therefore approximate. Modal analyses (by thin-section examination) of sandstone and conglomerate samples and gamma-ray spectrometric analyses of the samples are presented in appendices

  13. Group Norms and the Attitude-Behavior Relationship: A Role for Group Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Deborah J.; Hogg, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies provided support for the proposal that the role of norms in attitude-behavior relations can be useful reconceptualized for the perspective of social identity/self- categorization theory. Study one examined group norms as they influenced subjects to engage in regular exercise. Study two examined group norms as they influenced subjects…

  14. Parametric analyses of summative scores may lead to conflicting inferences when comparing groups: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asaduzzaman; Chien, Chi-Wen; Bagraith, Karl S

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether using a parametric statistic in comparing groups leads to different conclusions when using summative scores from rating scales compared with using their corresponding Rasch-based measures. A Monte Carlo simulation study was designed to examine between-group differences in the change scores derived from summative scores from rating scales, and those derived from their corresponding Rasch-based measures, using 1-way analysis of variance. The degree of inconsistency between the 2 scoring approaches (i.e. summative and Rasch-based) was examined, using varying sample sizes, scale difficulties and person ability conditions. This simulation study revealed scaling artefacts that could arise from using summative scores rather than Rasch-based measures for determining the changes between groups. The group differences in the change scores were statistically significant for summative scores under all test conditions and sample size scenarios. However, none of the group differences in the change scores were significant when using the corresponding Rasch-based measures. This study raises questions about the validity of the inference on group differences of summative score changes in parametric analyses. Moreover, it provides a rationale for the use of Rasch-based measures, which can allow valid parametric analyses of rating scale data.

  15. Dynamical behavior of price forecasting in structures of group correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Kim, Kyungsik

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the prediction of the future prices from the structures and the networks of the companies in special financial groups. After the financial group network has been constructed from the value of the high cross-correlation, each company in a group is simulated and analyzed how it buys or sells stock is anaylzed and how it makes rational investments is forecasted. In the shortmemory behavior rather than the long-memory behavior, each company among a group can make a rational investment decision by using a stochastic evolution rule in the financial network. In particular, we simulate and analyze the investment situation in connection with the empirical data and the simulated result.

  16. Comparative analyses of amplicon migration behavior in differing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, D. J.; Kemp, D. W.; Sampayo, E. M.; Schmidt, G. W.

    2010-03-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is commonly utilized to identify and quantify microbial diversity, but the conditions required for different electrophoretic systems to yield equivalent results and optimal resolution have not been assessed. Herein, the influence of different DGGE system configuration parameters on microbial diversity estimates was tested using Symbiodinium, a group of marine eukaryotic microbes that are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems. To accomplish this, bacterial clone libraries were constructed and sequenced from cultured isolates of Symbiodinium for the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. From these, 15 clones were subjected to PCR with a GC clamped primer set for DGGE analyses. Migration behaviors of the resulting amplicons were analyzed using a range of conditions, including variation in the composition of the denaturing gradient, electrophoresis time, and applied voltage. All tests were conducted in parallel on two commercial DGGE systems, a C.B.S. Scientific DGGE-2001, and the Bio-Rad DCode system. In this context, identical nucleotide fragments exhibited differing migration behaviors depending on the model of apparatus utilized, with fragments denaturing at a lower gradient concentration and applied voltage on the Bio-Rad DCode system than on the C.B.S. Scientific DGGE-2001 system. Although equivalent PCR-DGGE profiles could be achieved with both brands of DGGE system, the composition of the denaturing gradient and application of electrophoresis time × voltage must be appropriately optimized to achieve congruent results across platforms.

  17. Groupe d'analyses et politiques économiques de Tunisie (GAPET ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La récente transformation politique qui s'est opérée en Tunisie a fourni l'occasion de débattre de grandes questions en matière d'économie et de développement. Le présent projet soutiendra la création d'un groupe indépendant de recherche sur les politiques économiques, à savoir le Groupe d'analyses et politiques ...

  18. Accounting for Heterogeneity in Hedging Behavior: Comparing & Evaluating Grouping Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.; Irwin, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Heterogeneity, i.e., the notion that individuals respond differently to economic stimuli, can have profound consequences for the interpretation of behavior and the formulation of agricultural policy. This paper compares and evaluates three grouping techniques that can be used to account for

  19. Unintended Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Consequences of Group Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogical strategies can be thought of as a set of stimuli placed in students' environment to influence their cognition, affect, and behavior. The design of strategies such as group assignments and a comprehensive understanding of their consequences for students should then include an analysis of all three of these elements and the…

  20. [Undesired treatment effects in behavior group therapy: Frequency and spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Walter, M; Fritz, K; Muschalla, B

    2015-11-01

    Psychotherapy not only has positive but also negative effects, which is especially true for group psychotherapy due to psychodynamic and interactional processes. Using the UE-G questionnaire 71 patients who participated in cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy reported on negative experiences in the context of the group therapy. The answers were then validated in a qualitative interview. Of the patients 98.6% reported about at least one negative experience and 43.7% about severe or extremely severe negative experiences. Most prominent was the induction of hopelessness and demoralization by what patients saw and heard from other patients in the group. Burdensome and therefore undesired treatment effects are regularly seen in group psychotherapy, because of treatment or patient related factors. In any case they must be taken into account during treatment, in the training of group psychotherapists and in quality control.

  1. Individual, group, and environmental influences on helping behavior in a social carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Morehouse, Andrea T.; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Struthers, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Variation in group composition and environment can affect helping behavior in cooperative breeders. Understanding of how group size, traits of individuals within groups, food abundance, and predation risk simultaneously influence helping behavior is limited. We evaluated pup-guarding behavior in gray wolves (Canis lupus) to assess how differences in individuals, groups, and environment affect helping behavior. We used data from 92 GPS-collared wolves in North America (2001–2012) to estimate individual pup-guarding rates. Individuals in groups with low helper-to-pup ratios spent more time guarding young than those in groups with more helpers, an indication of load-lightening. Female helpers guarded more than male helpers, but this relationship weakened as pups grew. Subset analyses including data on helper age and wolf and prey density showed such factors did not significantly influence pup-guarding rates. We show that characteristics of individuals and groups have strong influences on pup-guarding behavior in gray wolves, but environmental factors such as food abundance and predation risk from conspecifics were not influential.

  2. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The role of cognition in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prenger Rilana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral interventions typically focus on objective behavioral endpoints like weight loss and smoking cessation. In reality, though, achieving full behavior change is a complex process in which several steps towards success are taken. Any progress in this process may also be considered as a beneficial outcome of the intervention, assuming that this increases the likelihood to achieve successful behavior change eventually. Until recently, there has been little consideration about whether partial behavior change at follow-up should be incorporated in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs. The aim of this explorative review is to identify CEAs of behavioral interventions in which cognitive outcome measures of behavior change are analyzed. Methods Data sources were searched for publications before May 2011. Results Twelve studies were found eligible for inclusion. Two different approaches were found: three studies calculated separate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for cognitive outcome measures, and one study modeled partial behavior change into the final outcome. Both approaches rely on the assumption, be it implicitly or explicitly, that changes in cognitive outcome measures are predictive of future behavior change and may affect CEA outcomes. Conclusion Potential value of cognitive states in CEA, as a way to account for partial behavior change, is to some extent recognized but not (yet integrated in the field. In conclusion, CEAs should consider, and where appropriate incorporate measures of partial behavior change when reporting effectiveness and hence cost-effectiveness.

  4. Leader Behaviors, Group Cohesion, and Participation in a Walking Group Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Betty T; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A; Sand, Sharon L; Reyes, Angela G; Hoston, Bernadine; Richardson, Dawn; Gamboa, Cindy; Rowe, Zachary; Diaz, Goya

    2015-07-01

    Less than half of all U.S. adults meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Leader behaviors and group cohesion have been associated with increased participation or adherence in sports team and exercise class settings. Physical activity interventions in community settings that encompass these factors may enhance intervention adherence. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of Community Health Promoter leader behaviors and group cohesion on participation in a walking group intervention among racially/ethnically diverse adults in low to moderate-income communities in Detroit, Michigan. Data for the current study were drawn from the Walk Your Heart to Health (WYHH) data set. WYHH was a multisite cluster RCT with a lagged intervention and outcome measurements at baseline and 4, 8, and 32 weeks. Pooled survey data from both intervention arms were used for the current study. Data were analyzed between August 2013 and October 2014. A total of 603 non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic adults across five cohorts that began the 32-week WYHH intervention between March 2009 and October 2011. The intervention was a 32-week walking group program hosted by community- and faith-based organizations and facilitated by Community Health Promoters. Walking groups met three times per week for 90 minutes per session. To promote participation in or adherence to WYHH, Community Health Promoters used evidence-based strategies to facilitate group cohesion. Group members assumed increasing leadership responsibility for facilitating sessions over time. Participation in WYHH as measured by consistency of attendance. Community Health Promoter leader behaviors were positively associated with participation in WYHH. Social but not task cohesion was significantly associated with consistent participation. Social cohesion may mediate the relationship between leader behaviors and walking group participation. Providing leaders with training to build socially cohesive groups

  5. Molten Corium-Concrete Interaction Behavior Analyses for Severe Accident Management in CANDU Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, D. H.; Song, Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    After the last few severe accidents, the importance of accident management in nuclear power plants has increased. Many countries, including the United States (US) and Canada, have focused on understanding severe accidents in order to identify ways to further improve the safety of nuclear plants. It has been recognized that severe accident analyses of nuclear power plants will be beneficial in understanding plant-specific vulnerabilities during severe accidents. The objectives of this paper are to describe the molten corium behavior to identify a plant response with various concrete specific components. Accident analyses techniques using ISSAC can be useful tools for MCCI behavior in severe accident mitigation

  6. Classification of group behaviors in social media via social behavior grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Getoor, Lise; Smith, Marc

    2014-06-01

    The increasing use of online collaboration and information sharing in the last decade has resulted in explosion of criminal and anti-social activities in online communities. Detection of such behaviors are of interest to commercial enterprises who want to guard themselves from cyber criminals, and the military intelligence analysts who desire to detect and counteract cyberwars waged by adversarial states and organizations. The most challenging behaviors to detect are those involving multiple individuals who share actions and roles in the hostile activities and individually appear benign. To detect these behaviors, the theories of group behaviors and interactions must be developed. In this paper we describe our exploration of the data from collaborative social platform to categorize the behaviors of multiple individuals. We applied graph matching algorithms to explore consistent social interactions. Our research led us to a conclusion that complex collaborative behaviors can be modeled and detected using a concept of group behavior grammars, in a manner analogous to natural language processing. These grammars capture constraints on how people take on roles in virtual environments, form groups, and interact over time, providing the building blocks for scalable and accurate multi-entity interaction analysis and social behavior hypothesis testing.

  7. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Furberg (Helena); Y. Kim (Yunjung); J. Dackor (Jennifer); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); N. Franceschini (Nora); D. Ardissino (Diego); L. Bernardinelli (Luisa); P.M. Mannucci (Pier); F. Mauri (Francesco); P.A. Merlini (Piera); D. Absher (Devin); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); C. Iribarren (Carlos); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); T. Quertermous (Thomas); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.C. Bis (Joshua); T. Haritunians (Talin); B. McKnight (Barbara); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K.D. Taylor (Kent); E.L. Thacker (Evan); P. Almgren (Peter); L. Groop (Leif); C. Ladenvall (Claes); M. Boehnke (Michael); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); S.J. Hwang; D. Levy (Daniel); S.R. Preis; R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); J. Duan (Jubao); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); A.R. Sanders (Alan); J. Shi (Jianxin); E.H. Lips (Esther); J.D. McKay (James); A. Agudo (Antonio); L. Barzan (Luigi); V. Bencko (Vladimir); S. Benhamou (Simone); X. Castellsagué (Xavier); C. Canova (Cristina); D.I. Conway (David); E. Fabianova (Eleonora); L. Foretova (Lenka); V. Janout (Vladimir); C.M. Healy (Claire); I. Holcátová (Ivana); K. Kjaerheim (Kristina); P. Lagiou; J. Lissowska (Jolanta); R. Lowry (Ray); T.V. MacFarlane (Tatiana); D. Mates (Dana); L. Richiardi (Lorenzo); P. Rudnai (Peter); N. Szeszenia-Dabrowska (Neonilia); D. Zaridze; A. Znaor (Ariana); M. Lathrop (Mark); P. Brennan (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); J.R.B. Perry (John); D. Altshuler (David); R. Elosua (Roberto); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); G. Lucas (Gavin); O. Melander (Olle); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.H. Smit (Johannes); N. Vogelzangs (Nicole); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); J.M. Vink (Jacqueline); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); F. Gu (Fangyi); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); D. Hunter (David); A. Hofman (Albert); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); S. Walter (Stefan); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); B.M. Everett (Brendan); G. Pare (Guillaume); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Li (Ming); H.H. Maes (Hermine); J. Audrain-Mcgovern (Janet); D. Posthuma (Danielle); L.M. Thornton (Laura); C. Lerman (Caryn); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); J.E. Rose (Jed); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John); P. Kraft (Peter); D.Y. Lin (Dan); P.F. Sullivan (Patrick); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractConsistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology

  8. Understanding the association between maltreatment history and adolescent risk behavior by examining popularity motivations and peer group control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years, SD = .86) reported on their alcohol use, delinquent behavior, childhood experiences of physical and emotional maltreatment and neglect, peer group processes involving control and individual popularity motivations. Regression analyses showed that, beyond the significant contributions of childhood maltreatment, peer group control predicted risky alcohol use and delinquent behavior. Peer group control and popularity motivations exacerbated the negative effect of physical maltreatment on delinquent behavior. Boys' experiences of peer group control were more strongly linked to alcohol use and delinquent behavior than girls'. These results suggest that there is a significant window of opportunity during adolescence where the peer group context can exacerbate or buffer childhood experiences.

  9. Non Linear Analyses for the Evaluation of Seismic Behavior of Mixed R.C.-Masonry Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberatore, Laura; Tocci, Cesare; Masiani, Renato

    2008-01-01

    In this work the seismic behavior of masonry buildings with mixed structural system, consisting of perimeter masonry walls and internal r.c. frames, is studied by means of non linear static (pushover) analyses. Several aspects, like the distribution of seismic action between masonry and r.c. elements, the local and global behavior of the structure, the crisis of the connections and the attainment of the ultimate strength of the whole structure are examined. The influence of some parameters, such as the masonry compressive and tensile strength, on the structural behavior is investigated. The numerical analyses are also repeated on a building in which the r.c. internal frames are replaced with masonry walls

  10. Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus Behavior and Group Dynamics as Observed from an Aircraft off Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lomac-MacNair

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group behavior and interactions of endangered blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus have not been systematically studied. Such behavioral data are often overlooked when assessing anthropogenic effects. Yet behavioral data are necessary to compare “normal” behaviors with behavior affected by anthropogenic factors of concern relative to effective management and recovery of blue whales. For a baseline study, we hypothesized that the response variables sighting rate, group size, calf presence and group cohesion (i.e., spacing between individuals within a group differed according to the spatio-temporal explanatory variables behavioral state, time of day, season, water depth and distance from shore. To address our hypotheses, we flew systematic line transect surveys in southern California and collected focal group data. Two sets of data were separately analyzed using different sampling approaches: (1 point sample data associated with the first sighting of a blue whale(s, and (2 extended all-occurrence focal group behavioral sampling data (i.e., focal follows collected on a subsample of all sightings while the aircraft circled at a radial distance of approximately 0.5-1 km and an altitude of 1,500 m for extended periods of 5 – 60 minutes. Chi-square contingency table and G² analyses were used to assess statistical relationships between response and explanatory variables. We conducted 18 one-week-long aerial surveys spanning October 2008 through May 2013 (at least once during every month except December, totaling 87,555 km of observation effort. Seventy blue whale sightings (117 individuals were seen, ranging in size from 1 – 6 whales, and focal follow was performed on over half (55% of these sightings. Results supported our hypotheses that blue whale group characteristics were related to behavioral state and spatio-temporal variables. Sighting rates were significantly highest during summer followed by spring, fall, and winter. Group type differed

  11. Simulation analyses of vibration tests on pile-group effects using blast-induced ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayuki Hashimoto; Kazushige Fujiwara; Katsuichirou Hijikata; Hideo Tanaka; Kohji Koyamada; Atsushi Suzuki; Osamu Kontani

    2005-01-01

    Extensive vibration tests have been performed on pile-supported structures at a large-scale mining site to promote better understanding of the dynamic behavior of pile-supported structures, especially pile-group effects. Two test structures were constructed in an excavated pit. One structure was supported on 25 tubular steel piles and the other on 4. The test pit was backfilled with sand of an appropriate grain size distribution to ensure good compaction. Ground motions induced by large-scale blasting operations were used as excitation forces for the tests. The 3D Finite Element Method (3D FEM)and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) were employed to identify the shear wave velocities and damping factors of the compacted sand, especially of the surface layer. A beam-interaction spring model was employed to simulate the test results of the piles and the pile-supported structures. The superstructure and pile foundation were modeled by a one-stick model comprising lumped masses and beam elements. The pile foundations were modeled just as they were, with lumped masses and beam elements to simulate the test results showing that, for the 25-pile structure, piles at different locations showed different responses. It was confirmed that the analysis methods employed were very useful for evaluating the nonlinear behavior of the soil-pile-structure system, even under severe ground motions. (authors)

  12. Verbal and nonverbal behavior of ability-grouped dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Carter, Glenda

    In this study we describe the social interactions of ability-grouped dyads as they constructed knowledge of balance concepts to elucidate the relationship between interactions and conceptual growth. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 30 fifth-grade students were recorded as they completed three activities related to balance. These student interactions were examined within a framework of social cognition. For each dyad, characteristics of ability-grouped dyads were identified. Results revealed that high-achieving students effectively used prior experiences, maintained focus on the learning task, and were able to manipulate the equipment effectively to construct knowledge. Low-achieving students exhibited off-task behavior, lacked a metacognitive framework for organizing the learning tasks, centered on irrelevant features of the equipment, and were unable to use language effectively to mediate learning. Within low-high student dyads, high-achieving students typically modeled thinking processes and strategies for manipulating equipment. In addition, they focused the low-achieving students on the components of the tasks while verbally monitoring their progress, thus enabling low students to identify the critical features necessary for concept construction. These results highlighted the differences that students have in the use of language and tools. Low students' inefficient use of tools has implications for the ways science teachers structure lessons and group students for laboratory work.Received: 8 March 1993; Revised: 6 January 1994;

  13. Ingestive behavior of lambs confined in individual and group stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, A Eustáquio; Carvalho, G G P; Pires, A J V; Silva, R R; Santos, P E F; Murta, R M; Pereira, F M

    2014-02-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lambs confined in individual and group stalls. We used thirty-four lambs in their growing phase, aged an average of three months, with mean initial live weight of 17.8±5.2 kg. They were allotted in a completely randomized design with 24 animals kept in individual stalls and 10 animals confined as a group. The experiment lasted for a total of 74 days, and the first 14 days were dedicated to the animals' adaption to the management, facilities and diets. The data collection period lasted 60 days, divided into three 20-d periods for the behavior evaluation. The animals were subjected to five days of visual observation during the experiment period, by the quantification of 24 h a day, with evaluations on the 15th day of each period and an interim evaluation consisting of two consecutive days on the 30th and 31st day of the experiment. The animals confined as a group consumed less (pbehavior.

  14. Cancrinite-group minerals behavior at non-ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Paolo; Gatta, G. Diego; Kahlenberg, Volker; Merlini, Marco; Alvaro, Matteo; Cámara, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Cancrinite-group minerals occur in the late stages of alkaline (SiO2)-undersaturated magmatism and in related effusive or contact rocks. So far only few studies have been devoted to the description of the thermo-elastic behavior, phase-stability and P /T -structure evolution (at the atomic scale) of this mineral group. Cancrinite-group minerals have an open-framework structure characterized by the [CAN]-topology. The [CAN]-framework shows large 12-ring channels, parallel to the c crystallographic axis, bound by columns of cages, the so-called can units. While very limited chemical variation is observed in the framework composition (the composition is almost always [Si6Al6O24]) a remarkable chemical variability is reported for the extraframework components in the cancrinite-group minerals. Two subgroups can be identified according to the extraframework content of the can units: the cancrinite- and the davyne-subgroups, showing Na-H2O and Ca-Cl chains, respectively. The channels are stuffed by cations, anions and molecules. We aimed to model the thermo-elastic behavior and the mechanisms of the (P ,T)-induced structure evolution of cancrinite-group minerals, with special interest on the role played by the extraframework population. The study was restricted to the following (CO3)-rich and (SO4)-rich end-members: cancrinite sensu stricto {[(Na,Ca)6(CO3)1.2-1.7][Na2(H2O)2][Al6Si6O24]}, vishnevite {[(Na,Ca,K)6(SO4)][Na2(H2O)2][Al6Si6O24]}, balliranoite {[(Na,Ca)6(CO3)1.2-1.7][Ca2Cl2][Al6Si6O24]} and davyne {[(Na,Ca,K)6((SO4),Cl)][Ca2Cl2][Al6Si6O24]}. Their high-P and low-T (T single-crystal X-ray diffraction, using diamond-anvil cells and (N2)-cryosystems, respectively. The high-T behavior of cancrinite has also been studied by means of in-situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction with a resistive heater. Cancrinite minerals share a similar volume compressibility and thermal expansivity at ambient conditions (cancrinite has KV 0 = 45(2) GPa and αV,293K = 4.88(8)·10-5 K-1

  15. Maternal Colonization With Group B Streptococcus and Serotype Distribution Worldwide: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Neal J; Seale, Anna C; O'Driscoll, Megan; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Bianchi-Jassir, Fiorella; Gonzalez-Guarin, Juan; Lawn, Joy E; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Heath, Paul T; Le Doare, Kirsty; Madhi, Shabir A; Rubens, Craig E; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Saha, Samir K; Ip, Margaret

    2017-11-06

    Maternal rectovaginal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common pathway for GBS disease in mother, fetus, and newborn. This article, the second in a series estimating the burden of GBS, aims to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of GBS colonizing pregnant women worldwide. We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus), organized Chinese language searches, and sought unpublished data from investigator groups. We applied broad inclusion criteria to maximize data inputs, particularly from low- and middle-income contexts, and then applied new meta-analyses to adjust for studies with less-sensitive sampling and laboratory techniques. We undertook meta-analyses to derive pooled estimates of maternal GBS colonization prevalence at national and regional levels. The dataset regarding colonization included 390 articles, 85 countries, and a total of 299924 pregnant women. Our adjusted estimate for maternal GBS colonization worldwide was 18% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-19%), with regional variation (11%-35%), and lower prevalence in Southern Asia (12.5% [95% CI, 10%-15%]) and Eastern Asia (11% [95% CI, 10%-12%]). Bacterial serotypes I-V account for 98% of identified colonizing GBS isolates worldwide. Serotype III, associated with invasive disease, accounts for 25% (95% CI, 23%-28%), but is less frequent in some South American and Asian countries. Serotypes VI-IX are more common in Asia. GBS colonizes pregnant women worldwide, but prevalence and serotype distribution vary, even after adjusting for laboratory methods. Lower GBS maternal colonization prevalence, with less serotype III, may help to explain lower GBS disease incidence in regions such as Asia. High prevalence worldwide, and more serotype data, are relevant to prevention efforts. © The Author 2017. Published by

  16. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    The remains of 12 Neandertal individuals have been found at the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain), consisting of six adults, three adolescents, two juveniles, and one infant. Archaeological, paleontological, and geological evidence indicates that these individuals represent all or part of a contem...... of the three adult females carried different mtDNA lineages. These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior....

  17. Influencing agent group behavior by adjusting cultural trait values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuli, Gaurav; Hexmoor, Henry

    2010-10-01

    Social reasoning and norms among individuals that share cultural traits are largely fashioned by those traits. We have explored predominant sociological and cultural traits. We offer a methodology for parametrically adjusting relevant traits. This exploratory study heralds a capability to deliberately tune cultural group traits in order to produce a desired group behavior. To validate our methodology, we implemented a prototypical-agent-based simulated test bed for demonstrating an exemplar from intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance scenario. A group of simulated agents traverses a hostile territory while a user adjusts their cultural group trait settings. Group and individual utilities are dynamically observed against parametric values for the selected traits. Uncertainty avoidance index and individualism are the cultural traits we examined in depth. Upon the user's training of the correspondence between cultural values and system utilities, users deliberately produce the desired system utilities by issuing changes to trait. Specific cultural traits are without meaning outside of their context. Efficacy and timely application of traits in a given context do yield desirable results. This paper heralds a path for the control of large systems via parametric cultural adjustments.

  18. Predicting behavior change from persuasive messages using neural representational similarity and social network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegors, Teresa K; Tompson, Steven; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Falk, Emily B

    2017-08-15

    Neural activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), identified as engaging in self-related processing, predicts later health behavior change. However, it is unknown to what extent individual differences in neural representation of content and lived experience influence this brain-behavior relationship. We examined whether the strength of content-specific representations during persuasive messaging relates to later behavior change, and whether these relationships change as a function of individuals' social network composition. In our study, smokers viewed anti-smoking messages while undergoing fMRI and we measured changes in their smoking behavior one month later. Using representational similarity analyses, we found that the degree to which message content (i.e. health, social, or valence information) was represented in a self-related processing MPFC region was associated with later smoking behavior, with increased representations of negatively valenced (risk) information corresponding to greater message-consistent behavior change. Furthermore, the relationship between representations and behavior change depended on social network composition: smokers who had proportionally fewer smokers in their network showed increases in smoking behavior when social or health content was strongly represented in MPFC, whereas message-consistent behavior (i.e., less smoking) was more likely for those with proportionally more smokers in their social network who represented social or health consequences more strongly. These results highlight the dynamic relationship between representations in MPFC and key outcomes such as health behavior change; a complete understanding of the role of MPFC in motivation and action should take into account individual differences in neural representation of stimulus attributes and social context variables such as social network composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phylogenetic analyses of behavior support existence of culture among wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C

    2007-11-06

    Culture has long been considered to be not only unique to humans, but also responsible for making us qualitatively different from all other forms of life. In recent years, however, researchers studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have challenged this idea. Natural populations of chimpanzees have been found to vary greatly in their behavior. Because many of these interpopulation differences cannot be readily explained by ecological factors, it has been argued that they result from social learning and, therefore, can be regarded as cultural variations. Recent studies showing social transmission in captive chimpanzee populations suggest that this hypothesis is plausible. However, the culture hypothesis has been questioned on the grounds that the behavioral variation may be explained at a proximate level by genetic differences between subspecies. Here we use cladistic analyses of the major cross-site behavioral data set to test the hypothesis that the behavioral differences among the best-documented chimpanzee populations are genetically determined. If behavioral diversity is primarily the product of genetic differences between subspecies, then population data should show less phylogenetic structure when data from a single subspecies (P. t. schweinfurthii) are compared with data from two subspecies (P. t. verus and P. t. schweinfurthii) analyzed together. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the observed behavioral patterns of wild chimpanzee populations can be explained primarily by genetic differences between subspecies. Instead, our results support the suggestion that the behavioral patterns are the product of social learning and, therefore, can be considered cultural.

  20. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari Ylenia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes, to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles, or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation

  1. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. Conclusions These results

  2. Averaging Gone Wrong: Using Time-Aware Analyses to Better Understand Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Samuel; Cosley, Dan; Sharma, Amit; Cesar-Jr, Roberto M.

    2016-01-01

    Online communities provide a fertile ground for analyzing people's behavior and improving our understanding of social processes. Because both people and communities change over time, we argue that analyses of these communities that take time into account will lead to deeper and more accurate results. Using Reddit as an example, we study the evolution of users based on comment and submission data from 2007 to 2014. Even using one of the simplest temporal differences between users---yearly coho...

  3. Inhalation toxicity of indoor air pollutants in Drosophila melanogaster using integrated transcriptomics and computational behavior analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyun-Jeong; Liu, Yuedan; Kwak, Gyu-Suk; Heo, Muyoung; Song, Kyung Seuk; Chung, Yun Doo; Chon, Tae-Soo; Choi, Jinhee

    2017-06-01

    We conducted an inhalation toxicity test on the alternative animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate potential hazards of indoor air pollution. The inhalation toxicity of toluene and formaldehyde was investigated using comprehensive transcriptomics and computational behavior analyses. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) based on microarray data suggests the involvement of pathways related to immune response, stress response, and metabolism in formaldehyde and toluene exposure based on hub molecules. We conducted a toxicity test using mutants of the representative genes in these pathways to explore the toxicological consequences of alterations of these pathways. Furthermore, extensive computational behavior analysis showed that exposure to either toluene or formaldehyde reduced most of the behavioral parameters of both wild-type and mutants. Interestingly, behavioral alteration caused by toluene or formaldehyde exposure was most severe in the p38b mutant, suggesting that the defects in the p38 pathway underlie behavioral alteration. Overall, the results indicate that exposure to toluene and formaldehyde via inhalation causes severe toxicity in Drosophila, by inducing significant alterations in gene expression and behavior, suggesting that Drosophila can be used as a potential alternative model in inhalation toxicity screening.

  4. Stillbirth With Group B Streptococcus Disease Worldwide: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Anna C; Blencowe, Hannah; Bianchi-Jassir, Fiorella; Embleton, Nicholas; Bassat, Quique; Ordi, Jaume; Menéndez, Clara; Cutland, Clare; Briner, Carmen; Berkley, James A; Lawn, Joy E; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Gravett, Michael G; Heath, Paul T; Ip, Margaret; Le Doare, Kirsty; Rubens, Craig E; Saha, Samir K; Schrag, Stephanie; Meulen, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter; Vekemans, Johan; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-11-06

    There are an estimated 2.6 million stillbirths each year, many of which are due to infections, especially in low- and middle-income contexts. This paper, the eighth in a series on the burden of group B streptococcal (GBS) disease, aims to estimate the percentage of stillbirths associated with GBS disease. We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, World Health Organization Library Information System, and Scopus) and sought unpublished data from investigator groups. Studies were included if they reported original data on stillbirths (predominantly ≥28 weeks' gestation or ≥1000 g, with GBS isolated from a sterile site) as a percentage of total stillbirths. We did meta-analyses to derive pooled estimates of the percentage of GBS-associated stillbirths, regionally and worldwide for recent datasets. We included 14 studies from any period, 5 with recent data (after 2000). There were no data from Asia. We estimated that 1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-2%) of all stillbirths in developed countries and 4% (95% CI, 2%-6%) in Africa were associated with GBS. GBS is likely an important cause of stillbirth, especially in Africa. However, data are limited in terms of geographic spread, with no data from Asia, and cases worldwide are probably underestimated due to incomplete case ascertainment. More data, using standardized, systematic methods, are critical, particularly from low- and middle-income contexts where the highest burden of stillbirths occurs. These data are essential to inform interventions, such as maternal GBS vaccination. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  5. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Group Skills Training for Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Lori; Eddie, David; Harley, Rebecca; Jacobo, Michelle; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2017-07-01

    There is growing evidence that the capacity for emotion regulation is compromised in individuals with bipolar disorder. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an empirically supported treatment that specifically targets emotion dysregulation, may be an effective adjunct treatment for improving emotion regulation and residual mood symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. In this open, proof-of-concept pilot study, 37 participants engaged in a 12-week DBT group skills training program, learning mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills. Repeated measures mixed models revealed skill acquisition in the areas of mindfulness, emotion regulation and distress tolerance, as well as improved psychological well-being and decreased emotion reactivity. The results of this study support a burgeoning literature that DBT is a feasible adjunct intervention for patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between popularity in the peer group and adolescents' behavior in a dyadic context. After collecting peer nominations for popularity, 218 early adolescents (M(age) = 11.0 years) in 109 randomly composed same-sex dyads participated in a discussion task where they planned a party for their classroom. From digital recordings of the sessions, each participant's influence, involvement, skillful leadership, coercive resource control, submissiveness, positivity, and negativity were observed. Analyses with the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) demonstrated that for girls high group level popularity was associated with a socially sensitive interaction style and influence in the dyadic context. For both boys and girls, the interaction partner's group level popularity negatively predicted their use of coercive resource control strategies and negative behavior in the dyad. For girls, in addition, the interaction partner's group level popularity also positively predicted their submissiveness and negatively predicted their task influence. These results indicate that, in particular for girls, adolescents' group level popularity plays an important role in the behavior of both peers in a cooperative dyadic context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parent-only Group Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Control Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Elham; Shahrivar, Zahra; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Shirazi, Elham; Sepasi, Mitra

    2018-04-01

    Parents play an important role in development and continuation of anxiety disorders in children. Yet the evidence on parent contribution in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety is limited. This open randomized trial examined the effectiveness of a parent-directed group CBT to manage children with anxiety disorders. Parents of 42 children aged 6-12 with primary anxiety disorders were allocated to a six, two-hour weekly intervention and a wait-list (WL) control. The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety, Children's Depression Inventory, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Home Version, Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale, Children Global Assessment Scale, and Global Relational Assessment of Functioning were used to assess children's and parents' functioning and emotional symptoms. Parents completed consumer satisfaction questionnaire. Parents in the CBT group reported significant improvement in their depressive symptoms (p=0.006) and the family functioning (p=0.04), as well as reduction in children's emotional symptoms (p=0.007). Clinician rating of children's functioning showed significant improvement in the CBT group(p=0.001). There was no significant difference in children rating of their anxiety within groups from pre- to post-intervention. Parents were satisfied mostly with the intervention. A brief parent-only CBT based intervention can be effective in the management of childhood anxiety.

  8. “Teens are from Mars, Adults are from Venus”: Analyzing and Predicting Age Groups with Behavioral Characteristics in Instagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyungsik; Lee, Sanghack; Jang, Jin; Jung, Yong; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-06-22

    We present behavioral characteristics of teens and adults in Instagram and prediction of them from their behaviors. Based on two independently created datasets from user profiles and tags, we identify teens and adults, and carry out comparative analyses on their online behaviors. Our study reveals: (1) significant behavioral differences between two age groups; (2) the empirical evidence of classifying teens and adults with up to 82% accuracy, using traditional predictive models, while two baseline methods achieve 68% at best; and (3) the robustness of our models by achieving 76%—81% when tested against an independent dataset obtained without using user profiles or tags.

  9. Stable crack growth behaviors in welded CT specimens -- finite element analyses and simplified assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, Genki; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Aoki, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Masanori; Arai, Yoshio; Kashima, Koichi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Shimakawa, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes stable crack growth behaviors in welded CT specimens made of nuclear pressure vessel A533B class 1 steel, in which initial cracks are placed to be normal to fusion line. At first, using the relations between the load-line displacement (δ) and the crack extension amount (Δa) measured in experiments, the generation phase finite element crack growth analyses are performed, calculating the applied load (P) and various kinds of J-integrals. Next, the simplified crack growth analyses based on the GE/EPRI method and the reference stress method are performed using the same experimental results. Some modification procedures of the two simplified assessment schemes are discussed to make them applicable to inhomogeneous materials. Finally, a neural network approach is proposed to optimize the above modification procedures. 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  10. A model finite-element to analyse the mechanical behavior of a PWR fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeao, A.C.N.R.; Tanajura, C.A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A model to analyse the mechanical behavior of a PWR fuel rod is presented. We drew our attention to the phenomenon of pellet-pellet and pellet-cladding contact by taking advantage of an elastic model which include the effects of thermal gradients, cladding internal and external pressures, swelling and initial relocation. The problem of contact gives rise ro a variational formulation which employs Lagrangian multipliers. An iterative scheme is constructed and the finite element method is applied to obtain the numerical solution. Some results and comments are presented to examine the performance of the model. (author) [pt

  11. "Me, My Classmates and My Buddies": Analysing Peer Group Effects on Student Marijuana Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rosa; Escario, Jose-Julian; Molina, Jose-Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of peer behaviour on student marijuana consumption. Our hypothesis is that, in contrast to the traditional measures of peer group effects carried out at class or school level, the use of a closer peer group, which we relate to the group of friends, is more relevant in the explanation of marijuana…

  12. Comparative Analyses of Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behavior Using Conflict-Based Novelty Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kysil, Elana V; Meshalkina, Darya A; Frick, Erin E; Echevarria, David J; Rosemberg, Denis B; Maximino, Caio; Lima, Monica Gomes; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Ana C; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of stress and anxiety in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly utilized in neuroscience research and central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery. Representing the most commonly used zebrafish anxiety models, the novel tank test (NTT) focuses on zebrafish diving in response to potentially threatening stimuli, whereas the light-dark test (LDT) is based on fish scototaxis (innate preference for dark vs. bright areas). Here, we systematically evaluate the utility of these two tests, combining meta-analyses of published literature with comparative in vivo behavioral and whole-body endocrine (cortisol) testing. Overall, the NTT and LDT behaviors demonstrate a generally good cross-test correlation in vivo, whereas meta-analyses of published literature show that both tests have similar sensitivity to zebrafish anxiety-like states. Finally, NTT evokes higher levels of cortisol, likely representing a more stressful procedure than LDT. Collectively, our study reappraises NTT and LDT for studying anxiety-like states in zebrafish, and emphasizes their developing utility for neurobehavioral research. These findings can help optimize drug screening procedures by choosing more appropriate models for testing anxiolytic or anxiogenic drugs.

  13. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  14. Spacecraft electrical power subsystem: Failure behavior, reliability, and multi-state failure analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Young; Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the degradation and failure behavior of spacecraft electrical power subsystem (EPS) on orbit. First, this work provides updated statistical reliability and multi-state failure analyses of spacecraft EPS and its different constituents, namely the batteries, the power distribution, and the solar arrays. The EPS is shown to suffer from infant mortality and to be a major driver of spacecraft unreliability. Over 25% of all spacecraft failures are the result of EPS failures. As a result, satellite manufacturers may wish to pursue targeted improvement to this subsystem, either through better testing or burn-in procedures, better design or parts selection, or additional redundancy. Second, this work investigates potential differences in the EPS degradation and failure behavior for spacecraft in low earth orbits (LEO) and geosynchronous orbits (GEO). This analysis was motivated by the recognition that the power/load cycles and the space environment are significantly different in LEO and GEO, and as such, they may result in different failure behavior for the EPS in these two types of orbits. The results indicate, and quantify the extent to which, the EPS fails differently in LEO and GEO, both in terms of frequency and severity of failure events. A casual summary of the findings can be stated as follows: the EPS fails less frequently but harder (with fatal consequences to the spacecraft) in LEO than in GEO.

  15. Assessing cross-cultural differences through use of multiple-group invariance analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Judith A; Lee, Jerry W; Jones, Patricia S

    2006-12-01

    The use of structural equation modeling in cross-cultural personality research has become a popular method for testing measurement invariance. In this report, we present an example of testing measurement invariance using the Sense of Coherence Scale of Antonovsky (1993) in 3 ethnic groups: Chinese, Japanese, and Whites. In a series of increasingly restrictive constraints on the measurement models of the 3 groups, we demonstrate how to assess differences among the groups. We also provide an example of construct validation.

  16. A dialogue game for analysing group model building: framing collaborative modelling and its facilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, S.J.B.A.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns a specific approach to analysing and structuring operational situations in collaborative modelling. Collaborative modelling is viewed here as 'the goal-driven creation and shaping of models that are based on the principles of rational description and reasoning'. Our long term

  17. Using meta-analytic path analysis to test theoretical predictions in health behavior: An illustration based on meta-analyses of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chan, Derwin K C; Protogerou, Cleo; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2016-08-01

    Synthesizing research on social cognitive theories applied to health behavior is an important step in the development of an evidence base of psychological factors as targets for effective behavioral interventions. However, few meta-analyses of research on social cognitive theories in health contexts have conducted simultaneous tests of theoretically-stipulated pattern effects using path analysis. We argue that conducting path analyses of meta-analytic effects among constructs from social cognitive theories is important to test nomological validity, account for mediation effects, and evaluate unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. We illustrate our points by conducting new analyses of two meta-analyses of a popular theory applied to health behaviors, the theory of planned behavior. We conducted meta-analytic path analyses of the theory in two behavioral contexts (alcohol and dietary behaviors) using data from the primary studies included in the original meta-analyses augmented to include intercorrelations among constructs and relations with past behavior missing from the original analysis. Findings supported the nomological validity of the theory and its hypotheses for both behaviors, confirmed important model processes through mediation analysis, demonstrated the attenuating effect of past behavior on theory relations, and provided estimates of the unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. Our analysis illustrates the importance of conducting a simultaneous test of theory-stipulated effects in meta-analyses of social cognitive theories applied to health behavior. We recommend researchers adopt this analytic procedure when synthesizing evidence across primary tests of social cognitive theories in health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploratory Talk in the Early Years: Analysing Exploratory Talk in Collaborative Group Activities Involving Younger Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Eira Wyn

    2018-01-01

    Collaborative group work has the potential for providing rich opportunities for children to learn through talk with peers; however, in practice, little effective engagement in learning is observed within authentic learning contexts. Exploratory talk is associated with high levels of cognitive challenge within collaborative group work. Detailed…

  19. [Effects of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Social Anxiety Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chen; Meng, Ya-Jing; Yuan, Min-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ru; Ren, Zheng-Jia; Qiu, Chang-Jian; Zhang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on social anxiety disorders (SAD). A total of 50 patients with SAD were recruited in this study. A survey containing the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS),the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ),the fear of negative evaluation questionnaire (FNE),the social support rating scale (SSRS),the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ),and the egna minnen barndoms uppfostran (EMBU) was administered before and (one week) after the GCBT,including in the 50 healthy controls. About 21 patients completed the eight-week GCBT (once a week,2 h a session). Follow-up surveys were conducted on 40 patients (22 patients treated with GCBT and 18 untreated) over a 1-5 year period. Significant differences were found between the SAD patients and healthy controls in thinking mode,personality characteristics,social support,parental rearing styles,and social anxiety symptoms. Significant decrease in social anxiety symptom ( t =4.06, P =0.000) , negative automatic thoughts ( t =4.58, P =0.000) and fear for rejection ( t =3.85, P =0.000) were observed after the GCBT therapy. Such improvement was positively correlated with subjective social support ( r =0.361, P =0.022) ,and negatively correlated with rejection of father ( r =-0.431, P =0.005) . There was also statistical difference between the patients with and without the GCBT therapy ( P =0.033) . GCBT treatment can relieve SAD symptoms by changing the negative cognitive of SAD patients. Social support and rejection of father affects the prognosis of SAD.

  20. IMPACTS OF GROUP-BASED SIGNAL CONTROL POLICY ON DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTERSECTION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuang TANG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the typical stage-based policy commonly applied in Japan, the group-based control (often called movement-based in the traffic control industry in Japan refers to such a control pattern that the controller is capable of separately allocating time to each signal group instead of stage based on traffic demand. In order to investigate its applicability at signalized intersections in Japan, an intersection located in Yokkaichi City of Mie Prefecture was selected as an experimental application site by the Japan Universal Traffic Management Society (UTMS. Based on the data collected at the intersection before and after implementing the group-based control policy respectively, this study evaluated the impacts of such a policy on driver behavior and intersection safety. To specify those impacts, a few models utilizing cycle-based data were first developed to interpret the occurrence probability and rate of red-light-running (RLR. Furthermore, analyses were performed on the yellow-entry time (Ye of the last cleared vehicle and post encroachment time (PET during the phase switching. Conclusions supported that the group-based control policy, along with certain other factors, directly or indirectly influenced the RLR behavior of through and right-turn traffics. Meanwhile, it has potential safety benefits as well, indicated by the declined Ye and increased PET values.

  1. Sensitivity analyses of seismic behavior of spent fuel dry cask storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, V.K.; Spencer, B.W.; Shaukat, S.K.; Lam, I.P.; Dameron, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a research project to develop a comprehensive methodology for evaluating the seismic behavior of spent fuel dry cask storage systems (DCSS) for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A typical Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) consists of arrays of free-standing storage casks resting on concrete pads. In the safety review process of these cask systems, their seismically induced horizontal displacements and angular rotations must be quantified to determine whether casks will overturn or neighboring casks will collide during a seismic event. The ABAQUS/Explicit code is used to analyze three-dimensional coupled finite element models consisting of three submodels, which are a cylindrical cask or a rectangular module, a flexible concrete pad, and an underlying soil foundation. The coupled model includes two sets of contact surfaces between the submodels with prescribed coefficients of friction. The seismic event is described by one vertical and two horizontal components of statistically independent seismic acceleration time histories. A deconvolution procedure is used to adjust the amplitudes and frequency contents of these three-component reference surface motions before applying them simultaneously at the soil foundation base. The research project focused on examining the dynamic and nonlinear seismic behavior of the coupled model of free-standing DCSS including soil-structure interaction effects. This paper presents a subset of analysis results for a series of parametric analyses. Input variables in the parametric analyses include: designs of the cask/module, time histories of the seismic accelerations, coefficients of friction at the cask/pad interface, and material properties of the soil foundation. In subsequent research, the analysis results will be compiled and presented in nomograms to highlight the sensitivity of seismic response of DCSS to

  2. Absence of strong strain effects in behavioral analyses of Shank3-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Drapeau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haploinsufficiency of SHANK3, caused by chromosomal abnormalities or mutations that disrupt one copy of the gene, leads to a neurodevelopmental syndrome called Phelan-McDermid syndrome, symptoms of which can include absent or delayed speech, intellectual disability, neurological changes and autism spectrum disorders. The SHANK3 protein forms a key structural part of the post-synaptic density. We previously generated and characterized mice with a targeted disruption of Shank3 in which exons coding for the ankyrin-repeat domain were deleted and expression of full-length Shank3 was disrupted. We documented specific deficits in synaptic function and plasticity, along with reduced reciprocal social interactions, in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Changes in phenotype owing to a mutation at a single locus are quite frequently modulated by other loci, most dramatically when the entire genetic background is changed. In mice, each strain of laboratory mouse represents a distinct genetic background and alterations in phenotype owing to gene knockout or transgenesis are frequently different across strains, which can lead to the identification of important modifier loci. We have investigated the effect of genetic background on phenotypes of Shank3 heterozygous, knockout and wild-type mice, using C57BL/6, 129SVE and FVB/Ntac strain backgrounds. We focused on observable behaviors with the goal of carrying out subsequent analyses to identify modifier loci. Surprisingly, there were very modest strain effects over a large battery of analyses. These results indicate that behavioral phenotypes associated with Shank3 haploinsufficiency are largely strain-independent.

  3. Ain't Necessarily So : Review and Critique of Recent Meta-Analyses of Behavioral Medicine Interventions in Health Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Objective: We examined four meta-analyses of behavioral interventions for adults (Dixon, Keefe, Scipio, Perri, & Abernethy, 2007; Hoffman, Papas, Chatkoff, & Kerns, 2007; Irwin, Cole, & Nicassio, 2006; and Jacobsen, Donovan, Vadaparampil, & Small, 2007) that have appeared in the Evidence Based

  4. Analyses of the structure of group correlations in Korean financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jeung Su; Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, Kyungsik

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we construct and analyze the structure of cross-correlations in two Korean stock markets, the Korea Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) and the Korea Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (KOSDAQ). We investigate a remarkable agreement between the theoretical prediction and the empirical data concerning the density of eigenvalues in the KOSPI and the KOSDAQ. We estimate daily cross-correlations with respect to price fluctuations of 629 KOSPI and 650 KOSDAQ stock entities for the period from 2006 to 2010. The research for the structure of group correlations undress the market-wide effect by using the Markowitz multi-factor model and network-based approach. We find stock entities that involve the same business sectors and verify the structure of group correlations by applying a network-based approach. In particular, the KOSPI has a dense correlation besides overall group correlations for stock entities, whereas both correlations are less for the KOSDAQ than for the KOSPI.

  5. Econometric analyses of microfinance credit group formation, contractual risks and welfare impacts in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane Tesfay, G.

    2009-01-01

    Key words
    Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia.

    Lack of

  6. Ground reaction force analysed with correlation coefficient matrix in group of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbik, Ewa; Krawczyk, Maciej; Syczewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the third cause of death in contemporary society and causes many disorders. Clinical scales, ground reaction force (GRF) and objective gait analysis are used for assessment of patient's rehabilitation progress during treatment. The goal of this paper is to assess whether signal correlation coefficient matrix applied to GRF can be used for evaluation of the status of post-stroke patients. A group of patients underwent clinical assessment and instrumented gait analysis simultaneously three times. The difference between components of patient's GRF (vertical, fore/aft, med/lat) and normal ones (reference GRF of healthy subjects) was calculated as correlation coefficient. Patients were divided into two groups ("worse" and "better") based on the clinical functional scale tests done at the beginning of rehabilitation process. The results obtained by these two groups were compared using statistical analysis. An increase of median value of correlation coefficient is observed in all components of GRF, but only in non-paretic leg. Analysis of GRF signal can be helpful in assessment of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. Improvement in stroke patients was observed in non-paretic leg of the "worse" group. GRF analysis should not be the only tool for objective validation of patient's improvement, but could be used as additional source of information.

  7. Analyses of fatalities from natural catastrophes in different income groups over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Identifying not only economic and insured losses but also numbers of fatalities from natural catastrophes provides new information on resilience and prevention measures in the countries affected. In this talk, we examine how fatalities from Munich Re's NatCatSERVICE database, caused by natural disasters have developed. In addition to the standard approach based on fatalities by country, we introduced a new measure, "fatalities per million inhabitants", and factored in population development over time. The World Bank definition was used to determine the wealth classification of individual countries. This methodology enables us to compare countries with different population sizes and thus produce an index for humanitarian impact. The analyses are key information on ascertaining whether prevention measures or early-warning systems have in fact reduced the number of fatalities in recent decades (1980-2016).

  8. Critical experiments analyses by using 70 energy group library based on ENDF/B-VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yoshihisa; Matsumoto, Hideki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Energy Systems Engineering Center; Huria, H.C.; Ouisloumen, M.

    1998-03-01

    The newly developed 70-group library has been validated by comparing kinf from a continuous energy Monte-Carlo code MCNP and two dimensional spectrum calculation code PHOENIX-CP. The code employs Discrete Angular Flux Method based on Collision Probability. The library has been also validated against a large number of critical experiments and numerical benchmarks for assemblies with MOX and Gd fuels. (author)

  9. Effectiveness analyses may underestimate protection of infants after group C meningococcal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, David M; Kelly, Dominic; Heath, Paul T; McCarthy, Noel D; Pollard, Andrew J; Granoff, Dan M

    2006-07-15

    Group C meningococcal conjugate-vaccine effectiveness in the United Kingdom declines from ~90% in the first year to 0% between 1 and 4 years after immunization in infants immunized at 2, 3, and 4 months of age and to 61% in toddlers given a single dose. Confidence intervals are wide, and the extent of protection is uncertain. Serum samples were obtained from children 3-5 years of age who were participants in a preschool booster-vaccine trial. Serum bactericidal activity was measured with human complement. Group C anticapsular antibody concentrations were measured by a radioantigen binding assay. Passive protection was analyzed in an infant rat bacteremia model. Serum samples from UK children who had been immunized 2-3 years earlier as infants or toddlers had higher levels of radioantigen binding, bactericidal activity, and passive protection than did historical control serum samples from unimmunized children (P or =1 : 4 (considered to be protective) than those immunized as toddlers (61% vs. 24%; Pprotection (50% and 41%, respectively; P=.4). We found no evidence of lower immunity in children immunized as infants than as toddlers. On the basis of serum bactericidal activity and/or passive protection, 40%-50% of both age groups are protected at 2-3 years after immunization, which was significantly greater than in unimmunized historical controls (<5%).

  10. THE SAVING AND INVESTING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ANALYSES ON THE ROMANIAN FINANCIAL MARKET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase (Rosca Laura Daniela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide an analysis of the saving and investing consumer behavior, that where researched in a time of changes after a severe financial crisis. The analyses purpose was to determine the reasons, or the way that the reasons would change, for buying different financial instruments, and also the way that the consumer perceives investing and saving. Different demographical characteristics and their influence on the financial behavior of the consumers were also studied. The investor behavior on the developed markets is being studied carefully for many years. The need to create financial products for each customer type, such as Generation Y, intensely investigated by various research teams, in different ways, resulting in different characteristics such as general proclivity to the marketing, advertising, consumerism, branding, environmental issues, fashion and even anxiety, begins to be felt also on the Romanian market. So, to better understand the actual degree of knowledge that the consumer have on the concepts of saving and investing and on that activities involved into this concepts is a very important step of the research. The research method is a survey based on a sample chosen with the simple random method undertaken in 2010. There were gathered 480 questionnaires. Research is not a statistical nationwide representative because of the lack of the financial and human capabilities. The developed questionnaire summarized 22 questions, in order to illustrate the way that saving and investing were seen, to see actual investing behavior and to measure the degree of trust given to the most known investing means. We expect that the methods of 'investing' that are most known and used to be bank deposits because in Romania the risk appetite is a low one. The people's appetite for saving activities we expect to be motivated by the need for purchasing consumer goods, and eventually buying a car or a house but not the desire to

  11. One (rating) from many (observations): Factors affecting the individual assessment of voice behavior in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Maynes, Timothy D; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M

    2015-07-01

    This article reports an investigation into how individuals form perceptions of overall voice behavior in group contexts. More specifically, the authors examine the effect of the proportion of group members exhibiting voice behavior in the group, the frequency of voice events in the group, and the measurement item referent (group vs. individual) on an individual's ratings of group voice behavior. In addition, the authors examine the effect that measurement item referent has on the magnitude of the relationship observed between an individual's ratings of group voice behavior and perceptions of group performance. Consistent with hypotheses, the results from 1 field study (N = 220) and 1 laboratory experiment (N = 366) indicate that: (a) When group referents were used, raters relied on the frequency of voice events (and not the proportion of group members exhibiting voice) to inform their ratings of voice behavior, whereas the opposite was true when individual-referent items were used, and (b) the magnitude of the relationship between observers' ratings of group voice behavior and their perceptions of group performance was higher when raters used group-referent, as opposed to an individual-referent, items. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for scholars interested in studying behavioral phenomena occurring in teams, groups, and work units in organizational behavior research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Using meta-analytic path analysis to test theoretical predictions in health behavior: An illustration based on meta-analyses of the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hagger, Martin; Chan, Dervin K. C.; Protogerou, Cleo; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Synthesizing research on social cognitive theories applied to health behavior is an important step in the development of an evidence base of psychological factors as targets for effective behavioral interventions. However, few meta-analyses of research on social cognitive theories in health contexts have conducted simultaneous tests of theoretically-stipulated pattern effects using path analysis. We argue that conducting path analyses of meta-analytic effects among constructs fr...

  13. Conclusions from working group 2 - the analyses of the WIPP-2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The INTRAVAL WIPP-2 test case is based on data from site investigations carried out at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, USA. The site has been chosen as a potential location for a radioactive waste repository. Extensive investigations have been carried out, focused mainly on groundwater flow and transport in the Culebra Dolomite, the main pathway for transport of radionuclides off the site by groundwater in the case of an accidental borehole intrusion into the repository. Five teams studied the test case. Two teams addressed issues involved in the treatment of heterogeneity. Stochastic models and a Monte Carlo approach were used. One team quantified the increased uncertainty resulting from fewer data and explored the issues involved in validation of stochastic models. A second team developed a new method for conditioning stochastic models on head data. Two other teams examined issues relating to the choice of conceptual models. Two-dimensional vertical cross-section models were used to explore the importance of vertical flow. The fifth team advocate the use of a variety of models to highlight the most important processes and parameters. Conclusions from each team experiment are analysed. (J.S.). 4 refs., 11 figs

  14. Small Groups in Programmed Environments: Behavioral and Biological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abettdre entered in Block 20. it differm Iroi Repot) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The Pavlovian Journal of Bioloqical Science, in...Experimentation in Controlled Environments: Its Implications for Economic Behavior and Social Poligy Making. Toronto: Alcoholism and Drug Addiction

  15. Dealing with missing behavioral endpoints in health promotion research by modeling cognitive parameters in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions : a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M.A.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M.A.A.; van der Palen, Job

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  16. DEALING WITH MISSING BEHAVIORAL ENDPOINTS IN HEALTH PROMOTION RESEARCH BY MODELING COGNITIVE PARAMETERS IN COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSES OF BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS : A VALIDATION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M. A.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; van der Palen, Job

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  17. DEALING WITH MISSING BEHAVIORAL ENDPOINTS IN HEALTH PROMOTION RESEARCH BY MODELING COGNITIVE PARAMETERS IN COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSES OF BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS : A VALIDATION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Feenstra, Talitha L; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M A A; van der Palen, Job

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  18. Dealing with missing behavioral endpoints in health promotion research by modeling cognitive parameters in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions: a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, R.; Pieterse, M.E.; Braakman-Jansen, L.M.A.; Feenstra, T.L.; Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; de Vries, H.; van Ommeren, J.K.; Evers, S.M.A.A.; van der Palen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  19. Examination of species boundaries in the Acropora cervicornis group (Scleractinia, cnidaria) using nuclear DNA sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppen, M J; Willis, B L; Vugt, H W; Miller, D J

    2000-09-01

    Although Acropora is the most species-rich genus of the scleractinian (stony) corals, only three species occur in the Caribbean: A. cervicornis, A. palmata and A. prolifera. Based on overall coral morphology, abundance and distribution patterns, it has been suggested that A. prolifera may be a hybrid between A. cervicornis and A. palmata. The species boundaries among these three morphospecies were examined using DNA sequence analyses of the nuclear Pax-C 46/47 intron and the ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) and 5.8S regions. Moderate levels of sequence variability were observed in the ITS and 5.8S sequences (up to 5.2% overall sequence difference), but variability within species was as large as between species and all three species carried similar sequences. Since this is unlikely to represent a shared ancestral polymorphism, the data suggest that introgressive hybridization occurs among the three species. For the Pax-C intron, A. cervicornis and A. palmata had very distinct allele frequencies and A. cervicornis carried a unique allele at a frequency of 0.769 (although sequence differences between alleles were small). All A. prolifera colonies examined were heterozygous for the Pax-C intron, whereas heterozygosity was only 0.286 and 0.333 for A. cervicornis and A. palmata, respectively. These data support the hypothesis that A. prolifera is the product of hybridization between two species that have a different allelic composition for the Pax-C intron, i.e. A. cervicornis and A. palmata. We therefore suggest that A. prolifera is a hybrid between A. cervicornis and A. palmata, which backcrosses with the parental species at low frequency.

  20. Columbite-Group Minerals from New York Pegmatites: Insights from Isotopic and Geochemical Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian V. Lupulescu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Columbite crystals from niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF pegmatites lacking zircon or containing metamict cyrtolite were analyzed for major and minor elements (Electron Microprobe (EMP, trace elements (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, and U-Pb geochronology (Laser AblationMulti-Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS. All four pegmatite localities sampled are hosted by the Proterozoic Fordham gneiss and/or Paleozoic Bedford gneiss (Columbite-(Fe; Kinkel and Baylis localities and the Manhattan Schist of Lower Paleozoic age (Columbite-(Mn; Fort George and Harlem River Drive localities and yield Neoacadian ages. The weighted average U-Pb ages are 372.2 ± 8.2 Ma (Baylis Quarry, 371.3 ± 7.3 and 383.4 ± 8.9 Ma (Kinkel Quarry; 383 ± 15 Ma (185th St. and Harlem River Drive; and 372 ± 10 Ma (Fort George. A partial metamict zircon (“cyrtolite” from the Kinkel Quarry yielded a weighted average U-Pb age of 376.9 ± 4.3 Ma. The Neoacadian ages obtained agree with those determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS for zircon from Lithium-Cesium-Tantalum (LCT pegmatites from Connecticut and Maine. No pegmatites temporally associated with the Taconic orogeny were found. The size, lack of common Pb, uniform U concentrations across crystal cross-sections, sufficient but moderate uranium concentrations, lack of metamictization, and consistency in U-Pb isotopic ratios for columbite samples BCB-COL, NYSM #25232, and NYSM #525.8 suggests they show promise as potential standards for oxide mineral LA-MC-ICP-MS geochronological analyses, however, additional characterization using ID-TIMS would be necessary to develop as such.

  1. Morphological and glucose metabolism abnormalities in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome: group comparisons and individual analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Pitel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gray matter volume studies have been limited to few brain regions of interest, and white matter and glucose metabolism have received limited research attention in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS. Because of the lack of brain biomarkers, KS was found to be underdiagnosed in postmortem studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine consecutively selected patients with KS and 22 matched controls underwent both structural magnetic resonance imaging and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography examinations. Using a whole-brain analysis, the between-group comparisons of gray matter and white matter density and relative glucose uptake between patients with KS and controls showed the involvement of both the frontocerebellar and the Papez circuits, including morphological abnormalities in their nodes and connection tracts and probably resulting hypometabolism. The direct comparison of the regional distribution and degree of gray matter hypodensity and hypometabolism within the KS group indicated very consistent gray matter distribution of both abnormalities, with a single area of significant difference in the middle cingulate cortex showing greater hypometabolism than hypodensity. Finally, the analysis of the variability in the individual patterns of brain abnormalities within our sample of KS patients revealed that the middle cingulate cortex was the only brain region showing significant GM hypodensity and hypometabolism in each of our 9 KS patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate widespread brain abnormalities in KS including both gray and white matter damage mainly involving two brain networks, namely, the fronto-cerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the middle cingulate cortex may play a key role in the pathophysiology of KS and could be considered as a potential in vivo brain biomarker.

  2. Autonomous and controlled motivational regulations for multiple health-related behaviors: between- and within-participants analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, M.S.; Hardcastle, S.J.; Chater, A.; Mallett, C.; Pal, S.; Chatzisarantis, N.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory has been applied to the prediction of a number of health-related behaviors with self-determined or autonomous forms of motivation generally more effective in predicting health behavior than non-self-determined or controlled forms. Research has been confined to examining the motivational predictors in single health behaviors rather than comparing effects across multiple behaviors. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by testing the relative contribution of autonomous and controlling motivation to the prediction of a large number of health-related behaviors, and examining individual differences in self-determined motivation as a moderator of the effects of autonomous and controlling motivation on health behavior. Participants were undergraduate students (N = 140) who completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivational regulations and behavioral intention for 20 health-related behaviors at an initial occasion with follow-up behavioral measures taken four weeks later. Path analysis was used to test a process model for each behavior in which motivational regulations predicted behavior mediated by intentions. Some minor idiosyncratic findings aside, between-participants analyses revealed significant effects for autonomous motivational regulations on intentions and behavior across the 20 behaviors. Effects for controlled motivation on intentions and behavior were relatively modest by comparison. Intentions mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on behavior. Within-participants analyses were used to segregate the sample into individuals who based their intentions on autonomous motivation (autonomy-oriented) and controlled motivation (control-oriented). Replicating the between-participants path analyses for the process model in the autonomy- and control-oriented samples did not alter the relative effects of the motivational orientations on intention and behavior. Results provide evidence for consistent effects

  3. Group analyses of connectivity-based cortical parcellation using repeated k-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanetti, Luca; Cerliani, Leonardo; Gazzola, Valeria; Renken, Remco; Keysers, Christian

    2009-10-01

    K-means clustering has become a popular tool for connectivity-based cortical segmentation using Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) data. A sometimes ignored issue is, however, that the output of the algorithm depends on the initial placement of starting points, and that different sets of starting points therefore could lead to different solutions. In this study we explore this issue. We apply k-means clustering a thousand times to the same DWI dataset collected in 10 individuals to segment two brain regions: the SMA-preSMA on the medial wall, and the insula. At the level of single subjects, we found that in both brain regions, repeatedly applying k-means indeed often leads to a variety of rather different cortical based parcellations. By assessing the similarity and frequency of these different solutions, we show that approximately 256 k-means repetitions are needed to accurately estimate the distribution of possible solutions. Using nonparametric group statistics, we then propose a method to employ the variability of clustering solutions to assess the reliability with which certain voxels can be attributed to a particular cluster. In addition, we show that the proportion of voxels that can be attributed significantly to either cluster in the SMA and preSMA is relatively higher than in the insula and discuss how this difference may relate to differences in the anatomy of these regions.

  4. Long-term video surveillance and automated analyses reveal arousal patterns in groups of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T.S.; Cryan, Paul; Fricker, Paul D.; Dannemiller, Nicholas G.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding natural behaviours is essential to determining how animals deal with new threats (e.g. emerging diseases). However, natural behaviours of animals with cryptic lifestyles, like hibernating bats, are often poorly characterized. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an unprecedented disease threatening multiple species of hibernating bats, and pathogen-induced changes to host behaviour may contribute to mortality. To better understand the behaviours of hibernating bats and how they might relate to WNS, we developed new ways of studying hibernation across entire seasons.We used thermal-imaging video surveillance cameras to observe little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and Indiana bats (M. sodalis) in two caves over multiple winters. We developed new, sharable software to test for autocorrelation and periodicity of arousal signals in recorded video.We processed 740 days (17,760 hr) of video at a rate of >1,000 hr of video imagery in less than 1 hr using a desktop computer with sufficient resolution to detect increases in arousals during midwinter in both species and clear signals of daily arousal periodicity in infected M. sodalis.Our unexpected finding of periodic synchronous group arousals in hibernating bats demonstrate the potential for video methods and suggest some bats may have innate behavioural strategies for coping with WNS. Surveillance video and accessible analysis software make it now practical to investigate long-term behaviours of hibernating bats and other hard-to-study animals.

  5. Preterm Birth Associated With Group B Streptococcus Maternal Colonization Worldwide: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Jassir, Fiorella; Seale, Anna C; Kohli-Lynch, Maya; Lawn, Joy E; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Heath, Paul T; Ip, Margaret; Le Doare, Kirsty; Madhi, Shabir A; Saha, Samir K; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Rubens, Craig E

    2017-11-06

    Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of deaths among children birth in order to inform estimates of the burden of GBS. We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data from investigator groups on the association of preterm birth (birth with maternal GBS colonization to be 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], .99-1.48; P = .061) in cohort and cross-sectional studies, and the odds ratio to be 1.85 (95% CI, 1.24-2.77; P = .003) in case-control studies. Preterm birth was associated with GBS bacteriuria in cohort studies (RR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.45-2.69]; P birth is associated with maternal GBS colonization, especially where there is evidence of ascending infection (bacteriuria). Several biases reduce the chance of detecting an effect. Equally, however, results, including evidence for the association, may be due to confounding, which is rarely addressed in studies. Assessment of any effect on preterm delivery should be included in future maternal GBS vaccine trials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Between-Groups Study Designs Demand Between-Groups Analyses: A Response to Hernandez-Reif, Shor-Posner, Baez, Soto, Mendoza, Castillo, Quintero, Perez, and Zhang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Moyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent massage therapy (MT study by Hernandez-Reif et al. displays flaws persistent in this area of research that are attributable to MT researchers’ frequent mistake of using within-group analyses of dependent variables in studies that are purported to be randomized control trials. This practise violates the logic of using randomization to create treatment and control groups, and thereby fails to control for the validity threats of spontaneous remission, placebo effects, and statistical regression. The result is that a clear understanding of what MT can and cannot do is seriously hampered.

  7. The development of collective personality: the ontogenetic drivers of behavioral variation across groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Bengston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, the study of personality has become a topic on the frontier of behavioral ecology. However, most studies have focused on exploring inter-individual behavioral variation in solitary animals, and few account for the role that social interactions may have on the development of an individual’s personality. Moreover, a social group may exhibit collective personality: an emergent behavioral phenotype displayed at the group-level, which is not necessarily the sum or average of individual personalities within that group. The social environment, in many cases, can determine group success, which then influences the relative success of all the individuals in that group. In addition, group-level personality may itself evolve, subject to the same selection pressures as individual-level behavioral variation, when the group is a unit under selection. Therefore, we reason that understanding how collective personalities emerge and change over time will be imperative to understanding individual- and group-level behavioral evolution.Personality is considered to be fixed over an individual’s lifetime. However, behavior may shift throughout development, particularly during adolescence. Therefore, juvenile behavior should not be compared with adult behavior when assessing personality. Similarly, as conditions within a group and/or the local environment can shift, group behavior may similarly fluctuate as it matures. We discuss potential within-group factors, such as group initiation, group maturation, genetic make-up of the group, and the internal social environment, and external factors, such as well as how local environment may play a role in generating group-level personalities. There are a variety of studies that explore group development or quantify group personality, but few that integrate both processes. Therefore, we conclude by discussing potential ways to evaluate development of collective personality, and propose several focal

  8. Code package to analyse behavior of the WWER fuel rods in normal operation: TOPRA's code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheglov, A.; Proselkov, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the code package intended for analysis of WWER fuel rod characteristics. The package includes two computer codes: TOPRA-1 and TOPRA-2 for full-scale fuel rod analyses; MRZ and MKK codes for analyzing the separate sections of fuel rods in r-z and r-j geometry. The TOPRA's codes are developed on the base of PIN-mod2 version and verified against experimental results obtained in MR, MIR and Halden research reactors (in the framework of SOFIT, FGR-2 and FUMEX experimental programs). Comparative analysis of calculation results and results from post-reactor examination of the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 fuel rod are also made as additional verification of these codes. To avoid the enlarging of uncertainties in fuel behavior prediction as a result of simplifying of the fuel geometry, MKK and MRZ codes are developed on the basis of the finite element method with use of the three nodal finite elements. Results obtained in the course of the code verification indicate the possibility for application of the method and TOPRA's code for simplified engineering calculations of WWER fuel rods thermal-physical parameters. An analysis of maximum relative errors for predicting of the fuel rod characteristics in the range of the accepted parameter values is also presented in the paper

  9. A Model for Behavioral Management and Relationship Training for Parents in Groups,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior, Human relations, *Training, *Families(Human), Symposia, Models, Children, Psychotherapy, Problem solving, Management, Control, Learning, Skills, Decision making , Group dynamics, Military psychology, Military medicine

  10. Behavioral responses in structured populations pave the way to group optimality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    An unresolved controversy regarding social behaviors is exemplified when natural selection might lead to behaviors that maximize fitness at the social-group level but are costly at the individual level. Except for the special case of groups of clones, we do not have a general understanding of how and when group-optimal behaviors evolve, especially when the behaviors in question are flexible. To address this question, we develop a general model that integrates behavioral plasticity in social interactions with the action of natural selection in structured populations. We find that group-optimal behaviors can evolve, even without clonal groups, if individuals exhibit appropriate behavioral responses to each other's actions. The evolution of such behavioral responses, in turn, is predicated on the nature of the proximate behavioral mechanisms. We model a particular class of proximate mechanisms, prosocial preferences, and find that such preferences evolve to sustain maximum group benefit under certain levels of relatedness and certain ecological conditions. Thus, our model demonstrates the fundamental interplay between behavioral responses and relatedness in determining the course of social evolution. We also highlight the crucial role of proximate mechanisms such as prosocial preferences in the evolution of behavioral responses and in facilitating evolutionary transitions in individuality.

  11. Behavioral and biological interactions with small groups in confined microsocieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, J. V.; Emurian, H. H.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements for high levels of human performance in the unfamiliar and stressful environments associated with space missions necessitate the development of research-based technological procedures for maximizing the probability of effective functioning at all levels of personnel participation. Where the successful accomplishment of such missions requires the coordinated contributions of several individuals collectively identified with the achievement of a common objective, the conditions for characterizing a team, crew, or functional group are operationally defined. For the most part, studies of group performances under operational conditions which emphasize relatively long exposure to extended mission environments have been limited by the constraints imposed on experimental manipulations to identify critical effectiveness factors. On the other hand, laboratory studies involving relatively brief exposures to contrived task situations have been considered of questionable generality to operational settings requiring realistic group objectives.

  12. Effects of an Interdependent Group Contingency on the Transition Behavior of Middle School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Haydon, Todd; McCoy, Dacia; Howard, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components to improve the transition behavior of middle school students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) served in an alternative educational setting. The intervention was implemented by one teacher with three…

  13. Group Adlerian Play Therapy with Children with Off-Task Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meany-Walen, Kristin K.; Bullis, Quinn; Kottman, Terry; Dillman Taylor, Dalena

    2015-01-01

    Children who are off-task in schools struggle with completing their work and engage in disruptive behaviors. Without intervention, these behaviors tend to worsen, putting them at risk for more serious, ongoing problems throughout life. Group counseling provides opportunities for people to practice socially useful behaviors. Using a single case…

  14. Behavior Bingo: The Effects of a Culturally Relevant Group Contingency Intervention for Students with EBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tai A.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Flowers, Emily M.; Kalra, Hilary D.; Richard, Jessie; Haas, Lauren E.

    2018-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have difficulty with academic engagement during independent seatwork tasks. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Behavior Bingo, a novel interdependent group contingency intervention, on the academic engagement, off-task, and disruptive behavior of students with…

  15. The role of cognition in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Pieterse, Marcel E.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Seydel, E.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Behavioral interventions typically focus on objective behavioral endpoints like weight loss and smoking cessation. In reality, though, achieving full behavior change is a complex process in which several steps towards success are taken. Any progress in this process may also be considered

  16. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-05-01

    Consistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) and Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline (Ox-GSK) consortia to follow up the 15 most significant regions (n > 140,000). We identified three loci associated with number of cigarettes smoked per day. The strongest association was a synonymous 15q25 SNP in the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA3 (rs1051730[A], beta = 1.03, standard error (s.e.) = 0.053, P = 2.8 x 10(-73)). Two 10q25 SNPs (rs1329650[G], beta = 0.367, s.e. = 0.059, P = 5.7 x 10(-10); and rs1028936[A], beta = 0.446, s.e. = 0.074, P = 1.3 x 10(-9)) and one 9q13 SNP in EGLN2 (rs3733829[G], beta = 0.333, s.e. = 0.058, P = 1.0 x 10(-8)) also exceeded genome-wide significance for cigarettes per day. For smoking initiation, eight SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance, with the strongest association at a nonsynonymous SNP in BDNF on chromosome 11 (rs6265[C], odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.04-1.08, P = 1.8 x 10(-8)). One SNP located near DBH on chromosome 9 (rs3025343[G], OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.08-1.18, P = 3.6 x 10(-8)) was significantly associated with smoking cessation.

  17. Study on mixing behavior in a tee piping and numerical analyses for evaluation of thermal striping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, H.; Igarashi, M.; Kawashima, S.; Kimura, N.; Hayashi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Water experiments were carried out for thermal hydraulic aspects of thermal striping in a mixing tee, which has main to branch diameter ratio of 3. Detailed temperature and velocity fields were measured by a movable thermocouple tree and particle image velocimetry. Flow patterns in the tee were classified into three groups; wall jet, deflecting jet, and impinging jet, which had their own temperature fluctuation profiles, depending on a momentum ratio between the main and branch pipes. Non-dimensional power spectrum density (PSD) of temperature fluctuation showed a unique profile, when the momentum ratio was identical. Numerical simulation based on finite difference method showed alternative vortex development, like Karman vortex series, behind the jet from the branch pipe in the wall jet case. The prominent frequency of the temperature fluctuation in the calculation was 0.2 of St number based on the branch pipe diameter and in good agreement with the experimental results. Mixing behavior in the tee was characterized by the relatively large vortex structures defined by the diameters and the velocities in the pipes

  18. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abollahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12. The experimental group was participated in eight sessions of cognitive behavior therapy, while the control group received no intervention. Research tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index that completed by both participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the performance of cognitive behavioral therapy may improve symptoms and reduce the severity of insomnia in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective on symptoms of insomnia in students.

  19. Issues Related to the Frequency of Exploratory Analyses by Evidence Review Groups in the NICE Single Technology Appraisal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenthaler, Eva; Carroll, Christopher; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Scope, Alison; Holmes, Michael; Rice, Stephen; Rose, Micah; Tappenden, Paul; Woolacott, Nerys

    2017-06-01

    Evidence Review Groups (ERGs) critically appraise company submissions as part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process. As part of their critique of the evidence submitted by companies, the ERGs undertake exploratory analyses to explore uncertainties in the company's model. The aim of this study was to explore pre-defined factors that might influence or predict the extent of ERG exploratory analyses. The aim of this study was to explore predefined factors that might influence or predict the extent of ERG exploratory analyses. We undertook content analysis of over 400 documents, including ERG reports and related documentation for the 100 most recent STAs (2009-2014) for which guidance has been published. Relevant data were extracted from the documents and narrative synthesis was used to summarise the extracted data. All data were extracted and checked by two researchers. Forty different companies submitted documents as part of the NICE STA process. The most common disease area covered by the STAs was cancer (44%), and most ERG reports (n = 93) contained at least one exploratory analysis. The incidence and frequency of ERG exploratory analyses does not appear to be related to any developments in the appraisal process, the disease area covered by the STA, or the company's base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). However, there does appear to be a pattern in the mean number of analyses conducted by particular ERGs, but the reasons for this are unclear and potentially complex. No clear patterns were identified regarding the presence or frequency of exploratory analyses, apart from the mean number conducted by individual ERGs. More research is needed to understand this relationship.

  20. Descriptive analysis of the verbal behavior of a therapist: a known-group validity analysis of the putative behavioral functions involved in clinical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Montaño-Fidalgo, Montserrat; Froján-Parga, María Xesús; Calero-Elvira, Ana

    2011-12-01

    This study analyzes the interobserver agreement and hypothesis-based known-group validity of the Therapist's Verbal Behavior Category System (SISC-INTER). The SISC-INTER is a behavioral observation protocol comprised of a set of verbal categories representing putative behavioral functions of the in-session verbal behavior of a therapist (e.g., discriminative, reinforcing, punishing, and motivational operations). The complete therapeutic process of a clinical case of an individual with marital problems was recorded (10 sessions, 8 hours), and data were arranged in a temporal sequence using 10-min periods. Hypotheses based on the expected performance of the putative behavioral functions portrayed by the SISC-INTER codes across prevalent clinical activities (i.e., assessing, explaining, Socratic method, providing clinical guidance) were tested using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Known-group validity analyses provided support to all hypotheses. The SISC-INTER may be a useful tool to describe therapist-client interaction in operant terms. The utility of reliable and valid protocols for the descriptive analysis of clinical practice in terms of verbal behavior is discussed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Angstman, Nicholas B.; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plate...

  2. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  3. Task Type and Group Motivation: Implications for a Behavioral Approach to Leadership in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Van M.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a theory of leadership effectiveness in small discussion/decision making groups developed to facilitate discussion and goal efficacy. Develops four leadership styles (coordinator, inventor, enthusiast, and director) focusing on two critical questions the leader must address. Discusses implications of the model for leadership training and…

  4. Development of a fine and ultra-fine group cell calculation code SLAROM-UF for fast reactor analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, Taira; Chiba, Go; Sugino, Kazuteru

    2006-01-01

    A cell calculation code SLAROM-UF has been developed for fast reactor analyses to produce effective cross sections with high accuracy in practical computing time, taking full advantage of fine and ultra-fine group calculation schemes. The fine group calculation covers the whole energy range in a maximum of 900-group structure. The structure is finer above 52.5 keV with a minimum lethargy width of 0.008. The ultra-fine group calculation solves the slowing down equation below 52.5 keV to treat resonance structures directly and precisely including resonance interference effects. Effective cross sections obtained in the two calculations are combined to produce effective cross sections over the entire energy range. Calculation accuracy and improvements from conventional 70-group cell calculation results were investigated through comparisons with reference values obtained with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. It was confirmed that SLAROM-UF reduces the difference in k-infinity from 0.15 to 0.01% for a JOYO MK-I fuel subassembly lattice cell calculation, and from - 0.21% to less than a statistical uncertainty of the reference calculation of 0.03% for a ZPPR-10A core criticality calculation. (author)

  5. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kacar Basaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met the criteria were introduced in terms of method, therapy characteristics and results. The results of the studies showed that cognitive behavioral group therapies have similar efficacy with individual cognitive behavioral therapy on panic disorder symptoms (panic attacks frequency, the level of agoraphobia etc. and comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety sensitivity. However, cognitive behavioral group therapy is more cost-effective. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 79-94

  6. Limitations of Species Delimitation Based on Phylogenetic Analyses: A Case Study in the Hypogymnia hypotrypa Group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Wei

    Full Text Available Delimiting species boundaries among closely related lineages often requires a range of independent data sets and analytical approaches. Similar to other organismal groups, robust species circumscriptions in fungi are increasingly investigated within an empirical framework. Here we attempt to delimit species boundaries in a closely related clade of lichen-forming fungi endemic to Asia, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group (Parmeliaceae. In the current classification, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group includes two species: H. hypotrypa and H. flavida, which are separated based on distinctive reproductive modes, the former producing soredia but absent in the latter. We reexamined the relationship between these two species using phenotypic characters and molecular sequence data (ITS, GPD, and MCM7 sequences to address species boundaries in this group. In addition to morphological investigations, we used Bayesian clustering to identify potential genetic groups in the H. hypotrypa/H. flavida clade. We also used a variety of empirical, sequence-based species delimitation approaches, including: the "Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery" (ABGD, the Poisson tree process model (PTP, the General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC, and the multispecies coalescent approach BPP. Different species delimitation scenarios were compared using Bayes factors delimitation analysis, in addition to comparisons of pairwise genetic distances, pairwise fixation indices (FST. The majority of the species delimitation analyses implemented in this study failed to support H. hypotrypa and H. flavida as distinct lineages, as did the Bayesian clustering analysis. However, strong support for the evolutionary independence of H. hypotrypa and H. flavida was inferred using BPP and further supported by Bayes factor delimitation. In spite of rigorous morphological comparisons and a wide range of sequence-based approaches to delimit species, species boundaries in the H. hypotrypa group remain uncertain

  7. Photoacidic and Photobasic Behavior of Transition Metal Compounds with Carboxylic Acid Group(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Donnell, Ryan M. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States; Sampaio, Renato N. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States; Li, Guocan [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States; Johansson, Patrik G. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States; Ward, Cassandra L. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States; Meyer, Gerald J. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States

    2016-03-10

    Excited state proton transfer studies of six Ru polypyridyl compounds with carboxylic acid/carboxylate group(s) revealed that some were photoacids and some were photobases. The compounds [RuII(btfmb)2(LL)]2+, [RuII(dtb)2(LL)]2+, and [RuII(bpy)2(LL)]2+, where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, btfmb is 4,4'-(CF3)2-bpy, and dtb is 4,4'-((CH3)3C)2-bpy, and LL is either dcb = 4,4'-(CO2H)2-bpy or mcb = 4-(CO2H),4'-(CO2Et)-2,2'-bpy, were synthesized and characterized. The compounds exhibited intense metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorption bands in the visible region and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) with long τ > 100 ns excited state lifetimes. The mcb compounds had very similar ground state pKa’s of 2.31 ± 0.07, and their characterization enabled accurate determination of the two pKa values for the commonly utilized dcb ligand, pKa1 = 2.1 ± 0.1 and pKa2 = 3.0 ± 0.2. Compounds with the btfmb ligand were photoacidic, and the other compounds were photobasic. Transient absorption spectra indicated that btfmb compounds displayed a [RuIII(btfmb–)L2]2+* localized excited state and a [RuIII(dcb–)L2]2+* formulation for all the other excited states. Time dependent PL spectral shifts provided the first kinetic data for excited state proton transfer in a transition metal compound. PL titrations, thermochemical cycles, and kinetic analysis (for the mcb compounds) provided self-consistent pKa* values. The ability to make a single ionizable group photobasic or photoacidic through ligand design was unprecedented and was understood based on the orientation of the lowest-lying MLCT excited state dipole relative to the ligand that contained the carboxylic acid group(s).

  8. Group-Wise Herding Behavior in Financial Markets: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Kim, Minki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we shed light on the dynamic characteristics of rational group behaviors and the relationship between monetary policy and economic units in the financial market by using an agent-based model (ABM), the Hurst exponent, and the Shannon entropy. First, an agent-based model is used to analyze the characteristics of the group behaviors at different levels of irrationality. Second, the Hurst exponent is applied to analyze the characteristics of the trend-following irrationality group. Third, the Shannon entropy is used to analyze the randomness and unpredictability of group behavior. We show that in a system that focuses on macro-monetary policy, steep fluctuations occur, meaning that the medium-level irrationality group has the highest Hurst exponent and Shannon entropy among all of the groups. However, in a system that focuses on micro-monetary policy, all group behaviors follow a stable trend, and the medium irrationality group thus remains stable, too. Likewise, in a system that focuses on both micro- and macro-monetary policies, all groups tend to be stable. Consequently, we find that group behavior varies across economic units at each irrationality level for micro- and macro-monetary policy in the financial market. Together, these findings offer key insights into monetary policy. PMID:24714635

  9. Meta-analyses on behavioral interventions to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergidis, Paschalis I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2009-06-01

    Different behavioral interventions have found to be efficacious in reducing high-risk sexual activity. Interventions have been evaluated in both original research and meta-analytic reviews. Most of the studies have shown that interventions are efficacious among different study populations. In adolescents, both in- and out-of-the classroom interventions showed a decrease in the risk of unprotected sex. In African Americans, greater efficacy was found for interventions including peer education. For Latinos, effect was larger in interventions with segmentation in the same gender. Geographic and social isolation are barriers in approaching MSM. For IDUs, interventions provided within a treatment program have an impact on risk reduction above that produced by drug treatment alone. Finally, people diagnosed with HIV tend to reduce their sexual risk behavior. However, adherence to safe sex practices for life can be challenging. Relentless efforts for implementation of behavioral interventions to decrease high-risk behavior are necessary to decrease HIV transmission.

  10. The Type and Impact of Evidence Review Group Exploratory Analyses in the NICE Single Technology Appraisal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Scope, Alison; Holmes, Michael; Rice, Stephen; Rose, Micah; Tappenden, Paul; Woolacott, Nerys

    2017-06-01

    As part of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, independent evidence review groups (ERGs) critically appraise a company's submission relating to a specific technology and indication. To explore the type of additional exploratory analyses conducted by ERGs and their impact on the recommendations made by NICE. The 100 most recently completed single technology appraisals with published guidance were selected for inclusion. A content analysis of relevant documents was undertaken to identify and extract relevant data, and narrative synthesis was used to rationalize and present these data. The types of exploratory analysis conducted in relation to companies' models were fixing errors, addressing violations, addressing matters of judgment, and the provision of a new, ERG-preferred base case. Ninety-three of the 100 ERG reports contained at least one of these analyses. The most frequently reported type of analysis in these 93 ERG reports related to the category "Matters of judgment," which was reported in 83 reports (89%). At least one of the exploratory analyses conducted and reported by an ERG is mentioned in 97% of NICE appraisal consultation documents and 94% of NICE final appraisal determinations, and had a clear influence on recommendations in 72% of appraisal consultation documents and 47% of final appraisal determinations. These results suggest that the additional analyses undertaken by ERGs in the appraisal of company submissions are highly influential in the policy-making and decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ABOLISHING AND ESTABLISHING OPERATION ANALYSES OF SOCIAL ATTENTION AS POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT FOR PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    McGinnis, Molly A; Houchins-Juárez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L; Kennedy, Craig H

    2010-01-01

    Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition of an analogue functional analysis. The results showed establishing operation conditions increased problem behavior during tests and that abolishin...

  12. An Evaluation of a Behaviorally Based Social Skills Group for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Milne, Christine; Taubman, Mitchell; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty; Torres, Norma; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Yoder, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In this study we evaluated a social skills group which employed a progressive applied behavior analysis model for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A randomized control trial was utilized; eight participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group and seven participants were randomly assigned to a waitlist control group. The…

  13. Understanding the Role of Behavior and Cognitions in a Group Exercise Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Shrigley, Tina L.; Dawson, Kimberley A.

    2004-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study examined whether individuals with different exercise behaviors (classified by attendance) experienced different or similar cognitive patterns. It was hypothesized that different behavior would lead to different cognitive appraisals. It was predicted that there would be a difference between the three behavioral frequency groups with regard to self-efficacy measures and goal measures. The second purpose of the study was to describe, evaluate and observe wh...

  14. PERILAKU PROSOSIAL (PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR) ANAK USIA DINI DAN PENGELOLAAN KELAS MELALUI PENGELOMPOKAN USIA RANGKAP (MULTIAGE GROUPING)

    OpenAIRE

    Elvrida Sandra Matondang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The aspect of moral development is of great concern of early childhood caregivers. Moral development, which is now better known as prosocial behaviors include behaviors such as empathy, generosity, cooperation, caring, and many more. Various attempts to build prosocial behavior has been carried out in kindergarten, including in one of international preschools  in Bandung that management class is using the multiage grouping.  According to this phenomenon which needed to be achieved, ...

  15. Tailoring surface groups of carbon quantum dots to improve photoluminescence behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ruixue; Hu, Shengliang; Wu, Lingling; Chang, Qing; Yang, Jinlong; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a facile and green method to tailor surface groups. • Photoluminescence behaviors of carbon quantum dots are improved by tailoring their surface groups. • Highly luminescent efficiency is produced by amino-hydrothermal treatment of reduced carbon quantum dots. - Abstract: A facile and green method to tailor surface groups of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is developed by hydrothermal treatment in an autoclave. The photoluminescence (PL) behaviors of CQDs depend on the types of surface groups. Highly efficient photoluminescence is obtained through amino-hydrothermal treatment of the CQDs reduced by NaBH 4 . The effects of surface groups on PL behavior are attributed to the degrees of energy band bending induced by surface groups

  16. Behavioral analyses of wind-evoked escape of the cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Masamichi; Konishi, Atsuko; Suenaga, Rie

    2006-04-01

    The wind-evoked escape behavior of the cricket Gryllodes sigillatus was investigated using an air puff stimulus. A high velocity air puff elicited the escape behavior in many crickets. The crickets tended to escape away from the stimulus source, but the direction was not accurately oriented 180 degrees from the stimulus. After bilateral cercal ablation, only a few crickets showed wind-evoked escape behavior, and their response rates did not increase even 19 days after ablation. Therefore, information on air motion detected by cercal filiform hairs is essential for triggering wind-evoked behavior. After unilateral cercal ablation, the 81.3% response rate of intact crickets decreased to 16.5%, that is, it decreased to almost 20% that of intact crickets. One week after unilateral cercal ablation, the response rate recovered to more than 60% that of intact crickets. However, the accuracy rate of the escape direction of G. sigillatus showed no change even immediately after the unilateral cercal ablation. Therefore, both cerci are not necessarily required to determine the escape direction. The behavioral characteristics of wind-evoked escape of G. sigillatus are compared with those of another species of cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. The two species of cricket employ different strategies for wind-evoked escape.

  17. Power and status within small groups: An analysis of students' verbal and nonverbal behavior and responses to one another

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lynnae Carol

    The purpose of this research has been to determine the influence of verbal and nonverbal behavior on power and status within small groups. The interactions which took place within five small groups of students in a middle school spatial reasoning elective were analyzed. Verbal responses to requests for help were analyzed using sequential analysis techniques. Results indicated that the identity of the student asking a question or requesting help in some form or another is a better predictor of whether he/she will receive help than the type of questions he/she asks. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed for social gestures, body language, and shifts in possession of tools. Each nonverbal act was coded as either "positive" (encouraging participation) or "negative" (discouraging participation); and, the researchers found that in groups in which there was unequal participation and less "help" provided among peers (according to the verbal analysis results) there tended to be more "negative" nonverbal behavior demonstrated than in groups in which "shared talk time" and "helping behavior" were common characteristics of the norm. The combined results from the analyses of the verbal and nonverbal behavior of students within small groups were then reviewed through the conflict, power, status perspective of small group interactions in order to determine some common characteristics of high functioning (collaborative) and low functioning (non-collaborative) groups. Some common characteristics of the higher functioning groups include: few instances of conflict, shared "talk time" and decision making, inclusive leadership, frequent use of encouraging social gestures and body language, and more sharing of tools than seizing. Some shared traits among the lower functioning groups include: frequent occurrences of interpersonal conflict, a focus on process (rather than content), persuasive or alienating leadership, unequal participation and power, frequent use of discouraging social gestures

  18. Developing an Integrative Play Therapy Group Model for Middle School Male Students to Address Bullying Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jakarla

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the systematic process of developing an integrative play therapy group model for middle school male students, ages 11-15 who participate in bullying behaviors. Play therapy approaches and evidence-based practices are documented as effective measures for addressing bullying behaviors with children and adolescents. This group…

  19. Understanding Disproportionate Representation in Special Education by Examining Group Differences in Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christina D.; Kranzler, John H.; Algina, James; Smith, Stephen W.; Daunic, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine mean-group differences on behavior rating scales and variables that may predict such differences. Sixty-five teachers completed the Clinical Assessment of Behavior-Teacher Form (CAB-T) for a sample of 982 students. Four outcome variables from the CAB-T were assessed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used…

  20. Dominance and its behavioral measures in a captive group of bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaecke, H; de Vries, Han; van Elsacker, L

    We investigated the existence of a social dominance hierarchy in the captive group of six adult bonobos at the Planckendael Zoo. We quantified the pattern of dyadic exchange of a number of behaviors to examine to what extent each behavior fits a linear rank order model. Following de Waal (1989), we

  1. Job search and the theory of planned behavior: Minority – majority group differences in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe labor market in many Western countries increasingly diversifies. However, little is known about job search behavior of 'non-traditional' applicants such as ethnic minorities. This study investigated minority – majority group differences in the predictors of job search behavior, using

  2. An Evaluation of a Behaviorally Based Social Skills Group for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B; Leaf, Jeremy A; Milne, Christine; Taubman, Mitchell; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty; Torres, Norma; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Yoder, Paul

    2017-02-01

    In this study we evaluated a social skills group which employed a progressive applied behavior analysis model for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A randomized control trial was utilized; eight participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group and seven participants were randomly assigned to a waitlist control group. The social skills group consisted of 32, 2 h sessions. Teachers implemented a variety of behaviorally based procedures. A blind evaluator measured participants' behavior immediately prior to intervention, immediately following intervention, and during 16 and 32-week maintenance probes. Results of the study demonstrated that participants made significant improvements with their social behavior (p < .001) following intervention, and the results were maintained up to 32 weeks after intervention had concluded.

  3. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Self-Concept of Visually Impaired Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Yaghotian

    2016-03-01

    Discussion: Cognitive-behavioral group counseling sessions can improve the self-concept of visually impaired adolescents. Moreover, positive self-concept will increase their social interaction and mental health.

  4. Quantity of Group Child Care, Behavior Problems, and Prosocial Behaviors: A Study with Portuguese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Nuno; Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Monteiro, Ligia; Figueiredo, Mafalda; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Data from a national sample of Portuguese preschool centers were used to examine the relationship between age of start and number of hours in child care and levels of externalizing and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were both parents and teachers of 543 children (mean age = 4.5 years, 50.6% girls). Children started…

  5. São paulo judo team: study of competitive behavior tendency between athlets of differents groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Serassuelo Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to identify the competitive behavior tendency of Judo players according to personal tendencies of competing, winning and setting goals. The samples were separated by circumstantially being part (n=15 or not (n=37 of São Paulo State Team, in two different groups, A and B specifi cally, from different social background and between 14 and 21 years old. The evaluation tools were: Evaluation System ACS – 2 to collect information about competitive tendency; and a second one to obtain Sportive and Personal information about age, practice time and performance level. The Spearman Coeffi cient was used to analyze the intra-group relations between qualitative variables (tendencies of winning, competing and setting goals, and quantitative variables (age, practice time, performance level. The Q-Square was used to analyze the qualitative variables between groups and the test t for the quantitative variables. The results showed that there are signifi cant differences in the variables involved in this study between groups A and B, except for competing tendencies. In conclusion, no differences had been found between qualitative and quantitative variables, in the intra-group analyses but in inter-groups analyses there are signifi cant differences that showed the athletes with more age, practice time and performance level obtain best scores for the competitive tendencies analyzed, these elements can indicate possibilities to reach best results in sport competitions. The Evaluation System ACS – 2 was shown as a good and effi cient model to identify the different competitive behavior tendencies employed by male Judo players. RESUMO O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal identifi car as tendências de comportamento competitivo de atletas masculinos de Judô, em relação às suas tendências pessoais em vencer, competir e estabelecer metas. Os dados foram coletados, utilizando o Sistema de Avaliação ACS – 2 e o

  6. Group treatment for trichotillomania: cognitive-behavioral therapy versus supportive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Edson Luiz; De Togni Muniz, Enilde; Brito, Antônio Marcelo Cabrita; de Abreu, Cristiano Nabuco; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-04-01

    Trichotillomania is a psychiatric condition characterized by the chronic pulling and plucking of one's own hair. Cognitive-behavioral therapy shows promise as a treatment for trichotillomania and might be preferable to pharmacotherapy. However, there have been no randomized, controlled studies of the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We evaluated 44 subjects, recruited from April 2009 to May 2010, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of trichotillomania. Subjects were randomized to receive 22 sessions of either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group supportive therapy (control). Treatment evaluation was non-blind and used self-report scales. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of hair-plucking behavior as assessed by the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale. Secondary measures included scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. Both groups showed significant posttreatment improvement in the scores from the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale (F = 23.762, P behavior over time was significantly greater in the study group than in the control group (F = 3.545, P cognitive-behavioral therapy is a valid treatment for trichotillomania. This treatment model should be further revised and expanded to address comorbidities such as anxiety and social maladjustment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01968343. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  8. Dynamics of adolescent friendship networks and smoking behavior : Social network analyses in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; de Vries, H.

    The co-evolution of adolescents' friendship networks and their smoking behavior is examined in a large sample across six European countries. Selection and influence processes are disentangled using new methods of social network analysis that enable alternative selection mechanisms to be controlled

  9. Abolishing and Establishing Operation Analyses of Social Attention as Positive Reinforcement for Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Molly A.; Houchins-Juarez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2010-01-01

    Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition…

  10. Behavioral and Physiological Neural Network Analyses: A Common Pathway toward Pattern Recognition and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninness, Chris; Lauter, Judy L.; Coffee, Michael; Clary, Logan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Rumph, Marilyn; Rumph, Robin; Kyle, Betty; Ninness, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 3 diversified datasets, we explored the pattern-recognition ability of the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) artificial neural network as applied to diversified nonlinear data distributions in the areas of behavioral and physiological research. Experiment 1 employed a dataset obtained from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. Data for this study…

  11. From intermediate to final behavioral endpoints : Modeling cognitions in (cost-)effectiveness analyses in health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) are considered an increasingly important tool in health promotion and psychology. In health promotion adequate effectiveness data of innovative interventions are often lacking. In case of many promising interventions the available data are inadequate for CEAs due

  12. Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, P M; Ahearne, M; MacKenzie, S B

    1997-04-01

    Despite the widespread interest in the topic of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), little empirical research has tested the fundamental assumption that these forms of behavior improve the effectiveness of work groups or organizations in which they are exhibited. In the present study, the effects of OCBs on the quantity and quality of the performance of 218 people working in 40 machine crews in a paper mill located in the Northeastern United States were examined. The results indicate that helping behavior and sportsmanship had significant effects on performance quantity and that helping behavior had a significant impact on performance quality. However, civic virtue had no effect on either performance measure.

  13. The effect of online chronic disease personas on activation: within-subjects and between-groups analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Catherine Devany; Hessing, Jason; Reed, Becky; Hess, Christopher; Reis, Janet

    2015-02-25

    Although self-management of chronic disease is important, engaging patients and increasing activation for self-care using online tools has proven difficult. Designing more tailored interventions through the application of condition-specific personas may be a way to increase engagement and patient activation. Personas are developed from extensive interviews with patients about their shared values and assumptions about their health. The resulting personas tailor the knowledge and skills necessary for self-care and guide selection of the self-management tools for a particular audience. Pre-post changes in self-reported levels of activation for self-management were analyzed for 11 chronic health personas developed for 4 prevalent chronic diseases. Personas were created from 20 to 25 hour-long nondirected interviews with consumers with a common, chronic disease (eg, diabetes). The interviews were transcribed and coded for behaviors, feelings, and beliefs using the principles of grounded theory. A second group of 398 adults with self-reported chronic disease were recruited for online testing of the personas and their impact on activation. The activation variables, based on an integrated theory of health behavior, were knowledge of a given health issue, perceived self-management skills, confidence in improving health, and intention to take action in managing health. Pre-post changes in activation were analyzed with a mixed design with 1 within-subjects factor (pre-post) and 1 between-group factor (persona) using a general linear model with repeated measures. Sixteen pre-post changes for 4 measures of activation were analyzed. All but 2 of the within-subjects effects were statistically significant and all changes were in the direction of increased activation scores at posttest. Five significant differences between personas were observed, showing which personas performed better. Of low activation participants, 50% or more shifted to high activation across the 4 measures

  14. Comparison of feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2015-05-13

    Group-living animals face intragroup scramble and intergroup contest competitions. Many studies have shown that larger groups bear the costs of intragroup scramble competition, which negatively affects the reproductive success of females. Unlike most primate species, Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest show increased reproductive success with group size. However, it remains unclear how group size affects the behavior of macaques. The present study examined the effects of group size on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest. We investigated 9-13 adult females from two different-sized groups via focal animal sampling during October 2012-August 2013. We compared the feeding behavior, including patch use, between the two groups. The larger group had a larger home range and spent more time feeding, especially on mature leaves. This suggests that intragroup feeding competition should be more intense in the larger group than in the smaller group. The feeding of mature leaves might enable the larger group to increase the number of co-feeding individuals. Contrary to the predictions that the larger group travels longer distances and spends more time moving, the smaller group traveled longer distances, and spent more time moving, although the number of visited patches did not differ between the two groups. The immediate consequences of the loss of inter-group encounters could accumulate as daily travel costs, considering that group size is associated with inter-group dominance and that intergroup aggressive encounters occur frequently in the Yakushima coastal forest. This suggests that the smaller group has increased travel costs as a result of intergroup contest competition, which leads to decline in reproductive success. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Parental Smoking and Adult Offspring's Smoking Behaviors in Ethnic Minority Groups: An Intergenerational Analysis in the HELIUS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; Derks, Eske M; Peters, Ron J G; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien

    2017-06-21

    To understand smoking behaviors among ethnic minority groups, studies have largely focused on societal factors, with little attention to family influences. Yet studies among majority groups have identified parental smoking as an important risk factor. It is unknown whether this applies to ethnic minority groups. We investigated the association between parental smoking and adult offspring's smoking behaviors among ethnic minority groups with an immigrant background. We used data from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study from Amsterdam (the Netherlands) from January 2011 to December 2015. The sample consisted of 2184 parent-offspring pairs from South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, and Ghanaian origin. We collected self-reported smoking data: current status, duration of exposure to parental smoking, number of daily cigarettes, heavy smoking ( > 10 cigarettes/day), and nicotine dependency (using the Fagerström Test). Analyses were stratified by offspring's age, cohabitation with parent, education (parent/offspring), offspring's cultural orientation, and gender concordance within pairs. Logistic regression was used. Overall, parental smoking was associated with offspring's smoking behaviors (eg, current smoking: odds ratio 2.33; 95% confidence interval 1.79-3.03), with little ethnic variation. We found dose-response associations between exposure to parental smoking and offspring's smoking. The associations were similar across different strata but stronger in gender-concordant pairs (3.16; 2.12-4.51 vs. 1.73; 1.15-2.59 in gender-discordant pairs; p-value for interaction .017). Parental smoking is associated with offspring's smoking behaviors in ethnic minority groups across different strata but particularly in gender-concordant pairs. Similar to majority groups, family influences matter to smoking behaviors in ethnic minority groups. Our findings have deepened our understanding of smoking behaviors among ethnic minority groups. Future

  16. Analyses of CsI aerosol deposition in aerosol behavior tests in WIND project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Tamotsu; Shibazaki, Hiroaki; Hidaka, Akihide

    1999-01-01

    The aerosol deposition tests have been performed in WIND project at JAERI to characterize the aerosol behavior. The aerosol deposition tests named WAV1-D and WAV2-D were analyzed by aerosol behavior analysis codes, JAERI's ART and SNL's VICTORIA. The comparison calculation was performed for the confirmation of the analytical capabilities of the both codes and improvement of the models in ART. The deposition mass calculated by ART was larger than that by VICTORIA. This discrepancy is caused by differences in model for FP vapor condensation onto the wall surface. In the WAV2-D test, in which boric acid was placed on the floor area of the test section prior to the deposition phase to simulate the PWR primary coolant, there was a discrepancy in deposition mass between analytical results in both codes and experimental results. The discrepancy may be caused by existence of boric acid which is not considered in the codes. (author)

  17. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyun Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors.

  18. Quantitative analyses of the behavior of exogenously added bacteria during an acidulocomposting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Takatoshi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Hemmi, Hisashi; Yoshinari, Ayaka; Shimoyama, Takefumi; Nakayama, Toru; Nishino, Tokuzo

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of adventitious bacteria during an acidulocomposting process was quantitatively analyzed in garbage-free trials. The numbers of the added Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida cells diminished in a first-order manner with t(1/2) values of 0.45d and 0.79d, respectively, consistent with the observed stability of the acidulocomposting function. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The enhanced spin-polarized transport behaviors through cobalt benzene-porphyrin-benzene molecular junctions: the effect of functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jue-Fei; Zhou, Liping; Wen, Zhongqian; Yan, Qiang; Han, Qin; Gao, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The modification effects of the groups amino (NH2) and nitro (NO2) on the spin polarized transport properties of the cobalt benzene-porphyrin-benzene (Co-BPB) molecule coupled to gold (Au) nanowire electrodes are investigated by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combined with the density functional theory. The calculation results show that functional groups can lead to the significant spin-filter effect, enhanced low-bias negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior and novel reverse rectifying effect in Co-BPB molecular junction. The locations and types of functional groups have distinct influences on spin-polarized transport performances. The configuration with NH2 group substituting H atom in central porphyrin ring has larger spin-down current compared to that with NO2 substitution. And Co-BPB molecule junction with NH2 group substituting H atom in side benzene ring shows reverse rectifying effect. Detailed analyses confirm that NH2 and NO2 group substitution change the spin-polarized transferred charge, which makes the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) of spin-down channel of Co-BPB closer to the Fermi level. And the shift of HOMO strengthens the spin-polarized coupling between the molecular orbitals and the electrodes, leading to the enhanced spin-polarized behavior. Our findings might be useful in the design of multi-functional molecular devices in the future.

  20. The influence of friendship groups and media on eating behavior and physical activity in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof Rinie Geenen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of overweight and obesity results from individual factors and from meso- and macro environmental factors. Adolescents are especially vulnerable to unhealthy changes in life style. One major influence on health behavior in this age group is represented by friends in peer groups.

  1. Implementing Self-Management within a Group Counseling Context: Effects on Academic Enabling Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesch DuBois, Jacquelyn M.; Briesch, Amy M.; Hoffman, Jessica A.; Struzziero, Joan; Toback, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Self-management interventions have been adapted to serve as targeted interventions to increase academic enabling behaviors in groups of students. However, a trade-off exists between adapting these interventions to feasibly fit group contexts and maintaining theoretical intervention components. This study examines the use of self-management within…

  2. Group-Level Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the Education System: A Scale Reconstruction and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoda-Gadot, Eran; Beeri, Itai; Birman-Shemesh, Taly; Somech, Anit

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Most writings on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) to date have focused on analysis at the individual level and paid less attention to other analytical frameworks at the group level (i.e., team, unit, or organization). This article approaches OCB from the less conventional perspective of group-level activities and uses it to…

  3. Facebook Band Director's Group: Member Usage Behaviors and Perceived Satisfaction for Meeting Professional Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickels, David A.; Brewer, Wesley D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate participation in a Facebook social media community known as Band Director's Group (BDG) through examination of members' demographic profiles, self-reported usage behaviors, and perceptions about how group activity satisfies their professional development needs. Respondents to an online survey (n = 336)…

  4. Financial Literacy and Long- and Short-Term Financial Behavior in Different Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henager, Robin; Cude, Brenda J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between financial literacy and financial behaviors among various age groups. Financial literacy was measured in three ways: objective financial knowledge, subjective financial knowledge or confidence, and subjective financial management ability. The age groups were 18-24, 25-34, 35-44,…

  5. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  6. Analysing Parallel and Passive Web Browsing Behavior and its Effects on Website Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    von der Weth, Christian; Hauswirth, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Getting deeper insights into the online browsing behavior of Web users has been a major research topic since the advent of the WWW. It provides useful information to optimize website design, Web browser design, search engines offerings, and online advertisement. We argue that new technologies and new services continue to have significant effects on the way how people browse the Web. For example, listening to music clips on YouTube or to a radio station on Last.fm does not require users to sit...

  7. The Development of a Program Engagement Theory for Group Offending Behavior Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Emma; Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Howat, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    Offender engagement in group offending behavior programs is poorly understood and under-theorized. In addition, there is no research on facilitators' engagement. This article presents the first ever theory to address this gap. A Program Engagement Theory (PET) was derived from a constructivist grounded theory analysis that accounts for both facilitators' and offenders' engagement in group offending behavior programs (GOBPs). Interviews and session observations were used to collect data from 23 program facilitators and 28 offenders (group members). The analysis revealed that group members' engagement involved shared identities and moving on as a group. In turn, this was dependent on facilitators personalising treatment frameworks and establishing a hook to help group members move on. The PET emphasizes the importance of considering change during treatment as a process rather than simply a program outcome. Solution-focused (SF) programs were more conducive to engagement and the change process than offence-focused programs.

  8. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  9. Theoretically informed correlates of hepatitis B knowledge among four Asian groups: the health behavior framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Stewart, Susan L; Glenn, Beth A; Wong, Weng Kee; Yasui, Yutaka; Chang, L Cindy; Taylor, Victoria M; Nguyen, Tung T; Chen, Moon S; Bastani, Roshan

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined theoretically informed constructs related to hepatitis B (HBV) testing, and comparisons across studies are challenging due to lack of uniformity in constructs assessed. The present analysis examined relationships among Health Behavior Framework factors across four Asian American groups to advance the development of theory-based interventions for HBV testing in at-risk populations. Data were collected from 2007-2010 as part of baseline surveys during four intervention trials promoting HBV testing among Vietnamese-, Hmong-, Korean- and Cambodian-Americans (n = 1,735). Health Behavior Framework constructs assessed included: awareness of HBV, knowledge of transmission routes, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, doctor recommendation, stigma of HBV infection, and perceived efficacy of testing. Within each group we assessed associations between our intermediate outcome of knowledge of HBV transmission and other constructs, to assess the concurrent validity of our model and instruments. While the absolute levels for Health Behavior Framework factors varied across groups, relationships between knowledge and other factors were generally consistent. This suggests similarities rather than differences with respect to posited drivers of HBV-related behavior. Our findings indicate that Health Behavior Framework constructs are applicable to diverse ethnic groups and provide preliminary evidence for the construct validity of the Health Behavior Framework.

  10. Affiliative and aggressive behavior in a group of female Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somalicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Cheryl S; Marshall, Fiona; Fischer, Martha

    2012-01-01

    We observed a group of three young female Somali wild asses to develop an ethogram of social behavior in the first phase of a longer term study of social, sexual, and maternal/infant behavior. The most unexpected finding was the frequency and extent of aggressive interactions, which included Charge, Drive, Neck Wrestle, Head Butt, and Body Slam, behaviors previously reported only for males of other equid species. The overall frequency of aggressive behavior was higher than that of affiliative behavior (84±16.5 vs. 32±5.5, P=0.03), yet no injuries occurred. The dyadic directionality of aggressive behavior suggested a dominance hierarchy, a feature not previously reported for either wild ass or domestic donkeys. The aggression observed may be an accurate representation of the behavior of this species, or their relatively young ages, or their recent transfer from their natal group through quarantine and into a new enclosure may have heightened agonistic tendencies. Further studies will determine whether with time their aggressive behavior becomes more intense or dissipates with maturity. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Innate Color Preference of Zebrafish and Its Use in Behavioral Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Su; Ryu, Jae-Ho; Choi, Tae-Ik; Bae, Young-Ki; Lee, Suman; Kang, Hae Jin; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2016-10-01

    Although innate color preference of motile organisms may provide clues to behavioral biases, it has remained a longstanding question. In this study, we investigated innate color preference of zebrafish larvae. A cross maze with different color sleeves around each arm was used for the color preference test (R; red, G; green, B; blue, Y; yellow). The findings showed that 5 dpf zebrafish larvae preferred blue over other colors (B > R > G > Y). To study innate color recognition further, tyrosinase mutants were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 system. As a model for oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and color vision impairment, tyrosinase mutants demonstrated diminished color sensation, indicated mainly by hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Due to its relative simplicity and ease, color preference screening using zebrafish larvae is suitable for high-throughput screening applications. This system may potentially be applied to the analysis of drug effects on larval behavior or the detection of sensory deficits in neurological disorder models, such as autism-related disorders, using mutant larvae generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 technique.

  12. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) among children with anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun Ongider-Gregory; Burak Baykara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It was aimed to investigate efficacy of Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) in childhood anxiety disorders by pre and post therapy. Method: Trial sample was obtained from an university outpatient child psychiatry clinic. Therapy group (n=12) was selected from children and their parents whom was diagnosed as DSM-IV childhood anxiety disorder. And comparation group (n=12) was selected from children and their parents whom was in the waiting list. The total sample includes...

  13. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

    OpenAIRE

    A Abollahi; AM Nazar; J Hasani; M Darharaj; A Behnam Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12). The experimental group was participated in eight se...

  14. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Reduction of Addicts’ Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khaledian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present research was the study of the effectiveness of group cognitive behavior therapy on reduction of addicts’ depression of Ghorveh city. Method: population was included of addicts who were referred to MMT clinics in Ghorveh city in 1392. By random sampling out of 60 referred addicts 24 addicts who were scored highest score on depression selected and divided to two groups randomly. Experimental group was under group C.B.T. for 12 sessions and control group was not under treatment. Beck’s depression scale administered among both groups. Results: The results showed experimental group has scored lesser than control group. Conclusion: Group C.B.T. is effective on addicts’ depression.

  15. Ain't necessarily so: review and critique of recent meta-analyses of behavioral medicine interventions in health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C; Thombs, Brett D; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    2010-03-01

    We examined four meta-analyses of behavioral interventions for adults (Dixon, Keefe, Scipio, Perri, & Abernethy, 2007; Hoffman, Papas, Chatkoff, & Kerns, 2007; Irwin, Cole, & Nicassio, 2006; and Jacobsen, Donovan, Vadaparampil, & Small, 2007) that have appeared in the Evidence Based Treatment Reviews section of Health Psychology. Narrative review. We applied the following criteria to each meta-analysis: (1) whether each meta-analysis was described accurately, adequately, and transparently in the article; (2) whether there was an adequate attempt to deal with methodological quality of the original trials; (3) the extent to which the meta-analysis depended on small, underpowered studies; and (4) the extent to which the meta-analysis provided valid and useful evidence-based recommendations. Across the four meta-analyses, we identified substantial problems with the transparency and completeness with which these meta-analyses were reported, as well as a dependence on small, underpowered trials of generally poor quality. Results of our exercise raise questions about the clinical validity and utility of the conclusions of these meta-analyses. Results should serve as a wake up call to prospective authors, reviewers, and end-users of meta-analyses now appearing in the literature. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Consistent Individual Differences Drive Collective Behavior and Group Functioning of Schooling Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; Boogert, Neeltje J; Sridhar, Vivek H; Couzin, Iain D; Manica, Andrea

    2017-09-25

    The ubiquity of consistent inter-individual differences in behavior ("animal personalities") [1, 2] suggests that they might play a fundamental role in driving the movements and functioning of animal groups [3, 4], including their collective decision-making, foraging performance, and predator avoidance. Despite increasing evidence that highlights their importance [5-16], we still lack a unified mechanistic framework to explain and to predict how consistent inter-individual differences may drive collective behavior. Here we investigate how the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and foraging performance of groups can emerge from inter-individual differences by high-resolution tracking of known behavioral types in free-swimming stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) shoals. We show that individual's propensity to stay near others, measured by a classic "sociability" assay, was negatively linked to swim speed across a range of contexts, and predicted spatial positioning and leadership within groups as well as differences in structure and movement dynamics between groups. In turn, this trait, together with individual's exploratory tendency, measured by a classic "boldness" assay, explained individual and group foraging performance. These effects of consistent individual differences on group-level states emerged naturally from a generic model of self-organizing groups composed of individuals differing in speed and goal-orientedness. Our study provides experimental and theoretical evidence for a simple mechanism to explain the emergence of collective behavior from consistent individual differences, including variation in the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and functional capabilities of groups, across social and ecological scales. In addition, we demonstrate individual performance is conditional on group composition, indicating how social selection may drive behavioral differentiation between individuals. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by

  17. Experimental and finite element analyses of plastic deformation behavior in vortex extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, M.; Pardis, N.; Kim, J.G.; Ebrahimi, R.; Kim, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Vortex extrusion (VE) is a single pass severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique which can impose high strain values with almost uniform distribution within cross section of the processed material. This technique needs no additional facilities for installation on any conventional extrusion equipment. In this study the deformation behavior of material during VE is investigated and the results are compared with those of conventional extrusion (CE). These investigations include finite element analysis, visioplasticity, and microstructural characterization of the processed samples. The results indicate that the VE process can accumulate a higher strain value by applying an additional torsional deformation. The role of this additional deformation mode on the microstructural evolution of the VE sample is discussed and compared with the results obtained on the CE samples.

  18. Fast reactor fuel pin behavior analyses in a LOF type transient event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Kaito, Takeji; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kenya

    2013-06-01

    In order to evaluate integrity limiting parameters of fuel pins during fast reactor core transient events, such as fuel center line temperature and cladding maximum temperature, fuel pin behavior calculations were made using the fast reactor fuel pin performance code CEDAR. The temperature histories of fuel pins during a loss of flow (LOF) type transient events was calculated based on Ross and Stoute type gap conductance model and constant gap conductance model, which is used in a core transient calculation code like HIPRAC. The calculated maximum temperatures of cladding and adjacent coolant channel were lower in the case with Ross and Stoute type model than in the case of constant gap conductance model due to the dynamic change of gap conductance of former case. It is indicated that core transient calculations with constant gap conductance give conservative cladding and coolant temperatures than that with Ross and Stoute type gap conductance model which is thought to be realistic. (author)

  19. Outcomes of specific interpersonal problems for binge eating disorder: comparing group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise; Presniak, Michelle D; Bissada, Hany

    2012-04-01

    We assessed whether an attachment-based treatment, Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) had a greater impact compared to Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) on Cold/Distant and Intrusive/Needy interpersonal problems. Ninety-five individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were randomized to GPIP or GCBT and assessed at pre-, post-, and six months post-treatment. Both therapies resulted in a significant decrease in all eight interpersonal problem subscales except the Nonassertive subscale. GPIP resulted in a greater reduction in the Cold/Distant subscale compared to GCBT, but no differences were found for changes in the Intrusive/Needy subscale. GPIP may be most relevant for those with BED who have Cold/Distant interpersonal problems and attachment avoidance.

  20. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception–action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID

  1. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Broughton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesised that analyses of expressive expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors differed according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception-action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigour and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive

  2. Analysis of variation in few-group cross section behavior subjected to burnup and boron concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zongyao; Li Dongsheng.

    1986-01-01

    The paper analyzes the variations of few-group cross section behavior in neutron diffusion subjected to fuel burnup and critical boron concentration in a core. The influences of the behavior on the core excess reactivity, crirical boron concentration, power distribution and the yield of isotopes are also analyzed. A reactor core of samll-medium-sized nuclear power plant is analyzed as an example

  3. Mobility Behavior of the Elderly: an attitude-based segmentation approach for a heterogeneous target group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    The western population is ageing. Based on the assumption that the elderly are a quite heterogeneous population group with an increasing impact on the transport system, mobility types of the elderly were identified. By means of 1,500 standardized telephone interviews, mobility behavior and possib...... of the diverse lifestyles, attitudes, travel behavior and needs of the elderly. Furthermore, it identifies starting points for the reduction of car use....

  4. Individual Motivation, its Nature, Determinants and Consequences for Within Group Behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Alkire, Sabina; Deneulin, Séverine

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with evaluating the adequacy of the assumption that in economic transactions people are self-interested insofar as they are motivated solely by the concern of maximizing their own utility, and in particular with assessing how this assumption affects within-group behavior. Policy and incentive structures based on the assumption of exogenous and self-interested motivation can undermine other sources of motivation and have negative effects both on cooperative behavior and also on...

  5. Cognitive–behavioral group therapy is an effective treatment for major depression in hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Priscila Silveira; Miyazaki, Maria Cristina; Blay, Sergio Luís; Sesso, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Depression is an important target of psychological assessment in patients with end-stage renal disease because it predicts their morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. We assessed the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients diagnosed with major depression by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). in a randomized trial conducted in Brazil, an intervention group of 41 patients was given 12 weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral grou...

  6. Knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding osteoporosis among women in three age groups: Shariati hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaghaz kanani R.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.

  7. Oxytocin modulates third-party sanctioning of selfish and generous behavior within and between groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Ten Velden, Femke S; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-03-01

    Human groups function because members trust each other and reciprocate cooperative contributions, and reward others' cooperation and punish their non-cooperation. Here we examined the possibility that such third-party punishment and reward of others' trust and reciprocation is modulated by oxytocin, a neuropeptide generally involved in social bonding and in-group (but not out-group) serving behavior. Healthy males and females (N=100) self-administered a placebo or 24 IU of oxytocin in a randomized, double-blind, between-subjects design. Participants were asked to indicate (incentivized, costly) their level of reward or punishment for in-group (outgroup) investors donating generously or fairly to in-group (outgroup) trustees, who back-transferred generously, fairly or selfishly. Punishment (reward) was higher for selfish (generous) investments and back-transfers when (i) investors were in-group rather than outgroup, and (ii) trustees were in-group rather than outgroup, especially when (iii) participants received oxytocin rather than placebo. It follows, first, that oxytocin leads individuals to ignore out-groups as long as out-group behavior is not relevant to the in-group and, second, that oxytocin contributes to creating and enforcing in-group norms of cooperation and trust. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  9. Effect of Cognitive-behavioral Group Therapy on Anxiety and Depression Hemodialysis Patients in Kashan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadvand A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Hemodialysis as a treatment manner in chronic renal failure is a stressful process and has several various psycho-cognitive and social complications. The present study evaluated effect of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on anxiety and depression in hemodialysis patients. Methods: This research was a clinical trial study. Samples were young adults who were 18-45 years old. The Participants were divided into two groups (case & control. The Beck depression & anxiety inventories were used as a measure of psychological symptoms at pretest and posttest and Cognitive-behavioral group therapy as intervention was done at week12. Data Were analyzed with SPSS-16 and t-test, chi square. A p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: In this study, there was not a significant difference in the demographic characteristics between the two groups. Before of intervention, mean Anxiety score of the experimental group was 25.72±5.87, and in the case group it was 25.22±7.56 as well as mean Depression score in the two groups was 35.44±14.97, 33.11±9.2 respectively. The difference of the two groups in anxiety and depression scores was not significant. After the intervention, the mean anxiety score of experimental group was 15.94±6.23, and in the case group it was 28.05±10.04 (p<0.05. Mean of depression score in the experimental group was 22.27±13.32, and in the case group it was 33.94±9.46 (p<0.01.Conclusion: This research showed that group therapy (cognitive-behavioral decreased depression and anxiety remarkably in dialysis patients. Therefore, it is suggested that in addition to the prescription of medication, psychological interventions be done for such patients.

  10. A cognitive/behavioral group intervention for weight loss in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mary; Wyne, Kathleen

    2006-03-01

    Obesity and diabetes have caused problems for individuals with schizophrenia long before atypical antipsychotic agents. The prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and the Metabolic Syndrome has increased in people with schizophrenia as compared to the general population. Risk reduction studies for persons with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease indicate that cognitive/behavioral interventions that promote motivation and provide strategies to overcome the barriers in adherence to diet and activity modification are effective interventions for weight management and risk reduction. In the landmark multi-center randomized-controlled trial study, the Diabetes Prevention Project (DPP), a cognitive/behavioral intervention, was more successful in producing weight loss and preventing diabetes than the drugs metformin, troglitazone or placebo. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive/behavioral group intervention, modified after the DPP program, in individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder taking atypical antipsychotics in a large urban public mental health system. Outcome measures included body weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratios, and fasting glucose levels. Both groups demonstrated elevated fasting glucose levels and were obese with a mean BMI of 33. The group that received the cognitive/behavioral group intervention lost more weight than the treatment as usual group. The CB group participants lost an average of 5.4 lb or 2.9% of body weight, and those in the control group lost 1.3 lb or 0.6% body weight. The range of weight loss for the treatment group was from 1 to 20 lb. This pilot study has demonstrated that weight loss is possible with cognitive/behavioral interventions in a population with a psychotic disorder.

  11. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) ‎.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddineshat, Maryam; Keyvanloo, Sodabe; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Arki, Mina; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh

    2016-01-01

    Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls' dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the ‎convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. ‎The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research ‎tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the students Results: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after ‎cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012). Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was ‎effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012).‎ Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female ‎college students.‎.

  12. A methodology for analysing lateral coupled behavior of high speed railway vehicles and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AntolIn, P; Goicolea, J M; Astiz, M A; Alonso, A

    2010-01-01

    Continuous increment of the speed of high speed trains entails the increment of kinetic energy of the trains. The main goal of this article is to study the coupled lateral behavior of vehicle-structure systems for high speed trains. Non linear finite element methods are used for structures whereas multibody dynamics methods are employed for vehicles. Special attention must be paid when dealing with contact rolling constraints for coupling bridge decks and train wheels. The dynamic models must include mixed variables (displacements and creepages). Additionally special attention must be paid to the contact algorithms adequate to wheel-rail contact. The coupled vehicle-structure system is studied in a implicit dynamic framework. Due to the presence of very different systems (trains and bridges), different frequencies are involved in the problem leading to stiff systems. Regarding to contact methods, a main branch is studied in normal contact between train wheels and bridge decks: penalty method. According to tangential contact FastSim algorithm solves the tangential contact at each time step solving a differential equation involving relative displacements and creepage variables. Integration for computing the total forces in the contact ellipse domain is performed for each train wheel and each solver iteration. Coupling between trains and bridges requires a special treatment according to the kinetic constraints imposed in the wheel-rail pair and the load transmission. A numerical example is performed.

  13. A methodology for analysing lateral coupled behavior of high speed railway vehicles and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, P.; Goicolea, J. M.; Astiz, M. A.; Alonso, A.

    2010-06-01

    Continuous increment of the speed of high speed trains entails the increment of kinetic energy of the trains. The main goal of this article is to study the coupled lateral behavior of vehicle-structure systems for high speed trains. Non linear finite element methods are used for structures whereas multibody dynamics methods are employed for vehicles. Special attention must be paid when dealing with contact rolling constraints for coupling bridge decks and train wheels. The dynamic models must include mixed variables (displacements and creepages). Additionally special attention must be paid to the contact algorithms adequate to wheel-rail contact. The coupled vehicle-structure system is studied in a implicit dynamic framework. Due to the presence of very different systems (trains and bridges), different frequencies are involved in the problem leading to stiff systems. Regarding to contact methods, a main branch is studied in normal contact between train wheels and bridge decks: penalty method. According to tangential contact FastSim algorithm solves the tangential contact at each time step solving a differential equation involving relative displacements and creepage variables. Integration for computing the total forces in the contact ellipse domain is performed for each train wheel and each solver iteration. Coupling between trains and bridges requires a special treatment according to the kinetic constraints imposed in the wheel-rail pair and the load transmission. A numerical example is performed.

  14. Analyses of Small Punch Creep Deformation Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Having Different Nitrogen Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Kumar, J.; Laha, K.; Ganesan, V.; Prasad Reddy, G. V.

    2018-04-01

    The small punch creep (SPC) behavior of 316LN stainless steel (SS) containing 0.07, 0.11 and 0.14 wt.% nitrogen has been investigated at 923 K. The transient and tertiary SPC deformation of 316LN SS with various nitrogen contents have been analyzed according to the equation proposed for SPC deflection, δ = δ0 + δT (1 - e^{ - κ t} ) + \\dot{δ }s t + δ3 e^[ φ( t - tr ) ]. The relationships among the rate of exhaustion of transient creep (κ), steady-state deflection rate (\\dot{δ }s ) and the rate of acceleration of tertiary creep (φ) revealed the interrelationships among the three stages of SPC curve. The first-order reaction rate theory was found to be applicable to SPC deformation throughout the transient as well as tertiary region, in all the investigated steels. The initial and final creep deflection rates were decreased, whereas time to attain steady-state deflection rate increased with the increase in nitrogen content. By increasing the nitrogen content in 316LN SS from 0.07 to 0.14 wt.%, each stage of SPC was prolonged, and consequently, the values of κ, \\dot{δ }s and φ were lowered. Using the above parameters, the master curves for both transient and tertiary SPC deflections were constructed for 316LN SS containing different nitrogen contents.

  15. [Efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy in patients with fear of blushing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobjoie, C; Pélissolo, A

    2012-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has shown to be effective in the treatment of social anxiety disorders (SAD). However, fear of social blushing is almost never measured as a therapeutic outcome variable, even though some data suggest that this dimension constitutes a specific syndrome in social anxiety spectrum, justifying specific therapeutic strategies. For these reasons, we developed a group therapy program including a combination of task concentration training (TCT) and other CBT strategies targeting fear of blushing. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of this program in an open trial conducted in 55 patients suffering from SAD (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV criteria) with fear of blushing. Throughout a program including eleven weekly sessions, systematic measurements of fear of blushing and other anxiety and personality dimensions were performed at inclusion, at the end of the therapy and 3 months later, in order to explore the therapeutic effects of the program on fear of blushing, social anxiety, and other dimensions (Liebowitz social anxiety scale, blushing propensity questionnaire, Rathus assertiveness scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Hospital anxiety and depression scale, Sheehan disability scale). The statistical analyses compared the scores of all measurements at inclusion, at the end of the therapy, and 6 months later. We also calculated the effect size obtained after treatment, and performed a logistic regression to determine the factors associated with a remission of fear of blushing after therapy. The main outcome criterion - the Salpêtrière fear of blushing questionnaire (SFBQ) score - was significantly reduced after treatment (Passertiveness, self-esteem, anxiety, depression and disability showed significant improvement after treatment and reductions remained stable at 3-month follow-up. To be a female and to have a low SFBQ score at inclusion appeared as two independent predictors of good improvement. Despite

  16. Effects of Group Counseling Transmitted Through Videoconferencing on Changes in Eating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanperä, Nina; Keränen, Anna-Maria; Ukkola, Olavi; Laitinen, Jaana

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of constructivism-based dietary group counseling transmitted through videoconferencing (VC) and face-to-face (FF) counseling on changes in eating behaviors. Altogether, 74 participants with high risk of type 2 diabetes were divided into FF and VC groups based on their place of residence in northern Finland. Constructivism-based dietary group counseling, a nonrandomized intervention, was performed (evaluations at 0, 6, and 21 months). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-18 was used to evaluate cognitive restraint eating (CR), emotional eating (EE), and uncontrolled eating (UE). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and ANCOVA (significance level of 0.05). Cognitive restraint eating increased and UE decreased between baseline and 6 months in both groups, but between baseline and 21 months only in the FF group (P = .005 and P = .021, respectively). Emotional eating decreased only in the VC group (P = .016). There were no differences between groups at 6 or 21 months. Constructivism-based counseling delivered through videoconferencing was effective at improving eating behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy is an effective treatment for major depression in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Priscila Silveira; Miyazaki, Maria Cristina; Blay, Sergio Luís; Sesso, Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Depression is an important target of psychological assessment in patients with end-stage renal disease because it predicts their morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. We assessed the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients diagnosed with major depression by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). In a randomized trial conducted in Brazil, an intervention group of 41 patients was given 12 weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy led by a trained psychologist over 3 months while a control group of 44 patients received the usual treatment offered in the dialysis unit. In both groups, the Beck Depression Inventory, the MINI, and the Kidney Disease and Quality of Life-Short Form questionnaires were administered at baseline, after 3 months of intervention or usual treatment, and after 9 months of follow-up. The intervention group had significant improvements, compared to the control group, in the average scores of the Beck Depression Inventory overall scale, MINI scores, and in quality-of-life dimensions that included the burden of renal disease, sleep, quality of social interaction, overall health, and the mental component summary. We conclude that cognitive-behavioral group therapy is an effective treatment of depression in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  18. Analyses of the Behavior of Spokes in Saturn's B Ring as Observed in Cassini ISS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colin; Porco, C.; Dones, L.; Spitale, J.

    2008-09-01

    We report on analyses of the spokes in Saturn's B ring as observed by the Cassini spacecraft, from the first sighting in September 2005 to the present. Following Porco and Danielson (1982), we calculate as a function of time the spoke activity level, defined as the area-integrated optical depth of the spokes. We convert the spoke I/F into optical depth, using a radiative transfer "doubling code" and assuming that the presence of microscopic particles in the spokes is the only change in the optical properties of the ring region within a spoke. We search for periodicities in the variation of spoke activity and also correlations with magnetic longitude using a magnetic longitude system derived from the emission of the Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR), the rotation of which varies slightly from a constant rate (Kurth et al. 2008). Additionally, we track the activity over a period of years in order to characterize the seasonal nature of this phenomenon. We also report on the photometric profiles of spokes during different phases of their evolution. We present an analysis of spoke kinematics, measuring the motion on timescales of tens of minutes of the leading and trailing edges of spokes that appear in multiple consecutive images. Assuming that the small ice particles which comprise the spokes are in circular orbits, the azimuthal motion is a measure of their charge-to-mass ratio. While most spoke edges have exhibited normal Keplerian orbital motion and shear, some spokes were observed during their active phase in which the spoke's optical depth increases and its edges move at different rates, broadening the spoke. We acknowledge the financial support of the Cassini Project.

  19. Molecular and compound-specific hydrogen isotope analyses of insoluble organic matter from different carbonaceous chondrite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Yongsong; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Fogel, Marilyn; Cody, George

    2005-07-01

    We have conducted the first systematic analyses of molecular distribution and δD values of individual compounds in pyrolysates of insoluble organic matter (IOM) from different carbonaceous chondrite groups, using flash pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compound-specific D/H analysis. IOM samples from six meteorites of different classifications, Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042 (CR2), Orgueil (CI1), Allan Hills (ALH) 83100 (CM1/2), Murchison (CM2), ALH 85013 (CM2), and Tagish Lake (C2) were isolated and studied. Except for the pyrolysate of Tagish Lake IOM, pyrolysates of all five meteorite IOM samples were dominated by an extensive series of aromatic (C 1 to C 7 alkyl-substituted benzenes, C 0 to C 2 alkyl-substituted naphthalenes), with aliphatic (straight chain and branched C 10 to C 15 alkanes) hydrocarbons and several S- and O- containing compounds (C 1 to C 2 alkylthiophenes, benzothiophene, benzaldehyde) being also present. The strong similarity in the pyrolysates of different carbonaceous chondrites suggests certain common characteristics in the formation mechanisms of IOM from different meteorites. The Tagish Lake IOM sample is unique in that its pyrolysate lacks most of the alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons detected in other meteorite IOM samples, suggesting distinctively different formation processes. Both bulk δD values of meteorite IOMs and weighted-average δD values of individual compounds in pyrolysates show a decreasing trend: CR2 > CI1 > CM2 > C2 (Tagish Lake), with the EET 92042 (CR2) IOM having the highest δD values (˜2000‰ higher than other samples). We attribute the high D contents in the IOM to primitive interstellar organic sources.

  20. Revealing the hidden networks of interaction in mobile animal groups allows prediction of complex behavioral contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Sara Brin; Twomey, Colin R; Hartnett, Andrew T; Wu, Hai Shan; Couzin, Iain D

    2015-04-14

    Coordination among social animals requires rapid and efficient transfer of information among individuals, which may depend crucially on the underlying structure of the communication network. Establishing the decision-making circuits and networks that give rise to individual behavior has been a central goal of neuroscience. However, the analogous problem of determining the structure of the communication network among organisms that gives rise to coordinated collective behavior, such as is exhibited by schooling fish and flocking birds, has remained almost entirely neglected. Here, we study collective evasion maneuvers, manifested through rapid waves, or cascades, of behavioral change (a ubiquitous behavior among taxa) in schooling fish (Notemigonus crysoleucas). We automatically track the positions and body postures, calculate visual fields of all individuals in schools of ∼150 fish, and determine the functional mapping between socially generated sensory input and motor response during collective evasion. We find that individuals use simple, robust measures to assess behavioral changes in neighbors, and that the resulting networks by which behavior propagates throughout groups are complex, being weighted, directed, and heterogeneous. By studying these interaction networks, we reveal the (complex, fractional) nature of social contagion and establish that individuals with relatively few, but strongly connected, neighbors are both most socially influential and most susceptible to social influence. Furthermore, we demonstrate that we can predict complex cascades of behavioral change at their moment of initiation, before they actually occur. Consequently, despite the intrinsic stochasticity of individual behavior, establishing the hidden communication networks in large self-organized groups facilitates a quantitative understanding of behavioral contagion.

  1. PERILAKU PROSOSIAL (PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR ANAK USIA DINI DAN PENGELOLAAN KELAS MELALUI PENGELOMPOKAN USIA RANGKAP (MULTIAGE GROUPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvrida Sandra Matondang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aspect of moral development is of great concern of early childhood caregivers. Moral development, which is now better known as prosocial behaviors include behaviors such as empathy, generosity, cooperation, caring, and many more. Various attempts to build prosocial behavior has been carried out in kindergarten, including in one of international preschools  in Bandung that management class is using the multiage grouping.  According to this phenomenon which needed to be achieved, such as the form of prosocial behavior of the child at the multiage grouping, factors that affect the incidence of prosocial behavior in multiage grouping, teachers intervention to any problems relate to prosocial behavior in the multiage grouping, the efforts of teachers to develop prosocial behavior in multiage grouping, the efforts of teachers to manage classes with the concept of multiage grouping. The purpose of doing this research on the grounds of how the management class that uses multiage grouping can increase prosocial behavior of children between the age range of 3-6 years.  The method used in this study is a qualitative approach using case studies, data collection is done by observation, interview and documentation. The findings of this study represent children’s prosocial behavior in the form of cooperative behavior, friendship, helping, sharing, and caring. Children prosocial behavior should practically continually place in their environment and if the foundation is strong enough, they will easily adjust to school environment, especially in a school where the class management is using multiage grouping. Keywords: Early Childhood, Multiage Grouping, Pro-social Behavior   Abstrak: Aspek perkembangan moral adalah perhatian besar dari pengasuh anak usia dini. perkembangan moral, yang sekarang lebih dikenal sebagai perilaku prososial mencakup perilaku seperti empati, kedermawanan, kerjasama, peduli, dan banyak lagi. Berbagai upaya untuk

  2. Mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy and traditional cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: Mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Job insecurity and discretionary behaviors: Social exchange perspective versus group value model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Beatrice; De Witte, Hans; Reisel, William D

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the relationship between job insecurity and discretionary behaviors, that is, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB), with the purpose to extend knowledge on the theoretical explanations for these outcomes. Considering the employment relationship with the organization, two different perspectives are suggested and compared in a multiple mediator model, in order to understand the reasons for discretionary behaviors. We draw upon social exchange theory as the basis of psychological contract perceptions and we rely on the group value model to explain organizational justice evaluations. A total of 570 blue-collar workers in Italy participated in our survey. The results show that job insecurity is indirectly related to OCB and CWB through psychological contract breach and organizational injustice. Both mediational mechanisms have equivalent strength in explaining the relationships, namely, they are complementary processes in accounting for both behaviors. These findings suggest that employees' behaviors in job insecure contexts are driven not only by concerns related to the exchange of resources with the organization, but also by evaluations about their value as important members of the group. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of Cognitive-behavioral Group Therapy on Anxiety and Depression Hemodialysis Patients in Kashan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadvand A.; Saie R.; Sepehrmanesh Z.; Ghanbari A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hemodialysis as a treatment manner in chronic renal failure is a stressful process and has several various psycho-cognitive and social complications. The present study evaluated effect of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on anxiety and depression in hemodialysis patients. Methods: This research was a clinical trial study. Samples were young adults who were 18-45 years old. The Participants were divided into two groups (case & control). The Beck depression & anxiet...

  5. Effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy with mindfulness in end-stage renal disease hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Kyung Sohn; Yun Kyu Oh; Jung-Seok Choi; Jiyoun Song; Ahyoung Lim; Jung Pyo Lee; Jung Nam An; Hee-Jeong Choi; Jae Yeon Hwang; Hee-Yeon Jung; Jun-Young Lee; Chun Soo Lim

    2018-01-01

    Background : Many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) experience depression. Depression influences patient quality of life (QOL), dialysis compliance, and medical comorbidity. We developed and applied a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program including mindfulness meditation for ESRD patients undergoing HD, and measured changes in QOL, mood, anxiety, perceived stress, and biochemical markers. Methods : We conducted group CBT over a 12-week period...

  6. The Effectiveness of Transactional Behavior Analytic Group Therapy on the Prevention of Relapse among Detoxified People

    OpenAIRE

    S Mousa Kafi; Rahim Mollazadeh Esfanaji; Morteza Nori; Ertaj Salehi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Addiction Phenomenon among detoxified people is an important therapeutic problem for substance abusers. The aim of this research was the study of effectiveness of transactional behavior analytic group therapy on prevention of relapse of detoxified people. Method: the research design was quasi experimental with witness group. By using of available sampling of detoxified people who referred to government centers for maintenance therapy with Methadone, 24 subjects that divided to t...

  7. Study on the tritium behaviors in the VHTR system. Part 2: Analyses on the tritium behaviors in the VHTR/HTSE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung S. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3885 (United States); Oh, Chang H., E-mail: Chang.Oh@inl.go [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3885 (United States); Patterson, Mike [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3885 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Tritium behaviors in the very high temperature gas reactor (VHTR)/high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) system have been analyzed by the TPAC developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The reference system design and conditions were based on the indirect parallel configuration between a VHTR and a HTSE. The analyses were based on the SOBOL method, a modern uncertainty and sensitivity analyses method using variance decomposition and Monte Carlo method. A total of 14 parameters have been taken into account associated with tritium sources, heat exchangers, purification systems, and temperatures. Two sensitivity indices (first order index and total index) were considered, and 15,360 samples were totally used for solution convergence. As a result, important parameters that affect tritium concentration in the hydrogen product have been identified and quantified with the rankings. Several guidelines and recommendations for reducing modeling uncertainties have been also provided throughout the discussions along with some useful ideas for mitigating tritium contaminations in the hydrogen product.

  8. On the evils of group averaging: commentary on Nevin's "Resistance to extinction and behavioral momentum".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2012-05-01

    Except under unusually favorable circumstances, one can infer from functions obtained by averaging across the subjects neither the form of the function that describes the behavior of the individual subject nor the central tendencies of descriptive parameter values. We should restore the cumulative record to the place of honor as our means of visualizing behavioral change, and we should base our conclusions on analyses that measure where the change occurs in these response-by-response records of the behavior of individual subjects. When that is done, we may find that the extinction of responding to a continuously reinforced stimulus is faster than the extinction of responding to a partially reinforced stimulus in a within-subject design because the latter is signaled extinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The embodiment of cockroach aggregation behavior in a group of micro-robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Simon; Jost, Christian; Gautrais, Jacques; Asadpour, Masoud; Caprari, Gilles; Jeanson, Raphaël; Grimal, Anne; Theraulaz, Guy

    2008-01-01

    We report the faithful reproduction of the self-organized aggregation behavior of the German cockroach Blattella germanica with a group of robots. We describe the implementation of the biological model provided by Jeanson et al. in Alice robots, and we compare the behaviors of the cockroaches and the robots using the same experimental and analytical methodology. We show that the aggregation behavior of the German cockroach was successfully transferred to the Alice robot despite strong differences between robots and animals at the perceptual, actuatorial, and computational levels. This article highlights some of the major constraints one may encounter during such a work and proposes general principles to ensure that the behavioral model is accurately transferred to the artificial agents.

  10. Storytelling and Innovative Behavior: An Empirical Study in a Brazilian Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Fernanda Pauletto; Robini, Eduardo; Larentis, Fabiano; Camargo, Maria Emilia; Schmiedgen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to identify the relationship between the use of storytelling and innovative work behavior (IWB) in organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The research took place in a human resource development (HRD) training session for leaders of Alpha Group. In this session, storytelling was adopted to discuss innovation and IWB.…

  11. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  12. Impact Evaluation of a Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Model in Brazilian Sexually Abused Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…

  13. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in a VA Mental Health Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Lawrence M.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Earnheart, Kristie L.; Gorman, Ashley A.; Shirley, Katherine G.

    2008-01-01

    Effective cognitive-behavioral therapies for insomnia have been developed over the past 2 decades, but they have not been systematically evaluated in some clinical settings. While insomnia is common among veterans with mental health problems, the availability of effective treatments is limited. We report on the group application of a…

  14. Group Awareness of Social and Cognitive Behavior in a CSCL Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phielix, Chris; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Phielix, C., Prins, F. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Group awareness of social and cognitive behavior in a CSCL environment. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Learning in the Disciplines: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS 2010): Volume 1 (pp.

  15. Pilot study of a brief dialectical behavior therapy skills group for jail inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly E; Folk, Johanna B; Boren, Emily A; Tangney, June P; Fischer, Sarah; Schrader, Shannon W

    2018-02-01

    Regulating emotions, refraining from impulsive, maladaptive behavior, and communicating effectively are considered primary treatment needs among jail inmates. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993a) skills address these deficits and have been implemented in long-term correctional settings, but have yet to be adapted for general population inmates in short-term jail settings. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a DBT skills group in a jail setting, as well as its utility in improving coping skills and emotional/behavioral dysregulation. Male jail inmates participated in an 8-week DBT skills group and completed pre- and posttest assessments of coping skills, emotional/behavioral dysregulation, and measures of treatment acceptability. Out of 27 who started therapy, 16 completed it, primarily due to involuntary attrition such as transfer to another correctional facility. Although several logistical issues arose during this pilot study, preliminary results suggest that a brief DBT skills group is feasible and acceptable in a jail setting, and may improve coping skills and reduce externalization of blame among general population jail inmates. This study lays the groundwork for larger, controlled trials of abbreviated DBT skills groups for general population inmates in short-term jail settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Educational Support Group in Changing Caregivers' Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior toward Caring for Institutionalized Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti

    2009-01-01

    Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…

  17. Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between popularity in the peer group and adolescents' behavior in a dyadic context. After collecting peer nominations for popularity, 218 early adolescents (Mage=11.0years) in 109 randomly composed same-sex dyads participated in a discussion task where they

  18. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties: Retention Among Child Welfare-Involved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods: Twenty-five…

  19. Group dialectical behavior therapy adapted for obese emotional eaters; a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosen, M.A.; Safer, D.; Adler, S.; Cebolla, A.; Strien, T. van

    2012-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) has been shown to effectively target binge eating disorder (BED). This study pilots the effectiveness of group DIVE for obese "emotional eaters" to reduce eating psychopathology and achieve weight maintenance. Thirty-five obese male and female emotional eaters

  20. Group dialectical behavior therapy adapted for obese emotional eaters; a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosen, M A; Safer, D; Adler, S.N.; Cebolla, A.; van Strien, T

    2012-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) has been shown to effectively target binge eating disorder (BED). This study pilots the effectiveness of group DBT for obese "emotional eaters" to reduce eating psychopathology and achieve weight maintenance. Thirty-five obese male and female emotional eaters

  1. Social Class and Group Size as Predictors of Behavior in Male Equus kiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prameek M. Kannan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethograms provide a systematic approach to identify and quantify the repertoire of behaviors of an organism. This information may assist animal welfare in zoos, increase awareness of conservation needs, and help curb high-risk behaviors during human-wildlife conflict. Our primary objective was to utilize an equid ethogram to produce activity budgets for Equus kiang males, a social ungulate that is among the least-studied mammals worldwide, and unknown to the ethological literature. We recently reported the existence of three social classes of this species; Territorial males, Bachelor males and ‘Transient’ males. Therefore, our secondary objective was to compare activity budgets in each of these three groups. We found that kiang spent >70% of their time performing six behaviors: vigilance (34%, locomotion (24.2%, resting (14.2%, mixed foraging (12.5%, browsing (5.1%, and antagonism (1.1%. Over 2% of the total behavioral investment was spent on olfactory investigations (genital sniffing, sniffing proximity and flehmen. Eleven of the eighteen behaviors differed by class. Habitat selection differed strongly by each group, with Territorial males favoring mesic sites with greater vegetation abundance. Vigilance also differed according to habitat selection, but not group size. Animals in the xeric, least vegetation-rich area were far less vigilant than animals at more attractive sites. We found that the full repertoire of behaviors, and relative investments in each, differ according to social class. These findings are a reminder that researchers should make every effort to disambiguate social class among ungulates– and other taxa where behaviors are class-dependent.

  2. Effect of Group Cognitive Behavioral Couples Therapy on Couple Burnout and Divorce Tendency in Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Couple burnout is one of the phenomena which involve many couples, it is among the main causes of emotional divorce, and without proper management and treatment, and it can lay the ground for formal divorce among couples. Cognitive behavioral couple therapy is one of the existing approaches in the couple therapy field, the efficiency of which has been established for resolving many marital problems. The present study was designed by the aim of investigating the effect of group cognitive behavioral couple therapy on couple burnout and divorce tendency in couples.   Methods: The present research was of applied research type. The research method was semi-empirical with a pretest-posttest with control group design. The research population included all the couples with marital conflict and problems who, after a recall announcement of the researcher, visited the counseling and psychological services center located in Gorgan city in 2014. By using the available sampling method, 20 couples were selected among the volunteer and qualified couples for the research, and they were assigned into experiment and control groups (10 couples per group by random assignment. In the present research, the Pines burnout questionnaire (1996 and divorce tendency scale of Rouswelt, Johnson, and Mouro (1986 were used for gathering the data. After taking the pretest, the group cognitive behavioral couple therapy based on the couple therapy model of Baucom  and colleagues (2008 was held in 10 2-hour weekly sessions for the experiment group couples, while the control group couples received no intervention. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics method and multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA in SPSS v.20. Results: The multivariate covariance analysis results for couple burnout (F= 28.80 and divorce tendency (F= 51.25 suggested that there was a significant difference between the couples of experiment and control groups (P< 0

  3. COLLECTIVE VORTEX BEHAVIORS: DIVERSITY, PROXIMATE, AND ULTIMATE CAUSES OF CIRCULAR ANIMAL GROUP MOVEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Johann; Bode, Nikolai W F; Denoël, Mathieu

    2016-03-01

    Ant mill, caterpillar circle, bat doughnut, amphibian vortex, duck swirl, and fish torus are different names for rotating circular animal formations, where individuals turn around a common center. These "collective vortex behaviors" occur at different group sizes from pairs to several million individuals and have been reported in a large number of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, including humans. However, to date, no comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on vortex behaviors has been conducted. Here, we review the state of the art of the proximate and ultimate causes of vortex behaviors. The ubiquity of this behavioral phenomenon could suggest common causes or fundamental underlying principles across contexts. However, we find that a variety of proximate mechanisms give rise to vortex behaviors. We highlight the potential benefits of collective vortex behaviors to individuals involved in them. For example, in some species, vortices increase feeding efficiency and could give protection against predators. It has also been argued that vortices could improve collective decision-making and information transfer. We highlight gaps in our understanding of these ubiquitous behavioral phenomena and discuss future directions for research in vortex studies.

  4. Characterizing social behavior, activity, and associations between cognition and behavior upon social grouping of weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, K C; Miller-Cushon, E K

    2018-05-09

    Weaned dairy calves are commonly exposed to changing physical and social environments, and ability to adapt to novel management is likely to have performance and welfare implications. We characterized how behavioral responses of weaned heifer calves develop over time after introduction to a social group. Previously individually reared Holstein heifer calves (n = 15; 60 ± 5 d of age; mean ± standard deviation) were introduced in weekly cohorts (5 ± 3 new calves/wk) to an existing group on pasture (8 ± 2 calves/group). We measured activity and behavior on the day of initial introduction and after 1 wk, when calves were exposed to regrouping (addition of younger calves and removal of older calves from the pen). Upon introduction, calves had 2 to 3 times more visits to each region of the pasture; they also spent more time at the back of the pasture, closest to where they were introduced and furthest from the feeding area (25.13 vs. 9.63% of observation period, standard error = 5.04), compared with behavior after 1 wk. Calves also spent less time feeding (5.0 vs. 9.6% of observation period, standard error = 0.82) and self-grooming (0.52 vs. 1.31% of observation period; standard error = 0.20) and more time within 1 to 3 body lengths of another calf (16.3 vs. 11.9% of observation period, standard error = 2.3) when initially grouped. We also explored whether behavioral responses to initial postweaning grouping might be associated with individual differences in behavioral flexibility. To evaluate this, we assessed cognition of individually housed calves (n = 18) at 5 wk of age using a spatial discrimination task conducted in a T-maze to measure initial learning (ability to learn the location of a milk reward) and reversal learning (ability to relearn location of the milk reward when it was switched to opposite arm of the maze). Calves were categorized by reversal learning success (passed, n = 6, or failed, n = 8). Calves that passed the reversal learning stage of the

  5. UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF BEHAVIOR AND COGNITIONS IN A GROUP EXERCISE SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of the present study examined whether individuals with different exercise behaviors (classified by attendance experienced different or similar cognitive patterns. It was hypothesized that different behavior would lead to different cognitive appraisals. It was predicted that there would be a difference between the three behavioral frequency groups with regard to self-efficacy measures and goal measures. The second purpose of the study was to describe, evaluate and observe whether social factors were associated with participating in exercise in groups. It was hypothesized that those who engage in exercise classes would elicit a social focus. Participants for the study included 39 females who registered in-group fitness classes at a mid-sized university. Attendance over the 10-week course was assessed and participants completed a self-report questionnaire during week seven. The attendance data were used to create 3 exercise frequency groups (regular attenders, sporadic attenders, and dropouts based on ACSM's exercise guidelines. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, means and frequencies were used to describe the data. There were no significant differences on measures of self-efficacy, goal measures, enjoyment, and external motivation among the three groups (all p's > 0.05. An analysis of the whole group (N=39 discovered a low social focus and high ratings of self-efficacy. Continued research is necessary to investigate the benefit of social support in a group exercise setting, as well as to better understand how self-regulation through self-efficacy and goal factors influences and is influenced by actual behavior.

  6. Analysis of Adult Female Mouse (Mus musculus) Group Behavior on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group

  7. Interdependence and organizational citizenship behavior: exploring the mediating effect of group cohesion in multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Tang, Ya-Yun; Wang, Shih-Jon

    2009-12-01

    The authors investigated the mechanism of group cohesion in the relationship between (a) task interdependence and goal interdependence and (b) individuals' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The authors adopted a multilevel perspective to facilitate understanding of the complex relations among variables. They collected data from 53 supervisors and 270 employees from R&D departments in Taiwan. The authors found that group cohesion fully mediated the effects of task interdependence and goal interdependence on employees' OCB. In addition, task interdependence had a greater effect on group cohesion than did goal interdependence. The authors discuss implications and suggestions for future research.

  8. Comparing Executive Function and Behavioral Inhibition in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mood Disorder Type I and Normal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Khodaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and Bipolar I disorder seems to be different from the normal individuals, that these defects affect their treatment results. Therefore, this study aimed to compare executive function and behavioral inhibition within patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar type I as well as a normal group. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, out of all patients hospitalized in daily psychiatric clinic in Najafabad in 2014 due to these disorders, 20 schizophrenia and 20 bipolar type I as well as 20 normal individuals were selected via the convinience sampling. All the study participants completed the computerizing tests including Tower of London and Go-No Go. The study data were analyzed utilizing SPSS software (ver 22 via MANOVA. Results: The study findings revealed a significant difference between the two patient groups and the normal group in regard with executive function and behavioral inhibition (p<0.05, whereas no differences were detected between schizophrenics and bipolar patient groups. Furthermore, patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar I mood disorder demonstrated significantly poor performance in cognitive function and behavioral inhibition compared to the normal group. Conclusion: The present study results can be significantly applied in pathology and therapy of these disorders, so as recognizing the inability of such patients can be effective in developing cognitive rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  9. Multicomponent cognitive-behavioral group therapy with hypnosis for the treatment of fibromyalgia: long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Antoni; Cascón, Rosalia; Padrol, Anna; Sala, José; Rull, Maria

    2012-03-01

    This study compared the efficacy of 2 psychological treatments for fibromyalgia with each other and with standard care. Ninety-three patients with fibromyalgia (FM) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental conditions: 1) multicomponent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT); 2) multicomponent CBT with hypnosis; and 3) pharmacological treatment (standard care control group). The outcome measures of pain intensity, catastrophizing, psychological distress, functionality, and sleep disturbances were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. CBT and CBT with hypnosis participants received the standard pharmacological management plus 14 weekly, 120-minute-long sessions of psychological treatment. All but 1 session followed a group format; the remaining session was individual. The analyses indicated that: 1) patients with FM who received multicomponent CBT alone or multicomponent CBT with hypnosis showed greater improvements than patients who received only standard care; and 2) adding hypnosis enhanced the effectiveness of multicomponent CBT. This study presents new evidence about the efficacy of multicomponent CBT for FM and about the additional effects of hypnosis as a complement to CBT. The relevance and implications of the obtained results are discussed. This article highlights the beneficial effects of adding hypnosis in a multicomponent cognitive-behavioral group treatment of fibromyalgia patients. Also, this research showed that by adding hypnosis the length of treatment did not increase. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effectiveness of Transactional Behavior Analytic Group Therapy on the Prevention of Relapse among Detoxified People

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    S Mousa Kafi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addiction Phenomenon among detoxified people is an important therapeutic problem for substance abusers. The aim of this research was the study of effectiveness of transactional behavior analytic group therapy on prevention of relapse of detoxified people. Method: the research design was quasi experimental with witness group. By using of available sampling of detoxified people who referred to government centers for maintenance therapy with Methadone, 24 subjects that divided to two control and witness groups (12 subjects for each group selected of Bojnord city. Each subjects completed the write's relapse prediction scale as pretest. Post test administered after group therapy and after 5 months follow up test administered among two groups. Morphine test has done with follow up test simultaneously. Independent samples t-test and covariance analysis has run for analyzing of data. Results: The results of covariance showed that tempting of substance use was significantly differed in post test and follow up, but there was not significant difference in probability of substance use. Conclusion: Finding of this research showed, the transactional behavior analytic group therapy may be effective in tempting of substance use among detoxified people and it can considered by specialists.

  11. Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jéssica; Maia, Caroline Marques; Santos, Eliana Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments. All of the enrichments affected the proportions of time spent in different behaviors. Macaws interacted more with certain items (hibiscus and food tree) than with others (a toy or swings and stairs), but introduction of the enrichments that invoked the least interaction caused as many behavioral changes as those that invoked the most. Moreover, feeding behavior was only affected by the enrichment that invoked the least interaction, a change not detected by a general analysis of enrichment effects. In conclusion, little interaction with enrichment does not mean little change in behavior, and the effects of enrichments are more complex than previously considered.

  12. Reduction of Risk Factors in Patients with Behavioral Dysphonia After Vocal Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wégina Jordâna Nascimento da; Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Macedo, Anny Elizabety Ramalho de; Costa, Denise Batista da; Almeida, Anna Alice Figueiredo de

    2017-01-01

    The origin and development of dysphonia, particularly behavioral dysphonia, is associated with several risk factors. Here, we verified the effectiveness of group therapy in reducing the risk factors, and established the association between risk factors and sex, age, profession, and diagnosis of laryngeal disorders in patients with behavioral dysphonia. This is a descriptive, quantitative, field intervention study. Participants (n = 26, adult patients of both sexes), with a diagnosis of behavioral dysphonia, received group therapy intervention. Data for risk factors were collected pre- and posttherapy using the Vocal Screening Protocol. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Student t test, chi-squared test or Spearman correlation test). The majority (80.8%, n = 21) of patients were female, 65.4% (n = 17) were not in a vocal profession, and 42.3% (n = 11) presented with a lesion in the membranous portion of the vocal fold. The number of personal risk factors decreased after group therapy (P = 0.04). In addition, age was correlated with total (P = 0.001), environmental (P = 0.002), and personal (P = 0.003) vocal risk factors posttherapy. This study revealed an association between the reduction of personal risk factors and vocal group therapy, and a correlation between age and total, environmental, and personal vocal risk factors posttherapy. Thus, maintenance and origins of the behaviors that modify the behavioral aspects of the participants directly influence the production of individual vocal habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dolphin underwater bait-balling behaviors in relation to group and prey ball sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin L; Muzi, Elisa; Richardson, Jessica L; Fox, Gabriella J; Hansen, Lauren N; Salley, Alyce M; Dudzinski, Kathleen M; Würsig, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    We characterized dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) feeding behaviors recorded on underwater video, and related behaviors to variation in prey ball sizes, dolphin group sizes, and study site (Argentina versus New Zealand, NZ). Herding behaviors most often involved dolphins swimming around the side or under prey balls, but dolphins in Argentina more often swam under prey balls (48% of passes) than did dolphins in NZ (34% of passes). This result may have been due to differences in group sizes between sites, since groups are larger in Argentina. Additionally, in NZ, group size was positively correlated with proportion of passes that occurred under prey balls (pdolphins in Argentina more often swam through prey balls (8% of attempts) than did dolphins in NZ (4% of attempts). This result may have been due to differences in prey ball sizes between sites, since dolphins fed on larger prey balls in Argentina (>74m(2)) than in NZ (maximum 33m(2)). Additionally, in NZ, dolphins were more likely to swim through prey balls to capture fish when they fed on larger prey balls (p=0.025). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordioli Aristides V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a cognitive-behavioral group therapy protocol and to verify its efficacy to reduce obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Methods: An open clinical trial with 32 obsessive-compulsive patients was performed, in which a cognitive-behavioral group therapy protocol of 12 weekly sessions of two hours, in 5 consecutive groups, was applied. The severity of symptoms was rated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive (Y-BOCS, Hamilton Anxiety (HAM A and Hamilton Depression (HAM D scales. The patients were followed up for 3 months after the end of the treatment. Results: There was a significant reduction in the scores of Y-BOCS, HAM A and HAM D scales with the treatment regardless the use of anti-obsessive medications. The rate of improved patients (decrease of > or = 35% in Y-BOCS was 78.1%. Two patients (6.25% dropped out from the study. The effect size calculated for the Y-BOCS scale was 1.75. Conclusions: This study suggests that cognitive-behavioral group therapy reduces obsessive-compulsive symptoms. In addition, patients presented good compliance.

  15. Social Fingerprinting: detection of spambot groups through DNA-inspired behavioral modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresci, Stefano; Di Pietro, Roberto; Petrocchi, Marinella

    2017-01-01

    Spambot detection in online social networks is a long-lasting challenge involving the study and design of detection techniques capable of efficiently identifying ever-evolving spammers. Recently, a new wave of social spambots has emerged, with advanced human-like characteristics that allow them...... to go undetected even by current state-of-the-art algorithms. In this paper, we show that efficient spambots detection can be achieved via an in-depth analysis of their collective behaviors exploiting the digital DNA technique for modeling the behaviors of social network users. Inspired by its...... biological counterpart, in the digital DNA representation the behavioral lifetime of a digital account is encoded in a sequence of characters. Then, we define a similarity measure for such digital DNA sequences. We build upon digital DNA and the similarity between groups of users to characterize both genuine...

  16. Group cognitive–behavioral therapy in insomnia: a cross-sectional case-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao H

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hongjing Mao,1,* Yutian Ji,2,* You Xu,1 Guangzheng Tang,1 Zhenghe Yu,1 Lianlian Xu,1 Chanchan Shen,2 Wei Wang1,2 1Department of Psychosomatic Disorders, The Seventh People’s Hospital, Mental Health Center, 2Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Group cognitive–behavioral therapy (GCBT might meet the considerable treatment demand of insomnia, but its effectiveness needs to be addressed.Participants: This study recruited 27 insomnia patients treated with 16-weeks of zolpidem (zolpidem group, 26 patients treated with 4-weeks of zolpidem and also treated with 12-weeks of GCBT (GCBT group, and 31 healthy control volunteers.Methods: Before treatment and 16 weeks after intervention, participants were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaires (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 [PHQ-15], the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep-16 (DBAS-16, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI.Results: Compared to the zolpidem and healthy control groups, the scale scores of PHQ-9, PHQ-15, DBAS-16 and PSQI were significantly reduced after intervention in the GCBT group. Regarding the score changes, there were correlations between PSQI, DBAS-16, PHQ-9, and PHQ-15 scales in the zolpidem group, but there were limited correlations between PSQI and some DBAS-16 scales in the GCBT group.Conclusion: Our results indicate that GCBT is effective to treat insomnia by improving sleep quality and reducing emotional and somatic disturbances; thus, the study supports the advocacy of applying group psychotherapy to the disorder. Keywords: cognitive–behavioral therapy, group psychotherapy, insomnia 

  17. A cognitive behavioral based group intervention for children with a chronic illness and their parents: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuengel Carlo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping with a chronic illness (CI challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may prevent children with CI from developing psychosocial problems. Involvement of parents in the intervention program may enhance the use of learned coping strategies in daily life, especially on the long-term. The primary aim of the present study is to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral based group intervention (called 'Op Koers' 1 for children with CI and of a parallel intervention for their parents. A secondary objective is to investigate why and for whom this intervention works, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the intervention effect. Methods/design This study is a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Participants are children (8 to 18 years of age with a chronic illness, and their parents, recruited from seven participating hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants are randomly allocated to two intervention groups (the child intervention group and the child intervention combined with a parent program and a wait-list control group. Primary outcomes are child psychosocial functioning, wellbeing and child disease related coping skills. Secondary outcomes are child quality of life, child general coping skills, child self-perception, parental stress, quality of parent-child interaction, and parental perceived vulnerability. Outcomes are evaluated at baseline, after 6 weeks of treatment, and at a 6 and 12-month follow-up period. The analyses will be performed on the basis of an intention-to-treat population. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a group intervention improving psychosocial functioning in children with CI and their parents. If proven effective, the intervention will be implemented in clinical practice. Strengths and limitations of the study design are discussed

  18. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in Spanish: culture-sensitive manualized treatment in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2010-08-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities.

  19. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Spanish: Culture-Sensitive Manualized Treatment in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2014-01-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities. PMID:20549680

  20. Safety analyses for transient behavior of plasma and in-vessel components during plasma abnormal events in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Okazaki, Takashi; Bartels, H.W.; Uckan, N.A.; Seki, Yasushi.

    1997-01-01

    Safety analyses on plasma abnormal events have been performed using a hybrid code of a plasma dynamics model and a heat transfer model of in-vessel components. Several abnormal events, e.g., increase in fueling rate, were selected for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and transient behavior of the plasma and the invessel components during the events was analyzed. The physics model for safety analysis was conservatively prepared. In most cases, the plasma is terminated by a disruption or it returns to the original operation point. When the energy confinement improves by a factor of 2.0 in the steady state, which is a hypothetical assumption under the present plasma data, the maximum fusion power reaches about 3.3 GW at about 3.6 s and the plasma is terminated due to a disruption. However, the results obtained in this study show the confinement boundary of ITER can be kept almost intact during the abnormal plasma transients, as long as the cooling system works normally. Several parametric studies are needed to comprehend the overpower transient including structure behavior, since many uncertainties are connected to the filed of the plasma physics. And, future work will need to discuss the burn control scenario considering confinement mode transition, system specifications, experimental plans and safety regulations, etc. to confirm the safety related to the plasma anomaly. (author)

  1. Psycho-Cognitive Intervention for ASD from Cross-Species Behavioral Analyses of Infants, Chicks and Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Karino, Genta; Mimura, Koki; Nakamura, Shun; Yui, Kunio; Kunikata, Tetsuya; Yamanouchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Educational treatment to support social development of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important topic in developmental psychiatry. However, it remains difficult to objectively quantify the socio-emotional development of ASD children. To address this problem, we developed a novel analytical method that assesses subjects' complex behaviors using multivariate analysis, 'Behavior Output analysis for Quantitative Emotional State Translation' (BOUQUET). Here, we examine the potential for psycho-cognitive ASD therapy based on comparative evaluations of clinical (human) and experimental (animal) models. Our observations of ASD children (vs. their normally developing siblings) and the domestic chick in socio-sensory deprivation models show the importance of unimodal sensory stimulation, particularly important for tactile- and auditory-biased socialization. Identifying psycho-cognitive elements in early neural development, human newborn infants in neonatal intensive care unit as well as a New World monkey, the common marmoset, also prompted us to focus on the development of voluntary movement against gravity. In summary, striking behavioral similarities between children with ASD and domestic chicks' socio-sensory deprivation models support the role of multimodal sensory-motor integration as a prerequisite step for normal development of socio-emotional and psycho-cognitive functions. Data obtained in the common marmoset model also suggest that switching from primitive anti-gravity reflexes to complex voluntary movement may be a critical milestone for psycho-cognitive development. Combining clinical findings with these animal models, and using multivariate integrative analyses may facilitate the development of effective interventions to improve social functions in infants and in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  2. Quantitative anatomical and behavioral analyses of regeneration and collateral sprouting following spinal cord transection in the nurse shark (ginglymostoma cirratum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderd, J B

    1979-01-01

    The spinal cord was transected at the mid-thoracic level in 32 nurse sharks. Four animals per group were sacrificed at intervals of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90 days postoperative. Two groups of fish underwent a subsequent spinla1 cord retransection at the same site at 90 days and were sacrificed 10 and 20 days later. Three sections of spinal cord were removed from each shark for histological analysis. Behaviorally, timed trials for swimming speed and a strength test for axial musculature contraction caudal to the lesion site were performed at 5 day postoperative intervals. Histological analysis showed little regeneration (9-13 percent) of two descending tracts 90 days following the lesion and no return of rostrally controlled movements caudal to the lesion. However, synaptic readjustment did occur caudal to the lesion. This phenomenon was attributed to local segmental sprouting of adjacent, intact nerve fibers. A close correlation was shown between this synaptic readjustment and the strength of uncontrollable undulatory movements seen caudal to the lesion site following spinal cord transection. The relationship of regeneration and collateral sprouting to quantitative behavioral changes is discussed.

  3. Associated Behavioral Risks in a Group of Women During Pregnancy from Mures District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Ruţa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well-known that the exposure during pregnancy to lifestyle risk factors can affect thehealth both for the mother and the fetus. There are many risk factors for pregnancy, including: smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary pattern, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge regarding health prevention. The main objective of our study was to assess the practices, knowledge and attitudes towards lifestyle risk behaviors during pregnancy in a group of women from Tirgu-Mures area.

  4. Moms in motion: a group-mediated cognitive-behavioral physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brawley Lawrence R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When examining the prevalence of physical inactivity by gender and age, women over the age of 25 are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior. Childbearing and motherhood have been explored as one possible explanation for this increased risk. Post natal exercise studies to date demonstrate promising physical and psychological outcomes, however few physical activity interventions have been theory-driven and tailored to post natal exercise initiates. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention based upon social-cognitive theory and group dynamics (GMCB to a standard care postnatal exercise program (SE. Method A randomized, two-arm intervention design was used. Fifty-seven post natal women were randomized to one of two conditions: (1 a standard exercise treatment (SE and (2 a standard exercise treatment plus group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention (GMCB. Participants in both conditions participated in a four-week intensive phase where participants received standard exercise training. In addition, GMCB participants received self-regulatory behavioral skills training via six group-mediated counseling sessions. Following the intensive phase, participants engaged in a four-week home-based phase of self-structured exercise. Measures of physical activity, barrier efficacy, and proximal outcome expectations were administered and data were analyzed using ANCOVA procedures. Results and discussion ANCOVA of change scores for frequency, minutes, and volume of physical activity revealed significant treatment effects over the intensive and home-based phases (p's Conclusion While both exercise programs resulted in improvements to exercise participation, the GMCB intervention produced greater improvement in overall physical activity, barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations.

  5. Individual Versus Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Partner-Violent Men: A Preliminary Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher M; Eckhardt, Christopher I; Clifford, Judith M; Lamotte, Adam D; Meis, Laura A

    2017-04-01

    A randomized clinical trial tested the hypothesis that a flexible, case formulation-based, individual treatment approach integrating motivational interviewing strategies with cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) is more efficacious than a standardized group cognitive-behavioral approach (GCBT) for perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Forty-two men presenting for services at a community domestic violence agency were randomized to receive 20 sessions of ICBT or a 20-week group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program. Participants and their relationship partners completed assessments of relationship abuse and relationship functioning at baseline and quarterly follow-ups for 1 year. Treatment uptake and session attendance were significantly higher in ICBT than GCBT. However, contrary to the study hypothesis, GCBT produced consistently equivalent or greater benefits than ICBT. Participant self-reports revealed significant reductions in abusive behavior and injuries across conditions with no differential benefits between conditions. Victim partner reports revealed more favorable outcomes for group treatment, including a statistically significant difference in psychological aggression, and differences exceeding a medium effect size for physical assault, emotional abuse, and partner relationship adjustment. In response to hypothetical relationship scenarios, GCBT was associated with greater reductions than ICBT (exceeding a medium effect) in articulated cognitive distortions and aggressive intentions. Treatment competence ratings suggest that flexible, individualized administration of CBT creates challenges in session agenda setting, homework implementation, and formal aspects of relationship skills training. Although caution is needed in generalizing findings from this small-scale trial, the results suggest that the mutual support and positive social influence available in group intervention may be particularly helpful for IPV perpetrators.

  6. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...... of the study with pre-and post-therapy measurements only does not allow for a causal mediator analysis...

  7. Evaluation of Group Intervention for Mothers/Caretakers of Kindergarten Children with Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative parental practices may influence the onset and maintenance of externalizing behavior problems, and positive parenting seem to improve children's social skills and reduce behavior problems. The objective of the present study was to describe the effects of an intervention designed to foster parents' social skills related to upbringing practices in order to reduce externalizing problems in children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirteen mothers and two care taker grandmothers took part in the study with an average of four participants per group. To assess intervention effects, we used a repeated measure design with control, pre, and post intervention assessments. Instruments used were: (a An interview schedule that evaluates the social interactions between parents and children functionally, considering each pair of child¿s and parent's behaviors as context for one another; (b A Social Skills Inventory; (c Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Intervention was effective in improving parent general social skills, decreasing negative parental practices and decreasing child behavior problems.

  8. Individual killer whale vocal variation during intra-group behavioral dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebner, Dawn M.

    The scientific goal of this dissertation was to carefully study the signal structure of killer whale communications and vocal complexity and link them to behavioral circumstances. The overall objective of this research sought to provide insight into killer whale call content and usage which may be conveying information to conspecifics in order to maintain group cohesion. Data were collected in the summers of 2006 and 2007 in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia. For both individuals and small groups, vocalizations were isolated using a triangular hydrophone array and the behavioral movement patterns were captured by a theodolite and video camera positioned on a cliff overlooking the hyrophone locations. This dissertation is divided into four analysis chapters. In Chapter 3, discriminant analysis was used to validate the four N04 call subtypes which were originally parsed due to variations in slope segments. The first two functions of the discriminant analysis explained 97% of the variability. Most of the variability for the N04 call was found in the front convex and the terminal portions of the call, while very little variability was found in the center region of the call. This research revealed that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N04 call. No correlations of behaviors to acoustic parameters obtained were found. The aim of the Chapter 4 was to determine if killer whale calling behavior varied prior to and after the animals had joined. Pulsed call rates were found to be greater pre- compared to post-joining events. Two-way vocal exchanges were more common occurring 74% of the time during pre-joining events. In Chapter 5, initiated and first response to calls varied between age/sex class groups when mothers were separated from an offspring. Solo mothers and calves initiated pulsed calls more often than they responded. Most of the no vocal responses were due to mothers who were foraging. Finally, observations of the frequency split in N04

  9. Not all group hypnotic suggestibility scales are created equal: individual differences in behavioral and subjective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sean M; Lynn, Steven Jay; Pekala, Ronald J

    2009-03-01

    To examine the influence of hypnotic suggestibility testing as a source of individual differences in hypnotic responsiveness, we compared behavioral and subjective responses on three scales of hypnotic suggestibility: The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS: A; Shor, R. E., Orne, E. C. (1962). Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Berlin: Consulting Psychologists Press); the Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale (CURSS; Spanos, N. P., Radtke, H. L., Hodgins, D. C., Stam, H. J., Bertrand, L. D. (1983b). The Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale: Normative data and psychometric properties. Psychological Reports, 53, 523-535); and the Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability (GSHA; Hawkins, R., Wenzel, L. (1999). The Group Scale of Hypnotic Ability and response booklet. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27, 20-31). Behavioral and subjective responses to the CURSS were significantly different than those on the HGSHS: A and GSHA. More participants were classified as "low suggestible" on the CURSS and they reported subjective experiences more similar to everyday mentation. Attitudes and expectancies of participants who received the GSHA were less predictive of responding, but rates of responding and subjective experiences were similar on the GSHA and the HGSHS: A. Discussion focuses on implications for the use of group hypnotic suggestibility scales.

  10. Niveaux d'analyse et cartographie thématique: groupes ethniques et conditions de vie en Bolivie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude ROUX

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Les cartes des conditions de vie en Bolivie montrent des formes d’organisation spatiale récurrentes coïncidant étroitement avec celle des langues quechua et aymara. Mais les conclusions sont tout autres lorsque change le niveau d’analyse notamment en raison des différienciations sociales qui apparaissent à l’échelle locale.

  11. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Afshari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 30 children from 9 to 13-years-old (15 girls and 15 boys with diagnosis of SAD, being randomly assigned to CBT, ECBT, and control groups (five girls and five boys in each group. Subject children in CBT group participated in 10-h weekly sessions within Coping Cat manual; whereas, subject children in ECBT group contributed in 12-h weekly sessions within ECBT. The control group received no treatment. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; child and parent forms, Children′s Emotion Management Scale (CEMS; anger and sadness forms, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ tests administered to all subjects in pretest, posttest, and the follow-up measurement (3 months later. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA repeated measure and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to analyze data by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software package (v. 20. Results: CBT and ECBT; demonstrated no significant difference in reducing separation anxiety and total anxiety symptoms from parent and children′s reports. ECBT effectively increased anger coping and decreased negative cognitive strategies and dysregulation of anger in children, both in posttest and follow-up. Also, ECBT reduced sadness dysregulation and increased sadness coping, though these significant advantages were lost in 3 months later follow-up. CBT reduced negative cognitive strategies in follow-up and increased sadness coping

  12. Whistle rates of wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): influences of group size and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Nicola J; Janik, Vincent M

    2008-08-01

    In large social groups acoustic communication signals are prone to signal masking by conspecific sounds. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) use highly distinctive signature whistles that counter masking effects. However, they can be found in very large groups where masking by conspecific sounds may become unavoidable. In this study we used passive acoustic localization to investigate how whistle rates of wild bottlenose dolphins change in relation to group size and behavioral context. We found that individual whistle rates decreased when group sizes got larger. Dolphins displayed higher whistle rates in contexts when group members were more dispersed as in socializing and in nonpolarized movement than during coordinated surface travel. Using acoustic localization showed that many whistles were produced by groups nearby and not by our focal group. Thus, previous studies based on single hydrophone recordings may have been overestimating whistle rates. Our results show that although bottlenose dolphins whistle more in social situations they also decrease vocal output in large groups where the potential for signal masking by other dolphin whistles increases.

  13. An intervention to reduce HIV risk behavior of substance-using men who have sex with men: a two-group randomized trial with a nonrandomized third group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Mansergh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Substance use during sex is associated with sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, and MSM continue to be the group at highest risk for incident HIV in the United States. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of a group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce risk behavior of substance-using MSM, compared to a randomized attention-control group and a nonrandomized standard HIV-testing group.Participants (n = 1,686 were enrolled in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco and randomized to a cognitive-behavioral intervention or attention-control comparison. The nonrandomized group received standard HIV counseling and testing. Intervention group participants received six 2-h group sessions focused on reducing substance use and sexual risk behavior. Attention-control group participants received six 2-h group sessions of videos and discussion of MSM community issues unrelated to substance use, sexual risk, and HIV/AIDS. All three groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline. The sample reported high-risk behavior during the past 3 mo prior to their baseline visit: 67% reported unprotected anal sex, and 77% reported substance use during their most recent anal sex encounter with a nonprimary partner. The three groups significantly (p0.05 from each other at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Outcomes for the 2-arm comparisons were not significantly different at 12-mo follow-up (e.g., unprotected anal sex, odds ratio = 1.14, confidence interval = 0.86-1.51, nor at earlier time points. Similar results were found for each outcome variable in both 2- and 3-arm comparisons.These results for reducing sexual risk behavior of substance-using MSM are consistent with results of intervention trials for other populations, which collectively suggest critical challenges for the field of HIV behavioral interventions. Several mechanisms may contribute to statistically indistinguishable reductions in risk

  14. [A group cognitive behavioral intervention for people registered in supported employment programs: CBT-SE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, T; Corbière, M; Lysaker, P H

    2014-06-01

    Supported employment programs are highly effective in helping people with severe mental illness obtain competitive jobs quickly. However, job tenure is often a problem for many. Of the various obstacles to job tenure documented, dysfunctional beliefs regarding the workplace and one's own abilities has been proposed as a therapeutic target. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) to describe the development and the content of a novel group cognitive behavioral intervention designed to increase job tenure for people receiving supported employment services; (2) to present the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention; and (3) to investigate some preliminary data regarding employment outcomes. A group CBT intervention offered during 8 sessions over the course of one month, in order to respect the rapid job search principle of IPS (individual placement and support), was developed. The content was tailored to facilitate the learning of skills specific to the workplace, such as recognizing and managing one's stressors at work, determining and modifying dysfunctional thoughts (e.g. not jumping to conclusions, finding alternatives, seeking facts), overcoming obstacles (e.g. problem solving), improving one's self-esteem as a worker (recognizing strengths and qualities), dealing with criticism, using positive assertiveness, finding coping strategies (for symptoms and stress) to use at work, negotiating work accommodations and overcoming stigma. A trial is currently underway, with half the participants receiving supported employment as well as CBT-SE and the other half receiving only supported employment. A subsample of the first 24 participants having completed the 12-month follow-up were used for the analyses, including 12 having received at least 3 sessions out of the 8 group sessions and 12 receiving only supported employment. Feasibility and acceptability were determined by the group therapists' feedback, the participants' feedback as well as attendance to

  15. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT is an effective, well-established, but not widely available treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT has the potential to increase availability and facilitate dissemination of therapeutic services for SAD. However, ICBT for SAD has not been directly compared with in-person treatments such as CBGT and few studies investigating ICBT have been conducted in clinical settings. Our aim was to investigate if ICBT is at least as effective as CBGT for SAD when treatments are delivered in a psychiatric setting.We conducted a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with allocation to ICBT (n=64 or CBGT (n=62 with blinded assessment immediately following treatment and six months post-treatment. Participants were 126 individuals with SAD who received CBGT or ICBT for a duration of 15 weeks. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS was the main outcome measure. The following non-inferiority margin was set: following treatment, the lower bound of the 95 % confidence interval (CI of the mean difference between groups should be less than 10 LSAS-points.Both groups made large improvements. At follow-up, 41 (64% participants in the ICBT group were classified as responders (95% CI, 52%-76%. In the CBGT group, 28 participants (45% responded to the treatment (95% CI, 33%-58%. At post-treatment and follow-up respectively, the 95 % CI of the LSAS mean difference was 0.68-17.66 (Cohen's d between group=0.41 and -2.51-15.69 (Cohen's d between group=0.36 favoring ICBT, which was well within the non-inferiority margin. Mixed effects models analyses showed no significant interaction effect for LSAS, indicating similar improvement across treatments (F=1.58; df=2, 219; p=.21.ICBT delivered in a psychiatric setting can be as effective as CBGT in the treatment of SAD and could be used to increase availability to CBT.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00564967.

  16. Qu'en est-il de la transmission dans les groupes d'analyse de pratiques en formation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Vallet, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Atelier 21 : Travail social et bénévolat; Ma recherche s'intéresse à la formation des professionnels de la relation, et à cette instance particulière qu'est l'analyse des pratiques : celle-ci suppose la transmission d'une capacité de problématisation des situations professionnelles, un regard critique ajusté, un certain rapport aux savoirs, une attitude herméneutique, et une posture particulière de l'animateur pour favoriser le cheminement des personnes en formation. Car au-delà d'une meilleu...

  17. Adsorption behavior of Urokinase by the polypropylene film with amine, hydroxylamine and polyol groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Pill; Kang, Hae-Jeong; Joo, Duck-Lae; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of the recovery of urokinase, the polypropylene (PP) films were modified by radiation-induced grafting of glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) and subsequent chemical modification of epoxy group of poly-GMA graft chains. The physical and chemical properties of the irradiated PP film, GMA-grafted PP film and the PP films modified with trimethylamine (TMA), hydroxylamine (HA), diethanolamine (DEA), and tri(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THMAM) were investigated by IR, SEM, and XPS. The adsorption of urokinase for the PP films modified with TMA, HA, DEA, and THMAM group were examined under various conditions of the functional group content, pH value and salt. It increased with increasing the content of functional group. The adsorption behavior of the PP films modified for different functional groups was in the following order: TMA>DEA>THMAM>HA. The adsorption of urokinase by the PP films with various functional groups at pH=7.4 were higher than that at pH=9.0. In TMA, DEA, and THMAM groups, the adsorption of urokinase without salts was also higher than those with salts. (author)

  18. Effect of motivational group interviewing-based safety education on Workers' safety behaviors in glass manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Rostami, Zahra; Rozbehani, Nasrin

    2015-09-19

    Worker safety education using models that identify and reinforce factors affecting behavior is essential. The present study aimed to determine the effect of safety education based on motivational interviewing on awareness of, attitudes toward, and engagement in worker safety in the glass production industry in Hamedan, Iran, in 2014. This was a quasi-experimental interventional study including a total of 70 production line workers at glass production facilities in Hamedan. The workers were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a control group, with 35 workers in each group. Participants in the control group received four one-hour safety education sessions, in the form of traditional lectures. Those in the intervention group received four educational sessions based on motivational group interviewing, which were conducted in four groups of eight to ten participants each. The instruments used included a researcher-developed questionnaire with checklists addressing safety awareness, and attitude and performance, which were completed before and 12 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent and paired t-tests, and chi-squared tests. Having obtained the differences in scores before and after the intervention, we determined mean changes in the scores of awareness, attitude, and use of personal protective equipment among workers who underwent motivational group interviewing (3.74 ± 2.16, 1.71 ± 3.16, and 3.2 ± 1.92, respectively, p work environment.

  19. On the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Aggression in Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahmood najafy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available : This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on aggression among addicts. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pre-posttest stages, control group, and follow-up was employed for the conduct of this study. The number of 24 addicts referring to rehabilitation clinics in Tehran was selected as the sample size of this study via convenience sampling method in accordance with the inclusion criteria. These participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In this study, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for data collection purposes. Results: Data analysis showed that group cognitive-behavioral therapy reduces verbal and physical aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. However, this therapy only led to the reduction of verbal aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. Conclusion: Since aggression has a high comorbidity with substance abuse, this factor can be as an obstacle to withdrawal. Therefore, it must be considered in addiction treatment.

  20. New nuclear data group constant sets for fusion reactor nuclear analyses based on JENDL-4.0 and FENDL-3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Chikara; Ohta, Masayuki; Kwon, Saerom; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have produced new nuclear data group constant sets from JENDL-4.0 and FENDL-3.0 for fusion reactor nuclear analyses; FUSION-J40-175, FUSION-F30-175 (40 materials, neutron 175 groups, gamma 42 groups), FUSION-J40-42 and FUSION-F30-42 (40 materials, neutron 42 groups, gamma 21 groups). MATXS files of JENDL-4.0 and FENDL-3.0 were newly produced with the NJOY2012 code. FUSION-J40-175, FUSION-J40-42, FUSION-F30-175 and FUSION-F30-42 were produced with the TRANSX code. KERMA factors, DPA and gas production cross-section data were also prepared from the MATXS files with TRANSX. Test calculations were carried out in order to validate these nuclear group constant sets. They suggested that these group constant sets had no problem. (author)

  1. Group psychotherapy for eating disorders: A randomized clinical trial and a pre-treatment moderator and mediator analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir

    disorders in group therapy. We conducted a randomized clinical trial and included 159 adult participants, 156 females and 3 males, diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV. Eighty participants were allocated to the experimental...

  2. The Power to Detect Sex Differences in IQ Test Scores Using Multi-Group Covariance and Means Structure Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; Wicherts, Jelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Research into sex differences in general intelligence, g, has resulted in two opposite views. In the first view, a g-difference is nonexistent, while in the second view, g is associated with a male advantage. Past research using Multi-Group Covariance and Mean Structure Analysis (MG-CMSA) found no sex difference in g. This failure raised the…

  3. Genetic analyses place most Spanish isolates of Beauveria bassiana in a molecular group with word-wide distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA) of insects. Fifty-seven Beauveria bassiana isolates -53 from Spain- were characterized, integrating group I intron insertion patterns at the 3'-end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal gene (LSU rDNA) and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α) phylogenetic information, in order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this Spanish collection of B. bassiana. Results Group I intron genotype analysis was based on the four highly conserved insertion sites of the LSU (Ec2653, Ec2449, Ec2066, Ec1921). Of the 16 possible combinations/genotypes, only four were detected, two of which were predominant, containing 44 and 9 members out of 57 isolates, respectively. Interestingly, the members of the latter two genotypes showed unique differences in their growth temperatures. In follow, EF1-α phylogeny served to classify most of the strains in the B. bassiana s.s. (sensu stricto) group and separate them into 5 molecular subgroups, all of which contained a group I intron belonging to the IC1 subtype at the Ec1921 position. A number of parameters such as thermal growth or origin (host, geographic location and climatic conditions) were also examined but in general no association could be found. Conclusion Most Spanish B. bassiana isolates (77.2%) are grouped into a major phylogenetic subgroup with word-wide distribution. However, high phylogenetic diversity was also detected among Spanish isolates from close geographic zones with low climatic variation. In general, no correlation was observed between the molecular distribution and geographic origin or climatic characteristics where the Spanish B. bassiana isolates were sampled. PMID:21521527

  4. Students' Self-Esteem and Their Perception of Teacher Behavior: A Study of Between-Class Ability Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kususanto, Prihadi; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Jamil, Hazri

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Between-class ability grouping practice in Malaysian Secondary Schools was studied in order to find the influence students' perception on their teachers' behavior on their self-esteem. Students' perception on teachers' behaviors were divided into two categories: controlling students' behavior to avoid disciplinary matters and…

  5. The Group Evacuation Behavior Based on Fire Effect in the Complicated Three-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively depict the group evacuation behavior in the complicated three-dimensional space, a novel pedestrian flow model is proposed with three-dimensional cellular automata. In this model the calculation methods of floor field and fire gain are elaborated at first, and the transition gain of target position at the next moment is defined. Then, in consideration of pedestrian intimacy and velocity change, the group evacuation strategy and evolution rules are given. Finally, the experiments were conducted with the simulation platform to study the relationships of evacuation time, pedestrian density, average system velocity, and smoke spreading velocity. The results had shown that large-scale group evacuation should be avoided, and in case of large pedestrian density, the shortest route of evacuation strategy would extend system evacuation time.

  6. Risky sexual behaviors of adolescents in rural Malawi: evidence from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, Barbara L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I; Norr, Kathleen F

    2006-07-01

    Little is known about rural Malawian adolescents' perceptions of their sexual behavior and what would constitute an effective HIV risk-reduction program. This study explored the perceptions of Malawain adolescents using qualitative description research with focus groups. A purposive sample of 144 adolescents, ranging from 10 to 19 years of age was obtained. Subjects were then placed in focus groups separated by gender Qualitative content analysis revealed that adolescents were at risk for HIV based on the select behaviors These included early sexual debut, multiple partners, non-use of condoms and among girls older partners These adolescents acknowledged peer pressure and lack of parental supervision as factors that perpetuated these behaviors and identified two components of HIV prevention programs. For example, parental involvement and support for sexual abstinence were among the issues discussed. It is essential that HIV risk-reduction programs create ways of involving parents and of enhancing adolescents' HIV risk-reduction skills by helping them to change peer norms and to develop negotiation and assertiveness skills to in order to resist peer pressure.

  7. Brazilian Credit Union Member Groups: Borrower-dominated, Saver-dominated or Neutral Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Gama Fully Bressan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models concerning Credit Unions (CUs suggest that the type of CU domination determines the way it allocates the monetary value it generates. A borrower- (saver- dominated CU benefits borrower (saver members at the expenses of saver (borrower members, and a neutral CU equally benefits its member groups.This paper applies direct measure of monetary benefits to each member group (Patin & McNiel, 1991a to testfor the existence of dominated behavior in Brazilian CUs, and is the first to apply panel data regressions to identify the determinants of CUs behavior. We use a unique panel data with 40,664 observations taken from 533 CUs affiliated with the largest Brazilian cooperative network. Results indicate Brazilian CUs are dominated by borrowers, but behave close to neutrality. Panel regression estimates show that common or multiple bond type,size and overdue loans of a CU have no effect on its behavior, the greater the total amount of loans over social capital and adjusted equity over total assets are the more likely a CU is borrower dominated, and the greater the age and current operational expenses over total asset of a CU are the more likely a CU is saver dominated.

  8. Group-Level EEG-Processing Pipeline for Flexible Single Trial-Based Analyses Including Linear Mixed Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömer, Romy; Maier, Martin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2018-01-01

    Here we present an application of an EEG processing pipeline customizing EEGLAB and FieldTrip functions, specifically optimized to flexibly analyze EEG data based on single trial information. The key component of our approach is to create a comprehensive 3-D EEG data structure including all trials and all participants maintaining the original order of recording. This allows straightforward access to subsets of the data based on any information available in a behavioral data structure matched with the EEG data (experimental conditions, but also performance indicators, such accuracy or RTs of single trials). In the present study we exploit this structure to compute linear mixed models (LMMs, using lmer in R) including random intercepts and slopes for items. This information can easily be read out from the matched behavioral data, whereas it might not be accessible in traditional ERP approaches without substantial effort. We further provide easily adaptable scripts for performing cluster-based permutation tests (as implemented in FieldTrip), as a more robust alternative to traditional omnibus ANOVAs. Our approach is particularly advantageous for data with parametric within-subject covariates (e.g., performance) and/or multiple complex stimuli (such as words, faces or objects) that vary in features affecting cognitive processes and ERPs (such as word frequency, salience or familiarity), which are sometimes hard to control experimentally or might themselves constitute variables of interest. The present dataset was recorded from 40 participants who performed a visual search task on previously unfamiliar objects, presented either visually intact or blurred. MATLAB as well as R scripts are provided that can be adapted to different datasets.

  9. Health literacy and health-promoting behaviors among multiethnic groups of women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chang, Shu-Chen; Yang, Yung-Mei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2014-01-01

    To understand the current status of health literacy and the relationship between health literacy and health-promoting behaviors among multiethnic groups of women in Taiwan. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were used to recruit study participants. Data were collected using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. We recruited community female adults who lived in greater Taipei or Taoyuan areas (northern Taiwan) from January 1, 2010 through June 30, 2011. A total of 378 female participants were contacted, of which 351 consented to participate and 347 completed valid questionnaires for analysis. Health literacy was measured with the Taiwan Health Literacy Scale, and health-promoting behaviors were measured by the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. Participants had a moderate level of health literacy, and one third of them had inadequate health literacy. Participants with inadequate health literacy were more likely to be younger, not a high school graduate, and Vietnamese; to have a low monthly family income and no diagnosed diseases; to use a second language; and to regard TV/radio as the most useful source of health information. Health literacy alone could significantly predict health-promoting behaviors among the participants. Our findings confirmed that low health literacy is prevalent among underprivileged women in Taiwan. Health-related programs that are literacy sensitive and culturally appropriate are needed to teach and encourage health-promoting behaviors. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Group and Internet Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruin, Eduard J; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2016-08-01

    To investigate cost-effectiveness of adolescent cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in group- and Internet-delivered formats, from a societal perspective with a time horizon of 1 y. Costs and effects data up to 1-y follow-up were obtained from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing Internet CBTI to face-to-face group CBTI. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Child Development and Education at the University of Amsterdam, and the academic youth mental health care center UvAMinds in Amsterdam. Sixty-two participants meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria for insomnia were randomized to face-to-face group CBTI (GT; n = 31, age = 15.6 y ± 1.8, 71.0% girls) or individual Internet CBTI (IT; n = 31, age = 15.4 y ± 1.5, 83.9% girls). The intervention consisted of six weekly sessions and a 2-mo follow up booster-session of CBTI, consisting of psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, restriction of time in bed, stimulus control, cognitive therapy, and relaxation techniques. GT sessions were held in groups of six to eight adolescents guided by two trained sleep therapists. IT consisted of individual Internet therapy with preprogrammed content similar to GT, and guided by trained sleep therapists. Outcome measures were subjective sleep efficiency (SE) ≥ 85%, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Analyses were conducted from a societal perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated using bootstrap sampling, and presented in cost-effectiveness planes. Primary analysis showed costs over 1 y were higher for GT but effects were similar for IT and GT. Bootstrapped ICERs demonstrated there is a high probability of IT being cost-effective compared to GT. Secondary analyses confirmed robustness of results. Internet CBTI is a cost-effective treatment compared to group CBTI for adolescents, although effects were largely similar for both formats

  11. Compare the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in Reducing Depression in Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Depression is on the top list of mental disorders which account for about 25 percent of patients referred to health centers in your world. So, is presented in different ways to treat it. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in reducing depression in mothers of children with disabilities Materials and Methods: This study is quasi-experimental and consists of experimental and control groups. This study population was mothers referred to mobility, occupational therapy and physiotherapy centers who had depressive symptoms. 8 patients in each group were selected by convenience sampling. The research instrument were the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders and the revised Beck Depression Inventory form (1996. Dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy groups were instructured for 2 months (8 sessions of 2 to 2.5 hours. But the control group did not receive intervention. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the mean depression scores of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive therapy group with control group (p<0.001. Also, there is a significant difference between the mean depression scores of dialectical behavior therapy with cognitive therapy (p<0.001. Conclusion: In the area of treatment and working with depressed people and those who are in crisis mode, it seems that dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive therapy group in view of its nature is very efficient and promising.

  12. Enzymatic-fluorometric analyses for glutamine, glutamate and free amino groups in protein-free plasma and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Fernández, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    This Technical Research Communication describes new analytical methods for free, unbound glutamic acid and glutamine in protein-free blood plasma and milk and introduces the use of quantitation of free amino groups in the same matrices for descriptive and analytical purposes. The present enzymatic......-fluorometric methods are easily performed within one working day, allowing for ‘high throughput’ assays of animal trials. These assays could support and enable further studies in lactation physiology with the objective of improved metabolic health....

  13. How group education impacts female factory workers' behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Memnun; Bahar, Mine; Akyüz, Aygül; Erdoğan, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    The workplace has been deemed a suitable location for educating many women at once about cancer screening. To determine how group education about early diagnostic methods for breast and cervical cancer effects women's behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. This semi-interventional study was conducted at a textile factory in Istanbul, Turkey. Female workers (n= 125) were included in the study. A participant identification form and knowledge evaluation form developed for this study, along with the transtheoretical model, were used to collect data. A 45-min interactive group education was given to the participants. Upon contacting participants 3 months after group education, 15.4% (n = 11) stated that they had since received a mammogram and 9.8% (n = 7) a Pap smear. As suggested by the transtheoretical model, group education increased participants' readiness to receive cancer screening, along with their knowledge of breast and cervical cancer. Group education positively impacted women's knowledge of cancer and their readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. Group education can potentially create awareness of cancer screening tests among women and improve their readiness to receive such tests.

  14. The stepping behavior analysis of pedestrians from different age groups via a single-file experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Song, Weiguo; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2018-03-01

    The stepping behavior of pedestrians with different age compositions in single-file experiment is investigated in this paper. The relation between step length, step width and stepping time are analyzed by using the step measurement method based on the calculation of curvature of the trajectory. The relations of velocity-step width, velocity-step length and velocity-stepping time for different age groups are discussed and compared with previous studies. Finally effects of pedestrian gender and height on stepping laws and fundamental diagrams are analyzed. The study is helpful for understanding pedestrian dynamics of movement. Meanwhile, it offers experimental data to develop a microscopic model of pedestrian movement by considering stepping behavior.

  15. Individual versus group behavior and the role of the decision making process in gift-exchange experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.; Sutter, M.

    2007-01-01

    We test for behavioral differences between groups and individuals in gift-exchange experiments. Related studies in economics establish group behavior as often closer to the standard game-theoretic equilibrium under the assumptions of rationality and selfishness. We show that this result may depend

  16. The effects of two self-regulation interventions to increase self-efficacy and group exercise behavior in fitness clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Rooijen, M. van; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited

  17. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, J.; van Rooijen, M.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited

  18. Cost Effectiveness of Individual versus Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Problems of Depression and Anxiety in an HMO Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Joan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared the cost effectiveness of cognitive behavior group therapy, traditional process-oriented interpersonal group, and individual cognitive behavior therapy in dealing with depression and anxiety in a health maintenance organization population (N=44). Results suggest that cost considerations can become relatively important when decisions are…

  19. Taxometric analyses and predictive accuracy of callous-unemotional traits regarding quality of life and behavior problems in non-conduct disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpers, Pierre C M; Klip, Helen; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Taylor, Mark J; Greven, Corina U; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-07-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits have mainly been studied in relation to conduct disorder (CD), but can also occur in other disorder groups. However, it is unclear whether there is a clinically relevant cut-off value of levels of CU traits in predicting reduced quality of life (QoL) and clinical symptoms, and whether CU traits better fit a categorical (taxonic) or dimensional model. Parents of 979 youths referred to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic rated their child's CU traits on the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits (ICU), QoL on the Kidscreen-27, and clinical symptoms on the Child Behavior Checklist. Experienced clinicians conferred DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of ADHD, ASD, anxiety/mood disorders and DBD-NOS/ODD. The ICU was also used to score the DSM-5 specifier 'with limited prosocial emotions' (LPE) of Conduct Disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed that the predictive accuracy of the ICU and LPE regarding QoL and clinical symptoms was poor to fair, and similar across diagnoses. A clinical cut-off point could not be defined. Taxometric analyses suggested that callous-unemotional traits on the ICU best reflect a dimension rather than taxon. More research is needed on the impact of CU traits on the functional adaptation, course, and response to treatment of non-CD conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seminal characteristics and sexual behavior in men of different age groups: is there an aging effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavos, Panayiotis M; Kaskar, Khalied; Correa, Juan R; Sikka, Suresh C

    2006-05-01

    To assess the seminal characteristics as well as the sexual behavior of men of various age groups to establish the presence of an aging effect on those characteristics. Semen samples were collected from men (n = 792) undergoing in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination in cases of female factor infertility only. Samples were collected using a seminal collection device at intercourse and evaluated manually according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Men were divided into four groups according to their ages: (i) 20-30, (ii) 31-40, (iii) 41-50 and (iv) 51-60 years, and their seminal characteristics and responses to a sexual behavior questionnaire were compared. The data showed statistically significant differences in the seminal characteristics tested, most notably in the sperm concentration, motility, grade of motility, hypo-osmotic swelling and normal sperm morphology. Furthermore, the decline in normal sperm morphology with age was more pronounced when using strict criteria rather than WHO standards. There were also differences in total sperm count, total motile sperm and total functional sperm fraction (assessed by both WHO and strict criteria). Significant differences were also observed in the sexual behavior patterns in older men in terms of the number of years they have been trying to conceive, sexual frequency and sexual satisfaction. The data clearly illustrate an aging effect on semen characteristics and sexual behavior in men as they age. It is suggested that the aging effect be taken into consideration when proposing normal standard values for semen characteristics in routine semen analysis as outlined by WHO standards.

  1. Toward a qualitative understanding of binge-watching behaviors: A focus group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayelle, Maèva; Maurage, Pierre; Billieux, Joël

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors underlying this behavior, as reflected by the paucity of available studies, most merely focusing on its potential harmfulness by applying the classic criteria used for other addictive disorders without exploring the uniqueness of binge-watching. This study thus aimed to take the opposite approach as a first step toward a genuine understanding of binge-watching behaviors through a qualitative analysis of the phenomenological characteristics of TV series watching. Methods A focus group of regular TV series viewers (N = 7) was established to explore a wide range of aspects related to TV series watching (e.g., motives, viewing practices, and related behaviors). Results A content analysis identified binge-watching features across three dimensions: TV series watching motivations, TV series watching engagement, and structural characteristics of TV shows. Most participants acknowledged that TV series watching can become addictive, but they all agreed having trouble recognizing themselves as truly being an "addict." Although obvious connections could be established with substance addiction criteria and symptoms, such parallelism appeared to be insufficient, as several distinctive facets emerged (e.g., positive view, transient overinvolvement, context dependency, and low everyday life impact). Discussion and conclusion The research should go beyond the classic biomedical and psychological models of addictive behaviors to account for binge-watching in order to explore its specificities and generate the first steps toward an adequate theoretical rationale for these emerging problematic behaviors.

  2. Behavioral thermoregulation in a group of zoo-housed colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Jason D; Kuhar, Christopher W; Lukas, Kristen E

    2014-01-01

    Although wild primates are known to modify behavior in response to thermal stress, less is known about behavioral thermoregulation in zoo-housed primates. Zoo exhibits expose individuals to unique thermal environments and may constrain the thermoregulatory strategies available to individual animals. In this study, we observed a group of seven colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) living on a concrete "Monkey Island" style exhibit that featured limited shade and limited arboreal space. Behaviors were recorded using continuous focal animal sampling (n = 63 days, 97.7 hr). Logistic regression revealed 23°C was the temperature at which monkeys began resting more in shade than in sun. When temperatures exceeded 23°C, animals spent more time in open sitting postures with limbs extended from the body; sat less frequently in closed, hunched postures; spent more time in social contact; and performed more self-directed behaviors. Exhibit use also shifted under higher temperatures, with more time spent in areas with shade and lower surface temperatures. Lastly, when provided with access to an indoor holding area, the colobus monkeys spent more than half the time indoors when temperatures exceeded 23°C, yet only 10% of their time indoors when the temperature was below this value. Although postural changes have been reported in wild colobus, the postural and other behavioral changes observed in the current study occurred at temperatures lower than expected based on the published thermoneutral zone of colobus monkeys and highlight the importance of considering the specific thermoregulatory responses of zoo animals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Group Intervention for Hypersexual Disorder: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Jonas; Kaldo, Viktor; Arver, Stefan; Dhejne, Cecilia; Öberg, Katarina Görts

    2017-07-01

    The proposed criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition for hypersexual disorder (HD) included symptoms reported by patients seeking help for excessive and out-of-control non-paraphilic sexual behavior, including sexual behaviors in response to dysphoric mood states, impulsivity, and risk taking. Although no prior studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of HD have been performed, CBT has been found effective for dysphoric mood states and impulsivity. To investigate the feasibility of a CBT manual developed for HD explored through symptom decrease, treatment attendance, and clients' treatment satisfaction. Ten men with a diagnosis of HD took part in the CBT group program. Measurements were taken before, during, and at the end of treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment. The primary outcome was the Hypersexual Disorder: Current Assessment Scale (HD:CAS) score that measured the severity of problematic hypersexual symptoms and secondary outcomes were the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) score, the proportion of attended sessions, and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) score. Main results were significant decreases of HD symptoms from before to after treatment on HD:CAS and HDSI scores and a decrease in the number of problematic sexual behaviors during the course of therapy. A high attendance rate of 93% and a high treatment satisfaction score on CSQ-8 also were found. The CBT program seemed to ameliorate the symptoms of HD and therefore might be a feasible treatment option. This study provides data from a CBT program for the treatment of the specific proposed criteria of HD. Because of the small sample and lack of a control group, the results can be considered only preliminary. Although participants reported decreased HD symptoms after attending the CBT program, future studies should evaluate the treatment program with a larger sample and a randomized controlled procedure

  4. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota among sexual risk behavior groups of women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Sunesara, Imran R; Kumar, Ranjit; Mena, Leandro A; Griswold, Michael E; Martin, David H; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Schwebke, Jane R; Swiatlo, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW). The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM), and women who have sex with men (WSM) with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV. Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ≥ 2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannon's Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively. 33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR)=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54) and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93) were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86), and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88) was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Additional studies are

  5. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota among sexual risk behavior groups of women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Muzny

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW. The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM, and women who have sex with men (WSM with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV.Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ≥ 2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannon's Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively.33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54 and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93 were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86, and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88 was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa.The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Additional studies

  6. Sudden gains in group cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Teachman, Bethany A; Smith-Janik, Shannan B

    2008-11-01

    The current study investigates sudden gains (rapid symptom reduction) in group cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder. Sudden gains occurring after session 2 of treatment predicted overall symptom reduction at treatment termination and some changes in cognitive biases. Meanwhile, sudden gains occurring immediately following session 1 were not associated with symptom reduction or cognitive change. Together, this research points to the importance of examining sudden gains across the entire span of treatment, as well as the potential role of sudden gains in recovery from panic disorder.

  7. Insight into the Female Longevity Puzzle: Using Register Data to Analyse Mortality and Cause of Death Behaviour Across Socio-economic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    This paper analyses the complexity of female longevity improvements. As socio-economic status influence health and mortality, we partition all individuals, at each age and year, into ten socio-economic groups based on an affluence measure. We identify the particular socio-economic groups that have...... for all subgroups, however with particular large decreases for the low-middle and middle affluence groups. We find that causes of deaths related to smoking partly contribute to the slowdown in female longevity. However the lack of improvements in deaths relating to ischemic heart diseases is dominant...

  8. Roosevelt elk density and social segregation: Foraging behavior and females avoiding larger groups of males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, F.; McFarland, K.; Ricca, M.; Meyer, K.

    2004-01-01

    Intersexual social segregation at small spatial scales is prevalent in ruminants that are sexually dimorphic in body size. Explaining social segregation, however, from hypotheses of how intersexual size differences affects the foraging process of males and females has had mixed results. We studied whether body size influences on forage behavior, intersexual social incompatibility or both might influence social segregation in a population of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelt) that declined 40% over 5 y. Most males and females in the population occurred in the same forage patches, meadows, but occupied different parts of meadows and most groups were overwhelming comprised of one sex. The extent of segregation varied slightly with changing elk density. Cropping rate, our surrogate of forage ingestion, of males in mixed-sex groups differed from males in male-only groups at high, but not low, elk density. In a prior study of intersexual social interactions it was shown that females avoided groups containing ???6 males. Therefore, we predicted that females should avoid parts of meadows where groups of males ???6 were prevalent. Across the 5 y of study this prediction held because ???5% of all females were found in parts of meadows where median aggregation sizes of males were ???6. Social segregation was coupled to body size influences on forage ingestion at high density and social incompatibility was coupled to social segregation regardless of elk density.

  9. High performance liquid chromatographic hydrocarbon group-type analyses of mid-distillates employing fuel-derived fractions as standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, G. T.; Otterson, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods have been developed for the determination of saturates, olefins and aromatics in petroleum and shale derived mid-distillate fuels. In one method the fuel to be analyzed is reacted with sulfuric acid, to remove a substantial portion of the aromatics, which provides a reacted fuel fraction for use in group type quantitation. The second involves the removal of a substantial portion of the saturates fraction from the HPLC system to permit the determination of olefin concentrations as low as 0.3 volume percent, and to improve the accuracy and precision of olefins determinations. Each method was evaluated using model compound mixtures and real fuel samples.

  10. Pharmacotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy enhance follow-up treatment duration in gambling disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Shin, Young-Chul; Youn, HyunChul; Lim, Se-Won; Ha, Juwon

    2016-01-01

    Longer treatment duration is important for the successful treatment of gambling disorder (GD). This retrospective study investigated the factors and interventions that might enhance treatment duration in GD patients in South Korea. A total of 758 outpatients with a primary diagnosis of GD, who were treated in a clinical practice from 2002 to 2011, were assessed by retrospective chart review. We compared the treatment duration according to pharmacotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Pharmacotherapy contributed to a longer duration of treatment maintenance, despite the patients' gambling severity (p gambling severity. The treatment maintenance duration was the longest in those receiving combined antidepressant pharmacotherapy and group CBT (F = 35.79, p prevention and treatment strategies.

  11. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Reducing Societal Obesity: Establishing a Separate Exercise Model through Studies of Group Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterbaugh, J S

    2016-01-01

    The past 50 years has brought attention to high and increasing levels of human obesity in most of the industrialized world. The medical profession has noticed, has evaluated, and has developed models for studying, preventing, and reversing obesity. The current model prescribes activity in specific quantities such as days, minutes, heart rates, and footfalls. Although decreased levels of activity have come from changes revolving around built environments and social networks, the existing medical model to lower body weights by increasing activity remains individually prescriptive. It is not working. The study of societal obesity precludes the individual and must involve group behavioral studies. Such studies necessitate acquiring separate tools and, therefore, require a significant change in the evaluation and treatment of obesity. Finding groups with common activities and lower levels of obesity would allow the development of new models of land use and encourage active lifestyles through shared interests.

  13. Donation Behavior toward In-Groups and Out-Groups: The Role of Gender and Moral Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Page Winterich; Vikas Mittal; William T. Ross Jr.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how two important social identities--gender identity and moral identity--result in differential donations to in-groups and out-groups. Results from three studies indicate that moral identity importance tends to increase donations to out-groups (Iraq, Indonesia) and not to in-groups (London, New Orleans). However, this occurs only for consumers with a feminine gender identity. For consumers with a masculine gender identity, moral identity importance increases donations to the in...

  14. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders adapted for a group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Stephanie; Byrne, Sue; Allen, Karina

    2017-08-01

    This randomized control trial is an evaluation of the effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT-E) for eating disorders adapted for a group setting. The study aimed to examine the effects of group CBT-E on eating disorder psychopathology and additional maintaining pathology. A transdiagnostic sample of individuals with eating disorders with a BMI ≥ 18 kg/m 2 (N = 40) were randomized to an immediate-start or delayed-start condition so as to compare therapeutic effects of group CBT-E with a waitlist control. Global Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) scores, BMI, and measures of Clinical Perfectionism, Self-Esteem, Interpersonal Difficulties, and Mood Intolerance were measured across the 8-week control period, throughout the group treatment and at 3-months post-treatment. Over 70% of those who entered the trial completed treatment. The first eight weeks of group CBT-E were more effective at reducing Global EDE-Q scores than no treatment (waitlist control). By post-treatment, good outcome (a Global EDE-Q within 1 SD of Australian community norms plus BMI ≥ 18.5) was achieved by 67.9% of treatment completers and 66.7% of the total sample. Symptom abstinence within the previous month was reported by 14.3% of treatment completers and 10.3% of the total sample. Significant reductions in Clinical Perfectionism, Self-Esteem, Interpersonal Difficulties, and Mood Intolerance were also observed. This study demonstrated that a group version of CBT-E can be effective at reducing eating disorder psychopathology in a transdiagnostic sample of individuals with eating disorders. Group CBT-E could provide a means of increasing availability of evidence-based treatment for eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cognitive-behavioral group treatment for perinatal anxiety: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sheryl M; Haber, Erika; Frey, Benicio N; McCabe, Randi E

    2015-08-01

    Along with physical and biological changes, a tremendous amount of upheaval and adjustment accompany the pregnancy and postpartum period of a woman's life that together can often result in what is commonly known as postpartum depression. However, anxiety disorders have been found to be more frequent than depression during pregnancy and at least as common, if not more so, during the postpartum period, e.g., Brockington et al., (Archieves Women's Ment Health 9:253-263, 2006; Wenzel et al. (J Anxiety Disord, 19:295-311, 2005). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established psychological treatment of choice for anxiety; however, few studies have specifically examined a cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting perinatal anxiety. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group treatment (CBGT) program specifically tailored to address perinatal anxiety in 10 women who were either pregnant or within 12 months postpartum. Participants were recruited from a women's clinic at an academic hospital setting, with anxiety identified as their principal focus of distress. Following a diagnostic interview confirming a primary anxiety disorder and completion of assessment measures, participants completed a 6-week CBGT program. There was a statistically significant reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following the CBGT program (all p anxiety. These findings suggest that CBGT for perinatal anxiety is a promising treatment for both anxiety and depressive symptoms experienced during the perinatal period. Further studies are needed to evaluate the treatment efficacy through larger controlled trials.

  16. The Impact of Group Drumming on Social-Emotional Behavior in Low-Income Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-income youth experience social-emotional problems linked to chronic stress that are exacerbated by lack of access to care. Drumming is a non-verbal, universal activity that builds upon a collectivistic aspect of diverse cultures and does not bear the stigma of therapy. A pretest-post-test non-equivalent control group design was used to assess the effects of 12 weeks of school counselor-led drumming on social-emotional behavior in two fifth-grade intervention classrooms versus two standard education control classrooms. The weekly intervention integrated rhythmic and group counseling activities to build skills, such as emotion management, focus and listening. The Teacher’s Report Form was used to assess each of 101 participants (n = 54 experimental, n = 47 control, 90% Latino, 53.5% female, mean age 10.5 years, range 10–12 years. There was 100% retention. ANOVA testing showed that intervention classrooms improved significantly compared to the control group in broad-band scales (total problems (P < .01, internalizing problems (P < .02, narrow-band syndrome scales (withdrawn/depression (P < .02, attention problems (P < .01, inattention subscale (P < .001, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales (anxiety problems (P < .01, attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (P < .01, inattention subscale (P < .001, oppositional defiant problems (P < .03, and other scales (post-traumatic stress problems (P < .01, sluggish cognitive tempo (P < .001. Participation in group drumming led to significant improvements in multiple domains of social-emotional behavior. This sustainable intervention can foster positive youth development and increase student-counselor interaction. These findings underscore the potential value of the arts as a therapeutic tool.

  17. Considerations on the age of the Bambui Group (MG, Brazil) based on isotopic analyses of Sr and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, J.G.P.; Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1981-01-01

    Based on radiometric ages, the Bambui Group deposition time is related to the end of the Precambrian. However, the ages determined and released through scientific magazines are mot in agreement (600-1350 m.y.) and many doubts about the geochrological picture of this important lithostratigraphic unit remained for a long time. As a result of the work developed by Metamig, CPGeo (IG-USP) and IPEN (SP), Rb/Sr and Pb/Pb isotopic determinations were done on 31 rocks samples and 17 galenas collected from the Bambui Basin distributed in Minas Gerais State. The Rb/Sr ages of 590 m.y. for Pirapora Formation, 620 m.y. for Tres Marias Formation, and 640 m.y. for the Paraopeba Formation situated in the stable area are linked to sedimentation processes. In the Paracatu region the age of 680 m.y. found for the Paraopeba Formation is related to metamorphic events. The lead isotopic ratios from the galenas suggest an isotopic evolution in two stages. The first ended with the lead separation from the mantle and its incorporation to the crust during events of the Transamazonic Cycle. The second ended when the lead were incorporated to the galenas and seems to be related to one or more events of the Brazilian Cycle. (Author) [pt

  18. Correlates of motivation to change in pathological gamblers completing cognitive-behavioral group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Penelo, Eva; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Alvarez-Moya, Eva; Santamaría, Juan José; Moragas, Laura; Neus Aymamí, Maria; Gunnard, Katarina; Menchón, José M; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana

    2012-07-01

    The present study analyzes the association between the motivation to change and the cognitive-behavioral group intervention, in terms of dropouts and relapses, in a sample of male pathological gamblers. The specific objectives were as follows: (a) to estimate the predictive value of baseline University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale (URICA) scores (i.e., at the start of the study) as regards the risk of relapse and dropout during treatment and (b) to assess the incremental predictive ability of URICA scores, as regards the mean change produced in the clinical status of patients between the start and finish of treatment. The relationship between the URICA and the response to treatment was analyzed by means of a pre-post design applied to a sample of 191 patients who were consecutively receiving cognitive-behavioral group therapy. The statistical analysis included logistic regression models and hierarchical multiple linear regression models. The discriminative ability of the models including the four URICA scores regarding the likelihood of relapse and dropout was acceptable (area under the receiver operating haracteristic curve: .73 and .71, respectively). No significant predictive ability was found as regards the differences between baseline and posttreatment scores (changes in R(2) below 5% in the multiple regression models). The availability of useful measures of motivation to change would enable treatment outcomes to be optimized through the application of specific therapeutic interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Coalescent-Based Analyses of Genomic Sequence Data Provide a Robust Resolution of Phylogenetic Relationships among Major Groups of Gibbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cheng-Min; Yang, Ziheng

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The phylogenetic relationships among extant gibbon species remain unresolved despite numerous efforts using morphological, behavorial, and genetic data and the sequencing of whole genomes. A major challenge in reconstructing the gibbon phylogeny is the radiative speciation process, which resulted in extremely short internal branches in the species phylogeny and extensive incomplete lineage sorting with extensive gene-tree heterogeneity across the genome. Here, we analyze two genomic-scale data sets, with ∼10,000 putative noncoding and exonic loci, respectively, to estimate the species tree for the major groups of gibbons. We used the Bayesian full-likelihood method bpp under the multispecies coalescent model, which naturally accommodates incomplete lineage sorting and uncertainties in the gene trees. For comparison, we included three heuristic coalescent-based methods (mp-est, SVDQuartets, and astral) as well as concatenation. From both data sets, we infer the phylogeny for the four extant gibbon genera to be (Hylobates, (Nomascus, (Hoolock, Symphalangus))). We used simulation guided by the real data to evaluate the accuracy of the methods used. Astral, while not as efficient as bpp, performed well in estimation of the species tree even in presence of excessive incomplete lineage sorting. Concatenation, mp-est and SVDQuartets were unreliable when the species tree contains very short internal branches. Likelihood ratio test of gene flow suggests a small amount of migration from Hylobates moloch to H. pileatus, while cross-genera migration is absent or rare. Our results highlight the utility of coalescent-based methods in addressing challenging species tree problems characterized by short internal branches and rampant gene tree-species tree discordance. PMID:29087487

  20. Characterization of courtship sounds of species of the subgroup fasciola (Diptera, Drosophilidae, Drosophila repleta group: interspecific and interpopulational analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. A. COSTA

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the male courtship song pattern of various species of the fasciola subgroup and to determine the level of variation both within and among species. The parameters analyzed were intrapulse interval (PI, interpulse interval (IPI, and intrapulse frequency (IF. Six different species were analyzed: D. coroica (three populations, D. ellisoni, D. fascioloides, D. moju, D. onca, and D. rosinae (one population each. There were significant differences among the six species for these three courtship song parameters. The IPI was the most variable parameter among these species, suggesting that this parameter is important for female discrimination. Four different hypotheses could explain this variation: 1. different selection pressures with absence of flow gene; 2. intraspecific sexual selection; 3. sympatric effects on song evolution; and 4. genetic drift. The PI was the only parameter that was significantly different among the three population of D. coroica. Low variability among populations within the same species was already observed for other subgroups and could be explained by the following hypotheses: strong selection acting on the song parameters, gene flow, or recent colonization from a common source. Additional studies of the courtship song of other species of the fasciola subgroup, as well as for other subgroups of the repleta group, and studies, using molecular makers, that focus on the genetic basis of the differences among these species in courtship song would allow us to evaluate the association of courtship song and sexual isolation in these species, and would also help us to understand the evolution of these behavioural differences.

  1. Leaching Behavior of Slags from AN Old Lead Smelter in Chihuahua, Mexico: Metals, Chlorides, Nitrates, Sulfates and Tds Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejel-Garcia, D.; Wenglas-Lara, G.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Waste materials (such as, smelter slags, waste glass, tires, plastics, rubbish, ashes, etc.), have a large potential to substitute natural materials, reducing costs, especially for the construction industry. Smelter slags are resistant and have better compression strength values in comparison to natural aggregates, and generally are far beyond of what the standard ratios need to qualify a material as a good one for construction. But this material has a big problem within it: the existence of toxic elements and compounds in high concentrations, which means that water and soil contamination can be present after water infiltrates through this material; so we perform leaching experiments to characterize and measure the possible contamination under controlled conditions. To perform the slags-leaching experiments, we used an EA-NEN-7375-2004 tank test standard from Netherlands. This test was selected because to our knowledge it is the only one which allows the use of coarse material, as the one utilized in construction. The leaching experiments sampling was performed at different times: 6, 24, 168 and 360 hours, to compare the leachate concentration at the two different pH's values (5 and 8) selected to simulate real conditions. For the leaching experiments, the slags were mixed with natural road base material (gravel-sands from volcanic rocks) at different proportions of 30% and 50%. In order to understand the slags' leaching behavior, other experiments were carried out with the pure material, for both (slags and natural aggregates). After analyses by ICP-OES , the slags from this smelter in Chihuahua contain Pb (0.5 - 4 wt.%), Zn (15-35 wt.%) and As (0.6 wt.%), as well such as: bicarbonates, chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, Mg, K, Na, Ca and TDS. Based on the results of the leaching analyses, via atomic absorption technique, we conclude that Pb and As concentrations are provided by the slags, meanwhile, the bicarbonates, chlorides, Na and Ca are contributed by the road

  2. Mesomorphic Behavior of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Azomethines with Two Imine Groups

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    Patrice Rannou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven symmetrical azomethines with two imine groups (HC=N were synthesized by condensation of the benzene-1,4-dicarboxaldehydewith five amines (first group: A1-A5 and of the 2,5-thiophenedicarboxaldehyde with two amines (second group: AT1-AT2. Additionally, two unsymmetrical azomethines were obtained by a two step condensation of benzene-1,4-dicarboxaldehydewith pyren-1-amine(1st step (abbreviated hereinafter as AP1 and then AP1 was reacted with4-dodecylaniline or 4-hexadecylaniline (2nd step (third group: AP1A-AP1B. Liquid crystalline properties of the azomethines were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, polarizing optical microscopy (POM and UV-vis spectroscopy in the function of temperature [UV-vis(T]. The Wide-Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD technique was used to probe the structural properties of the azomethines. Mesomorphic behavior was observed for symmetrical and unsymmetrical azomethines, obtained from the benzene-1,4-dicarboxaldehyde and symmetrical ones prepared from 2,5-thiophenedicarboxaldehyde and different amineshaving aliphatic chains. Based on the POM and DSC measurements the following mesophases were detected: nematic, smectic A, smectic C, smectic F (I, smectic G (J.

  3. Pilot randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy group skills training for ADHD among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; Moran, Lyndsey R; Peterson, A Paige; Dreessen, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    ADHD affects between 2% and 8% of college students and is associated with broad functional impairment. No prior randomized controlled trials with this population have been published. The present study is a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training adapted for college students with ADHD. Thirty-three undergraduates with ADHD between ages 18 and 24 were randomized to receive either DBT group skills training or skills handouts during an 8-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, executive functioning (EF), and related outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants receiving DBT group skills training showed greater treatment response rates (59-65% vs. 19-25%) and clinical recovery rates (53-59% vs. 6-13%) on ADHD symptoms and EF, and greater improvements in quality of life. DBT group skills training may be efficacious, acceptable, and feasible for treating ADHD among college students. A larger randomized trial is needed for further evaluation. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  4. Effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy with mindfulness in end-stage renal disease hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Bo Kyung; Oh, Yun Kyu; Choi, Jung-Seok; Song, Jiyoun; Lim, Ahyoung; Lee, Jung Pyo; An, Jung Nam; Choi, Hee-Jeong; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Jun-Young; Lim, Chun Soo

    2018-03-01

    Many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) experience depression. Depression influences patient quality of life (QOL), dialysis compliance, and medical comorbidity. We developed and applied a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program including mindfulness meditation for ESRD patients undergoing HD, and measured changes in QOL, mood, anxiety, perceived stress, and biochemical markers. We conducted group CBT over a 12-week period with seven ESRD patients undergoing HD and suffering from depression. QOL, mood, anxiety, and perceived stress were measured at baseline and at weeks 8 and 12 using the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Biochemical markers were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. The Temperament and Character Inventory was performed to assess patient characteristics before starting group CBT. The seven patients showed significant improvement in QOL, mood, anxiety, and perceived stress after 12 weeks of group CBT. WHOQOL-BREF and the self-rating scales, BDI-II and BAI, showed continuous improvement across the 12-week period. HAM-D scores showed significant improvement by week 8; PSS showed significant improvement after week 8. Serum creatinine levels also improved significantly following the 12 week period. In this pilot study, a CBT program which included mindfulness meditation enhanced overall mental health and biochemical marker levels in ESRD patients undergoing HD.

  5. The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth on the Relation Between Verbal Punishment and Child Problem Behaviors for Same-sex and Cross-sex Parent-Child Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonas, Maria Roberta L.; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between parental verbal punishment and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in Filipino children, and the moderating role of parental warmth in this relation, for same-sex (mothers-girls; fathers-boys) and cross-sex parent-child groups (mothers-boys; fathers-girls). Measures used were the Rohner Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control Scale (PARQ/Control), the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), and a discipline measure (DI) constructed for the study. Participants were 117 mothers and 98 fathers of 61 boys and 59 girls who responded to a discipline interview, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control scale (PARQ/Control) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist via oral interviews. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses (with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels) revealed that maternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to internalizing and externalizing outcomes in boys and girls whereas paternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to girls’ externalizing behavior. Significant interactions between verbal punishment and maternal warmth in mother-girl groups were also found for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. While higher maternal warmth ameliorated the impact of low verbal punishment on girls’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors, it exacerbated the effect of high verbal punishment on negative outcomes. PMID:26752797

  6. Eight luminous early-type galaxies in nearby pairs and sparse groups. I. Stellar populations spatially analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, D. A.; Milone, A. C.; Krabbe, A. C.; Rodrigues, I.

    2018-06-01

    We present a detailed spatial analysis of stellar populations based on long-slit optical spectra in a sample of eight luminous early-type galaxies selected from nearby sparse groups and pairs, three of them may have interaction with another galaxy of similar mass. We have spatially measured luminosity-weighted averages of age, [M/H], [Fe/H], and [α /Fe] in the sample galaxies to add empirical data relative to the influence of galaxy mass, environment, interaction, and AGN feedback in their formation and evolution. The stellar population of the individual galaxies were determined through the well-established stellar population synthesis code starlight using semi-empirical simple stellar population models. Radial variations of luminosity- weighted means of age, [M/H], [Fe/H], and [α /Fe] were quantified up to half of the effective radius of each galaxy. We found trends between representative values of age, [M/H], [α /Fe], and the nuclear stellar velocity dispersion. There are also relations between the metallicity/age gradients and the velocity dispersion. Contributions of 1-4 Gyr old stellar populations were quantified in IC 5328 and NGC 6758 as well as 4-8 Gyr old ones in NGC 5812. Extended gas is present in IC 5328, NGC 1052, NGC 1209, and NGC 6758, and the presence of a LINER is identified in all these galaxies. The regions up to one effective radius of all galaxies are basically dominated by α -enhanced metal-rich old stellar populations likely due to rapid star formation episodes that induced efficient chemical enrichment. On average, the age and [α /Fe] gradients are null and the [M/H] gradients are negative, although discordant cases were found. We found no correlation between the stellar population properties and the LINER presence as well as between the stellar properties and environment or gravitational interaction, suggesting that the influence of progenitor mass cannot be discarded in the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies.

  7. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  8. Kinematic and behavioral analyses of protective stepping strategies and risk for falls among community living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Woei-Nan; Prettyman, Michelle G; Beamer, Brock A; Rogers, Mark W

    2016-07-01

    Protective stepping evoked by externally applied lateral perturbations reveals balance deficits underlying falls. However, a lack of comprehensive information about the control of different stepping strategies in relation to the magnitude of perturbation limits understanding of balance control in relation to age and fall status. The aim of this study was to investigate different protective stepping strategies and their kinematic and behavioral control characteristics in response to different magnitudes of lateral waist-pulls between older fallers and non-fallers. Fifty-two community-dwelling older adults (16 fallers) reacted naturally to maintain balance in response to five magnitudes of lateral waist-pulls. The balance tolerance limit (BTL, waist-pull magnitude where protective steps transitioned from single to multiple steps), first step control characteristics (stepping frequency and counts, spatial-temporal kinematic, and trunk position at landing) of four naturally selected protective step types were compared between fallers and non-fallers at- and above-BTL. Fallers took medial-steps most frequently while non-fallers most often took crossover-back-steps. Only non-fallers varied their step count and first step control parameters by step type at the instants of step initiation (onset time) and termination (trunk position), while both groups modulated step execution parameters (single stance duration and step length) by step type. Group differences were generally better demonstrated above-BTL. Fallers primarily used a biomechanically less effective medial-stepping strategy that may be partially explained by reduced somato-sensation. Fallers did not modulate their step parameters by step type at first step initiation and termination, instances particularly vulnerable to instability, reflecting their limitations in balance control during protective stepping. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A Preliminary Report of Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Inpatients With Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPRINGER, TAMAR; LOHR, NAOMI E.; BUCHTEL, HENRY A.; SILK, KENNETH R.

    1996-01-01

    A randomized, controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy group, based on Linehan’s dialectical behavior therapy, for inpatients with personality disorders. The treatment, a problem-solving skills group focused on parasuicidality, was compared with a discussion control group. Change was assessed by self-report measures and behavioral observations on the unit. Subjects in both groups improved significantly on most change measures, although no significant between-group differences were found. However, the treatment group patients viewed the intervention as more beneficial to them in their lives outside the hospital. The usefulness of this type of group on a short-term unit is discussed. PMID:22700265

  10. Newcomer conformity: How self-construal affects the alignment of cognition and behavior with group goals in novel groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Täuber, Susanne; Sassenberg, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present research is the first to examine the impact of self-construal on newcomers’ motivation to conform with the goals of a novel group.We argue that when social identity (i.e., individuals’ concern for a specific group) has not yet been developed, newcomers rely on self-construal (i.e.,

  11. Children's Sharing Behavior in Mini-Dictator Games: The Role of In-Group Favoritism and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi; Leslie, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the motivational and social-cognitive foundations (i.e., inequality aversion, in-group bias, and theory of mind) that underlie the development of sharing behavior among 3- to 9-year-old Chinese children (N = 122). Each child played two mini-dictator games against an in-group member (friend) and an out-group member…

  12. Individual versus group female-specific cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; McCrady, Barbara S; Hallgren, Kevin A; Gaba, Ayorkor; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Litt, Mark D

    2018-05-01

    To test group-based Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (G-FS-CBT) for women with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) against an individual Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (I-FS-CBT). This aims of this paper are to describe G-FS-CBT development, content, feasibility, acceptability, group process, engagement in treatment, and within- and post-treatment outcomes. Women with AUD (n=155) were randomly assigned to 12 manual-guided sessions of G-FS-CBT or I-FS-CBT; 138 women attended at least one treatment session. Women in G-FS-CBT attended fewer sessions (M=7.6) than women in I-FS-CBT (M=9.7; p<.001). Women in both conditions reported high satisfaction with the treatments. Independent coders rated high fidelity of delivery of both G-FS-CBT and I-FS-CBT. Therapeutic alliance with the therapist was high in both conditions, with I-FS-CBT being slightly but significantly higher than G-FS-CBT. In the first six weeks of treatment, women in both treatment conditions significantly reduced their percent drinking days (PDD) and percent heavy days drinking (PHD) by equivalent amounts, maintained through the rest of treatment and the 12month follow up with no treatment condition effects. Women reported significant improvement in all but one of the secondary outcomes during treatment; gains made during treatment in depression, anxiety, autonomy, and interpersonal problems were maintained during the follow-up period, while gains made during treatment in use of coping skills, self-efficacy for abstinence, self-care, and sociotropy deteriorated over follow up but remained improved compared to baseline. Findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a group format for female-specific CBT for AUD, a new 12-session, single gender, community friendly, group therapy with programming specifically for women. Similar, positive outcomes for individual and group treatment formats were found for drinking, mood, coping skills, self-confidence, interpersonal

  13. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisato Yoshihiko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance.

  14. Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs. The present review of 304 PMASRs published between 1950 and 2013 confirmed that plant food groups are more protective than animal food groups against DRCDs. Within plant food groups, grain products are more protective than fruits and vegetables. Among animal food groups, dairy/milk products have a neutral effect on the risk of DRCDs, while red/processed meats tend to increase the risk. Among beverages, tea was the most protective and soft drinks the least protective against DRCDs. For two of the DRCDs examined, sarcopenia and kidney disease, no PMASR was found. Overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and various types of cardiovascular disease and cancer accounted for 289 of the PMASRs. There is a crucial need to further study the associations between food and beverage groups and mental health, skeletal health, digestive diseases, liver diseases, kidney diseases, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  15. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing self-stigma in Japanese psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Horikawa, Naoshi; Emura, Rina; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Nagao, Ayako; Ogata, Akiko; Hiejima, Shigeto; Hosomi, Jun

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that the stigma surrounding mental illness may be greater in Japan than elsewhere. However, few Japanese studies have focused on self-stigma (the internalization of social stigma), and few interventions to reduce self-stigma exist. To remedy this deficiency, we evaluated the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing self-stigma and examined the relationship between cognitive restructuring and self-stigma. We administered a 10-session group CBT program to 46 Japanese outpatients with anxiety and depressive symptoms (36 men, 10 women; mean age=38.57 years, SD=8.33; 20 diagnosed with mood disorders; 24 with neurotic, stress-related, or somatoform disorders; and 2 with other disorders). A pretest-posttest design was used to examine the relationship between cognitive restructuring and self-stigma. Outcomes were measured using the Japanese versions of the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory State-Form, and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale. Participants exhibited significant improvements in depression, anxiety, and maladjusted cognitive bias and reductions in self-stigma. Cognitive bias was significantly correlated with self-stigma. Group CBT is effective in improving both emotional symptoms and self-stigma in outpatients with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Reduction in self-stigma plays a mediating role in alleviating emotional symptoms and improving cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit E

    2011-05-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in individual (n=33) and group (n=37) cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). IR and TAF declined significantly during CBT, and the decline was positively associated with change in OCD symptoms. However, when controlling for change in depressive symptoms, only change in IR remained significantly associated with OCD symptom change. The moral subtype of TAF predicted poorer treatment outcome, but only in group CBT. Both treatments produced a similar amount of change in the dysfunctional beliefs. The results provide some, preliminary evidence that IR, but not TAF, may be specifically involved in the change mechanisms of both individual and group CBT for OCD, although the design of the study with pre- and post-therapy measurements only does not allow for a causal mediator analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of group attachment and social position on prosocial behavior. Evidence from lab-in-the-field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer organizations in rural Uganda. Using different variants of the dictator game, we demonstrate that group attachment positively affects prosocial behavior, and that this effect is not simply the by-product of the degree of proximity between individuals. Second, we show that occupying a formal position in an organization or community leads to greater generosity toward in-group members. Taken together, our findings show that prosocial behavior is not an invariant social trait; rather, it varies according to individuals' relative position in the social structure.

  18. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Middelkamp, Maaike van Rooijen, Peter Wolfhagen, Bert Steenbergen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1. The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2. The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3. A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p < 0.05 in 12 weeks. Descriptive statistics demonstrate mean group exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65 in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08 in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07 for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R2 = 0.18; p < 0.05. Overall drop-out rates were 88% in group 1, 78% in group 2 and 48% in group 3. The results showed that group exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs.

  19. Roles of acidic functional groups of carbon fiber surfaces in enhancing interfacial adhesion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2005-01-01

    The gas phase ozone treatment was used as a method to bind acidic oxygen functional groups on carbon fiber surfaces. The ozone treatment on carbon fibers was varied with the ozone concentration and treatment time. Surface analyses of the carbon fibers before and after treatments were performed by FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and dynamic contact angle measurements. Mechanical interfacial properties of the fibers/polymer composites were investigated by using critical stress intensity factor (K IC ) and critical energy release rate (G IC ) measurements. From the results of FT-IR and XPS, it was observed that the oxygen functional groups, such as -OH, O-C=O, C=O, and C-O, were attached on the carbon fiber surfaces after the ozone treatment. The mechanical interfacial properties of the composites also showed higher values than those of untreated composites. Ozone treatment is attributed to the increase of both the acidic functional groups and the degree of adhesion at interfaces between the fibers and polymeric resin in composites

  20. The Effect of Group Attachment and Social Position on Prosocial Behavior. Evidence from Lab-in-the-Field Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer...

  1. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Parents and Children At-Risk for Physical Abuse: An Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Steer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    To compare the relative efficacy of two types of group cognitive-behavioral therapy for treating the traumatized child and at-risk or offending parent in cases of child physical abuse (CPA), 24 parents and their children were treated with Combined Parent-Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT) and 20 parents were treated with Parent-Only CBT.…

  2. Effect of Group Parent Management Traning on Behavioral Disorders of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyoeractivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Houshvar

    2009-10-01

    Conclusion: Group parent management training is significantly effective in decreasing behavioral disorders and anxiety status of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and this psychosocial intervention could be used as an effective complementary method beside medication and occupational therapy programs.

  3. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents : Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.

  4. Electrochemical analyses of diffusion behaviors and nucleation mechanisms for neodymium complexes in [DEME][TFSA] ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MATSUMIYA, Masahiko; ISHII, Mai; KAZAMA, Ryo; KAWAKAMI, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The cathodic reaction; Nd(III) + 3e − → Nd(0) was observed at −3.30 V in [DEME][TFSA]. • The diffusion coefficient of Nd(III) in [DEME][TFSA] was evaluated from semi-integral analysis. • The nucleation mechanism of Nd nuclei was altered from instantaneous to progressive nucleation. • The number density of Nd nuclei was increased as the overpotential was increased. • The electrodeposits from [DEME][TFSA] were identified Nd metal and oxide mixtures by XPS. - ABSTRACT: The electrochemical and nucleation behavior of Nd(III) in the ammonium-based ionic liquid (IL), N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) amide, [DEME] [TFSA], were investigated in this study. The cathodic reaction of Nd(III) [Nd(III) + 3e − → Nd(0)] was observed at −3.30 V vs. Ag/Ag(I) using cyclic voltammetry at 353 K. The diffusion coefficient of Nd(III) was estimated to be 1.35 ± 0.10 × 10 −13 m 2 s −1 at 353 K using semi-integral and semi-differential analyses. The initial process of Nd electrodeposition was also evaluated by chronoamperometry, indicating that the initial nucleation and growth of Nd on the Pt electrode occurred via instantaneous nucleation at −3.40 V. As the applied potential became more negative, the mechanism changed from instantaneous to progressive nucleation. The number density of Nd nuclei in the initial stage of nucleation decreased as the overpotential increased. Furthermore, the electrodeposition of Nd was carried out under the conditions of −3.40 V and −3.60 V at 353 K. SEM observations of the electrodeposits were consistent with the series of results obtained by chronoamperometry. The electrodeposits consisted mainly of Nd metal and oxide mixtures, whereas bonding with the light elements (C, F, and S) of the IL was suppressed, as demonstrated by EDX and XPS. The results suggested that sufficient dehydration and control of the water content of the electrolyte are important factors

  5. Effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy with mindfulness in end-stage renal disease hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyung Sohn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (HD experience depression. Depression influences patient quality of life (QOL, dialysis compliance, and medical comorbidity. We developed and applied a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT program including mindfulness meditation for ESRD patients undergoing HD, and measured changes in QOL, mood, anxiety, perceived stress, and biochemical markers. Methods : We conducted group CBT over a 12-week period with seven ESRD patients undergoing HD and suffering from depression. QOL, mood, anxiety, and perceived stress were measured at baseline and at weeks 8 and 12 using the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF, the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS. Biochemical markers were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. The Temperament and Character Inventory was performed to assess patient characteristics before starting group CBT. Results : The seven patients showed significant improvement in QOL, mood, anxiety, and perceived stress after 12 weeks of group CBT. WHOQOL-BREF and the self-rating scales, BDI-II and BAI, showed continuous improvement across the 12-week period. HAM-D scores showed significant improvement by week 8; PSS showed significant improvement after week 8. Serum creatinine levels also improved significantly following the 12 week period. Conclusion : In this pilot study, a CBT program which included mindfulness meditation enhanced overall mental health and biochemical marker levels in ESRD patients undergoing HD.

  6. Efficacy of Group Cognitive–behavioral Therapy in Maintenance Treatment and Relapse Prevention for Bipolar Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor Arman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite conducting wide-ranging of pharmacotherapy for bipolar adolescents, many of them are showing a deficit in functioning with high relapse rate. The aim of the current study was to develop a manual and investigate the efficacy of group cognitive–behavioral therapy (G-CBT for female bipolar adolescents. Materials and Methods: During the first qualitative phase of a mixed-methods study, a manual of G-CBT was developed. Then, 32 female bipolar adolescents aged 12–19 years old, receiving usual maintenance medications (UMM, were selected. Participants were randomized to the control (UMM and intervention group (5, 2 h weekly sessions based on G-CBT manual with UMM. The parents in intervention group participated in three parallel sessions. All participants filled the following questionnaires before 1, 3, and 6 months after the initiation of the study: Young Mania Rating Scale, Children Depression Inventory and Global Assessment of Functioning. The results were analyzed using SPSS 21 software. The concurrent qualitative phase was analyzed through thematic analysis. Results: The results showed no significant differences in all questionnaires' scores through intervention and follow-up sessions (P > 0.05. However, using cutoff point of CDI, G-CBT was effective for intervention group (relapse rate: 25% vs. 44.4%. Two themes were extracted from the second qualitative phase: emotion recognition and emotion regulation, especially in anger control. Conclusions: The results showed that the addition of G-CBT to UMM leads to decrease in the depressive scores but has no effect on manic symptoms and relapse rate.

  7. Efficacy of Group Cognitive-behavioral Therapy in Maintenance Treatment and Relapse Prevention for Bipolar Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Soroor; Golmohammadi, Farnaz; Maracy, Mohammadreza; Molaeinezhad, Mitra

    2018-01-01

    Despite conducting wide-ranging of pharmacotherapy for bipolar adolescents, many of them are showing a deficit in functioning with high relapse rate. The aim of the current study was to develop a manual and investigate the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (G-CBT) for female bipolar adolescents. During the first qualitative phase of a mixed-methods study, a manual of G-CBT was developed. Then, 32 female bipolar adolescents aged 12-19 years old, receiving usual maintenance medications (UMM), were selected. Participants were randomized to the control (UMM) and intervention group (5, 2 h weekly sessions based on G-CBT manual with UMM). The parents in intervention group participated in three parallel sessions. All participants filled the following questionnaires before 1, 3, and 6 months after the initiation of the study: Young Mania Rating Scale, Children Depression Inventory and Global Assessment of Functioning. The results were analyzed using SPSS 21 software. The concurrent qualitative phase was analyzed through thematic analysis. The results showed no significant differences in all questionnaires' scores through intervention and follow-up sessions ( P > 0.05). However, using cutoff point of CDI, G-CBT was effective for intervention group (relapse rate: 25% vs. 44.4%). Two themes were extracted from the second qualitative phase: emotion recognition and emotion regulation, especially in anger control. The results showed that the addition of G-CBT to UMM leads to decrease in the depressive scores but has no effect on manic symptoms and relapse rate.

  8. Case Studies of Chronic Insomnia Patients Participating in Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jin Yi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Pharmacotherapy currently widely used in the treatment of insomnia can be helpful in transient insomnia, but research regarding its effectiveness and safety of long-term use is not enough. Therefore, to complement the limitations of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of patients with insomnia, non-pharmacologic treatment methods (cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT are used. But CBT for insomnia appear to be costly and time-consuming compared to pharmacotherapy, clinical practice in the field can be difficult to be applied. We took the format of group therapy rather than individual therapy to complement the disadvantages of CBT and now we would like to have a thought into its meaning by reporting the effectiveness of group CBT for insomnia. Methods Patients were recruited at Sleep Center of St. Vincent’s Hospital, 2 men and 3 women led to a group of five patients. CBT is a treatment for correction factors that cause and maintain insomnia, it includes a variety of techniques such as sleep hygiene education, stimulus control, sleep restriction, relaxation and cognitive therapy. A series of treatment were performed five sessions once a week with a frequency from February to March 2012 and were proceeded for about 1 hour and 30 minutes per session. Results Results indicated that the subjective quality of sleep and sleep efficiency of all patients improved and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Beck Depression Inventory were decreased in spite of reducing dose of medication. Conclusions Like these cases, we can contribute to reduce the time and economic burden by performing group CBT for insomnia rather than individual therapy.

  9. Significance of grooming behavior in two polygynous groups of western black crested gibbons: Implications for understanding social relationships among immigrant and resident group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhen-Hua; Huang, Bei; Ning, Wen-He; Ni, Qing-Yong; Sun, Guo-Zheng; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2013-12-01

    In primates, grooming is considered among the most common behaviors for maintaining social bonds; however, to date, few studies have examined grooming behavior in gibbon species in detail. We used both a 5-min interval scan method and social network analysis to study grooming in two groups of polygynous western black-crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) in Wuliang Mountain, Central Yunnan, China. Individuals in both groups spent little time in social grooming (1.45% and 1.97% of active time). We compared the two groups' grooming networks and found that the group that maintained a more stable social unit had a more complex grooming network while the group with new immigrants had a grooming network characterized by fewer grooming pairs. Females in both groups played important roles in the grooming network. A newly immigrant female spent the most time grooming others and chose the resident adult female as her main adult grooming partner. Other females from both groups chose the adult male as their primary grooming partner (except their offspring). A sub-adult male who had resided in his natal group for 2 years after maturing into an adult also groomed more and was at the center of the network. This male finally replaced the breeding male in his group 3 years after our data collection period ended. We hypothesize that the immigrant female and the resident young adult male engaged in more extensive grooming interactions as a behavioral strategy to gain tolerance from long-term residents. Our results suggest that female gibbons in polygynous groups actively cooperate in maintaining social relationships rather than co-exist through tolerance or avoidance. Our observations indicate that grooming networks in crested gibbons reflect individual dynamics and partly support the social cohesion hypothesis for primate grooming. In this regard, we suggest that changes in gibbon grooming networks can be used to predict social change. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Functional Assessment Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Fettig; Michaelene M. Ostrosky

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to ex...

  11. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  12. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  13. Implicit attitudes toward eating stimuli differentiate eating disorder and non-eating disorder groups and predict eating disorder behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, April R; Forrest, Lauren N; Velkoff, Elizabeth A; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Franklin, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    The current study tested whether people with and without eating disorders (EDs) varied in their implicit attitudes toward ED-relevant stimuli. Additionally, the study tested whether implicit evaluations of ED-relevant stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors over a 4-week interval. Participants were people without EDs (N = 85) and people seeking treatment for EDs (N = 92). All participants completed self-report questionnaires and a version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) at baseline. The AMP indexed implicit evaluations of average body stimuli, eating stimuli, and ED-symptom stimuli. Participants with EDs completed weekly follow-up measures of ED symptoms and behaviors for 4 weeks. Contrary to predictions, the anorexia nervosa (AN) group did not differ from the no ED group on implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli, and the bulimia nervosa (BN) group had less positive implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli relative to the no ED group. In line with predictions, people with AN and BN had more negative implicit attitudes toward average body and eating stimuli relative to the no ED group. In addition, among the ED group more negative implicit attitudes toward eating stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors 4 weeks later, over and above baseline ED symptoms and behaviors. Taken together, implicit evaluations of eating stimuli differentiated people with AN and BN from people without EDs and longitudinally predicted ED symptoms and behaviors. Interventions that increase implicit liking of eating-related stimuli may reduce ED behaviors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Life, survival, and behavioral health in small closed communities: 10 years of studying isolated Antarctic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanna; Schmidt, Lacey; Lugg, Desmond; Ayton, Jeff; Phillips, Terry; Shepanek, Marc

    2005-06-01

    In the late 1980s the Australian Antarctic Division collaborated with NASA to use the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions' (ANARE) stations to pursue research of benefit to both programs. This article outlines the data collection efforts, the development of analyses, and selected results, and describes some of the benefits for the aerospace, health, and environmental psychology communities. The Behavior and Performance Laboratory at Johnson Space Center developed a questionnaire to sample broadly the many aspects of life in extreme environments analogous to space missions. Data were collected from volunteers involved in various ANAREs conducted from 1994 to 2003. Pool-timed series regression, hierarchical models, and content analysis have all enhanced the understanding of the kinds of psychosocial variables relevant in extreme environments, and how these variables relate to each other; examples are given. Observations gathered over the last 10 yr comprise a unique, comprehensive, and advanced representation of psychosocial factors in this extreme environment and provide a strong base for future research and application.

  15. Health-seeking behavior and transmission dynamics in the control of influenza infection among different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shu-Han; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Liao, Chung-Min

    2018-01-01

    It has been found that health-seeking behavior has a certain impact on influenza infection. However, behaviors with/without risk perception on the control of influenza transmission among age groups have not been well quantified. The purpose of this study was to assess to what extent, under scenarios of with/without control and preventive/protective behaviors, the age-specific network-driven risk perception influences influenza infection. A behavior-influenza model was used to estimate the spread rate of age-specific risk perception in response to an influenza outbreak. A network-based information model was used to assess the effect of network-driven risk perception information transmission on influenza infection. A probabilistic risk model was used to assess the infection risk effect of risk perception with a health behavior change. The age-specific overlapping percentage was estimated to be 40%-43%, 55%-60%, and 19%-35% for child, teenage and adult, and elderly age groups, respectively. Individuals perceive the preventive behavior to improve risk perception information transmission among teenage and adult and elderly age groups, but not in the child age group. The population with perceived health behaviors could not effectively decrease the percentage of infection risk in the child age group, whereas for the elderly age group, the percentage of decrease in infection risk was more significant, with a 97.5th percentile estimate of 97%. The present integrated behavior-infection model can help health authorities in communicating health messages for an intertwined belief network in which health-seeking behavior plays a key role in controlling influenza infection.

  16. Cognitive behavioral group therapy in panic disorder patients: the efficacy of CBGT versus drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Gon-Usishkin, M; Gelbert, A; Lowengrub, K; Grunhaus, L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) in the treatment of Panic Disorder (PD) and to compare the treatment outcome of CBGT versus Paroxetine pharmacotherapy. Fifty seven patients referred to our anxiety disorder clinic for the treatment of PD were randomly allocated to receive either CBGT or Paroxetine. Follow up was done by a masked rater after four and twelve weeks of treatment in order to compare the efficacy of CBGT versus Paroxetine. CBGT and Paroxetine were both effective in the short-term treatment of PD. Assessments at weeks four and twelve of treatment showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of treatment outcome. Treatment with CBGT alone for the acute phase of PD appears to be equally efficacious to treatment with Paroxetine alone. Our study shows that CBGT produced beneficial results, for it was associated with a reduction in the number and frequency of panic attacks and with an improved feeling of well-being.

  17. Pilot trial of a dissonance-based cognitive-behavioral group depression prevention with college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M

    2016-07-01

    Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a new cognitive-behavioral (CB) group prevention program that incorporated cognitive-dissonance change principles was feasible and appeared effective in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder onset relative to a brochure control condition in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 59 college students (M age = 21.8, SD = 2.3; 68% female, 70% White) were randomized to the 6-session Change Ahead group or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. Recruitment and screening methods were effective and intervention attendance was high (86% attended all 6 sessions). Change Ahead participants showed medium-large reductions in depressive symptoms at posttest (M d = 0.64), though the effect attenuated by 3-month follow-up. Incidence of major depression onset at 3-month follow-up was 4% for Change Ahead participants versus 13% (difference ns). Change Ahead appears highly feasible and showed positive indications of reduced acute phase depressive symptoms and MDD onset relative to a minimal intervention control in this initial pilot. Given the brevity of the intervention, its apparent feasibility, and the lack of evidence-based depression prevention programs for college students, continued evaluation of Change Ahead appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Group cognitive behavior therapy for Japanese patients with social anxiety disorder: preliminary outcomes and their predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Norio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have provided strong evidence for the use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD. However, all of the previous reports were from Europe and North America and it is unknown whether Western psychological therapies are effective for SAD in non-Western cultures. The present pilot study aimed to evaluate CBT program for SAD which was originally developed for Western patients, among Japanese patients. Methods Fifty-seven outpatients who participated in group CBT for SAD were evaluated using eight self-reported and one clinician-administered questionnaires to measure various aspects of SAD symptomatology at the beginning and at the end of the program. Pre- and post-treatment scores were compared and the magnitude of treatment effect was quantified as well based once on the intention-to-treat (ITT and once among the completers only. We also examined baseline predictors of the CBT outcomes. Results Seven patients (12% did not complete the program. For the ITT sample, the percentage of reduction was 20% to 30% and the pre to post treatment effect sizes ranged from 0.37 to 1.01. Among the completers, the respective figures were 20% to 33% and 0.41 to 1.19. We found no significant pretreatment predictor of the outcomes. Conclusion Group CBT for SAD is acceptable and can bring about a similar degree of symptom reduction among Japanese patients with SAD as among Western patients.

  19. Exploring relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior among diverse groups of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Paves, Andrew P; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-10-01

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that North American-based measures of self-esteem, which measure individualistic positive self-regard, may be less applicable to Eastern cultures. In the present exploratory study, we examined how different conceptualizations of self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem (CSE) Scale, predicted drinking behavior among three groups of American college students (N=326) with varying ethnicities: White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese. Hierarchical negative binomial regression was employed to evaluate these relations. Ethnic identity was controlled for in all analyses. Findings indicated that while global self-esteem was positively associated with drinking for the whole sample, ethnicity moderated this relationship such that global self-esteem was related to drinking for White participants but not for their Chinese/Taiwanese counterparts. In addition, while CSE did not associate with drinking for the whole sample, effects emerged for specific ethnicities. Specifically, private CSE was associated with less drinking for Korean and Chinese/Taiwanese participants. Depending on specific Asian ethnicity, public CSE served as a risk (Korean participants) or a protective factor (Chinese/Taiwanese participants) for drinking. Findings suggest that above and beyond ethnic identity, differential relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior may exist among White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese young adults. Intervention and prevention programs should develop strategies to help Chinese/Taiwanese and Korean American young adults cultivate protective factors within domains of CSE. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Externalizing behavior in early childhood and body mass index from age 2 to 12 years: longitudinal analyses of a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoppe-Sullivan Sarah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some evidence suggests that obesity and behavior problems are related in children, but studies have been conflicting and have rarely included children under age 4. An association between behavior problems in early childhood and risk for obesity could suggest that a common set of factors contribute to both. Our research objectives were to determine the extent to which externalizing behavior in early childhood is related to body mass index (BMI in early childhood and through age 12, and to evaluate whether these associations differ by sex and race. Methods Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed. Externalizing behaviors at 24 months were assessed by mothers using the Child Behavior Checklist. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight assessed 7 times between age 2 and 12 years. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess associations between 24 month externalizing behavior and BMI from 2 to 12 years, calculate predicted differences in BMI, and evaluate effect modification. Results Externalizing behavior at 24 months was associated with a higher BMI at 24 months and through age 12. Results from a linear mixed effects model, controlling for confounding variables and internalizing behavior, predicted a difference in BMI of approximately 3/4 of a unit at 24 months of age comparing children with high levels of externalizing behavior to children with low levels of externalizing behavior. There was some evidence of effect modification by race; among white children, the average BMI difference remained stable through age 12, but it doubled to 1.5 BMI units among children who were black or another race. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that externalizing behaviors in early childhood are associated with children's weight status early in childhood and throughout the elementary school years, though the magnitude of the effect is modest.

  1. The relationship between interpersonal problems, negative cognitions, and outcomes from cognitive behavioral group therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula

    2013-09-05

    Interpersonal functioning is a key determinant of psychological well-being, and interpersonal problems (IPs) are common among individuals with psychiatric disorders. However, IPs are rarely formally assessed in clinical practice or within cognitive behavior therapy research trials as predictors of treatment attrition and outcome. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IPs, depressogenic cognitions, and treatment outcome in a large clinical sample receiving cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for depression in a community clinic. Patients (N=144) referred for treatment completed measures of IPs, negative cognitions, depression symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) before and at the completion of a 12-week manualized CBGT protocol. Two IPs at pre-treatment, 'finding it hard to be supportive of others' and 'not being open about problems,' were associated with higher attrition. Pre-treatment IPs also predicted higher post-treatment depression symptoms (but not QoL) after controlling for pre-treatment symptoms, negative cognitions, demographics, and comorbidity. In particular, 'difficulty being assertive' and a 'tendency to subjugate one's needs' were associated with higher post-treatment depression symptoms. Changes in IPs did not predict post-treatment depression symptoms or QoL when controlling for changes in negative cognitions, pre-treatment symptoms, demographics, and comorbidity. In contrast, changes in negative cognitions predicted both post-treatment depression and QoL, even after controlling for changes in IPs and the other covariates. Correlational design, potential attrition bias, generalizability to other disorders and treatments needs to be evaluated. Pre-treatment IPs may increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes, but changes in negative cognitions during treatment were most strongly associated with improvement in symptoms and QoL during CBGT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening ADHD Problems in the Sports Behavior Checklist: Factor Structure, Convergent and Divergent Validity, and Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenin, Aaron A.; Businelle, Michael S.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2005-01-01

    The Sports Behavior Checklist (SBC) is subjected to a principal components analysis, and subscales are correlated with subscales of the Conners' Revised Parent Form and the Social Skills Rating System. Both of these analyses are conducted to determine the construct validity of the instrument. A subsample of lower socioeconomic status individuals…

  3. Garden Counseling Groups and Self-Esteem: A Mixed Methods Study with Children with Emotional and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Shin, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    This research study focused on the use of a garden group counseling intervention to address the self-esteem of children with emotional and behavioral problems. The researchers found higher self-esteem among participants (N = 31) following the gardening group. Additionally, participants discussed feeling calm and happy and learning to working…

  4. A Comparative Investigation of the Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Practices and Psychodrama on Adolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep; Gokcakan, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate whether cognitive-behavioral group practices and psychodrama decrease adolescent aggression. This is a quasi-experimental, pre-post and follow up study with two experiments and one control group. The Aggression Scale (Buss & Warren, 2000) adapted to Turkish by Can (2002) was administered as a pretest…

  5. Within-Group Effect-Size Benchmarks for Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Allen; Washburn, Micki; Schieszler, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides benchmark data on within-group effect sizes from published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) supporting the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for traumatized children. Methods: Within-group effect-size benchmarks for symptoms of trauma, anxiety, and depression were calculated via the…

  6. Observing Engineering Student Teams from the Organization Behavior Perspective Using Linguistic Analysis of Student Reflections and Focus Group Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Kerri S.; Damron, Rebecca; Sohoni, Sohum

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates group/team development in computer engineering courses at a University in the Central USA from the perspective of organization behavior theory, specifically Tuckman's model of the stages of group development. The investigation, conducted through linguistic analysis of student reflection essays, and through focus group…

  7. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  8. Behavior of underclad cracks in reactor pressure vessels - evaluation of mechanical analyses with tests on cladded mock-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinereau, D.; Rousselier, G.; Bethmont, M.

    1993-01-01

    Innocuity of underclad flaws in the reactor pressure vessels must be demonstrated in the French safety analyses, particularly in the case of a severe transient at the end of the pressure vessel lifetime, because of the radiation embrittlement of the vessel material. Safety analyses are usually performed with elastic and elasto-plastic analyses taking into account the effect of the stainless steel cladding. EDF has started a program including experiments on large size cladded specimens and their interpretations. The purpose of this program is to evaluate the different methods of fracture analysis used in safety studies. Several specimens made of ferritic steel A508 C1 3 with stainless steel cladding, containing small artificial defects, are loaded in four-point bending. Experiments are performed at very low temperature to simulate radiation embrittlement and to obtain crack instability by cleavage fracture. Three tests have been performed on mock-ups containing a small underclad crack (with depth about 5 mn) and a fourth test has been performed on one mock-up with a larger crack (depth about 13 mn). In each case, crack instability occurred by cleavage fracture in the base metal, without crack arrest, at a temperature of about - 170 deg C. Each test is interpreted using linear elastic analysis and elastic-plastic analysis by two-dimensional finite element computations. The fracture are conservatively predicted: the stress intensity factors deduced from the computations (K cp or K j ) are always greater than the base metal toughness. The comparison between the elastic analyses (including two plasticity corrections) and the elastic-plastic analyses shows that the elastic analyses are often conservative. The beneficial effect of the cladding in the analyses is also shown : the analyses are too conservative if the cladding effects is not taken into account. (authors). 9 figs., 6 tabs., 10 refs

  9. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  10. Large-scale climate variation modifies the winter grouping behavior of endangered Indiana bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; McKann, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Power laws describe the functional relationship between 2 quantities, such as the frequency of a group as the multiplicative power of group size. We examined whether the annual size of well-surveyed wintering populations of endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) followed a power law, and then leveraged this relationship to predict whether the aggregation of Indiana bats in winter was influenced by global climate processes. We determined that Indiana bat wintering populations were distributed according to a power law (mean scaling coefficient α = −0.44 [95% confidence interval {95% CI} = −0.61, −0.28). The antilog of these annual scaling coefficients ranged between 0.67 and 0.81, coincident with the three-fourths power found in many other biological phenomena. We associated temporal patterns in the annual (1983–2011) scaling coefficient with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in August (βNAOAugust = −0.017 [90% CI = −0.032, −0.002]), when Indiana bats are deciding when and where to hibernate. After accounting for the strong effect of philopatry to habitual wintering locations, Indiana bats aggregated in larger wintering populations during periods of severe winter and in smaller populations in milder winters. The association with August values of the NAO indicates that bats anticipate future winter weather conditions when deciding where to roost, a heretofore unrecognized role for prehibernation swarming behavior. Future research is needed to understand whether the three-fourths–scaling patterns we observed are related to scaling in metabolism.

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression among adults in Japanese clinical settings: a single-group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating Japanese patients with major depression is lacking, therefore, a feasibility study of CBT for depression in Japanese clinical settings is urgently required. Findings A culturally adapted, 16-week manualized individual CBT program for Japanese patients with major depressive disorder was developed. A total of 27 patients with major depression were enrolled in a single-group study with the purpose of testing the feasibility of the program. Twenty six patients (96%) completed the study. The mean total score on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) for all patients (Intention-to-treat sample) improved from 32.6 to 11.7, with a mean change of 20.8 (95% confidence interval: 17.0 to 24.8). Within-group effect size at the endpoint assessment was 2.64 (Cohen's d). Twenty-one patients (77.7%) showed treatment response and 17 patients (63.0%) achieved remission at the end of the program. Significant improvement was observed in measurement of subjective and objective depression severity (assessed by BDI-II, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Rated, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), dysfunctional attitude (assessed by Dysfunctional Attitude Scale), global functioning (assessed by Global Assessment of Functioning of DSM-IV) and subjective well-being (assessed by WHO Subjective Well-being Inventory) (all p values < 0.001). Conclusions Our manualized treatment comprised of a 16-week individual CBT program for major depression appears feasible and may achieve favorable treatment outcomes among Japanese patients with major depression. Further research involving a larger sample in a randomized, controlled trial design is warranted. Trial registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000002542. PMID:20529252

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression among adults in Japanese clinical settings: a single-group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Toshiaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for treating Japanese patients with major depression is lacking, therefore, a feasibility study of CBT for depression in Japanese clinical settings is urgently required. Findings A culturally adapted, 16-week manualized individual CBT program for Japanese patients with major depressive disorder was developed. A total of 27 patients with major depression were enrolled in a single-group study with the purpose of testing the feasibility of the program. Twenty six patients (96% completed the study. The mean total score on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II for all patients (Intention-to-treat sample improved from 32.6 to 11.7, with a mean change of 20.8 (95% confidence interval: 17.0 to 24.8. Within-group effect size at the endpoint assessment was 2.64 (Cohen's d. Twenty-one patients (77.7% showed treatment response and 17 patients (63.0% achieved remission at the end of the program. Significant improvement was observed in measurement of subjective and objective depression severity (assessed by BDI-II, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Rated, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, dysfunctional attitude (assessed by Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, global functioning (assessed by Global Assessment of Functioning of DSM-IV and subjective well-being (assessed by WHO Subjective Well-being Inventory (all p values Conclusions Our manualized treatment comprised of a 16-week individual CBT program for major depression appears feasible and may achieve favorable treatment outcomes among Japanese patients with major depression. Further research involving a larger sample in a randomized, controlled trial design is warranted. Trial registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000002542.

  13. Short-term separation from groups by male Japanese macaques: costs and benefits in feeding behavior and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yosuke; Sawada, Akiko; Hanya, Goro

    2014-04-01

    To expand our understanding of fission-fusion behavior and determine its variability among primates, studies of both individual-based and group-based fission-fusion are necessary. We conducted a parallel tracking study of male and female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) during the non-mating season to clarify the general features of separate ranging by males of this species, an example of fission-fusion behavior, and to reveal its associated costs and benefits. Males frequently engaged in short-term separate ranging, leaving the company of females and ranging on their own for periods averaging 68 min in duration. However, the males did not venture outside the group's home range. When ranging separately from the group, males spent more time feeding, particularly on fruit, stayed longer in each feeding tree, and fed at a lower rate than when ranging with the group. These behavioral changes suggest that males can avoid within-group feeding competition by ranging alone. However, this behavior was also associated with higher traveling costs, and these separated males were more vulnerable to intergroup competition and had fewer opportunities for social interaction. The frequency of separate ranging was lower when highly clumped food plant species were the main food source. Lower-ranked males, who received more aggression when ranging with the group, exhibited a higher frequency of separate ranging. This behavioral flexibility with respect to group cohesion may allow males to reduce the costs of group living without completely losing the benefits. Specifically, by ranging alone, males may acquire sufficient feeding time without being disturbed by other group members. Conversely, when ranging with the group, males can access grooming partners and advantages in intergroup competition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of environmental enrichment devices on behaviors of single- and group-housed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, S. E.; Clifford, J. O.; Tomko, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors over a broad area. Captivity limits these behaviors and consequently may disrupt normal social organizations. In captivity, squirrel monkeys may exhibit stereotypical behaviors that are believed to indicate decreased psychologic well-being. When a monkey's behavior can be made to approach that seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal, it is assumed that psychologic well-being is adequate. Environmental enrichment devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act requirement that psychologic well-being of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether various environmental enrichment devices improve the psychologic well-being of captive squirrel monkeys. In the study, we used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several environmental enrichment devices for reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed alone or in groups. Analysis of our results revealed that the environmental enrichment devices did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  15. Changes in intolerance of uncertainty during cognitive behavior group therapy for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Alison E J; McEvoy, Peter M

    2012-06-01

    Recent research suggests that intolerance of uncertainty (IU), most commonly associated with generalized anxiety disorder, also contributes to symptoms of social phobia. This study examines the relationship between IU and social anxiety symptoms across treatment. Changes in IU, social anxiety symptoms, and depression symptoms were examined following cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) for social phobia (N=32). CBGT led to significant improvements in symptoms of social anxiety and depression, as well as reductions in IU. Reductions in IU were associated with reductions in social anxiety but were unrelated to improvements in depression symptoms. Reductions in IU were predictive of post-treatment social phobia symptoms after controlling for pre-treatment social phobia symptoms and changes in depression symptoms following treatment. The relationship between IU and social anxiety requires further examination within experimental and longitudinal designs, and needs to take into account additional constructs that are thought to maintain social phobia. Current findings suggest that the enhancing tolerance of uncertainty may play a role in the optimal management of social phobia. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determinants of pro-environmental consumption. The role of reference groups and routine behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Heinz; Kuehling, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of pro-environmental consumption, focusing on the role of reference groups and routine behavior. We study the factors that explain whether or not people have installed residential solar energy equipment or have subscribed to green-electricity programs, and the factors that influence the intensity of buying organic food. In addition to demographic characteristics and environmental attitudes, we consider the following categories of determinants: economic and cognitive factors (income, estimated price premium, level of information on environmentally-friendly goods); consumption patterns of reference persons; own consumption patterns in the past. Using a unique data set from a survey conducted in the region of Hanover, Germany, we find the following: (1) Economic and cognitive factors are significant covariates of all three kinds of pro-environmental consumption. Their influence is greatest in the case of green electricity. (2) Consumption patterns of reference persons are significant covariates of all three kinds of pro-environmental consumption. Their influence is greatest in the case of organic food. (3) The intensity of buying organic food is greater the longer people have been consumers of these goods. (author)

  17. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in a Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judith R; Dawson, Samantha; Krsmanovic, Adrijana

    2017-05-02

    Primary care is where many patients with insomnia first ask for professional help. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the recommended treatment for chronic insomnia. Although CBT-I's efficacy is well established, its effectiveness in real-life primary care has seldom been investigated. We examined the effectiveness of CBT-I as routinely delivered in a Canadian primary care setting. The patients were 70 women and 11 men (mean age = 57.0 years, SD = 12.3); 83% had medical comorbidity. For the first 81 patients who took the six-session group program we compared initial and postprogram sleep diaries, sleep medication use, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and visits to the family physician. Sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and ISI scores improved significantly (p 7). Wait-list data from 42 patients showed minimal sleep and mood improvements with the passage of time. Number of visits to the family physician six months postprogram decreased, although not significantly (p = .108). The CBT-I program was associated with improvement on all sleep and mood measures. Effect sizes were similar to, or larger than, those found in randomized controlled trials, demonstrating the real-world effectiveness of CBT-I in an interdisciplinary primary care setting.

  18. Effect of vision angle on the phase transition in flocking behavior of animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P The; Lee, Sang-Hee; Ngo, V Thanh

    2015-09-01

    The nature of the phase transition in a system of self-propelling particles has been extensively studied during the past few decades. A theoretical model was proposed by [T. Vicsek et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1226] with a simple rule for updating the direction of motion of each particle. Based on the model of Vicsek et al., in this paper, we consider a group of animals as particles moving freely in a two-dimensional space. Due to the fact that the viewable area of animals depends on the species, we consider the motion of each individual within an angle φ=ϕ/2 (ϕ is called the angle of view) of a circle centered at its position of radius R. We obtained a phase diagram in the space (φ,η_{c}) with η_{c} being the critical noise. We show that the phase transition exists only in the case of a wide view's angle φ≥0.5π. The flocking of animals is a universal behavior of the species of prey but not the one of the predator. Our simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observation [C. Beccoa et al., Physica A 367, 487 (2006)PHYADX0378-437110.1016/j.physa.2005.11.041].

  19. Effect of vision angle on the phase transition in flocking behavior of animal groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P. The; Lee, Sang-Hee; Ngo, V. Thanh

    2015-09-01

    The nature of the phase transition in a system of self-propelling particles has been extensively studied during the past few decades. A theoretical model was proposed by [T. Vicsek et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1226] with a simple rule for updating the direction of motion of each particle. Based on the model of Vicsek et al., in this paper, we consider a group of animals as particles moving freely in a two-dimensional space. Due to the fact that the viewable area of animals depends on the species, we consider the motion of each individual within an angle φ =ϕ /2 (ϕ is called the angle of view) of a circle centered at its position of radius R . We obtained a phase diagram in the space (φ ,ηc ) with ηc being the critical noise. We show that the phase transition exists only in the case of a wide view's angle φ ≥0.5 π . The flocking of animals is a universal behavior of the species of prey but not the one of the predator. Our simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observation [C. Beccoa et al., Physica A 367, 487 (2006), 10.1016/j.physa.2005.11.041].

  20. A Study of Effectiveness of Rational, Emotive, Behavior Therapy (REBT) with Group Method on Decrease of Stress among Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kianoush Zahrakar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present research was studying the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) with Group method in decreasing stress of diabetic patients. Methods: The population of research consisted of all diabetic patients that are member of diabetic patient’s association 0f karaj city. The sample consisted of 30 diabetic patients (experimental group 15 persons and control group 15 persons) that selected through random sampling. Research design was experiment...

  1. Behavior change techniques used in group-based behavioral support by the English stop-smoking services and preliminary assessment of association with short-term quit outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; Evans, Adam; Michie, Susan

    2011-12-01

    To develop a reliable coding scheme for components of group-based behavioral support for smoking cessation, to establish the frequency of inclusion in English Stop-Smoking Service (SSS) treatment manuals of specific components, and to investigate the associations between inclusion of behavior change techniques (BCTs) and service success rates. A taxonomy of BCTs specific to group-based behavioral support was developed and reliability of use assessed. All English SSSs (n = 145) were contacted to request their group-support treatment manuals. BCTs included in the manuals were identified using this taxonomy. Associations between inclusion of specific BCTs and short-term (4-week) self-reported quit outcomes were assessed. Fourteen group-support BCTs were identified with >90% agreement between coders. One hundred and seven services responded to the request for group-support manuals of which 30 had suitable documents. On average, 7 BCTs were included in each manual. Two were positively associated with 4-week quit rates: "communicate group member identities" and a "betting game" (a financial deposit that is lost if a stop-smoking "buddy" relapses). It is possible to reliably code group-specific BCTs for smoking cessation. Fourteen such techniques are present in guideline documents of which 2 appear to be associated with higher short-term self-reported quit rates when included in treatment manuals of English SSSs.

  2. Molecular phylogenetic and scanning electron microscopical analyses places the Choanephoraceae and the Gilbertellaceae in a monophyletic group within the Mucorales (Zygomycetes, Fungi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kerstin; Olsson, L

    2008-09-01

    A multi-gene genealogy based on maximum parsimony and distance analyses of the exonic genes for actin (act) and translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef), the nuclear genes for the small (18S) and large (28S) subunit ribosomal RNA (comprising 807, 1092, 1863, 389 characters, respectively) of all 50 genera of the Mucorales (Zygomycetes) suggests that the Choanephoraceae is a monophyletic group. The monotypic Gilbertellaceae appears in close phylogenetic relatedness to the Choanephoraceae. The monophyly of the Choanephoraceae has moderate to strong support (bootstrap proportions 67% and 96% in distance and maximum parsimony analyses, respectively), whereas the monophyly of the Choanephoraceae-Gilbertellaceae clade is supported by high bootstrap values (100% and 98%). This suggests that the two families can be joined into one family, which leads to the elimination of the Gilbertellaceae as a separate family. In order to test this hypothesis single-locus neighbor-joining analyses were performed on nuclear genes of the 18S, 5.8S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 ribosomal RNA and the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef) and beta tubulin (betatub) nucleotide sequences. The common monophyletic origin of the Choanephoraceae-Gilbertellaceae clade could be confirmed in all gene trees and by investigation of their ultrastructure. Sporangia with persistent, sutured walls splitting in half at maturity and ellipsoidal sporangiospores with striated ornamentations and polar ciliate appendages arising from spores in persistent sporangia and dehiscent sporangiola represent synapomorphic characters of this group. We discuss our data in the context of the historical development of their taxonomy and physiology and propose a reduction of the two families to one family, the Choanephoraceae sensu lato comprising species which are facultative plant pathogens and parasites, especially in subtropical to tropical regions.

  3. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Improving Quality of Life in Opiate Addicts under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Momeni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of cognitive- behavioral group therapy on improvement of quality of life in opiate patients under methadone maintenance treatment. Method: This was a semi experimental study using control group also pre-test, post-test and follow-up. Thirty six patients on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies within judgmental sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. They were all administered the WHOQOL-BREF. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions and the control group was registered in the waiting list for the CBGT. Findings: Data analysis revealed that the mean WHOQOL-BREF score in the experimental group had significant higher increase when compared with that of the control group. But it wasn’t significant in follow up. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive–behavior group therapy On improvement of quality of life of opiate addicts on MMT in short term but didn’t seem to be effective in long term.

  4. The Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training Group Vs. Cognitive Therapy Group on Reducing Depression and Suicide Attempts for Borderline Personality Disorder in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Jen; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Oei, Tian Po; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2018-03-12

    Effectiveness of the condensed Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training Group (DBTSTG) was compared to the Cognitive Therapy Group (CTG) in reducing depression and suicide reattempt, and modifying emotion regulation strategies among those with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Eighty-two depressed BPD college students with a suicidal history within the past six-months were randomly allocated to DBTSTG or CTG. Both groups had similar reductions in suicide reattempts and depression after the intervention and 6-month follow-ups. However, the CTG showed improvements in cognitive errors, but the DBTSTG revealed increases in acceptance and decreases in suppression scores. Both groups were effective in decreasing depression and suicide reattempt in BPD college students, probably through increasing adaptive antecedent-focused or response-focused strategies of emotion regulation, respectively.

  5. Post-irradiation examinations and theoretical analyses of the fuel and fuel pin behavior of innovative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, W.; Freund, D.; Geithoff, D.; Heck, M.; Jacobi, O.; Steiner, H.; Weimar, P.

    1995-01-01

    For the development of LMR cladding materials an irradiation test was performed in the KNK II reactor between 1986 and 1991. It demonstrated that a temperature gradient in the cladding has no observable effect on swelling behavior. PIEs of transient experiments in the Petten HFR have shown no significant cladding deformations. (orig.)

  6. The Limitations of Behavior-Genetic Analyses: Comment on McGue, Elkins, Walden, and Iacono (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article takes issue with the behavior-genetic analysis of parenting style presented by M. McGue, I. Elkins, B. Walden, and W. G. Iacono. The author argues that the attribution of their findings to inherited genetic effects was without basis because McGue et al. never indicated how those genetic effects manifested themselves. Instead, McGue et…

  7. Event-Specific Analyses of Poly-Drug Abuse and Concomitant Risk Behavior in a College Bar District in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L.; O'Mara, Ryan; Dodd, Virginia J.; Merves, Michele L.; Weiler, Robert M.; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Moore, Christine; Reingle, Jennifer; Gullet, Sara E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the epidemiology of risk behavior associated with poly-drug use in a college bar district of a large campus community. Participants: A total of 469 bar patrons participated in the study. Methods: The authors used self-report data and biological measures collected from patrons outside bars in July and August of…

  8. The effects of nonsuicidal self-injury on parenting behaviors : A longitudinal analyses of the perspective of the parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study is the first to examine predictors and consequences of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescence using parent-reported data in a longitudinal design. Across three time points, we examined the reciprocal effects of parent-reported parenting behaviors as they are

  9. Comparative physical-chemical characterization of encapsulated lipid-based isotretinoin products assessed by particle size distribution and thermal behavior analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carla Aiolfi, E-mail: carlaaiolfi@usp.br [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Menaa, Farid [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg 97080 (Germany); Fluorotronics, Inc., 1425 Russ Bvld, San Diego Technology Incubator, San Diego, CA 92101 (United States); Menaa, Bouzid, E-mail: bouzid.menaa@gmail.com [Fluorotronics, Inc., 1425 Russ Bvld, San Diego Technology Incubator, San Diego, CA 92101 (United States); Quenca-Guillen, Joyce S. [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Matos, Jivaldo do Rosario [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Mercuri, Lucildes Pita [Department of Exact and Earth Sciences, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP 09972-270 (Brazil); Braz, Andre Borges [Department of Engineering of Mines and Oil, Polytechnical School, University of Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Rossetti, Fabia Cristina [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14015-120 (Brazil); Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Ines Rocha Miritello [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2010-06-10

    Isotretinoin is the drug of choice for the management of severe recalcitrant nodular acne. Nevertheless, some of its physical-chemical properties are still poorly known. Hence, the aim of our study consisted to comparatively evaluate the particle size distribution (PSD) and characterize the thermal behavior of the three encapsulated isotretinoin products in oil suspension (one reference and two generics) commercialized in Brazil. Here, we show that the PSD, estimated by laser diffraction and by polarized light microscopy, differed between the generics and the reference product. However, the thermal behavior of the three products, determined by thermogravimetry (TGA), differential thermal (DTA) analyses and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), displayed no significant changes and were more thermostable than the isotretinoin standard used as internal control. Thus, our study suggests that PSD analyses in isotretinoin lipid-based formulations should be routinely performed in order to improve their quality and bioavailability.

  10. A Cross Sectional Study of Behavior Disorders In 6-15 Years Age Group in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Kirti C Rasote, Alka D Gore, Usha Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    "Background: Child & adolescent psychiatric disorders and behavioral disorders are not given adequate attention. Such studies are either school based or hospital based. Methods: To study the prevalence and pattern of behavior disorders among children from the community a cross sectional study was conducted in rural area with 600 children of 6-15 years age group by the ‘Purposive Sampling’ method. Percentages & chi square test was used. Results: Response rate was 94%. Out o...

  11. Structural and Treatment Analyses of Safe and At-Risk Behaviors and Postures Performed by Pharmacy Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Rhiannon; Gravina, Nicole; Betz, Alison; Austin, John

    2010-01-01

    This study employed structural and treatment analyses to determine factors that contributed to wrist posture safety in a small pharmacy. The pharmacy was located on a university campus and participants were three female pharmacy technicians. These particular employees had experienced various repetitive-motion injuries that resulted in a total of…

  12. Long Term Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Gokdag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to conduct systematic review the articles on long term effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for treatment of major depressive disorder. Articles in English and Turkish published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (January were searched in national and international databases. The articles that did not include follow-up studies were excluded. Although the main aim of this study is to evaluate permanent effect of the cognitive behavioral group therapy, 21 articles that met the criteria were examined also in terms of some other variables such as research method, therapy characteristics and post test results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive-behavioral group therapy is effective for major depressive disorder and post therapy gains are maintained for a long time. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 23-38

  13. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured...... self-reported driving skills and whether the reported skill level was reflected in the reported aberrant driving behaviors. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct sub-groups that differed in driving skills and frequency of aberrant driving...... by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether the sub-groups differ in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. Furthermore, the joint analysis of the two instruments was used to test drivers’ assessment of their own...

  14. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Increased Life Expectancy of Male Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadian akerdi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cancers are a broad group of diseases, each having their own etiology, treatment, and prognosis. The majority of cancer patients experience a period of mental stress during their disease. Given the effective role of life expectancy in dealing with chronic diseases, such as stomach cancer, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on increased life expectancy of male patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: This quasi-experiment was conducted on 92 male patients with gastric cancer referring to Tuba Medical Center, Sari, Iran in 2014. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of test (n=46 and control (n=46. The two groups completed the Adult Hope Scale (AHS by Snyder in pretest stage. At the next stage, samples of the test group were exposed to 10 sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (each session: 90 min, while the control group did not receive any special treatment. Both study groups completed the questionnaire again at the posttest stage, followed by the comparison of results. FINDINGS: In terms of life expectancy, mean scores of the test and control groups at the pretest stage were 37.21±4.7 and 36.26±4.73, respectively. Meanwhile, mean scores of the mentioned groups at the posttest stage were 40.02±3.87 and 36.23±4.8, respectively. A significant increase was observed in the mean scores of test and control groups at the posttest stage compared to before the intervention. Moreover, a significant difference was found between the study groups regarding life expectancy and its components (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: According to the results, cognitive-behavioral group therapy could increase life expectancy in patients with gastric cancer.

  15. Low-income children's reported motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Lillian B; Tucker, Carolyn M; Bragg, Marie A; Estampador, Angela C

    2011-01-01

    Despite national attention to the childhood obesity epidemic, there are few US-based studies that directly ask children--especially children from low-income families and from multiple racial/ethnic groups--why they do or do not engage in healthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors, as reported by black, Hispanic, and white children from low-income families. Six gender- and race/ethnicity-concordant focus groups were conducted with 37 children who were aged 9 to 12 years and from families with an annual household income of $40000 or less. Multiple strategies were used to employ a culturally sensitive approach to both data collection and data analysis (eg, a team of culturally diverse researchers utilized inductive qualitative analysis to analyze focus group transcripts). The motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors most commonly reported across the 6 focus groups included social influence, taste, issues of availability, weight concerns, and the desire to be healthy. A variety of less commonly reported motivators and barriers were also discussed. Findings were generally similar across gender and race/ethnicity. Children in this age range can indeed identify a variety of motivators and barriers that influence their engagement in healthy eating behaviors. Interventions targeting obesity and eating behaviors should include an assessment of children's own perceived motivators of and barriers to healthy eating.

  16. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy ‎on ‎symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS ‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maddineshat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls’ dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences.Method: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the ‎convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. ‎The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research ‎tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the studentsResults: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after ‎cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012. Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was ‎effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012.‎Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female ‎college students.‎

  17. Parent behavior and child weight status among a diverse group of underserved rural families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the association between three parenting behaviors (parenting style, feeding style, and feeding practices); to evaluate whether these behaviors were associated with child weight; and to determine whether style (parenting and feeding) moderated t...

  18. Coping Strategies in Bulimia Nervosa Treatment: Impact on Outcome in Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.

    2005-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…

  19. Exploration of Engineering Students' Values with Respect to Behaviors in Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Robert L.; Pappas, Eric C.; Swain, Matthew S.; Hazard, Gretchen A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to train young professionals, instructional methodologies in engineering need not only teach students knowledge, but must also instill the values and teach the behaviors--"competencies" students can demonstrate--required of professional practice. Herein, we focus on understanding the values and behaviors of students with respect…

  20. The effect of grinding on the mechanical behavior of Y-TZP ceramics: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G K R; Fraga, S; Montagner, A F; Soares, F Z M; Kleverlaan, C J; Valandro, L F

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to assess the effect of grinding on the mechanical properties, structural stability and superficial characteristics of Y-TZP ceramics. The MEDLINE via PubMed and Web of Science (ISI - Web of Knowledge) electronic databases were searched with included peer-reviewed publications in English language and with no publication year limit. From 342 potentially eligible studies, 73 were selected for full-text analysis, 30 were included in the systematic review with 20 considered in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1, with random effects model, at a significance level of 0.05. A descriptive analysis considering phase transformation, Y-TZP grain size, Vickers hardness, residual stress and aging of all included studies were executed. Four outcomes were considered in the meta-analyses (factor: grinding x as-sintered) in global and subgroups analyses (grinding tool, grit-size and cooling) for flexural strength and roughness (Ra) data. A significant difference (pgrinding; subgroup analyses revealed that different parameters also lead to different effects on roughness. High heterogeneity was found in some comparisons. Generally grinding promotes decrease in strength and increase in roughness of Y-TZP ceramics. However, the use of a grinding tool that allows greater accuracy of the movement (i.e. contra angle hand-pieces coupled to slowspeed turbines), small grit size (<50μm) and the use of plenty coolant seem to be the main factors to decrease the defect introduction and allow the occurrence of the toughening transformation mechanism, decreasing the risk of deleterious impact on Y-TZP mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Group cognitive behavioural therapy for postnatal depression: a systematic review of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and value of information analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M D; Scope, A; Sutcliffe, P A; Booth, A; Slade, P; Parry, G; Saxon, D; Kalthenthaler, E

    2010-09-01

    . These were tested using univariate sensitivity analyses. Supplementary analyses that fitted distributions to the cost of treatment and the duration of comparative advantage reported a cost per QALY of 36,062 pounds (95% CI 20,464 to 59,262 pounds). The cost per QALY ratio for group CBT in PND was uncertain because of gaps in the evidence base. There was little quantitative or qualitative RCT evidence to assess the effectiveness of group CBT for PND. The evidence that was available was of low quality in the main because of poor reporting of the results. Furthermore, little information was reported on concurrent treatment used in the studies, which was controlled for in only two of the studies. Evidence from the clinical effectiveness review provided inconsistent and low quality information on which to base any interpretations for service provision. Although three of the included studies provided some indication that group psycho-education incorporating CBT is effective compared with RPC, there is enough doubt in the quality of the study, the level of CBT implemented in the group programmes, and the applicability to a PND population to limit any interpretations significantly. It is also considered that the place of group CBT in a stepped care programme needs to be identified, as well as there being a need for a clearer referral process for group CBT.

  2. Group versus Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for procrastination: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozental

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is defined as a voluntarily delay of an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse-off for the delay, and is considered a persistent behavior pattern that can result in major psychological suffering. About one-fifth of the adult population and half of the student population are presumed having substantial difficulties due to recurrent procrastination in their everyday lives. However, chronic and severe procrastinators seldom receive adequate care due to preconceptions and the lack of understanding regarding procrastination and the treatment interventions that are assumed beneficial. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is often deemed a treatment of choice, although the evidence supporting its use is scarce, and only one randomized controlled trial has been performed. The primary aim of the proposed study is therefore to test the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy delivered as either a group intervention or via the Internet. Participants will consist of students recruited through the Student Health Centre at Karolinska Institutet. A randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 100 participants divided into blocks of thirty will be used, comparing an eight-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention, and an eight-week group cognitive-behavioral therapy based intervention. It is believed that the proposed study will result in two important findings. First, different treatment interventions in cognitive-behavioral therapy are assumed to be helpful for people suffering from problems caused by procrastination. Second, both an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention and a group intervention are presumed suitable for administering treatment for procrastination, which is considered important as the availability of adequate care is limited, particularly among students. The proposed study will increase the knowledge regarding the efficacy of different treatments of procrastination, as well

  3. [Effects of Group Counseling Program Based on Goal Attainment Theory for Middle School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In Ju; Kim, Soo Jin

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a group counseling program based on goal attainment theory on self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and school adjustment of middle school students with emotional and behavioral problems. Forty-four middle school students with emotional and behavioral problems (22 in the experimental group and 22 in the control group) from G city participated in this study. Data were collected from July 30 to September 24, 2015. The experimental group received the 8-session program, scheduled once a week, with each session lasting 45 minutes. Outcome variables included self-esteem, interpersonal relationship, and school adjustment. There were significant increases for self-esteem (t=3.69, p=.001), interpersonal relationship (t=8.88, pgroup compared to the control group. These results indicate that the group counseling program based on goal attainment theory is very effective in increasing self-esteem, interpersonal relationship, and school adjustment for middle school students with emotional and behavioral problems. Therefore, it is recommended that the group counseling program based on goal attainment theory be used as an effective psychiatric nursing intervention for mental health promotion and the prevention of mental illness in adolescents. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  4. Pattern of structural brain changes in social anxiety disorder after cognitive behavioral group therapy: a longitudinal multimodal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, V R; Brühl, A B; Weidt, S; Delsignore, A; Rufer, M; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U; Hänggi, J

    2017-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM). Surface-based morphometry revealed a significant cortical volume reduction (pre- to post-treatment) in the left inferior parietal cortex, as well as a positive partial correlation between treatment success (indexed by reductions in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and reductions in cortical volume in bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed a significant increase in FA in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Network-based statistics revealed a significant increase of structural connectivity in a frontolimbic network. No partial correlations with treatment success have been found in WM analyses. For, we believe, the first time, we present a distinctive pattern of longitudinal structural brain changes after CBGT measured with three established magnetic resonance imaging analyzing techniques. Our findings are in line with previous cross-sectional, unimodal SAD studies and extent them by highlighting anatomical brain alterations that point toward the level of HCs in parallel with a reduction in SAD symptomatology.

  5. Effectiveness of Rational- Emotive- Behavior Group Counseling (REBT on Irrational Attitudes about Spouse Selection in Girls and Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karami boldaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to determine the effectiveness of Rational- Emotional- Behavior therapy (REBT on irrational attitudes about Spouse Selection in girls and boys. Therefore, 32 girls and boys in city of Bandar Abbas were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental and control groups with 16 girls and boys in each group. The experimental group received 8 sessions in each week. Attitudes about Mate Selection Scale (ARMSS were used as the pretest and post-test. Results of analysis of covariate showed that the mean scores of irrational attitudes about romance and mate selection in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group in the post test (p= 0/001. Also, mean scores of subscales of irrational attitudes about romance and mate selection (believe love, pivotal experience, idealization, opposite seeking, easy getting and optimistic view in experimental group was significantly lower than control group in the post test.

  6. Analyses between Reproductive Behavior, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. Reveal an Adaptive Significance for Hemiclonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Geethu E.; Geetha, Kiran A.; Augustine, Lesly; Mamiyil, Sabu; Thomas, George

    2016-01-01

    Mode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen) whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet). However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behavior on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behavior, amplified fragment length polymorphism diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii, and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale). Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behavior. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and continuous, sexual and genetically

  7. High-resolution linkage analyses to identify genes that influence Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruda, Jennifer M; Harris, Jeffrey W; Bourgeois, Lanie; Danka, Robert G; Hunt, Greg J

    2012-01-01

    Varroa mites (V. destructor) are a major threat to honey bees (Apis melilfera) and beekeeping worldwide and likely lead to colony decline if colonies are not treated. Most treatments involve chemical control of the mites; however, Varroa has evolved resistance to many of these miticides, leaving beekeepers with a limited number of alternatives. A non-chemical control method is highly desirable for numerous reasons including lack of chemical residues and decreased likelihood of resistance. Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior is one of two behaviors identified that are most important for controlling the growth of Varroa populations in bee hives. To identify genes influencing this trait, a study was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Individual workers of a backcross family were observed and evaluated for their VSH behavior in a mite-infested observation hive. Bees that uncapped or removed pupae were identified. The genotypes for 1,340 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to construct a high-resolution genetic map and interval mapping was used to analyze the association of the genotypes with the performance of Varroa sensitive hygiene. We identified one major QTL on chromosome 9 (LOD score = 3.21) and a suggestive QTL on chromosome 1 (LOD = 1.95). The QTL confidence interval on chromosome 9 contains the gene 'no receptor potential A' and a dopamine receptor. 'No receptor potential A' is involved in vision and olfaction in Drosophila, and dopamine signaling has been previously shown to be required for aversive olfactory learning in honey bees, which is probably necessary for identifying mites within brood cells. Further studies on these candidate genes may allow for breeding bees with this trait using marker-assisted selection.

  8. High-resolution linkage analyses to identify genes that influence Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Tsuruda

    Full Text Available Varroa mites (V. destructor are a major threat to honey bees (Apis melilfera and beekeeping worldwide and likely lead to colony decline if colonies are not treated. Most treatments involve chemical control of the mites; however, Varroa has evolved resistance to many of these miticides, leaving beekeepers with a limited number of alternatives. A non-chemical control method is highly desirable for numerous reasons including lack of chemical residues and decreased likelihood of resistance. Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior is one of two behaviors identified that are most important for controlling the growth of Varroa populations in bee hives. To identify genes influencing this trait, a study was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL. Individual workers of a backcross family were observed and evaluated for their VSH behavior in a mite-infested observation hive. Bees that uncapped or removed pupae were identified. The genotypes for 1,340 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to construct a high-resolution genetic map and interval mapping was used to analyze the association of the genotypes with the performance of Varroa sensitive hygiene. We identified one major QTL on chromosome 9 (LOD score = 3.21 and a suggestive QTL on chromosome 1 (LOD = 1.95. The QTL confidence interval on chromosome 9 contains the gene 'no receptor potential A' and a dopamine receptor. 'No receptor potential A' is involved in vision and olfaction in Drosophila, and dopamine signaling has been previously shown to be required for aversive olfactory learning in honey bees, which is probably necessary for identifying mites within brood cells. Further studies on these candidate genes may allow for breeding bees with this trait using marker-assisted selection.

  9. Comparative Anatomical Analyses of the Forearm Muscles of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al. 2000): Manipulatory Behavior and Tool Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Maior, Rafael Souto; Carneiro-e-Silva, Frederico O.; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the flexor and extensor muscles in Cebus libidinosus' forearm and compares them with those from humans, chimpanzees and baboons. The data is presented in quantitative anatomical indices for similarity. The capuchin forearm muscles showed important similarities with chimpanzees and humans, particularly those that act on thumb motion and allow certain degree of independence from other hand structures, even though their configuration does not enable a true opposable thumb. The characteristics of Cebus' forearm muscles corroborate the evolutionary convergence towards an adaptive behavior (tool use) between Cebus genus and apes. PMID:21789230

  10. Religious commitment, attitudes toward suicide, and suicidal behaviors among college students of different ethnic and religious groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Xiang Yi; Alwi, Muhd Najib Mohd; Ismail, Siti Irma Fadhillah; Ibrahim, Normala; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil

    2014-06-01

    The variation in suicide patterns across ethnic groups with different religious background is a puzzling social phenomenon. This study sought to examine the impact of religious commitment and attitudes toward suicide on suicidal behaviors of college students across major ethnic and religious groups in a multicultural society of Malaysia. A total of 139 college students completed Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Findings showed significant discrepancies in attitudes toward suicide, but not suicidal behaviors across ethnic and religious groups. Suicide acceptance significantly affected suicidal behaviors as well. Although religious commitment is not associated with suicidal behaviors, its deviation is reflected in students' acceptance of suicide. Additionally, college students' suicide risk, lifetime, and recent suicide ideation, as well as their likelihood of future suicide attempt can be associated with their acceptance of suicide. The influence of attitudes toward suicide and religion, therefore, should be taken into consideration while implementing suicide prevention programs as it helps shape the norms about suicide among youths.

  11. The effect of group attachment and social position on prosocial behavior. Evidence from lab-in-the-field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Baldassarri

    Full Text Available Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer organizations in rural Uganda. Using different variants of the dictator game, we demonstrate that group attachment positively affects prosocial behavior, and that this effect is not simply the by-product of the degree of proximity between individuals. Second, we show that occupying a formal position in an organization or community leads to greater generosity toward in-group members. Taken together, our findings show that prosocial behavior is not an invariant social trait; rather, it varies according to individuals' relative position in the social structure.

  12. Behaviors Related to Mosquito-Borne Diseases among Different Ethnic Minority Groups along the China-Laos Border Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adult (≥18 years old and eight schools were used for children (<18 years old. A questionnaire on behaviors and environment variables related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results: Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion: Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.

  13. Phase behavior and micellar properties of carboxylic acid end group modified pluronic surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.P.A.; Broeke, van den L.J.P.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    The micellar behavior of three different carboxylic acid end standing (CAE) surfactants has been characterized using conductometry, differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, and dynamic light scattering. The CAE surfactants are modified high molecular weight Pluronic

  14. Money priming and social behavior of natural groups in simple bargaining and dilemma experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Michailova, Julija; Bühren, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of money priming and solidarity on individual behavior in three simple experiments: dictator game, ultimatum game, and prisoner's dilemma. Our study comprises two money treatments and two neutral (control) treatments. Additionally, we control for the strength of social ties between experimental participants. Although our priming procedure is sufficient to remind people of the concept of money, it is not sufficient to induce systematically different behavior of the treat...

  15. Maternal depression and intimate partner violence exposure: Longitudinal analyses of the development of aggressive behavior in an at-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R; Yoon, Susan; Berg, Kristen A

    2017-07-01

    A substantial body of literature has documented the negative effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on a wide range of children's developmental outcomes. However, whether a child's exposure to IPV leads to increased adjustment difficulties is likely to depend on a variety of factors, including the caregiver's mental health and the developmental time period when IPV exposure occurs. The present study seeks to improve our understanding of the long-term effects of IPV exposure and maternal depression on the development of children's overt aggressive behavior. Longitudinal analyses (i.e., latent growth curve modeling) examining three time points (toddler: age 2-3 years, preschool/kindergarten: age 4-5 years, and elementary school: age 6-8 years) were conducted using 1,399 at-risk children drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). IPV exposure during age 2-3 years was significantly related to concurrent aggressive behavior and aggressive behavior during age 4-5 years. At all three time points, IPV was significantly associated with maternal depression, which in turn, was significantly related to higher levels of aggressive behavior. There was also a significant indirect lagged effect of IPV exposure at age 2-3 years through maternal depression on aggressive behavior at age 4-5 years. Results indicated that maternal depression was a strong predictor of increased reports of overt aggressive behavior, suggesting that interventions to buffer the effects of IPV exposure should focus on relieving maternal depression and fostering productive social behavior in children. Aggr. Behav. 43:375-385, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…

  17. Effectiveness of Group Activity Play Therapy on Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems of Preadolescent Orphans in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiambo, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of group activity play therapy (GAPT) on displaced orphans aged 10 to 12 years living in a large children's village in Uganda. Teachers and housemothers identified 60 preadolescents exhibiting clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The participants' ethnicity was African and…

  18. Reciprocal Relations between Student-Teacher Relationship and Children's Behavioral Problems: Moderation by Child-Care Group Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In this Norwegian study, bidirectional relations between children's behavior problems and child-teacher conflict and closeness were examined, and the possibility of moderation of these associations by child-care group size was tested. Eight hundred and nineteen 4-year-old children were followed up in first grade. Results revealed reciprocal…

  19. The Relationship between Ethical Culture and Unethical Behavior in Work Groups: Testing the Corporate Ethical Virtues Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Corporate Ethical Virtues Model, which is a model for measuring the ethical culture of organizations, has not been tested on its predictive validity. This study tests the relationship between this model and observed unethical behavior in work groups. The sample consists of 301 triads

  20. Combining Self-Monitoring and an Interdependent Group Contingency to Improve the Behavior of Sixth Graders with EBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denune, Hilary; Hawkins, Renee; Donovan, Lauren; Mccoy, Dacia; Hall, Lyndsie; Moeder, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to examine the influence of a self-monitoring procedure on the overall effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency intervention implemented in a sixth-grade classroom in an alternative school serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Dependent variables included student on-task, off-task,…

  1. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  2. The Fritz Roethlisberger Memorial Award Goes to "Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.

    2012-01-01

    The Fritz J. Roethlisberger Memorial Award for the best article in the 2011 "Journal of Management Education" goes to Rae Andre for her article, Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses ("Journal of Management Education," Volume 35, Number 5, pp. 596-619). In keeping with Roethlisberger's legacy, this year's…

  3. Outdoor recreation behaviors and preferences of urban racial/ethnic groups: an example from the Chicago area

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; Susan C. Barro

    2001-01-01

    A study of outdoor recreation preferences and behavior of Non-Hispanic White Americans (n=618), African Americans (n=647), and Hispanic Americans (n=346) in Cook County, Illinois was conducted in early 1999. Respondents were contacted in a phone survey using random digit dialing and a quota for each group. Important similarities and differences were found among these...

  4. Altruistic behavior in cohesive social groups: The role of target identifiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritov, Ilana; Kogut, Tehila

    2017-01-01

    People's tendency to be more generous toward identifiable victims than toward unidentifiable or statistical victims is known as the Identifiable Victim Effect. Recent research has called the generality of this effect into question, showing that in cross-national contexts, identifiability mostly affects willingness to help victims of one's own "in-group." Furthermore, in inter-group conflict situations, identifiability increased generosity toward a member of the adversary group, but decreased generosity toward a member of one's own group. In the present research we examine the role of group-cohesiveness as an underlying factor accounting for these divergent findings. In particular, we examined novel groups generated in the lab, using the minimal group paradigm, as well as natural groups of students in regular exercise sections. Allocation decisions in dictator games revealed that a group's cohesiveness affects generosity toward in-group and out-group recipients differently, depending on their identifiability. In particular, in cohesive groups the identification of an in-group recipient decreased, rather than increased generosity.

  5. Altruistic behavior in cohesive social groups: The role of target identifiability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Ritov

    Full Text Available People's tendency to be more generous toward identifiable victims than toward unidentifiable or statistical victims is known as the Identifiable Victim Effect. Recent research has called the generality of this effect into question, showing that in cross-national contexts, identifiability mostly affects willingness to help victims of one's own "in-group." Furthermore, in inter-group conflict situations, identifiability increased generosity toward a member of the adversary group, but decreased generosity toward a member of one's own group. In the present research we examine the role of group-cohesiveness as an underlying factor accounting for these divergent findings. In particular, we examined novel groups generated in the lab, using the minimal group paradigm, as well as natural groups of students in regular exercise sections. Allocation decisions in dictator games revealed that a group's cohesiveness affects generosity toward in-group and out-group recipients differently, depending on their identifiability. In particular, in cohesive groups the identification of an in-group recipient decreased, rather than increased generosity.

  6. N-acetylcysteine possesses antidepressant-like activity through reduction of oxidative stress: behavioral and biochemical analyses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaga, Irena; Pomierny, Bartosz; Krzyżanowska, Weronika; Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Miszkiel, Joanna; Niedzielska, Ewa; Ogórka, Agata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2012-12-03

    The growing body of evidence implicates the significance of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of this paper was to examine N-acetylcysteine (NAC) - a putative precursor of the most important tissue antioxidant glutathione - in an animal model of depression and in ex vivo assays to detect oxidative stress parameters. Imipramine (IMI), a classical and clinically-approved antidepressant drug was also under investigation. Male Wistar rats which underwent either bulbectomy (BULB; removal of the olfactory bulbs) or sham surgery (SHAM; olfactory bulbs were left undestroyed) were treated acutely or repeatedly with NAC (50-100mg/kg, ip) or IMI (10mg/kg, ip). Following 10-daily injections with NAC or IMI or their solvents, or 9-daily injections with a corresponding solvent plus acute NAC or acute IMI forced swimming test on day 10, and locomotor activity were performed; immediately after behavioral tests animals were decapitated. Biochemical tests (the total antioxidant capacity - TAC and the superoxide dismutase activity - SOD) were performed on homogenates in several brain structures. In behavioral studies, chronic (but not acute) administration of NAC resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the immobility time seen only in BULB rats while chronic IMI produced a significant decrease in this parameter in both SHAM and BULB animals. On the other hand, chronic administration of NAC and IMI resulted in a significant increase in cellular antioxidant mechanisms (SOD activity) that reversed the effects of BULB in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Our study further supports the antidepressant-like activity of NAC and links its effect as well as IMI actions with the enhancement of brain SOD activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Quality analyses of the development of preterm infants: results of the Lower-Saxonian preterm infant follow-up project and a comparison group of term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Gabriele; Macha, Thorsten; Petermann, Franz; Voss, Wolfgang; Sens, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Based on perinatal and neonatal quality assurance programmes, a follow-up project for the high-risk group of extremely preterm infants, unparalleled in Germany, was initiated in the federal state of Lower Saxony in 2004. Here we describe the new approach of examining a comparison group of term infants, which, for the first time, allows a valid interpretation of the collection of area-wide long-term outcome data on preterm children. The prospective long-term outcome project investigates the medical care situation for children born at less than 28 weeks of gestation up to school age. Based on the information obtained about the children's development the quality of health care will be optimised. A standardised examining concept with established development tests at defined follow-up intervals (at the age of 6 months, 2, 5 and 10 years) is used. At the age of five years 75 % of the examined premature children exhibited impairments. In order to better assess remarkable results, a comparison group of term infants (n=305) selected by a matched-pairs method was examined at the age of five using an analogous concept in kindergartens in Lower Saxony. The results were compared with the first two age cohorts of the follow-up-project (n=226) and quality analyses performed. As expected, significant differences have been found in the children's motor, cognitive and linguistic development between the preterm and term infants examined. This fact draws attention to the importance of early support for the majority of extremely premature infants. Feedback on the results given to the medical staff involved allows for the implementation of best practices and quality improvements. Identifying potential for improvement in everyday health care will help to develop specific optimisation measures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Quantification of functional groups and modeling of their ionization behavior in the active layer of FT30 reverse osmosis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronell, Orlando; Mariñas, Benito J; Zhang, Xijing; Cahill, David G

    2008-07-15

    A new experimental approach was developed to measure the concentration of charged functional groups (FGs) in the active layer of thin-film composite reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes as a function of solution pH. FT30 RO membrane, with a fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layer sandwiched between a polysulfone support and a coating layer, was used. The experiments consisted of saturating charged FGs with heavy ion probes, and determining the ion probe concentration by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Deprotonated carboxylic groups were saturated with Ag+, and protonated amine groups with W04(2-). The ionization behavior of carboxylic and amine groups was modeled based on acid-base equilibrium theory. While the ionization behavior of amine groups was satisfactorily described by one dissociation constant (pKa = 4.74), two pKa values (5.23 and 8.97) were necessary to describe the titration curve of carboxylic groups. These results were consistent with the bimodal pore size distribution (PSD) of FT30 active layer reported in the literature. The calculated total concentrations of carboxylic and amine groups in the active layer of the FT30 RO membrane studied were 0.432 and 0.036 M, respectively, and the isoelectric point (IEP) was 4.7. The total concentration of carboxylic and amine groups revealed that the degree of cross-linking of the PA active layer of the FT30 RO membrane studied was 94%.

  9. The effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy on stress, anxiety, and depression of women with multiple sclerosis

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    Saeid Pahlavanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the factors that could influence the quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis, which is usually overlooked, is its psychological aspects. Considering the increasing acceptance of complementary medicine in the health system, this study was designed and conducted to determine the effect of group cognitive therapy on the stress, anxiety, and depression of women suffering from multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted among 70 women suffering from multiple sclerosis who were referred to the health centers of Isfahan. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and control, each containing 35 patients. The intervention group received cognitive behavioral therapy as 8 90-minute group sessions (a session per week, and the control group participated in 4 group sessions to express their feelings and experiences. Data were gathered using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-24. Results: There was a significant difference between the mean score of stress (P = 0.03, anxiety (P = 0.02, and depression (P = 0.03 of the intervention and the control group immediately after and 1 month after the intervention. Least squares difference test showed that the mean score of stress (P = 0.02, anxiety (P = 0.02, and depression (P = 0.03 immediately and 1 month after the intervention was significantly lower in the intervention group. Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, cognitive behavioral therapy could decrease stress, anxiety, and depression in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.

  10. A multi-group confirmatory factor analyses of the LupusPRO between southern California and Filipino samples of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoddin, D R; Olmstead, R; Cost, C; Jolly, M; Ayeroff, J; Racaza, G; Sumner, L A; Ormseth, S; Weisman, M; Nicassio, P M

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) leads to a range of biopsychosocial health outcomes through an unpredictable and complex disease path. The LupusPRO is a comprehensive, self-report measure developed specifically for populations with SLE, which assesses both health-related quality of life and non-health related quality of life. Given its increasingly widespread use, additional research is needed to evaluate the psychometric integrity of the LupusPRO across diverse populations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the LupusPRO in two divergent patient samples and the model fit between both samples. Methods Two diverse samples with SLE included 136 patients from an ethnically-diverse, urban region in southern California and 100 from an ethnically-homogenous, rural region in Manila, Philippines. All patients met the ACR classification criteria for SLE. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFAs) were conducted in each sample separately and combined to provide evidence of the factorial integrity of the 12 subscales in the LupusPRO. Results Demographic analyses indicated significant differences in age, disease activity and duration, education, income, insurance, and medication use between groups. Results of the separate CFAs indicated moderate fit to the data for the hypothesized 12-factor model for both the Manila and southern California groups, respectively [χ 2 (794) = 1283.32, p < 0.001, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.793; χ 2 (794) =1398.44, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.858]. When the factor structures of the LupusPRO in the southern California and Manila groups were constrained to be equal between the two groups, findings revealed that the factor structures of measured variables fit the two groups reasonably well [χ 2  (1697) = 2950.413, df = 1697, p < 0.000; CFI = 0.811]. After removing seven constraints and eight correlations suggested by the Lagrange multiplier test, the model fit improved

  11. Effects Of Group Counseling and Behavior Therapy On The Academic Achievement Of Test-Anxious Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kenneth R.; Ng, Kim T.

    1972-01-01

    Results indicated that only significant reductions on test anxiety were obtained for groups given desensitization, but for groups given combinations of desensitization and counseling, improvement occurred in both test anxiety and study skills. (Author)

  12. Estimating cohesion in small groups using audio-visual nonverbal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Gatica-Perez, D.

    2010-01-01

    Cohesiveness in teams is an essential part of ensuring the smooth running of task-oriented groups. Research in social psychology and management has shown that good cohesion in groups can be correlated with team effectiveness or productivity, so automatically estimating group cohesion for team

  13. Peer Group Affiliation of Children: The Role of Perceived Popularity, Likeability, and Behavioral Similarity in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; Olthof, Tjeert; Hoeksma, Jan B.; Goossens, Frits A.; Smits, Marieke S. I.; Koot, Hans M.

    2010-01-01

    To understand children's peer group affiliation, this study examined to what extent children in naturally occurring groups resemble each other on bullying, likeability, and perceived popularity. Participants were fourth- to sixth-grade pupils (N = 461). Peer groups were identified using the social cognitive map procedure. Resemblance on bullying,…

  14. The Effects of a Short-term Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Adolescents

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    Fatemeh Naderi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.

  15. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Craving, Depression & Anxiety among the Opiate Abusers Under MMT

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    Fereshte Momeni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on craving, symptoms of depression and anxiety among the patients under MMT. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 opiate addicts under MMT were selected out of all the patients referring to Iranian National Center of Addiction Studies on a judgmental sampling method and were randomly allocated to two experimental and control groups. In experimental group, a total sum of 8 sessions (one session per week of cognitive behavioral group therapy were delivered. The main theme of these sessions were efficient management of craving, negative mood and anxiety. Data were gathered with different questionnaires including the questionnaire of demographic data, RPS for craving assessment, BDI-II for depression and BAI for anxiety. Different methods of statistical analysis were implemented. Results: The results indicated that post test and follow-up scores of craving index were decreased significantly (P<0.05. Depression and Anxiety scores showed significant decrease as well. Discussion: Considering the above mentioned findings, we concluded that cognitive-behavioral group therapy was effective in significantly decreasing craving and symptoms of anxiety and depression in opiate addicts under MMT.

  16. A Study of the Communication Behaviors and Members' Roles in the Interaction Process of a Project-based Learning Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jane Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The infusion of information and communication technology into instruction has gained the foothold within many classrooms in higher education by its advantages to enable the variety and accessibility of school teaching and learning. However, to engage students with the technology enhanced learning experiences calls for attentions on more the processes than the mere outcome of technology use. This study examines the common phenomenon in college campus where network technology, group activities and project works are available with the intention to explore how student performance of teamwork and learning is affected by the micro factors of group compositions, members’ roles and their communication behaviors. Results show that the group performed most procedure-, task-, and social-communication behaviors during the execution stage than that of preparation and completion stages. Additionally, members’ roles performed and interfered within these stages positively affected the project performance to different extent. [Article content in Chinese; Extended abstract in English

  17. Vasopressin and Oxytocin Reduce Food Sharing Behavior in Male, but Not Female Marmosets in Family Groups

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    Jack H. Taylor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT is critical for lactation and maternal care, but OT and the related nonapeptide vasopressin are important for caregiving behaviors in fathers and alloparents as well. This experiment tested the effects of vasopressin and OT on food sharing in marmoset families. We treated caregivers (parents, siblings with intranasal vasopressin, OT, or saline, and then paired them with the youngest marmoset in the family. Caregivers were given preferred food, and then observed for food sharing and aggressive behavior with young marmosets. OT reduced food sharing from male alloparents to youngest siblings, and fathers that received vasopressin refused to share food with their youngest offspring more often than when treated with OT. Vasopressin increased aggressive vocalizations directed toward potential food recipients in all classes of caregivers. These results indicate that vasopressin and OT do not always enhance prosocial behavior: modulation of food sharing depends on both sex and parental status.

  18. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for girls victims of sexual violence in Brazil: Are there differences in effectiveness when applied by different groups of psychologists?: effectiveness of group therapy for girls victims of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Habigzang

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy model for the treatment of girls victims of sexual violence (SV was investigated when applied by different groups of practitioners: researchers/psychologists who developed it (G1 and psychologists from the public social care network trained by the first group (G2. A quasi-experimental study was carried out, in which the group therapy model was applied by the two groups. A total of 103 girls victims of sexual violence (SV, aged between seven and 16 years (M=11.76 years, SD=2.02 years were included, with 49 attended by G1, and 54 by G2. The results indicated a significant reduction in the symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and PTSD. The comparison between the results obtained by the two groups of practitioners in the application of the model indicated no significant differences in the rates of improvement of the participants. These results indicate the effectiveness of the cognitive-behavioral group therapy model evaluated and the possibility of it being used as a care strategy by psychology practitioners working in public services.

  19. The Phase of Aggressive Behavior, Deprivation among the Inmates Age Group of Nigerian Prisons: A Survey of Sokoto Central Prison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yusuf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the phase of aggressive behavior, deprivation, among the inmate's age group of Nigerian prison. However, the study elaborated the meaning of aggressive behavior; factors contributed to aggressive behavior, theory of aggressive behavior, literature review, method of information collection and data analysis. Therefore, prison setting can instigate aggressive behaviors, especially in Nigeria, where inmates are deprived of their particular right and are treated brutality in some instances studies shows, that Nigerian prisons are not adequately organized and made do as such, inmates are exposed to all kinds of atrocity. It should be noted that a condition of privation and lack of societal well-being especially among people being in an isolated environment as in the case with most prisons in Nigeria can degenerate to frustration and aggression which in turn can result in dangerous situations such as riots/ violence in the prisons. Aggression can lead to violence that may be adaptive under certain conditions regarding natural selection. That is most obviously the case regarding attacking prey to obtain food, or in anti-predator defense. The results showed that there is significant difference between the levels of aggressiveness with respect to the classes of age groups. Recommendation will be discussed further.

  20. Behaviors Related to Mosquito-Borne Diseases among Different Ethnic Minority Groups along the China-Laos Border Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jun; Lv, Quan; Li, Hongbin; McNeil, Edward B; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Zhou, Hongning

    2017-10-15

    Background : In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods : A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adult (≥18 years old) and eight schools were used for children (related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results : Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion : Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.

  1. Group cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with generalized social anxiety disorder in Japan: outcomes at 1-year follow up and outcome predictors

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    Kawaguchi A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Norio Watanabe,1 Yumi Nakano,2 Sei Ogawa,1 Masako Suzuki,1 Masaki Kondo,1 Toshi A Furukawa,3 Tatsuo Akechi11Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Sugiyama Jogakuen University School of Human Sciences, Nisshin, Japan; 3Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, JapanBackground: Social anxiety disorder (SAD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT is an effective treatment option for patients with SAD. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of group CBT for patients with generalized SAD in Japan at 1-year follow-up and investigated predictors with regard to outcomes.Methods: This study was conducted as a single-arm, naturalistic, follow-up study in a routine Japanese clinical setting. A total of 113 outpatients with generalized SAD participated in group CBT from July 2003 to August 2010 and were assessed at follow-ups for up to 1 year. Primary outcome was the total score on the Social Phobia Scale/Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SPS/SIAS at 1 year. Possible baseline predictors were investigated using mixed-model analyses.Results: Among the 113 patients, 70 completed the assessment at the 1-year follow-up. The SPS/SIAS scores showed significant improvement throughout the follow-ups for up to 1 year. The effect sizes of SPS/SIAS at the 1-year follow-up were 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.41–0.95/0.76 (0.49–1.03 in the intention-to-treat group and 0.77 (0.42–1.10/0.84 (0.49–1.18 in completers. Older age at baseline, late onset, and lower severity of SAD were significantly associated with good outcomes as a result of mixed-model analyses.Conclusions: CBT for patients with generalized SAD in Japan is effective for up to 1 year after treatment. The effect sizes were as large as those in

  2. Staff Food-Related Behaviors and Children's Tastes of Food Groups during Lunch at Child Care in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anundson, Katherine; Sisson, Susan B; Anderson, Michael; Horm, Diane; Soto, Jill; Hoffman, Leah

    2017-10-04

    Young children should consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods to support growth, while limiting added fat and sugar. A majority of children between the ages of 3 and 5 years attend child care in the United States, which makes this environment and the child-care staff influential at meals. The aim was to determine the association between best-practice food-related behaviors and young children's tastes of fruit, vegetable, low-fat dairy, and high-fat/high-sugar foods at child care. This was a cross-sectional study. A community-based study with 201 children ages 3 to 5 years from 25 early care and education centers, including 11 tribally affiliated centers and two Head Start programs across Oklahoma. Data collection occurred from fall 2011 to spring 2014. Classroom observations used the Environmental Policy Assessment Observation tool to measure the staff behaviors and environment. Staff behavior was compared at three different levels: the composite score of staff nutrition behavior, each constituent staff behavior, and staff behaviors grouped into broader feeding behaviors. Tasted food was measured through the Dietary Observation in Child Care method. The children's meals were categorized into the following food groups: fruit, vegetable, low-fat dairy, fried vegetable, fried meat, high-fat meat, and high-fat/high-sugar food. Descriptive statistics were calculated for relevant variables. Relationships between the constituent staff behaviors and food groups that children tasted were compared using multilevel mixed-model analysis. The mean number of tasted fruit or vegetable items was higher and the mean number of tasted high-fat/high-sugar food items was lower when staff: 1) determined fullness before plate removal when less than half of food was eaten, 2) ate with the children, 3) and talked about healthy food. The utilization of the three staff behaviors and their association with higher mean tastes of nutrient-dense items and lower mean tastes of high

  3. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Mixed-Diagnosis Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention Across Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kate E.; Wershler, Julie L.; Macrodimitris, Sophie D.; Backs-Dermott, Barb J.; Ching, Laurie E.; Mothersill, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health disorders seen in clinical practice and they are highly comorbid. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated as an effective treatment for both depression and anxiety but is often not available to all individuals who could benefit from it. This paper investigates the…

  4. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated…

  5. The Interaction of Motivation, Self-Regulatory Strategies, and Autonomous Learning Behavior in Different Learner Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Csizér, Kata

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous learning and effective self-regulatory strategies are increasingly important in foreign language learning; without these, students might not be able to exploit learning opportunities outside language classrooms. This study investigated the influence of motivational factors and self-regulatory strategies on autonomous learning behavior.…

  6. Bullying as strategic behavior : Relations with desired and acquired dominance in the peer group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A.; Vermande, Marjolijn M.; Aleva, Elisabeth A.; van der Meulen, Matty

    To examine whether bullying is strategic behavior aimed at obtaining or maintaining social dominance, 1129 9- to 12-year-old Dutch children were classified in terms of their role in bullying and in terms of their use of dominance oriented coercive and prosocial social strategies. Multi-informant

  7. Marital Discord and Coronary Artery Disease: A Comparison of Behaviorally Defined Discrete Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Uchino, Bert N.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Marital difficulties can confer risk of coronary heart disease, as in a study of outwardly healthy couples (T. W. Smith et al., 2011) where behavioral ratings of low affiliation and high control during marital disagreements were associated with asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). However, taxometric studies suggest that marital…

  8. Bullying as strategic behavior: Relations with desired and acquired dominance in the peer group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, T.; Goossens, F.A.; Vermande, M.M.; Aleva, E.A.; van der Meulen, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether bullying is strategic behavior aimed at obtaining or maintaining social dominance, 1129 9- to 12-year-old Dutch children were classified in terms of their role in bullying and in terms of their use of dominance oriented coercive and prosocial social strategies. Multi-informant

  9. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral blood flow using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with traumatic brain injury: group and individual analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Beom; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ki; Kim, Dong-Soo; Park, Jae Heung; Yeom, Seok-Ran

    2006-06-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to investigate regional cerebral abnormalities compared to age-matched normal controls. Thirteen patients with TBI underwent brain perfusion SPECT were included in this study (10 males, three females, mean age 39.8 +/- 18.2, range 21 - 74). SPM2 software implemented in MATLAB 5.3 was used for spatial pre-processing and analysis and to determine the quantitative differences between TBI patients and age-matched normal controls. Three large voxel clusters of significantly decreased cerebral blood perfusion were found in patients with TBI. The largest clusters were area including medial frontal gyrus (voxel number 3642, peak Z-value = 4.31, 4.27, p = 0.000) in both hemispheres. The second largest clusters were areas including cingulated gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus of left hemisphere (voxel number 381, peak Z-value = 3.67, 3.62, p = 0.000). Other clusters were parahippocampal gyrus (voxel number 173, peak Z-value = 3.40, p = 0.000) and hippocampus (voxel number 173, peak Z-value = 3.23, p = 0.001) in the left hemisphere. The false discovery rate (FDR) was less than 0.04. From this study, group and individual analyses of SPM2 could clearly identify the perfusion abnormalities of brain SPECT in patients with TBI. Group analysis of SPM2 showed hypoperfusion pattern in the areas including medial frontal gyrus of both hemispheres, cingulate gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus in the left hemisphere compared to age-matched normal controls. Also, left parahippocampal gyrus and left hippocampus were additional hypoperfusion areas. However, these findings deserve further investigation on a larger number of patients to be performed to allow a better validation of objective SPM analysis in patients with TBI.

  10. Agent-based and phylogenetic analyses reveal how HIV-1 moves between risk groups: injecting drug users sustain the heterosexual epidemic in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, Frederik; Leitner, Thomas; Ribeiro, Ruy M.

    2012-01-01

    Injecting drug users (IDU) are a driving force for the spread of HIV-1 in Latvia and other Baltic States, accounting for a majority of cases. However, in recent years, heterosexual cases have increased disproportionately. It is unclear how the changes in incidence patterns in Latvia can be explained, and how important IDU are for the heterosexual sub-epidemic. We introduce a novel epidemic model and use phylogenetic analyses in parallel to examine the spread of HIV-1 in Latvia between 1987 and 2010. Using a hybrid framework with a mean-field description for the susceptible population and an agent-based model for the infecteds, we track infected individuals and follow transmission histories dynamically formed during the simulation. The agent-based simulations and the phylogenetic analysis show that more than half of the heterosexual transmissions in Latvia were caused by IDU, which sustain the heterosexual epidemic. Indeed, we find that heterosexual clusters are characterized by short transmission chains with up to 63% of the chains dying out after the first introduction. In the simulations, the distribution of transmission chain sizes follows a power law distribution, which is confirmed by the phylogenetic data. Our models indicate that frequent introductions reduced the extinction probability of an autonomously spreading heterosexual HIV-1 epidemic, which now has the potential to dominate the spread of the overall epidemic in the future. Furthermore, our model shows that social heterogeneity of the susceptible population can explain the shift in HIV-1 incidence in Latvia over the course of the epidemic. Thus, the decrease in IDU incidence may be due to local heterogeneities in transmission, rather than the implementation of control measures. Increases in susceptibles, through social or geographic movement of IDU, could lead to a boost in HIV-1 infections in this risk group. Targeting individuals that bridge social groups would help prevent further spread of the

  11. Numerical insight into the seismic behavior of eight masonry towers in Northern Italy: FE pushover vs non-linear dynamic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it, E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it; Valente, Marco [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering (ABC), Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of eight existing masonry towers located in the North-East of Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities which justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., all features which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analysed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, both under non-linear static (pushover) and non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Pushover analyses are performed with both G1 and G2 horizontal loads distribution, according to Italian code requirements, along X+/− and Y+/− directions. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some few results are presented in this paper. It is found that the results obtained with pushover analyses reasonably well fit expensive non-linear dynamic simulations, with a slightly less conservative trend.

  12. Numerical insight into the seismic behavior of eight masonry towers in Northern Italy: FE pushover vs non-linear dynamic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Valente, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of eight existing masonry towers located in the North-East of Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities which justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., all features which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analysed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, both under non-linear static (pushover) and non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Pushover analyses are performed with both G1 and G2 horizontal loads distribution, according to Italian code requirements, along X+/− and Y+/− directions. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some few results are presented in this paper. It is found that the results obtained with pushover analyses reasonably well fit expensive non-linear dynamic simulations, with a slightly less conservative trend

  13. The effectiveness of therapeutic group and behavior for illogical belief and quality of peoples life related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Dastjani, F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research with purpose of impression of recognition–manner group iatrical is done on change to invertebrate extinct beliefs and person`s life quality related to amphetamine. Method: thus have inspected 127 reference diseased to matters abusing iatrical centers of Arak city with questionnaire help of Jonz invertebrate extinguish (with 0.71 cronbakh alpha of persons to high marks and life quality questionnaire (with 0.7 cronbakh alpha of persons to low marks. Then selected 30 diseased as situations possessing and holding and they reset to random replacing in two groups of examination and control (15 bodies in every group. So the method of recognition–manner group iatrical applied on examination group and the end again both groups have assessment with mentioned questionnaires. Obtained information of questionnaires, have been analysis through multi-parameter covariance analysis test. The obtains shown to difference of marks and scours of recognition–manner group iatrical is meaning in comparison to control group on reducing invertebrate extinct beliefs and increasing of person’s life quality related to amphetamine. The results of the research shown that recognition–manner group iatrical is effective to management to parameters of invertebrate extinct beliefs and person’ life quality related to amphetamine.

  14. Leaf swallowing behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): biased learning and the emergence of group level cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Michael A; Spiezio, Caterina; Sgaravatti, Andrea; Leca, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-11-01

    Demonstrating the ability to 'copy' the behavior of others is an important aspect in determining whether social learning occurs and whether group level differences in a given behavior represent cultural differences or not. Understanding the occurrence of this process in its natural context is essential, but can be a daunting task in the wild. In order to test the social learning hypothesis for the acquisition of leaf swallowing (LS), a self-medicative behavior associated with the expulsion of parasites, we conducted semi-naturalistic experiments on two captive groups of parasite-free, naïve chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Individuals in the group were systematically provided appropriate stimuli (rough hispid leaves) identical to those used by chimpanzees in the wild. Individuals initially responded in a variety of ways, ranging from total aversion to normal chewing and swallowing. Over time, however, the two groups adopted different variants for inserting and folding the leaves in the mouth prior to swallowing them (complete and partial LS), following the specific method spontaneously displayed by the first and primary LS models in their respective groups. These variants were similar to LS displayed by chimpanzees in the wild. Using the option-bias method, we found evidence for social learning leading to group-level biased transmission and group-level stabilization of these two variants. This is the first report on two distinct cultural variants innovated in response to the introduction of natural stimuli that emerged and spread spontaneously and concurrently within two adjacent groups of socially housed primates. These observations support the assertion that LS may reflect a generalized propensity for ingesting rough hispid leaves, which can be socially induced and transmitted within a group. Ingesting an adequate number of these leaves induces increased gut motility, which is responsible for the subsequent expulsion of particular parasite species in the wild

  15. School belongingness and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary transition in a mainstream sample: multi-group cross-lagged analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Parkin, Timothy; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.

  16. School Belongingness and Mental Health Functioning across the Primary-Secondary Transition in a Mainstream Sample: Multi-Group Cross-Lagged Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Parkin, Timothy; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students’ school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students. PMID:24967580

  17. School belongingness and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary transition in a mainstream sample: multi-group cross-lagged analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.

  18. Risk-matching behavior in microcredit group formation: evidence from northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane Tesfay, G.; Gardebroek, C.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical models on group lending assume the formation of groups of homogenous risk types. Recent theoretical and empirical findings challenge this view arguing that when markets for insurance are missing, risk homogeneity may not hold any more and risk heterogeneity can be the optimal outcome.

  19. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  20. Body Talk: A School-based Group Intervention for Working with Disordered Eating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Susan Dahlgren

    2000-01-01

    Describes a school-based group intervention designed to address issues of body image, self-esteem, weight, and eating disturbances. This 10-session group provides female high school students with opportunities to explore their concerns about relationships, appearance, and what it means to be female. Provides descriptions of narrative techniques…

  1. Social influence in computer-mediated communication : The effects of anonymity on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Sakhel, K; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined hypotheses derived from a Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) as applied to social influence in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in groups. This model predicts that anonymity can increase social influence if a common group identity is salient. In a first

  2. Within- and between-person and group variance in behavior and beliefs in cross-cultural longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Godwin, Jennifer; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Alampay, Liane Peña; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M

    2018-01-01

    This study grapples with what it means to be part of a cultural group, from a statistical modeling perspective. The method we present compares within- and between-cultural group variability, in behaviors in families. We demonstrate the method using a cross-cultural study of adolescent development and parenting, involving three biennial waves of longitudinal data from 1296 eight-year-olds and their parents (multiple cultures in nine countries). Family members completed surveys about parental negativity and positivity, child academic and social-emotional adjustment, and attitudes about parenting and adolescent behavior. Variance estimates were computed at the cultural group, person, and within-person level using multilevel models. Of the longitudinally consistent variance, most was within and not between cultural groups-although there was a wide range of between-group differences. This approach to quantifying cultural group variability may prove valuable when applied to quantitative studies of acculturation. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of group rational emotive behavior therapy on inefficient ideas of female high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The perpose of this stud was to determiine the effpyct of group rational emotive therapy on inefficient ideas of female high school students . Therfor 24 students were randomly selected and two therapy and control groups. The therapy group received 10 sessions of 90 minute therapy while the control groups did not receive any thing. The inefficient ideas quertomaire was administered to all subjects as the pre and post tests. The results of analysis of covariance showed that the mean total scores of the therapy group was significantly less on the following sub-scales : expectations (p=0/05 , excessive anxiety (p=0/04 , helplessness with change (p=0/05 , expecting others support (p=0/03 , and dependency (p=0/0001 .

  4. Presenting quality data to vulnerable groups: charts, summaries or behavioral economic nudges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Gillespie, Colleen; Raven, Maria C

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased focus on health care consumers' active choice, not enough is known about how to best facilitate the choice process. We sought to assess methods of improving this process for vulnerable consumers in the United States by testing alternatives that emphasize insights from behavioral economics, or 'nudges'. We performed a hypothetical choice experiment where subjects were randomized to one of five experimental conditions and asked to choose a health center (location where they would receive all their care). The conditions presented the same information about health centers in different ways, including graphically as a chart, via written summary and using behavioral economics, 'nudging' consumers toward particular choices. We hypothesized that these 'nudges' might help simplify the choice process. Our primary outcomes focused on the health center chosen and whether consumers were willing to accept 'nudges'. We found that consumer choice was influenced by the method of presentation and the majority of consumers accepted the health center they were 'nudged' towards. Consumers were accepting of choices grounded in insights from behavioral economics and further consideration should be given to their role in patient choice. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Group schema therapy versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder with comorbid avoidant personality disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljé, Astrid; Greeven, Anja; van Giezen, Anne; Korrelboom, Kees; Arntz, Arnoud; Spinhoven, Philip

    2016-10-08

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) with comorbid avoidant personality disorder (APD) has a high prevalence and is associated with serious psychosocial problems and high societal costs. When patients suffer from both SAD and APD, the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for personality disorders advise offering prolonged cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recently there is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder and cluster C personality disorders. Since ST addresses underlying personality characteristics and maladaptive coping strategies developed in childhood, this treatment might be particularly effective for patients with SAD and comorbid APD. To our knowledge, there are no studies comparing CBT with ST in this particular group of patients. This superiority trial aims at comparing the effectiveness of these treatments. As an additional goal, predictors and underlying mechanisms of change will be explored. The design of the study is a multicentre two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which the treatment effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) will be compared to that of group schema therapy (GST) in a semi-open group format. A total of 128 patients aged 18-65 years old will be enrolled. Patients will receive 30 sessions of GCBT or GST during a period of approximately 9 months. Primary outcome measures are the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report (LSAS-SR) for social anxiety disorder and the newly developed Avoidant Personality Disorder Severity Index (AVPDSI) for avoidant personality disorder. Secondary outcome measures are the MINI section SAD, the SCID-II section APD, the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI-2), the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (IDS-SR), the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Acceptance and Action

  6. Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Kangas, M; Perini, S

    2016-03-01

    Co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes and poorer response to psychological and pharmacological treatments in older adults. However, there is a paucity of research focused on testing the efficacy of the co-morbid treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults using psychological interventions. Accordingly, the primary objective of the current study was to test the effects of a group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program in treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in a sample of older age adults. A total of 133 community-dwelling participants aged ⩾60 years (mean age = 67.35, s.d. = 5.44, male = 59) with both an anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder, as assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS), were randomly allocated to an 11-week CBT group or discussion group. Participants with Mini-Mental State Examination scores <26 were excluded. Participants were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 6 months follow-up on the ADIS, a brief measure of well-being, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Both conditions resulted in significant improvements over time on all diagnostic, symptom and wellbeing measures. Significant group × time interaction effects emerged at post-treatment only for diagnostic severity of the primary disorder, mean severity of all anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and all disorders, and recovery rates on primary disorder. Group CBT produced faster and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression on diagnostic severity and recovery rates compared to an active control in older adults.

  7. "Go Girls!": psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with a group-based healthy lifestyle program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A Justine; Chen, Michelle Y; Jung, Mary E; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in adolescent girls' health-enhancing cognitions and behaviors targeted by the Go Girls! group-based mentorship lifestyle program. Three hundred and ten adolescent girls (nested within 40 Go Girls! groups) completed questionnaires that assessed cognitions (attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy, and intentions) and behaviors (physical activity and dietary) at four time points (two pre-program, one at the end of the program, and one at 7-week follow-up). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes in the outcome variables among Go Girls! participants (M age = 11.68 years, SD = 0.80). No significant changes occurred in the outcome variables during the baseline comparison period (Time 1-2). When compared to the average of the baseline assessments, 7 weeks after completing the program, girls reported significant improvements in physical activity (M Baseline PAtotal = 3.82, SD = 3.49; M T4 PAtotal = 4.38, SD = 3.75) and healthy eating (M Baseline = 10.71, SD = 1.13; M T4 = 11.35, SD = 1.05) behavior and related cognitions (d values ≥0.65). Findings provide preliminary support for programs that foster belongingness and target health behaviors through mentorship models.

  8. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescent: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesibe Olgun Kaval

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to review the articles on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In this systematic review, articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (March have been searched in the national and international databases. 20 studies that were met the search criteria were examined in terms of research method, therapy characteristics and results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive behavioral group therapy is effective for symptoms of social anxiety and the problems that accompany social anxiety (depression, anxiety, etc. in children and adolescents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 3-22

  9. Using Focus Group Interviews to Analyze the Behavior of Users of New Types of Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Results Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents’ curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products. PMID:29020756

  10. Using Focus Group Interviews to Analyze the Behavior of Users of New Types of Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Lee, Sungkyu

    2017-09-01

    To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents' curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products.

  11. Exploring relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior among diverse groups of young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Paves, Andrew P.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that North American-based measures of self-esteem, which measure individualistic positive self-regard, may be less applicable to Eastern cultures. In the present exploratory study, we examined how different conceptualizations of self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem (CSE) Scale, predicted drinking behavior among three groups of American college students (N = 326) with varying ethnicities: White, Korean,...

  12. EVALUATION OF WORK PLACE GROUP AND INTERNET BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH EXERCISE BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Life in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinia, Anousha; Meyer, Antonia; Bruegger, Viviane; Hatz, Florian; Nowak, Karolina; Taub, Ethan; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Fuhr, Peter; Gschwandtner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare a cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) with a health enhancement program (HEP) for stress reduction and the impact on quality of life (QoL) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method : Thirty patients with PD participated in the study: 16 received CBT including stress-reducing elements and 14 took part in a HEP. The two groups did not differ significantly in their baseline demographic characteristics. The patients in both groups underwent weekly sessions of 2 h duration for 9 weeks. The Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire with 39 items (PDQ-39), the Burden Questionnaire for Parkinson's Disease (translated from the original German: Belastungsfragebogen für Parkinsonpatienten (BELA) and the Disease-Related Questionnaire [ Fragebogen zur krankheitsbezogenen Kommunikation (FKK)] were used for assessment. Ratings were completed at baseline and after 9 weeks (immediately after the last treatment session). Results : The patients in the CBT group achieved significantly better BELA, FKK and PDQ-39 scores ( p Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy appears to be an effective way for patients with PD to lessen stress and improve their quality of life.

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Latino youth with Type 1 Diabetes and depression: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumba-Avilés, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    This group case study describes the course of a 14-session Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Latino adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and depressive symptoms. The intervention, known as CBT-DM, is an adaptation of an efficacious group intervention for adolescent depression. The treatment rationale and cultural adaption model are described as well as procedures used to achieve sensitivity to the characteristics of the T1DM culture as experienced by Latino youth from Puerto Rico. Session-by-session protocol is reviewed and treatment gains on the group as a whole and on its individual members are presented, providing quantitative and qualitative data. Treatment feasibility, clients’ acceptance and satisfaction with treatment, and follow-up data up to 6 months post-treatment are also examined, considering cognitive, behavioral, emotional, relational, medical, and functional outcomes. Complicating factors, barriers to care, and treatment implications are discussed in the context of treating clients with comorbid chronic physical illness and emotional problems also embedded in a Latino culture. Translation of evidence-based treatments for depression into primary care settings and adapting protocols to youth populations with other medical illnesses is proposed. Recommendations for clinicians are provided, emphasizing the establishment of collaborative relationships with clients, assessing their stage in the process of accepting their chronic illness, as well as understanding their overall context to avoid unnecessary attributions of pathology to their thoughts, behaviors, and feelings. PMID:29568241

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Latino youth with Type 1 Diabetes and depression: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumba-Avilés, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    This group case study describes the course of a 14-session Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Latino adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and depressive symptoms. The intervention, known as CBT-DM, is an adaptation of an efficacious group intervention for adolescent depression. The treatment rationale and cultural adaption model are described as well as procedures used to achieve sensitivity to the characteristics of the T1DM culture as experienced by Latino youth from Puerto Rico. Session-by-session protocol is reviewed and treatment gains on the group as a whole and on its individual members are presented, providing quantitative and qualitative data. Treatment feasibility, clients' acceptance and satisfaction with treatment, and follow-up data up to 6 months post-treatment are also examined, considering cognitive, behavioral, emotional, relational, medical, and functional outcomes. Complicating factors, barriers to care, and treatment implications are discussed in the context of treating clients with comorbid chronic physical illness and emotional problems also embedded in a Latino culture. Translation of evidence-based treatments for depression into primary care settings and adapting protocols to youth populations with other medical illnesses is proposed. Recommendations for clinicians are provided, emphasizing the establishment of collaborative relationships with clients, assessing their stage in the process of accepting their chronic illness, as well as understanding their overall context to avoid unnecessary attributions of pathology to their thoughts, behaviors, and feelings.

  16. Multiple Family Group Service Model for Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Child Outcomes at Post-Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia; Dean-Assael, Kara; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Hoagwood, Kimberly; McKay, Mary

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of a multiple family group (MFG) service delivery model compared with services as usual (SAU) in improving the functioning of youth with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder in families residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Participants included 320 youth aged 7 to 11 and their families who were referred to participating outpatient clinics. Participants were assigned to the MFG or the SAU condition, with parent report of child oppositional behavior, social competence, and level of youth impairment as primary outcomes at post-treatment. Family engagement to MFG was measured by attendance to each group session. Caregivers of youth in the MFG service delivery model condition reported significant improvement in youth oppositional behavior and social competence compared with youth in the SAU condition. Impairment improved over time for both groups with no difference between treatment conditions. The MFG led to greater percentage of youth with clinically significant improvements in oppositional behavior. Attendance to the MFG was high, given the high-risk nature of the study population. The MFG service delivery model offers an efficient and engaging format to implement evidence-based approaches to improving functioning of youth with oppositional defiant and/or conduct disorder in families from socioeconomically disadvantaged communities.

  17. Within-Case and Cross-Case Analyses of Questions Posed by Fifth-Grade Students Working in Small Groups to Investigate Pendulum Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisel, James Michael

    The focus of this basic qualitative research is student questions in an unstructured inquiry setting. Case and cross-case analyses were conducted (Miles and Huberman, 1984) of the questions posed by fifth grade students working in laboratory groups of size three to five students as they investigated pendulum motion. To establish the conceptual framework for the study, literature was reviewed in the areas of cognitive theory (constructivism, conceptual change, and other theories), approaches to science, and the importance of student questions in the learning process. A review of group work, related studies of student questions and activities and relevant methods of qualitative research was also undertaken. The current study occupies the relatively unique position of being about the questions students posed to each other (not the teacher) at the outset of and throughout an unstructured inquiry activity with a minimum of teacher initiation or intervention. The focus is on finding out what questions students ask, when they ask them, what categories the questions fall into in relation to possible models of the scientific method, student motivation, and what role the questions play as the students take part in an inquiry activity. Students were video and/or audio-recorded as they did the investigation. They wrote down their questions during one-minute pauses that occurred at roughly eight-minute intervals. The groups were interviewed the next day about their experience. The recordings, question sheets, and interview accounts and recordings were analyzed by the researcher. Accounts of the experience of each group were prepared, and reiterated attempts were made to classify the questions as the main themes and categories emerged. It was found that students posed their key research question (most typically related to pendulum damping effects) midway through the first half of their activity, after having first met some competence and other needs in relation to measurement

  18. The interplay between individual social behavior and clinical symptoms in small clustered groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Piero; Visintainer, Roberto; Lepri, Bruno; Merler, Stefano

    2017-07-26

    Mixing patterns of human populations play a crucial role in shaping the spreading paths of infectious diseases. The diffusion of mobile and wearable devices able to record close proximity interactions represents a great opportunity for gathering detailed data on social interactions and mixing patterns in human populations. The aim of this study is to investigate how social interactions are affected by the onset of symptomatic conditions and to what extent the heterogeneity in human behavior can reflect a different risk of infection. We study the relation between individuals' social behavior and the onset of different symptoms, by making use of data collected in 2009 among students sharing a dormitory in a North America university campus. The dataset combines Bluetooth proximity records between study participants with self-reported daily records on their health state. Specifically, we investigate whether individuals' social activity significantly changes during different symptomatic conditions, including those defining Influenza-like illness, and highlight to what extent possible heterogeneities in social behaviors among individuals with similar age and daily routines may be responsible for a different risk of infection for influenza. Our results suggest that symptoms associated with Influenza-like illness can be responsible of a reduction of about 40% in the average duration of contacts and of 30% in the daily time spent in social interactions, possibly driven by the onset of fever. However, differences in the number of daily contacts were found to be not statistically significant. In addition, we found that individuals who experienced clinical influenza during the study period were characterized by a significantly higher social activity. In particular, both the number of person-to-person contacts and the time spent in social interactions emerged as significant risk factors for influenza infection. Our findings highlight that Influenza-like illness can remarkably

  19. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  20. The Effects of Minimal Group Membership on Young Preschoolers’ Social Preferences, Estimates of Similarity, and Behavioral Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Richter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate young children’s sensitivity to minimal group membership. Previous research has suggested that children do not show sensitivity to minimal cues to group membership until the age of five to six, contributing to claims that this is an important transition in the development of intergroup cognition and behavior. In this study, we investigated whether even younger children are sensitive to minimal cues to group membership. Random assignment to one of either of two color groups created a temporary, visually salient minimal group membership in 3 and 4-year-old study participants. Using explicit measures, we tested whether children preferred minimal group members when making social judgments. We find that, in the absence of any knowledge regarding the two groups, children expressed greater liking for ingroup than outgroup targets. Moreover, children estimated that ingroup members would share their preferences. Our findings demonstrate that from early in development, humans assess unknown others on the basis of minimal cues to social similarity and that the perception of group boundaries potentially underlies social assortment in strangers.

  1. Degradation behavior of polymer blend of isotactic polypropylenes with and without unsaturated chain end group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Hisayuki; Kurniawan, Dodik; Taniike, Toshiaki; Terano, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the relationship between the unsaturated chain end group content and the thermal oxidative degradation rate was systematically studied with binary polymer blends of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) with and without the unsaturated chain end group. The iPPs with and without the unsaturated chain end group were synthesized by a metallocene catalyst in the absence of hydrogen and by a Ziegler catalyst in the presence of one, respectively. The thermal oxidative degradation rate of the binary iPP blends was estimated from the molecular weight and the apparent activation energy (ΔE), which were obtained through size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements, respectively. These values exhibited a negative correlation against the mole content of the unsaturated chain end group. The thermal oxidative degradation rate apparently depends on the content of the unsaturated chain end group. This tendency suggests that the unsaturated chain end acts as a radical initiator of the iPP degradation reaction.

  2. Perceptions of negative health-care experiences and self-reported health behavior change in three racial and ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Rebecca J; Johnson, Timothy P; Matthews, Alicia K; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Our two study objectives were: (1) to understand the relationship between the perception of a previous negative health-care experience and race/ethnicity, and how socio-demographic, access-to-health-care, and self-reported health variables modified this relationship; and (2) to assess how many behaviors participants reported changing as a result of experiencing a perceived negative health-care experience, which behaviors they changed, and if there were differences in patterns of change across racial/ethnic groups. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 600 African-American, Mexican-Hispanic, and white adults in socioeconomically diverse neighborhoods in Chicago, IL. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze the relationship between a perceived negative health-care experience in the last 5 years and race/ethnicity. We summed and then calculated the percentage of people who changed each of the 10 behaviors and evaluated whether or not there were differences in behavior change across racial/ethnic groups. More than 32% of participants reported a perceived negative health-care experience in the past 5 years. Participants who had a bachelor's degree or above (OR: 2.95, 95%CI: 1.01-8.63), avoided needed care due to cost (OR: 1.84, 95%CI: 1.11-3.06), or who reported fair/poor health (OR: 3.58, 95%CI: 1.66-7.80) had significantly increased odds of reporting a negative health-care experience. Of these people, 88% reported 'sometimes/always' changing at least one health-seeking behavior. There were no racial/ethnic differences in reporting negative experiences or in patterns of behavior change. Race/ethnicity was not related to reporting a perceived negative health-care experience or reported patterns of behavior change in response to that experience. However, those who avoided care due to cost were more highly educated, or who indicated poorer health status reported having a negative experience more often. Our findings suggest that the

  3. Perceptions of Negative Health Care Experiences and Self-Reported Health Behavior Change in 3 Racial and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Rebecca J.; Johnson, Timothy; Matthews, Alicia K.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our two study objectives were: (1) to understand the relationship between the perception of a previous negative health care experience and race/ethnicity, and how socio-demographic, access-to-health-care, and self-reported health variables modified this relationship and (2) to assess how many behaviors participants reported changing as a result of experiencing a perceived negative health care experience, which behaviors they changed, and if there were differences in patterns of change across racial/ethnic groups. Design We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 600 African American, Mexican-Hispanic, and white adults in socioeconomically diverse neighborhoods in Chicago, IL. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze the relationship between a perceived negative health care experience in the last 5 years and race/ethnicity. We summed and then calculated the percentage of people who changed each of the 10 behaviors and evaluated whether or not there were differences in behavior change across racial/ethnic groups. Principal Findings More than 32% of participants reported a perceived negative health care experience in the past 5 years. Participants who had a bachelor’s degree or above (OR; 2.95,95%CI:1.01–8.63), avoided needed care due to cost (OR:1.84,95%CI:1.11–3.06), or who reported fair/poor health (OR:3.58,95%CI:1.66–7.80) had significantly increased odds of reporting a negative health care experience. Of these people, 88% reported “sometimes/always” changing at least one health seeking behavior. There were no racial/ethnic differences in reporting negative experiences or in patterns of behavior change. Conclusions Race/ethnicity was not related to reporting a perceived negative health care experience or reported patterns of behavior change in response to that experience. However those who avoided care due to cost, were more highly educated, or who indicated poorer health status reported having a negative

  4. Can group-based reassuring information alter low back pain behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pernille; Indahl, Aage; Andersen, Lars L.

    2017-01-01

    activities, but increased odds for more days of work participation in the intervention group (OR = 1.83 95% CI: 1.08-3.12). Furthermore, the intervention group was more likely to report: higher work ability, reduced visits to healthcare professionals, lower bothersomeness, lower levels of sadness......BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is common in the population and multifactorial in nature, often involving negative consequences. Reassuring information to improve coping is recommended for reducing the negative consequences of LBP. Adding a simple non-threatening explanation for the pain (temporary......-randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Publically employed workers (n = 505) from 11 Danish municipality centers were randomized at center-level (cluster) to either intervention (two 1-hour group-based talks at the workplace) or control. The talks provided reassuring information together with a simple non...

  5. Reputation-Based Investment Helps to Optimize Group Behaviors in Spatial Lattice Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong; Cao, Lin; Ren, Yizhi; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Shi, Benyun

    2016-01-01

    Encouraging cooperation among selfish individuals is crucial in many real-world systems, where individuals' collective behaviors can be analyzed using evolutionary public goods game. Along this line, extensive studies have shown that reputation is an effective mechanism to investigate the evolution of cooperation. In most existing studies, participating individuals in a public goods game are assumed to contribute unconditionally into the public pool, or they can choose partners based on a common reputation standard (e.g., preferences or characters). However, to assign one reputation standard for all individuals is impractical in many real-world deployment. In this paper, we introduce a reputation tolerance mechanism that allows an individual to select its potential partners and decide whether or not to contribute an investment to the public pool based on its tolerance to other individuals' reputation. Specifically, an individual takes part in a public goods game only if the number of participants with higher reputation exceeds the value of its tolerance. Moreover, in this paper, an individual's reputation can increase or decrease in a bounded interval based on its historical behaviors. We explore the principle that how the reputation tolerance and conditional investment mechanisms can affect the evolution of cooperation in spatial lattice networks. Our simulation results demonstrate that a larger tolerance value can achieve an environment that promote the cooperation of participants.

  6. Using Focus Group Interviews to Analyze the Behavior of Users of New Types of Tobacco Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Results Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents’ curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products.

  7. Internet versus face-to-face group cognitive-behavioral therapy for fibromyalgia: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Miguel A; Ortega, José; Rivera, Javier; Comeche, María I; Vallejo-Slocker, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (iCBT) in treating fibromyalgia (FM) compared with an identical protocol using conventional group face-to-face CBT. Sixty participants were assigned to either (a) the waiting list group, (b) the CBT group, or (c) the iCBT group. The groups were assessed at baseline, after 10 weeks of treatment, and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The primary outcome measured was the impact of FM on daily functioning, as measured by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). The secondary outcomes were psychological distress, depression, and cognitive variables, including self-efficacy, catastrophizing, and coping strategies. In post-treatment, only the CBT group showed improvement in the primary outcome. The CBT and iCBT groups both demonstrated improvement in psychological distress, depression, catastrophizing, and utilizing relaxation as a coping strategy. The iCBT group showed an improvement in self-efficacy that was not obtained in the CBT group. CBT and iCBT were dissimilar in efficacy at follow-up. The iCBT group members improved their post-treatment scores at their 6- and 12-month follow-ups. At the 12-month follow-up, the iCBT group showed improvement over their primary outcome and catastrophizing post-treatment scores. A similar effect of CBT was expected, but the positive results observed at the post-treatment assessment were not maintained at follow-up. The results suggest that some factors, such as self-efficacy or catastrophizing, could be enhanced by iCBT. Specific characteristics of iCBT may potentiate the social support needed to improve treatment adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Explaining Radical Group Behavior : Developing Emotion and Efficacy Routes to Normative and Nonnormative Collective Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tausch, Nicole; Becker, Julia C.; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver; Saab, Rim; Singh, Purnima; Siddiqui, Roomana N.

    A recent model of collective action distinguishes 2 distinct pathways: an emotional pathway whereby anger in response to injustice motivates action and an efficacy pathway where the belief that issues can be solved collectively increases the likelihood that group members take action (van Zomeren,

  9. Oxytocin modulates third-party sanctioning of selfish and generous behavior within and between groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daughters, K.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Ten Velden, F.S.; De Dreu, C.K.W.

    Human groups function because members trust each other and reciprocate cooperative contributions, and reward others’ cooperation and punish their non-cooperation. Here we examined the possibility that such third-party punishment and reward of others’ trust and reciprocation is modulated by oxytocin,

  10. HIV/AIDS Infected Mothers' Experience of a Group Intervention to Enhance Their Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloff, Irma; Finestone, Michelle; Forsyth, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A secondary study was conducted within a broader National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded longitudinal study on resilience in South African mothers and children affected by HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 24-week support group intervention…

  11. Homophilic and Heterophilic Interactions of Type II Cadherins Identify Specificity Groups Underlying Cell-Adhesive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Brasch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Type II cadherins are cell-cell adhesion proteins critical for tissue patterning and neuronal targeting but whose molecular binding code remains poorly understood. Here, we delineate binding preferences for type II cadherin cell-adhesive regions, revealing extensive heterophilic interactions between specific pairs, in addition to homophilic interactions. Three distinct specificity groups emerge from our analysis with members that share highly similar heterophilic binding patterns and favor binding to one another. Structures of adhesive fragments from each specificity group confirm near-identical dimer topology conserved throughout the family, allowing interface residues whose conservation corresponds to specificity preferences to be identified. We show that targeted mutation of these residues converts binding preferences between specificity groups in biophysical and co-culture assays. Our results provide a detailed understanding of the type II cadherin interaction map and a basis for defining their role in tissue patterning and for the emerging importance of their heterophilic interactions in neural connectivity. : Type II cadherins are a family of vertebrate cell adhesion proteins expressed primarily in the CNS. Brasch et al. measure binding between adhesive fragments, revealing homophilic and extensive selective heterophilic binding with specificities that define groups of similar cadherins. Structures reveal common adhesive dimers, with residues governing cell-adhesive specificity. Keywords: cell adhesion, crystal structure, hemophilic specificity, heterophilic specificity, neural patterning, synaptic targeting, cadherin

  12. Cost-effectiveness of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach versus physical activity prescription in the treatment of chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Analyses of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landén Ludvigsson, Maria; Peolsson, Anneli; Peterson, Gunnel; Dedering, Åsa; Johansson, Gun; Bernfort, Lars

    2017-06-01

    Fifty percent of people injured by whiplash still report neck pain after 1 year and costs associated with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are mostly attributed to health service and sick-leave costs in chronic conditions. With increasing health care expenditures the economic impact of interventions needs to be considered. To analyze the cost-effectiveness of physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise without (NSE) or with a behavioral approach (NSEB), or prescription of physical activity (PPA) in chronic WAD, grade 2 to 3. This is a secondary cost-effectiveness analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of 216 participants with chronic WAD grade 2 to 3. The interventions were physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise without or with a behavioral approach, or prescription of physical activity for 12 weeks. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were determined after 1 year and bootstrapped cost-effectiveness planes and sensitivity analyses of physiotherapy visits were performed. Health care and production loss costs were included and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated, using the Euroqol-5D questionnaire. Comparisons with the Short Form-6D, and neck disability index (NDI) were also made. The 1-year follow-up was completed by 170 participants (79%). Both physiotherapist-led groups improved in health related quality of life. The intervention cost alone, per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gain in the NSE group was US$ 12,067. A trend for higher QALY gains were observed in the NSEB group but the costs were also higher. The ICERs varied depending on questionnaire used, but the addition of a behavioral approach to neck-specific exercise alone was not cost-effective from a societal perspective (ICER primary outcome $127,800 [95% confidence interval [CI], 37,816-711,302]). The sensitivity analyses confirmed the results. The prescription of physical activity did not result in any QALY gain and the societal costs were not lower. Neck

  13. Social behavior and kin discrimination in a mixed group of cloned and non cloned heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, M; Baudoin, C; Abdi, H; Heyman, Y; Deputte, B L

    2010-12-01

    For more than ten years, reproductive biotechnologies using somatic cell nuclear transfer have made possible the production of cloned animals in various domestic and laboratory species. The influence of the cloning process on offspring characteristics has been studied in various developmental aspects, however, it has not yet been documented in detail for behavioral traits. Behavioral studies of cloned animals have failed to show clear inter-individual differences associated with the cloning process. Preliminary results showed that clones favor each other's company. Preferential social interactions were observed among cloned heifers from the same donor in a mixed herd that also included cloned heifers and control heifers produced by artificial insemination (AI). These results suggest behavioral differences between cloned and non-cloned animals and similarities between clones from the same donor. The aim of the present study was to replicate and to extend these previous results and to study behavioral and cognitive mechanisms of this preferential grouping. We studied a group composed of five cloned heifers derived from the same donor cow, two cloned heifers derived from another donor cow, and AI heifers. Cloned heifers from the same donor were more spatially associated and interacted more between themselves than with heifers derived from another donor or with the AI individuals. This pattern indicates a possible kin discrimination in clones. To study this process, we performed an experiment (using an instrumental conditioning procedure with food reward) of visual discrimination between images of heads of familiar heifers, either related to the subjects or not. The results showed that all subjects (AI and cloned heifers) discriminated between images of familiar cloned heifers produced from the same donor and images of familiar unrelated heifers. Cattle discriminated well between images and used morphological similarities characteristic of cloned related heifers. Our

  14. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Shasta E; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20 yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinos), highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR), located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin popula- tions at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8 wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each) of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa Rica. It is critical that the consequences of habituation be studied more carefully, primarily in areas where ecotourism operations draw visitors to wildlife habitats.

  15. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-assembled monolayers with different chemical group substrates for the study of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Hongji; Yin, Yanbin; Li, Yu; Tian, Weiming; Zhang, Song; Nie, Yongzhan; He, Jin; Wang, Xiumei; Cui, Fuzhai; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are important with respect to a number of cell behavoirs, yet remain unclear. In this study, self-assembled monolayers with different terminal chemical groups (hydroxyl (-OH), carboxyl (-COOH), animo (-NH 2 ), mercapto (-SH), and methyl (-CH 3 )) were employed as substrates for the culture of MCF-7 cells to examine effects on cell behavior. Cell spreading was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, tallin expression by immunofluorescence, proliferation rate by counting cell numbers, cell cycle by flow cytometry, metabolism by high-performance liquid chromatography and cell migration by live cell imaging. Annexin V-FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and JC-1 assays were performed to determine cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively. Our results demonstrate the varied behaviors of MCF-7 cells in response to different chemical groups. Specifically, NH 2 and COOH terminal functional groups promote proliferation, the production of lactic acid and mobility of MCF-7 cells; SH and OH terminal groups enhance the expression and distribution of tallin but result in weak cell proliferation, metabolism, spreading and mobility. These results are meaningful for uncovering the interactions between the ECM and cancer cells; they are potentially useful for designing novel cancer treatment strategies. (paper)

  17. Group cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with generalized social anxiety disorder in Japan: outcomes at 1-year follow up and outcome predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akiko; Watanabe, Norio; Nakano, Yumi; Ogawa, Sei; Suzuki, Masako; Kondo, Masaki; Furukawa, Toshi A; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment option for patients with SAD. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of group CBT for patients with generalized SAD in Japan at 1-year follow-up and investigated predictors with regard to outcomes. Methods This study was conducted as a single-arm, naturalistic, follow-up study in a routine Japanese clinical setting. A total of 113 outpatients with generalized SAD participated in group CBT from July 2003 to August 2010 and were assessed at follow-ups for up to 1 year. Primary outcome was the total score on the Social Phobia Scale/Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SPS/SIAS) at 1 year. Possible baseline predictors were investigated using mixed-model analyses. Results Among the 113 patients, 70 completed the assessment at the 1-year follow-up. The SPS/SIAS scores showed significant improvement throughout the follow-ups for up to 1 year. The effect sizes of SPS/SIAS at the 1-year follow-up were 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.41–0.95)/0.76 (0.49–1.03) in the intention-to-treat group and 0.77 (0.42–1.10)/0.84 (0.49–1.18) in completers. Older age at baseline, late onset, and lower severity of SAD were significantly associated with good outcomes as a result of mixed-model analyses. Conclusions CBT for patients with generalized SAD in Japan is effective for up to 1 year after treatment. The effect sizes were as large as those in previous studies conducted in Western countries. Older age at baseline, late onset, and lower severity of SAD were predictors for a good outcome from group CBT. PMID:23450841

  18. Group cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty: a randomized trial for older Chinese adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chen; Zhihui, Yang

    2017-12-01

    China has entered the aging society, but the social support systems for the elderly are underdeveloped, which may make the elderly feel anxiety about their health and life quality. Given the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the elderly, it is very important to pay more attention to the treatment for old adults. Although cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty (CBT-IU) has been applied to different groups of patients with GAD, few studies have been performed to date. In addition, the effects of CBT-IU are not well understood, especially when applied to older adults with GAD. Sixty-three Chinese older adults with a principal diagnosis of GAD were enrolled. Of these, 32 were randomized to receive group CBT-IU (intervention group) and 31 were untreated (control group). GAD and related symptoms were assessed using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Chinese Version, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Why Worry-II scale, Cognitive Avoidance Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale across the intervention. The changes between pre and after the intervention were collected, as well as the six-month follow-up. F test and repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted to analyze the data. Compared to control group, the measures' scores of experimental group decreased significantly after the intervention and six-month follow-up. Besides the main effects for time and group were significant, the interaction effect for group × time was also significant. These results indicated the improvement of the CBT-IU group and the persistence of effect after six months. Group CBT-IU is effective in Chinese older adults with GAD. The effects of CBT-IU on GAD symptoms persist for at least six months after treatment.

  19. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  20. Photo-physical and interactional behavior of two members of group B vitamins in different solvent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Zare Haghighi, L.; Seyed Ahmadian, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, absorption and fluorescence spectra of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) were recorded in solvents with different polarity, at room temperature. These vitamins' photo-physical behavior depends strongly on the solvent's nature along with different attached groups in their structures. In order to investigate the solvent-solute interactions and environmental effect on spectral variations, linear solvation energy relationships concept, suggested by Kamlet and Taft was used. Solvatochromic method was also used for measuring the ground and excited state dipole moments of these vitamins. According to our experimental results, dipole moment of these groups of vitamins in excited state is larger than ground state. Furthermore, obtained photo-physical and interactional properties of used vitamins can give important information on how this group of vitamins behaves in biological systems.