WorldWideScience

Sample records for group additional materials

  1. GroupsAdditive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  2. GroupsAdditive Notation

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Polyurethane Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Minneci, Robert P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pyzik, Alek [Dow Chemical Company, Saginaw, MI (United States); Gorin, Craig [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Allen, Sharon [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Wilson, Keith [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Howard, Kevin [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2017-08-10

    ORNL worked with The DOW Chemical Company to validate the feasibility of 3D printing DOW’s polyurethane (PU) materials using ORNL’s equipment and know-how. This led to the development of the first directly-3D-printable PU material.

  4. Direct Bandgap Group IV Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-21

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0049 Direct Bandgap group IV Materials Hung Hsiang Cheng NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY Final Report 01/21/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY 1 ROOSEVELT RD. SEC. 4 TAIPEI CITY, 10617 TW 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...14. ABSTRACT Direct bandgap group IV materials have been long sought for in both academia and industry for the implementation of photonic devices

  5. Material Database for Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    components in the field. II. BACKGROUND Additive manufacturing is a rapidly maturing process by which digital 3-D design data are used to build up...improves readiness by offering on-demand low-rate production [8, 9]. 3-D printing also enables rapid design iterations and complexity, which improve...abundant in additive manufacturing , allowing design freedom that is only limited by the material strength requirements. A set of eight conductive

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Composites and Complex Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spowart, Jonathan E.; Gupta, Nikhil; Lehmhus, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    Advanced composite materials form an important class of high-performance industrial materials used in weight-sensitive applications such as aerospace structures, automotive structures and sports equipment. In many of these applications, parts are made in small production runs, are highly customized and involve long process development times. Developments in additive manufacturing (AM) methods have helped in overcoming many of these limitations. The special topic of Additive Manufacturing of Composites and Complex Materials captures the state of the art in this area by collecting nine papers that present much novel advancement in this field. The studies under this topic show advancement in the area of AM of carbon fiber and graphene-reinforced composites with high thermal and electrical conductivities, development of new hollow glass particle-filled syntactic foam filaments for printing lightweight structures and integration of sensors or actuators during AM of metallic parts. Some of the studies are focused on process optimization or modification to increase the manufacturing speed or tuning manufacturing techniques to enable AM of new materials.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Catalytically Active Living Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijit; Johnston, Trevor G; Shafranek, Ryan T; Goodman, Cassandra J; Zalatan, Jesse G; Storti, Duane W; Ganter, Mark A; Nelson, Alshakim

    2018-04-25

    Living materials, which are composites of living cells residing in a polymeric matrix, are designed to utilize the innate functionalities of the cells to address a broad range of applications such as fermentation and biosensing. Herein, we demonstrate the additive manufacturing of catalytically active living materials (AMCALM) for continuous fermentation. A multi-stimuli-responsive yeast-laden hydrogel ink, based on F127-dimethacrylate, was developed and printed using a direct-write 3D printer. The reversible stimuli-responsive behaviors of the polymer hydrogel inks to temperature and pressure are critical, as they enabled the facile incorporation of yeast cells and subsequent fabrication of 3D lattice constructs. Subsequent photo-cross-linking of the printed polymer hydrogel afforded a robust elastic material. These yeast-laden living materials were metabolically active in the fermentation of glucose into ethanol for 2 weeks in a continuous batch process without significant reduction in efficiency (∼90% yield of ethanol). This cell immobilization platform may potentially be applicable toward other genetically modified yeast strains to produce other high-value chemicals in a continuous biofermentation process.

  8. Laser Additive Manufacturing of Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikler, C. V.; Chaudhary, V.; Borkar, T.; Soni, V.; Jaeger, D.; Chen, X.; Contieri, R.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Banerjee, R.

    2017-03-01

    While laser additive manufacturing is becoming increasingly important in the context of next-generation manufacturing technologies, most current research efforts focus on optimizing process parameters for the processing of mature alloys for structural applications (primarily stainless steels, titanium base, and nickel base alloys) from pre-alloyed powder feedstocks to achieve properties superior to conventionally processed counterparts. However, laser additive manufacturing or processing can also be applied to functional materials. This article focuses on the use of directed energy deposition-based additive manufacturing technologies, such as the laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) process, to deposit magnetic alloys. Three case studies are presented: Fe-30 at.%Ni, permalloys of the type Ni-Fe-V and Ni-Fe-Mo, and Fe-Si-B-Cu-Nb (derived from Finemet) alloys. All these alloys have been processed from a blend of elemental powders used as the feedstock, and their resultant microstructures, phase formation, and magnetic properties are discussed in this paper. Although these alloys were produced from a blend of elemental powders, they exhibited relatively uniform microstructures and comparable magnetic properties to those of their conventionally processed counterparts.

  9. Addition of alternative materials to ceramic slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Nara,E. O. B.; Moraes,J. A. R.; Freitas,A. M. V. de; Rediske,G.; Benitez,G. B.

    2014-01-01

    The construction market is very growing, leading to the emergence of new technologies and materials, and a growing need for sustainable products for the construction process, and the call for quality of life we present the description of a new option alternative materials for environments that require careful with the acoustics. The research covers the development and incorporation of new material in construction, with the potential acoustic, from tests and measurements with calibrated decibe...

  10. Development of cement material using inorganic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Masumitsu; Satou, Tatsuaki; Wada, Mikio; Ishii, Tomoharu; Matsuo, Kazuaki.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic admixtures to enhance the fluidity of cement material was developed. These admixtures turned into easy to immobilize the miscellaneous radioactive waste using cement material. It was found that the ζ potential of cement particles was directly proportional to the content of the inorganic admixtures in cement paste and the particles of cement were dispersed at the high ζ potential. The condensed sodium phosphate, which was the main component of the inorganic admixtures, retarded the dissolution of Ca 2+ ion from the cement, and generated the colloids by incorporating dissolved Ca 2+ ion. The cement material containing the inorganic admixtures was found to have the same mechanical strength and adsorption potential of radionuclides in comparison to normal cement materials. It was confirmed that the cement material containing the inorganic admixture was effectively filled gaps of miscellaneous radioactive waste. (author)

  11. Emissivity Measurements of Additively Manufactured Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Robert Vaughn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baker, Andrew M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lucero, Briana [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bernardin, John David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-25

    The emissivity of common 3D printing materials such as ABS and PLA were measured using a reflectivity meter and have the measured value of approximately 0.92. Adding a conductive material to the filament appears to cause a decrease in the emissivity of the surface. The angular dependence of the emissivity and the apparent temperature was measured using a FLIR infrared camera showing that the emissivity does not change much for shallow angles less than 40 angular degrees, and drops off dramatically after 70 angular degrees.

  12. Cellulose nanomaterials as additives for cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengfei Fu; Robert J. Moon; Pablo Zavatierri; Jeffrey Youngblood; William Jason Weiss

    2017-01-01

    Cementitious materials cover a very broad area of industries/products (buildings, streets and highways, water and waste management, and many others; see Fig. 20.1). Annual production of cements is on the order of 4 billion metric tons [2]. In general these industries want stronger, cheaper, more durable concrete, with faster setting times, faster rates of strength gain...

  13. Summary of the materials breakout group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, F. [Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States); Sommer, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This breakout group discussed the following topics and reached a number of recommendations summarized in this report. The topics of discussion included (1) a comparison of expected materials response at spallation sources to experience with fission reactors; (2) synergistic effects from high-energy particle radiation, corrosion, and cyclic stresses; (3) estimates, based on experience with materials developed for fission and fusion reactors, for -materials testing needs; - facilities for materials development, both available and needed; - candidate materials; - time frame for material qualification; and - expected program costs.

  14. Advanced Material Strategies for Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinke; He, Jiankang; Zhou, Wenxing; Lei, Qi; Li, Xiao; Li, Dichen

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has drawn tremendous attention in various fields. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop novel additive manufacturing processes such as micro-/nano-scale 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing for the fabrication of complex 3D structures with high resolution, living components, and multimaterials. The development of advanced functional materials is important for the implementation of these novel additive manufacturing processes. Here, a state-of-the-art review on advanced material strategies for novel additive manufacturing processes is provided, mainly including conductive materials, biomaterials, and smart materials. The advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of these materials for additive manufacturing are discussed. It is believed that the innovations of material strategies in parallel with the evolution of additive manufacturing processes will provide numerous possibilities for the fabrication of complex smart constructs with multiple functions, which will significantly widen the application fields of next-generation additive manufacturing. PMID:29361754

  15. Advanced Material Strategies for Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinke; He, Jiankang; Mao, Mao; Zhou, Wenxing; Lei, Qi; Li, Xiao; Li, Dichen; Chua, Chee-Kai; Zhao, Xin

    2018-01-22

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has drawn tremendous attention in various fields. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop novel additive manufacturing processes such as micro-/nano-scale 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing for the fabrication of complex 3D structures with high resolution, living components, and multimaterials. The development of advanced functional materials is important for the implementation of these novel additive manufacturing processes. Here, a state-of-the-art review on advanced material strategies for novel additive manufacturing processes is provided, mainly including conductive materials, biomaterials, and smart materials. The advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of these materials for additive manufacturing are discussed. It is believed that the innovations of material strategies in parallel with the evolution of additive manufacturing processes will provide numerous possibilities for the fabrication of complex smart constructs with multiple functions, which will significantly widen the application fields of next-generation additive manufacturing.

  16. Advanced Material Strategies for Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM has drawn tremendous attention in various fields. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop novel additive manufacturing processes such as micro-/nano-scale 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing for the fabrication of complex 3D structures with high resolution, living components, and multimaterials. The development of advanced functional materials is important for the implementation of these novel additive manufacturing processes. Here, a state-of-the-art review on advanced material strategies for novel additive manufacturing processes is provided, mainly including conductive materials, biomaterials, and smart materials. The advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of these materials for additive manufacturing are discussed. It is believed that the innovations of material strategies in parallel with the evolution of additive manufacturing processes will provide numerous possibilities for the fabrication of complex smart constructs with multiple functions, which will significantly widen the application fields of next-generation additive manufacturing.

  17. Laser additive manufacturing of high-performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    This book entitled “Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials” covers the specific aspects of laser additive manufacturing of high-performance new materials components based on an unconventional materials incremental manufacturing philosophy, in terms of materials design and preparation, process control and optimization, and theories of physical and chemical metallurgy. This book describes the capabilities and characteristics of the development of new metallic materials components by laser additive manufacturing process, including nanostructured materials, in situ composite materials, particle reinforced metal matrix composites, etc. The topics presented in this book, similar as laser additive manufacturing technology itself, show a significant interdisciplinary feature, integrating laser technology, materials science, metallurgical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This is a book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, and manufacturing industry professionals interested i...

  18. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4 (FGE.08Rev4): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since the publi......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since...... be estimated and accordingly the Panel concluded that the Procedure could not be applied to these four substances either. The remaining 71 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on the structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold.......116, 12.120, 12.164, 12.167, 12.199, 15.007, 15.102 and 15.125 and 15.134], evaluated through the Procedure, no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been...

  19. LDEF materials special investigation group's data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, John W.; Funk, Joan G.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was composed of and contained a wide array of materials, representing the largest collection of materials flown for space exposure and returned for ground-based analyses to date. The results and implications of the data from these materials are the foundation on which future space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been tasked with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the space user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. The format and content of the data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task are discussed. The hardware and software requirements for each of the three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases.

  20. Japan Flavour and Fragrance Materials Association's (JFFMA) safety assessment of food-flavouring substances uniquely used in Japan that belong to the class of aliphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals and esters containing additional oxygenated functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kenji; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Sekiya, Fumiko; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Mirokuji, Yoshiharu; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Shinpei; Ono, Atsushi; Nakajima, Madoka; Degawa, Masakuni; Ozawa, Shogo; Shibutani, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio

    2017-09-01

    We performed a safety evaluation using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the following four flavouring substances that belong to the class of 'aliphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals, and esters containing additional oxygenated functional groups' and are uniquely used in Japan: butyl butyrylacetate, ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate, 3-hydroxyhexanoic acid and methyl hydroxyacetate. Although no genotoxicity study data were found in the published literature, none of the four substances had chemical structural alerts predicting genotoxicity. All four substances were categorised as class I by using Cramer's classification. The estimated daily intake of each of the four substances was determined to be 0.007-2.9 μg/person/day by using the maximised survey-derived intake method and based on the annual production data in Japan in 2001, 2005 and 2010, and was determined to be 0.250-600.0 μg/person/day by using the single-portion exposure technique and based on average-use levels in standard portion sizes of flavoured foods. Both of these estimated daily intake ranges were below the threshold of toxicological concern for class I substances, which is 1800 μg/person/day. Although no information from in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies for the four substances was available, these substances were judged to raise no safety concerns at the current levels of intake.

  1. Use of additive material to stabilize the soil swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaee, B.; Estabragh, A. R.; Bordbar, A. T.; Eskandari, G. H.

    2009-04-01

    Change volume increasing of soil, because of increase in its humidity content causes appearing of swelling phenomenon in the soil. This phenomenon has created a lot of damages in the building which is constructed on this kind of soils. Usage the additive materials which stabilize the swelling, has been the subject of many researches. In this research the Potential expansibility of the expansive soils, which were stabilized by additive materials such as Lime, cement and coal ash, was investigated. To get this purpose, by preparing soil samples mixed with upper additive material, changes of potential swelling of stabilized soils were compared. The results revealed that usage of these stabilizing materials caused the decrease in destructive effects due to swelling of soils to some extent. Keywords: swelling, soil stabilizing, additive material, coal ash

  2. Additive Technology: Update on Current Materials and Applications in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazanchi, Abdullah; Li, Kai Chun; Al-Amleh, Basil; Lyons, Karl; Waddell, J Neil

    2017-02-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is becoming an alternative to subtractive manufacturing or milling in the area of computer-aided manufacturing. Research on material for use in additive manufacturing is ongoing, and a wide variety of materials are being used or developed for use in dentistry. Some materials, however, such as cobalt chromium, still lack sufficient research to allow definite conclusions about the suitability of their use in clinical dental practice. Despite this, due to the wide variety of machines that use additive manufacturing, there is much more flexibility in the build material and geometry when building structures compared with subtractive manufacturing. Overall additive manufacturing produces little material waste and is energy efficient when compared to subtractive manufacturing, due to passivity and the additive layering nature of the build process. Such features make the technique suitable to be used with fabricating structures out of hard to handle materials such as cobalt chromium. The main limitations of this technology include the appearance of steps due to layering of material and difficulty in fabricating certain material generally used in dentistry for use in 3D printing such as ceramics. The current pace of technological development, however, promises exciting possibilities. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Electrostatic Levitation for Studies of Additive Manufactured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Tramel, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is a unique facility for investigators studying high temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified. Electrostatic levitation minimizes gravitational effects and allows materials to be studied without contact with a container or instrumentation. The lab also has a high temperature emissivity measurement system, which provides normal spectral and normal total emissivity measurements at use temperature. The ESL lab has been instrumental in many pioneering materials investigations of thermophysical properties, e.g., creep measurements, solidification, triggered nucleation, and emissivity at high temperatures. Research in the ESL lab has already led to the development of advanced high temperature materials for aerospace applications, coatings for rocket nozzles, improved medical and industrial optics, metallic glasses, ablatives for reentry vehicles, and materials with memory. Modeling of additive manufacturing materials processing is necessary for the study of their resulting materials properties. In addition, the modeling of the selective laser melting processes and its materials property predictions are also underway. Unfortunately, there is very little data for the properties of these materials, especially of the materials in the liquid state. Some method to measure thermophysical properties of additive manufacturing materials is necessary. The ESL lab is ideal for these studies. The lab can provide surface tension and viscosity of molten materials, density measurements, emissivity measurements, and even creep strength measurements. The ESL lab can also determine melting temperature, surface temperatures, and phase transition temperatures of additive manufactured materials. This presentation will provide background on the ESL lab and its capabilities, provide an approach to using the ESL

  4. Additively Manufactured Multi-Material Insert, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Parabilis Space Technologies is pleased to propose development of a novel additive manufacturing method which enables the use of multiple dissimilar materials in an...

  5. Advances in High Temperature Materials for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Nurul Amira Binti; Johar, Muhammad Akmal Bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Halim Irwan Bin; Marwah, Omar Mohd Faizan bin

    2017-08-01

    In today’s technology, additive manufacturing has evolved over the year that commonly known as 3D printing. Currently, additive manufacturing have been applied for many industries such as for automotive, aerospace, medical and other commercial product. The technologies are supported by materials for the manufacturing process to produce high quality product. Plus, additive manufacturing technologies has been growth from the lowest to moderate and high technology to fulfil manufacturing industries obligation. Initially from simple 3D printing such as fused deposition modelling (FDM), poly-jet, inkjet printing, to selective laser sintering (SLS), and electron beam melting (EBM). However, the high technology of additive manufacturing nowadays really needs high investment to carry out the process for fine products. There are three foremost type of material which is polymer, metal and ceramic used for additive manufacturing application, and mostly they were in the form of wire feedstock or powder. In circumstance, it is crucial to recognize the characteristics of each type of materials used in order to understand the behaviours of the materials on high temperature application via additive manufacturing. Therefore, this review aims to provide excessive inquiry and gather the necessary information for further research on additive material materials for high temperature application. This paper also proposed a new material based on powder glass, which comes from recycled tempered glass from automotive industry, having a huge potential to be applied for high temperature application. The technique proposed for additive manufacturing will minimize some cost of modelling with same quality of products compare to the others advanced technology used for high temperature application.

  6. Additive Manufacturing: Unlocking the Evolution of Energy Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakeyev, Adilet; Wang, Panfeng; Zhang, Li; Shu, Wenmiao; Wang, Huizhi; Xuan, Jin

    2017-10-01

    The global energy infrastructure is undergoing a drastic transformation towards renewable energy, posing huge challenges on the energy materials research, development and manufacturing. Additive manufacturing has shown its promise to change the way how future energy system can be designed and delivered. It offers capability in manufacturing complex 3D structures, with near-complete design freedom and high sustainability due to minimal use of materials and toxic chemicals. Recent literatures have reported that additive manufacturing could unlock the evolution of energy materials and chemistries with unprecedented performance in the way that could never be achieved by conventional manufacturing techniques. This comprehensive review will fill the gap in communicating on recent breakthroughs in additive manufacturing for energy material and device applications. It will underpin the discoveries on what 3D functional energy structures can be created without design constraints, which bespoke energy materials could be additively manufactured with customised solutions, and how the additively manufactured devices could be integrated into energy systems. This review will also highlight emerging and important applications in energy additive manufacturing, including fuel cells, batteries, hydrogen, solar cell as well as carbon capture and storage.

  7. Review on Advances of Functional Material for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Nur Amalina Binti; Akmal Johar, Muhammad; Faizan Marwah, Omar Mohd; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim

    2017-08-01

    The attempt of finding and making new materials in improving products that are already in the market are widely done by researchers nowadays. This project is focusing on making new materials for functional material through additive manufacturing application. The idea of this project came from the ability limitation of capacitor in market nowadays in storing higher charges but smaller in size. Powder glass is the new material that could to be used as a dielectric material for capacitor with the help of palm kernel oil as the binder. This paper reviews on applications done through additive manufacturing method and also types of functional materials used in this method previously. Structure of a capacitor, dielectric properties and measurement techniques that are trying to be carried out are also explains in this paper. Last part of this paper brief on the material proposal and reasons those materials are chosen. New dielectric material for capacitor which are able to store more charges but still small in size are expected to be produced as the outcome of this research.

  8. Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue

    This Ph.D dissertation,ffAdditive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Controlff, deal with Additive Manufacturing technologies which is a common name for a series of processes that are recognized by being computer controlled, highly automated, and manufacture objects...... by a layered deposition of material. Two areas of particular interest is addressed. They are rooted in two very different areas, yet is intended to fuel the same goal. To help Additive Manufacturing technologies one step closer to becoming the autonomous, digital manufacturing method of tomorrow. Vision...... systems A paradox exist in the field of Additive Manufacturing. The technologies allow for close-to unrestrained and integral geometrical freedom. Almost any geometry can be manufactured fast, e"ciently and cheap. Something that has been missing fundamental capability since the entering of the industrial...

  9. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2 (FGE.13 Rev2) Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side-chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 27 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Three...... of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 24 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 5 (FGE.08Rev5): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since the publi......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since...... approach that integrates information on the structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that 59 substances do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated...... substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for three substances, evaluated through the Procedure, information on the specifications is lacking....

  11. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 8, Revision 3 (FGE.08Rev3): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 70 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. For the substan......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 70 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565......-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that 48 substances do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. For the remaining fourteen......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for eightteen substances information on specifications is lacking....

  12. Effect of fluoride addition on the properties of dental alginate impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Kim, Cheol-We

    2004-03-01

    Fluoride-containing dental alginate impression materials can exert a considerable reduction in enamel solubility. The objective was to evaluate the effects of fluoride addition in the alginate impression materials on the properties and subsequent release of fluoride. Four experimental alginate impression materials were studied. Materials were mixed with distilled water (control) or 100-ppm fluoride solution. One or two percent NaF, or 1% SnF2 was added to the materials, which were mixed with distilled water. Fluoride release, flexibility, recovery from deformation, setting time, compressive strength and elastic modulus were determined in accordance with the ISO 1563 and ANSI/ADA Spec. 18. Fluoride release increased after addition of fluoride, and the released amount was 0.762-14.761 ppm. Addition of NaF or SnF2 resulted in higher fluoride release than the control group (p alginate impression material may result in effective release of fluoride without deteriorating the properties of material itself.

  13. Large-scale additive manufacturing with bioinspired cellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanandiya, Naresh D; Vijay, Yadunund; Dimopoulou, Marina; Dritsas, Stylianos; Fernandez, Javier G

    2018-06-05

    Cellulose is the most abundant and broadly distributed organic compound and industrial by-product on Earth. However, despite decades of extensive research, the bottom-up use of cellulose to fabricate 3D objects is still plagued with problems that restrict its practical applications: derivatives with vast polluting effects, use in combination with plastics, lack of scalability and high production cost. Here we demonstrate the general use of cellulose to manufacture large 3D objects. Our approach diverges from the common association of cellulose with green plants and it is inspired by the wall of the fungus-like oomycetes, which is reproduced introducing small amounts of chitin between cellulose fibers. The resulting fungal-like adhesive material(s) (FLAM) are strong, lightweight and inexpensive, and can be molded or processed using woodworking techniques. We believe this first large-scale additive manufacture with ubiquitous biological polymers will be the catalyst for the transition to environmentally benign and circular manufacturing models.

  14. Thermal modelling of extrusion based additive manufacturing of composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mathias Laustsen; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    One of the hottest topics regarding manufacturing these years is additive manufacturing (AM). AM is a young branch of manufacturing techniques, which by nature is disruptive due to its completely different manufacturing approach, wherein material is added instead of removed. By adding material...... layer by layer, mould and customised tooling requirements from the conventional manufacturing are reduced or removed, which leads to increased customisation options and enables new part complexities without increasing the manufacturing cost. AM hence enables customised small volume productions...... of composite parts not feasible by conventional manufacturing techniques. This sets up new requirements to the part verification and validation, while conventional destructive tests become too expensive. This initial study aims to investigate alternative options to this destructive testing by increasing...

  15. Mechanical and Fatigue Properties of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Aref

    This study aims to investigate the mechanical and fatigue behavior of additively manufactured metallic materials. Several challenges associated with different metal additive manufacturing (AM) techniques (i.e. laser-powder bed fusion and direct laser deposition) have been addressed experimentally and numerically. Experiments have been carried out to study the effects of process inter-layer time interval--i.e. either building the samples one-at-a-time or multi-at-a-time (in-parallel)--on the microstructural features and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel samples, fabricated via a direct laser deposition (DLD). Next, the effect of building orientation--i.e. the orientation in which AM parts are built--on microstructure, tensile, and fatigue behaviors of 17-4 PH stainless steel, fabricated via a laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) method was investigated. Afterwards, the effect of surface finishing--here, as-built versus machined--on uniaxial fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of Inconel 718 fabricated via a laser-powder bed fusion technique was sought. The numerical studies, as part of this dissertation, aimed to model the mechanical behavior of AM materials, under monotonic and cyclic loading, based on the observations and findings from the experiments. Despite significant research efforts for optimizing process parameters, achieving a homogenous, defect-free AM product--immediately after fabrication--has not yet been fully demonstrated. Thus, one solution for ensuring the adoption of AM materials for application should center on predicting the variations in mechanical behavior of AM parts based on their resultant microstructure. In this regard, an internal state variable (ISV) plasticity-damage model was employed to quantify the damage evolution in DLD 316L SS, under tensile loading, using the microstructural features associated with the manufacturing process. Finally, fatigue behavior of AM parts has been modeled based on the crack-growth concept

  16. Effect of radiation resistance additives for insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Yagyu, Hideki; Seguchi, Tadao.

    1988-01-01

    For the electric wires and cables used in radiation environment such as nuclear power stations and fuel reprocessing facilities, the properties of excellent radiation resistance are required. For these insulators and sheath materials, ethylene propylene rubber, polyethylene and other polymers have been used, but it cannot be said that they always have good radiation resistance. However, it has been well known that radiation resistance can be improved with small amount of additives, and heat resistance and burning retarding property as well as radiation resistance are given to the insulators of wires and cables for nuclear facilities by mixing various additives. In this research, the measuring method for quantitatively determining the effect of Anti-rad (radiation resistant additive) was examined. Through the measurement of gel fraction, radical formation and decomposed gas generation, the effect of Anti-rad protecting polymers from radiation deterioration was examined from the viewpoint of chemical reaction. The experimental method and the results are reported. The radiation energy for cutting C-H coupling is polymers is dispersed by Anti-rad, and the probability of cutting is lowered. Anti-rad catches and extinguishes radicals that start oxidation reaction. (K.I.)

  17. Multiscale and Multiphysics Modeling of Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Frank; Newkirk, Joseph; Fan, Zhiqiang; Sparks, Todd; Chen, Xueyang; Fletcher, Kenneth; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Yunlu; Kumar, Kannan Suresh; Karnati, Sreekar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this proposed project is to research and develop a prediction tool for advanced additive manufacturing (AAM) processes for advanced materials and develop experimental methods to provide fundamental properties and establish validation data. Aircraft structures and engines demand materials that are stronger, useable at much higher temperatures, provide less acoustic transmission, and enable more aeroelastic tailoring than those currently used. Significant improvements in properties can only be achieved by processing the materials under nonequilibrium conditions, such as AAM processes. AAM processes encompass a class of processes that use a focused heat source to create a melt pool on a substrate. Examples include Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Direct Metal Deposition. These types of additive processes enable fabrication of parts directly from CAD drawings. To achieve the desired material properties and geometries of the final structure, assessing the impact of process parameters and predicting optimized conditions with numerical modeling as an effective prediction tool is necessary. The targets for the processing are multiple and at different spatial scales, and the physical phenomena associated occur in multiphysics and multiscale. In this project, the research work has been developed to model AAM processes in a multiscale and multiphysics approach. A macroscale model was developed to investigate the residual stresses and distortion in AAM processes. A sequentially coupled, thermomechanical, finite element model was developed and validated experimentally. The results showed the temperature distribution, residual stress, and deformation within the formed deposits and substrates. A mesoscale model was developed to include heat transfer, phase change with mushy zone, incompressible free surface flow, solute redistribution, and surface tension. Because of excessive computing time needed, a parallel computing approach was also tested. In addition

  18. ANALYSIS OF MPC ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITION OF FILLER MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. Wallin

    1996-01-01

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) in response to a request received via a QAP-3-12 Design Input Data Request (Ref. 5.1) from WAST Design (formerly MRSMPC Design). The request is to provide: Specific MPC access requirements for the addition of filler materials at the MGDS (i.e., location and size of access required). The objective of this analysis is to provide a response to the foregoing request. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a documented record of the basis for the response. The response is stated in Section 8 herein. The response is based upon requirements from an MGDS perspective

  19. Additive manufacturing of metals the technology, materials, design and production

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li; Baughman, Brian; Godfrey, Donald; Medina, Francisco; Menon, Mamballykalathil; Wiener, Soeren

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a unique guide to the three-dimensional (3D) printing of metals. It covers various aspects of additive, subtractive, and joining processes used to form three-dimensional parts with applications ranging from prototyping to production. Examining a variety of manufacturing technologies and their ability to produce both prototypes and functional production-quality parts, the individual chapters address metal components and discuss some of the important research challenges associated with the use of these technologies. As well as exploring the latest technologies currently under development, the book features unique sections on electron beam melting technology, material lifting, and the importance this science has in the engineering context. Presenting unique real-life case studies from industry, this book is also the first to offer the perspective of engineers who work in the field of aerospace and transportation systems, and who design components and manufacturing networks. Written by the leadin...

  20. Improved Gasifier Availability with Bed Material and Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grootjes, A.J.; Van der Meijden, C.M.; Visser, H.J.M.; Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    In order to valorize several feedstock, gasification is one of the technologies developed over the past decades. ECN developed the MILENA gasifier. In order for MILENA to become a commercial success, the gasifier needs to be feedstock flexible, robust and economically sound, operating with high availability. One of the characteristics of MILENA is high efficiency but with a higher tar content, compared to some other Dual Fluidized Bed (DFB) gasifiers. In order to reduce the issues that are associated with high tar levels in the product gas, the effect of a number of primary measures was studied. This paper presents results obtained in the last two years, focused on improving the gasifier availability by conducting experiments in a 25 kWth lab scale MILENA gasifier. Amongst others, gas composition, tar content and calorific value of the product gas were compared. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis was used to investigate bed material changes. Results show that Austrian olivine can be activated by Fuel B as well as by Additive A and B. The water-gas shift reaction is enhanced and the tar content is reduced significantly, especially the heavy tars that dominate the tar dew point. Activated olivine has a calcium-rich layer. The results show that with MILENA, we are able to lower and control the tar dew point, which will possibly increase the availability of a MILENA gasifier.

  1. Integrated Computational Material Engineering Technologies for Additive Manufacturing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QuesTek Innovations, a pioneer in Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) and a Tibbetts Award recipient, is teaming with University of Pittsburgh,...

  2. Grain Structure Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyao Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Grain structure control is challenging for metal additive manufacturing (AM. Grain structure optimization requires the control of grain morphology with grain size refinement, which can improve the mechanical properties of additive manufactured components. This work summarizes methods to promote fine equiaxed grains in both the additive manufacturing process and subsequent heat treatment. Influences of temperature gradient, solidification velocity and alloy composition on grain morphology are discussed. Equiaxed solidification is greatly promoted by introducing a high density of heterogeneous nucleation sites via powder rate control in the direct energy deposition (DED technique or powder surface treatment for powder-bed techniques. Grain growth/coarsening during post-processing heat treatment can be restricted by presence of nano-scale oxide particles formed in-situ during AM. Grain refinement of martensitic steels can also be achieved by cyclic austenitizing in post-processing heat treatment. Evidently, new alloy powder design is another sustainable method enhancing the capability of AM for high-performance components with desirable microstructures.

  3. Functionalisation of mesoporous materials for application as additives in high temperature PEM fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Monir

    2012-03-06

    The presented thesis contains six original research articles dedicated to the preparation and characterization of organic-inorganic mesoporous materials as additives for polymer electroly1e membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The mesoporous materials Si-MCM-41 and benzene-PMO (periodic mesoporous organosilica) were chosen for the investigations. These materials were modified with functional groups for enhanced proton conductivity and water-keeping properties. In order to improve these materials Broenstedt acidic groups were introduced in the framework of mesoporous Si-MCM-41. Therefore, some silicium atoms in the framework were substituted by aluminium using different aluminium sources. Here NaAlO{sub 2} exhibits clearly the best results because the entire aluminium incorporated within the framework is tetragonally coordinated as observed by {sup 2}7AI MAS NMR. The increase of the proton conductivities results from an improved hydrophilicity, a decreased particle size, and newly introduced Broenstedt acidity in the mesoporous Al-MCM-41. However, mesoporous Si-MCM-41 materials functionalised by co-condensation with sulphonic acid groups exhibit the best results concerning proton conductivity, compared to those prepared by grafting. Hence, these materials where characterized in more detail by SANS and by MAS NMR measurements. The first one indicated that by co-condensation the entire inner pore surface is altered by functional groups which are, thus, distributed much more homogeneously than samples functionalised by grafting. This result explains the improved proton conductivities. Additionally, {sup 2}9Si NMR spectra proved that samples prepared by co-condensation lead to a successful and almost complete incorporation of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilan (MPMS) into the mesoporous framework. Furthermore, it was shown by {sup 1}3C MAS NMR spectroscopy that the majority of the organic functional groups remained intact after H{sub 2}0{sub 2}-oxidation. However, proton

  4. Additive Manufacturing Materials Study for Gaseous Radiation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, C.A.; Durose, A.; Boakes, J. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques may lead to improvements in many areas of radiation detector construction; notably the rapid manufacturing time allows for a reduced time between prototype iterations. The additive nature of the technique results in a granular microstructure which may be permeable to ingress by atmospheric gases and make it unsuitable for gaseous radiation detector development. In this study we consider the application of AM to the construction of enclosures and frames for wire-based gaseous radiation tracking detectors. We have focussed on oxygen impurity ingress as a measure of the permeability of the enclosure, and the gas charging and discharging curves of several simplistic enclosure shapes are reported. A prototype wire-frame is also presented to examine structural strength and positional accuracy of an AM produced frame. We lastly discuss the implications of this study for AM based radiation detection technology as a diagnostic tool for incident response scenarios, such as the interrogation of a suspect radiation-emitting package. (authors)

  5. Additive Manufacturing Materials Study for Gaseous Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, C.A.; Durose, A.; Boakes, J.

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques may lead to improvements in many areas of radiation detector construction; notably the rapid manufacturing time allows for a reduced time between prototype iterations. The additive nature of the technique results in a granular microstructure which may be permeable to ingress by atmospheric gases and make it unsuitable for gaseous radiation detector development. In this study we consider the application of AM to the construction of enclosures and frames for wire-based gaseous radiation tracking detectors. We have focussed on oxygen impurity ingress as a measure of the permeability of the enclosure, and the gas charging and discharging curves of several simplistic enclosure shapes are reported. A prototype wire-frame is also presented to examine structural strength and positional accuracy of an AM produced frame. We lastly discuss the implications of this study for AM based radiation detection technology as a diagnostic tool for incident response scenarios, such as the interrogation of a suspect radiation-emitting package. (authors)

  6. Fabrication of Turbine Disk Materials by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbrack, Chantal; Bean, Quincy A.; Cooper, Ken; Carter, Robert; Semiatin, S. Lee; Gabb, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation-strengthened, nickel-based superalloys are widely used in the aerospace and energy industries due to their excellent environmental resistance and outstanding mechanical properties under extreme conditions. Powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the potential to revolutionize the processing of superalloy turbine components by eliminating the need for extensive inventory or expensive legacy tooling. Like selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) constructs three-dimensional dense components layer-by-layer by melting and solidification of atomized, pre-alloyed powder feedstock within 50-200 micron layers. While SLM has been more widely used for AM of nickel alloys like 718, EBM offers several distinct advantages, such as less retained residual stress, lower risk of contamination, and faster build rates with multiple-electron-beam configurations. These advantages are particularly attractive for turbine disks, for which excessive residual stress and contamination can shorten disk life during high-temperature operation. In this presentation, we will discuss the feasibility of fabricating disk superalloy components using EBM AM. Originally developed using powder metallurgy forging processing, disk superalloys contain a higher refractory content and precipitate volume fraction than alloy 718, thus making them more prone to thermal cracking during AM. This and other challenges to produce homogeneous builds with desired properties will be presented. In particular, the quality of lab-scale samples fabricated via a design of experiments, in which the beam current, build temperature, and beam velocity were varied, will be summarized. The relationship between processing parameters, microstructure, grain orientation, and mechanical response will be discussed.

  7. Additivity of Feature-based and Symmetry-based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundi eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple object tracking (MOT is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the laws of perceptual organization proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. Additive effect refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The where and what pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  8. Preparations and properties of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This short review describes various types of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. It is concerned with synthetic additives classified according to their functional groups; silicone compounds, carboxylic acids and dibasic acids, esters, Diels-Alder adducts, various polymers, nitrogen compounds, phosphoric esters, phosphonic acids, and others. Testing methods for water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials are described for a practical application in a laboratory.

  9. The Development of High Temperature Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Additive Manufactured Autoclave Tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hassen, Ahmed A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, ORNL and Techmer investigated and screened different high temperature thermoplastic reinforced materials to fabricate composite molds for autoclave processes using Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques. This project directly led to the development and commercial release of two printable, high temperature composite materials available through Techmer PM. These new materials are targeted for high temperature tooling made via large scale additive manufacturing.

  10. Removal of PCB from indoor air and surface materials by introduction of additional sorbing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Lyng, Nadja; Kolarik, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Alleviation of indoor PCB contamination is extremely expensive because PCB from old primary sources has redistributed to most other surfaces over time. This study investigates the introduction of new removable sorbing materials as a method instantly lowering the concentration of PCB in indoor air...... and slowly decontaminating old surface materials. In three bedrooms of a contaminated apartment respectively new painted gypsum boards, sheets of flexible polyurethane foam and activated carbon fabric were introduced. The PCB concentrations in room air were monitored before the intervention and several times...... during the following 10 months. The PCB concentrations in the old surface materials as well as the new materials were also measured. An immediate reduction of PCB concentration in indoor air, a gradual increase of PCB in new material and as well a gradual reduction in old surface materials were...

  11. Report of the Working Group on novel concepts and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.K.; Brun, T.O.

    1997-09-01

    The working group meeting was chaired by Carpenter and Brun. This session was intended as a session to present ideas that had not yet been fully explored, as well as a place for discussion of topics that did not readily fit in any of the other workshop sessions. The first part of the session focused on moderator materials. During the course of the discussions of some novel potential moderator materials it became clear that there was not even agreement on what makes a good moderator for cold neutrons at short-pulse sources. There were two competing diametrically-opposed schools of thought.

  12. Usage of Vermiculite as Additive Material in Water-Based Drilling Muds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Eser Kök

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Drilling mud is used in drilling operations to ensure well stability and to transport the cut-offs to the surface and is generally classified as; Spud, Lignosulfonate and Polymer types. Spud Mud is the simple mud and mostly used at the beginning of drilling operations. It is mainly composed of bentonite and water. With increasing depth, It is hard to keep well stability and to carry cuttings from the bottom of hole to the surface with the basic drilling fluid. Thus, some materials are used to maintain the rheological and filtration properties of the mud. One of them is vermiculite that is a general name of the hydrated ferromagnesian aluminium silicate group. It has expanded properties when heated. Like all clay minerals, the cation exchange capacity is very high and very similar to the montmorillonites in terms of high cation exchange capacity. In this study, the usage of vermiculite as an additive material in drilling muds was investigated. Spud muds containing vermiculite in different amounts were prepared. Then rheological and filtration analysis of the muds were done according to American Petroleum Institute (API RP-13B-1 Standard. When evaluated the results, AV reached 41cP, PV 27cP, YP 28lb/100ft2 , 10 sec. gel strength 17lb/100ft2 , 10 min. gel strength 26 lb/100ft2 and filtration 9cc. The results showed that the vermiculite can might be used as a viscosifier and fluid loss reducing additive material in the drilling mud.

  13. Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) Aircraft Parts and Tooling at the Maintenance Group Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing for the Air Force aircraft maintenance...case study of the 552d MXGs 3D printing operation explores their use of a Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) thermoplastic material to manufacture parts...by applying the case study’s analysis toward a proof of concept, producing a C-130J Aft Cargo Door Rub Strip for 3D printing . The study concluded by

  14. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? 1206.86 Section 1206.86 Parks, Forests, and Public... narrative report? You must submit the materials determined by the Commission as found in the NHPRC grant...

  15. Method of treating organic material. [addition of formate, heating under pressure, and distilling the mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, H O.V.; Cederquist, K N

    1932-02-08

    A method is given of treating organic material such as wood, peat, shale, etc. It is characterized by the addition of formate to the material, before, during, or after heating it under pressure with alkalis, earth alkalis, et cetera, and by the mass thus produced undergoing dry distillation. The patent has three more claims.

  16. Mechanical Behavior of Additive Manufactured Layered Materials, Part 2: Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    materials. Elsevier, Oxford; 2007: 416 -420. [19] Deng, D., Chen, R., Sun, Q. and Li, X. Microstructural study of 17-4PH stainless steel after plasma...1 Mechanical Behavior of Additive Manufactured Layered Materials, Part 2: Stainless Steels * Todd M. Mower † and Michael J. Long M.I.T. Lincoln... stainless steel alloys produced with Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) was measured and is compared to that of similar conventional materials

  17. Measurement of electromagnetic properties of powder and solid metal materials for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Evgueni Iordanov

    2017-04-01

    The lack of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for examination during and after additive manufacturing (AM) component fabrication is one of the obstacles in the way of broadening use of AM for critical applications. Knowledge of electromagnetic properties of powder (e.g. feedstock) and solid AM metal components is necessary to evaluate and deploy electromagnetic NDE modalities for examination of AM components. The objective of this research study was to develop and implement techniques for measurement of powder and solid metal electromagnetic properties. Three materials were selected - Inconel 625, duplex stainless steel 2205, and carbon steel 4140. The powder properties were measured with alternate current (AC) model based eddy current technique and direct current (DC) resistivity measurements. The solid metal properties were measured with DC resistivity measurements, DC magnetic techniques, and AC model based eddy current technique. Initial magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity were acquired for both powder and solid metal. Additional magnetic properties such as maximum permeability, coercivity, retentivity, and others were acquired for 2205 and 4140. Two groups of specimens were tested along the build length and width respectively to investigate for possible anisotropy. There was no significant difference or anisotropy when comparing measurements acquired along build length to those along the width. A trend in AC measurements might be associated with build geometry. Powder electrical conductivity was very low and difficult to estimate reliably with techniques used in the study. The agreement between various techniques was very good where adequate comparison was possible.

  18. Geometric Modeling of Cellular Materials for Additive Manufacturing in Biomedical Field: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpaolo Savio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in additive manufacturing technologies facilitate the fabrication of cellular materials that have tailored functional characteristics. The application of solid freeform fabrication techniques is especially exploited in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, a classification of cellular materials from a geometric point of view is proposed; then, the main approaches on geometric modeling of cellular materials are discussed. Finally, an investigation on porous scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies is pointed out. Perspectives in geometric modeling of scaffolds for tissue engineering are also proposed.

  19. Geometric Modeling of Cellular Materials for Additive Manufacturing in Biomedical Field: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, Gianpaolo; Rosso, Stefano; Meneghello, Roberto; Concheri, Gianmaria

    2018-01-01

    Advances in additive manufacturing technologies facilitate the fabrication of cellular materials that have tailored functional characteristics. The application of solid freeform fabrication techniques is especially exploited in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, a classification of cellular materials from a geometric point of view is proposed; then, the main approaches on geometric modeling of cellular materials are discussed. Finally, an investigation on porous scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies is pointed out. Perspectives in geometric modeling of scaffolds for tissue engineering are also proposed.

  20. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 °C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 °C, and better at 25 °C than at 37 °C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6 h at 10 °C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly...

  1. Geometric Modeling of Cellular Materials for Additive Manufacturing in Biomedical Field: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Stefano; Meneghello, Roberto; Concheri, Gianmaria

    2018-01-01

    Advances in additive manufacturing technologies facilitate the fabrication of cellular materials that have tailored functional characteristics. The application of solid freeform fabrication techniques is especially exploited in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, a classification of cellular materials from a geometric point of view is proposed; then, the main approaches on geometric modeling of cellular materials are discussed. Finally, an investigation on porous scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies is pointed out. Perspectives in geometric modeling of scaffolds for tissue engineering are also proposed. PMID:29487626

  2. Evaluation and recommendations for work group integration within the Materials and Processes Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Phillip A.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate and make recommendations for improving the level of integration of several work groups within the Materials and Processes Lab at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This evaluation has uncovered a variety of projects that could improve the efficiency and operation of the work groups as well as the overall integration of the system. In addition, this study provides the foundation for specification of a computer integrated manufacturing test bed environment in the Materials and Processes Lab.

  3. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Overhang Structures Using Moisture-Cured Silicone with Support Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Muthusamy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM of soft materials has a wide variety of applications, such as customized or wearable devices. Silicone is one popular material for these applications given its favorable material properties. However, AM of silicone parts with overhang structures remains challenging due to the soft nature of the material. Overhang structures are the areas where there is no underlying structure. Typically, a support material is used and built in the underlying space so that the overhang structures can be built upon it. Currently, there is no support structure that has been used for AM of silicone. The goal of this study is to develop an AM process to fabricate silicone parts with overhang structures. We first identified and confirmed poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA, a water-soluble material, as a suitable support material for silicone by evaluating the adhesion strength between silicone and PVA. Process parameters for the support material, including critical overhang angle and minimum infill density for the support material, are identified. However, overhang angle alone is not the only determining factor for support material. As silicone is a soft material, it deflects due to its own weight when the height of the overhang structure increases. A finite element model is developed to estimate the critical overhang height paired with different overhang angles to determine whether the use of support material is needed. Finally, parts with overhang structures are printed to demonstrate the capability of the developed process.

  5. Oxidative Addition and Reductive Elimination at Main-Group Element Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Terry; Nikonov, Georgii I

    2018-04-11

    Oxidative addition and reductive elimination are key steps in a wide variety of catalytic reactions mediated by transition-metal complexes. Historically, this reactivity has been considered to be the exclusive domain of d-block elements. However, this paradigm has changed in recent years with the demonstration of transition-metal-like reactivity by main-group compounds. This Review highlights the substantial progress achieved in the past decade for the activation of robust single bonds by main-group compounds and the more recently realized activation of multiple bonds by these elements. We also discuss the significant discovery of reversible activation of single bonds and distinct examples of reductive elimination at main-group element centers. The review consists of three major parts, starting with oxidative addition of single bonds, proceeding to cleavage of multiple bonds, and culminated by the discussion of reversible bond activation and reductive elimination. Within each subsection, the discussion is arranged according to the type of bond being cleaved or formed and considers elements from the left to the right of each period and down each group of the periodic table. The majority of results discussed in this Review come from the past decade; however, earlier reports are also included to ensure completeness.

  6. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M; Zuleeg, S; Vonbank, R; Schmid, P; Hean, S; Lamani, X; Bester, K; Boller, M

    2011-01-01

    Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades' render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol 1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 microg/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time of rainfall and the complexity of the drainage network. Beside the amounts used, the impact of construction materials containing hazardous additives on water quality is related clearly to the age of the buildings and the separated sewer network. The development of improved products regarding release of hazardous additives is the most efficient way of reducing the pollutant load from construction materials in storm water runoff.

  7. The additive technology for obtaining thermal storages based on nanomodified materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchegolkov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The approaches for the implementation of an additive technology for obtaining heat accumulators are considered. The implementation of the provided technology can be realized on the standard 3D printers, which are aimed to obtain plastic materials. However, the software of the printers has to include adjusting analytical expressions, which take into account thermophysical properties of the heat-retaining materials. The analytical expressions have been derived by solving a mathematical model. The mathematical model contains the main data on thermophysical and mechanical and physical properties of the nanomodified material. These properties of the nanomodified material are defined during the experimental studies.

  8. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R

    2010-08-15

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 degrees C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 degrees C, and better at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6h at 10 degrees C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly higher (Padditives. Reductions were significantly less (Pfood residue. At 37 degrees C and 20% relative humidity, large decreases in the numbers of the pathogen on both conveyor belt materials during the first 6h were observed. Under these conditions, there was no obvious effect of the antimicrobial substances. However, at 25 degrees C and 10 degrees C and high humidity (60-75% rh), a rapid decrease in bacterial numbers on the belt material with antimicrobial substances was observed. Apparently the reduction in numbers of L. monocytogenes on belt material with antimicrobial additives was greater than on belt material without additives only when the surfaces were wet. Moreover, the presence of food debris neutralized the effect of the antimicrobials. The results suggest that the antimicrobial additives in conveyor belt material could help to reduce numbers of microorganisms on belts at low temperatures when food residues are absent and belts are not rapidly dried. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Functionalization of group-14 two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Mariusz

    2018-06-01

    The great success of graphene has boosted intensive search for other single-layer thick materials, mainly composed of group-14 atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. This new class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, known as 2D-Xenes, has become an emerging field of intensive research due to their remarkable electronic properties and the promise for a future generation of nanoelectronics. In contrast to graphene, Xenes are not completely planar, and feature a low buckled geometry with two sublattices displaced vertically as a result of the interplay between sp2 and sp3 orbital hybridization. In spite of the buckling, the outstanding electronic properties of graphene governed by Dirac physics are preserved in Xenes too. The buckled structure also has several advantages over graphene. Together with the spin–orbit (SO) interaction it may lead to the emergence of various experimentally accessible topological phases, like the quantum spin Hall effect. This in turn would lead to designing and building new electronic and spintronic devices, like topological field effect transistors. In this regard an important issue concerns the electron energy gap, which for Xenes naturally exists owing to the buckling and SO interaction. The electronic properties, including the magnitude of the energy gap, can further be tuned and controlled by external means. Xenes can easily be functionalized by substrate, chemical adsorption, defects, charge doping, external electric field, periodic potential, in-plane uniaxial and biaxial stress, and out-of-plane long-range structural deformation, to name a few. This topical review explores structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Xenes and addresses the question of their functionalization in various ways, including external factors acting simultaneously. It also points to future directions to be explored in functionalization of Xenes. The results of experimental and theoretical studies obtained so far have many promising features making

  10. Estimating the Uncertainty of Tensile Strength Measurement for A Photocured Material Produced by Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczak Stanisław

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the measurement uncertainty for a material produced by additive manufacturing. The material investigated was FullCure 720 photocured resin, which was applied to fabricate tensile specimens with a Connex 350 3D printer based on PolyJet technology. The tensile strength of the specimens established through static tensile testing was used to determine the measurement uncertainty. There is a need for extensive research into the performance of model materials obtained via 3D printing as they have not been studied sufficiently like metal alloys or plastics, the most common structural materials. In this analysis, the measurement uncertainty was estimated using a larger number of samples than usual, i.e., thirty instead of typical ten. The results can be very useful to engineers who design models and finished products using this material. The investigations also show how wide the scatter of results is.

  11. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 °C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 °C, and better at 25 °C than at

  12. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.; Boller, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used...... shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time...

  13. Hydrogen-bond Specific Materials Modification in Group IV Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolk, Norman H. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Feldman, L. C. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Luepke, G. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    impurity states under transient compression. This research focused on the characterization of photon and ion stimulated hydrogen related defect and impurity reactions and migration in solid state matter, which requires a detailed understanding of the rates and pathways of vibrational energy flow, of the transfer channels and of the coupling mechanisms between local vibrational modes (LVMs) and phonon bath as well as the electronic system of the host material. It should be stressed that researchers at Vanderbilt and William and Mary represented a unique group with a research focus and capabilities for low temperature creation and investigation of such material systems. Later in the program, we carried out a vigorous research effort addressing the roles of defects, interfaces, and dopants on the optical and electronic characteristics of semiconductor crystals, using phonon generation by means of ultrafast coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) spectroscopy, nonlinear characterization using second harmonic generation (SHG), and ultrafast pump-and-probe reflectivity and absorption measurements. This program featured research efforts from hydrogen defects in silicon alone to other forms of defects such as interfaces and dopant layers, as well as other important semiconducting systems. Even so, the emphasis remains on phenomena and processes far from equilibrium, such as hot electron effects and travelling localized phonon waves. This program relates directly to the mission of the Department of Energy. Knowledge of the rates and pathways of vibrational energy flow in condensed matter is critical for understanding dynamical processes in solids including electronically, optically and thermally stimulated defect and impurity reactions and migration. The ability to directly probe these pathways and rates allows tests of theory and scaling laws at new levels of precision. Hydrogen embedded in model crystalline semiconductors and metal oxides is of particular interest, since the associated

  14. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) / Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures (ACES) Materials Delivery System (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Tamasy, G. J.; Evers, C. J.; Sibille, L. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Fiske, M. R.; Fikes, J. C.; Case, M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) project is to incorporate the Liquid Goods Delivery System (LGDS) into the Dry Goods Delivery System (DGDS) structure to create an integrated and automated Materials Delivery System (MDS) for 3D printing structures with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. ACES 3 is a prototype for 3-D printing barracks for soldiers in forward bases, here on Earth. The LGDS supports ACES 3 by storing liquid materials, mixing recipe batches of liquid materials, and working with the Dry Goods Feed System (DGFS) previously developed for ACES 2, combining the materials that are eventually extruded out of the print nozzle. Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) is a project led by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and supported by NASA. The equivalent 3D printing system for construction in space is designated Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) by NASA.

  15. The Influence Of The Way Of Alumina Addition On Properties Improvement Of 3YSZ Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drożdż E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ is the best known ceramic-oxide material employed as a component of either solid electrolyte or anode cermet material for intermediate solid oxide fuel cell (IT - SOFC. The properties of traditionally produced (by mechanical mixing of oxides Al2O3/3YSZ composite with the same composition materials obtained by citrate and impregnation methods and with properties of pure tetragonal zirconia (3YSZ were compared. The materials were characterised by X-ray diffraction, SEM observations with EDX analysis, density and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The results shown that Al2O3/3YSZ composites reveals higher conductivity than pure 3YSZ and that addition of alumina (regardless of methods improve electric properties of resulting materials. Taking into account application of this materials as anode in IT-SOFC the determined values of energy activation of conductivity and microstructural properties of composites show that materials obtained by citric method are the most promising.

  16. Influence of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (PCM) Addition on (Micro) Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlangen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Excessive cracking can be a serious durability problem for reinforced concrete structures. In recent years, addition of microencapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) to concrete has been proposed as a possible solution to crack formation related to temperature gradients. However, the addition of PCM microcapsules to cementitious materials can have some drawbacks, mainly related to strength reduction. In this work, a range of experimental techniques has been used to characterize the microcapsules and their effect on properties of composite cement pastes. On the capsule level, it was shown that they are spherical, enabling good distribution in the material during the mixing process. Force needed to break the microcapsules was shown to depend on the capsule diameter and the temperature, i.e., whether it is below or above the phase change temperature. On the cement paste level, a marked drop of compressive strength with increasing PCM inclusion level was observed. The indentation modulus has also shown to decrease, probably due to the capsules themselves, and to a lesser extent due to changes in porosity caused by their inclusion. Finally, a novel micro-cube splitting technique was used to characterize the tensile strength of the material on the micro-meter length scale. It was shown that the strength decreases with increasing PCM inclusion percentage, but this is accompanied by a decrease in measurement variability. This study will contribute to future developments of cementitious composites incorporating phase change materials for a variety of applications. PMID:28773225

  17. Novel Polymeric Dielectric Materials for the Additive Manufacturing of Microwave Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Shamus E.

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the deployment of additive manufacturing (AM) due to the perceived benefits of lower cost, higher quality, and a smaller environmental footprint. And while the hardware behind most of AM processes is mature, the study and development of material feedstock(s) are in their infancy, particularly so for niche areas. In this dissertation, we look at novel polymeric materials to support AM for microwave devices. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the benefits of AM, followed by the specific motivation for this work, and finally a scope defining the core objectives. Chapter 2 delves into a higher-level background of dielectric theory and includes a brief overview of the two common dielectric spectroscopy techniques used in this work. The remaining chapters, summarized below, describe experiments in which novel polymeric materials were developed and their microwave dielectric properties measured. Chapter 3 describes the successful synthesis of polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE)/polyacrylate (PA) core-shell nanoparticles and their measured microwave dielectric properties. PTFE/PA core-shell nanoparticles with spherical morphology were successfully made by aerosol deposition followed by a brief annealing. The annealing temperature is closely controlled to exceed the glass transition (Tg) of the PA shell yet not exceed the Tg of the PTFE core. Furthermore, the annealing promotes coalescence amongst the PA shells of neighboring nanoparticles and results in the formation of a contiguous PA matrix that has excellent dispersion of PTFE cores. The measured dielectric properties agree well with theoretical predictions and suggest the potential of this material as a feedstock for AM microwave devices. Chapter 4 delves into the exploration of various polyimide systems with the aim of replacing the PA in the previously studied PTFE/PA core-shell nanoparticles. Fundamental relationships between polymer attributes (flexibility/rigidity and

  18. Separation of Trace Amount Zn (II Using Additional Carbonyl and Carboxyl Groups Functionalized-Nano Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moghimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and selective method for the fast determination of trace amounts of Zn(IIions in water samples has been developed.  The first additional carbonyl and carboxyl functionalized-nano graphene (SPFNano graphene. The presence of additional carbonyl and carboxyl groups located at the edge of the sheets makes GO sheets strongly hydrophilic, allowing them to readily swell and disperse in water. Based on these oxygen functionalities, different model structures of GO were used as absorbent for extraction of Zn (II   ions by solid phase extraction method. The complexes were eluted with HNO3 (2M10% V.V-1 methanol in acetone and determined the analyte by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  The procedure is based on the selective formation of Zn (II at optimum pH by elution with organic eluents and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The method is based on complex formation on the surface of the ENVI-18 DISKTM disks modified carbonyl and carboxyl functionalized-nano graphene oxide molecules covalently bonded together followed by stripping of the retained species by minimum amounts of appropriate organic solvents. The elution is efficient and quantitative. The effect of potential interfering ions, pH, SPFNano graphene, amount, stripping solvent, and sample flow rate were also investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the break-through volume was found to about 1000mL providing a preconcentration factor of 500. The maximum capacity of the disks was found to be 456± 3 µg for Zn2+.The limit of detection of the proposed method is 5ng per 1000mL.The method was applied to the extraction and recovery of Zn in different water samples.

  19. NASA's Additive Manufacturing Development Materials Science to Technology Infusion - Connecting the Digital Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2017-01-01

    At NASA, the first steps of the Journey to Mars are well underway with the development of NASA's next generation launch system and investments in research and technologies that should increase the affordability, capability, and safety of exploration activities. Additive Manufacturing presents a disruptive opportunity for NASA to design and manufacture hardware with new materials at dramatically reduced cost and schedule. Opportunities to incorporate additive manufacturing align very well with NASA missions and with most NASA programs related to space, science, and aeronautics. The Agency also relies on many partnerships with other government agencies, industry and academia.

  20. Advanced Material Studies for Additive Manufacturing in terms of Future Gear Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bräunig

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing by laser beam melting is predestined for complex component geometry like integrated cooling channels without enormous posttreatment processing. To investigate the influence of build-up direction in terms of later tooth excitation of gear-wheels, first fundamental material analyses were accomplished in this publication. Therefore, additively produced specimens were used to determine the build-up direction dependent elastic properties of the material in all three spatial directions based on tensile and torsion tests. The anisotropies of elastic limits and breaking points of previous studies were confirmed in this paper. Furthermore, torsion values were also determined depending on build-up direction. Laser beam melted X3NiCoMoTi18-9-5 (hot-work tool steel was shown to exhibit extremely high performance under shear loading in comparison to conventionally processed steel. The influence of build-up direction on torsional strength was also shown.

  1. An additive approach to low temperature zero pressure sintering of bismuth antimony telluride thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Glenn C.; Tripathi, Rajesh; Nunes, Geoffrey; Lynch, Philip B.; Jones, Howard D.; Schmitt, Devin C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an additive-based approach to the formulation of thermoelectric materials suitable for screen printing. Such printing processes are a likely route to such thermoelectric applications as micro-generators for wireless sensor networks and medical devices, but require the development of materials that can be sintered at ambient pressure and low temperatures. Using a rapid screening process, we identify the eutectic combination of antimony and tellurium as an additive for bismuth-antimony-telluride that enables good thermoelectric performance without a high pressure step. An optimized composite of 15 weight percent Sb7.5Te92.5 in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is scaled up and formulated into a screen-printable paste. Samples fabricated from this paste achieve a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.74 using a maximum processing temperature of 748 K and a total thermal processing budget of 12 K-hours.

  2. A study on the mechanical properties of additive manufactured polymer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Bum; Lee, In Hwan; Cho, Hae Yong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Traditionally, additive manufacturing (AM) technology has been used to fabricate prototypes in the early development phase of a product. This technology is being applied to release manufacturing of a product because of its low cost and fast fabrication. AM technology is a process of joining materials to fabricate a product from the 3D CAD data in a layer-by-layer manner. The orientation of a layer during manufacturing can affect the mechanical properties of the product because of its anisotropy. In this paper, tensile testing of polymer-based specimens were built with a typical AM process (FDM, PolyJet and SLA) to study the mechanical properties of the AM materials. The ASTM D 638 tensile testing standard was followed for building the specimens. The mechanical properties of the specimens were determined on the basis of stress-strain curves formed by tensile tests. In addition, the fracture surfaces of the specimens were observed by SEM to analyze the results.

  3. [Influence of autoclave sterilization on dimensional stability and detail reproduction of 5 additional silicone impression materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tong-kai; Sun, Zhi-hui; Jiang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the dimensional stability and detail reproduction of five additional silicone impression materials after autoclave sterilization. Impressions were made on the ISO 4823 standard mold containing several marking lines, in five kinds of additional silicone. All the impressions were sterilized by high temperature and pressure (135 °C, 212.8 kPa) for 25 min. Linear measurements of pre-sterilization and post-sterilization were made with a measuring microscope. Statistical analysis utilized single-factor analysis with pair-wise comparison of mean values when appropriate. Hypothesis testing was conducted at alpha = 0.05. No significant difference was found between the pre-sterilization and post-sterilization conditions for all locations, and all the absolute valuse of linear rate of change less than 8%. All the sterilization by the autoclave did not affect the surfuce detail reproduction of the 5 impression materials. The dimensional stability and detail reproduction of the five additional silicone impression materials in the study was unaffected by autoclave sterilization.

  4. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 201Rev1: 2-Alkylated, aliphatic, acyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and precursors, with or without additional double-bonds, from chemical subgroup 1.1.2 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    . The Panel therefore concluded that further data are required in order to clarify the genotoxic potential of this subgroup. The Panel considers the Comet assay with [FL-no: 05.095] as test material and performed on liver, blood and first site of contact, as a preferred option to further investigate.......177 and 09.931], for which it was concluded in the previous version of this FGE that the available data were insufficient to evaluate their genotoxicity. Secondly, the Panel considers that the mutagenicity hazard could not be cleared by the endpoints evaluated in the in vivo micronucleus assay submitted...

  5. New possibilities using additive manufacturing with materials that are difficult to process and with complex structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Anders; Hellsing, Maja S.; Rennie, Adrian R.

    2017-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) opens the possibility of creating new designs and manufacturing objects with new materials rapidly and economically. Particularly for use with polymers and polymer composites, simple printers can make high quality products, and these can be produced easily in offices, schools and in workshops and laboratories. This technology has opened a route for many to test ideas or to make custom devices. It is possible to easily manufacture complex geometries that would be difficult or even impossible to create with traditional methods. Naturally this technology has attracted attention in many fields that include the production of medical devices and prostheses, mechanical engineering as well as basic sciences. Materials that are highly problematic to machine can be used. We illustrate process developments with an account of the production of printer parts to cope with polymer fillers that are hard and abrasive; new nozzles with ruby inserts designed for such materials are durable and can be used to print boron carbide composites. As with other materials, complex parts can be printed using boron carbide composites with fine structures, such as screw threads and labels to identify materials. General ideas about design for this new era of manufacturing customised parts are presented.

  6. New possibilities using additive manufacturing with materials that are difficult to process and with complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Anders; Hellsing, Maja S; Rennie, Adrian R

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) opens the possibility of creating new designs and manufacturing objects with new materials rapidly and economically. Particularly for use with polymers and polymer composites, simple printers can make high quality products, and these can be produced easily in offices, schools and in workshops and laboratories. This technology has opened a route for many to test ideas or to make custom devices. It is possible to easily manufacture complex geometries that would be difficult or even impossible to create with traditional methods. Naturally this technology has attracted attention in many fields that include the production of medical devices and prostheses, mechanical engineering as well as basic sciences. Materials that are highly problematic to machine can be used. We illustrate process developments with an account of the production of printer parts to cope with polymer fillers that are hard and abrasive; new nozzles with ruby inserts designed for such materials are durable and can be used to print boron carbide composites. As with other materials, complex parts can be printed using boron carbide composites with fine structures, such as screw threads and labels to identify materials. General ideas about design for this new era of manufacturing customised parts are presented. (invited comment)

  7. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of detonation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jennifer; Bukowski, Eric

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser with sufficient energy to exceed the breakdown threshold of a material generates a laser-induced plasma with high peak temperatures, pressures, and shock velocities. Depending on the laser parameters and material properties, nanograms to micrograms of material is ablated, atomized, ionized and excited in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion into the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The estimated detonation velocities using LASEM agree well with published experimental values. A comparison of the measured shock velocities for various energetic materials including RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that reducing the amount of hydrogen present in B formulations increases the resulting detonation velocities

  8. Effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles addition on the optical and tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate denture base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Mohammed M; Abualsaud, Reem; Rahoma, Ahmed; Al-Thobity, Ahmad M; Al-Abidi, Khalid S; Akhtar, Sultan

    2018-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is widely used for the fabrication of removable prostheses. Recently, zirconium oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZrO 2 ) have been added to improve some properties of PMMA, but their effect on the optical properties and tensile strength are neglected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano-ZrO 2 addition on the translucency and tensile strength of the PMMA denture base material. Eighty specimens (40 dumbbell-shaped and 40 discs) were prepared out of heat-polymerized acrylic resin and divided into four groups per test (n=10). The control group for each test included unreinforced acrylic, while the test groups were reinforced with 2.5, 5, and 7.5 wt% nano-ZrO 2 . Acrylic resin was mixed according to manufacturer's instructions, packed, and processed by conventional method. After polymerization, all specimens were finished, polished, and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 48±2 hours. Tensile strength (MPa) was evaluated using the universal testing machine while the specimens' translucency was examined using a spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using the paired sample t -test ( p ≤0.05). A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the morphological changes and topography of the fractured surfaces. This study showed that the mean tensile strength of the PMMA in the test groups of 2.5%NZ, 5%NZ, and 7.5%NZ was significantly higher than the control group. The tensile strength increased significantly after nano-ZrO 2 addition, and the maximum increase seen was in the 7.5%NZ group. The translucency values of the experimental groups were significantly lower than those of the control group. Within the reinforced groups, the 2.5%NZ group had significantly higher translucency values when compared to the 5%NZ and 7.5%NZ groups. The addition of nano-ZrO 2 increased the tensile strength of the denture base acrylic. The increase was directly proportional to the nano-ZrO 2 concentration. The

  9. Polishability and wear resistance of splint material for oral appliances produced with conventional, subtractive, and additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettig, Fabian; Kustermann, Achim; Kuscu, Ebru; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Spintzyk, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Occlusal splints to treat bruxism are commonly made from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in a manual workflow (powder-liquid technique). Today digitalization allows a machine-based manufacturing in subtractive (milling) and additive (printing) means using industrial-made PMMA or comparable resins. An in-vitro study should assess the surface finish and screen the wear resistance of conventional and industrial materials. Therefore, a total of 30 specimens made from conventionally PMMA (group C; powder-liquid, Palapress), polycarbonate ingots (group S; innoBlanc splint plus), and light-curing resin (group A; VarseoWax splint) were polished to examine the surface roughness (Ra) by profilometry and further analyzed by SEM. The specimens were loaded with a steatite ball moving 5000 times along 1cm with 5N of surface pressure under constant wetting (artificial saliva). The total height of profile (Pt) was calculated by further profilometry of the specimens. All specimen showed initially comparable Ra values ranging between 0.06 and 0.05µm (SD = 0.01) after polishing. SEM investigations revealed no visual cues for scratches or irregularities in any group. After abrasion test, the comparison of the wear depths, revealed mean Pt values of 111.4µm (SD = 18.5) in C, 85.7µm (SD = 21.5) in S, and 99.1µm (SD = 21.5) in A, whereas the mean of S was statistically different from C (p = 0.025). No signs of abrasion were found on the steatite balls. All materials showed comparable polished surfaces and a similar scale of wear. It remains questionable if the detected statistical differences are of clinical relevance, but indicates the need for tests of novel materials, especially in additive manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of Additive Manufacturing in Evaluating the Performance of Internally Defected Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A.-H. I.; Ghazal, A. M.; Syam, M. M.; Qadi, O. D. Al; Jassmi, H. Al

    2018-05-01

    The elimination of internal defects in a material present in the raw material or generated during the manufacturing or service is difficult. The inclusions of the defects have an adverse effect on the load bearing capacity. The presence of the cracks subjected to a specific orientation in materials or machinery can cause devastating unexpected failure during operation. Analysis of the failure in the components with cracks is more confined to analytical and numerical evaluation. The experimental evaluation has been tedious due to the complexity of replicating the actual defected component. The potential of additive manufacturing in developing user-defined components with cracks for the experimental evaluation is explored in this research. The present research investigated the effect of the internal elliptical cracks aligned at different orientations on the mechanical performance of polylactic acid (Green filament). The Fusion Deposition Method was utilized for the development of the standard tensile specimens with internal elliptical crack oriented at 0°, 45° and 90° using UltiMaker 2. The results proved that there is a considerable reduction in the load bearing capacity due to the presence of the cracks. The maximum load bearing capacity decreased by 15.01% for the specimen with crack inclined at 0° to the lateral axis compared to crack- free specimen. The nature of the fracture and the stress-strain graph evidently showcase the brittle nature of the material. The SEM image of the fractured region proved the phenomenal characteristics such as strong adhesion between the layers and the proper material flow. In the light of the results of this work, it can be concluded that the 3-D printing methodology is effective for evaluating the mechanical performance of the internally defected material.

  11. Four-Dimensional (4D) Printing: Applying Soft Adaptive Materials to Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zibiao; Loh, Xian Jun

    Four-dimensional (4D) printing is an up-and-coming technology for the creation of dynamic devices which have shape changing capabilities or on-demand capabilities over time. Through the printing of adaptive 3D structures, the concept of 4D printing can be realized. Modern manufacturing primarily utilizes direct assembly techniques, limiting the possibility of error correction or instant modification of a structure. Self-building, programmable physical materials are interesting for the automatic and remote construction of structures. Adaptive materials are programmable physical or biological materials which possess shape changing properties or can be made to have simple logic responses. There is immense potential in having disorganized fragments form an ordered construct through physical interactions. However, these are currently limited to only self-assembly at the smallest scale, typically at the nanoscale. The answer to customizable macro-structures is in additive manufacturing, or 3D printing. 3D printing is a 30 years old technology which is beginning to be widely used by consumers. However, the main gripes about this technology are that it is too inefficient, inaccessible, and slow. Cost is also a significant factor in the adoption of this technology. 3D printing has the potential to transform and disrupt the manufacturing landscape as well as our lives. 4D printing seeks to use multi-functional materials in 3D printing so that the printed structure has multiple response capabilities and able to self-assemble on the macroscale. In this paper, we will analyze the early promise of this technology as well as to highlight potential challenges that adopters could face. The primary focus will be to have a look at the application of materials to 3D printing and to show how these materials can be tailored to create responsive customized 4D structures.

  12. Boron carbide nanostructures: A prospective material as an additive in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Paviter; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kumar, Rohit; Kumar, Umesh; Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Meena, Ramovatar; Kumar, Akshay

    2018-05-01

    In recent decades, manufacture and ingestion of concrete have increased particularly in developing countries. Due to its low cost, safety and strength, concrete have become an economical choice for protection of radiation shielding material in nuclear reactors. As boron carbide has been known as a neutron absorber material makes it a great candidate as an additive in concrete for shielding radiation. This paper presents the synthesis of boron carbide nanostructures by using ball milling method. The X-ray diffraction pattern, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope analysis confirms the formation of boron carbide nanostructures. The effect of boron carbide nanostructures on the strength of concrete samples was demonstrated. The compressive strength tests of concrete cube B4C powder additives for 0 % and 5 % of total weight of cement was compared for different curing time period such as 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The high compressive strength was observed when 5 wt % boron carbide nanostructures were used as an additive in concrete samples after 28 days curing time and showed significant improvement in strength.

  13. Structural integrity of additive materials: Microstructure, fatigue behavior, and surface processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Todd A.

    Although Additive Manufacturing (AM) offers numerous performance advantages over existing methods, AM structures are not being utilized for critical aerospace and mechanical applications due to uncertainties in their structural integrity as a result of the microstructural variations and defects arising from the AM process itself. Two of these uncertainties are the observed scatter in tensile strength and fatigue lives of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) parts. With strain localization a precursor for material failure, this research seeks to explore the impact of microstructural variations in DMLS produced materials on strain localization. The first part of this research explores the role of the microstructure in strain localization of DMLS produced IN718 and Ti6Al4V specimens (as-built and post-processed) through the characterization of the linkage between microstructural variations, and the accumulation of plastic strain during monotonic and low cycle fatigue loading. The second part of this research explores the feasibility for the application of select surface processing techniques in-situ during the DMLS build process to alter the microstructure in AlSi10Mg to reduce strain localization and improve material cohesion. This study is based on utilizing experimental observations through the employment of advanced material characterization techniques such as digital image correlation to illustrate the impacts of DMLS microstructural variation.

  14. Evaluation of critical materials in five additional advance design photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.; Martin, P.; Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. The Critical Materials Assessment Program (CMAP) screens the designs and their supply chains and identifies potential shortages which might preclude large-scale use of the technologies. The results of the screening of five advanced PV cell designs are presented: (1) indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide, (2) zinc phosphide, (3) cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide, (4) copper indium selenium, and (5) cadmium selenide photoelectrochemical. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 Gwe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has a 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online capacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary baseline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. The CMAP methodology used to identify critical materials is described; and detailed characterizations of the advanced photovoltaic cell designs under investigation, descriptions of additional cell production processes, and the results are presented. (WHK)

  15. Measurement of fracture toughness of metallic materials produced by additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quénard, O.; Dorival, O.; Guy, Ph.; Votié, A.; Brethome, K.

    2018-04-01

    This study focuses on the microstructure and mechanical properties of metallic materials produced by additive layer manufacturing (ALM), especially the laser beam melting process. The influence of the specimen orientation during the ALM process and that of two post-build thermal treatments were investigated. The identified metal powder is Ti-6Al-4V (titanium base). Metallographic analysis shows their effects on the microstructure of the metals. Mechanical experiments involving tensile tests as well as toughness tests were performed according to ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) norms. The results show that the main influence is that of the thermal treatments; however the manufacturing stacking direction may lead to some anisotropy in the mechanical properties.

  16. Pile group program for full material modeling and progressive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Strain wedge (SW) model formulation has been used, in previous work, to evaluate the response of a single pile or a group of piles (including its : pile cap) in layered soils to lateral loading. The SW model approach provides appropriate prediction f...

  17. Matt waste from glass separated collection: an eco-sustainable addition for new building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignozzi, M C; Saccani, A; Sandrolini, F

    2009-01-01

    Matt waste (MW), a by-product of purification processes of cullet derived from separated glass waste collection, has been studied as filler for self-compacting concrete and as an addition for newly blended cement. Properties of self-compacting concrete compared to reference samples are reported. They include characteristics at the fresh and hardened states, and the compressive strength and porosity of mortar samples that were formulated with increasing amounts of MW to be used as cement replacement (up to 50wt.%). The effects of matt waste are discussed with respect to the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the resulting new materials.

  18. Exploring the mechanical strength of additively manufactured metal structures with embedded electrical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J., E-mail: J.Li5@lboro.ac.uk; Monaghan, T.; Masurtschak, S.; Bournias-Varotsis, A.; Friel, R.J.; Harris, R.A.

    2015-07-15

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) enables the integration of a wide variety of components into solid metal matrices due to the process induced high degree of metal matrix plastic flow at low bulk temperatures. Exploitation of this phenomenon allows the fabrication of previously unobtainable novel engineered metal matrix components. The feasibility of directly embedding electrical materials within UAM metal matrices was investigated in this work. Three different dielectric materials were embedded into UAM fabricated aluminium metal-matrices with, research derived, optimal processing parameters. The effect of the dielectric material hardness on the final metal matrix mechanical strength after UAM processing was investigated systematically via mechanical peel testing and microscopy. It was found that when the Knoop hardness of the dielectric film was increased from 12.1 HK/0.01 kg to 27.3 HK/0.01 kg, the mechanical peel testing and linear weld density of the bond interface were enhanced by 15% and 16%, respectively, at UAM parameters of 1600 N weld force, 25 µm sonotrode amplitude, and 20 mm/s welding speed. This work uniquely identified that the mechanical strength of dielectric containing UAM metal matrices improved with increasing dielectric material hardness. It was therefore concluded that any UAM metal matrix mechanical strength degradation due to dielectric embedding could be restricted by employing a dielectric material with a suitable hardness (larger than 20 HK/0.01 kg). This result is of great interest and a vital step for realising electronic containing multifunctional smart metal composites for future industrial applications.

  19. Mechanical Properties of a Newly Additive Manufactured Implant Material Based on Ti-42Nb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christian; Weinmann, Markus; Schweigel, Christoph; Keßler, Olaf; Bader, Rainer

    2018-01-13

    The application of Ti-6Al-4V alloy or commercially pure titanium for additive manufacturing enables the fabrication of complex structural implants and patient-specific implant geometries. However, the difference in Young's modulus of α + β-phase Ti alloys compared to the human bone promotes stress-shielding effects in the implant-bone interphase. The aim of the present study is the mechanical characterization of a new pre-alloyed β-phase Ti-42Nb alloy for application in additive manufacturing. The present investigation focuses on the mechanical properties of SLM-printed Ti-42Nb alloy in tensile and compression tests. In addition, the raw Ti-42Nb powder, the microstructure of the specimens prior to and after compression tests, as well as the fracture occurring in tensile tests are characterized by means of the SEM/EDX analysis. The Ti-42Nb raw powder exhibits a dendrite-like Ti-structure, which is melted layer-by-layer into a microstructure with a very homogeneous distribution of Nb and Ti during the SLM process. Tensile tests display Young's modulus of 60.51 ± 3.92 GPa and an ultimate tensile strength of 683.17 ± 16.67 MPa, whereas, under a compressive load, a compressive strength of 1330.74 ± 53.45 MPa is observed. The combination of high mechanical strength and low elastic modulus makes Ti-42Nb an interesting material for orthopedic and dental implants. The spherical shape of the pre-alloyed material additionally allows for application in metal 3D printing, enabling the fabrication of patient-specific structural implants.

  20. Mechanical Properties of a Newly Additive Manufactured Implant Material Based on Ti-42Nb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schulze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Ti-6Al-4V alloy or commercially pure titanium for additive manufacturing enables the fabrication of complex structural implants and patient-specific implant geometries. However, the difference in Young’s modulus of α + β-phase Ti alloys compared to the human bone promotes stress-shielding effects in the implant–bone interphase. The aim of the present study is the mechanical characterization of a new pre-alloyed β-phase Ti-42Nb alloy for application in additive manufacturing. The present investigation focuses on the mechanical properties of SLM-printed Ti-42Nb alloy in tensile and compression tests. In addition, the raw Ti-42Nb powder, the microstructure of the specimens prior to and after compression tests, as well as the fracture occurring in tensile tests are characterized by means of the SEM/EDX analysis. The Ti-42Nb raw powder exhibits a dendrite-like Ti-structure, which is melted layer-by-layer into a microstructure with a very homogeneous distribution of Nb and Ti during the SLM process. Tensile tests display Young’s modulus of 60.51 ± 3.92 GPa and an ultimate tensile strength of 683.17 ± 16.67 MPa, whereas, under a compressive load, a compressive strength of 1330.74 ± 53.45 MPa is observed. The combination of high mechanical strength and low elastic modulus makes Ti-42Nb an interesting material for orthopedic and dental implants. The spherical shape of the pre-alloyed material additionally allows for application in metal 3D printing, enabling the fabrication of patient-specific structural implants.

  1. TRANSITION METAL OXIDES AS MATERIALS FOR ADDITIVE LASER MARKING ON STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Stoyanov Mihalev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The product information plays an important role in the improvement of the manufacturing, allowing the tracking of the part through the full life cycle. Laser marking is one of the most versatile techniques for this purpose. In this paper, a modification of the powder bed selective laser melting for additive laser marking of stainless steel parts is presented. This modification is based on the use of only one transition metal oxide chemically bonded to the stainless steel substrate, without using any additional materials and cleaning substances. The resulting additive coatings, produced from initial MoO3 and WO3 powders, show strong adhesion, high hardness, long durability and a high optical contrast. For estimation of the chemical and structural properties, the Raman and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD spectroscopy have been implemented. A computer model of the process of the laser melting and re-solidification has been developed as well. A comparative analysis of the properties of both (MoO3 and WO3 additive coatings has been performed. An attempt for a qualitative explanation of the thermo-chemical phenomena during the marking process has been undertaken.

  2. Design of novel materials for additive manufacturing - Isotropic microstructure and high defect tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, J; Brenne, F; Droste, M; Wendler, M; Volkova, O; Biermann, H; Niendorf, T

    2018-01-22

    Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a powder-bed additive manufacturing technology enabling the production of complex metallic parts with generally good mechanical properties. However, the performance of powder-bed based additively manufactured materials is governed by multiple factors that are difficult to control. Alloys that solidify in cubic crystal structures are usually affected by strong anisotropy due to the formation of columnar grains of preferred orientation. Moreover, processing induced defects and porosity detrimentally influence static and cyclic mechanical properties. The current study presents results on processing of a metastable austenitic CrMnNi steel by EBM. Due to multiple phase transformations induced by intrinsic heat-treatment in the layer-wise EBM process the material develops a fine-grained microstructure almost without a preferred crystallographic grain orientation. The deformation-induced phase transformation yields high damage tolerance and, thus, excellent mechanical properties less sensitive to process-induced inhomogeneities. Various scan strategies were applied to evaluate the width of an appropriate process window in terms of microstructure evolution, porosity and change of chemical composition.

  3. Radiological aspects of the usability of red mud as building material additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somlai, Janos; Jobbagy, Viktor; Kovacs, Jozsef; Tarjan, Sandor; Kovacs, Tibor

    2008-01-01

    Several researchers have examined and achieved favourable results in connection with the building industry's use of red mud extracted in large quantities from the processing of bauxite. These days more and more precedence is being given to limiting the radiological dose to the population. In this study carried out in Hungary, the use of red mud, bauxite, and clay additives recommended for the production of special cements, were examined from a radiological aspect. 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations measured in Hungarian bauxite, red mud and clay samples were significantly similar with the levels for such raw materials mentioned in international literature. Taking radiation protection aspects into consideration, none of these products can be directly used for building construction. Taking Hungarian and international values into consideration, a small amount of red mud, not exceeding 15% could be used for brick production, for example as a colouring material. However, beyond this amount the standards for building materials would not be met. For the production of cements an even stricter limit needs to be determined when both bauxite and red mud are used

  4. Perception Gaps on Food Additives among Various Groups in Korea: Food Experts, Teachers, Nutrition Teachers, Nongovernmental Organization Members, and General Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Suna; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and information needs of food experts, teachers, nutrition teachers, members of nongovernmental organizations, and general consumers concerning food additives. Questions in a survey format included perceptions, information needs, and preferred communication channels. The survey was conducted both off-line and on-line via e-mail and Google Drive in March 2015. The results indicated that most Korean consumers are concerned about the safety of using food additives in processed foods and do not recognize these additives as safe and useful materials as part of a modern diet. We also identified perception gaps among different groups regarding food additives. Nutrition teachers and members of nongovernmental organizations in Korea appeared to have a biased perception of food additives, which may cause general consumers to have a negative perception of food additives. The group of food experts did not have this bias. Governmental institutions must overcome the low confidence levels of various groups as an information provider about food additives. Based on the findings in this study, it will be possible to develop a strategy for risk communication about food additives for each group.

  5. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  6. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of Materials for Additive Construction: Applications on Earth, the Moon, and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Erick; Edmunson, Jennifer; Fiske, Michael; Christiansen, Eric; Miller, Josh; Davis, Bruce Alan; Read, Jon; Johnston, Mallory; Fikes, John

    2017-01-01

    Additive Construction is the process of building infrastructure such as habitats, garages, roads, berms, etcetera layer by layer (3D printing). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are pursuing additive construction to build structures using resources available in-situ. Using materials available in-situ reduces the cost of planetary missions and operations in theater. The NASA team is investigating multiple binders that can be produced on planetary surfaces, including the magnesium oxide-based Sorel cement; the components required to make Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), the common cement used on Earth, have been found on Mars. The availability of OPC-based concrete on Earth drove the USACE to pursue additive construction for base housing and barriers for military operations. Planetary and military base structures must be capable of resisting micrometeoroid impacts with velocities ranging from 11 to 72km/s for particle sizes 200 micrometers or more (depending on protection requirements) as well as bullets and shrapnel with a velocity of 1.036km/s with projectiles 5.66mm diameter and 57.40mm in length, respectively.

  7. Time limited psychodynamic group therapy: Predictors of patients seeking additional treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    for psychological or psychiatric problems; the percentage was 41.6 when further treatment was defined as participating in more than 5 sessions. The majority (94.8 was treated within the public health services. Participation in additional treatment was predicted by improvement on the MCMI Antisocial personality...... disorder scale and a higher SCL-90-R Somatization end-state score. When additional treatment was defined as receiving more than 5 sessions, lack of paid work before treatment (odds ratio 8.0), lack of social network support (odds ratio 2.9), and the Antisocial pre-post difference score (odds ratio 1...

  8. Selected properties of biodegradable material produced from thermoplastic starch with by-products of food industry addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work extrusion process were used to create thermoplastic starch and to mix obtained starch with linen, quince and apple pomace at the same time. Obtained starch beads were formed in shapes. In experimental material was determined thermal conductivity, water absorption and the solubility in water. It is possible to get the biodegradable material produced from thermoplastic starch with an addition of fruit pomace. Adding pomace and glycerine to the biodegradable material made from starch change of susceptibility on water action. In the case of materials containing pomace, glycerine addition decreases the susceptibility on water action compared to the material manufactured with pomace addition but without glycerine. In the material containing pomace, glycerine addition caused the increase of the thermal insulation time compared to the material with pomace but no glycerine in it.

  9. Defect Characterization for Material Assurance in Metal Additive Manufacturing (FY15-0664)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad; Jared, Bradley Howell; Rodelas, Jeffrey; Laing, John Robert

    2016-02-01

    No industry-wide standards yet exist for minimum properties in additively manufactured (AM) metals. While AM alloys such as 17-4 precipitation hardened stainless steel have been shown to have average properties that can be comparable to wrought or cast product, they suffer from inconsistent performance. Variability in the feedstock powder, feature sizes, thermal history, and laser performance can lead to unpredictable surface finish, chemistry, phase content, and defects. To address this issue, rapid, efficient, high-throughput mechanical testing and data analysis was developed, providing profound statistical insight into the stochastic variability in properties. With this new approach, 1000’s of comprehensive tensile tests can be performed for the cost of 10’s of conventional tests. This new high-throughput approach provides a material qualification pathway that is commensurate with the quick turn-around benefit of AM.

  10. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W. E., E-mail: weking@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kamath, C. [Computation Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rubenchik, A. M. [NIF and Photon Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  11. Effect of additional materials on the properties of glass-ceramic produced from incinerator fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W

    2004-07-01

    There are 21 Metro-waste incinerators in Taiwan under construction and are expected to be finished at year 2003. It is estimated that these incinerators will produce about two million tons of incinerator ash. In order to reduce the volume and eliminate contamination problems, high temperature molten technology studies have been conducted. The purpose of this research was that of trying to control the chemical composition of the glass-ceramic produced from incinerator fly ash, in order to improve the characteristics of the glass-ceramic. The experimental results showed that the additional materials, Mg(OH)2 and waste glass cullet, can change glass-ceramic phases from gehlenite to augite, pigeonite, and diopside. The physical, mechanical and chemical resistance properties of the glass-ceramic also showed much better characteristics than prepared glass-ceramic using incinerator fly ash alone.

  12. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Khairallah, S. A.; Kamath, C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process

  13. Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. E.; Anderson, A. T.; Ferencz, R. M.; Hodge, N. E.; Kamath, C.; Khairallah, S. A.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The production of metal parts via laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is growing exponentially. However, the transition of this technology from production of prototypes to production of critical parts is hindered by a lack of confidence in the quality of the part. Confidence can be established via a fundamental understanding of the physics of the process. It is generally accepted that this understanding will be increasingly achieved through modeling and simulation. However, there are significant physics, computational, and materials challenges stemming from the broad range of length and time scales and temperature ranges associated with the process. In this paper, we review the current state of the art and describe the challenges that need to be met to achieve the desired fundamental understanding of the physics of the process.

  14. Deposition of additives onto surface of carbon materials by blending method--general conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przepiorski, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fibers loaded with potassium carbonate and with metallic copper were prepared by applying a blending method. Raw isotropic coal pitch was blended with KOH or CuBr 2 and obtained mixtures were subjected to spinning. In this way KOH and copper salt-blended fiber with uniform distribution of potassium and copper were spun. The raw fibers were exposed to stabilization with a mixture of CO 2 and air or air only through heating to 330 deg. C and next to treatment with carbon dioxide or hydrogen at higher temperatures. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) analyses showed presence of potassium carbonate or metallic copper predominantly in peripheral regions of the obtained fibers. Basing on the mechanisms of potassium and copper diffusion over the carbon volume, generalized method for the deposition of additives onto surface of carbon materials is proposed

  15. The use of plasticizing additives based on recycled raw materials in the petrochemical rubber mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Shashok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the development of alternative products for elastomers based on recycling petrochemical raw materials is a new trend of the rubber industry progress. Petrochemical raw materials include spent lubricants and motor oils are among such recycling products. In this context, the influence of the products of recycling waste engine oil (DVCH and RA in comparison with industrial oil (I-20 on the technological properties of filled elastomeric compositions was investigated. The elastomeric compositions were based on poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers. The plasticizing components were manufactured by IOOO “DVCH-Menedzhment”. They are mixture of hydro-carbons, C16–C20 and differ from each other in the content of linear and branched paraffin. Plastic-elastic properties of rubber compounds on the shear disk viscometer MV2000 in accordance with GOST 10722–76 was carried out. Kinetics of vulcanization on the rheometer ODR2000 according to GOST 12535–84 was defined. It is shown that the introduction of RA test plasticizing component provides a significant effect on Mooney viscosity, as compared to elastomeric compositions containing a plasticizer and I-20 and plasticizing additive DVCH. It revealed that the administration of all components in the studied plasticizing elastomer compositions based on a combination poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers has no significant effect on the rate of relaxation of stress of rubber compounds. It is found that elastomeric compositions containing as additives investigated processing waste oil products (DVCH and RA are characterized by a slightly smaller value of time to reach an optimal degree of vulcanization.

  16. Improved moulding material for addition to nuclear fuel particles to produce nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miertschin, G.N.; Leary, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made to improve the moulding materials used to produce carbon-contained nuclear fuel particles by a coke-reducing added substance. The nuclear fuel particles are meant for the formation of fuel elements for gas-cooled high-temperature nuclear reactors. The moulding materials are above all for the formation of coated particles which are burnt in situ in nuclear fuel element chambers out of 'green' nuclear fuel bodies. The added substance improves the shape stability of the particles forming and prevents a stiding or bridge formation between the particles or with the surrounding walls. The following are named as added substances: 1) Polystyrene and styrene-butadiene-Co polymers (mol. wt. between 5oo and 1,000,000), 2) aromatic compounds (mol. wt. 75 to 300), 3) saturated hydrocarbon polymers (mol. wt. 5,000 to 1,000,000). Additional release agents further improve the properties in the same direction (e.g. alcohols, fatty acids, amines). (orig.) [de

  17. Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy materials based on three ester-based additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, J.; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, T.; van der Heide, Emile

    2014-01-01

    Material selection and lubricant additive development are two important aspects for engineering applications. This work explores the possibilities of three different ester-based additives (DBOP, ODOC and DOB) to generate boundary films on two corrosion and wear resistant materials, stainless steel

  18. Characteristics of phase-change materials containing oxide nano-additives for thermal storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tun-Ping; Yu, Chao-Chieh

    2012-11-06

    In this study, the authors report the production of nanocomposite-enhanced phase-change materials (NEPCMs) using the direct-synthesis method by mixing paraffin with alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), silica (SiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the experimental samples. Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO were dispersed into three concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt.%. Through heat conduction and differential scanning calorimeter experiments to evaluate the effects of varying concentrations of the nano-additives on the heat conduction performance and thermal storage characteristics of NEPCMs, their feasibility for use in thermal storage was determined. The experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 is more effective than the other additives in enhancing both the heat conduction and thermal storage performance of paraffin for most of the experimental parameters. Furthermore, TiO2 reduces the melting onset temperature and increases the solidification onset temperature of paraffin. This allows the phase-change heat to be applicable to a wider temperature range, and the highest decreased ratio of phase-change heat is only 0.46%, compared to that of paraffin. Therefore, this study demonstrates that TiO2, added to paraffin to form NEPCMs, has significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin.

  19. USE OF SPONGE, Callyspongia basilana EXTRACT AS ADDITIVE MATERIAL ON TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blue shrimp disease is one of the main problems in tiger shrimp culture. It reduces shrimp quality which eventually will decrease its market price. Blue shrimp is caused by deficiency of nutrition and additive materials such as carotene and other nutrient which function as vitamin source for important metabolic processes and formation of color profile in shrimp and fish. The aims of this study were to study the application effect of carotenoid extract of sponge Callyspongia basilana, as an additive material on the ability of shrimp to get back to normal state after suffering blue shrimp disease and survival rate of shrimp and to find out the optimal concentration of sponge carotenoid extract to cure the diseased shrimp. This study was consisted of two steps namely; (1. Extraction of sponge carotenoid by maseration and fractionation using acetone and petroleum ether solvents and (2, the application of carotenoid extract on the diseased shrimp. The research was arranged in a complete randomized design with four experiments consisted of (A. Control (without carotenoid extract; (B,(C, and (D carotetoid extract addition of 3 mg/L, 6 mg/L, and 9 mg/L respectively with three replication each. The test animal used were blue diseased tiger shrimp with the density of 15 ind./container having 7.5–9.5 cm in size and the average weight of 5.5–10.0 g. The study showed that Callyspongia basilana carotenoid extract was able to change blue diseased shrimp to be normal within six days at the concentration of 9 mg/L. The highest survival rate was found in the experiment D (93.3%. Meanwhile, the lowest was obtained by the control population (13.3% and the other two treatments were 80.0%(C and 73.3% (B. The average of water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, nitrite, and ammonia were in the suitable range for the growth and survival rate of tiger shrimp.

  20. Characterization of PCC Cement by Addition of Napa Soil from Subdistrict Sarilamak 50 Kota District as Alternative Additional Material for Semen Padang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawardi, M.; Deyundha, D.; Zainul, R.; Zalmi P, R.

    2018-04-01

    The study has been conducted to determine characteristics of the portland composite cement by the addition of napa soil from Sarilamak subdistrict, 50 Kota District as an alternative additional material at PT. Semen Padang. Napa soil is a natural material highly containing silica and alumina minerals so that it can be one of material in producing cement. This study aims to determine the effect of napa soil on the quality of portland composite cement. Napa soil used in the variation compositions 0%, 4%, 8%, 12% and 16%, for control of cement used 8 % of pozzolan and 0 % of napa soil. Determination of cement quality by testing cement characteristics include blaine test, sieving, lost of ignition or LOI, insoluble residue, normal consistency, setting time and compressive strength. Cement was characterized using XRF. Fineness of cement decreases with the addition of napa soil. Lost of Ignition of cement decreased, while the insoluble residue increased with the addition of napa soil. Normal consistency of cement increasing, so does initial setting time and final setting time of cement. While the resultant compressive strength decreases with the addition of napa soil on 28 days, 342, 325, 307, 306, and 300 kg / cm2.

  1. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are described as highly collaborative endurance pursuit hunters based on observations derived primarily from the grass plains of East Africa. However, the remaining population of this endangered species mainly occupies mixed woodland savannah where hunting strategies appear to differ from those previously described. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record fine-scale movement of all members of a single pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. The dogs used multiple short-distance hunting attempts with a low individual kill rate (15.5%), but high group feeding rate due to the sharing of prey. Use of high-level cooperative chase strategies (coordination and collaboration) was not recorded. In the mixed woodland habitats typical of their current range, simultaneous, opportunistic, short-distance chasing by dogs pursuing multiple prey (rather than long collaborative pursuits of single prey by multiple individuals) could be the key to their relative success in these habitats.

  2. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Afandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions

  3. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  4. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  5. Fourth Collaborative Materials Exercise of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, J.M.; Reilly, D.; Marsden, O.

    2018-01-01

    The Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group is a community of nuclear forensic practitioners who respond to incidents involving nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. The Group is dedicated to advancing nuclear forensic science in part through periodic participation in materials exercises. The Group completed its fourth Collaborative Materials Exercise in 2015 in which laboratories from 15 countries and one multinational organization analyzed three samples of special nuclear material in support of a mock nuclear forensic investigation. This special section of the Journal for Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry is devoted to summarizing highlights from this exercise. (author)

  6. Mechanical strength of welding zones produced by material extrusion additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chelsea S; Hillgartner, Kaitlyn E; Han, Seung Hoon; Seppala, Jonathan E

    2017-08-01

    As more manufacturing processes and research institutions adopt customized manufacturing as a key element in their design strategies and finished products, the resulting mechanical properties of parts produced through additive manufacturing (AM) must be characterized and understood. In material extrusion (MatEx), the most recently extruded polymer filament must bond to the previously extruded filament via polymer diffusion to form a "weld". The strength of the weld limits the performance of the manufactured part and is controlled through processing conditions. Under-standing the role of processing conditions, specifically extruder velocity and extruder temperature, on the overall strength of the weld will allow optimization of MatEx-AM parts. Here, the fracture toughness of a single weld is determined through a facile "trouser tear" Mode III fracture experiment. The actual weld thickness is observed directly by optical microscopy characterization of cross sections of MatEx-AM samples. Representative data of weld strength as a function of printing parameters on a commercial 3D printer demonstrates the robustness of the method.

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity and surface topography evaluation of additive manufacturing titanium implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Jukka T; Björkstrand, Roy V; Pernu, Mikael L; Salmi, Mika V J; Huotilainen, Eero I; Wolff, Jan E H; Vallittu, Pekka K; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2017-03-01

    Custom-designed patient-specific implants and reconstruction plates are to date commonly manufactured using two different additive manufacturing (AM) technologies: direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and electron beam melting (EBM). The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the surface structure and to assess the cytotoxicity of titanium alloys processed using DMLS and EBM technologies as the existing information on these issues is scarce. "Processed" and "polished" DMLS and EBM disks were assessed. Microscopic examination revealed titanium alloy particles and surface flaws on the processed materials. These surface flaws were subsequently removed by polishing. Surface roughness of EBM processed titanium was higher than that of DMLS processed. The cytotoxicity results of the DMLS and EBM discs were compared with a "gold standard" commercially available titanium mandible reconstruction plate. The mean cell viability for all discs was 82.6% (range, 77.4 to 89.7) and 83.3% for the control reconstruction plate. The DMLS and EBM manufactured titanium plates were non-cytotoxic both in "processed" and in "polished" forms.

  8. Design of material management system of mining group based on Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhiyuan; Tan, Zhuoying; Qi, Kuan; Li, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Under the background of persistent slowdown in mining market at present, improving the management level in mining group has become the key link to improve the economic benefit of the mine. According to the practical material management in mining group, three core components of Hadoop are applied: distributed file system HDFS, distributed computing framework Map/Reduce and distributed database HBase. Material management system of mining group based on Hadoop is constructed with the three core components of Hadoop and SSH framework technology. This system was found to strengthen collaboration between mining group and affiliated companies, and then the problems such as inefficient management, server pressure, hardware equipment performance deficiencies that exist in traditional mining material-management system are solved, and then mining group materials management is optimized, the cost of mining management is saved, the enterprise profit is increased.

  9. Impregnated Fibrous Materials. Report of a Study Group on Impregnated Fibrous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-10-15

    There has recently been renewed interest in the use of radiation from radioisotopes or particle accelerators to initiate and sustain chemical reactions. Particular attention is being paid to the production of wood-plastic composites, a process which is now a commercial reality with radiation competing against chemical methods to enhance the properties of wood. It has been reported that water repellancy, hardness, weathering, insect and chemical resistance, compressive, bending and shear strength can be significantly improved by the process, but so far there has been a limited commercial outlet for the product. Papers on this subject were presented at the International Atomic Energy Agency's Symposium on Industrial Uses of Large Radiation Sources, Salzburg, May 1963, and since then the Agency has been aware of the interest of developing countries in conducting research on wood and other fibrous materials as a means of further exploiting natural resources. It was felt that some attempt should be made to co-ordinate, on a regional basis, the work being done in this field and at the same time review the world status, including the associated technology in such areas as monomer-polymer chemistry and impregnation techniques where they are directly related to this work. Because of the wide range of fibrous materials being studied there, Asia and the Far East was chosen as the most representative area and 39 participants from 13 countries, and from international organizations, met in Bangkok from 20 to 24 November 1967 to assess the potential of impregnated fibrous materials. This report is a record of the meeting and is based not only on work performed both inside and outside the region but also on details of the resources and industries in the area.

  10. Smokers' unprompted comments on cigarette additives during conversations about the genetic basis for nicotine addiction: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Sydney E; Gehlert, Sarah; Waters, Erika A

    2018-04-13

    Research designed to elicit smokers' cognitive and affective reactions to information about chemicals that tobacco companies add to cigarettes ("additives") found that knowledge is limited. However, little is known about smokers' unprompted thoughts and feelings about additives. Such information could be used to shape future communication efforts. We explored the content and possible functions of spontaneous statements about cigarette additives made by smokers during a study examining reactions to learning about the genetic link to nicotine addiction. Adult smokers (N = 84) were recruited from a medium-sized Midwestern city. Focus groups (N = 13) were conducted between April-September 2012. Data were analyzed by 2 coders using thematic analysis. Comments about cigarette additives arose without prompting by the focus group moderator. Three main themes were identified: (1) discussing additives helped participants navigate the conceptual link between smoking and genetics, (2) additives were discussed as an alternative mechanism for addiction to cigarettes, and (3) additives provided an alternative mechanism by which cigarette smoking exacerbates physical harm. Notably, discussion of additives contained a pervasive tone of mistrust illustrated by words like "they" and "them," by statements of uncertainty such as "you don't know what they're putting into cigarettes," and by negative affective verbalizations such as "nasty" and "disgusting". Participants had distinct beliefs about cigarette additives, each of which seemed to serve a purpose. Although mistrust may complicate communication about the health risks of tobacco use, health communication experts could use smokers' existing beliefs and feelings to better design more effective anti-smoking messages.

  11. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSA, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; SILVA, Tiago Machado; LIMA, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; PIVA, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in

  12. Magnetic properties of FeNi-based thin film materials with different additives

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, C.; Gooneratne, C.P.; Wang, Q.X.; Liu, Y.; Gianchandani, Y.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials

  13. Integrated Predictive Tools for Customizing Microstructure and Material Properties of Additively Manufactured Aerospace Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fattebert, Jean-Luc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorti, Sarma B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Haxhimali, Timor [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); El-Wardany, Tahany [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States); Acharya, Ranadip [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States); Staroselsky, Alexander [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which digital three-dimensional (3-D) design data is converted to build up a component by depositing material layer-by-layer. United Technologies Corporation (UTC) is currently involved in fabrication and certification of several AM aerospace structural components made from aerospace materials. This is accomplished by using optimized process parameters determined through numerous design-of-experiments (DOE)-based studies. Certification of these components is broadly recognized as a significant challenge, with long lead times, very expensive new product development cycles and very high energy consumption. Because of these challenges, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), together with UTC business units have been developing and validating an advanced physics-based process model. The specific goal is to develop a physics-based framework of an AM process and reliably predict fatigue properties of built-up structures as based on detailed solidification microstructures. Microstructures are predicted using process control parameters including energy source power, scan velocity, deposition pattern, and powder properties. The multi-scale multi-physics model requires solution and coupling of governing physics that will allow prediction of the thermal field and enable solution at the microstructural scale. The state-of-the-art approach to solve these problems requires a huge computational framework and this kind of resource is only available within academia and national laboratories. The project utilized the parallel phase-fields codes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), along with the high-performance computing (HPC) capabilities existing at the two labs to demonstrate the simulation of multiple dendrite growth in threedimensions (3-D). The LLNL code AMPE was used to implement the UTRC phase field model that was previously developed for a model binary alloy, and

  14. Influence of agglomeration of a recycled cement additive on the hydration and microstructure development of cement based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.; Shui, Z.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study, including experimental and mechanism analysis, on investigating the effect of agglomeration of a recycled cement additive on the hydration and microstructure development of cement based materials. The recycled additive is firstly produced form waste hardened cement paste

  15. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; Silva, Tiago Machado; Lima, Giana da Silveira; Silva, Adriana Fernandes; Piva, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in countries such as Brazil.

  16. SIMULASI GROUP TECHNOLOGY SYSTEM UNTUK MEMINIMALKAN BIAYA MATERIAL HANDLING DENGAN METODE HEURISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Much. Djunaidi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Group Technology System merupakan metode pengaturan fasilitas produksi (machine groups yang dibutuhkan untuk memproses suatu part family tertentu ke dalam sel-sel manufaktur. Pengaturan tata letak di CV. Sonytex yang berdasarkan process layout mengakibatkan perusahaan menghadapi permasalahan berupa tingginya kebutuhan material handling. Salah satu kriteria kinerja dalam pembentukan sel manufaktur pada GTS adalah meminimasi total jarak material handling, sehingga dapat mengurangi biaya material handling dan meningkatkan produktivitas. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga metode, yaitu Bond Energy Algorithm (BEA, Rank Order Clustering (ROC dan Rank Order Clustering 2 (ROC2. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah dengan menerapkan group technology systems diperoleh total pengurangan jarak material handling sebesar 70 m dan penghematan biaya material handling sebesar Rp 1.534.978,-. Berdasarkan model simulasi, relayout dengan metode BEA meningkatkan jumlah produksi sebesar 1 unit produk/hari dan penurunan waktu tunggu sebesar 0,575 menit.

  17. Transferable tight-binding model for strained group IV and III-V materials and heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy B.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    It is critical to capture the effect due to strain and material interface for device level transistor modeling. We introduce a transferable s p3d5s* tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor interactions for arbitrarily strained group IV and III-V materials. The tight-binding model is parametrized with respect to hybrid functional (HSE06) calculations for varieties of strained systems. The tight-binding calculations of ultrasmall superlattices formed by group IV and group III-V materials show good agreement with the corresponding HSE06 calculations. The application of the tight-binding model to superlattices demonstrates that the transferable tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor interactions can be obtained for group IV and III-V materials.

  18. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  19. Finite element simulation and experimental verification of ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of defects in additively manufactured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, H.; Koester, L.; Bigelow, T.; Bond, L. J.

    2018-04-01

    Industrial applications of additively manufactured components are increasing quickly. Adequate quality control of the parts is necessary in ensuring safety when using these materials. Base material properties, surface conditions, as well as location and size of defects are some of the main targets for nondestructive evaluation of additively manufactured parts, and the problem of adequate characterization is compounded given the challenges of complex part geometry. Numerical modeling can allow the interplay of the various factors to be studied, which can lead to improved measurement design. This paper presents a finite element simulation verified by experimental results of ultrasonic waves scattering from flat bottom holes (FBH) in additive manufacturing materials. A focused beam immersion ultrasound transducer was used for both the modeling and simulations in the additive manufactured samples. The samples were SS17 4 PH steel samples made by laser sintering in a powder bed.

  20. An Assessment of NDE Capability and Materials Characterization for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This multi-center activity investigates the correlation between nondestructive evaluation (NDE), mechanical testing, microstructure, and additive manufacturing (AM)...

  1. MPA-11: Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices; Overview of an Applied Energy Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew Martin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Our mission is to provide innovative and creative chemical synthesis and materials science solutions to solve materials problems across the LANL missions. Our group conducts basic and applied research in areas related to energy security as well as problems relevant to the Weapons Program.

  2. Minor Actinides Burnup Enhancement in the European Sodium Fast Reactor through Moderator Material Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.L.; Buiron, L.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: • ZrH 2 was the best moderator material, followed by MgO and MgAl 2 O 4 ; • When the number of moderator pins is increased: – the percentage of minor actinides consumed increases; – the total mass consumed of minor actinides decreases; – the decay heat generated decreases; – the neutron flux in the reactor varies very little. Perspectives: • For future studies it would be possible to evaluate the use of other materials with resonances in the scattering cross section in the fast range that would improve the results obtained with Mg. • It would be necessary to consider how to add moderator material without changing the initial mass of minor actinides. E.g., adding the moderator at the periphery of the minor actinide elements

  3. Finite element modeling of deposition of ceramic material during SLM additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional model for material deposition in Selective Laser Melting (SLM with application to Al2O3-ZrO2 eutectic ceramic is presented. As the material is transparent to laser, dopants are added to increase the heat absorption efficiency. Based on Beer-Lambert law, a volumetric heat source model taking into account the material absorption is derived. The Level Set method with multiphase homogenization is used to track the shape of deposed bead and the thermodynamic is coupled to calculate the melting-solidification path. The shrinkage during consolidation from powder to compact medium is modeled by a compressible Newtonian constitutive law. A semi-implicit formulation of surface tension is used, which permits a stable resolution to capture the gas-liquid interface. The formation of droplets is obtained and slight waves of melt pool are observed. The influence of different process parameters on temperature distribution, melt pool profiles and bead shapes is discussed.

  4. 3D continuum phonon model for group-IV 2D materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Lew Yan Voon, Lok C.; Gandi, Appala Naidu

    2017-01-01

    . In this paper, we use the model to not only compare the phonon spectra among the group-IV materials but also to study whether these phonons differ from those of a compound material such as molybdenum disulfide. The origin of quadratic modes is clarified. Mode coupling for both graphene and silicene is obtained......, contrary to previous works. Our model allows us to predict the existence of confined optical phonon modes for the group-IV materials but not for molybdenum disulfide. A comparison of the long-wavelength modes to density-functional results is included....

  5. Investigation of Effect Additive Phase Change Materials on the Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakielska, Magdalena; Chalamoński, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The aim of worldwide policy is to reduce the amount of consumed energy and conventional fuels. An important branch of the economy that affects the energy balance of the country is construction industry. In Poland, since January 1st, 2017 new limit values have been valid regarding energy saving and thermal insulation of buildings. To meet the requirements of more and more stringent technical and environmental standards, new technological solutions are currently being looked for. When it comes to the use of new materials, phase-change materials are being widely introduced into construction industry. Thanks to phase-change materials, we can increase the amount of heat storage. Great thermal inertia of the building provides more stable conditions inside the rooms and allows the use of unconventional sources of energy such as solar energy. A way to reduce the energy consumption of the object is the use of modern solutions for ventilation systems. An example is the solar chimney, which supports natural ventilation in order to improve internal comfort of the rooms. Numerous studies are being carried out in order to determine the optimal construction of solar chimneys in terms of materials and construction parameters. One of the elements of solar chimneys is an absorption plate, which affects the amount of accumulated heat in the construction. In order to carry out the research on the thermal capacity of the absorption plate, the first research work has been already planned. The work presents the research results of a heat-transfer coefficient of the absorption plates samples made of cement, aggregate, water, and phase-change material in different volume percentage. The work also presents methodology and the research process of phase-change material samples.

  6. 3D metal droplet printing development and advanced materials additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Murr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While commercial additive manufacturing processes involving direct metal wire or powder deposition along with powder bed fusion technologies using laser and electron beam melting have proliferated over the past decade, inkjet printing using molten metal droplets for direct, 3D printing has been elusive. In this paper we review the more than three decades of development of metal droplet generation for precision additive manufacturing applications utilizing advanced, high-temperature metals and alloys. Issues concerning process optimization, including product structure and properties affected by oxidation are discussed and some comparisons of related additive manufactured microstructures are presented.

  7. ISS Multi-Material Fabrication Laboratory using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing Technology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this program is to demonstrate the use of Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) solid state metal 3D printing to provide in-space, on-demand...

  8. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Aiken, SC; Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Wang, Jun [Columbia, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  9. 3D continuum phonon model for group-IV 2D materials

    KAUST Repository

    Willatzen, Morten

    2017-06-30

    A general three-dimensional continuum model of phonons in two-dimensional materials is developed. Our first-principles derivation includes full consideration of the lattice anisotropy and flexural modes perpendicular to the layers and can thus be applied to any two-dimensional material. In this paper, we use the model to not only compare the phonon spectra among the group-IV materials but also to study whether these phonons differ from those of a compound material such as molybdenum disulfide. The origin of quadratic modes is clarified. Mode coupling for both graphene and silicene is obtained, contrary to previous works. Our model allows us to predict the existence of confined optical phonon modes for the group-IV materials but not for molybdenum disulfide. A comparison of the long-wavelength modes to density-functional results is included.

  10. Fine-mapping additive and dominant SNP effects using group-LASSO and Fractional Resample Model Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Jeremy; Nobel, Andrew B.; Valdar, William

    2014-01-01

    Genomewide association studies sometimes identify loci at which both the number and identities of the underlying causal variants are ambiguous. In such cases, statistical methods that model effects of multiple SNPs simultaneously can help disentangle the observed patterns of association and provide information about how those SNPs could be prioritized for follow-up studies. Current multi-SNP methods, however, tend to assume that SNP effects are well captured by additive genetics; yet when genetic dominance is present, this assumption translates to reduced power and faulty prioritizations. We describe a statistical procedure for prioritizing SNPs at GWAS loci that efficiently models both additive and dominance effects. Our method, LLARRMA-dawg, combines a group LASSO procedure for sparse modeling of multiple SNP effects with a resampling procedure based on fractional observation weights; it estimates for each SNP the robustness of association with the phenotype both to sampling variation and to competing explanations from other SNPs. In producing a SNP prioritization that best identifies underlying true signals, we show that: our method easily outperforms a single marker analysis; when additive-only signals are present, our joint model for additive and dominance is equivalent to or only slightly less powerful than modeling additive-only effects; and, when dominance signals are present, even in combination with substantial additive effects, our joint model is unequivocally more powerful than a model assuming additivity. We also describe how performance can be improved through calibrated randomized penalization, and discuss how dominance in ungenotyped SNPs can be incorporated through either heterozygote dosage or multiple imputation. PMID:25417853

  11. The Utilization of Additional Cassava Starch (Manihot Utilisima) for Alginate Dental Impression Material

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Noerdin; Bambang Irawan; Mirna Febriani

    2003-01-01

    In Indonesia alginate which is a common impression material used in dentistry is still imported. Since the economic crisis in 1998 the alginate price becoming four times more expensive. This situation resulted in efforts to modify the commercial alginate as had been conducted by a dentist in South Sumatera province in Indonesia. He who had added cassava starch into the commercial alginate used to make partial denture impression. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of additio...

  12. Role of point defects and additives in kinetics of hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Walle, Chris

    2010-03-01

    First-principles computational studies of hydrogen interactions with storage materials can provide direct insight into the processes of H uptake and release, and may help in developing guidelines for designing storage media with improved storage capacity and kinetics. One important conclusion is that the defects involved in kinetics of semiconducting or insulating H-storage materials are charged, and hence their formation energy is Fermi-level dependent and can be affected by the presence of impurities that change the Fermi level [1,2]. This provides an explanation for the role played by transition-metal impurities in the kinetics of NaAlH4 and related materials. Desorption of H and decomposition of NaAlH4 requires not only mass transport of H but also of Al and/or Na. This process is mediated by native defects. We have investigated the structure, stability, and migration enthalpy of native defects based on density functional theory. The results allow us to estimate diffusion activation energies for the defects that may be involved in mass transport. Most of the relevant defects exist in charge states other than neutral, and consideration of these charge states is essential for a proper description of kinetics. We propose specific new mechanisms to explain the observed activation energies and their dependence on the presence of impurities. We have also expanded our studies to materials other than NaAlH4. In the case of LiBH4 and Li4BN3H10 we have found that the calculations have predictive power in terms of identifying which impurities will actually enhance kinetics. Other complex hydrides that we are currently investigating include Li2NH and LiNH2. [4pt] [1] A. Peles and C. G. Van de Walle, Phys. Rev. B 76, 214101 (2007). [0pt] [2] C. G. Van de Walle, A. Peles, A. Janotti, and G. B. Wilson-Short, Physica B 404, 793 (2009).

  13. Evaluation and additional recommendations for preparing a whole blood control material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda E. Fink

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The assessment of an easy to prepare and low cost control material for Hematology, available for manual and automated methods. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Aliquots of stabilized whole blood were prepared by partial fixation with aldehydes; the stability at different temperatures (4. 20 and 37 °C during periods of up to 8-9 weeks and aliquot variability with both methods were controlled. RESULTS: Aliquot variability with automated methods at day 1, expressed as CV% (coefficient of variation was: white blood cells (WBC 2.7, red blood cells (RBC 0.7, hemoglobin (Hb 0.6, hematocrit (Hct 0.7, mean cell volume (MCV 0.3, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH 0.6, mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC 0.7, and platelets (PLT 4.6. The CV (coefficient of variation percentages obtained with manual methods in one of the batches were: WBC 23, Hct 2.8, Hb 4.5, MCHC 5.9, PLT 41. Samples stored at 4ºC and 20ºC showed good stability, only a very low initial hemolysis being observed, whereas those stored at 37ºC deteriobed a rapidly (metahemoglobin formation, aggregation of WBC and platelets, as well as alteration of erythrocyte indexes. CONCLUSIONS: It was confirmed that, as long as there is no exposure to high temperatures during distribution, this material is stable, allowing assessment, both esternal and internal, for control purposes, with acceptable reproductivity, both for manual and auttomatic methods.

  14. FUNCTION FEED ADDITIVE OF CAROTE-NOID VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS FOR POULTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Koshchayev A. G.; Kalyuzhniy S. A.; Koshchaeva O. V.; Gavrilenko D. V.; Eliseev M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The article is concerned with the use of functional feed additives from pumpkin fruits and alfalfa juice for the poultry industry. In the study of laying hen it has been found that the use of a feed additive in-creased pumpkin paste content in serum and egg yolk carotenoids is more than two times, and the concentration of vitamin A in these tissues increased slightly, not exceeding 20%. Livability and productivity of poultry increased and average expendable fodder per head per day decreased. ...

  15. Fatigue performance of additively manufactured meta-biomaterials : The effects of topology and material type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, S.M.; Hedayati, R.; Li, Y; Lietaert, K.; Tümer, N.; Fatemi, A.; Rans, C.D.; Pouran, B.; Weinans, H.H.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques enable fabrication of bone-mimicking meta-biomaterials with unprecedented combinations of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties. The mechanical performance of AM meta-biomaterials is a direct function of their topological design. It is,

  16. Materials Testing and Cost Modeling for Composite Parts Through Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    FDM include plastic jet printing (PJP), fused filament modeling ( FFM ), and fused filament fabrication (FFF). FFF was coined by the RepRap project to...additive manufacturing processes? • Fused deposition modeling (FDM) trademarked by Stratasys • Fused filament modeling ( FFM ) and fused filament

  17. ZZ CAD, 51 Neutron-Group, 25 Gamma-Group Albedo Data for 4 Materials from DOT Flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A - Description of problem or function: Format: BREESE tape-writing program, MORSE; Number of groups: 51 neutron, 25 gamma-ray group albedo data. Nuclides: 1) 12 inches of water. 2) 12 inches of ordinary concrete. 3) 9 inches of carbon steel (SA508). 4) 1/2 inches of steel over 12 inches of concrete. (O, Ca, Al, C, Si, H, K, Mg, Fe, Na, Mn); Origin: DOT angular flux tape. CAD is a set of 51 neutron, 25 gamma-ray group albedo data for the following four materials: 1) 12 inches of water. 2) 12 inches of ordinary concrete. 3) 9 inches of carbon steel (SA508). 4) 1/2 inches of steel over 12 inches of concrete. The differential angular albedos are a function of the five incident polar directions and 30 reflected directions. B - Method of solution: The data has been generated from a DOT angular flux tape using the code CARP (abstract PSR-0131). C - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Since the amount of data is so large, it is necessary to run CARP, using the group reduction option, in order to run a problem on most computers

  18. Magnetic Properties of FeNi-Based Thin Film Materials with Different Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Liang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials attractive for sensor applications. Our findings show that FeNi deposited with Mo or Al yields magnetically soft materials and that depositing with B further increases the softness. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi thin films is reduced by depositing with Al and completely removed by depositing with B. The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration. The coercivity of FeNiMo and FeNiAl is reduced to less than a half of that of FeNi, and a value as low as 40 A/m is obtained for FeNiB. The surfaces of the obtained FeNiMo, FeNiAl and FeNiB thin films reveal very different morphologies. The surface of FeNiMo shows nano-cracks, while the FeNiAl films show large clusters and fewer nano-cracks. When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained. The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level. FeNiAl thin films remain polycrystalline, even at a very high concentration of Al, and FeNiB films are amorphous, even at a very low concentration of B.

  19. Magnetic properties of FeNi-based thin film materials with different additives

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, C.

    2014-07-04

    This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials attractive for sensor applications. Our findings show that FeNi deposited with Mo or Al yields magnetically soft materials and that depositing with B further increases the softness. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi thin films is reduced by depositing with Al and completely removed by depositing with B. The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration. The coercivity of FeNiMo and FeNiAl is reduced to less than a half of that of FeNi, and a value as low as 40 A/m is obtained for FeNiB. The surfaces of the obtained FeNiMo, FeNiAl and FeNiB thin films reveal very different morphologies. The surface of FeNiMo shows nano-cracks, while the FeNiAl films show large clusters and fewer nano-cracks. When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained. The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level. FeNiAl thin films remain polycrystalline, even at a very high concentration of Al, and FeNiB films are amorphous, even at a very low concentration of B. 2014 by the authors.

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, Revision 1: Bi- and tricyclic secondary, ketones and related esters from chemical groups 7 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate six flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, including an additional two substances in this Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity fo the materials of commerce have been provided for all six candidate substances....

  1. Does the addition of proteases affect the biogas yield from organic material in anaerobic digestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Liane; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Pröter, Jürgen; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Scholwin, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical disintegration effect of hydrolytic enzymes in lab scale experiments. Influences of enzyme addition on the biogas yield as well as effects on the process stability were examined. The addition of proteases occurred with low and high dosages in batch and semi-continuous biogas tests. The feed mixture consisted of maize silage, chicken dung and cow manure. Only very high concentrated enzymes caused an increase in biogas production in batch experiments. In semi-continuous biogas tests no positive long-term effects (100 days) were observed. Higher enzyme-dosage led to a reduced biogas-yield (13% and 36% lower than the reference). Phenylacetate and -propionate increased (up to 372 mgl(-1)) before the other volatile fatty acids did. Volatile organic acids rose up to 6.8 gl(-1). The anaerobic digestion process was inhibited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibacterial activity of kecombrang flower extract (Nicolaia speciosa) microencapsulation with food additive materials formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufalin, R.; Rukmini, H. S.

    2018-01-01

    Kecombrang flower (Nicolaia speciosa) contains bioactive components of alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, steroids, saponins, and essential oils as potential antimicrobials. The use of antibacterials in the form of essential oils has constraints; therefore microencapsulation needs to be done to prevent damage to the bioactive components. Microencapsulation can prevent degradation due to radiation or oxygen, easy-mix with foodstuffs and also slow the occurrence of evaporation. This study aimed to determine the effect of types of kecombrang extract, the concentration of microcapsules in food additives (NaCl and sucrose), and concentration of flower extract in the microcapsules. This study used Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 18 treatment combinations and two replications. Factors studied were types of kecombrang flower extract of (semi polar and polar extract), Food Additive types (sucrose and NaCl), the concentration of microcapsules in food additive (0%; 15%; 30% w /v). The results showed that polar and non-polar extract microcapsules produced antibacterial activity of 7.178 mm and 7.145 respectively of Bacillus cereus bacteria, while Escherichia coli was 7.272 mm and 7.289 mm respectively. A 30 percent microcapsule concentration provides antibacterial activity with inhibiting zone of 7, 818 mm for B. cereus and 8,045 for E.coli. Food Additive of sucrose concentrations showed that microcapsules produced tend to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of E.coli and B. cereus bacteria than that of NaCl, with each inhibition zone of 7.499 mm and 7.357 mm

  3. Metal vapor micro-jet controls material redistribution in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Sonny; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Khairallah, Saad A.; Guss, Gabe; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2017-01-01

    The results of detailed experiments and finite element modeling of metal micro-droplet motion associated with metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes are presented. Ultra high speed imaging of melt pool dynamics reveals that the dominant mechanism leading to micro-droplet ejection in a laser powder bed fusion AM is not from laser induced recoil pressure as is widely believed and found in laser welding processes, but rather from vapor driven entrainment of micro-particles by an ambient gas...

  4. Effect of carbon nanofiber addition in the mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galao, O.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on recent work that is directed at studying the changes in the mechanical properties of Portland cement based mortars due to the addition of carbon nanofiber (CNF. Both flexural and compression strength has been determined and related to the CNF addition to the mix, to the curing time and to the porosity and density of the matrix. Also, corrosion of embedded steel rebars in CNF cement pastes exposed to carbonation and chloride attacks has been investigated. The increase in CNF addition implies higher corrosion intensity and higher levels of mechanical properties.En este artículo se han estudiado los cambios en las propiedades mecánicas de los morteros de cemento Portland debido a la adición de nanofibras de carbono (NFC. Se han determinado las resistencias a flexotracción y a compresión de los morteros en relación a la cantidad de NFC añadidas a la mezcla, al tiempo de curado y a la porosidad y densidad de los mismos. Además se han investigado los niveles de corrosión de barras de acero embebidas en pastas de cemento con NFC expuestos al ataque por carbonatación y por ingreso de cloruros. El aumento en el porcentaje de NFC añadido se traduce en un aumento la intensidad de corrosión registrada y una mejora de las propiedades mecánicas.

  5. Formic acid as additive for the preparation of high-performance FePO4 materials by spray drying method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yanga, F

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available International, vol. 43(18): 16652-16658 Formic acid as additive for the preparation of high-performance FePO4 materials by spray drying method Yanga F Zhang H Shao Y Song H Liao S Ren J ABSTRACT: High-performance ferric phosphate (FePO4...

  6. IAEA advisory group meeting on: Critical assessment of tritium retention in fusion reactor materials. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janev, R.K.; Federici, G.; Roth, J.

    1999-07-01

    The proceedings, conclusions and recommendations of the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on 'Critical Assessment of Tritium Retention in Fusion Reactor Materials', held on June 7-8, 1999 at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, are briefly described. The report contains a summary of the presentations of meeting participants, a review of the data status (availability and needs) for the fusion most relevant bulk and mixed materials, and recommendations to the IAEA regarding its future activity in this data area. (author)

  7. Composite materials based on high-modulus compounds for additive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, M.; Kotelnikov, N.; Buyakova, S.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of adding nanocrystalline ZrO2 and submicron TiC to ultrafine Al2O3 on mechanical properties and the microstructure of the composites developed by hot pressing was investigated. It was shown that by means of hot pressing in argon atmosphere at the sintering temperature of 1500 °C one can obtain the composites of Al2O3-ZrO2-TiC with a fine structure and minimal porosity. It was shown that in the material a multi-scale hierarchical structure is formed, which possesses high physical and mechanical properties: the hardness and fracture toughness was 22 GPa and 5.2 MPa*m1/2, respectively. It has been shown that mechanical properties of the composite are better than those of commercial composites based on aluminum oxide (Al2O3, ZTA, Al2O3-TiC) and are comparable to those of silicon nitride.

  8. Recycling of agroindustrial solid wastes as additives in brick manufacturing for development of sustainable construction materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lisset Maritza Luna-Cañas; Carlos Alberto Ríos-Reyes; Luz Amparo Quintero-Ortíz

    2014-01-01

    La acumulación de residuos sólidos agroindustriales no administ rados especialmente en los países en vías de desarrollo ha dado lugar a una creciente preocupación ambiental. El reciclaje de tales res iduos como un material de construcción sostenible parece ser un a solución viable no sólo al problema de la contaminación, sino también un a opción económica para diseñar edificios verdes. El presente t rabajo estudia la aplicación de varios residuos agroindustriales en la fabricación de ladrillo...

  9. Electron beam processing of PVC insulating material in presence of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.; Bhattacharyya, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    Using electron beam radiation flexible PVC (polyvinyl chloride) was cross linked in the dose range up to 15 Mrad. The effect of sensitizers and other additives on the cross linking and other physical properties like tensile strength have been investigated. It has been found that tri functional sensitizer like TMPTM (tri methyl propane tri methacrylate) is better sensitizer for PVC. In presence of TMPTM the physical properties related to crosslinking are found to be better than some of the other sensitizers used. The results are discussed. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  10. A Metallurgical Evaluation of the Powder-Bed Laser Additive Manufactured 4140 Steel Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wesley; Kelly, Shawn

    2016-03-01

    Using laser powder bed fusion (PBF-L) additive manufacturing (AM) process for steel or iron powder has been attempted for decades. This work used a medium carbon steel (AISI 4140) powder to explore the feasibility of AM. The high carbon equivalent of 4140 steel (CEIIW ≈ 0.83) has a strong tendency toward cold cracking. As such, the process parameters must be carefully controlled to ensure the AM build quality. Through an orthogonally designed experimental matrix, a laser-welding procedure was successfully developed to produce 4140 steel AM builds with no welding defects. In addition, the microstructure and micro-cleanliness of the as-welded PBF-L AM builds were also examined. The results showed an ultra-fine martensite lath structure and an ultra-clean internal quality with minimal oxide inclusion distribution. After optimizing the PBF-L AM process parameters, including the laser power and scan speed, the as-welded AM builds yielded an average tensile strength higher than 1482 MPa and an average 33 J Charpy V-notch impact toughness at -18°C. The surface quality, tensile strength, and Charpy V-notch impact toughness of AM builds were comparable to the wrought 4140 steel. The excellent mechanical properties of 4140 steel builds created by the PBF-L AM AM process make industrial production more feasible, which shows great potential for application in the aerospace, automobile, and machinery industries.

  11. Study of parameters of heat treatment in obtaining glass ceramic materials with addition of the industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniess, C.T.; Prates, P.B.; Martins, G.J.M.; Riella, H.G.; Matsinhe, Jonas; Kuhnen, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    The production of materials from crystallization of glass, called glass ceramic, have proved interesting by the possibility of development of different microstructures, with reduced grain size and the presence of residual amorphous phase in different quantities. The method that uses the differential thermal analysis (DTA) provides research on the material properties over a wide temperature range, it's widely applied to crystallization processes of glass ceramic materials. Within this context, this paper aims to study the kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth in glass ceramic materials in the system SiO 2 - Al 2 O 3 -Li 2 O, obtained with the addition of mineral coal bottom ash as source of aluminosilicates, through the technique of differential thermal analysis. (author)

  12. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  13. Heat transfer and material flow during laser assisted multi-layer additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional, transient, heat transfer, and fluid flow model is developed for the laser assisted multilayer additive manufacturing process with coaxially fed austenitic stainless steel powder. Heat transfer between the laser beam and the powder particles is considered both during their flight between the nozzle and the growth surface and after they deposit on the surface. The geometry of the build layer obtained from independent experiments is compared with that obtained from the model. The spatial variation of melt geometry, cooling rate, and peak temperatures is examined in various layers. The computed cooling rates and solidification parameters are used to estimate the cell spacings and hardness in various layers of the structure. Good agreement is achieved between the computed geometry, cell spacings, and hardness with the corresponding independent experimental results.

  14. Systematic prediction of new ferroelectric inorganic materials in point group 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A total of seven new families and sixteen structurally different inorganic materials with point group 6 are shown to satisfy the criteria presented previously by the present author for predicting ferroelectricity. In case each prediction is experimentally verified, the 183 individual entries for point group 6 listed in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database will result in over 80 new ferroelectrics, of which about 30 are rare-earth isomorphs. The total number of 'pure'

  15. Organic crystals – More than simple additives toward better electroceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Senna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roles of various organic crystals (OC, notably those containing nitrogen, on the preparation and properties of source materials for electroceramics are featured from the author’s own experimental studies. When OC are intimately mixed with metal salts like carbonates, their decomposition is accelerated, liberating the diffusing species at temperatures lower than usual. Mixing of OC with metal oxides under mechanical stressing results in anion exchange and eases diffusion of guest species. Case studies on 3 categories, i.e. i substitution of oxygen in titania with nitrogen and introduction of oxygen vacancies during co-grinding titania with urea, glycine and/or polytetra fluoroethylene; ii increase in the rate of reaction of barium titanate formation via a solid state route by OCs with detailed process analysis with glycine as an example of OC, and iii phase pure solid state synthesis of Li4Ti5O12 by mechanically activating the intermediate, Li2TiO3 with 3 amino acids as OCs.

  16. Modification of semiconductor materials using laser-produced ion streams additionally accelerated in the electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, M.; Badziak, B.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Pisarek, M.

    2009-01-01

    The laser-produced ion stream may be attractive for direct ultra-low-energy ion implantation in thin layer of semiconductor for modification of electrical and optical properties of semiconductor devices. Application of electrostatic fields for acceleration and formation of laser-generated ion stream enables to control the ion stream parameters in broad energy and current density ranges. It also permits to remove the useless laser-produced ions from the ion stream designed for implantation. For acceleration of ions produced with the use of a low fluence repetitive laser system (Nd:glass: 2 Hz, pulse duration: 3.5 ns, pulse energy:∼0.5 J, power density: 10 10 W/cm 2 ) in IPPLM the special electrostatic system has been prepared. The laser-produced ions passing through the diaphragm (a ring-shaped slit in the HV box) have been accelerated in the system of electrodes. The accelerating voltage up to 40 kV, the distance of the diaphragm from the target, the diaphragm diameter and the gap width were changed for choosing the desired parameters (namely the energy band of the implanted ions) of the ion stream. The characteristics of laser-produced Ge ion streams were determined with the use of precise ion diagnostic methods, namely: electrostatic ion energy analyser and various ion collectors. The laser-produced and post-accelerated Ge ions have been used for implantation into semiconductor materials for nanocrystal fabrication. The characteristics of implanted samples were measured using AES

  17. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yanqiu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); College of Chemistry, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157012 (China); Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Guan, Jingqi, E-mail: guanjq@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Kan, Qiubin, E-mail: qkan@mail.jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

  18. New technology for production of granular adding material with nanomodifying additives for steel arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLDYREV Alexander Mikhaylovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical analysis of metal seam showed that introduction of titanium dioxide with MCA intensifies transition of Al2O3 from slag into metal pool and provides double concentration of titanium in the seam compared to the one which appears in the interaction of bathtub with melted flux AH-47 without TiO2 additives. The presence of oxides of titanium and aluminium of endogenous origin in the melt leads to formation of refractory particles with the center of TiO2 and Al2O3 in it. These particles are the centers of crystallization in the tail part of the molten pool and they remain in seam metal in the form of evenly distributed fine nonmetallic inclusions, which have crystallographic affinity with a matrix (α-iron. That provides the fine-grained seam structure with the raised and stable strength characteristics. This article compares the existing and developed technologies for production of MCA. The granulometric analysis of the powder TiO2 has demonstrated that when MCA is processed in the planetary mill, particles of titanium dioxide are crushed to a nanodimensional order. It is shown that the preparation of MCA in high-energy planetary mill (due to double increase of durability in coupling of the modifier with granulate provides its stable structure, increases the cold resistance (20–25% and stability of strength characteristics along the length of welded seam. Metalgraphic researches determined that the fine-grained structure which linear size of grain is twice smaller than the one obtained in the old technology welding is formed in a seam. However the direct introduction of nanomodifiers in a molten pool through the flux or an electrode wire is not efficient because of their deactivation and high temperature in welding zone. Therefore it was offered to use modifiers in the mix with the cooling macroparticles in case of automatic welding of a bridge metalware under flux using metalchemical additive (MCA. The MCA consists of a chopped

  19. Recycling of agroindustrial solid wastes as additives in brick manufacturing for development of sustainable construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisset Maritza Luna-Cañas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La acumulación de residuos sólidos agroindustriales no administ rados especialmente en los países en vías de desarrollo ha dado lugar a una creciente preocupación ambiental. El reciclaje de tales res iduos como un material de construcción sostenible parece ser un a solución viable no sólo al problema de la contaminación, sino también un a opción económica para diseñar edificios verdes. El presente t rabajo estudia la aplicación de varios residuos agroindustriales en la fabricación de ladrillos, que incluyen cáscara de cacao, aserr ín, cáscara de arroz y caña de azúcar. En primer lugar, se determinó la compos ición mineralógica y química de los residuos y del suelo arcill oso. A continuación, los ladrillos se fabricaron con diferentes cantid ades de residuos (5%, 10% y 20%. El efecto de la adición de es tos residuos en el comportamiento tecnológico del ladrillo se evaluó mediant e ensayos de resistencia a la compresión, resistencia a la flex ión y durabilidad. Con base en los resultados obtenidos, las cantidad es óptimas de residuos agroindustriales para obtener ladrillos fueron mezclando 10% de cáscara de cacao y 90% de suelo arcilloso. Est os porcentajes producen ladrillos cuyas propiedades mecánicas e ran adecuadas para su uso como materias primas secundarias en la pr oducción de ladrillos.

  20. Effect of Metal Additives on the Combustion Characteristics of High-Energy Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculation of combustion parameters and equilibrium composition of HEMs combustion products showed, that at the increase of aluminum powder dispersity the specific impulse and combustion temperature of solid propellants are reduced due to the decrease of the mass fraction of active aluminum in particles. Partial or complete replacement of aluminum by metal powder (B, Mg, AlB2, Al\\Mg alloy, Fe, Ti and Zr in HEMs composition leads to the reduce of the specific impulse and combustion temperature. Replacement of aluminum powder by boron and magnesium in HEM reduces the mass fraction of condensed products in the combustion chamber of solid rocket motor. So, for compositions HEMs with boron and aluminum boride the mass fraction in chamber is reduced by 24 and 36 %, respectively, with respect to the composition HEMs with Al powder. But the mass fraction of CCPs in the nozzle exit increases by 13 % for HEMs with aluminum boride due to the formation of boron oxide in the condensed combustion products. Partial replacement of 2 wt. % aluminum powder by iron and copper additives in HEM leads to the reduce of CCPs mass fraction in chamber by 4–10 % depending on the aluminum powder dispersity duo to these metals are not formed condensed products at the HEMs combustion in chamber.

  1. Tribaloy intermetallic alloy compositions: new materials or additives for wear resistant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.B.; Hoffman, R.A.; Poskitt, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Properties and uses of TRIBALOY alloys in powder metallurgy fabrication are discussed. Powders of TRIBALOY can be blended with essentially any powder processed by powder metallurgy. Green strength of the blended powder parts is reduced as the amount of TRIBALOY is increased. The concentration of TRIBALOY, however, is usually 15 to 20 volume percent, a compromise between green strength and effectiveness as a wear resistant part. Blended powders are sintered at the temperature normally used for the base metal with special consideration given to a low dew point in the atmosphere. The sintered parts can be coined, carburized, machined, or impregnated in any of the well-known ways. TRIBALOY as a powder blending agent has extended the useful life of P/M parts by factors of 5 and more. A variety of industries are presently using P/M parts at higher temperatures, heavier loads, in poorer or non-lubricated conditions or at higher speeds because of the addition of TRIBALOY. More important, however, is that TRIBALOY can be incorporated in parts to be made by powder metallurgy which until now had not been feasible. The overall effect has been considerable savings for the customer by switching to the powder metal method of manufacturing and increased activity for the fabricator

  2. Microstructure, characterizations, functionality and compressive strength of cement-based materials using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nochaiya, Thanongsak [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Sekine, Yoshika [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Choopun, Supab [Applied Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Chaipanich, Arnon, E-mail: arnon.chaipanich@cmu.ac.th [Advanced Cement-Based Materials Research Unit, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Nano zinc oxide was used as an additive material. • Microstructure and phase characterization of pastes were characterized using SEM and XRD. • TGA and FTIR were also used to determine the hydration reaction. • Compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to increase at 28 days. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a nanophotocatalyst has great potential for self-cleaning applications in concrete structures, its effects on the cement hydration, setting time and compressive strength are also important when using it in practice. This paper reports the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles, as an additive material, on properties of cement-based materials. Setting time, compressive strength and porosity of mortars were investigated. Microstructure and morphology of pastes were characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Moreover, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were also used to determine the hydration reaction. The results show that Portland cement paste with additional ZnO was found to slightly increase the water requirement while the setting time presented prolongation period than the control mix. However, compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to be higher than that of PC mix up to 15% (at 28 days) via filler effect. Microstructure, XRD and TGA results of ZnO pastes show less hydration products before 28 days but similar at 28 days. In addition, FTIR results confirmed the retardation when ZnO was partially added in Portland cement pastes.

  3. Microstructure, characterizations, functionality and compressive strength of cement-based materials using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochaiya, Thanongsak; Sekine, Yoshika; Choopun, Supab; Chaipanich, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano zinc oxide was used as an additive material. • Microstructure and phase characterization of pastes were characterized using SEM and XRD. • TGA and FTIR were also used to determine the hydration reaction. • Compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to increase at 28 days. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a nanophotocatalyst has great potential for self-cleaning applications in concrete structures, its effects on the cement hydration, setting time and compressive strength are also important when using it in practice. This paper reports the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles, as an additive material, on properties of cement-based materials. Setting time, compressive strength and porosity of mortars were investigated. Microstructure and morphology of pastes were characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Moreover, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were also used to determine the hydration reaction. The results show that Portland cement paste with additional ZnO was found to slightly increase the water requirement while the setting time presented prolongation period than the control mix. However, compressive strength of ZnO mixes was found to be higher than that of PC mix up to 15% (at 28 days) via filler effect. Microstructure, XRD and TGA results of ZnO pastes show less hydration products before 28 days but similar at 28 days. In addition, FTIR results confirmed the retardation when ZnO was partially added in Portland cement pastes

  4. The Use of Nominal Group Technique to Determine Additional Support Needs for a Group of Victorian TAFE Managers and Senior Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The nominal group technique (NGT) is a structured process to gather information from a group. The technique was first described in 1975 and has since become a widely-used standard to facilitate working groups. The NGT is effective for generating large numbers of creative new ideas and for group priority setting. This paper describes the process of…

  5. Some Studies of the Effects of Additives on Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Properties. II. Casing Materials and Humectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Examination of extensive laboratory data collected during the past four decades, particularly those unpublished data generated in the 1950s and 1960s, indicates that none of the materials used as casing materials (sugars, licorice, cocoa and humectants (glycerol, propylene glycol, other glycols on smoking tobacco products, particularly cigarettes, imparts any significant adverse chemical or biological properties to the mainstream smoke (MSS from cased and humectant-treated tobacco, a conclusion reached by Doull et al. (1 in their assessment of available information on nearly 600 flavorant, casing material, and humectant ingredients variously used as cigarette tobacco additives in the U.S. Tobacco Industry. Addition of casing materials and humectants to the cigarette tobacco blend produced no significant increase in the cigarette MSS of either the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH or the benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P content, MSS components that have been of considerable interest for many years. Examination of the transfer of humectants from the humectant-treated tobacco to cigarette MSS indicates that the humectants act as significant diluents to the remaining MSS particulate-phase components generated from the tobacco during the smoking process. This dilution decreases the effects observed in several bioassays, e.g., mutagenicity determined in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test.

  6. Fast Photo-detection in Phototransistors based on Group III-VI Layered Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasanna; Ghosh, Sujoy; Wasala, Milinda; Lei, Sidong; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel; Talapatra, Saikat

    Response time of a photo detector is one of the crucial aspect of photo-detection. Recently it has been shown that direct band gap of few layered group III-VI materials helps in increased absorption of light thereby enhancing the photo responsive properties of these materials. Ternary system of Copper Indium Selenide has been extensively used in optoelectronics industry and it is expected that 2D layered structure of Copper Indium Selenide will be a key component of future optoelectronics devices based on 2D materials. Here we report fast photo detection in few layers of Copper Indium Selenide (CuIn7Se11) phototransistor. Few-layers of CuIn7Se11 flakes were exfoliated from crystals grown using chemical vapor transport technique. Our photo response characterization indicates responsivity of 104 mA/W with external quantum efficiency exceeding 103. We have found response time of few μs which is one of the fastest response among photodetectors based on 2D materials. We also found specific detectivity of 1012 Jones which is an order higher than conventional photodetectors. A comparison between response times of various layered group III-VI materials will be presented and discussed. This work is supported by the U.S. Army Research Office through a MURI Grant # W911NF-11-1-0362.

  7. Isolated and modulated effects of topology and material type on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Ahmadi, S M; Lietaert, K; Pouran, B; Li, Y; Weinans, H; Rans, C D; Zadpoor, A A

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we tried to quantify the isolated and modulated effects of topological design and material type on the mechanical properties of AM porous biomaterials. Towards this aim, we assembled a large dataset comprising the mechanical properties of AM porous biomaterials with different topological designs (i.e. different unit cell types and relative densities) and material types. Porous structures were additively manufactured from Co-Cr using a selective laser melting (SLM) machine and tested under quasi-static compression. The normalized mechanical properties obtained from those structures were compared with mechanical properties available from our previous studies for porous structures made from Ti-6Al-4V and pure titanium as well as with analytical solutions. The normalized values of elastic modulus and yield stress were found to be relatively close to each other as well as in agreement with analytical solutions regardless of material type. However, the material type was found to systematically affect the mechanical properties of AM porous biomaterials in general and the post-elastic/post-yield range (plateau stress and energy absorption capacity) in particular. To put this in perspective, topological design could cause up to 10-fold difference in the mechanical properties of AM porous biomaterials while up to 2-fold difference was observed as a consequence of changing the material type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of framework organic functional groups on the hydrophobicity and overall stability of mesoporous silica materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeulders, Geert; Meynen, Vera; Silvestre-Albero, Ana; Houthoofd, Kristof; Mertens, Myrjam; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquin; Martens, Johan A.; Cool, Pegie

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The stability (hydrothermal, mechanical and chemical) of PMOs is studied in a systematic way and ranks them between classic and other hybrid mesoporous silica materials. Highlights: ► The stability (hydrothermal, mechanical and chemical) of PMOs is studied. ► Compared stability of PMOs with classic and other hybrid mesoporous silica materials. ► Immersion calorimetry to study the effect of hydrophobicity. ► PMOs show superior stability. - Abstract: The hydrothermal, mechanical and chemical stability of various mesoporous materials have been studied in detail, using X-ray diffraction and nitrogen sorption. Pure siliceous nanoporous powders (MCM-41 and SBA-15) are evaluated against their hybrid counterparts; namely 2 types of periodic mesoporous organosilicas (benzene and ethane bridged PMOs) and an organosilane grafted MCM-41 material. In primary tests, the stability of the hybrid materials is found to be superior compared to that of the pure siliceous ones. The stability of the materials was correlated to their hydrophobicity via immersion calorimetry, applied for the first time in this context. Based on these results, a clear correlation between the hydrophobicity of a material and its stability has been revealed. In addition, with 29 Si-MAS-NMR and vacuum experiments, the mechanism of the structural deterioration in the three different stability treatments could be unambiguously identified as the hydrolyzation of the siloxane bonds. The homogeneity of the hydrophobic groups throughout the entire network was found to be of great importance, irrespective of the hydrophobic nature at the surface as determined by calorimetric measurements. The results reveal that the most stable material can withstand (a) a pressure of 740 MPa during 5 min, (b) a 2 h stirring in a 2 M NaOH solution and (c) a 3 day steaming treatment at 393 K.

  9. The impact of framework organic functional groups on the hydrophobicity and overall stability of mesoporous silica materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeulders, Geert, E-mail: geert.smeulders@ua.ac.be [University of Antwerpen (Ukraine), Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Meynen, Vera [University of Antwerpen (Ukraine), Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Silvestre-Albero, Ana [Universidad de Alicante, Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Houthoofd, Kristof [KULeuven, Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Mertens, Myrjam [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO N.V.), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Silvestre-Albero, Joaquin [Universidad de Alicante, Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Martens, Johan A. [KULeuven, Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Cool, Pegie [University of Antwerpen (Ukraine), Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The stability (hydrothermal, mechanical and chemical) of PMOs is studied in a systematic way and ranks them between classic and other hybrid mesoporous silica materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stability (hydrothermal, mechanical and chemical) of PMOs is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared stability of PMOs with classic and other hybrid mesoporous silica materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immersion calorimetry to study the effect of hydrophobicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMOs show superior stability. - Abstract: The hydrothermal, mechanical and chemical stability of various mesoporous materials have been studied in detail, using X-ray diffraction and nitrogen sorption. Pure siliceous nanoporous powders (MCM-41 and SBA-15) are evaluated against their hybrid counterparts; namely 2 types of periodic mesoporous organosilicas (benzene and ethane bridged PMOs) and an organosilane grafted MCM-41 material. In primary tests, the stability of the hybrid materials is found to be superior compared to that of the pure siliceous ones. The stability of the materials was correlated to their hydrophobicity via immersion calorimetry, applied for the first time in this context. Based on these results, a clear correlation between the hydrophobicity of a material and its stability has been revealed. In addition, with {sup 29}Si-MAS-NMR and vacuum experiments, the mechanism of the structural deterioration in the three different stability treatments could be unambiguously identified as the hydrolyzation of the siloxane bonds. The homogeneity of the hydrophobic groups throughout the entire network was found to be of great importance, irrespective of the hydrophobic nature at the surface as determined by calorimetric measurements. The results reveal that the most stable material can withstand (a) a pressure of 740 MPa during 5 min, (b) a 2 h stirring in a 2 M NaOH solution and (c) a 3 day steaming treatment at 393 K.

  10. JSD1000: multi-group cross section sets for shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Naoki

    1984-03-01

    A multi-group cross section library for shielding safety analysis has been produced by using ENDF/B-IV. The library consists of ultra-fine group cross sections, fine-group cross sections, secondary gamma-ray production cross sections and effective macroscopic cross sections for typical shielding materials. Temperature dependent data at 300, 560 and 900 K have been also provided. Angular distributions of the group to group transfer cross section are defined by a new method of ''Direct Angular Representation'' (DAR) instead of the method of finite Legendre expansion. The library designated JSD1000 are stored in a direct access data base named DATA-POOL and data manipulations are available by using the DATA-POOL access package. The 3824 neutron group data of the ultra-fine group cross sections and the 100 neutron, 20 photon group cross sections are applicable to shielding safety analyses of nuclear facilities. This report provides detailed specifications and the access method for the JSD1000 library. (author)

  11. Isolation of Bacillus cereus Group from the Fecal Material of Endangered Wood Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfor, Nancy Ngvumbo; Lapin, Carly N; McLaughlin, Richard William

    2015-10-01

    Members of the Bacillus cereus group are opportunistic human pathogens. They can be found in a broad range of foods. Diarrheal food poisoning and/or emetic type syndromes can result from eating contaminated food. In this study, seven B. cereus group members were isolated from the fecal material of Wood Turtles (Glyptemys insculpta). The isolates were then assessed for the presence of enterotoxin genes (nheA, entFM, hblC, and cytK) using PCR. The most prevalent is the nonhemolytic enterotoxin gene which was found in all seven isolates.

  12. Development of a relational database for nuclear material (NM) accounting in RC and I Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, M.B.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Venugopal, V.

    2011-01-01

    A relational database for the nuclear material accounting in RC and I Group has been developed with MYSQL for Back-End and JAVA for Front-End development. Back-End has been developed to avoid any data redundancy, to provide random access of the data and to retrieve the required information from database easily. JAVA Applet and Java Swing components of JAVA programming have been used in the Front-End development. Front-End has been developed to provide data security, data integrity, to generate inventory status report at the end of accounting period, and also to have a quick look of some required information on computer screen. The database has been tested for the data of three quarters of the year 2009. It has been implemented from 1st January, 2010 for the accounting of nuclear material in RC and I Group. (author)

  13. Development of a relational database for nuclear material (NM) accounting in RC and I Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, M B; Ramakumar, K L; Venugopal, V [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2011-07-01

    A relational database for the nuclear material accounting in RC and I Group has been developed with MYSQL for Back-End and JAVA for Front-End development. Back-End has been developed to avoid any data redundancy, to provide random access of the data and to retrieve the required information from database easily. JAVA Applet and Java Swing components of JAVA programming have been used in the Front-End development. Front-End has been developed to provide data security, data integrity, to generate inventory status report at the end of accounting period, and also to have a quick look of some required information on computer screen. The database has been tested for the data of three quarters of the year 2009. It has been implemented from 1st January, 2010 for the accounting of nuclear material in RC and I Group. (author)

  14. First principles calculation of material properties of group IV elements and III-V compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Brad Dean

    This thesis presents first principles calculations on the properties of group IV elements and group III-V compounds. It includes investigations into what structure a material is likely to form in, and given that structure, what are its electronic, optical, and lattice dynamical properties as well as what are the properties of defects that might be introduced into the sample. The thesis is divided as follows: • Chapter 1 contains some of the conceptual foundations used in the present work. These involve the major approximations which allow us to approach the problem of systems with huge numbers of interacting electrons and atomic cores. • Then, in Chapter 2, we discuss one of the major limitations to the DFT formalism introduced in Chapter 1, namely its inability to predict the quasiparticle spectra of materials and in particular the band gap of a semiconductor. We introduce a Green's function approach to the electron self-energy Sigma known as the GW approximation and use it to compute the quasiparticle band structures of a number of group IV and III-V semiconductors. • In Chapter 3 we present a first-principles study of a number of high-pressure metastable phases of Si with tetrahedral bonding. The phases studied include all experimentally determined phases that result from decompression from the metallic beta-Sn phase, specifically the BC8 (Si-III), hexagonal diamond (Si-IV), and R8 (Si-XII). In addition to these, we also study the hypothetical ST12 structure found upon decompression from beta-Sn in germanium. • Our attention is then turned to the first principles calculations of optical properties in Chapter 4. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is then solved to obtain the optical spectrum of this material including electron-hole interactions. The calculated optical spectrum is compared with experimental data for other forms of silicon commonly used in photovoltaic devices, namely the cubic, polycrystalline, and amorphous forms. • In Chapter 5 we present

  15. Surface characterization of an energetic material, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), having a thin coating achieved through a starved addition microencapsulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, C.M.

    1986-05-07

    The objective of this research was to: (1) determine the nature of a thin coating on an explosive material which was applied using a starved addition microencapsulation technique, (2) understand the coating/crystal bond, and (3) investigate the wettability/adhesion of plastic/solvent combinations using the coating process. The coating used in this work was a Firestone Plastic Company copolymer (FPC-461) of vinylchloride/trifluorochloroethylene in a 1.5/1.0 weight ratio. The energetic explosive examined was pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN). The coating process used was starved addition followed by a solvent evaporation technique. Surface analytical studies, completed for characterization of the coating process, show (1) evidence that the polymer coating is present, but not continuous, over the surface of PETN; (2) the average thickness of the polymer coating is between 16-32 A and greater than 44 A, respectively, for 0.5 and 20 wt % coated PETN; (3) no changes in surface chemistry of the polymer or the explosive material following microencapsulation; and (4) the presence of explosive material on the surface of 0.5 wt % FPC-461 coated explosives. 5 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. The capric and lauric acid mixture with chemical additives as latent heat storage materials for cooling application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxas-Dimaano, M.N. [University of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines). Research Center for the Natural Sciences; Watanabe, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors

    2002-09-01

    The mixture of capric acid and lauric acid (C-L acid), with the respective mole composition of 65% and 35%, is a potential phase change material (PCM). Its melting point of 18.0{sup o}C, however, is considered high for cooling application of thermal energy storage. The thermophysical and heat transfer characteristics of the C-L acid with some organic additives are investigated. Compatibility of C-L acid combinations with additives in different proportions and their melting characteristics are analyzed using the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Among the chemical additives, methyl salicylate, eugenol, and cineole presented the relevant melting characteristics. The individual heat transfer behavior and thermal storage performance of 0.1 mole fraction of these additives in the C-L acid mixture are evaluated. The radial and axial temperature distribution during charging and discharging at different concentrations of selected PCM combinations are experimentally determined employing a vertical cylindrical shell and tube heat exchanger. The methyl salicylate in the C-L acid provided the most effective additive in the C-L acid. It demonstrated the least melting band width aimed at lowering the melting point of the C-L acid with the highest heat of fusion value with relatively comparable rate of heat transfer. Furthermore, the thermal performance based on the total amount of transferred energy and their rates, established the PCM's latent heat storage capability. (author)

  17. Nanoporous ceramic hybrid materials synthesized by organically modified ceramic precursor with terminal amine group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikova, Nina E.; Vueva, Yuliya E.; Abdallah, Mohammed E.; Ivanova, Yordanka Y.; Dimitriev, Yanko B. [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Salvado, Isabel M.; Fernandes, Maria H. [Ceramic and Glass Engineering Department CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Nanoporous ceramic materials was functionalized by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and different 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) amounts in the presence of amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (EO{sub 20}PO{sub 70}EO{sub 20} ), who was previously dissolved in acid solution with different acid concentrations. Pluronic P123 was used as structure-directing agent and xylene as a swelling agent. Inorganic salt was introduced in order to improve structure ordering and to tailor framework porosity. The synthesized materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance ( {sup 29}Si MAS NMR and {sup 13}C CP MAS NMR), Fourier –transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis. The results from NMR and FT-IR show that the organic functional group is successfuly incorporated in the silica framework and P123 was successfully extracted. The results from all analyzes prove that the acid concentration has significant influence on the materials morphology and properties. Kay words: sol-gel, mesoporous materials, hybrid materials, as structure-directing agent.

  18. Safeguards agreement and additional protocol - IAEA instruments for control of nuclear materials distribution and their application in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrulloev, Kh.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: It is known that IAEA plays an important role in facilitation of nuclear non-proliferation as international authority which carries out nuclear inspections. Republic of Tajikistan in 1997 signed nuclear weapon non-proliferation treaty. Then in 2004 Safeguards agreement, additional protocol and small quantity protocol were signed. During 5 years Republic of Tajikistan submits information on its nuclear activity as declarations, foreseen in article 2.3 of Additional protocol to Safeguards agreement. Currently 66 declarations are submitted. Information required in accordance with Safeguards agreement and Additional Protocol is figured on that IAEA could compile more detailed and exact conception about nuclear activity in Tajikistan and it has the following purpose: information will lead to more transparency, and make it possible to IAEA to ensure with high extent of confidence that in the framework of declared program, any unstated nuclear activity is concealed; the more exact and comprehensive information, the rare is questions and discrepancies are originating; required information is the basis for effective planning and IAEA activity realization, related not only with safeguards implementation in regard to declared nuclear material but also ensuring of confidence in absence of undeclared nuclear activity in Tajikistan. IAEA inspection mission consisting of Messrs. N.Lazarev and F. Coillou visited Dushanbe in 2008 for verification of republic’s declarations on account for and control of nuclear materials under Additional protocol and Small quantity protocol, as well as consultations were provided on correct declaration completing and providing information on all nuclear materials. Besides, in 2006, the training course was conducted in Chkalovsk with participation of Commonwealth of Independent States countries on Safeguards agreement and Additional protocol. These visits and events will facilitate to strengthening of weapons of mass destruction non

  19. Structure and magnetism in novel group IV element-based magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Frank [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2013-08-14

    The project is to investigate structure, magnetism and spin dependent states of novel group IV element-based magnetic thin films and heterostructures as a function of composition and epitaxial constraints. The materials systems of interest are Si-compatible epitaxial films and heterostructures of Si/Ge-based magnetic ternary alloys grown by non-equilibrium molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques, specifically doped magnetic semiconductors (DMS) and half-metallic Heusler alloys. Systematic structural, chemical, magnetic, and electrical measurements are carried out, using x-ray microbeam techniques, magnetotunneling spectroscopy and microscopy, and magnetotransport. The work is aimed at elucidating the nature and interplay between structure, chemical order, magnetism, and spin-dependent states in these novel materials, at developing materials and techniques to realize and control fully spin polarized states, and at exploring fundamental processes that stabilize the epitaxial magnetic nanostructures and control the electronic and magnetic states in these complex materials. Combinatorial approach provides the means for the systematic studies, and the complex nature of the work necessitates this approach.

  20. Boreonectes gen. n., a new genus for the Stictotarsus griseostriatus (De Geer group of sibling species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, with additional karyosystematic data on the group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Angus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus, Boreonectes gen. n., is erected for the seven S. griseostriatus-group  species  as  well  as eight other American ones listed by Nilsson and Angus (1992 as comprising the Stictotarsus griseostriatus-group as DNA work by Ribera (2003 shows this arrangement to be untenable, and no other genus-group name has been found to be available. Chromosomal investigations have shown that B. griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774 occurs as far west as the Little St Bernard Pass in the Alps, with B. alpestris (Dutton et Angus, 2007 in the Italian Gran Paradiso National Park to the south of this. B. multilineatus (Falkenström, 1922 is recorded from the Pyrenees for the first time, and B. ibericus (Dutton et Angus, 2007 is shown to be present in the Moyen Atlas of Morocco.

  1. Synthesis and Electroluminescent Properties of Julolidine-π-Juloidine Type Materials with the Bulky Adamantane Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kum Hee; Yoon, Seung Soo [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Young Kwan [Hongik Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    A main problem of red emitting material, which contributes to their low EL performances, is the concentration quenching due to the effective self aggregation and the consequent formation of excimers. To avoid this drawback and thus improve the EL properties of red fluorescent OLED devices, many synthetic efforts have been conducted to develop new emitting materials with the structural motifs to suppress self-aggregation by the weakening intermolecular attractive interactions. Particularly, the introduction of bulky moieties in the emitters would provide the steric hindrance between emitting materials in solid state devices and thus reduce the self-aggregation. Nevertheless, EL performances of red materials still need to be improved for the practical applications. In conclusion, we designed and synthesized three julolidine-π-juloidine type emitting materials (1-3) with the bulky adamantane groups. To study their electroluminescent properties, the multilayered OLED devices with the structure of ITO/NPB (40 nm)/ADN : 1-3 (x%) (20 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (40 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al were fabricated. All devices using emitters 1-3 showed the efficient emissions, in which their EL performances depend on the structure of emitters sensitively. Particularly, a device using emitter 3 exhibited the efficient orange-red emission with the luminous and power efficiencies of 4.79 cd/A and 1.76 lm/W at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The CIE coordinates of this device was (0.57, 0.42) at 7.0 V.

  2. Rational molecular dynamics scheme for predicting optimum concentration loading of nano-additive in phase change materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monisha Rastogi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the diffusion and phase transition behaviour of paraffin reinforced with carbon nano-additives namely graphene oxide (GO and surface functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. Bulk disordered systems of paraffin hydrocarbons impregnated with carbon nano-additives have been generated in realistic equilibrium conformations for potential application as latent heat storage systems. Ab initio molecular dynamics(MD in conjugation with COMPASS forcefield has been implemented using periodic boundary conditions. The proposed scheme allows determination of optimum nano-additive loading for improving thermo-physical properties through analysis of mass, thermal and transport properties; and assists in determination of composite behaviour and related performance from microscopic point of view. It was observed that nanocomposites containing 7.8 % surface functionalised SWCNT and 55% GO loading corresponds to best latent heat storage system. The propounded methodology could serve as a by-pass route for economically taxing and iterative experimental procedures required to attain the optimum composition for best performance. The results also hint at the large unexplored potential of ab-initio classical MD techniques for predicting performance of new nanocomposites for potential phase change material applications.

  3. Effect of lime addition during sewage sludge treatment on characteristics of resulting SSA when it is used in cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouk, D; Nakic, D; Štirmer, N; Baricevic, A

    2017-02-01

    Final disposal of sewage sludge is important not only in terms of satisfying the regulations, but the aspect of choosing the optimal wastewater treatment technology, including the sludge treatment. In most EU countries, significant amounts of stabilized and dewatered sludge are incinerated, and sewage sludge ash (SSA) is generated as a by product. At the same time, lime is one of the commonly used additives in the sewage sludge treatment primarily to stabilize the sludge. In doing so, the question arose how desirable is such addition of lime if the sludge is subsequently incinerated, and the generated ash is further used in the production of cementitious materials. A series of mortars were prepared where 10-20% of the cement fraction was replaced by SSA. Since all three types of analyzed SSA (without lime, with lime added during sludge stabilization and with extra lime added during sludge incineration) yielded nearly same results, it can be concluded that if sludge incineration is accepted solution, lime addition during sludge treatment is unnecessary even from the standpoint of preserving the pozzolanic properties of the resulting SSA. Results of the research carried out on cement mortars point to the great possibilities of using SSA in concrete industry.

  4. Rational molecular dynamics scheme for predicting optimum concentration loading of nano-additive in phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Monisha; Vaish, Rahul; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Shaikh, Hamid; Al-Zahrani, S. M.

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the diffusion and phase transition behaviour of paraffin reinforced with carbon nano-additives namely graphene oxide (GO) and surface functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). Bulk disordered systems of paraffin hydrocarbons impregnated with carbon nano-additives have been generated in realistic equilibrium conformations for potential application as latent heat storage systems. Ab initio molecular dynamics(MD) in conjugation with COMPASS forcefield has been implemented using periodic boundary conditions. The proposed scheme allows determination of optimum nano-additive loading for improving thermo-physical properties through analysis of mass, thermal and transport properties; and assists in determination of composite behaviour and related performance from microscopic point of view. It was observed that nanocomposites containing 7.8 % surface functionalised SWCNT and 55% GO loading corresponds to best latent heat storage system. The propounded methodology could serve as a by-pass route for economically taxing and iterative experimental procedures required to attain the optimum composition for best performance. The results also hint at the large unexplored potential of ab-initio classical MD techniques for predicting performance of new nanocomposites for potential phase change material applications.

  5. [On the Way to Culture-Sensitive Patient Information Materials: Results of a Focus Group Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars

    2018-06-01

    This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Computational screening of functional groups for capture of toxic industrial chemicals in porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chul; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Snurr, Randall Q

    2017-12-06

    A thermodynamic analysis using quantum chemical methods was carried out to identify optimal functional group candidates that can be included in metal-organic frameworks and activated carbons for the selective capture of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in humid air. We calculated the binding energies of 14 critical TICs plus water with a series of 10 functional groups attached to a naphthalene ring model. Using vibrational calculations, the free energies of adsorption were calculated in addition to the binding energies. Our results show that, in these systems, the binding energies and free energies follow similar trends. We identified copper(i) carboxylate as the optimal functional group (among those studied) for the selective binding of the majority of the TICs in humid air, and this functional group exhibits especially strong binding for sulfuric acid. Further thermodynamic analysis shows that the presence of water weakens the binding strength of sulfuric acid with the copper carboxylate group. Our calculations predict that functionalization of aromatic rings would be detrimental to selective capture of COCl 2 , CO 2 , and Cl 2 under humid conditions. Finally, we found that forming an ionic complex, H 3 O + HSO 4 - , between H 2 SO 4 and H 2 O via proton transfer is not favorable on copper carboxylate.

  7. Synthesis and properties of a spirobifluorene-based hole-transporting material containingtert-butyl group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Ning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A spirobifluorene-based compound SPF-BMO was developed as hole transporters for green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes(PhOLEDs.The synthesized material showed sufficient HOMO/LUMO bandgap and triplet energy for green emitting bis[2-(2-pyridinyl-Nphenyl-C] (acetylacetonato iridium(III [Ir (ppy2(acac].The addition of a thin layer of 4,4′,4″-tri(N-carbazolyltriphenylamine (TCTAwith a high triplet energy as an exciton-blockinglayer at hole transporter/emitter interface seems to be unnecessary.SPF-BMO showed high thermal stability due to its spiro-annulated structure.Compared with the standard green PhOLEDs,organic light-emitting diodes with SPF-BMO as the hole-transport material have improved performances such as enhanced device power efficiency andlonger stability.These results clearly demonstrate that SPF-BMO is among the best hole-transporting materials reported for green PhOLEDs and utilizing anappropriate hole transporter to construct a simplified device is a promising method to enhance the power efficiency of PhOLEDs.

  8. State system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials and Protocol Additional in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencova, A.

    2001-01-01

    proposed procedures at the facility for nuclear materials accountancy and control with special reference to material balance areas and key measurement points, measurements of flow and procedures for physical inventory taking. This document is prepared by the IAEA using the Design Information Questionnaire supplied by the facility operator. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic uses computerised system for SSAC - Code ZARUKY 3.00. This code should be able to communicate with the database of operators, which are allowed to handle nuclear material and it should reflect all limitations specified in theirs permissions. It is created on a system with fully satisfactory safety, strictly defined confidentiality and in a system, which allows the access of several users in parallel. As a new component of the code the system for reporting in accordance with the requirements of the Additional Protocol will be incorporated. Starting after political changes in the Central Europe in the beginning of nineties the Slovak Republic is facing a new type of crime illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials. Direct economical losses in this case are not comparable with the impact on proliferation and radiation safety risk. The government of the Slovak Republic is aware of the situation and has prepared some measures, which may help us to cope with this problem. These measures were mostly concentrated on detection on the state border as well as inside the state. However, the most important is a state system of measures how to prevent removal of material into illegal use. The Protocol Additional was signed by the government of the Slovak Republic in September 1999. However, The Protocol cannot be ratified, as the laws now in effect in the Slovak Republic do not make it possible to meet all requirements resulting from the Protocol. To enable the ratification of the Protocol Additional, first of all it is necessary to amend the Atomic Law and associated regulations

  9. Effect of the addition of expanded vermiculite in the technological properties of ceramic materials of clay base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, R.R.F.; Peixoto, R.S. Dutra; Macedo, D.A.; Nascimento, R.M.; Oliveira, G.V.M.; Universidade Federal da Paraiba

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of adding expanded vermiculite ceramic block made from two different types of clay and analysis of the properties for three compositions at different sintering temperatures. Samples pressed at 40 MPa were sintered between 800 and 1100 ° C. The technological properties were determined according to the sintering temperature. The evaluation of the crystalline phases and microstructure was carried out by X-ray diffraction results indicated that with the addition of expanded vermiculite in the specimens there was an increase in porosity of the blocks together with the water absorption, therefore a reduction in apparent density, as well as the breakdown voltage of the three-point bending. This study demonstrates the possibility of formulating ceramic blocs order to improve the insulating properties of these materials. (author)

  10. Additive manufacturing of a functionally graded material from Ti-6Al-4V to Invar: Experimental characterization and thermodynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbio, Lourdes D.; Otis, Richard A.; Borgonia, John Paul; Dillon, R. Peter; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Beese, Allison M.

    2017-01-01

    In functionally graded materials (FGMs), the elemental composition, or structure, within a component varies gradually as a function of position, allowing for the gradual transition from one alloy to another, and the local tailoring of properties. One method for fabricating FGMs with varying elemental composition is through layer-by-layer directed energy deposition additive manufacturing. This work combines experimental characterization and computational analysis to investigate a material graded from Ti-6Al-4V to Invar 36 (64 wt% Fe, 36 wt% Ni). The microstructure, composition, phases, and microhardness were determined as a function of position within the FGM. During the fabrication process, detrimental phases associated with the compositional blending of the Ti-6Al-4V and Invar formed, leading to cracking in the final deposited part. Intermetallic phases (FeTi, Fe_2Ti, Ni_3Ti, and NiTi_2) were experimentally identified to occur throughout the gradient region, and were considered as the reason that the FGM cracked during fabrication. CALPHAD (CALculation of PHase Diagrams) thermodynamic calculations were used concurrently to predict phases that would form during the manufacturing process and were compared to the experimental results. The experimental-computational approach described herein for characterizing FGMs can be used to improve the understanding and design of other FGMs.

  11. Free Vibrations of Uniform Pipes Made From Composite Materials at an Internal Flow Under Effect of Additional Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Al – Raheimy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the approximate method of Raleigh method can be used to study the effect of additional boundary conditions (clamped – free & clamped – clamped on the free transverse vibrations of uniform pipes which have length, L (1m , inner radius, "Ri" (1cm & thickness, "t" (1mm made from composite materials, where the resin of unsaturated polyester represented the matrix material reinforced by aligned (E-fibers glass in the first case and used aligned fiber (Kevlar-49 in the second case. The length of fibers is in the two types, the first type is long fibers (continuous and the second is short fibers (discontinuous for different length all at volume fraction of fibers, "f" (0.15 & 0.25. At any construction of the pipe in composite material the natural frequency decreased when the velocity of flow increased from zero to critical velocity also can be observed the pipe at clamped – clamped boundary conditions predicts natural frequency & critical velocity greater than that pipe at clamped – free. The natural frequency and critical velocity increase with increasing volume fraction and length of discontinuous fiber. The value of natural frequency for pipes which have continuous fibers is constant at certain velocity of flow while are variable in pipes which have discontinuous fibers according to ratio between length of short fiber to critical length of discontinuous fiber whereas the natural frequency increase with increasing this ratio. Finally the pipes with Kevlar fiber have high critical velocity and natural frequency compare with pipes for fiber glass.

  12. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic compounds by intramolecular palladium-catalyzed addition of aryl iodides to carbonyl groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Saadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from γ-ketoesters with an o-iodobenzyl group we studied a palladium-catalyzed cyclization process that stereoselectively led to bi- and tricyclic compounds in moderate to excellent yields. Four X-ray crystal structure analyses unequivocally defined the structure of crucial cyclization products. The relative configuration of the precursor compounds is essentially transferred to that of the products and the formed hydroxy group in the newly generated cyclohexane ring is consistently in trans-arrangement with respect to the methoxycarbonyl group. A transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereochemical outcome. This palladium-catalyzed Barbier-type reaction requires a reduction of palladium(II back to palladium(0 which is apparently achieved by the present triethylamine.

  13. Group additivity calculations of the thermodynamic properties of unfolded proteins in aqueous solution: a critical comparison of peptide-based and HKF models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakin, A W; Hedwig, G R

    2001-02-15

    A recent paper in this journal [Amend and Helgeson, Biophys. Chem. 84 (2000) 105] presented a new group additivity model to calculate various thermodynamic properties of unfolded proteins in aqueous solution. The parameters given for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state for all the constituent groups of unfolded proteins can be used, in principle, to calculate the partial molar heat capacity, C(o)p.2, and volume, V2(0), at infinite dilution of any polypeptide. Calculations of the values of C(o)p.2 and V2(0) for several polypeptides have been carried out to test the predictive utility of the HKF group additivity model. The results obtained are in very poor agreement with experimental data, and also with results calculated using a peptide-based group additivity model. A critical assessment of these two additivity models is presented.

  14. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition.

  15. Radiation Vulcanization of Polymeric Blends Based on Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Rubber/ Waste Materials in Presence of Different Additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOHAMED, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, the mechanical blending technique was applied for preparation of elastomeric blend of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM)and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having a fixed ratio of (50/50) by weight. The prepared blend of EPDM/NBR (50/50) was used as a rubber matrix to be loaded with waste materials, namely rice husk (RH) as a natural waste filler and then with ground tire rubber (GTR) as an artificial one. The degree of loading varied from 5 p hr to 20 p hr. Ionizing radiation, namely ,gamma rays were applied for inducing vulcanization of prepared and loaded rubber blends, in the range from 5 kGy to 250 kGy. Different properties of prepared composites were followed up as a function of degree of loading with the waste material and dose of irradiation. The mechanical properties, namely tensile strength and elongation at break percent of the composites slightly decreased as the filler loading increased over the whole range of irradiation .Tensile modulus and hardness, on the other hand, showed an opposite trend, i.e. the increased. Other properties, namely physical, thermal and morphological confirmed the mechanical ones. Obtained results were affiliated with lack of interface adhesion between the waste materials and the rubber matrix elastomers. The lack of interface adhesion was improved by filling the composite with a limited content, up to 7 p hr, of the compatibilizer, namely, maleic anhydride (MAH). Measurements of different properties was carried out for composite loaded with 10 p hr of waste material. It has been found that the tensile properties were significantly improved with addition of the compatibilizing agent Further and significant improvement was attained in properties of prepared later composite by its loading with 40 p hr of either HAF- carbon black or Hisil as reinforcing fillers that participates in chemical as well as physical bonding. Similarly and lastly 8 p hr of N, N- methylene di acrylamide (MDA) were loaded

  16. On The Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Fiske, Michael; Edmunson, Jennifer; Khoshnevis, Behrokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in-situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in-situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. This is important because gamma and particle radiation constitute a serious but reducible threat to long-term survival of human beings, electronics, and other materials in space environments. Also, it is anticipated that surface structures will constitute the primary mass element of lunar or Martian launch requirements. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for self-sufficiency necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the joint MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in situ resources. One such technology, known as Contour Crafting (additive construction), is shown in Figure 1, along with a typical structure fabricated using this technology. This paper will present the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer

  17. The vast thin plane of M31 corotating dwarfs: an additional fossil signature of the M31 merger and of its considerable impact in the whole Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, François; Yang, Yanbin; Fouquet, Sylvain; Pawlowski, Marcel S.; Kroupa, Pavel; Puech, Mathieu; Flores, Hector; Wang, Jianling

    2013-06-01

    The recent discovery by Ibata et al. of a vast thin disc of satellites (VTDS) around M31 offers a new challenge for the understanding of the Local Group properties. This comes in addition to the unexpected proximity of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) to the Milky Way (MW), and to another vast polar structure (VPOS), which is almost perpendicular to our Galaxy disc. We find that the VTDS plane is coinciding with several stellar, tidally induced streams in the outskirts of M31, and, that its velocity distribution is consistent with that of the giant stream (GS). This is suggestive of a common physical mechanism, likely linked to merger tidal interactions, knowing that a similar argument may apply to the VPOS at the MW location. Furthermore, the VTDS is pointing towards the MW, being almost perpendicular to the MW disc, as the VPOS is. We compare these properties to the modelling of M31 as an ancient, gas-rich major merger, which has been successfully used to predict the M31 substructures and the GS origin. We find that without fine tuning, the induced tidal tails are lying in the VTDS plane, providing a single and common origin for many stellar streams and for the vast stellar structures surrounding both the MW and M31. The model also reproduces quite accurately positions and velocities of the VTDS spheroidal dwarfs. Our conjecture leads to a novel interpretation of the Local Group past history, as a gigantic tidal tail due to the M31 ancient merger is expected to send material towards the MW, including the MCs. Such a link between M31 and the MW is expected to be quite exceptional, though it may be in qualitative agreement with the reported rareness of MW-MCs systems in nearby galaxies.

  18. Seminar Cum Meeting Report: Codata Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashino

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available On March 4-5, 2008, the CODATA Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education held a two day seminar cum meeting at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, New Delhi, India, with NPL materials researchers and task group members representing material activities and databases from seven countries: European Union (The Czech Republic, France, and the Netherlands, India, Korea, Japan, and the United States. The NPL seminar included presentations about the researchers' work. The Task Group meeting included presentations about current data related activities of the members. Joint discussions between NPL researchers and CODATA task group members began an exchange of viewpoints among materials data producers, users, and databases developers. The seminar cum meeting included plans to continue and expand Task Group activities at the 2008 CODATA 21st Meeting in Kyiv, Ukraine.

  19. Additional borehole geophysical logging at Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This technical memorandum describes the borehole geophysical logging performed at selected coreholes at Waste Area Grouping 1 between March and November 1991 in support of the remedial investigation. The primary objectives of the borehole geophysical logging program were to (1) identify fractured bedrock zones and identify those fractured bedrock zones participating in active groundwater flow, (2) correlate the fractured intervals with the regional stratigraphy described, and (3) further characterize local bedrock geology and hydrogeology and gain insight about the bedrock aquifer flow system. A secondary objective was to provide stratigraphic correlations with existing logs for coreholes CH001 through CH005. Fractured bedrock zones and active or open fractures were identified in all coreholes logged. The fracture identification and analysis process was intended to distinguish between open or active fractures participating in active groundwater flow and closed or inactive fractures that are partially or completely filled (such as with calcite mineralization) and do not support groundwater circulation. Most of the fractures identified are bedding plane. Fracture occurrence varies with the different units of the Chickamauga Group; the greatest density of fractures and active fractures occurs in the upper 150 ft of stratum cored. Fractures actively contributing to groundwater flow were also identified, and direction of fluid movement within fractures was identified for those coreholes with flowmeter data

  20. EFSA EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 304 (FGE.304): Five carboxamides from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate five flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the substances...... data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all five candidate substances....

  1. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 305 (FGE.305): L - Methionylglycine of chemical group 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    use in foods that are not heated or intended to be heated. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substance, the specifications for the material of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, the dipeptide L-methionylglycine [FL-no: 17.037], in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 305, using the Procedure in Commission...... been provided for the candidate substance. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  2. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-01-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human–machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability. (paper)

  3. GLASS FORMATION AND PROPERTIES OF CORDIERITE COMPOSITIONS FROM TALC-BASED NATURAL RAW MATERIALS WITH BORON OXIDE ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin GÜNAY

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the glass forming behaviour of cordierite compositions in MAS (MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system with added B2O3 content up to 3% were studied by melting the natural raw materials such as; talc, kaolin, alumina and boric acid as the source of MgO, SiO2, Al2O3 and B2O3 respectively. XRD analysis revealed the glass formation. Optical properties of the glasses were measured using UV-VIS spectrophotometer and structural changes were monitored by using FT-IR spectrometer. Physical properties such as density, colour, thermal expansion coefficients and hardness were measured according to the standard test methods. Glasses with a green colour were produced and this was attributed to the Fe content in the glass up to 0.5% coming from talc and kaolin. The addition of B2O3 to the glasses increased the glass transition temperatures (Tg values and reduced the thermal expansion coefficient values of the glasses from 5.2226 to 5.0072ºCx10-6, for MAS-T-0 and MAS-T-3, respectively.

  4. Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Materials Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups: Report on the joint meeting, July 9, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    This paper contains a collection of viewgraphs from a joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Materials Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups. A list of contributing topics is: PPPL update, ATF update, Los Alamos RFP program update, status of DIII-D, PMI graphite studies at ORNL, PMI studies for low atomic number materials, high heat flux materials issues, high heat flux testing program, particle confinement in tokamaks, helium self pumping, self-regenerating coatings technical planning activity and international collaboration update

  5. Thermochemical Properties Enthalpy, Entropy, and Heat Capacity of C1-C4 Fluorinated Hydrocarbons: Fluorocarbon Group Additivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Castillo, Álvaro; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2015-07-23

    Enthalpies of formation for 14 C2–C4 fluorinated hydrocarbons were calculated with nine popular ab initio and density functional theory methods: B3LYP, CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X, G4, G4(MP2)-6X, and W1U via several series of isodesmic reactions. The recommended ideal gas phase ΔHf298° (kcal mol(–1)) values calculated in this study are the following: −65.4 for CH3CH2F; −70.2 for CH3CH2CH2F; −75.3 for CH3CHFCH3; −75.2 for CH3CH2CH2CH2F; −80.3 for CH3CHFCH2CH3; −108.1 for CH2F2; −120.9 for CH3CHF2; −125.8 for CH3CH2CHF2; −133.3 for CH3CF2CH3; −166.7 for CHF3; −180.5 for CH3CF3; −185.5 for CH3CH2CF3; −223.2 for CF4; and −85.8 for (CH3)3CF. Entropies (S298° in cal mol(–1) K(–1)) were estimated using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) computed frequencies and geometries. Rotational barriers were determined and hindered internal rotational contributions for S298°, and Cp(T) were calculated using the rigid rotor harmonic oscillator approximation, with direct integration over energy levels of the intramolecular rotation potential energy curve. Thermochemical properties for the fluorinated carbon groups C/C/F/H2, C/C2/F/H, C/C/F2/H, C/C2/F2, and C/C/F3 were derived from the above target fluorocarbons. Previously published enthalpies and groups for 1,2-difluoroethane, 1,1,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane, 2-fluoro-2-methylpropane that were previously determined via work reaction schemes are revised using updated reference species values. Standard deviations are compared for the calculation methods.

  6. Efficient Production of N-Butyl Levulinate Fuel Additive from Levulinic Acid Using Amorphous Carbon Enriched with Oxygenated Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfan Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an effective carbonaceous solid acid for synthesizing green fuel additive through esterification of lignocellulose-derived levulinic acid (LA and n-butanol. Two different sulfonated carbons were prepared from glucose-derived amorphous carbon (GC400 and commercial active carbon (AC400. They were contrastively studied by a series of characterizations (N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and NH3 temperature programmed desorption. The results indicated that GC400 possessed stronger acidity and higher –SO3H density than AC400, and the amorphous structure qualified GC400 for good swelling capacity in the reaction solution. Assessment experiments showed that GC400 displayed remarkably higher catalytic efficiency than AC400 and other typical solid acids (HZSM-5, Hβ, Amberlyst-15 and Nafion-212 resin. Up to 90.5% conversion of LA and 100% selectivity of n-butyl levulinate could be obtained on GC400 under the optimal reaction conditions. The sulfonated carbon retained 92% of its original catalytic activity even after five cycles.

  7. Emollient bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): multicentre pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial of clinical and cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Miriam; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Rumsby, Kate; Chorozoglou, Maria; Becque, Taeko; Roberts, Amanda; Liddiard, Lyn; Nollett, Claire; Hooper, Julie; Prude, Martina; Wood, Wendy; Thomas, Kim S; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2018-05-03

    To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of including emollient bath additives in the management of eczema in children. Pragmatic randomised open label superiority trial with two parallel groups. 96 general practices in Wales and western and southern England. 483 children aged 1 to 11 years, fulfilling UK diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. Children with very mild eczema and children who bathed less than once weekly were excluded. Participants in the intervention group were prescribed emollient bath additives by their usual clinical team to be used regularly for 12 months. The control group were asked to use no bath additives for 12 months. Both groups continued with standard eczema management, including leave-on emollients, and caregivers were given standardised advice on how to wash participants. The primary outcome was eczema control measured by the patient oriented eczema measure (POEM, scores 0-7 mild, 8-16 moderate, 17-28 severe) weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes were eczema severity over one year (monthly POEM score from baseline to 52 weeks), number of eczema exacerbations resulting in primary healthcare consultation, disease specific quality of life (dermatitis family impact), generic quality of life (child health utility-9D), utilisation of resources, and type and quantity of topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin inhibitors prescribed. 483 children were randomised and one child was withdrawn, leaving 482 children in the trial: 51% were girls (244/482), 84% were of white ethnicity (447/470), and the mean age was 5 years. 96% (461/482) of participants completed at least one post-baseline POEM, so were included in the analysis, and 77% (370/482) completed questionnaires for more than 80% of the time points for the primary outcome (12/16 weekly questionnaires to 16 weeks). The mean baseline POEM score was 9.5 (SD 5.7) in the bath additives group and 10.1 (SD 5.8) in the no bath additives group. The mean POEM score

  8. Seismic Material Properties of Reinforced Concrete and Steel Casing Composite Concrete in Elevated Pile-Group Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Mi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the material mechanics properties of reinforced concrete and steel casing composite concrete under pseudo-static loads and their application in structure. Although elevated pile-group foundation is widely used in bridge, port and ocean engineering, the seismic performance of this type of foundation still need further study. Four scale-specimens of the elevated pile-group foundation were manufactured by these two kinds of concrete and seismic performance characteristic of each specimen were compared. Meanwhile, the special soil box was designed and built to consider soil-pile-superstructure interaction. According to the test result, the peak strength of strengthening specimens is about 1.77 times of the others and the ultimate displacement is 1.66 times of the RC specimens. Additionally, the dissipated hysteric energy capability of strengthening specimens is more than 2.15 times of the others as the equivalent viscous damping ratio is reduced by 50%. The pinching effect of first two specimens is more obvious than latter two specimens and the hysteretic loops of reinforced specimens are more plumpness. The pseudo-static tests also provided the data to quantitatively assessment the positive effect of steel casing composite concrete in aseismatic design of bridge.

  9. Establishment of a series of alien monosomic addition lines of Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with extra chromosomes from shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group)

    OpenAIRE

    Shigyo, Masayoshi; Tashiro, Yosuke; Isshiki, Shiro; Miyazaki, Sadami

    1996-01-01

    Forty one plants of alien monosomic addition lines of Allium fistulosum L. with extra chromosomes from A. cepa L. Aggregatum group (FF + nA) were produced through the second backcross of amphidiploids between these two species to A. fistulosum. Identification of the extra chromosomes in the 16 plants by elaborate karyotype analyses indicate that a complete series (eight different types) of the alien monosomic addition lines was established in Allium for the first time in this study. Chromosom...

  10. Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-01-01

    First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC1 and BC2 seeds, respectively. The 237 BC1 plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes...

  11. Advisory group meeting on design and performance of reactor and subcritical blanket systems with lead and lead-bismuth as coolant and/or target material. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Design and Performance of Reactor and Sub-critical Blanket Systems with Lead and Lead-Bismuth as Coolant and/or Target Material was to provide a forum for international information exchange on all the topics relevant to Pb and Pb/Bi cooled critical and sub-critical reactors. In addition, the AGM aimed at: (1) finding ways and means to improve international co-ordination efforts in this area; (2) obtaining advice from the Member States with regard to the activities to be implemented in this area by the IAEA, in order to best meet their needs; and (3) laying out the plans for an effective co-ordination and support of the R and D activities in this area. The AGM stressed that nuclear energy is a realistic solution to satisfy the energy demand, considering the limited resources of fossil fuel, its uneven distribution in the world and the impact of its use on the planet, and taking into account the expected doubling of the world population in the 21st century and tripling of the electricity demand (especially in the developing countries). However, the AGM concluded that the development of an innovative nuclear technology meeting the following requirements must be pursued: (a) deterministic exclusion of any severe accident; (b) proliferation resistance; (c) cost competitiveness with alternative energy sources; (d) sustainable fuel supply; and (e) solution of the radioactive waste management problem

  12. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 76, Revision 1 (FGE.76Rev1)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Lund, Pia; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present opinion concerns a group of 26 sulphur-containing heterocyclic compounds evaluated by the JECFA at the 59th m...

  13. Multicomponent Synthesis of Isoindolinone Frameworks via RhIII -Catalysed in situ Directing Group-Assisted Tandem Oxidative Olefination/Michael Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Xi; Liu, Jian-Biao; Shen, Jun; Chen, Qun; He, Ming-Yang

    2018-04-04

    A Rh III -catalysed three-component synthesis of isoindolinone frameworks via direct assembly of benzoyl chlorides, o-aminophenols and activated alkenes has been developed. The process involves in situ generation of o-aminophenol (OAP)-based bidentate directing group (DG), Rh III -catalysed tandem ortho C-H olefination and subsequent cyclization via aza-Michael addition. This protocol exhibits good chemoselectivity and functional group tolerance. Computational studies showed that the presence of hydroxyl group on the N-aryl ring could enhance the chemoselectivity of the reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Bibliography of the technical literature of the Materials Joining Group, Metals and Ceramics Division, 1951 through June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Goodwin, G.M.; Gardner, K.

    1987-08-01

    This document contains a listing of the written scientific information originating in the Materials Joining Group (formerly the Welding and Brazing Group), Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 1951 through June 1987. It is a registry of about 400 documents as nearly as possible in the order in which they were issued

  15. Hydroxyapatite formation on titania-based materials in a solution mimicking body fluid: Effects of manganese and iron addition in anatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euisup; Kim, Ill Yong; Cho, Sung Baek; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite formation on the surfaces of implanted materials plays an important role in osteoconduction of bone substitutes in bone tissues. Titania hydrogels are known to instigate hydroxyapatite formation in a solution mimicking human blood plasma. To date, the relationship between the surface characteristics of titania and hydroxyapatite formation on its surface remains unclear. In this study, titania powders with varying surface characteristics were prepared by addition of manganese or iron to examine hydroxyapatite formation in a type of simulated body fluid (Kokubo solution). Hydroxyapatite formation was monitored by observation of deposited particles with scale-like morphology on the prepared titania powders. The effect of the titania surface characteristics, i.e., crystal structure, zeta potential, hydroxy group content, and specific surface area, on hydroxyapatite formation was examined. Hydroxyapatite formation was observed on the surface of titania powders that were primarily anatase, and featured a negative zeta potential and low specific surface areas irrespective of the hydroxy group content. High specific surface areas inhibited the formation of hydroxyapatite because calcium and phosphate ions were mostly consumed by adsorption on the titania surface. Thus, these surface characteristics of titania determine its osteoconductivity following exposure to body fluid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recycling cycle of materials applied to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/policarbonate blends with styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândido, L. H. A.; Ferreira, D. B.; Júnior, W. Kindlein; Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this research is the recycling of polymers from mobile phones hulls discarded and the performance evaluation when they are submitted to the Recycling Cycle of Materials (RCM). The studied material was the ABS/PC blend in a 70/30 proportion. Different compositions were evaluated adding virgin material, recycled material and using the copolymer SBS as impact modifier. In order to evaluate the properties of material's composition, the samples were characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM, IZOD impact strength and tensile strength tests. At the first stage, the presented results suggest the composition containing 25% of recycled material and 5% of SBS combines good mechanical performance to the higher content of recycled material and lower content of impact modifier providing major benefits to recycling plans. Five cycles (RCM) were applied in the second stage; they evidenced a decrease trend considering the impact strength. At first and second cycle the impact strength was higher than reference material (ABS/PC blend) and from the fourth cycle it was lower. The superiority impact strength in the first and second cycles can be attributed to impact modifier effect. The thermal tests and the spectrometry didn't show the presence of degradation process in the material and the TGA curves demonstrated the process stability. The impact surface of each sample was observed at SEM. The microstructures are not homogeneous presenting voids and lamellar appearance, although the outer surface presents no defects, demonstrating good moldability. The present work aims to assess the life cycle of the material from the successive recycling processes.

  17. Group IV all-semiconductor spintronics. Materials aspects and optical spin selection rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sircar, Narayan

    2012-04-03

    In the scope of the present thesis various aspects for the realization of spintronic applications based on group IV semiconductors are discussed. This work comprises a refined material characterization of the magnetic semiconductor GeMn. We furthermore present efforts to utilize this material as spin injector for a Si-based optical spintronic device. Applying transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography, we are able to resolve a vertical anisotropy in the self-assembly, leading to the stacking of well-defined clusters in the growth direction. Three-dimensional atom distribution maps confirm that clusters are built from a nonstoichiometric GeMn alloy and exhibit a high-Mn-concentration core with a decreasing Mn concentration toward a shell. An amorphous nature of the cluster cores as well as the crystallinity of the shells, coherent with the surrounding Ge lattice, are revealed in scanning transmission electron microscopy. We localize a strain field surrounding each GeMn cluster by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The importance of strain to the stacking phenomenon of the clusters becomes clear in studies of Ge/GeMn superlattice structures, where a vertical spatial correlation of clusters over 30 nm-thick Ge spacer layers is observed. We present evidence that electrical transport properties of the p-type GeMn thin films fabricated on high-resistivity Ge substrates are severely influenced by parallel conduction through the substrate. It is shown that substrate conduction persists also for wellconducting degenerate p-type reference thin films, giving rise to an effective two-layer conduction scheme. GeMn thin films fabricated on these substrates exhibit only a negligible magnetoresistance effect. Before integrating GeMn in an optical spintronic device, some key aspects important for an understanding of the optical injection and detection of carrier spins in Si and Si-based heterostructures are clarified in the second part of this thesis. In

  18. Environmental routes for platinum group elements to biological materials. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Kristine H.; Morrison, Gregory M. [Water Environment Transport, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 412 96 Goteborg (Sweden); Rauch, Sebastien [R.M. Parsons Laboratory 48-108, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The increased use of platinum group elements (PGE) in automobile catalysts has led to concern over potential environmental and biological accumulation. Platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) concentrations have increased in the environment since the introduction of automobile catalysts. This review summarises current knowledge concerning the environmental mobility, speciation and bioavailability of Pt, Pd and Rh. The greater proportion of PGE emissions is from automobile catalysts, in the form of nanometer-sized catalyst particles, which deposit on roadside surfaces, as evidenced in samples of road dust, grass and soil. In soil, PGE can be transformed into more mobile species through complexation with organic matter and can be solubilised in low pH rainwater. There are indications that environmentally formed Pd species are more soluble and hence more mobile in the environment than Rh and Pt. PGE can reach waterbodies through stormwater transport and deposition in sediments. Besides external contamination of grass close to roads, internal PGE uptake has been observed for plants growing on soil contaminated with automobile catalyst PGE. Fine particles of PGE were also detected on the surface of feathers sampled from passerines and raptors in their natural habitat, and internal organs of these birds also contained PGE. Uptake has been observed in sediment-dwelling invertebrates, and laboratory studies have shown an uptake of PGE in eel and fish exposed to water containing road dust.The available evidence indicates that the PGE, especially Pd, are transported to biological materials through deposition in roots by binding to sulphur-rich low molecular weight species in plants. PGE uptake to exposed animals have uptake rates in the following order: Pd>Pt>Rh. The liver and kidney accumulate the highest levels of PGE, especially Pd. Urinary Pd and Rh, but not Pt, levels are correlated with traffic intensity. Dental alloys may lead to elevated urinary Pt levels

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 3 (FGE.21Rev3): Thiazoles, thiophenes, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical groups 29 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, including an additional three substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commiss......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, including an additional three substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure.......086, 15.090, 15.099, 15.114, 15.119 and 15.133] were considered to have genotoxic potential. The remaining 52 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern.......092, 15.093, 15.094, 15.096, 15.097, 15.106, 15.107, 15.129 and 15.135] evaluated through the Procedure, no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been...

  20. Bio-functionalization of Titanium (Ti) by Amine Groups for Advanced Materials Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a multifunctional biomimetic material that exhibits damage tolerant and self‐healing adhesive properties for space and terrestrial applications that is...

  1. Additional materials for welding of the EP99 heat resisting alloy with the EI868 alloy and 12Kh18N9T steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, L.I.; Filippova, S.P.; Petrova, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    Presented are the results of the studies aimed at selecting an additive material for argon-arc welding process involving heat-resistant nickel EP99 alloy to be welded to the EI868 alloy and 12Kh18N9T steel. As the additive material use was made of wire made of nickel-chromium alloys and covered electrodes made of the EP367 alloy with additions of tungsten. It has been established that in order to improve the resistance of metal to hot-crack formation during argon arc welding of the EP99 alloy with the EI868 alloy, it is advisable to use an additive material of the EP533 alloy, and while welding the same alloy with the 12Kh18N9T steel, filler wire of the EP367 alloy is recommended

  2. Addition of schelita residue from the mine in Cerro Cora Bodo / RN in the composition of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.B.D. de; Souza, M. M. de; Farias, D.S.U. de; Lima, T.C. de; Nobrega, L.F.P. de M.; Mendes, L.B.

    2016-01-01

    Mining activities produce mineral waste that can degrade the environment. The waste generated by companies is not reused due to the fact they fail to present an application for it that proves to be economically viable. Seeking the reuse of mineral waste and reduce the environmental impacts, this work addresses the chemical characterization by x-ray fluorescence (FRX), of the processing of scheelite reject at Bodo mine in Cerro Cora-RN. For the procedure, the sample was collected, grounded and sieved to #200, and then characterized to evaluate its chemical composition and its potential to be incorporated into materials. Besides the characterization, a water absorption test and also a bending test were performed to analyze the power and tension of the material. The result of the analysis indicated that the sample researched presents a greater concentration of SiO_2 to be used as a structuring element in ceramic mass, but in the traditional formulation, it will only be added 10% of the reject in its formulation, because besides the SiO_2 in the sample analyzed other elements that act with fluxes were found. It was also observed the material has low water absorption, but the reject reached low strength and breakdown voltage. We concluded that the reject of scheelite presents great potential, and therefore, further tests can be conducted to analyze the possibility of being added as raw material for the formulation of other materials like cement. (author)

  3. Group additivity values for enthalpies of formation (298 K), entropies (298 K), and molar heat capacities (300 K < T < 1500 K) of gaseous fluorocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Otterloo, Maren K.; Girshick, Steven L.; Roberts, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    A group additivity method was developed to estimate standard enthalpies of formation and standard entropies at 298 K of linear radical and closed-shell, gaseous fluorocarbon neutrals containing four or more carbon atoms. The method can also be used to estimate constant pressure molar heat capacities of the same compounds over the temperature range 300 K to 1500 K. Seventeen groups and seven fluorine-fluorine interaction terms were defined from 12 fluorocarbon molecules. Interaction term values from Yamada and Bozzelli [T. Yamada, J.W. Bozzelli, J. Phys. Chem. A 103 (1999) 7373-7379] were utilized. The enthalpy of formation group values were derived from G3MP2 calculations by Bauschlicher and Ricca [C.W. Bauschlicher, A. Ricca, J. Phys. Chem. A 104 (2000) 4581-4585]. Standard entropy and molar heat capacity group values were estimated from ab initio geometry optimization and frequency calculations at the Hartree-Fock level using the 6-31G(d) basis set. Enthalpies of formation for larger fluorocarbons estimated from the group additivity method compare well to enthalpies of formation found in the literature

  4. Critical and strategic materials proceedings of the laboratory study group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    These Proceedings serve to identify the appropriate role for the DOE-BES-DMS Laboratory program concerning critical and strategic materials, identify and articulate high priority DOE-BES-DMS target areas so as to maximize programmatic responsiveness to national needs concerning critical and strategic materials, and identify research, expertise, and resources (including Collaborative Research Centers) that are relevant to critical and strategic materials that is either underway or in place under the DOE-BES-DMS Laboratory program. Laboratory statements of collaborative research are given

  5. 3D continuum phonon model for group-IV 2D materials

    KAUST Repository

    Willatzen, Morten; Lew Yan Voon, Lok C; Gandi, Appala; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    A general three-dimensional continuum model of phonons in two-dimensional materials is developed. Our first-principles derivation includes full consideration of the lattice anisotropy and flexural modes perpendicular to the layers and can thus

  6. International Atomic Energy Agency consultants' group meeting on C-14 reference materials for radiocarbon laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.

    2001-01-01

    This publication describes the 14 C intercomparison study co-ordinated by the IAEA. Five intercomparison materials have been prepared and distributed among 137 participating laboratories. By February 20, 1991, results have been received from 69 laboratories (39 of them representing liquid scintillation counting, 25 - gas counting, and 6 - accelerator mass spectrometry). This publication presents measurement results and their discussion along with description of the materials and methodology

  7. Evaluation of some natural water-insoluble cellulosic material as lost circulation control additives in water-based drilling fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Alsabagh

    2015-12-01

    In this work, three natural water-insoluble cellulosic materials; peanut hulls, bagasse and sawdust were investigated as lost circulation control materials. One hundred and eight different LCM samples made of various materials were tested with mud. The experiments were conducted in a permeability plugging apparatus (PPA at a differential pressure of 100 psi and 300 psi, using 10, 60 and 90 ceramic discs. The performance of each LCM sample was determined based on the amount of spurt loss and total fluid loss of the mud according to the American Petroleum Institute (API standard. The obtained results showed that, the amount of the fluid loss depends on the LCM material, concentration and size distribution, testing results show that, the peanut gives the best results among the bagasse and sawdust, especially fine size which exhibited better results in the filtration characteristics due to the better filling properties of this size. Peanut hulls, bagasse and sawdust show a slight effect on the rheological properties of the mud. The results were discussed on light of particle size distribution.

  8. Long-term addition of fertilizer, labile carbon, and fungicide alters the biomass of plant functional groups in a subarctic-alpine community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, M S; Michelsen, A.

    2011-01-01

    experiment on a subarctic-alpine fellfield dominated by woody evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens. To manipulate nutrient availability additions of NPK fertilizer, labile C, and fungicide (benomyl) were done in a fully factorial design, replicated in six blocks. The treatments were run for 10 years...... vascular plant groups. Also, limitation of soil nutrient availability caused by labile C addition decreased the relative proportion of green shoots in evergreen shrubs, although these were expected to cope better with the nutrient limitation than the opportunistic graminoids, which, by contrast, were...... unaffected. Reduced fungal biomass due to benomyl addition was accompanied by increased evergreen shrub and clubmoss biomass. Taken together, the effects of treatments were most pronounced 16 years after initiation of the experiment, but despite changes in biomass the overall plant community composition...

  9. Density functional theory study the effects of oxygen-containing functional groups on oxygen molecules and oxygen atoms adsorbed on carbonaceous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xuejun; Song, Wenwu; Shi, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Density functional theory was used to study the effects of different types of oxygen-containing functional groups on the adsorption of oxygen molecules and single active oxygen atoms on carbonaceous materials. During gasification or combustion reactions of carbonaceous materials, oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl(-OH), carbonyl(-CO), quinone(-O), and carboxyl(-COOH) are often present on the edge of graphite and can affect graphite's chemical properties. When oxygen-containing functional groups appear on a graphite surface, the oxygen molecules are strongly adsorbed onto the surface to form a four-member ring structure. At the same time, the O-O bond is greatly weakened and easily broken. The adsorption energy value indicates that the adsorption of oxygen molecules changes from physisorption to chemisorption for oxygen-containing functional groups on the edge of a graphite surface. In addition, our results indicate that the adsorption energy depends on the type of oxygen-containing functional group. When a single active oxygen atom is adsorbed on the bridge site of graphite, it gives rise to a stable epoxy structure. Epoxy can cause deformation of the graphite lattice due to the transition of graphite from sp2 to sp3 after the addition of an oxygen atom. For quinone group on the edge of graphite, oxygen atoms react with carbon atoms to form the precursor of CO2. Similarly, the single active oxygen atoms of carbonyl groups can interact with edge carbon atoms to form the precursor of CO2. The results show that oxygen-containing functional groups on graphite surfaces enhance the activity of graphite, which promotes adsorption on the graphite surface.

  10. Optimized thermoelectric performance of the n-type half-Heusler material TiNiSn by substitution and addition of Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkhtaivan Lkhagvasuren

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alloys based on the half-Heusler compound TiNiSn with the addition of Mn or with a substitution of Ti by Mn are investigated as high-temperature thermoelectric materials. In both materials an intrinsic phase separation is observed, similar to TiNiSn where Ti has been partially substituted by Hf, with increasing Mn concentration the phase separation drastically reduces the lattice thermal conductivity while the power factor is increased. The thermoelectric performance of the n-type conducting alloy can be optimized both by substitution of Ti by Mn as well as the addition of Mn.

  11. Modeling the mechanical and aging properties of silicone rubber and foam - stockpile-historical & additively manufactured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A; Weisgraber, T H; Gee, R H

    2014-09-30

    M97* and M9763 belong to the M97xx series of cellular silicone materials that have been deployed as stress cushions in some of the LLNL systems. Their purpose of these support foams is to distribute the stress between adjacent components, maintain relative positioning of various components, and mitigate the effects of component size variation due to manufacturing and temperature changes. In service these materials are subjected to a continuous compressive strain over long periods of time. In order to ensure their effectiveness, it is important to understand how their mechanical properties change over time. The properties we are primarily concerned about are: compression set, load retention, and stress-strain response (modulus).

  12. Effect of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Addition on the Properties of Hydrothermal Derived Calcium Phosphate Cement for Bone Filling Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. N.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Singh, R.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) on hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement has been studied. The precursors used to prepare the cement were calcium oxide (CaO) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4); the reaction was conducted in water at 80-100°C. To improve properties of CPC, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) of 1wt% and 2wt% was added to the liquid phase of CPC and the results were compared to CPC without PVA addition. The addition of PVA was proved to bring remarkable effects on cohesion, setting time and mechanical strength of CPC which make it suitable physically for injectable bone filler applications.

  13. Differently-catalyzed silica-based precursors as functional additives for the epoxy-based hybrid materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perchacz, Magdalena; Beneš, Hynek; Zhigunov, Alexander; Serkis, Magdalena; Pavlova, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 99, 2 September (2016), s. 434-446 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : epoxy-silica hybrid material * solvent-free sol-gel process * silica-based precursor Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  14. Assessment of advanced materials development in the European Fusion long-term Technology Programme. Report to the FTSC-P by the Advanced Materials Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Schaaf, B.

    1998-08-01

    In view of the transition to the next, fifth, framework program, and the resources available, the European Commission (EC) requested to launch an assessment for the Advanced Materials area, as part of the European Fusion Technology Programme. A working group chaired by the Materials Field Coordinator assessed the current status of the programme with the view to prepare its future focusing on one class of materials, as expressed by the FTSC-P. Two classes of materials: SiC/SiC ceramic composites and low activation alloys on the basis of V, Ti and Cr are presently in the Advanced Materials area. They are all in very early stages of development with a view to their application in fusion power reactors. All have adverse properties that could exclude their use. SiC/SiC ceramic composites have by far the highest potential operating temperature, contributing greatly to the efficiency of fusion power reactors. At the same time it is also the development with the highest development loss risk. This class of materials needs an integrated approach of design, manufacturing and materials development different from alloy development. The alloys with vanadium and titanium as base element have limited application windows due to their inherent properties. If the development of RAFM steels continues as foreseen, the development of V and Ti alloys is not justifiable in the frame of the advanced materials programme. The oxide dispersion strengthened variant of RAFM steels might reach similar temperature limits: about 900K. Chromium based alloys hold the promise of higher operating temperatures, but the knowledge and experience in fusion applications is limited. Investigating the potential of chromium alloys is considered worthwhile. The alloys have comparable activation hazards and early recycling potential, with properly controlled compositions. Recycling of the SiC/SiC class of materials needs further investigation. The working group concludes that at this stage no contender can be

  15. Determination of migration of phosphorus-based additives from food packaging material into food-simulating solvents by neutron activation/Cerenkov counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickly, T.D.; Quinn, T.; Blanchard, F.A.; Murphy, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of food-simulating solvents exposed to food-packaging materials that contain phosphorus-based additives have been examined for migration of phosphorus-containing compounds from the packaging material, using neutron activation/Cerenkov counting. This method has the advantage that commercially produced packaging materials can be used (no elaborate sample preparation as with other radiotracer methods) and no elaborate sample processing techniques are needed to reach the desired levels (low ng/mL) as is usual with most chromatographic or spectroscopic techniques. (author)

  16. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components task groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    The Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups typically hold a joint meeting each year to provide a forum for discussion of technical issues of current interest as well as an opportunity for program reviews by the Department of Energy (DOE). At the meeting in September 1990, reported here, research programs in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were highlighted. The first part of the meeting was devoted to research and development (R ampersand D) for ITER on plasma facing components plus introductory presentations on some current projects and design studies. The balance of the meeting was devoted to program reviews, which included presentations by most of the participants in the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Programs with activities related to plasma wall interactions. The Task Groups on Plasma/Wall Interaction and on High Heat Flux Materials and Components were chartered as continuing working groups by the Division of Development and Technology in DOE's Magnetic Fusion Program. This report is an addition to the series of ''blue cover'' reports on the Joint Meetings of the Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups. Among several preceding meetings were those in October 1989 and January 1988

  17. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Solvent additives for tuning the photovoltaic properties of polymer – fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sio, Antonietta De; Madena, Thomas; Huber, Ralph; Deschler, Felix; Como, Enrico Da; Esposito, Salvatore; Hauff, Elizabeth Von

    2011-01-01

    We use solvent additives as a simple method to tune the photovoltaic performance of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojuncton solar cells. 1,2-dichlorobenzene (oDCB) was used as the reference solvent; chlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2,3,4-

  18. The use of amorphous silica-alumina-based additive in the adhesive dry mixes of building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganina VI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proved the possibility of using amorphous aluminosilicate as a modifying agent for the adhesive dry mixes. Are given the data on the microstructure and chemical composition of the amorphous aluminosilicates. Installed , that the microstructure of the synthetic additives is characterized by particles of round shape, dimensions 5,208-5,704 μm, Also there are particles of elongated shape in size 7.13-8.56 μm. Predominate chemical elements O, Si, Na, S, and Al in quantity 60.69%, 31.26%, 24.23%, 18.69% and 8.29% respectively. Described the character changes in the rheological properties of cement-sand mortar, depending on the percentage of additives. Determined, that the introduction in the cement-sand mortar the additive based on amorphous aluminosilicate leads to higher values of plastic strength. Are given the model of cement stone strength using synthetic additives in the formulation. The results of the evaluation of the frost resistance of cement-based tile adhesives with the use of amorphous aluminosilicates as a modifying additive are presented. In the article is determined the mark on frost resistance of tile glue and frost resistance of the contact zone of tile glue. The evaluation of the performance properties of the layer of tile adhesive on the basis of cement, dry mixes. The calculation of the value of displacement of the adhesive layer made on the basis of the developed recipes cement dry mixes applied to a vertical surface. Experimental data obtained values of displacement tiles relative to the substrate. Described the results of physical and mechanical properties of tile adhesive made on the basis of the developed adhesive dry mix formulations.

  19. Sorption behavior of charged and neutral polar organic compounds on solid phase extraction materials: which functional group governs sorption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäuerlein, P.S.; Mansell, J.E.; ter Laak, T.L.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous polar anthropogenic organic chemicals have been found in the aqueous environment. Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been applied for the isolation of these from aqueous matrices, employing various materials. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of functional groups on the

  20. Application of Clustering Algorithm CLOPE to the Query Grouping Problem in the Field of Materialized View Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Novokhatska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, materialized views (MVs are widely used to enhance the database performance by storing pre-calculated results of resource-intensive queries in the physical memory. In order to identify which queries may be potentially materialized, database transaction log for a long period of time should be analyzed. The goal of analysis is to distinguish resource-intensive and frequently used queries collected from database log, and optimize these queries by implementation of MVs. In order to achieve greater efficiency of MVs, they were used not only for the optimization of single queries, but also for entire groups of queries that are similar in syntax and execution results. Thus, the problem stated in this article is the development of approach that will allow forming groups of queries with similar syntax around the most resource-intensive queries in order to identify the list of potential candidates for materialization. For solving this problem, we have applied the algorithm of categorical data clustering to the query grouping problem on the step of database log analysis and searching candidates for materialization. In the current work CLOPE algorithm was modified to cover the introduced problem. Statistical and timing indicators were taken into account in order to form the clusters around the most resource intensive queries. Application of modified algorithm CLOPE allowed to decrease calculable complexity of clustering and to enhance the quality of formed groups.

  1. Polyacrylonitrile based composite materials with extracting agents containing chemically bonded CMPO groups for separation of actinoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameník, Jan; Šebesta, F.; John, J.; Böhmer, V.; Rudzevich, V.; Grüner, Bohumír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 304, č. 1 (2015), s. 313-319 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : actinoids * CMPO * Calix[4]arene * cobalt bis(dicarbollide) * polyacrylonitrile * composite material Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2015

  2. Advisory group meeting on safeguards related to final disposal of nuclear material in waste and spent fuel (AGM-660)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The Advisory Group was asked to advise the Agency on the circumstances under which the Agency might logically implement Section 11 of INFCIRC/153, or the comparable Section 26c of INFCIRC/66/rev2, which provides for a determination that nuclear material is 'practicably irrecoverable', and that therefore safeguards could be terminated. This advice was sought, and in the paragraphs that follow is given, in two areas. One relates to 'waste', which the Group understands as referring to material which contains nuclear material that the State/facility operator believes has no economically recoverable value and for which no further use is foreseen. The other relates to spent fuel, which in some cases may be placed in geological 'permanent repositories'

  3. Symmetry groups of integro-differential equations for linear thermoviscoelastic materials with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.-Q.; Meleshko, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    The group analysis method is applied to a system of integro-differential equations corresponding to a linear thermoviscoelastic model. A recently developed approach for calculating the symmetry groups of such equations is used. The general solution of the determining equations for the system is obtained. Using subalgebras of the admitted Lie algebra, two classes of partially invariant solutions of the considered system of integro-differential equations are studied.

  4. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Swee Leong; An, Jia; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wiria, Florencia Edith

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D printing, allows the direct fabrication of functional parts with complex shapes from digital models. In this review, the current progress of two AM processes suitable for metallic orthopaedic implant applications, namely selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are presented. Several critical design factors such as the need for data acquisition for patient-specific design, design dependent porosity for osteo-inductive implants, surface topology of the implants and design for reduction of stress-shielding in implants are discussed. Additive manufactured biomaterials such as 316L stainless steel, titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) are highlighted. Limitations and future potential of such technologies are also explored. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of graphite addition into mill scale waste as a potential bipolar plates material of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaerudini, D. S.; Prakoso, G. B.; Insiyanda, D. R.; Widodo, H.; Destyorini, F.; Indayaningsih, N.

    2018-03-01

    Bipolar plates (BPP) is a vital component of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), which supplies fuel and oxidant to reactive sites, remove reaction products, collects produced current and provide mechanical support for the cells in the stack. This work concerns the utilization of mill scale, a by-product of iron and steel formed during the hot rolling of steel, as a potential material for use as BPP in PEMFC. On the other hand, mill scale is considered a very rich in iron source having characteristic required such as for current collector in BPP and would significantly contribute to lower the overall cost of PEMFC based fuel cell systems. In this study, the iron reach source of mill scale powder, after sieving of 150 mesh, was mechanically alloyed with the carbon source containing 5, 10, and 15 wt.% graphite using a shaker mill for 3 h. The mixed powders were then pressed at 300 MPa and sintered at 900 °C for 1 h under inert gas atmosphere. The structural changes of powder particles during mechanical alloying and after sintering were studied by X-ray diffractometry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness measurement. The details of the presence of iron, carbon, and iron carbide (Fe-C) as the products of reactions as well as sufficient mechanical strength of the sintered materials were presented in this report.

  6. Formation of porous clay ceramic using sago waste ash as a prospective additive material with controllable milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aripin H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of ceramic material was produced by mixing sago waste ash from the sago processing industry in Indonesia with clay. The composition was prepared by adding 50 %wt amount of sago waste into the clay, then a series of samples was milled for 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. The samples were dry pressed and sintered at temperatures ranging from 800°C to 1200°C. The influence of the sintering temperature and the milling time on bulk density, firing shrinkage, water adsorption, and hardness was studied in detail. The results demonstrate that the low water absorption of less than 0.5% and the highest hardness of 5.82 GPa were obtained for the sample sintered at 1100°C and milled for 48 h. The investigation of the absorptive properties of such ceramics indicates that they could be recommended as a promising material for manufacturing of unglazed floor tiles.

  7. Development Of An Improved Concrete Roman Tile Alternative Roofing System Using Waste Raw Materials Paper amp Saw Dust As Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegoke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since the early civilizations in China Neolithic and the Middle East humans have recognized the dual desirable roles of clay tiles as roofing material which remain valid today - First it was an effective means to shed water from buildings and secondly it reduced the spread of fire. The Standard Double Roman tile SDRT was the first roof tile to be mass produced in South Africa. The Double Roman can trace its shape back to Roman engineering principles where it was discovered that arches have an ability to withstand greater pressures as the arch distributes the weight more evenly down to the base of the structure. However after the initial introduction of the concrete tile to Nigerian roofing market architects began to express displeasure with its unusually heavier weight than other competing roofing materials. Suggestions were made to original manufacturers for product improvement by reducing the overall product weight. Concrete tiles are composite materials made from mixture of Portland cement sharp sand smooth sand and natural fibre. Bolyn Industries 7 has established that a mix ratio by volume of 1cement112sharp sand112smooth sand with some fibre makes a good concrete tile product. The sharp sand provides strength while smooth sand provides smoothness to the concrete surface. This study seeks to improve the current Double Roman product by reducing its overall product weight which is currently at about 5.0 kg to about 4.0 kg. Going by the previous experience with Polycrete invention 2 it is hereby conceived that replacement of smooth sand with lighter waste materials such as paper or saw dust in the concrete tile constituents may achieve the desired product weight reduction. The study investigates the most economic mix ratio of the concrete tile constituents to achieve the desirable engineering properties of light weight strength durability water tightness and rust-proofness. Results with preliminary mix trials indicate that replacement

  8. Group constant preparation for the estimate of neutron induced damage in structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panini, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron heating (kerma), displacement per atom cross sections (DPA), gas and γ-ray production are important parameters for the estimate of the damage produced by neutron induced nuclear reactions in the structural materials. The NJOY System for Nuclear Data Processing has been extensively used in order to compute the above quantities; here the theory, the algorithms and the connected problems are described. (author). 6 refs, 3 tabs

  9. Rate of Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soil as Influenced by Repeated Air Drying-Rewetting and Repeated Additions of Organic Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1974-01-01

    Repeated air drying and rewetting of three soils followed by incubation at 20°C resulted in an increase in the rate of decomposition of a fraction of 14C labeled organic matter in the soils. The labeled organic matter originated from labeled glucose, cellulose and straw, respectively, metabolized...... of the treatment was least in the soil which had been incubated with the labeled material for the longest time. Additions of unlabeled, decomposable organic material also increased the rate of decomposition of the labeled organic matter. The evolution of labeled CO2 during the 1st month of incubation after...... addition was in some cases 4–10 times larger than the evolution from the controls. During the continued incubation the evolution decreased almost to the level of the controls, indicating that the effect was related to the increased biological activity in the soils during decomposition of the added material...

  10. Alkyne End Group Production in Polymeric Materials Induced by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Swift heavy ions in matter lose energy mainly through electronic processes.Since the energy deposition is centered in a very small region with a very high energy density,new effects such as production of alkyne end group can be induced.In this work,PET,PS,PC and PI films are irradiated with Ar,Kr,Xe and U ions and the relationship of the alkyne end group production with electronic energy loss is studied by Fourier transformed infrared infrared(FTLR)spectra measurements.

  11. Effects of organic additives with oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups on the negative electrolyte of vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jianlei; Liu, Suqin; He, Zhangxing; Han, Huiguo; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    DL-malic acid and L-aspartic acid are investigated as additives for the negative electrolyte of vanadium redox flow battery (VFRB) to improve its stability and electrochemical performance. The stability experiments indicate that the addition of L-aspartic acid into the 2 M V(III) electrolyte can stabilize the electrolyte by delaying its precipitation. The results of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show that the V(III) electrolyte with both additives demonstrates enhanced electrochemical activity and reversibility. The introduction of DL-malic acid and L-aspartic acid can increase the diffusion coefficient of V(III) species and facilitate the charge transfer of V(III)/V(II) redox reaction. Between the two additives, the effect of L-aspartic acid is more remarkable. Moreover, the VFRB cell employing negative electrolyte with L-aspartic acid exhibits excellent cycling stability and achieves higher average energy efficiency (76.4%) compared to the pristine cell (73.8%). The comparison results with the cell employing L-aspartic acid pre-treated electrode confirm that L-aspartic acid in the electrolyte can modify the electrode by constantly providing oxygen- and nitrogen-containing groups, leading to the enhancement of electrochemical performance

  12. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 3 (FGE.17Rev3): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, including seven additional substances considered in this Revision 3, using the Procedure......-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that 24 substances [FL-no: 14.057, 14.081, 14.083, 14.084, 14.086, 14.087, 14.091, 14.097, 14.099, 14.101, 14.102, 14.108, 14.109, 14.111, 14.112, 14.113, 14.122, 14...... substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for one substance [FL-no: 14.102], the composition of mixture has not been specified sufficiently....

  13. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 2 (FEG.17Rev2): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. From the in vitro...... substance [FL-no: 14.051] no intake data are available preventing it from being evaluated through the Procedure. The remaining 18 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold...... intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. For the remaining substance [FL-no: 14.052] additional toxicity data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for two substances...

  14. Investigation of Cross-Linked and Additive Containing Polymer Materials for Membranes with Improved Performance in Pervaporation and Gas Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kleinermanns

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs. Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs with MOFs as additives (fillers have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first. The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes.

  15. Investigation of cross-linked and additive containing polymer materials for membranes with improved performance in pervaporation and gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Katharina; Schmeling, Nadine; Jeazet, Harold B Tanh; Janiak, Christoph; Staudt, Claudia; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2012-10-22

    Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first). The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes.

  16. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  17. Sustained impact of a short small group course with systematic feedback in addition to regular clinical clerkship activities on musculoskeletal examination skills--a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrig, Martin; Berendonk, Christoph; Rogausch, Anja; Beyeler, Christine

    2016-01-28

    The discrepancy between the extensive impact of musculoskeletal complaints and the common deficiencies in musculoskeletal examination skills lead to increased emphasis on structured teaching and assessment. However, studies of single interventions are scarce and little is known about the time-dependent effect of assisted learning in addition to a standard curriculum. We therefore evaluated the immediate and long-term impact of a small group course on musculoskeletal examination skills. All 48 Year 4 medical students of a 6 year curriculum, attending their 8 week clerkship of internal medicine at one University department in Berne, participated in this controlled study. Twenty-seven students were assigned to the intervention of a 6×1 h practical course (4-7 students, interactive hands-on examination of real patients; systematic, detailed feedback to each student by teacher, peers and patients). Twenty-one students took part in the regular clerkship activities only and served as controls. In all students clinical skills (CS, 9 items) were assessed in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) station, including specific musculoskeletal examination skills (MSES, 7 items) and interpersonal skills (IPS, 2 items). Two raters assessed the skills on a 4-point Likert scale at the beginning (T0), the end (T1) and 4-12 months after (T2) the clerkship. Statistical analyses included Friedman test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Mann-Whitney U test. At T0 there were no significant differences between the intervention and control group. At T1 and T2 the control group showed no significant changes of CS, MSES and IPS compared to T0. In contrast, the intervention group significantly improved CS, MSES and IPS at T1 (p skills during regular clinical clerkship activities. However, an additional small group, interactive clinical skills course with feedback from various sources, improved these essential examination skills immediately after the teaching and several months later

  18. Synthesis of organic EL materials with cyano group and evaluation of emission characteristics in organic EL devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Uk

    1999-01-01

    Nobel electroluminescent materials, polymer material, PU-BCN and low molar mass material, D-BCN with the same chromophores were designed and synthesized. A molecular structure of chromophore was composed of bisstyrylbenzene derivative with cyano groups as electron injection and transport and phenylamine groups as hole injection and transport. Device structures with PU-BCN and D-BCN as an emission layer were fabricated, which were a single-layer device(SL), Indium-tin oxide(ITO)/emission layer/MgAg, and two kinds of double-layer devices which were composed of ITO/emission layer/oxadiazole derivative/MgAg as a DL-E device and ITO/triphenylamine derivative/emission layer/MgAg as a DL-H device. The two emission materials, PU-BCN and D-BCN with the same emission-chromophore were evaluated as having excellent performance of charge injection and transport and revealed almost the same emission characteristics in high current density. EL emission maximum peaks of two material were detected at about 640 nm wavelength of red emission region

  19. Determination of platinum-group elements in the geological standard reference materials by isotope dilution-ICPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Hu; Hongliao, He [National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing (China)

    2005-10-15

    Platinum group elements (PGEs) includes platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium and ruthenium. It has very high economic and scientific value in the field of geoscience and environmental science. But the analysis data referred by the different lab are very disperse because of the difficulty of the determination of PGEs. It makes very difficult to fix the value of the PGEs in the standard reference materials. In the article, the values of the PGEs in the standard reference materials of ocean sediment are determined by isotope dilution technique and dependable values of these elements are provided. (authors)

  20. Determination of platinum-group elements in the geological standard reference materials by isotope dilution-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mingyue; He Hongliao

    2005-01-01

    Platinum group elements (PGEs) includes platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium and ruthenium. It has very high economic and scientific value in the field of geoscience and environmental science. But the analysis data referred by the different lab are very disperse because of the difficulty of the determination of PGEs. It makes very difficult to fix the value of the PGEs in the standard reference materials. In the article, the values of the PGEs in the standard reference materials of ocean sediment are determined by isotope dilution technique and dependable values of these elements are provided. (authors)

  1. Study on the surface hydroxyl group on solid breeding materials by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Taniguchi, Masaki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Hydroxyl groups on the surface of Li{sub 2}O were studied by using a diffuse reflectance method with Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy at high temperature up to 973K under controlled D{sub 2}O or D{sub 2} partial pressure. It was found that hydroxyl groups could exist on Li{sub 2}O surface up to 973K under Ar atmosphere. Under D{sub 2}O containing atmosphere, only the sharp peak at 2520cm{sup -1} was observed at 973K in the O-D stretching vibration region. Below 973K, multiple peaks due to the surface -OD were observed and they showed different behavior with temperature or atmosphere. Multiple peaks mean that surface is not homogeneous for D{sub 2}O adsorption. Assignment of the observed peaks to the surface bonding structure was also discussed. (author)

  2. Cell-specific CO2 fixation rates of two distinct groups of plastidic protists in the Atlantic Ocean remain unchanged after nutrient addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Carolina; Jardillier, Ludwig; Hartmann, Manuela; Ostrowski, Martin; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, David J

    2015-04-01

    To assess the role of open-ocean ecosystems in global CO2 fixation, we investigated how picophytoplankton, which dominate primary production, responded to episodic increases in nutrient availability. Previous experiments have shown nitrogen alone, or in combination with phosphorus or iron, to be the proximate limiting nutrient(s) for total phytoplankton grown over several days. Much less is known about how nutrient upshift affects picophytoplankton CO2 fixation over the duration of the light period. To address this issue, we performed a series of small volume (8-60 ml) - short term (10-11 h) nutrient addition experiments in different regions of the Atlantic Ocean using NH4 Cl, FeCl3 , K medium, dust and nutrient-rich water from 300 m depth. We found no significant nutrient stimulation of group-specific CO2 fixation rates of two taxonomically and size-distinct groups of plastidic protists. The above was true regardless of the region sampled or nutrient added, suggesting that this is a generic phenomenon. Our findings show that at least in the short term (i.e. daylight period), nutrient availability does not limit CO2 fixation by the smallest plastidic protists, while their taxonomic composition does not determine their response to nutrient addition. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Communication received from the permanent mission of Austria regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Director General received a note verbale of 13 June 1996 from Permanent Mission of Austria regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material. In the light of the request expressed at the end of the note verbale, the text of the note verbale is being circulated

  4. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Sweden regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a note verbale dated 28 June 1996 received by the Director General of IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Sweden through which the Government of Sweden provides, on a voluntary basis, certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material, in order to assist the Agency in the discharge of its safeguards responsibilities

  5. Communication received from the permanent mission of Finland regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Director General received a note verbale of 8 February 1996 from Permanent Mission of Finland regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material. In the light of the request expressed at the and of the note verbale, the text of the note verbale is being circulated

  6. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 (FGE.300): One cyclo-aliphatic amide from chemical group 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance was not conside......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance...... was not considered to have genotoxic potential. The substance was evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded...... that for the substance [FL-no: 16.115] evaluated through the Procedure, no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. Besides the safety assessment of this flavouring substance, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. The composition of the stereoisomeric...

  7. Formaldehyde Adsorption into Clinoptilolite Zeolite Modified with the Addition of Rich Materials and Desorption Performance Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kalantarifard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Granite, bentonite, and starch were mixed with clinoptilolite zeolite to produce a modified zeolite. The modified zeolite was tested for its ability to absorb formaldehyde from air. The modified sample formaldehyde adsorption capacity was then compared with those of commercially available clinoptilolite, faujasite (Y, mordenite, and zeolite type A. Studies were focused on the relationships between the physical characteristics of the selected zeolites (crystal structure, surface porosity, pore volume, pore size and their formaldehyde adsorption capacity. The removal of starch at high temperature (1100°C and addition of bentonite during modified clinoptilolite zeolite (M-CLZ preparation generated large pores and a higher pore distribution on the sample surface, which resulted in higher adsorption capacity. The formaldehyde adsorption capacities of M-CLZ, clinoptilolite, faujasite (Y, zeolite type A, and mordenite were determined to be 300.5, 194.5, 123.7, 106.7, and 70 mg per gram of zeolite, respectively. The M-CLZ, clinoptilolite, and faujasite (Y crystals contained both mesoporous and microporous structures, which resulted in greater adsorption, while the zeolite type A crystal showed a layered structure and lower surface porosity, which was less advantageous for formaldehyde adsorption. Furthermore, zeolite regeneration using microwave heating was investigated focusing on formaldehyde removal by desorption from the zeolite samples. XRD, XRF, N2 adsorption/desorption, and FE-SEM experiments were performed to characterize the surface structure and textural properties the zeolites selected in this study.

  8. Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-10-01

    First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC(1) and BC(2) seeds, respectively. The 237 BC(1) plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes, i.e., single-alien deletions (2n = 3x-1 = 23, AAF-nF). The single-alien deletions in the BC(1) progeny showed dwarfing characteristics and were discriminated from the allotriploids (2n = 24) and hyper-allotriploids (2n = 25) by means of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome numbers of 46 BC(2) seedlings varied from 16 to 24. Eight monosomic additions (2n = 2x+1 = 17, AA+nF) and 20 single-alien deletions were found in these BC(2) seedlings. Consequently, six kinds of A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien chromosome additions possessing different chromosome numbers (2n = 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23) were recognized in the BC(1) and BC(2) populations. A total of 79 aneuploids, including 62 single-alien deletions, were analyzed by a chromosome 6F-specific isozyme marker (Got-2) in order to recognize its existence in their chromosome complements. This analysis revealed that two out of 62 single-alien deletions did not possess 6F. One (AAF-6F) out of the possible eight single-alien deletions could be identified at first. The present study is a first step toward the development of a useful tool, such as a complete set of eight different single-alien deletions, for the rapid chromosomal assignment of genes and genetic markers in A. fistulosum.

  9. Tunable photoluminescent materials based on two phenylcarbazole-based dimers through the substituent groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Gui-Mei, E-mail: meiguit@163.com; Chi, Rui-Hai; Wan, Wen-Zhu; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Ting-Xiang; Dong, Yan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Tao, E-mail: ceswyt@qlu.edu.cn; Cui, Yue-Zhi

    2017-05-15

    Two phenylcarbazole-based dimers, namely, 9,9'-diphenyl-9H,9'H−3,3'-bicarbazole (1) and 9,9'-bis(4-bromophenyl)−9H,9'H−3,3'-bicarbazole (2), have been obtained through the oxidation of 9-phenylcarbazole and 9-(4’-bromophenyl) in the presence of FeCl{sub 3}, respectively, which show strong photoluminescent properties with the fluorescence quantum yields of 0.2 and 0.21 based on the reference of Quinin sulfate, respectively. The maximal emission peak of compounds 1 and 2 were observed at 465 and 413 nm in the solid state, respectively, revealing that the luminescent properties were tuned by the substituent group. The title compounds were characterized by FI-IR, UV–vis, {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR, {sup 1}H−{sup 13}C NMR, mass spectra, elemental analysis (EA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in space group P-1, and supramolecular hydrogen bondings and stacking interactions between aromatic rings are observed. Compounds 1 and 2 display trans- and cis-formation structures, respectively. Two compounds show high thermal stabilities, in which the decomposition temperature is 414 and 363 °C for 1 and 2, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two phenylcarbazole-based dimers have been obtained through the oxidation of 9-phenylcarbazole and 9-(4’-bromophenyl) in the presence of FeCl{sub 3}, respectively. The maximal emission peaks of compounds 1 and 2 were observed at 465 and 413 nm, respectively, revealing that the luminescent properties were tuned by the substituent group. Compounds 1 and 2 display trans- and cis-formation structures, respectively, and they show high thermal stabilities.

  10. Electrochemically Smart Bimetallic Materials Featuring Group 11 Metals: In-situ Conductive Network Generation and Its Impact on Cell Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Esther [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    Our results for this program “Electrochemically smart bimetallic materials featuring Group 11 metals: in-situ conductive matrix generation and its impact on battery capacity, power and reversibility” have been highly successful: 1) we demonstrated material structures which generated in-situ conductive networks through electrochemical activation with increases in conductivity up to 10,000 fold, 2) we pioneered in situ analytical methodology to map the cathodes at several stages of discharge through the use of Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD) to elucidate the kinetic dependence of the conductive network formation, and 3) we successfully designed synthetic methodology for direct control of material properties including crystallite size and surface area which showed significant impact on electrochemical behavior.

  11. Identifying the material of original and restored parts of a 14^{th} century alabaster annunciation group through stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Leroux, Lise; Le Pogam, Pierre-Yves; Bromblet, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The origin of raw materials for sculpture is often obscure before the 17th century due to the scarcity of written sources. Identifying this origin provides hints to economic exchanges but also, potentially, allows for attributing sculptures to a specific context of creation (regional workshops, artists). Another challenge for art historians is the identification of restorations and their potential chronology. We present an example of a 14th century group of two statues, made of gypsum alabaster, representing an annunciation group, with the Virgin Mary and the angel Gabriel. Their original position was a near Troyes in the eastern Paris Basin, they are now separated being conserved at the Louvre Museum (Virgin Mary) and the Cleveland Museum of Art (Gabriel). Our multi-isotope study revealed the common origin of the material used for both sculptures, their isotope fingerprints being identical within the analytical error. These fingerprints are highly specific and point to an origin in a historical gypsum and alabaster quarry in the northern part of Provence, France, first mentioned at the end of the 13th century. We were also able to identify an unknown restoration of lower part of the Virgin Mary statue with an optically undistinguishable material, using Tuscan alabaster, most likely in the 19th century. This underlines the potential and usefulness of independent geochemical evidence to underpin stylistic hypotheses on grouping of individual artworks, historical economic relationships between regions and on past restoration activities.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, vibrational spectroscopy, and factor group analysis of partially metal-doped phosphate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sronsri, Chuchai; Boonchom, Banjong

    2018-04-01

    A simple precipitating method was used to synthesize effectively a partially metal-doped phosphate hydrate (Mn0.9Mg0.1HPO4·3H2O), whereas the thermal decomposition process of the above hydrate precursor was used to obtain Mn1.8Mg0.2P2O7 and LiMn0.9Mg0.1PO4 compounds under different conditions. To separate the overlapping thermal decomposition peak, a deconvolution technique was used, and the separated peak was applied to calculate the water content. The factor group splitting analysis was used to exemplify their vibrational spectra obtained from normal vibrations of HPO42-, H2O, P2O74- and PO43- functional groups. Further, the deconvoluted bending mode of water was clearly observed. Mn0.9Mg0.1HPO4·3H2O was observed in the orthorhombic crystal system with the space group of Pbca (D2h15). The formula units per unit cell were found to be eight (Z = 8), and the site symmetric type of HPO42- was observed as Cs. For the HPO42- unit, the correlation filed splitting analysis of type C3v - Cs - D2h15 was calculated and had 96 internal modes, whereas H2O in the above hydrate was symbolized as C2v - Cs - D2h15 and had 24 modes. The symbol C2v - Cs - C2h3 was used for the correlation filed splitting analysis of P2O74- in Mn1.8Mg0.2P2O7 (monoclinic, C2/m (C2h3), Z = 2, and 42 modes). Finally, the symbol Td - Cs - D2h16 was used for the correlation filed splitting analysis of PO43- in LiMn0.9Mg0.1PO4 (orthorhombic, Pnma (D2h16), Z = 4, and 36 modes).

  13. Influences of poly[(styrene){sub x}-stat-(chloromethylstyrene){sub y}]s additives on dewetting behaviors of polystyrene thin films: effects of polar group ratio and film thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangjan, Suntree [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Traiphol, Nisanart, E-mail: Nisanart.T@chula.ac.th [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemical, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Traiphol, Rakchart, E-mail: Rakchartt@nu.ac.th [Laboratory of Advanced Polymers and Nanomaterials, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); NANOTEC Center of Excellence at Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-05-31

    This contribution investigates the addition of poly(styrene-stat-chloromethylstyrene (ClMS))s as dewetting inhibitors of polystyrene (PS) thin films with thicknesses ranging from 12 to 38 nm. The ClMS ratios in the copolymers are 5, 25 and 45 mol%. Atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy are utilized to follow morphological changes of blended PS/copolymer films upon annealing above their glass transition temperatures. We have found that thermal stability of the PS films is greatly improved when a small amount of the copolymers is added into the system. The polar ClMS groups provide anchoring sites with the polar SiO{sub x}/Si substrate while the styrene segments favorably interact with the PS matrix. The effectiveness of the copolymers as dewetting inhibitors is also found to increase with mole ratio of ClMS group. While the stability of PS films is systematically improved upon addition of the highly substituted copolymers, using the copolymer with relatively low ratio of ClMS group could lead to the opposite result. This class of copolymers can be utilized for improving thermal stability of ultrathin PS films. The fundamental knowledge from this study is also important for designing or selecting structure of additives used to improve the stability of polymeric thin films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient method for improving stability of polystyrene (PS) thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Poly(styrene-stat-chloromethylstyrene)s are used as dewetting inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of blended PS/copolymers greatly improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effectiveness of the copolymers increases with mole ratio of chloromethylstyrene group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Important results for designing materials in coating application.

  14. Impact of Defects in Powder Feedstock Materials on Microstructure of 304L and 316L Stainless Steel Produced by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Benjamin M.; Lienert, Thomas J.; Knapp, Cameron M.; Sutton, Jacob O.; Brand, Michael J.; Pacheco, Robin M.; Livescu, Veronica; Carpenter, John S.; Gray, George T.

    2018-05-01

    Recent work in both 304L and 316L stainless steel produced by additive manufacturing (AM) has shown that in addition to the unique, characteristic microstructures formed during the process, a fine dispersion of sub-micron particles, with a chemistry different from either the powder feedstock or the expected final material, are evident in the final microstructure. Such fine-scale features can only be resolved using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or similar techniques. The present work uses electron microscopy to study both the initial powder feedstock and microstructures in final AM parts. Special attention is paid to the chemistry and origin of these nanoscale particles in several different metal alloys, and their impact on the final build. Comparisons to traditional, wrought material will be made.

  15. Design and fabrication of a cryostat for low temperature mechanical testing for the Mechanical and Materials Engineering group at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Aviles Santillana, I; Gerardin, A; Guinchard, M; Langeslag, S A E; Sgobba, S

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical testing of materials at low temperatures is one of the cornerstones of the Mechanical and Materials Engineering (MME) group at CERN. A long tradition of more than 20 years and a unique know - how of such tests has been developed with an 18 kN double-walled cryostat. Large campaigns of material qualification have been carried out and the mechanical behaviour of materials at 4 K has been vastly studied in sub - size samples for projects like LEP, LHC and its experiments. With the aim of assessing the mechanical properties of materials of higher strength and/or issued from heavy gauge products for which testing standardized specimens of larger cross section might be more adapted, a new 100 kN cryostat capable of hosting different shapes of normalized samples has been carefully designed and fabricated inhouse together with the associated tooling and measurement instrumentation. It has been conceived to be able to adapt to different test frames both dynamic and static, which will be of paramount importa...

  16. Ceramic-Based 4D Components: Additive Manufacturing (AM) of Ceramic-Based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by Thermoplastic 3D Printing (T3DP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Uwe; Weingarten, Steven; Johne, Robert; Schwarzer, Eric; Abel, Johannes; Richter, Hans-Jürgen; Moritz, Tassilo; Michaelis, Alexander

    2017-11-28

    In our study, we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based functionally graded materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology thermoplastic 3D printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with varying microstructures were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore-forming agents (PFA), which were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Diverse zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for the AM of single- and multi-material test components. All of the samples were sintered defect-free, and in the end, we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (<1% porosity) and porous (approx. 5% porosity) zirconia areas to combine different properties in one component. T3DP opens the door to the AM of further ceramic-based 4D components, such as multi-color, multi-material, or especially, multi-functional components.

  17. to Aliphatic and Alicyclic Mono-, Di-, Tri-, and Polysulphides with or without Additional Oxygenated Functional Groups from Chemical Group 20 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.08Rev1 (2009)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs...... provided by the Industry. For the remaining 17 substances use levels must be provided. These are needed to calculate the mTAMDIs in order to identify those flavouring substances that need more refined exposure assessment and to finalise the evaluation. In order to determine whether the conclusion......, and/or information on specifications). For two substances [FL-no: 12.169 and 12.241] the Procedure should not be applied until adequate genotoxicity data become available and for eight substances [FL-no: 12.009, 12.013, 12.020, 12.023, 12.045, 12.074, 12.155 and 12.280] additional toxicity data...

  18. Additional sex combs-like 1 belongs to the enhancer of trithorax and Polycomb Group and genetically interacts with Cbx2 in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C.L.; Lee, I.; Bloyer, S.; Bozza, S.; Chevalier, J.; Dahl, A; Bodner, C.; Helgason, C. D.; Hess, J.L.; Humphries, R.K.; Brock, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The Additional sex combs (Asx) gene of Drosophila behaves genetically as an enhancer of trithorax and Polycomb (ETP) in displaying bidirectional homeotic phenotypes, suggesting that is required for maintenance of both activation and silencing of Hox genes. There are 3 murine homologs of Asx called Additional sex combs-like1, 2, and-3. Asxl1 is required for normal adult hematopoiesis; however its embryonic function is unknown. We used a targeted mouse mutant line Asxl1tm1Bc to determine if Asxl1 is required to silence and activate Hox genes in mice during axial patterning. The mutant embryos exhibit simultaneous anterior and posterior transformations of the axial skeleton, consistent with a role for Asxl1 in activation and silencing of Hox genes. Transformations of the axial skeleton are enhanced in compound mutant embryos for the Polycomb group gene M33/Cbx2. Hox a4, a7, and c8 are derepressed in Asxl1tm1Bc mutants in the antero-posterior axis, but Hox c8 expression is reduced in the brain of mutants, consistent with Asxl1 being required both for activation and repression of Hox genes. We discuss the genetic and molecular definition of ETPs, and suggest that the function of Asxl1 depends on its cellular context. PMID:19833123

  19. New group III precursors for the MOVPE of GaAs and InP based material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostaler, M.; Pohl, L.; Brauers, A.; Balk, P.; Frese, V.; Hovel, R.; Regel, G.K.; Hardtdegen, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents proposals for the synthesis of several group III metal organics (In, Ga, Al compounds) and preliminary results on their use in the MOVPE (metal organic vapor phase epitaxy) of III-V semiconductors. The common feature of all these precursors is that they are saturated by inter- or intramolecular coordination. They are even non-pyrophoric and air resistant which is an interesting aspect with respect to safe handling. In addition, the compounds are liquid at room temperature with a low but sufficient vapor pressure for MOVPE without additional heating of the source

  20. Temperature, pressure, and electrochemical constraints on protein speciation: Group additivity calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of ionized unfolded proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations can be used to quantify environmental constraints on the speciation of proteins, such as the pH and temperature dependence of ionization state, and the relative chemical stabilities of proteins in different biogeochemical settings. These calculations depend in part on values of the standard molal Gibbs energies of proteins and their ionization reactions as a function of temperature and pressure. Because these values are not generally available, we calculated values of the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar as well as the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state parameters of neutral and charged zwitterionic reference model compounds including aqueous amino acids, polypeptides, and unfolded proteins. The experimental calorimetric and volumetric data for these species taken from the literature were combined with group additivity algorithms to calculate the properties and parameters of neutral and ionized sidechain and backbone groups in unfolded proteins. The resulting set of group contributions enables the calculation of the standard molal Gibbs energy, enthalpy, entropy, isobaric heat capacity, volume, and isothermal compressibility of unfolded proteins in a range of proton ionization states to temperatures and pressures exceeding 100°C and 1000 bar. This approach provides a useful frame of reference for thermodynamic studies of protein folding and complexation reactions. It can also be used to assign provisional values of the net charge and Gibbs energy of ionized proteins as a function of temperature and pH. Using these values, an Eh-pH diagram for a reaction representing the speciation of extracellular proteins from Pyrococcus furiosus and Bacillus subtilis was generated. The predicted predominance limits of these proteins correspond with the different electrochemical conditions of hydrothermal vents and soils. More comprehensive calculations of this kind may reveal pervasive

  1. Carboxylate and amino group coated silver nanoparticles as joining materials for copper-to-copper silver joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreicher, A; Röhrich, T; Lerch, M

    2012-12-01

    Organic silver complexes are introduced where silver is linked either with a carboxyl group or with an amino group. Upon heating, nanoparticles are generated if the respective ligands are long enough to act as stabilizing agents in the nanoparticulate regime. With decomposition and volatilization of the organic material, the sintering of silver occurs. The thermal characteristics of the carboxylates silver-n-octanoate, silver-n-decanoate, and AgOOC(CH2OCH2)2CH2OCH3 are compared with silver-n-alkylamines (n = 8, 9, and 12), and their thermal behavior is discussed based on thermogravimetry (TG) measurements. The consecutive stages of a metallization process are addressed based on the properties of AgOOC(CH2OCH2)2CH2OCH3, and the usable effects of the individual phases of this metal organic compound are analyzed by cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of silver joints. Selection criteria are addressed based on the thermal behavior. A mechanism for the joining process is proposed, considering formation and sintering of the nanoparticles. It was found that the bulk material can be used for low-temperature joining processes. Strong adherence to copper as a basic material can be achieved.

  2. Consultants Group Meeting on Genetic Sexing and Population Genetics of Screwworms. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    questions can to a large extent be answered using modern molecular techniques of DNA analysis and answers to these questions would provide support for decision makers in the planning and implementation of new SIT programmes. The consultant's reviewed work on both of these subjects during their presentations and discussed if a CRP was the appropriate vehicle to address the problems. Any progress in these areas will be dependent on the creation of a network of scientists and a CRP would be an ideal mechanism for this. The consultants also identified other partners who could interact in a positive way with any new CRP. The number of scientists currently active in the identified areas is not large and it will be important to recruit new people to the field. USDA has already made efforts in this direction both in ARS and APHIS. The consultants concluded that a viable and competent group of scientists could be identified to form the nucleus of a new CRP. A prioritized list of research activities for the CRP was formulated together with relevant institutions and partners. Having decided that a CRP would be an appropriate mechanism to address the R and D problem areas, the consultants developed a draft logical framework and this will be submitted through the appropriate channels to the Research Contracts sub-committee.

  3. Slow and stopped light in active gain composite materials of metal nanoparticles. Ultralarge group index-bandwidth product predicted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang-Hyon; Choe, Song-Hyok [Institute of Lasers, State Academy of Sciences, Unjong District, Pyongyang (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Chip-compatible slow light devices with large group index-bandwidth products and low losses are of great interest in the community of modern photonics. In this work, active gain materials containing metal nanoparticles are proposed as the slow and stopped light materials. Gain-assisted high field enhancement in metal nanoparticles and the resultant strong dispersion lead to such phenomena. From the Maxwell-Garnett model, it is revealed that the metal nanocomposite exhibits the infinitely large group index when the gain of the host medium and the filling factor of metal nanoparticles satisfy a critical condition. For the gain of the host above the critical value, one can observe slowing down effect with amplification of light pulses. Significantly large group index-bandwidth products, which vary from a few to several thousand or even infinity depending on the gain value of the host medium, have been numerically predicted in active silica glasses containing spheroidal metal nanoparticles, as examples. The proposed scheme inherently provides the widely varying operating spectral range by changing the aspect ratio of metal nanoparticles and chip-compatibility with low cost. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principles of activation analysis and the practical aspects of neutron activation analysis are outlined. The limits which are set to accuracy and precision are defined. The description of the evaporation process is summarised in terms of the half-volume. This quantity is then used to define the resolving power. The formulation is checked by radiotracer experiments. Dried animal blood is used as the testing material. The pretreatment of the samples and (the development of) the destruction-evaporation apparatus is described. Four successive devices were built and tested. The development of the successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 is presented. Seven groups of about 25 elements in total can be determined this way. The results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized and compared with literature data. (Auth.)

  5. Determination of Sr, Ba, Rb, and Cs in biological reference materials using a radiochemical NAA group separation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizera, J.; Randa, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Strontium, barium, rubidium, and cesium in selected, predominantly biological, reference materials (NIST 1515, 1547, 1549, 1566a, 1571, 1577b, 2704, CTA-OTL-1, and Bowen's Kale) were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two different analytical modes - instrumental NAA with epithermal neutrons (ENAA), and NAA with radiochemical group separation of Sr-Ba and Rb-Cs (RNAA). The ENAA mode was based on long-term (5 h) irradiation of samples in a Cd shielding. The RNAA procedure was based on long-term (20 h) irradiation of samples, their decomposition / dissolution by alkaline-oxidative fusion, and precipitation of Sr and Ba sulfates, and sorption of Rb and Cs onto ammonium phosphomolybdate (APM). Both methods provided element contents in the analyzed reference materials consistent with certified and/or literature values. (author)

  6. Aminopropyl groups of the functionalized Mobil Crystalline Material 41 as a carrier for controlled diclofenac sodium and piroxicam delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Elham; Ahmadi, Mina; Kamali, Hossein; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic Mobil Crystalline Material 41 (MCM-41) as a mesoporous material and functionalized MCM-41 using aminopropyl groups were studied in order to investigate their ability to encapsulate and to control the release of diclofenac sodium and piroxicam. MCM-41 was synthesized through sol-gel procedure and functionalized with aminopropyl groups. The physicochemical properties of MCM-41 were studied through particle size analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen analysis. Diclofenac sodium and piroxicam were loaded into the MCM-41 matrix using the filtration and solvent evaporation methods. The drug-loading capacity was determined by ultraviolet, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. According to the results for pure drug release, >57% was released in the 1 st h, but when these drugs were loaded into pure Mobil Crystalline Material 41 (MCM-41) and functionalized MCM-41, the release into the simulated gastrointestinal medium was less, continuous, and slower. The release of piroxicam from functionalized MCM-41 was slower than that from MCM-41 in the simulated intestinal medium because of the formation of electrostatic bonds between piroxicam and the aminopropyl groups of the functionalized MCM-41. However, in the case of diclofenac sodium, there was no significant difference between pure MCM-41 and functionalized MCM-41. The difference between piroxicam and diclofenac sodium was due to the high solubility of diclofenac sodium in the intestinal medium (pH 6.8), which caused more rapid release from the matrixes than for piroxicam. Our findings indicate that, after functionalization of MCM-41, it could offer a good means of delivering controlled diclofenac sodium and piroxicam.

  7. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs.

  8. Communication received from the Member States of the European Community regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The document reproduces the text of the note verbale received by the Director General on 30 November 1992 from the Permanent Missions to the Agency of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, relating to the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfer of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material. The note verbale dated 23 November 1992, received by the Director General from the Commission of the European Communities and relating to the same subject, is reproduced as well

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Metallic and Ceramic Components by the Material Extrusion of Highly-Filled Polymers: A Review and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Santiago

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is the fabrication of real three-dimensional objects from metals, ceramics, or plastics by adding material, usually as layers. There are several variants of AM; among them material extrusion (ME) is one of the most versatile and widely used. In MEAM, molten or viscous materials are pushed through an orifice and are selectively deposited as strands to form stacked layers and subsequently a three-dimensional object. The commonly used materials for MEAM are thermoplastic polymers and particulate composites; however, recently innovative formulations of highly-filled polymers (HP) with metals or ceramics have also been made available. MEAM with HP is an indirect process, which uses sacrificial polymeric binders to shape metallic and ceramic components. After removing the binder, the powder particles are fused together in a conventional sintering step. In this review the different types of MEAM techniques and relevant industrial approaches for the fabrication of metallic and ceramic components are described. The composition of certain HP binder systems and powders are presented; the methods of compounding and filament making HP are explained; the stages of shaping, debinding, and sintering are discussed; and finally a comparison of the parts produced via MEAM-HP with those produced via other manufacturing techniques is presented. PMID:29783705

  10. Effect of nano-ZrO2 addition on microstructure, mechanical property and thermal shock behaviour of dense chromic oxide refractory material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lixia; Ding, Chunhui; Zhanga, Chi; Yanga, De'an; Di, Lizhi

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a good performance hot-face lining material in gasifier, nano-ZrO 2 , up to 5 wt %, was added into chromic oxide powder with 3 wt % TiO 2 followed by sintering at 1500°C for 2.5 h. The effect of nano-ZrO 2 addition on microstructure, mechanical property and thermal shock behaviour was studied. ZrO 2 promoted densification at contents higher than 1 wt %. Microcracks and phase transformation toughened the dense chromic oxide refractory material. The main reason for decrease of strength was the existence microcracks in specimens and weakening of intergranular fracture. Dense chromic oxide refractory material with 2∼3 wt % nano-ZrO 2 possessed good densification, uniform microstructure, normal mechanical property and proper thermal shock resistance. The rupture strength retention ratio was nearly twice than that of chromic oxide material without ZrO 2 after three cycles of quenching test from 950°C to cold water. (author)

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Metallic and Ceramic Components by the Material Extrusion of Highly-Filled Polymers: A Review and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Joamin; Cano, Santiago; Schuschnigg, Stephan; Kukla, Christian; Sapkota, Janak; Holzer, Clemens

    2018-05-18

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is the fabrication of real three-dimensional objects from metals, ceramics, or plastics by adding material, usually as layers. There are several variants of AM; among them material extrusion (ME) is one of the most versatile and widely used. In MEAM, molten or viscous materials are pushed through an orifice and are selectively deposited as strands to form stacked layers and subsequently a three-dimensional object. The commonly used materials for MEAM are thermoplastic polymers and particulate composites; however, recently innovative formulations of highly-filled polymers (HP) with metals or ceramics have also been made available. MEAM with HP is an indirect process, which uses sacrificial polymeric binders to shape metallic and ceramic components. After removing the binder, the powder particles are fused together in a conventional sintering step. In this review the different types of MEAM techniques and relevant industrial approaches for the fabrication of metallic and ceramic components are described. The composition of certain HP binder systems and powders are presented; the methods of compounding and filament making HP are explained; the stages of shaping, debinding, and sintering are discussed; and finally a comparison of the parts produced via MEAM-HP with those produced via other manufacturing techniques is presented.

  12. Collaborative Russian-US work in nuclear material protection, control and accounting at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. II. extension to additional facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, V.V.; Pshakin, G.M.; Belov, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    During 1995, collaborative Russian-US nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC ampersand A) tasks at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk, Russia focused on improving the protection of nuclear materials at the BFS Fast Critical Facility. BFS has thousands of fuel disks containing highly enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium that are used to simulate the core configurations of experimental reactors in two critical assemblies. Completed tasks culminated in demonstrations of newly implemented equipment and methods that enhanced the MPC ampersand A at BFS through computerized accounting, nondestructive inventory verification measurements, personnel identification and assess control, physical inventory taking, physical protection, and video surveillance. The collaborative work is now being extended. The additional tasks encompass communications and tamper-indicating devices; new storage alternatives; and systemization of the MPC ampersand A elements that are being implemented

  13. Addition of 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline results in significantly improved anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Ana; Sosič, Izidor; Kos, Špela; Tratar, Urša Lampreht; Breznik, Barbara; Kranjc, Simona; Mirković, Bojana; Gobec, Stanislav; Lah, Tamara; Serša, Gregor; Kos, Janko

    2017-08-29

    Lysosomal cysteine peptidase cathepsin B, involved in multiple processes associated with tumor progression, is validated as a target for anti-cancer therapy. Nitroxoline, a known antimicrobial agent, is a potent and selective inhibitor of cathepsin B, hence reducing tumor progression in vitro and in vivo . In order to further improve its anti-cancer properties we developed a number of derivatives using structure-based chemical synthesis. Of these, the 7-aminomethylated derivative (compound 17 ) exhibited significantly improved kinetic properties over nitroxoline, inhibiting cathepsin B endopeptidase activity selectively. In the present study, we have evaluated its anti-cancer properties. It was more effective than nitroxoline in reducing tumor cell invasion and migration, as determined in vitro on two-dimensional cell models and tumor spheroids, under either endpoint or real time conditions. Moreover, it exhibited improved action over nitroxoline in impairing tumor growth in vivo in LPB mouse fibrosarcoma tumors in C57Bl/6 mice. Taken together, the addition of a 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline at position 7 significantly improves its pharmacological characteristics and its potential for use as an anti-cancer drug.

  14. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-08-21

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4\\',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Influence of Using Fe2O3 Additive Materials of the Calcine Coke's Pellet to Physical Characteristic Product Graphitization at the Temperature 1500 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasilani NS; Tunjung I; Triyono

    2002-01-01

    The pellet's consisted of two size particles calcine coke's are 2 O 3 (0.5%; 0.75% and 1% from total weight) and tar pith, heated, to shaped and pressed into 27 KN. Pellet's baked at 1500 o C temperature with variated time, were tried to characteristic of the resistivity, the density and the hardness. The heated to changed the demention, phases and deformation. At the 1% additive material's of 2-1 code's and 60 minutes roasted, are reached the resistivity 0.597 Ω-cm, the densities 1.182 g/ml, the hardness 17.6 kg/mm 2 . (author)

  16. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie; Gao, Wenyang; Wojtas, Łukasz; Ma, Shengqian; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of Bonding Types and Functional Groups on CO 2 Capture using Novel Multiphase Systems of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2011-08-01

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) which possess unique features including negligible vapor pressure and a high degree of tunability were synthesized and their physical and chemical properties as well as CO 2 capture capacities were investigated. NOHMs can be classified based on the synthesis methods involving different bonding types, the existence of linkers, and the addition of task-specific functional groups including amines for CO 2 capture. As a canopy of polymeric chains was grafted onto the nanoparticle cores, the thermal stability of the resulting NOHMs was improved. In order to isolate the entropy effect during CO 2 capture, NOHMs were first prepared using polymers that do not contain functional groups with strong chemical affinity toward CO 2. However, it was found that even ether groups on the polymeric canopy contributed to CO 2 capture in NOHMs via Lewis acid-base interactions, although this effect was insignificant compared to the effect of task-specific functional groups such as amine. In all cases, a higher partial pressure of CO 2 was more favorable for CO 2 capture, while a higher temperature caused an adverse effect. Multicyclic CO 2 capture tests confirmed superior recyclability of NOHMs and NOHMs also showed a higher selectivity toward CO 2 over N 2O, O 2 and N 2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN GROUP INVESTIGATION DAN LECTURING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PEMAHAMAN MAHASISWA TERHADAP MATERI ENGLISH TEACHING AND LEARNING THEORIES (ELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nikmatul Rabbiyanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Merging two Methods between lecturing and Group Investigation are expected not only to develop active participation of students in the lecturing process but also to develop the ability of creative thinking, collaboration and presenting themselves in public, but the writer keep maintaining the use of lecturing methods to give control to the  delivery of the key points of the materials. The research was conducted on students of D class of the 4th semester, TBI Programs of STAIN Pamekasan at 2013/2014 year, totaling 34 students. The method used was classroom action research by using two cycles, in each cycle consists of Planning, Implementation, and the reflection. The results of this study indicate that, the ability of students' understanding of the course material ELT tends to increase in each cycle, with the average value of pre-cycle test was 45.29, and in the first cycle was 73.09, while in the second cycle was 79.00. with the percentage of completeness in cycle 1 was 85.29% while in the second cycle was 88.23%. Besides, the collaboration of this two models were also able to improve students analytical skills, the ability to express ideas and opinions in English, and also the ability to work together and present themselves in public. Based on the results of the study finally concluded, successful mechanism developed in this study consists of eleven stages, namely 1 the preparation phase, 2 the learning objective delivery, 3 aperseption delivery, 4 the new material delivery, 5 brain storming, 6 topics identification and grouping, 7 distribution of job decriptions, 8 conducting the investigation, 9 preparation of the final report, 10 Present the final report, 11 Evaluation of the achievement

  19. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes in water-ethanol mixtures: negatively charged groups artificially introduced into alpha-chymotrypsin provide additional activation and stabilization effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, E V; Gladilin, A K; Vakurov, A V; Heitz, F; Levashov, A V; Mozhaev, V V

    1997-07-20

    Formation of noncovalent complexes between alpha-chymotrypsin (CT) and a polyelectrolyte, polybrene (PB), has been shown to produce two major effects on enzymatic reactions in binary mixtures of polar organic cosolvents with water. (i) At moderate concentrations of organic cosolvents (10% to 30% v/v), enzymatic activity of CT is higher than in aqueous solutions, and this activation effect is more significant for CT in complex with PB (5- to 7-fold) than for free enzyme (1.5- to 2.5-fold). (ii) The range of cosolvent concentrations that the enzyme tolerates without complete loss of catalytic activity is much broader. For enhancement of enzyme stability in the complex with the polycation, the number of negatively charged groups in the protein has been artificially increased by using chemical modification with pyromellitic and succinic anhydrides. Additional activation effect at moderate concentrations of ethanol and enhanced resistance of the enzyme toward inactivation at high concentrations of the organic solvent have been observed for the modified preparations of CT in the complex with PB as compared with an analogous complex of the native enzyme. Structural changes behind alterations in enzyme activity in water-ethanol mixtures have been studied by the method of circular dichroism (CD). Protein conformation of all CT preparations has not changed significantly up to 30% v/v of ethanol where activation effects in enzymatic catalysis were most pronounced. At higher concentrations of ethanol, structural changes in the protein have been observed for different forms of CT that were well correlated with a decrease in enzymatic activity. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 267-277, 1997.

  1. Optimization of mass spectrometry acquisition parameters for determination of polycarbonate additives, degradation products, and colorants migrating from food contact materials to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Laganà, Carmen; Salvadeo, Paola; Corradini, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The interest towards "substances of emerging concerns" referred to objects intended to come into contact with food is recently growing. Such substances can be found in traces in simulants and in food products put in contact with plastic materials. In this context, it is important to set up analytical systems characterized by high sensitivity and to improve detection parameters to enhance signals. This work was aimed at optimizing a method based on UHPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry to quantify the most common plastic additives, and able to detect the presence of polymers degradation products and coloring agents migrating from plastic re-usable containers. The optimization of mass spectrometric parameter settings for quantitative analysis of additives has been achieved by a chemometric approach, using a full factorial and d-optimal experimental designs, allowing to evaluate possible interactions between the investigated parameters. Results showed that the optimized method was characterized by improved features in terms of sensitivity respect to existing methods and was successfully applied to the analysis of a complex model food system such as chocolate put in contact with 14 polycarbonate tableware samples. A new procedure for sample pre-treatment was carried out and validated, showing high reliability. Results reported, for the first time, the presence of several molecules migrating to chocolate, in particular belonging to plastic additives, such Cyasorb UV5411, Tinuvin 234, Uvitex OB, and oligomers, whose amount was found to be correlated to age and degree of damage of the containers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Preparation and characterization of new dental porcelains, using K-feldspar and quartz raw materials. Effect of B2O3 additions on sintering and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabi, Abdelhamid; Guerfa, Fatiha; Harabi, Esma; Benhassine, Mohamed-Tayeb; Foughali, Lazhar; Zaiou, Soumia

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of temperature and boric oxide (B2O3) addition on sintering and mechanical properties of a newly developed dental porcelain (DP) prepared from local Algerian raw materials. Based on a preliminary work, the new selected composition was 75wt.% feldspar, 20wt.% quartz and 5wt.% kaolin. It was prepared by sintering the mixture at different temperatures (1100-1250°C). The optimum sintering conditions gave a relatively higher density (2.47g/cm(3)) and excellent mechanical properties. The three point flexural strength (3PFS) and Martens micro-hardness of dental porcelains were 149MPa and 2600MPa, respectively. This obtained 3PFS value is more than four times greater than that of hydroxyapatite (HA) value (about 37MPa) sintered under the same conditions. However, the sintering temperature was lowered by about 25 and 50°C for 3 and 5wt.% B2O3 additions, respectively. But, it did not improve furthermore the samples density and their mechanical properties. It has also been found that B2O3 additions provoke a glass matrix composition variation which delays the leucite formation during sintering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis of a stationary phase based on silica modified with branched octadecyl groups by Michael addition and photoinduced thiol-yne click chemistry for the separation of basic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang; Ou, Junjie; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Yongsheng; Wan, Hao; Zhang, Zhang; Peng, Xiaojun; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-04-01

    A novel silica-based stationary phase with branched octadecyl groups was prepared by the sequential employment of the Michael addition reaction and photoinduced thiol-yne click chemistry with 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica microspheres as the initial material. The resulting stationary phase denoted as SiO2 -N(C18)4 was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the existence of branched octadecyl groups in silica microspheres. The separations of benzene homologous compounds, acid compounds and amine analogues were conducted, demonstrating mixed-mode separation mechanism on SiO2 -N(C18)4 . Baseline separation of basic drugs mixture was acquired with the mobile phase of acetonitrile/H2 O (5%, v/v). SiO2 -N(C18)4 was further applied to separate Corydalis yanhusuo Wang water extracts, and more baseline separation peaks were obtained for SiO2 -N(C18)4 than those on Atlantis dC18 column. It can be expected that this new silica-based stationary phase will exhibit great potential in the analysis of basic compounds. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Developing effective communication materials on the health effects of climate change for vulnerable groups: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Price, Katherine M; Sarfaty, Mona

    2016-09-07

    Individuals with chronic health conditions or low socioeconomic status (SES) are more vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. Health communication can provide information on the management of these impacts. This study tested, among vulnerable audiences, whether viewing targeted materials increases knowledge about the health impacts of climate change and strength of climate change beliefs, and whether each are associated with stronger intentions to practice recommended behaviors. Low-SES respondents with chronic conditions were recruited for an online survey in six cities. Respondents were shown targeted materials illustrating the relationship between climate change and chronic conditions. Changes in knowledge and climate change beliefs (pre- and post-test) and behavioral intentions (post-test only) were tested using McNemar tests of marginal frequencies of two binary outcomes or paired t-tests, and multivariable linear regression. Qualitative interviews were conducted among target audiences to triangulate survey findings and make recommendations on the design of messages. Respondents (N = 122) reflected the target population regarding income, educational level and prevalence of household health conditions. (1) Knowledge. Significant increases in knowledge were found regarding: groups that are most vulnerable to heat (children [p concise language, how climate change affects health conditions and how to engage in protective adaptation behaviors.

  5. Group IV Materials for High Performance Methane Sensing in Novel Slot Optical Waveguides at 2.883 μm and 3.39 μm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio M. N. PASSARO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a detailed investigation of novel photonic sensors based on slot waveguides has been carried out. Appropriate alloys of group IV materials, such as germanium (Ge, silicon (Si, carbon (C and tin (Sn, are applied in silicon-on-insulator (SOI technology for homogeneous optical sensing at 2.883 µm and 3.39 μm. Electronic and optical properties of group IV alloys have been investigated. In addition, we have designed novel group IV vertical slot waveguides in order to achieve ultra-high sensitivities, as well as good fabrication tolerances. All these features have been compared with well-known SOI slot waveguides for optical label-free homogeneous sensing at 1.55 µm. In conclusion, theoretical investigation of ring resonators based on these novel slot waveguides has revealed very good results in terms of ultra high sensing performance of methane gas, i.e., limit of detection ~ 3.6×10-5 RIU and wavelength sensitivity > 2×103 nm/RIU.

  6. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 3 (FGE.11Rev3): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical groups 8 and 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 11 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substances......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all candidate substances....

  7. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1): Four carboxamides from Chemical Groups 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate four flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1) using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565...... criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all four candidate substances....

  8. The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) as a means for detecting carbon in GaAs and in source materials and additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Mader, A.; Michelmann, R.; Krauskopf, J.; Thee, P.; Meyer, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear reaction ananlysis (NRA) on the basis of the reaction 12 C (d,p) 13 C is a method allowing the detection and description of both lateral and depth profiles of the presence of carbon in GaAs and in the source materials and additives. The NRA is an absolute method with a detection limit for C of approx. 4x10 15 cm 3 . The achievable detection range in depth under the experimental conditions goes from the surface down to 6 μm. Combined with channeling measurements, NRA is capable of identifying the position of carbon in the GaAs crystal lattice, and thus permits to examine the mobility of C in GaAs. (BBR) With 11 refs [de

  9. Developing effective communication materials on the health effects of climate change for vulnerable groups: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Kreslake

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with chronic health conditions or low socioeconomic status (SES are more vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. Health communication can provide information on the management of these impacts. This study tested, among vulnerable audiences, whether viewing targeted materials increases knowledge about the health impacts of climate change and strength of climate change beliefs, and whether each are associated with stronger intentions to practice recommended behaviors. Methods Low-SES respondents with chronic conditions were recruited for an online survey in six cities. Respondents were shown targeted materials illustrating the relationship between climate change and chronic conditions. Changes in knowledge and climate change beliefs (pre- and post-test and behavioral intentions (post-test only were tested using McNemar tests of marginal frequencies of two binary outcomes or paired t-tests, and multivariable linear regression. Qualitative interviews were conducted among target audiences to triangulate survey findings and make recommendations on the design of messages. Results Respondents (N = 122 reflected the target population regarding income, educational level and prevalence of household health conditions. (1 Knowledge. Significant increases in knowledge were found regarding: groups that are most vulnerable to heat (children [p < 0.001], individuals with heart disease [p < 0.001], or lung disease [p = 0.019]; and environmental conditions that increase allergy-producing pollen (increased heat [p = 0.003], increased carbon dioxide [p < 0.001]. (2 Strength of certainty that climate change is happening increased significantly between pre- and post-test (p < 0.001, as did belief that climate change affected respondents’ health (p < 0.001. (3 Behavioral intention. At post-test, higher knowledge of heat vulnerabilities and environmental conditions that trigger pollen

  10. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  11. Synthesis of Thermally Switchable Chromatographic Materials with Immobilized Ti4+ for Enrichment of Phosphopeptides by Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Cao, Zhihan; Pang, Xinzhu; Deng, Yulin; Li, Bo; Dai, Rongji

    2018-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is one of the most crucial types of post-translational modifications (PTMs). And it shows significant work in diversified biological processes. However, the separation technology of phosphorylated peptides is still an analytical challenge in phosphoproteomics, because phosphopeptides are alway in low stoichiometry. Thus, enrichment of phosphopeptides before detection is indispensable. In this study, a novel temperature regulated separation protocol was developed. Silica@p (NIPAAm-co-IPPA)-Ti4+, a new Ti(IV)-IMAC (Immobilized Metal Affinity chromatography) materials was synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT). By the unique thermally responsive properties of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), the captured phosphorylated peptides could be released by changing temperature only without applying any other eluant which could damage the phosphopeptides. We employed isopropanol phosphonic acid (IPPA) as an IMAC ligand for the immobilization of Ti(IV) which could increase the specific adsorption of phosphopeptides. The enrichment and release properties were examined by treatment with pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP) and casein phosphopeptides (CPP). Two phosphorylated compounds above have temperature-stimulated binding to Ti4+. Finally, silica@p (NIPAAm-co-IPPA)-Ti4+ was successfully employed in pretreatment of phosphopeptides in a tryptic digest of a-casein and human serum albumin (HSA). The results indicated a great potential of this new temperature-responsive material in phosphoproteomics study.

  12. International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology. Summary report of the 14. plenary meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The fourteenth Plenary Meeting of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT) was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, from 21 to 23 May 1997. Twenty-seven participants, from twenty two Member States and two international organizations, attended the meeting. These presentations generally gave: The general situation of the nuclear industry in the country; Fuel fabrication; Fuel performance, high burnup fuel (including MOX) operational experience; Status and trends in fuel research programmes directed to achievement sufficient safety margins at high burnups with regard to normal and transient operational conditions. Majority of countries reported on the stable situation of the nuclear fuel industry, i.e. without significant additions/cuts in nuclear power plant and fuel fabrication plant (NPP) capacities. Refs, figs, tabs

  13. International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology. Summary report of the 14. plenary meeting. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The fourteenth Plenary Meeting of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT) was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, from 21 to 23 May 1997. Twenty-seven participants, from twenty two Member States and two international organizations, attended the meeting. These presentations generally gave: The general situation of the nuclear industry in the country; Fuel fabrication; Fuel performance, high burnup fuel (including MOX) operational experience; Status and trends in fuel research programmes directed to achievement sufficient safety margins at high burnups with regard to normal and transient operational conditions. Majority of countries reported on the stable situation of the nuclear fuel industry, i.e. without significant additions/cuts in nuclear power plant and fuel fabrication plant (NPP) capacities. Refs, figs, tabs.

  14. Review of information on the radiation chemistry of materials around waste canisters in salt and assessment of the need for additional experimental information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenks, G.H.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    The brines, vapors, and salts precipitated from the brines will be exposed to gamma rays and to elevated temperatures in the regions close to a waste package in the salt. Accordingly, they will be subject to changes in composition brought about by reactions induced by the radiations and heat. This report reviews the status of information on the radiation chemistry of brines, gases, and solids which might be present around a waste package in salt and to assess the need for additional laboratory investigations on the radiation chemistry of these materials. The basic aspects of the radiation chemistry of water and aqueous solutions, including concentrated salt solutions, were reviewed briefly and found to be substantially unchanged from those presented in Jenks's 1972 review of radiolysis and hydrolysis in salt-mine brines. Some additional information pertaining to the radiolytic yields and reactions in brine solutions has become available since the previous review, and this information will be useful in the eventual, complete elucidation of the radiation chemistry of the salt-mine brines. 53 references.

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 303 (FGE.303): Spilanthol from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... of the flavouring substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured...... whether the conclusion for the candidate substance can be applied to the material of commerce, it is necessary to consider the available specifications. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have been provided for the flavouring substance...

  16. Effects of HfB2 and HfN Additions on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-Based Ceramic Tool Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Song, Jinpeng; Liang, Guoxing; Gao, Jiaojiao; Xie, Juncai; Cao, Lei; Wang, Shiying; Lv, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also change the morphology of some TiB2 grains from bigger polygons to smaller polygons or longer ovals that are advantageous for forming a relatively fine microstructure, and that the HfN additive had a tendency toward agglomeration. The improvement of flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfB2 ceramics was due to the relatively fine microstructure; the decrease of fracture toughness was ascribed to the formation of a weaker grain boundary strength due to the brittle rim phase and the poor wettability between HfB2 and Ni. The decrease of the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfN ceramics was due to the increase of defects such as TiB2 coarse grains and HfN agglomeration; the enhancement of fracture toughness was mainly attributed to the decrease of the pore number and the increase of the rim phase and TiB2 coarse grains. The toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfB2 ceramics mainly included crack bridging and transgranular fracture, while the toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfN ceramics mainly included crack deflection, crack bridging, transgranular fracture, and the core-rim structure. PMID:28772821

  17. Effects of HfB2 and HfN Additions on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-Based Ceramic Tool Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also change the morphology of some TiB2 grains from bigger polygons to smaller polygons or longer ovals that are advantageous for forming a relatively fine microstructure, and that the HfN additive had a tendency toward agglomeration. The improvement of flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfB2 ceramics was due to the relatively fine microstructure; the decrease of fracture toughness was ascribed to the formation of a weaker grain boundary strength due to the brittle rim phase and the poor wettability between HfB2 and Ni. The decrease of the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfN ceramics was due to the increase of defects such as TiB2 coarse grains and HfN agglomeration; the enhancement of fracture toughness was mainly attributed to the decrease of the pore number and the increase of the rim phase and TiB2 coarse grains. The toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfB2 ceramics mainly included crack bridging and transgranular fracture, while the toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfN ceramics mainly included crack deflection, crack bridging, transgranular fracture, and the core-rim structure.

  18. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 41 candidate substances...

  19. Pyridine group assisted addition of diazo-compounds to imines in the 3-CC reaction of 2-aminopyridines, aldehydes, and diazo-compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, Anton V; Helan, Victoria; Wink, Donald J; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2013-02-15

    A novel three-component coupling (3-CC) reaction of 2-aminoazines, aromatic aldehydes, and diazo-compounds producing polyfunctional β-amino-α-diazo-compounds has been developed. The reaction features an unprecedented heterocycle-assisted addition of a diazo-compound to an imine. The obtained diazoesters were efficiently converted into valuable heterocycles as well as β-amino acid derivatives.

  20. Clinical control and histopathologic outcome of asthma when using airway hyperresponsiveness as an additional guide to long-term treatment. The AMPUL Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sont, J. K.; Willems, L. N.; Bel, E. H.; van Krieken, J. H.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; Sterk, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    According to international guidelines, the level and adjustment of antiinflammatory treatment for asthma are based solely on symptoms and lung function. We investigated whether a treatment strategy aimed at reducing airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR strategy) in addition to the recommendations in the

  1. Analytical scheme for group separation of the lanthanides from biological materials before their determination by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danko, B.; Samczynski, Z.; Dybczynski, R.

    2006-01-01

    The analytical procedure for the selective and quantitative isolation of the lanthanides as a group from biological materials has been developed on the basis of experiments with radio-tracers. Ion exchange and extraction column chromatography were used for the isolation of elements of interest from matrix and the other trace elements prior to irradiation in a nuclear reactor. The method enables quantitative separation of the lanthanide fraction, free from highly activating macro components, as well as from other trace elements including uranium, which can be the source of serious errors due to uranium 235 U fission reaction (n,f). In order to minimize the potential spectrometric interferences lanthanide fraction after neutron irradiation was divided into two sub-fractions, taking advantage of the different anion exchange affinities of individual lanthanide complexes with EDTA to strongly basic anion exchanger. The effective microwave digestion procedures for ca 500 mg biological samples was elaborated and the new, original method for checking the yield of the entire analytical procedure - including mineralization of the sample - was applied. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) of BCR 670 Aquatic Plant ? one of the only two CRMs of biological origin available on the market, which offers the certified values for all lanthanides was used for verification of performance of the proposed analytical scheme. (authors)

  2. 41 CFR 101-42.1101 - Federal supply classification (FSC) groups and classes which contain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., building paper, and thermal insulation materials Asbestos cloth which has loose fibers or particles that... shipment. 5965 Headsets, handsets, microphones, and speakers Items containing magnetic material. 5970... hazardous chemicals, solvents. 6625 Electrical and electronic properties measuring and testing instruments...

  3. Characterisation of corn extrudates with the addition of brewers' spent grain as a raw material for the production of functional batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żelaziński, Tomasz; Ekielski, Adam; Siwek, Adam; Dardziński, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Novel food batters, recommended for various products, are at present manufactured by extru- sion. Thanks to this, it is possible to look for and process new raw materials, if their processing has so far been considered impossible or economically unviable. The purpose of the work was therefore to investigate the extrudates produced from the corn and brewers' spent grain compounds that are subsequently used as raw material for food batter production. The work presents the findings of research on extrusion of corn mixes with varying levels of brewers' spent grains, to the maximum amount of 30%. Tests were conducted using a co-rotating double screw extruder, equipped with a single-outlet matrix with a diameter of 2.5mm. The products obtained were subjected to analysis of their parameters (apparent density, strength parameters, abrasiveness index) and the granulation of a single fraction was checked. The sample for which the percentage content was the highest was subjected to a detailed analysis of particle shape using vision software. It was found that an increase in the content of brewers' spent grains resulted in increased hardness of the products obtained. During the tests it was observed that the increasing hardness of the measured sam- ples is opposite to their abrasion resistance. The maximum decrement of the brasion parameters was seen for extrudates with 30% spent grain addition and was 1.4%, while the minimum decrement values for extrudates with brewers' grain content (10%) amounted to 0.85%. It was noted that this may prove the high brittleness of such products, particularly on the outer surface. It was also observed that lower grindability was recorded for samples produced by extrusion at a temperature of 140°C. On the other hand, higher grindability obtained at a temperature of 120°C may facilitate the grinding of such products, which may be particularly important in the production of food batter. Brewers' spent grains used as an addition to corn groats

  4. Pyridine Group-Assisted Addition of Diazo-Compounds to Imines in the 3-CC Reaction of 2-Aminopyridines, Aldehydes, and Diazo-Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, Anton V.; Helan, Victoria; Wink, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    A novel three-component (3-CC) coupling reaction of 2-aminoazines, aromatic aldehydes and diazo-compounds producing polyfunctional β-amino-α-diazo-compounds has been developed. The reaction features an unprecedented heterocycle-assisted addition of a diazo-compound to an imine. The obtained diazoesters were efficiently converted into valuable heterocycles, as well as to β-amino acid derivatives. PMID:23373731

  5. Recent works carried out at the IDIEM by the group in charge of probabilistic strength of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittl, P.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available This updating review describes, from the conceptual standpoint, all the research works so far carried out at the IDIEM by the group in charge of Probabilistic Strength of Materials as well as research activities under way at present. This description considers three aspects. First, the general purposes of the commented discipline and the discussion of its theoretical foundations are presented. In the second place, an analysis is conducted in connection with materials subjected to diverse stresses of tension, compression, shearing, bending, torsion, eccentrical bending, and also subjected to buckling, eccentrical compressive and eccentrical tensile stresses: in all these cases the pertaining parameters of Weibull's function are determined. Thirdly, sundry engineering applications of said discipline are set out in such fields as, for example, soil mechanics, rock mechanics, seismology, nuclear reactors industry, fatigue, and concrete pavements. At last a brief description of research work now in progress is given.

    Se describen, desde un punto de vista conceptual, todos los trabajos desarrollados hasta la fecha por el grupo de Resistencia Probabilística de Materiales del IDIEM así como los que están actualmente en ejecución. Se consideran tres aspectos en la descripción. En primer lugar, se comentan los objetivos generales de la disciplina discutiendo su fundamentación teórica. En segundo lugar, se analizan casos de materiales sometidos a esfuerzos de tracción, compresión, corte, flexión, torsión, flexión excéntrica, pandeo, compresión y tracción excéntricas y la consecuente determinación de los parámetros de la función de Weibull en todos ellos. En tercer lugar, se mencionan las aplicaciones que esta disciplina tiene en la ingeniería, tales como en: mecánica de suelos, mecánica de rocas, fatiga, pavimentos de hormigón, sismología, industria nuclear, entre otras. Por último, se hace una sucinta descripción de los

  6. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of additives in the baking of electrolytic materials for SOFC; SOFC yo denkaishitsu zairyo no shoseiji ni okeru tenkabutsu no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, H. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-09-10

    A technique is discovered for improving on the baking properties of cerium oxide which is one of the solid electrolytic materials for SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell). Cerium oxide, samarium oxide, and gallium oxide are weighed, each to the specified element ratio. The element ratio of cerium is fixed at 0.8 against the other elements except oxygen, and the element ratios of samarium or gallium are caused to change. Specimens containing gallium are designated as CSGa, those not containing as SDC. SDC baked at 1600degC and CSGa (1%) baked at 1450degC are similar to each other in terms of average grain diameter. Specimens with gallium added thereto can be baked at temperatures that are lower than these by approximately 150degC. The conductivity of CSGa (0.2%) baked at 1500degC is higher than that of SDC baked at the same temperature, and is similar to that of SDC baked at 1600degC. Baking is enhanced by the addition of 0.2% gallium. In the domain where more than 1% of gallium is in presence, conductivity lowers with an increase in the amount of gallium added. The conductivity of CSGa (1%) baked at 1450degC is similar to that of SDC baked at 1600degC. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well

  9. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 5 (FGE.21Rev5): Thiazoles, thiophenes, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical groups 29 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 41 flavouring substances in Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 5, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... have also been considered. Adequate specifications, including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce, have been provided for all 41 candidate substances....

  10. On the nature of the electronic effect of multiple hydroxyl groups in the 6-membered ring - the effects are additive but steric hindrance plays a role too

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Bols, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Research during the last two decades has shown a remarkable directional component of the substituent effects of hydroxy groups, which has a profound effect on the properties of hydroxylated compounds such as carbohydrates. While the epimerisation of a single hydroxyl function is well studied...... synthesized and their pKa and conformation were studied. The results show that the large difference in the electronic effect between the axial and equatorial hydroxyls is partially cancelled by counteracting steric hindrance from 1,3-diaxial interactions. Hydrogen bonding does not appear to play any role...

  11. Outcomes of Total Parathyroidectomy with Autotransplantation versus Subtotal Parathyroidectomy with Routine Addition of Thymectomy to both Groups: Single Center Experience of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kaan Parsak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common acquired disorder seen in chronic renal failure. It may result in potentially serious complications including metabolic bone diseases, severe atherosclerosis and undesirable cardiovascular events. Parathyroidectomy is required in about 20% of patients after 3-10 years of dialysis and in up to 40% after 20 years. Aims: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism who had undergone total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation and thymectomy or subtotal parathyroidectomy with thymectomy by the same surgical team during the study period. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: Clinical data of 50 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery for secondary hyperparathyroidism between 2003 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two subgroups of total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation or subtotal parathyroidectomy. Thymectomy was routinely performed for both groups. Short term outcome parameters included intact parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels. Bone pain, bone fractures, persistent or recurrent disease were included in long term outcome parameters. Results: The mean duration of dialysis was eight years. The mean ionized calcium levels dropped significantly in the total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation group (p=0.016. No serious postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative intravenous calcium supplementation was required in four patients in the total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation group (total PTX+AT and in three patients in the subtotal parathyroidectomy group (subtotal PTX. Postoperatively, all patients received oral calcium carbonate and calcitriol. The length of average hospital stay was 5 (3-10 days. Including nine patients who underwent successful renal transplantation pre-operative bone

  12. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 303, Revision 1 (FGE.303Rev1): Spilanthol from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the flavouring substance spilanthol [FL-no: 16.121] in Flavouring Group Evaluation 303, Revision 1, using the Procedure according to Commission Regulation...... (MSDI) approach. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substance, the specifications for the material of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have been provided for the candidate substance....

  13. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 3 (FGE.25Rev3): Aliphatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... on the basis of the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity and identity criteria for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 14...

  14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 310 (FGE.310): Rebaudioside A from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate rebaudioside A [FL-no: 16.113], a steviol glycoside. The substance was not considered to have genotoxic potential. Since a comprehensive and adequate...... toxicological database, including human studies, is available for steviol glycosides, the Panel based its evaluation of rebaudioside A on a comparison of the ADI of 4 mg/kg bw, expressed as steviol, established by EFSA, with the estimated dietary exposure figures based on the MSDI and mTAMDI approaches....... The Panel concluded that rebaudioside A [FL-no: 16.113] would not give rise to safety concerns at the estimated level of intake arising from its use as flavouring substance....

  15. Consultants Group Meeting on Development of Cost-Effective Diets for Use in Mass Production of Tsetse Flies. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    The increasing demand for employing tsetse SIT for area-wide tsetse and trypanosomosis management programmes on mainland Africa has compelled the IAEA to concentrate on the development of semi-automated processes for standardising laborious and quality sensitive components of the sterile male mass production. The size of facilities required to produce the sterile males will continue to increase with time and demand. The current diet for tsetse is decontaminated vertebrate blood and it will need to be supplied to centres without access to a suitable local blood source. In view of the increasing demand for sterile male tsetse and uncertainty of obtaining high quality decontaminated blood locally, ways need to be explored to ensure availability of inexpensive, standard quality diets. Towards this goal a consultants group meeting on the development of cost-effective diets for tsetse was held at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria from 17 to 21 July 2000. The major objective of the consultants group meeting was to identify research that is needed to ensure the availability of large quantities of high quality diet for tsetse mass production. Seven papers were presented and discussed. A visit was made to the Entomology Unit, at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories, Seibersdorf to see the present tsetse rearing facility and the various steps of blood processing and quality assurance used in the evaluation of blood quality before use for colony feeding. The meeting noted that commercially available products are used to prepare standard diets for screwworm mass production. These products have not yet been adequately evaluated for tsetse. However, it is necessary to improve the current procedure applied to the use fresh blood. Possibilities of utilising commercially available dietary ingredients should also be explored. A three-step approach was proposed: Improvement and optimisation of the current blood collection, processing etc.; Use of additives

  16. Ionic liquid as a mobile phase additive in high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of eleven fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Chen, Xianbo; Qiu, Bin; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Juan; Luo, Yan; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, 11 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents with different numbers of sulfonic acid groups were separated by using an ionic liquid as a mobile phase additive in high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The effects of ionic liquid concentration, pH of mobile phase B, and composition of mobile phase A on the separation of fluorescent whitening agents were systematically investigated. The ionic liquid tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate is superior to tetrabutylammomnium bromide for the separation of the fluorescent whitening agents. The optimal separation conditions were an ionic liquid concentration at 8 mM and the pH of mobile phase B at 8.5 with methanol as mobile phase A. The established method exhibited low limits of detection (0.04-0.07 ng/mL) and wide linearity ranges (0.30-20 ng/mL) with high linear correlation coefficients from 0.9994 to 0.9998. The optimized procedure was applied to analyze target analytes in paper samples with satisfactory results. Eleven target analytes were quantified, and the recoveries of spiked paper samples were in the range of 85-105% with the relative standard deviations from 2.1 to 5.1%. The obtained results indicated that the method was efficient for detection of 11 fluorescent whitening agents. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Biphasic DC measurement approach for enhanced measurement stability and multi-channel sampling of self-sensing multi-functional structural materials doped with carbon-based additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Austin; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Ubertini, Filippo; Laflamme, Simon; Geiger, Randall

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of multi-functional carbon-based self-sensing structural materials for structural health monitoring applications is a topic of growing interest. These materials are self-sensing in the sense that they can provide measurable electrical outputs corresponding to physical changes such as strain or induced damage. Nevertheless, the development of an appropriate measurement technique for such materials is yet to be achieved, as many results in the literature suggest that these materials exhibit a drift in their output when measured with direct current (DC) methods. In most of the cases, the electrical output is a resistance and the reported drift is an increase in resistance from the time the measurement starts due to material polarization. Alternating current methods seem more appropriate at eliminating the time drift. However, published results show they are not immune to drift. Moreover, the use of multiple impedance measurement devices (LCR meters) does not allow for the simultaneous multi-channel sampling of multi-sectioned self-sensing materials due to signal crosstalk. The capability to simultaneously monitor multiple sections of self-sensing structural materials is needed to deploy these multi-functional materials for structural health monitoring. Here, a biphasic DC measurement approach with a periodic measure/discharge cycle in the form of a square wave sensing current is used to provide consistent, stable resistance measurements for self-sensing structural materials. DC measurements are made during the measurement region of the square wave while material depolarization is obtained during the discharge region of the periodic signal. The proposed technique is experimentally shown to remove the signal drift in a carbon-based self-sensing cementitious material while providing simultaneous multi-channel measurements of a multi-sectioned self-sensing material. The application of the proposed electrical measurement technique appears promising for real

  18. Advisory group meeting on safeguards related to final disposal of nuclear material in waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with Section 11 of INFCIRC/153 which provides for the possible termination of safeguards based on a determination that the nuclear material in question has been consumed, has been diluted, or has become practicably irrecoverable. Two distinctly different categories of nuclear material have been suggested for possible termination of safeguards based on a determination that the nuclear material has become practicably irrecoverable: One relates to a variety of low concentration waste materials, meaning thereby materials which the State or plant operator considers to be of questionable economic recoverability and the other relates to the spent fuel placed in facilities described as ''permanent repositories'' which are at least claimed to represent ''final disposal'' facilities and are candidates for a possible determination of practicably irrecoverable. 26 refs, tabs

  19. Comparison of the reactivity of the materials having two different kinds of functional groups by applying hydrogen-isotope exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, H.; Yumoto, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrogen-isotope exchange reaction between m- (or p-) aminobenzoic acid and HTO vapor has been observed in order to estimate the scale of the reactivity of the material. Each rate constant has been obtained by the A''-McKay plot method. Comparing the rate constants, the following three items have been confirmed: (1) the reactivity of both COOH and NH 2 groups increases with temperature; (2) the degree of the effect of the COOH (or NH 2 ) group on the reactivity in m-aminobenzoic acid is larger than that in p-aminobenzoic acid; (3) the A''-McKay plot method is useful in studying the reactivity of the materials not only with one (or the same kinds of) functional group(s), but also with two different kinds of functional groups. (orig.)

  20. A lifetime extension project for the PHENIX reactor: additional knowledge regarding the in-service behaviour of its materials and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Jerrige, L.; Forgeron, T.; Devos, J.

    2000-01-01

    The PHENIX Life Extension Project groups together all the actions required to pursue operation of the reactor, particularly with a view to performing irradiation experiments in the framework of the back-end of the fuel cycle programs. As such, it comprises a series of investigations whose objective is to assess the state of the reactor after about one hundred thousand hours of operation. The following points have been particularly investigated: the materials behavior (austenitic, austeno-ferritic, and ferritic steels base metal, welds, heat affected zones) in terms of thermal aging and its effect on mechanical properties, embrittlement, sensitiveness to corrosion (in normal and incidental environment), and radiation effect on the potentially exposed structures. Furthermore, specific programs have been devoted to the assessment of thermo-mechanical response of some particular components. This concerns some types of welds with regard to fatigue or creep fatigue, some parts of large shells with regard to ratchetting and buckling, and main secondary piping. An extensive program was dedicated to the recovery of the thermo-mechanical damage undergone by the structures and its extrapolation to the future. This has led to consider in details thermo-hydraulic effects such as fluctuations in streams and bedding zones. Some intergranular cracking of welded joints had to be closely examined; this was achieved by a research work that has produced important advancements in that field. With the aim of evaluating potential defects, real progresses have been made in the knowledge of large defect's behavior in thin shells. The feedback of the examination and studies was also derived in terms of relevance of manufacturing, exploitation and monitoring conditions. It is believed that this experience will be useful for future design rules. (author)

  1. Solid-phase extraction of the alcohol abuse biomarker phosphatidylethanol using newly synthesized polymeric sorbent materials containing quaternary heterocyclic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mariana; Jagadeesan, Kishore Kumar; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Laurell, Thomas; Ekström, Simon

    2017-10-13

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an interesting biomarker finding increased use for detecting long term alcohol abuse with high specificity and sensitivity. Prior to detection, sample preparation is an unavoidable step in the work-flow of PEth analysis and new protocols may facilitate it. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a versatile sample preparation method widely spread in biomedical laboratories due to its simplicity of use and the possibility of automation. In this work, SPE was used for the first time to directly extract PEth from spiked human plasma and spiked human blood. A library of polymeric SPE materials with different surface functionalities was screened for PEth extraction in order to identify the surface characteristics that control PEth retention and recovery. The plasma samples were diluted 1:10 (v/v) in water and spiked at different concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 5μM. The library of SPE materials was then evaluated using the proposed SPE method and detection was done by LC-MS/MS. One SPE material efficiently retained and recovered PEth from spiked human plasma. With this insight, four new SPE materials were formulated and synthesized based on the surface characteristics of the best SPE material found in the first screening. These new materials were tested with spiked human blood, to better mimic a real clinical sample. All the newly synthetized materials outperformed the pre-existing commercially available materials. Recovery values for the new SPE materials were found between 29.5% and 48.6% for the extraction of PEth in spiked blood. A material based on quaternized 1-vinylimidazole with a poly(trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) backbone was found suitable for PEth extraction in spiked blood showing the highest analyte recovery in this experiment, 48.6%±6.4%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of fluorouracil with additional levamisole, higher-dose folinic acid, or both, as adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: a randomised trial. QUASAR Collaborative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-06

    Standard adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer consists of fluorouracil with folinic acid or levamisole. The large QUASAR randomised trial aimed to investigate (in a two x two design) whether use of a higher dose of folinic acid or addition of levamisole to fluorouracil and folinic acid improved survival. Patients with colorectal cancer, without evident residual disease, were randomly assigned fluorouracil (370 mg/m2) with high-dose (175 mg) or low-dose (25 mg) L-folinic acid and either active or placebo levamisole. The fluorouracil and folinic acid could be given either as six 5-day courses with 4 weeks between the start of the courses or as 30 once-weekly doses. Levamisole (50 mg) or placebo was given three times daily for 3 days repeated every 2 weeks for 12 courses. The primary endpoint was mortality from any cause. Analyses were by intention to treat. Between 1994 and 1997, 4,927 patients were enrolled. 1,776 had recurrences and 1,576 died. Survival was similar with high-dose and low-dose folinic acid (70.1% vs 71.0% at 3 years; p=0-43), as were 3-year recurrence rates (36.0% vs 35.8%; p=0.94). Survival was worse with levamisole than with placebo (69.4% vs 71.5% at 3 years; p=0.06), and there were more recurrences with the active drug (37.0% vs 34.9% at 3 years; p=0.16). The inclusion of levamisole in chemotherapy regimens for colorectal cancer does not delay recurrence or improve survival. Higher-dose folinic acid produced no extra benefit in these regimens over that from low-dose folinic acid. Trials of chemotherapy versus no chemotherapy will show whether these four treatments are equally effective or equally ineffective.

  3. The Cryogenic Impact Resistant Evaluation of Composite Materials for Use in Composite Pressure Vessels with an Additional Cryogenic Bonding Scope, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of the proposed effort is to investigate the detailed composite material performance characteristics after being subjected to cryogenic temperatures and...

  4. Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Authorization and Short-Term FATE (STFATE) Model Analysis: 2014-2015 Working Group Findings Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    fractions A grain size or sieve analysis typically yields the mass fraction of each particle size class after dispersing all of the material. However...ER D C TR -1 6- 2 Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Authorization and Short-Term FATE (STFATE) Model Analysis 2014 – 2015...Term FATE (STFATE) Model Analysis 2014 – 2015 Working Group Findings Report Jase D. Ousley Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer

  5. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  6. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2 (FGE.24Rev2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 24 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 24 candidate substances....

  7. An Interactive Signed Distance Approach for Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Based on Simple Additive Weighting Method with Incomplete Preference Information Defined by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Ting-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Interval type-2 fuzzy sets (T2FSs) with interval membership grades are suitable for dealing with imprecision or uncertainties in many real-world problems. In the Interval type-2 fuzzy context, the aim of this paper is to develop an interactive signed distance-based simple additive weighting (SAW) method for solving multiple criteria group decision-making problems with linguistic ratings and incomplete preference information. This paper first formulates a group decision-making problem with unc...

  8. Effects of Flipped Learning Using Online Materials in a Surgical Nursing Practicum: A Pilot Stratified Group-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Park, Bu Kyung

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effect of flipped learning in comparison to traditional learning in a surgical nursing practicum. The subjects of this study were 102 nursing students in their third year of university who were scheduled to complete a clinical nursing practicum in an operating room or surgical unit. Participants were randomly assigned to either a flipped learning group (n = 51) or a traditional learning group (n = 51) for the 1-week, 45-hour clinical nursing practicum. The flipped-learning group completed independent e-learning lessons on surgical nursing and received a brief orientation prior to the commencement of the practicum, while the traditional-learning group received a face-to-face orientation and on-site instruction. After the completion of the practicum, both groups completed a case study and a conference. The student's self-efficacy, self-leadership, and problem-solving skills in clinical practice were measured both before and after the one-week surgical nursing practicum. Participants' independent goal setting and evaluation of beliefs and assumptions for the subscales of self-leadership and problem-solving skills were compared for the flipped learning group and the traditional learning group. The results showed greater improvement on these indicators for the flipped learning group in comparison to the traditional learning group. The flipped learning method might offer more effective e-learning opportunities in terms of self-leadership and problem-solving than the traditional learning method in surgical nursing practicums.

  9. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of

  10. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    remediation and special health-care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required; and to accept the following Terms of Reference (TOR) of the Forum. The objectives of the Chernobyl Forum were defined as follows: To explore and refine the current scientific assessments on the long-term health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, with a view to producing authoritative consensus statements focusing on: the health effects attributable to radiation exposure caused by the accident, the environmental consequences induced by the radioactive materials released due to the accident, e.g., contamination of foodstuffs, and additionally to address the consequences attributable to the accident although not directly related to the radiation exposure or radioactive contamination; To identify gaps in scientific research relevant to the radiation-induced or radioactive contamination-induced health and environmental impacts of the accident, and suggest areas where further work is required based on an assessment of the work done in the past, and bearing in mind ongoing work and projects; To provide advice on, and to facilitate implementation of scientifically sound programmes on mitigation of the accident consequences, including possible joint actions of the organizations participating in the Forum, such as: agricultural, economic and social life under safe conditions, special health care of the affected population, monitoring of the long-term human exposure to radiation, and addressing the environmental issues pertaining to the decommissioning of the Shelter and management of radioactive waste originating from the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl Forum itself continued as a high-level organisation of senior officials from UN agencies and the three more affected countries. The actual work has been accomplished by two expert groups: Expert Group -Environment - (EGE) and Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Members of each of these two groups consisted of

  11. Further karyosystematic studies of the Boreonectesgriseostriatus (De Geer) group of sibling species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)-characterisation of B.emmerichi (Falkenström, 1936) and additional European data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Robert B; Angus, Elizabeth M; Jia, Fenglong; Chen, Zhen-Ning; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A lectotype is designated for the Tibetan species Deronectesemmerichi Falkenström, 1936 (Currently Boreonectesemmerichi (Falkenström)), and its habitus, as well as the median lobe and parameres of its aedeagus, are figured along with additional comparative material. Material of Boreonectesemmerichi from Sikkim (BMNH) represents the first record of a Boreonectes Angus, 2010 species from India. The karyotype of Boreonectesemmerichi is described as having 26 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). The karyotype is most like that of Boreonectesmacedonicus (Géuorguiev, 1959), but with slight differences. Additional chromosomal information is given for Boreonectesgriseostriatusgriseostriatus (De Geer, 1774) in the French Alps, Boreonectesgriseostriatusstrandi (Brinck, 1943) on the Kola Peninsula, Boreonectesmultilineatus (Falkenström, 1922) in the Pyrenees and Boreonectesibericus (Dutton & Angus, 2007) in the Spanish Picos de Europa.

  12. Further karyosystematic studies of the Boreonectes griseostriatus (De Geer) group of sibling species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)–characterisation of B. emmerichi (Falkenström, 1936) and additional European data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Robert B.; Angus, Elizabeth M.; Jia, Fenglong; Chen, Zhen-ning; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A lectotype is designated for the Tibetan species Deronectes emmerichi Falkenström, 1936 (Currently Boreonectes emmerichi (Falkenström)), and its habitus, as well as the median lobe and parameres of its aedeagus, are figured along with additional comparative material. Material of Boreonectes emmerichi from Sikkim (BMNH) represents the first record of a Boreonectes Angus, 2010 species from India. The karyotype of Boreonectes emmerichi is described as having 26 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). The karyotype is most like that of Boreonectes macedonicus (Géuorguiev, 1959), but with slight differences. Additional chromosomal information is given for Boreonectes griseostriatus griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774) in the French Alps, Boreonectes griseostriatus strandi (Brinck, 1943) on the Kola Peninsula, Boreonectes multilineatus (Falkenström, 1922) in the Pyrenees and Boreonectes ibericus (Dutton & Angus, 2007) in the Spanish Picos de Europa. PMID:25893080

  13. Further karyosystematic studies of the Boreonectes griseostriatus (De Geer group of sibling species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae–characterisation of B. emmerichi (Falkenström, 1936 and additional European data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Angus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A lectotype is designated for the Tibetan species Deronectes emmerichi Falkenström, 1936 (Currently Boreonectes emmerichi (Falkenström, and its habitus, as well as the median lobe and parameres of its aedeagus, are figured along with additional comparative material. Material of B. emmerichi from Sikkim (BMNH represents the first record of a Boreonectes Angus, 2010 species from India. The karyotype of B. emmerichi is described as having 26 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂, XX (♀. The karyotype is most like that of B. macedonicus (Géuorguiev, 1959, but with slight differences. Additional chromosomal information is given for B. griseostriatus griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774 in the French Alps, B. g. strandi (Brinck, 1943 on the Kola Peninsula, B. multilineatus (Falkenström, 1922 in the Pyrenees and B. ibericus (Dutton & Angus, 2007 in the Spanish Picos de Europa.

  14. A tailored biocatalyst achieved by the rational anchoring of imidazole groups on a natural polymer: furnishing a potential artificial nuclease by sustainable materials engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José G L; Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Oliveira, Marco A S; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C; Orth, Elisa S

    2015-04-11

    Foreseeing the development of artificial enzymes by sustainable materials engineering, we rationally anchored reactive imidazole groups on gum arabic, a natural biocompatible polymer. The tailored biocatalyst GAIMZ demonstrated catalytic activity (>10(5)-fold) in dephosphorylation reactions with recyclable features and was effective in cleaving plasmid DNA, comprising a potential artificial nuclease.

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 309 (FGE.309): Sodium Diacetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate sodium diacetate [FL-no: 16.073] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 309, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. However, although...

  16. Certification of B-group vitamins (b1, b2, b6, and b12) in four food reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollilainen, V.; Finglas, P.M.; Berg, H. van den; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality

  17. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  18. Natural benz(a)pyrene content in wood (in relation to wood application as a raw material for nontraditional feed additives and drugs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostenko, L.D.; Dikun, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    Products prepared from wood (straw, peat) using different methods of treatment of the initial raw material and semifinished products - radiolysis by gamma-radiation and fast electrons, alkali or acid hydrolysis, treatment with ultrasound have been studied. Despite the differences in technological method in some experiments increased concentrations of benz (a) pyrene (as compared with its content in the initial raw material) are detected in the products. It can not be accepted as an unambiguous proof of carcinogene formation as a result of the technological process. Nevertheless it is recommended to take the phenomenon into account when evaluating degree of carcinogenous danger of such products for living organisms

  19. The application of radiochronometry during the 4th collaborative materials exercise of the nuclear forensics international technical working group (ITWG)

    OpenAIRE

    KRISTO M.; WILLIAMS ROSS; GAFFNEY AMY; KAYZAR-BOGGS THERESA; SCHOZMAN KERRI; LAGERKVIST P.; VESTERLUND ANNA; RAMEBÄCK HENRIK; NELWAMONDO AUBREY; KOTZE DEON; SONG KYUSEOK; LIM SANG HO; HAN SUN-HO; LEE CHI-GYU; OKUBO AYAKO

    2018-01-01

    In a recent international exercise, 10 international nuclear forensics laboratories successfully performed radiochronometry on three low enriched uranium oxide samples, providing 12 analytical results using three different parent-daughter pairs serving as independent chronometers. The vast majority of the results were consistent with one another and consistent with the known processing history of the materials. In general, for these particular samples, mass spectrometry gave more ...

  20. Data on synthesis and thermo-mechanical properties of stimuli-responsive rubber materials bearing pendant anthracene groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Jakob; Ayalur-Karunakaran, Santhosh; Radl, Simone; Oesterreicher, Andreas; Moser, Andreas; Ganser, Christian; Teichert, Christian; Pinter, Gerald; Kern, Wolfgang; Griesser, Thomas; Schlögl, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    The photo-reversible [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene moieties represents a convenient strategy to impart wavelength dependent properties into hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (HXNBR) networks. The present article provides the 1 H NMR data on the reaction kinetics of the side chain functionalization of HXNBR. 2-(Anthracene-9-yl)oxirane with reactive epoxy groups is covalently attached to the polymer side chain of HXNBR via ring opening reaction between the epoxy and the carboxylic groups. Along with the identification, 1 H NMR data on the quantification of the attached functional groups are shown in dependence on reaction time and concentration of 2-(anthracene-9-yl)oxirane. Changes in the modification yield are reflected in the mechanical properties and DMA data of photo-responsive elastomers are illustrated in dependence on the number of attached anthracene groups. DMA curves over repeated cycles of UV induced crosslinking ( λ >300 nm) and UV induced cleavage ( λ =254 nm) are further depicted, demonstrating the photo-reversibility of the thermo-mechanical properties. Interpretation and discussion of the data are provided in "Design and application of photo-reversible elastomer networks by using the [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene groups" (Manhart et al., 2016) [1].

  1. LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

    2010-09-05

    The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Food additives URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  3. 49 CFR 173.133 - Assignment of packing group and hazard zones for Division 6.1 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Packing group Oral toxicity LD50 (mg/kg) Dermal toxicity LD50 (mg/kg) Inhalation toxicity by dusts and mists LC50 (mg/L) I ≤5.0 ≤50 ≤0.2 II >5.0 and ≤50 >50 and ≤200 >0.2 and ≤2.0 III >50 and ≤300 >200 and... table: Packing Group Vapor concentration and toxicity I (Hazard Zone A) V ≥ 500 LC50 and LC50 ≤ 200 mL...

  4. Impact of pozzolanic binder addition on stabilization of polluted dredged sediments on its potential reuse as a new material resource for road construction in Basse Normandie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, E.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the increase of the amount of marine dredged sediments (MDS) and the cost of managing the disposal site is very high, a reutilization of dredged sediment is urgently needed in France. The primary goal of this research is to find a domain for reuse of MDS materials as a new material regarding the environmental issues, and other requirement needed. In this study, the MDS was used as replacement material in road construction. Hence, various tests need to be realized to identify if MDS could achieve the requirement needed in this domain. The secondary objective is to enhance the geotechnical characteristic and to reduce the pollution content of the MDS, by incorporating binders and sediments, and revealed the geotechnical characteristic. The geotechnical test result shows that the stabilization by hydraulics binders improve the geotechnical characteristic and could fulfil the requirement needed. The present of Fly Ash and Silica Fume in this study is aimed to reduce the pollution level, especially the heavy metal content. After the geotechnical study in laboratory results shows as expected then the study to identify the chemical characteristic was realized. In order to evaluate the environmental impacts, leaching test was performed. The Leaching test result shows that with 7% of Silica Fume and 10% of Fly Ash capable to fulfil the criteria needed, hence, the use of MDS is consider safe in term of geotechnical and environmental impact, as a new material in road construction

  5. Data on synthesis and thermo-mechanical properties of stimuli-responsive rubber materials bearing pendant anthracene groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Manhart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The photo-reversible [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene moieties represents a convenient strategy to impart wavelength dependent properties into hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (HXNBR networks. The present article provides the 1H NMR data on the reaction kinetics of the side chain functionalization of HXNBR. 2-(Anthracene-9-yloxirane with reactive epoxy groups is covalently attached to the polymer side chain of HXNBR via ring opening reaction between the epoxy and the carboxylic groups. Along with the identification, 1H NMR data on the quantification of the attached functional groups are shown in dependence on reaction time and concentration of 2-(anthracene-9-yloxirane. Changes in the modification yield are reflected in the mechanical properties and DMA data of photo-responsive elastomers are illustrated in dependence on the number of attached anthracene groups. DMA curves over repeated cycles of UV induced crosslinking (λ>300 nm and UV induced cleavage (λ=254 nm are further depicted, demonstrating the photo-reversibility of the thermo-mechanical properties. Interpretation and discussion of the data are provided in “Design and application of photo-reversible elastomer networks by using the [4πs+4πs] cycloaddition reaction of pendant anthracene groups” (Manhart et al., 2016 [1].

  6. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids ), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 200 (FGE.200): 74 α , β -unsaturated aldehydes and precursors from subgroup 1.1.1 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 74 flavouring substances from subgroup 1.1.1 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 200 (FGE.200). The Flavour Industry has...... provided additional genotoxicity studies for one representative substance in FGE.200, namely hex-2(trans)-enal [FL-no 05.073], and for other two substances in the same subgroup, namely 2-dodecenal [05.037] and 2-nonenal [05.171]. The Panel has evaluated these data and concluded that the concern still...

  7. Energy saving options by means of addition of burned-up biomass materials in the ceramics industry; Energiebesparingsmogelijkheden door toevoeging van biomassa-uitbrandstoffen in de keramische industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walda, E.

    2013-06-01

    In 2011/2012 is an exploratory study has been executed on the availability of biomass and the potential applicability in the building ceramics industry. The study consisted of (1) a literature and desk study, in which an overview is made of available and ceramic applicable (renewable) burned-up materials, and (2), laboratory tests in which ultimately potentially applicable burned-up material (sawdust) is examined for its coarse ceramic applicability. In this article the results of the two-pronged research are presented [Dutch] In 2011/2012 is een orienterend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de beschikbaarheid van biomassa en de mogelijke toepasbaarheid in de bouwkeramische industrie. Het onderzoek bestond uit (1) een literatuur- en deskstudie, waarbij een overzicht is gemaakt van verkrijgbare en keramisch toe te passen (hernieuwbare) uitbrandstoffen, en (2) een laboratoriumonderzoek, waarbij uiteindelijk een potentieel toepasbare uitbrandstof (zaagsel) is onderzocht op zijn grofkeramische toepasbaarheid. In dit artikel worden de resultaten van het tweeledige onderzoek gepresenteerd.

  8. The addition of Si to the Ti-35Nb alloy and its effect on the corrosion resistance, when applied to biomedical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Souza, S.A.; Batista, W.W.; Macedo, M.C.S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Alloy elements such as niobium and silicon have been added to titanium as an alternative for new materials to be used in orthopedic implants. However, these new materials' behavior, in face of corrosion is still demanding careful investigations because they will be subjected to an aggressive environ, such as the human body. This study, the corrosion resistance of the Ti-35Nb-(0; 0,15; 0,35; 0,55)Si (% in mass) when in physiological medium was assessed by means of polarization curves, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The compositions of the passive films were analyzed by XPS. Outcomes show that the alloys presented good rapid repassivation capacity after film breaking under high potentials. The high values of resistance to polarization- Rp-pinpoint that the formed oxide films are resistive. They work as a protecting barrier against aggressive ions. Data suggest that the studied alloys are promising for orthopedic implant applications. (author)

  9. A Promising Material by Using Residue Waste from Bisphenol A Manufacturing to Prepare Fluid-Loss-Control Additive in Oil Well Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The residues mixture from Bisphenol A manufacturing process was analyzed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were used to characterize the residues. The results indicated that the residues were complex mixture of several molecules. 3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl-1,1,3-trimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-ol and phenol were the main components of the residues. The technical feasibility of using it as phenol replacement in fluid-loss-control additive production was also investigated. The fluid-loss-control capacity of the novel additive was systematically investigated. It was discovered that the well fluid-loss performance of the prepared additive can be achieved, especially at high temperature.

  10. Effects of the dolomite from Irati formation as additive in a refractory clay used as raw material in Santa Gertrudes ceramic cluster (SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.H.O.; Gaspar Junior, L.A.; Moreno, M.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of addition of carbonates in clays used as floor tiles have been intensively studied, but the focus usually is the pure calcite or calcitic limestone, which has nobler uses in industry, especially for cement production. However, in the important area known as Santa Gertrudes Ceramic Cluster, in Sao Paulo State, occurs mainly the dolomitic limestone, which is little studied as a potential additive which could be used in order to improve the properties of the floor tiles. This work aimed to check out the potentiality of dolomitic limestone as additive in ceramic products, especially floor tiles. Using as ingredients dolomitic limestones and refractory clay collected inside the area of the referred cluster, ceramic bodies were obtained with different dolomitic limestones contents incorporated to the refractory clay, and these ceramic bodies were mineralogically, chemically and physically analyzed. The conclusions are the dolomitic limestone can be particularly useful when incorporated to refractory clays, due to its fluxing properties. (author)

  11. Strain-induced Weyl and Dirac states and direct-indirect gap transitions in group-V materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Glenn; Sanvito, Stefano; O'Regan, David D.

    2017-12-01

    We perform comprehensive density-functional theory calculations on strained two-dimensional phosphorus (P), arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in the monolayer, bilayer, and bulk α-phase, from which we compute the key mechanical and electronic properties of these materials. Specifically, we compute their electronic band structures, band gaps, and charge-carrier effective masses, and identify the qualitative electronic and structural transitions that may occur. Moreover, we compute the elastic properties such as the Young’s modulus Y; shear modulus G; bulk modulus B ; and Poisson ratio ν and present their isotropic averages of as well as their dependence on the in-plane orientation, for which the relevant expressions are derived. We predict strain-induced Dirac states in the monolayers of As and Sb and the bilayers of P, As, and Sb, as well as the possible existence of Weyl states in the bulk phases of P and As. These phases are predicted to support charge velocities up to 106 m {{\\text{s}}-1} and, in some highly anisotropic cases, permit one-dimensional ballistic conductivity in the puckered direction. We also predict numerous band gap transitions for moderate in-plane stresses. Our results contribute to the mounting evidence for the utility of these materials, made possible by their broad range in tuneable properties, and facilitate the directed exploration of their potential application in next-generation electronics.

  12. Effect of organic additives on the mitigation of volatility of 1-nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ): Next generation powerful melt cast able high energy material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talawar, M.B.; Singh, Alok; Naik, N.H.; Polke, B.G.; Gore, G.M.; Asthana, S.N.; Gandhe, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    1-Nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ) was synthesized based on the lines of reported method. Thermolysis studies on synthesized and characterized TNAZ using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hyphenated TG-FT-IR techniques were undertaken to generate data on decomposition pattern. FT-IR of decomposition products of TNAZ revealed the evolution of oxides of nitrogen and HCN containing species suggesting the cleavage of C/N-NO 2 bond accompanied with the collapse of ring structure. The effect of incorporation of 15% additives namely, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT), carbohydrazide (CHZ), 5,7-dinitrobenzofuroxan (DNBF), bis (2,2-dinitropropyl) succinate (BNPS), triaminoguanidinium nitrate (TAGN), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA) and nitroguanidine (NQ) on the volatility of TNAZ was investigated by undertaking thermogravimetric analysis. The TG pattern brings out the potential of BNPS and TAGN as additives to mitigate the volatility of TNAZ. The influence of additives on thermal decomposition of pattern of TNAZ was also investigated by DSC. The DSC results indicated that the additives did not have appreciable effect on the melting point of TNAZ. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies were carried out to investigate the effect of additives on morphology of TNAZ. This paper also discusses the possible mechanism involved in between the TNAZ and TAGN and BNPS. It appears that the formation of charge transfer complex formation between the TNAZ and TAGN/BNPS. The effect of addition of high explosives such as CL-20, HMX and RDX on thermo-physical characteristics of TNAZ is also reported in this paper

  13. Kinematical simulation of robotic complex operation for implementing full-scale additive technologies of high-end materials, composites, structures, and buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferov, S. I.; Eltsov, M. Iu; Khakhalev, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper considers a newly designed electronic digital model of a robotic complex for implementing full-scale additive technologies, funded under a Federal Target Program. The electronic and digital model was used to solve the problem of simulating the movement of a robotic complex using the NX CAD/CAM/CAE system. The virtual mechanism was built and the main assemblies, joints, and drives were identified as part of solving the problem. In addition, the maximum allowed printable area size was identified for the robotic complex, and a simulation of printing a rectangular-shaped article was carried out.

  14. The Impact of Latino Values and Cultural Beliefs on Brain Donation: Results of a Pilot Study to Develop Culturally Appropriate Materials and Methods to Increase Rates of Brain Donation in this Under-Studied Patient Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbrey, Ann Choryan; Humber, Marika B; Plowey, Edward D; Garcia, Iliana; Chennapragada, Lakshmi; Desai, Kanchi; Rosen, Allyson; Askari, Nusha; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the number of Latino persons with dementia who consent to brain donation (BD) upon death is an important public health goal that has not yet been realized. This study identified the need for culturally sensitive materials to answer questions and support the decision-making process for the family. Information about existing rates of BD was obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Centers. Several methods of data collection (query NACC database, contacting Centers, focus groups, online survey, assessing current protocol and materials) were used to give the needed background to create culturally appropriate BD materials. A decision was made that a brochure for undecided enrollees would be beneficial to discuss BD with family members. For those needing further details, a step-by-step handout would provide additional information. Through team collaboration and engagement of others in the community who work with Latinos with dementia, we believe this process allowed us to successfully create culturally appropriate informational materials that address a sensitive topic for Hispanic/Latino families. Brain tissue is needed to further knowledge about underlying biological mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases, however it is a sensitive topic. Materials assist with family discussion and facilitate the family's follow-through with BD.

  15. Booster: Development of a Toolbox for Triage of a Large Group of Individuals Exposed to Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoepff, V.; Carrel, F.; Gmar, M.; Lemaire, H.; Carvajal, F.; Perez-Llopis, I.; Gaboriau, D.-C.; Morrison, C.-G.; Almasi, I.; Szabo, S.; Kovacs, A; Szeles, E.; Amgarou, K.; Menaa, N.; Morat, L.; Testard, I.; Ugolin, N.; Viau, M.; Becker, F.; Raskob, W.; Trybushnyi, D.; Vincze, A.

    2013-06-01

    The effective management of an event involving the exposure of a large number of people to radioactive material requires a mechanism for fast triage of exposed people. BOOSTER is a project founded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme, addressing this requirement. It is a capability project designed to provide an integrated system which could easily be deployed and used. For this purpose, the BOOSTER consortium, relying on the expertise of seven members, researches and develops new approaches to allow an effective and fast management of most kind of nuclear threats. BOOSTER System was designed to help first responders mitigating the crisis by providing the necessary information to quickly assess the radiological situation, to support triage staff in performing an efficient and fast categorization of the potentially affected victims, and to give medical staff crucial information for further treatment at medium or long term post-accident. (authors)

  16. The Potential for Genetic Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes. Report of a Consultants Group Meeting. Working Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    Since the beginning of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division Programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on public health and the production of food and fibre. For certain insects, SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control, but for a variety of reasons this technology has not been tried on an operational scale for most of the pest species of insects that exact a toll on the endeavors of humans. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division convened a Consultants Group Meeting to examine 'The Potential for Genetic Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes', with emphasis to be placed on the SIT. A group of five scientists met, 26-30 April 1993, to examine the current status and the future potential of genetic control for malaria mosquitoes. In most of the tropical, developing countries, and to some extent in temperate regions of the world, Anopheles mosquitoes cause havoc by transmitting malaria, a dreaded disease that causes high mortality amongst children and diminishes productivity of adults. The importance of malaria as a deterrent to further economic growth in a large part of the world cannot be over-emphasized. Malaria is a severe problem because there are inadequacies in the technology available for control. As a result of the deliberations at the meeting, the consultants prepared a list of recommendations concerning the consensus opinions about the development of genetic control for malaria vector control. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Consultants Group Meeting.

  17. Donor-π-bridge-acceptor type polymeric materials with pendant electron-withdrawing groups for electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Qing; Wei, Youxiu; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Chunye

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Donor-π-bridge-acceptor copolymers with different electrophilic groups were synthesized. • Electrochromic devices composed of PBDTTPAs layers, as the working electrode, and vanadium pentoxide, as the counter electrode, were fabricated and evaluated. • The PBDTTPA-CHO film and device show multicolor electrochromic behavior which exhibited vivid yellow, green, and gray with better electrochromic performance than PBDTTPA-COOH. - Abstract: A novel donor-π-bridge-acceptor copolymer, PBDTTPA-CHO, containing 4-(Bis(4-bromophenyl)-amino)benzaldehyde (TPA-CHO) and 4,8-bis-(2-ethyl- hexyloxy)-oxybenzo-[1,2-b:3,4-b’]dithiophene (BDT), was successfully synthesized using Stille coupling polymerization, and the pendant aldehyde group was modified with cyanoacetic acid to synthesize another polymer, PBDTTPA-COOH. Each of these new polymers are soluble in organic solvents and can be cast onto rigid or flexible substrates. The polymers with different electrophilic groups exhibit different electrochromic behaviors, including different colors, driving voltages and transmittances. The polymer film of PBDTTPA-CHO manifests reversible electrochemical oxidation and reduction accompanied by multicolor changes from its yellow neutral state to a highly absorbent green semi-oxidized state and a gray fully oxidized state, its transmittance change at 601 nm is 43%. PBDTTPA-COOH switches between orange and light green. We fabricated and evaluated electrochromic devices using a PBDTTPA layer as the working electrode and vanadium pentoxide as the counter electrode. With the contribution of counter electrodes, devices of both polymers show similar color changes but higher transmittance than their films

  18. The Potential for Genetic Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes. Report of a Consultants Group Meeting. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division Programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on public health and the production of food and fibre. For certain insects, SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control, but for a variety of reasons this technology has not been tried on an operational scale for most of the pest species of insects that exact a toll on the endeavors of humans. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division convened a Consultants Group Meeting to examine 'The Potential for Genetic Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes', with emphasis to be placed on the SIT. A group of five scientists met, 26-30 April 1993, to examine the current status and the future potential of genetic control for malaria mosquitoes. In most of the tropical, developing countries, and to some extent in temperate regions of the world, Anopheles mosquitoes cause havoc by transmitting malaria, a dreaded disease that causes high mortality amongst children and diminishes productivity of adults. The importance of malaria as a deterrent to further economic growth in a large part of the world cannot be over-emphasized. Malaria is a severe problem because there are inadequacies in the technology available for control. As a result of the deliberations at the meeting, the consultants prepared a list of recommendations concerning the consensus opinions about the development of genetic control for malaria vector control. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Consultants Group Meeting.

  19. The fire assay preconcentration of the platinum group elements for the neutron activation analysis of geological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the work that has been carried out using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to develop a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the platinum group elements (PGE: Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Os) and Au in geological, environmental and industrial samples. The method is based on the now established method of preconcentration with fire assay, followed by NAA of the separated PGE and Au. Recent developments have seen improvements in the technique to eliminate losses due to dissolution procedures, and complete recovery of the elements prior to analysis. The method is now being used to validate inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy methods for analysis of the PGE

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2 (FGE.25Rev2): Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 37 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 37 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity...... assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For five substances, the composition of the stereoisomeric mixture has to be specified further....

  1. Residual tumor size and IGCCCG risk classification predict additional vascular procedures in patients with germ cell tumors and residual tumor resection: a multicenter analysis of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Christian; Pfister, David; Busch, Jonas; Bingöl, Cigdem; Ranft, Ulrich; Schrader, Mark; Dieckmann, Klaus-Peter; Heidenreich, Axel; Albers, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Residual tumor resection (RTR) after chemotherapy in patients with advanced germ cell tumors (GCT) is an important part of the multimodal treatment. To provide a complete resection of residual tumor, additional surgical procedures are sometimes necessary. In particular, additional vascular interventions are high-risk procedures that require multidisciplinary planning and adequate resources to optimize outcome. The aim was to identify parameters that predict additional vascular procedures during RTR in GCT patients. A retrospective analysis was performed in 402 GCT patients who underwent 414 RTRs in 9 German Testicular Cancer Study Group (GTCSG) centers. Overall, 339 of 414 RTRs were evaluable with complete perioperative data sets. The RTR database was queried for additional vascular procedures (inferior vena cava [IVC] interventions, aortic prosthesis) and correlated to International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification and residual tumor volume. In 40 RTRs, major vascular procedures (23 IVC resections with or without prosthesis, 11 partial IVC resections, and 6 aortic prostheses) were performed. In univariate analysis, the necessity of IVC intervention was significantly correlated with IGCCCG (14.1% intermediate/poor vs 4.8% good; p=0.0047) and residual tumor size (3.7% size risk features must initially be identified as high-risk patients for vascular procedures and therefore should be referred to specialized surgical centers with the ad hoc possibility of vascular interventions. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Third meeting of the advisory group for the comprehensive review of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials, Vienna, 7-11 November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.

    This meeting was the third and final planned stage in the process to revise the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, Safety Series No. 6. Its task was to consider comments which had been submitted in response to the Agency's circulation of the third draft revision of Safety Series No. 6 and to make any necessary changes to the draft that the Advisory Group felt were necessary

  3. Study on the effects of white rice husk ash and fibrous materials additions on some properties of fiber-cement composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh, Yahya; Ziabari, Kamran Pourhooshyar; Torkaman, Javad; Ashori, Alireza; Jafari, Mohammad

    2013-03-15

    This work assesses the effects of white rice husk ash (WRHA) as pozzolanic material, virgin kraft pulp (VKP), old corrugated container (OCC) and fibers derived from fiberboard (FFB) as reinforcing agents on some properties of blended cement composites. In the sample preparation, composites were manufactured using fiber-to-cement ratio of 25:75 by weight and 5% CaCl(2) as accelerator. Type II Portland cement was replaced by WRHA at 0%, 25% and 50% by weight of binder. A water-to-binder ratio of 0.55 was used for all blended cement paste mixes. For parametric study, compressive strength, water absorption and density of the composite samples were evaluated. Results showed that WRHA can be applied as a pozzolanic material to cement and also improved resistance to water absorption. However, increasing the replacement level of WRHA tends to reduce the compressive strength due to the low binding ability. The optimum replacement level of WRHA in mortar was 25% by weight of binder; this replacement percentage resulted in better compressive strengths and water absorption. OCC fiber is shown to be superior to VKF and FFB fibers in increasing the compressive strength, due to its superior strength properties. As expected, the increase of the WRHA content induced the reduction of bulk density of the cement composites. Statistical analysis showed that the interaction of above-mentioned variable parameters was significant on the mechanical and physical properties at 1% confidence level. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conductive materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates made from PVDF, PET and co-continuous PVDF/PET filled with carbon additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, L.; Mighri, F.; Deyrail, Y. [CREPEC, Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, QC (Canada); Department of Chemical Engineering, Laval University, QC (Canada); Elkoun, S. [CREPEC, Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, QC (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sherbrooke University, QC (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this work was to develop and characterise electrically conductive materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and bipolar plates (BPPs). These BPPs were made from highly conductive blends of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), as matrix phase. The conductive materials were developed from carefully formulated blends composed of conductive carbon black (CB) powder and, in some cases, graphite synthetic flakes mixed with pure PET, PVDF or with PVDF/PET systems. They were first developed by twin-screw extrusion process then compression-molded to give BPP final shape. As the developed blends have to meet properties suitable for BPP applications, they were characterised for their rheological properties, electrical through-plane resistivity (the inverse of conductivity), oxygen permeability, flexural and impact properties. Results showed that lower resistivity was obtained with PVDF/CB blends due to the higher interfacial energy between the PVDF matrix and CB and also the higher density and crystallinity of PVDF, compared to those of PET. It was also observed that the lowest resistivity values were obtained with mixing PVDF and PET at controlled compositions to ensure PVDF/PET co-continuous morphology. Also, slow cooling rates helped to attain the lowest values of through-plane resistivity for all studied blends. This behaviour was related to the higher crystallinity obtained with low cooling rates leading to smaller amorphous regions in which carbon particles are much more concentrated. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  6. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 3 (FGE.10Rev3): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 63 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, including additional two substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission...... threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that the 62 substances do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications...... for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For four substances evaluated through the Procedure, the stereoisomeric composition has not been specified sufficiently....

  7. Computer modeling of inhibition of α-radiolysis of water by H2 addition (9. International Workshop on Radiolysis, Electrochemistry and Materials Performance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lertnaisat, Phantira; Katsumura, Yosuke; Mukai, Satoru; Umehara, Ryuji; Shimizu, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masaru

    2012-09-01

    It is known that α-radiolysis of water produces H 2 gas continuously. The addition of H 2 to water inhibits the water decomposition; H 2 evolution. In order to suppress the water decomposition, 25 cc H 2 STP/kg-H 2 O is added to the coolant water in PWR. However, the exact inhibition mechanism is still not made clear yet. In this project, the chemical kinetic simulation program, so called FASCIMILE, was used to reproduce the suppression of α-radiolysis of water by H 2 addition. By using three important factors; the decomposition (G-value), the reaction set and rate constants, and the dose rate, it is found that without hydrogen addition, the simulation shows the almost linear increase of molecular products; H 2 , H 2 O 2 , and O 2 . Nevertheless, as the additional hydrogen is added to the system, this behaviour of linear increase is shifted to longer time period. And up to certain concentration, the linear increase behaviour is completely suppressed and the molecular products reach the steady state condition at early time period and much lower concentration. The minimum concentration of H 2 which could completely suppress the decomposition of water is called Critical Hydrogen Concentration (CHC) and it is dose rate dependent value. The CHC is found to be dependent on the reaction set and rate constants. The simulation results show that the CHC at room temperature and dose rate of 1 kGy/s of the simulation done by using reaction set and rate constants obtained from Ershov et al. and AECL report 2009 are 165μM and 146 μM, respectively. From the change of the behaviour of molecular products after reaching the CHC, the possible mechanism is proposed. First, the OH radical are formed via the reaction of H + H 2 O 2 → OH + H 2 O and e - aq + H 2 O 2 → OH+OH - . Then OH, which normally will react with H 2 O 2 to produced HO 2 , will react with the additional H 2 , which produce H to continue the chain reaction. The relation of chain reaction to the suppression of

  8. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 300, Revision 1 (FGE.300Rev1): One cyclo-aliphatic amide from chemical group 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance,cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-cyclohexyl)-amide [FL-no: 16.115] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300, Revision 1....... The substance was not considered to have genotoxic potential. The substance was evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity....... The Panel concluded that the substance [FL-no: 16.115] does not give rise to safety concern at its levels of dietary intake estimated on the basis of the Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of this flavouring substance, the specifications for the material...

  9. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3...... through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that these 27 candidate substances do not give rise to safety...... concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 27 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  10. The role of food irradiation in terms of value addition and extension of shelf life of agri. materials (from FARM to Consumer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, V.

    2001-01-01

    Today, with the advent of modern processing techniques in the area of value addition to agri resources, food irradiation has made a big dent in terms of extension of shelf life and confidence of making the food free from microbial and other contaminants and need to be really harnessed more than what we are doing. However, there is still certain amount of stigma attached to this technology not because the technology is un-ripe but it is because of lack of awareness with the masses as regards to the safety of the foods that are processed by irradiation

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on plastic food packaging materials: a review. 2. Global migration, sensory changes and the fate of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalla, R.; Schuttler, C.; Bogl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Increased ''global'' migration into food simulants has been described as a consequence of irradiation, particularly with fatty media; development of off-odors and taint transfer into food simulants have been observed with various plastics. Additives, especially antioxidants, are destroyed during irradiation, and increased ''specific'' migration values have been observed under certain circumstances. Organotin stabilizers in PVC are ultimately degraded to SnCl4, and increased migration of tin compounds was observed after gamma irradiation. Degradation products of phenol antioxidants, that were also found as migrants, have only recently been identified; some of these structures seem to be radiation specific

  12. Optimization studies of carbon additives to negative active material for the purpose of extending the life of VRLA batteries in high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, D.P.; Loosemore, D.V.; Spence, M.A.; Wojcinski, T.D. [Hammond Expanders Division, Hammond Group, Inc., 6544 Osborn Avenue, Hammond, IN 46320 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The negative plates of lead-acid batteries subjected to partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) operation fail because of the development of an electrically inert film of lead sulfate on their surfaces. It has been found that carbon additives to the negative active material can significantly increase their cycle life in this type of operation. In this paper we show that various types of carbon, including graphite, carbon black eliminate the surface development of lead sulfate and that, in their presence, the lead sulfate becomes homogeneously distributed throughout the active material. Examination of active material by energy dispersive spectroscopy after extensive cycling shows that lead formed during charge of lead sulfate preferentially deposits on the carbon particles that have been embedded in the active material. Electrochemical studies have been carried out on a number of types of carbon additives having a wide range of properties. These included flake, expanded and synthetic graphite, isotropically graphitized carbon, carbon black and activated carbon. We have investigated their effect on the resistivity and surface areas of the negative active material and also on such electrochemical properties as active material utilization and cycle life. Most of the carbon additives increase the utilization of the active material and impressive increases in cycle life have been obtained with over 6000 capacity turnovers having been achieved. However, at this time, we have not been able to correlate either the type or the properties of the carbon with capacity or cycle life. Further work is needed in this area. The increases that have been achieved in cycle life provide evidence that the lead-acid battery is a viable low cost option for hybrid-electric vehicle use. (author)

  13. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 2 (FGE.12Rev2): Primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and esters from chemical group 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs....... However, this does not preclude evaluation of the flavouring substances in the present group using the Procedure (SCF, 1999a). It is considered that on the basis of the default MSDI approach these nine flavouring substances would not give rise to safety concerns at the estimated levels of intake arising...

  14. Catalytic reduction of organic dyes at gold nanoparticles impregnated silica materials: influence of functional groups and surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Uday Pratap; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Pal, Manas

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in three different silica based sol–gel matrixes with and without surfactants are prepared. They are characterized by UV–vis absorbance and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The size and shape of Au NPs varied with the organo-functional group present in the sol–gel matrix. In the presence of mercaptopropyl functionalized organo-silica, large sized (200–280 nm) spherical Au NPs are formed whereas in the presence of aminopropyl functionalized organo-silica small sized (5–15 nm) Au NPs are formed inside the tube like organo-silica. Further, it is found that Au NPs act as efficient catalyst for the reduction of organic dyes. The catalytic rate constant is evaluated from the decrease in absorbance of the dye molecules. Presence of cationic or anionic surfactants greatly influences the catalytic reaction. The other factors like hydrophobicity of the organic dyes, complex formation of the dyes with anionic surfactants, repulsion between dyes and cationic surfactant, adsorption of dyes on the Au NPs also play important role on the reaction rate.

  15. Catalytic reduction of organic dyes at gold nanoparticles impregnated silica materials: influence of functional groups and surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Uday Pratap; Ganesan, Vellaichamy, E-mail: velganesh@yahoo.com; Pal, Manas [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (India)

    2011-09-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in three different silica based sol-gel matrixes with and without surfactants are prepared. They are characterized by UV-vis absorbance and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The size and shape of Au NPs varied with the organo-functional group present in the sol-gel matrix. In the presence of mercaptopropyl functionalized organo-silica, large sized (200-280 nm) spherical Au NPs are formed whereas in the presence of aminopropyl functionalized organo-silica small sized (5-15 nm) Au NPs are formed inside the tube like organo-silica. Further, it is found that Au NPs act as efficient catalyst for the reduction of organic dyes. The catalytic rate constant is evaluated from the decrease in absorbance of the dye molecules. Presence of cationic or anionic surfactants greatly influences the catalytic reaction. The other factors like hydrophobicity of the organic dyes, complex formation of the dyes with anionic surfactants, repulsion between dyes and cationic surfactant, adsorption of dyes on the Au NPs also play important role on the reaction rate.

  16. Forty-Sixth Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the meeting were to: • Review the current status and the progress since the 45th TWG-FR meeting of FR and ADS technology development activities in IAEA Member States; • Review the activities (past, present and planned) of the IAEA’s project 1.1.5.3, “Support for fast reactor research, technology development and deployment” to ensure that they remain relevant to the needs of Member States; • Provide the experts group with updates to advise the IAEA on FR and ADS activities, including on proposals for relevant studies and reviews; • Serve as a means for exchanging information on national and international FR and ADS programmes; • Review the main achievements and outcomes of the “International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios – FR13”, held on 4 – 7 March 2013 in Paris, France; • Promote the exchange of technical information by proposing topics for, and assisting in the organization of, IAEA Workshops and Technical Meetings for 2014-2015 and further, and • Review the IAEA’s concluded, on-going and planned coordinated research projects (CRPs) in the technical fields relevant to the TWG-FR (FRs and ADS), as well as coordination of the TWG-FR’s activities with other organizations and international initiatives (GIF, INPRO, NEA, Euratom, etc.)

  17. Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) (39th annual meeting). Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 39th Annual Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG FR) was held from 15-19 May 2006 in Beijing, China, at the invitation of the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAEA). The meeting was attended by TWG-FR Members and Advisers from the following Member States (MS): Belgium (observer), Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Sweden (observer), the United Kingdom, and the United States. Belarus, Switzerland, the European Commission, and OECD/NEA were unable to participate. Moreover, Prof. Carlo Rubbia, CERN director general emeritus, participated, upon IAEA invitation, in the meeting as distinguished scientist and IAEA expert. Mr. S.C. Chetal, from India (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, IGCAR), was appointed chairman. The objectives of the meeting were to: - Exchange information on the national programmes on Fast Reactors (FR) and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS); - Review the progress since the 38th TWG-FR Annual Meeting, including the status of the actions; - Consider meeting arrangements for 2006 and 2007; - Reviewed the Agency's ongoing information exchange and co-ordinated research activities in the technical fields relevant to the TWG-FR (FRs and ADS), as well as co-ordination of the TWG-FR's activities with other organizations; - Discuss future joint activities in view of the Agency's Programme and Budget Cycle 2008-2009 (and beyond)

  18. Advanced control systems to improve nuclear power plant reliability and efficiency. Working material. Report of an advisory group meeting held in Vienna, 13-17 March, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Advisory Group Meeting as a consequence of the recommendations of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation to produce a practical guidance on the application of the advanced control systems available for nuclear power plant operation. The objective of the IAEA advisory group meeting were: To provide an international forum of exchange of ideas and views for the purpose of enhancement of nuclear power plant reliability and efficiency by adopting advanced control technologies; to develop a scope, table of content, and extended outlines for an IAEA technical document on the subject. The present volume contains summary report, materials prepared by the meeting, and reports presented by national delegates. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department's spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The Secretary of Energy's memorandum of August 19, 1993, established an initiative for a Department-wide assessment of the vulnerabilities of stored spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials. A Project Plan to accomplish this study was issued on September 20, 1993 by US Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Health and Safety (EH) which established responsibilities for personnel essential to the study. The DOE Spent Fuel Working Group, which was formed for this purpose and produced the Project Plan, will manage the assessment and produce a report for the Secretary by November 20, 1993. This report was prepared by the Working Group Assessment Team assigned to the Hanford Site facilities. Results contained in this report will be reviewed, along with similar reports from all other selected DOE storage sites, by a working group review panel which will assemble the final summary report to the Secretary on spent nuclear fuel storage inventory and vulnerability

  20. Lectures on Chevalley groups

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Robert Steinberg's Lectures on Chevalley Groups were delivered and written during the author's sabbatical visit to Yale University in the 1967-1968 academic year. The work presents the status of the theory of Chevalley groups as it was in the mid-1960s. Much of this material was instrumental in many areas of mathematics, in particular in the theory of algebraic groups and in the subsequent classification of finite groups. This posthumous edition incorporates additions and corrections prepared by the author during his retirement, including a new introductory chapter. A bibliography and editorial notes have also been added. This is a great unsurpassed introduction to the subject of Chevalley groups that influenced generations of mathematicians. I would recommend it to anybody whose interests include group theory. -Efim Zelmanov, University of California, San Diego Robert Steinberg's lectures on Chevalley groups were given at Yale University in 1967. The notes for the lectures contain a wonderful exposition of ...

  1. Forty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Form a general point of view it is recommend to avoid duplications with other FR-related events; • It was underlined the importance of a timely implementation of the different activities, in particular as far as the publication of the IAEA final reports; • The CRPs are recognized as a unique mechanism of RT&D at international level and increasing effort and resources should be implemented by the IAEA in order to cover the many topics of interest of the Member States; • In particular the following general RT&D topics are of interest for a large number of Member States: – Structural materials; – Importance to move to transient in CRP on experimental benchmark (non-linearities); Impact of the Fukushima accident on FRs: safety, severe accidents and initiators, stressing the advantages of LMFR; Coupling methods; Uncertainties evaluation methods; V&V&Q and in particular validation of models with experimental data coming from facilities with advanced instrumentation; In-service inspection; Economic impact. • It is recommend to take advantage of the new FR/ADS projects and realizations and organize the TWGFR activities around data coming from these new facilities/plants; • Particular attention should be given to Generation IV FR nuclear systems; • The TWG-FR should continue to secure training and education in the field of “Fast Neutron System Physics, Technology and Applications”, and respective Schools/Workshops/Seminars should be held on a regular basis; • Cooperation and collaboration should be promoted with the NEA-NSC, in particular in the field of reactor transient analyses

  2. Effect of addition of organic materials and irrigation conditions on soil quality in olive groves in the region of Messinia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Repas, Spiros; Koubouris, Georgos; Psaras, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Intensive cultivation practices are associated to soil degradation mainly due to low soil organic matter content. The application of organic materials to land is a common practice in sustainable agriculture in the last years. However, its implementation in olive groves under different irrigation regimes has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of alternative carbon input techniques (i.e. wood shredded, pruning residues, returning of olive mill wastes the field with compost) and irrigation conditions (irrigated and rainfed olive orchards) on spatial distribution of soil chemical (pH, EC, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen, humic and fulvic acids, available P, and exchangeable K) and microbial properties (soil basal microbial respiration and microbial biomass carbon) in two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-40 cm). The study took place in the region of Messinia, South western Peloponnese, Greece during three year soil campaigns. Forty soil plots of olive groves were selected (20 rainfed and 20 irrigated) and carbon input practices were applied on the half of the irrigated and rainfed soil parcels (10 rainfed and 10 irrigated), while the remaining ones were used as controls. The results showed significant changes of chemical and biological properties of soil in olive orchards due to carbon treatments. However, these changes were depended on irrigation conditions. Microbial parameters appeared to be reliable indicators of changes in soil management. Proper management of alternative soil carbon inputs in olive orchards can positively affect soil fertility.

  3. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 4 (FGE.12Rev4): primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters from chemical groups 1 and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 12 flavouring substances in Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 4 (FGE.12Rev4), including two additional substances, using the Procedure in Commission...... (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure–activity relationships, intake from current uses and the toxicological threshold of concern and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that none of the 12 substances [FL-nos: 02.134, 02.186, 02.216, 02.217, 05.157, 05.......182, 05.183, 05.198, 08.135, 09.342, 09.670 and 09.829] gives rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the maximised survey-derived daily intake approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials...

  4. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 93, Revision 1 (FGE.93Rev1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The two substances 5-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-thiazoline [FL-no: 15.130] and 5-ethyl-4-methyl-2...... and agrees with the JECFA conclusion, “No safety concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all five substances...

  5. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 76, Revision 1 (FGE.76Rev1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and to decide whether further...... by Industry for use as a flavouring substance in Europe and will therefore not be considered any further. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data...... as flavouring substances, as these substances could not be evaluated because of concern with respect to genotoxicity. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 26 substances, the information is adequate....

  6. Additive manufacturing of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Dirk; Seyda, Vanessa; Wycisk, Eric; Emmelmann, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.

  7. Production of wood vinegars from coconut shells and additional materials for control of termite workers, Odontotermes sp. and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisia virgata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunan Wititsiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shells and coir are considered as wastes of coconut based products that have not been utilized efficiently.By using these abundant bioresources, which are widely available in Thailand, as raw materials, we were able to producewood vinegars that may be alternatives to termiticides and pesticides. The wood vinegars were obtained from carbonizationprocess using a 200-liter fuel tank as charcoal brazier under temperatures of 300-400°C. In this study, termiticidal and pesticidalactivities of wood vinegars were evaluated against termite workers, Odontotermes sp., and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisiavirgata, using direct contact application. Percent mortalities in the experiments were recorded after 24 hours and correctedfor control mortality with Abbott’s formula. Wood vinegars of 850, 696, and 898 milliliters were produced from coconut shell(wood vinegar A and the mixture of coconut shell and coir (wood vinegar B and the mixture of coconut shell, coir and holybasil (wood vinegar C, respectively. Wood vinegar A exhibited high termiticidal activity against termite workers at a dilutionof 1:50, wood vinegar: sterile water (v/v. By this way, 85% (81.71% corrected mortality of termite workers were killed afterthe 24 hours of test. At a dilution of 1:10, both wood vinegar A and B had exhibited high pesticidal activities against mealybugs, 96% (95.12% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs were killed by those wood vinegars. In the weakest termiticidaland pesticidal activities, wood vinegar C was able to kill 60% (51.22% corrected mortality of termite workers at a dilution of1:50 within 24 hours. Also it killed 93% (91.89% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs with a dilution of 1:10 (v/v withinthe same amount of time. Post-hoc comparisons (Tukey test revealed that wood vinegar A possessed the most effectivetermiticidal activity against termite workers. However, a similarity in high pesticidal activity was found among three woodvinegars

  8. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors. Twenty-fifth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    'burning' of the associated extremely long-life transuranic waste, particularly actinides, thus reducing the required isolation time for high level waste from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of years for fission products only. This additional important mission for the LMFBR is gaining worldwide interest. In the framework of disarmament of nuclear weapons and the utilization of the nuclear material for peaceful purposes a role for fast reactors can be also considered. Over the past 25 years, the IAEA has actively encouraged and advocated international cooperation in Fast Breeder Reactor Technology. At the present time the Working Group on Fast Reactors is the oldest and one of the most active groups in the Division of Nuclear Power. The present document contains information on the status of fast breeder reactor development and on worldwide activities in this advanced nuclear power technology during 1991, as reported at the 25th jubilee Annual Meeting of the IWGFR in Vienna, 27-30 April 1992. The publication is intended to provide information regarding the current status of LMFBR development in IAEA Member States and CEC

  9. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors. Twenty-fifth annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. Summary report. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    'burning' of the associated extremely long-life transuranic waste, particularly actinides, thus reducing the required isolation time for high level waste from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of years for fission products only. This additional important mission for the LMFBR is gaining worldwide interest. In the framework of disarmament of nuclear weapons and the utilization of the nuclear material for peaceful purposes a role for fast reactors can be also considered. Over the past 25 years, the IAEA has actively encouraged and advocated international cooperation in Fast Breeder Reactor Technology. At the present time the Working Group on Fast Reactors is the oldest and one of the most active groups in the Division of Nuclear Power. The present document contains information on the status of fast breeder reactor development and on worldwide activities in this advanced nuclear power technology during 1991, as reported at the 25th jubilee Annual Meeting of the IWGFR in Vienna, 27-30 April 1992. The publication is intended to provide information regarding the current status of LMFBR development in IAEA Member States and CEC.

  10. Low-cost route for synthesis of mesoporous silica materials with high silanol groups and their application for Cu(II) removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yangang; Huang Sujun; Kang Shifei; Zhang Chengli; Li Xi

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple and low-cost route to synthesize mesoporous silica materials with high silanol groups has been demonstrated by means of a sol–gel process using citric acid as the template and acid catalyst, further studies on the adsorption of Cu(II) onto the representative amine-functionalized mesoporous silica showed that it had a high Cu(II) removal efficiency. Highlights: ► A low-cost route to synthesize mesoporous silica with high silanol groups was demonstrated. ► Citric acid as the template and acid catalyst for the reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate. ► Water extraction method was an effective technique to remove template which can be recycled. ► The mesoporous silica with high silanol groups was easily modified by functional groups. ► A high Cu(II) removal efficiency on the amine-functionalized mesoporous silica. - Abstract: We report a simple and low-cost route for the synthesis of mesoporous silica materials with high silanol groups by means of a sol–gel process using citric acid as the template, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the silica source under aqueous solution system. The citric acid can directly work as an acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of TEOS besides the function as a pore-forming agent in the synthesis. It was found that by using a water extraction method the citric acid template in as-prepared mesoporous silica composite can be easily removed and a high degree of silanol groups were retained in the mesopores, moreover, the citric acid template in the filtrate can be recycled after being dried. The structural properties of the obtained mesoporous silica materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis. Furthermore, an adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution on the representative amine-functionalized mesoporous silica was investigated

  11. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  12. An Automated Anion-Exchange Method forthe Selective Sorption of five Groups ofTrace Elements in Neutron-IrradiatedBiological Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.

    1966-02-01

    An anion-exchange method based on fast selective sorption steps from mixtures of sulfuric, hydrobromic, and hydrochloric acid solutions has been developed for the separation of five different groups of radioactive trace elements in neutron-irradiated biological material. The separations are performed automatically with a simple proportioning pump apparatus. The apparatus allows the exact adjustment of influent solutions to the series of ion-exchange columns. The practical application of the method is described in detail. The successful use of the method is practically independent on the level of Na activity present in the sample

  13. Overall approaches and experiences of first-time participants in the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group's Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.M.L.; Nelwamondo, A.N.; Hancke, J.J.; Ramebaeck, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4) of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) registered the largest participation for this exercise in nuclear forensics, with seven of the 17 laboratories participating for the first time. Each of the laboratories had their strategic role to play in its respective country, analyzing real-world samples using their in-house resources. The scenario was fictitious but was thoughtfully crafted to engage participants in nuclear forensic investigations. In this paper, participants from five of the first-time laboratories shared their individual experience in this exercise, from preparation to analysis of samples. (author)

  14. Outstanding low temperature HC-SCR of NOx over platinum-group catalysts supported on mesoporous materials expecting diesel-auto emission regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Tamikuni; Tomokuni, Keizou; Yamada, Issaku

    2006-01-01

    Outstanding low temperature HC-SCR of NOx over platinum-group catalysts supported on mesoporous materials, which does not rely on the conventional NOx-absorption-reduction-catalysts, is presented for the purpose of de-NOx of diesel-auto emissions. The established catalysts basically consist of mesoporous silica or metal-substituted mesoporous silicates for supports and platinum for active species, which is operated under lean- and rich-conditions. The new catalysts are very active at 150-200 o C and free from difficult problems of SOx-deactivation and hydrothermal ageing of the NOx-absorption-reduction catalyst. (author)

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Lund, Pia; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision is made due to the inclusion of the assessment of new toxicity data on one supporting substance 5,6-dihydro-2,4,6-tris(2-methylpropyl)-4H-1,3,5-dithiazine [FL-no: 15.113], which is considered to be str...

  16. Summary report of the IAEA advisory group meeting on nuclear data for neutron multiplication in fusion-reactor first-wall and blanket materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.; Pashchenko, A.B.

    1992-09-01

    The present Report contains the Summary of the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Nuclear Data for Neutron Multiplication in Fusion-Reactor First-Wall and Blanket Materials, which was hosted by the Southwest Institute of Nuclear physics and Chemistry (SWINPC) at Chengdu, China and held from 19-21 November 1990. This AGM was organized by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS), with the cooperation and assistance of local organizers at the SWINPC. The papers which the participants prepared for and presented at the meeting will be published as an INDC report. (author)

  17. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 7, Revision 4 (FGE.07Rev4): Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 49 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 07, including additional five substances in this Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission ...

  18. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 210, Revision 1 (FGE.210Rev1): Consideration of genotoxic potential for α,β-unsaturated alicyclic ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 13 flavouring substances in Flavouring Group Evaluation 210 (FGE.210) and one additional substance [FL-no: 07.225] in this revis...

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 2 (FGE.11Rev2): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical groups 8 and 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular......, the Panel was requested to evaluate 12 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 2 (FGE.11Rev2), using the Procedure as referred to in the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. These 12 flavouring substances belong to chemical group 10, Annex I of the Commission Regulation (EC...... is a tertiary alcohol) [FL-no: 07.097, 07.165 and 07.184] all belonging to chemical groups 8 and 10. One of the 12 candidate substances possesses four chiral centres [FL-no: 06.134] two possesses two chiral centres [FL-no: 02.133 and 07.168] and four substances possesses one chiral centre [FL-no: 07.097, 07...

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 06, Revision 3 (FGE.06Rev3): Straight- and branched-chain aliphatic unsaturated primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and esters from chemical groups 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 50 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 6, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the subs......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 50 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 6, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For one substance [FL-no: 09.938] an identity test is missing and for two substances [FL-no: 05.226 and 09.950] the range of the specific gravity is too wide. Additional, the stereoisomeric mixture has not been...

  1. Spent fuel working group report on inventory and storage of the Department's spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    In a memo dated 19 August 1993, Secretary O'Leary assigned the Office of Environment, Safety and Health the primary responsibility to identify, characterize, and assess the safety, health, and environmental vulnerabilities of the DOE's existing storage conditions and facilities for the storage of irradiated reactor fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials. This volume is divided into three major sections. Section 1 contains the Working Group Assessment Team reports on the following facilities: Hanford Site, INEL, SRS, Oak Ridge Site, West Valley Site, LANL, BNL, Sandia, General Atomics (San Diego), Babcock ampersand Wilcox (Lynchburg Technology Center), and ANL. Section 2 contains the Vulnerability Development Forms from most of these sites. Section 3 contains the documents used by the Working Group in implementing this initiative

  2. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    234-8034714355. 8034714355. 1. EFFECTS OF SULPHUR ADDITION ON. ADDITION ON. 2. AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES O. 3. 4. C. W. Onyia. 5. 1DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS. 6. 2, 4DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL ...

  3. Empirical validation of the triple-code model of numerical processing for complex math operations using functional MRI and group Independent Component Analysis of the mental addition and subtraction of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithorst, Vincent J; Brown, Rhonda Douglas

    2004-07-01

    The suitability of a previously hypothesized triple-code model of numerical processing, involving analog magnitude, auditory verbal, and visual Arabic codes of representation, was investigated for the complex mathematical task of the mental addition and subtraction of fractions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 15 normal adult subjects were processed using exploratory group Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Separate task-related components were found with activation in bilateral inferior parietal, left perisylvian, and ventral occipitotemporal areas. These results support the hypothesized triple-code model corresponding to the activated regions found in the individual components and indicate that the triple-code model may be a suitable framework for analyzing the neuropsychological bases of the performance of complex mathematical tasks. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Study of glass ceramic material on the base of ash group simulating slag of plasma shaft furnace for high temperature reprocessing of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloj, A.S.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Stefanovskij, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Using the methods of X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and micro-probe analysis it is shown that the processes of minerals formation and homogenization in ash residue based charge under the heating up to 1450 deg C take place with a high rate and completely finish during 10 minutes. Homogeneous materials containing besides glassy phase crystalline phases and metallic shots are formed in this process. The products obtained with fluxes (dolomite and clay) additions are more homogeneous than a flux-less fused slag. Losses of α-radioactive nuclides during the melting of ash residue at 1300 deg C do not exceed 1.5% and is likely attributed with the products of uranium decay. Hydrolytic stability of the slags estimated from the rate of α-radioactive elements lixiviation is on the level of (1.4-5.7)x10 -4 g/(cm 2 x day) at 95 deg C

  5. Modelling the Transfer of Radionuclides from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). Report of the NORM Working Group of EMRAS Theme 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This working group was established to improve the modelling of the transfer of radionuclides from residues containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) for the purposes of radiological assessment. Almost all naturally occurring materials contain radionuclides from the primordial decay chains (for example, uranium-238, uranium-235, thorium-232 and their daughter products radium-226 and radium-228), plus some individual long-lived radionuclides such as potassium-40. Extraction and/or processing of minerals containing these materials results waste containing such radionuclides. Often the processing can enhance the concentration of the NORM in the waste as compared with the original material. The extraction and processing of minerals usually involves large volumes of material and the resulting waste is also present in large volumes which are usually left on the earth's surface. Human exposure to radionuclides from such waste piles can occur as a result of gaseous emanation from the waste (radon-222) or as a result of the leaching by rainfall of radionuclides from the waste into water courses and, possibly, food chains. There are a variety of situations involving NORM that require potential radiation doses to be assessed, they include: (1) surface storage of residues from the extraction and processing of minerals; (2) remediation of NORM-containing waste piles; and (3) the use of NORM-containing waste for backfilling, building materials, road construction etc. In all of these situations there is a need to understand the present and future behaviour of the radionuclides which may be released from NORM so that steps can be taken to ensure that humans are adequately protected from exposure to radiation. Because of the long-lived nature of many of the radionuclides, the assessments must be carried out over long times into the future. This is the first time that the modelling of NORM-containing radionuclides has been examined in this IAEA format and the working

  6. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department's spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    A self assessment was conducted of those Hanford facilities that are utilized to store Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Material, (RINM). The objective of the assessment is to identify the Hanford inventories of RINM and the ES ampersand H concerns associated with such storage. The assessment was performed as proscribed by the Project Plan issued by the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group. The Project Plan is the plan of execution intended to complete the Secretary's request for information relevant to the inventories and vulnerabilities of DOE storage of spent nuclear fuel. The Hanford RINM inventory, the facilities involved and the nature of the fuel stored are summarized. This table succinctly reveals the variety of the Hanford facilities involved, the variety of the types of RINM involved, and the wide range of the quantities of material involved in Hanford's RINM storage circumstances. ES ampersand H concerns are defined as those circumstances that have the potential, now or in the future, to lead to a criticality event, to a worker radiation exposure event, to an environmental release event, or to public announcements of such circumstances and the sensationalized reporting of the inherent risks

  7. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2 (FGE.21Rev2): Thiazoles, thiophene, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical group 29. Miscellaneous substances from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Seven...... of commerce have also been considered. For two substances are an identity test lacking and for one has the stereoisomeric composition to be specified....

  8. Kinetic, stereochemical, and molecular association factors in the hydralumination of group IV subtituted alkynes. The role of p/sub π/-d/sub π/ conjugation in the addition of diisobutylaluminum hydride to trimethyl(phenylethynyl)silane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisch, J.J.; Rhee, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    The kinetic, stereochemistry, and molecular association factors for the addition of diisobutylaluminum hydride to trimethyl(phenylethynyl)silane were studied in the temperature range of -10 to 38 0 . Hydralumination was found to have a kinetic true order of essentially one in the alkyne and one-third in the hydride. Although the trans adduct is the predominating product (approximately 99 percent) after completion of the hydralumination, the variation of the proportion of cis adduct and the initial rate law are consistent with a kinetically controlled cis hydralumination by monomeric R 2 'AlH, followed by a rapid isomerization to the trans adduct. The trans adduct formed a complex with l equivalent to the hydride. This complexation had to be taken into account, in order to explain the observed rate retardation and to obtain satisfactory integrated rate expressions for hydraluminations monitored to high conversion. Since in hydralumination this silylacetylene shows a stereospecificity and regiospecificity exactly opposite that of tert-butyl(phenyl)acetylene, as well as a heightened reactivity, a critical consideration of possible p/sub π/--d/sub π/ electronic effects was undertaken. The unusually facile isomerization of the resulting silyl-substituted vinylalanes, however, does seem more persuasive evidence for a p/sub π/--d/sub π/ effect, which promotes isomerization by electrophilic attack of R 2 'AlH on the carbon α to the Me 3 Si group. (U.S.)

  9. Application of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method for the Calculation of Two Molecular Descriptors at Both Ends of Dilution: Liquid Viscosity and Activity Coefficient in Water at Infinite Dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Naef

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of a commonly used computer algorithm based on the group-additivity method for the calculation of the liquid viscosity coefficient at 293.15 K and the activity coefficient at infinite dilution in water at 298.15 K of organic molecules is presented. The method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms, further subdividing them by their immediate neighborhood. A fast Gauss–Seidel fitting method using experimental data from literature is applied for the calculation of the atom groups’ contributions. Plausibility tests have been carried out on each of the calculations using a ten-fold cross-validation procedure which confirms the excellent predictive quality of the method. The goodness of fit (Q2 and the standard deviation (σ of the cross-validation calculations for the viscosity coefficient, expressed as log(η, was 0.9728 and 0.11, respectively, for 413 test molecules, and for the activity coefficient log(γ∞ the corresponding values were 0.9736 and 0.31, respectively, for 621 test compounds. The present approach has proven its versatility in that it enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the liquid viscosity of normal organic compounds as well as of ionic liquids.

  10. MODIFICATION OF THE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP METHOD USING FUZZY LOGIC: FUZZY AHP APPROACH AS A SUPPORT TO THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS CONCERNING ENGAGEMENT OF THE GROUP FOR ADDITIONAL HINDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Božanić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modification of the AHP method, which takes into account the degree of suspense of decision maker, that is it allows that decision maker, with a certain degree of conviction (which is usually less than 100%, defines which linguistic expression corresponds to optimality criteria comparison. To determine the criteria weights and alternative values, fuzzy numbers are used since they are very suitable for the expression of vagueness and uncertainty. In this way, after applying the AHP method, we obtained values of criterion functions for each of the examined alternatives, which corresponds to the value determined by the degree of conviction. This provides that for different values of the degree of conviction can be made generation of different sets of criterion functions values. The set model was tested on choosing directions of action of the Group for additional hindering, as a procedure wich is often accompanied by greater or lesser degree of uncertainty of criteria that are necessary in relevant decision making

  11. Additive subgroups of topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banaszczyk, Wojciech

    1991-01-01

    The Pontryagin-van Kampen duality theorem and the Bochner theorem on positive-definite functions are known to be true for certain abelian topological groups that are not locally compact. The book sets out to present in a systematic way the existing material. It is based on the original notion of a nuclear group, which includes LCA groups and nuclear locally convex spaces together with their additive subgroups, quotient groups and products. For (metrizable, complete) nuclear groups one obtains analogues of the Pontryagin duality theorem, of the Bochner theorem and of the Lévy-Steinitz theorem on rearrangement of series (an answer to an old question of S. Ulam). The book is written in the language of functional analysis. The methods used are taken mainly from geometry of numbers, geometry of Banach spaces and topological algebra. The reader is expected only to know the basics of functional analysis and abstract harmonic analysis.

  12. Present situation, current problems and countermeasures to solve them by the material technology group in chemical companies; Kagaku shakai ni okeru sochi zairyo gijutsu no genjo to kadai oyobi sore eno taio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Masao. [Asahi Chemical Industry Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Production Technology Center

    1999-05-15

    A questionnaire investigation about the present situation, current problems and countermeasure to be discussed with by material technology groups in the eight chemical companies was carried out. It has become clear from the analysis of answers obtained that the roll of material group has been changing under the diminishing construction of new plant and the increased needs of stable and sustainable plant operation. The present major subjects of material groups, which are pointed out in the answers, are such new technological problems as the plant life estimation, the dissemination and handing down of material technology and the upbringing of technology successors. The countermeasures to meet those requirements made clear are such technology developments as a new monitoring system, preparation of database on material technology and closer cooperation with relatied associations. It is hoped for that the findings of this study would lead to further and more detailed indentification of common problems to be solved and development of practical countermeasures therefor. (author)

  13. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 2, Working Group Assessment Team reports; Vulnerability development forms; Working group documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Secretary of Energy`s memorandum of August 19, 1993, established an initiative for a Department-wide assessment of the vulnerabilities of stored spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials. A Project Plan to accomplish this study was issued on September 20, 1993 by US Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Health and Safety (EH) which established responsibilities for personnel essential to the study. The DOE Spent Fuel Working Group, which was formed for this purpose and produced the Project Plan, will manage the assessment and produce a report for the Secretary by November 20, 1993. This report was prepared by the Working Group Assessment Team assigned to the Hanford Site facilities. Results contained in this report will be reviewed, along with similar reports from all other selected DOE storage sites, by a working group review panel which will assemble the final summary report to the Secretary on spent nuclear fuel storage inventory and vulnerability.

  14. National platform electromobility. Interim report of the working group 5 Materials and recycling; Nationale Plattform Elektromobilitaet. Zwischenbericht der Arbeitsgruppe 5 Materialien und Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuessle, Falk D [ThyssenKrupp AG, Essen (Germany). Business Area Components Technology; Wissel-Stoll, Kathrin [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany). Marketing Acids and Specialties

    2010-07-01

    Sufficient range, appropriate road performances, fulfilment of ecological requirements and an alternative price structuring are challenges in order to obtain the necessary acceptance for electric-powered vehicles by the customer. For this, new materials with adapted recycling strategies have to make a substantial contribution and are a driving force to an economic and sustainable electrical mobility. In order to achieve the goal of the national platform electromobility the following key fields are success critical in this connection: (a) Material for batteries; (b) Materials for construction and material lightweight construction; (c) Concepts for securing raw materials and recycling; (d) Materials for further key components.

  15. Microscopical characterization of carbon materials derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in making steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks for the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group of the ICCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predeanu, G.; Panaitescu, C.; Bălănescu, M.; Bieg, G.; Borrego, A.G.; Diez, M. A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Kwiecińska, B.; Marques, M.; Mastalerz, Maria; Misz-Kennan, M.; Pusz, S.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Rodrigues, S.; Singh, A. K.; Varma, A. K.; Zdravkov, A.; Zivotić, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of petrographic textures representing the structural organization of the organic matter derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in the making of steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks.This work represents the results of the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group in Commission III of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology between the years 2009 and 2013. The round robin exercises were run on photomicrograph samples. For textural characterization of carbon materials the existing ASTM classification system for metallurgical coke was applied.These round robin exercises involved 15 active participants from 12 laboratories who were asked to assess the coal and petroleum based carbons and to identify the morphological differences, as optical texture (isotropic/anisotropic), optical type (punctiform, mosaic, fibre, ribbon, domain), and size. Four sets of digital black and white microphotographs comprising 151 photos containing 372 fields of different types of organic matter were examined. Based on the unique ability of carbon to form a wide range of textures, the results showed an increased number of carbon occurrences which have crucial role in the chosen industrial applications.The statistical method used to evaluate the results was based on the “raw agreement indices”. It gave a new and original view on the analysts' opinion by not only counting the correct answers, but also all of the knowledge and experience of the participants. Comparative analyses of the average values of the level of overall agreement performed by each analyst in the exercises during 2009–2013 showed a great homogeneity in the results, the mean value being 90.36%, with a minimum value of 83% and a maximum value of 95%.

  16. Study Protocol: The Norfolk Diabetes Prevention Study [NDPS]: a 46 month multi - centre, randomised, controlled parallel group trial of a lifestyle intervention [with or without additional support from lay lifestyle mentors with Type 2 diabetes] to prevent transition to Type 2 diabetes in high risk groups with non - diabetic hyperglycaemia, or impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Melanie; Murray, Nikki; Bachmann, Max; Barton, Garry; Clark, Allan; Howe, Amanda; Greaves, Colin; Sampson, Mike

    2017-01-06

    This 7 year NIHR programme [2011-2018] tests the primary hypothesis that the NDPS diet and physical activity intervention will reduce the risk of transition to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in groups at high risk of Type 2 diabetes. The NDPS programme recognizes the need to reduce intervention costs through group delivery and the use of lay mentors with T2DM, the realities of normal primary care, and the complexity of the current glycaemic categorisation of T2DM risk. NDPS identifies people at highest risk of T2DM on the databases of 135 general practices in the East of England for further screening with ab fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c]. Those with an elevated fasting plasma glucose [impaired fasting glucose or IFG] with or without an elevated HbA1c [non -diabetic hyperglycaemia; NDH] are randomised into three treatment arms: a control arm receiving no trial intervention, an arm receiving an intensive bespoke group-based diet and physical activity intervention, and an arm receiving the same intervention with enhanced support from people with T2DM trained as diabetes prevention mentors [DPM]. The primary end point is cumulative transition rates to T2DM between the two intervention groups, and between each intervention group and the control group at 46 months. Participants with screen detected T2DM are randomized into an equivalent prospective controlled trial with the same intervention and control arms with glycaemic control [HbA1c] at 46 months as the primary end point. Participants with NDH and a normal fasting plasma glucose are randomised into an equivalent prospective controlled intervention trial with follow up for 40 months. The intervention comprises six education sessions for the first 12 weeks and then up to 15 maintenance sessions until intervention end, all delivered in groups, with additional support from a DPM in one treatment arm. The NDPS programme reports in 2018 and will provide trial outcome data for a group delivered

  17. Interim report of working group on development and examination of new material, high performance centrifuge technology, Advisory Committee on Nuclear Uranium Enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The industrialization of uranium enrichment in Japan has been advanced by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. by centrifugal separation technology. In April, 1988, the partial operation of the uranium enrichment prototype plant by centrifugal separation process (200 t SWU/year) was begun in Ningyo Pass, Okayama Prefecture, and its full operation is expected in January, 1989. Based on this achievement, Japan Nuclear Fuel Industry Co., Ltd. advances the construction of a commercial uranium enrichment plant in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, aiming at the start of operation around 1991. On the other hand, the environment surrounding the uranium enrichment business in Japan is extremely severe at present, and due to the excessive supply capacity of world uranium enrichment service and the recent rapid appreciation of yen, the further improvement of the economical efficiency of Japanese uranium enrichment business is demanded. The working group held four meetings since May, 1988, and evaluated the present status of the research and development of new material, high performance centrifuges, and investigated and discussed the method of advancing the research and development hereafter. The results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Boehm Titration Revisited (Part I: Practical Aspects for Achieving a High Precision in Quantifying Oxygen-Containing Surface Groups on Carbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schönherr

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Practical aspects of the Boehm titration method are evaluated for obtaining reliable results in the quantification of oxygen-containing surface groups in a short time. Analytical criteria such as accuracy, repeatability, precision, and robustness are applied. Oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs are used as the model substance. Different reaction bases (NaHCO3(aq, Na2CO3(aq, NaOH(aq are applied and treatment times are studied. We also show that smaller amounts of carbon material can be reliably analyzed by using an autotitrator combined with a pH electrode. We find that indirect titration with Na2CO3 results in the highest titration precision and accuracy despite the lower base strength compared with NaOH. Therefore, CO2 impurities do not have to be removed and only 7 min is necessary for one titration. The titration error with respect to the proposed method is 0.15% of the aliquot volume. The mixing method during the carbon treatment with bases (stirring, shaking, ultrasound treatment has no influence on the result as long as one allows a few hours for the reaction to complete. Finally, we provide a standard operating procedure for obtaining results with high precision during Boehm titration.

  19. Effect of the addition of expanded vermiculite in the technological properties of ceramic materials of clay base; Efeito da adicao de vermiculita expandida nas propriedades tecnologicas de materiais Ceramicos de base argilosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lins, R.R.F.; Peixoto, R.S. Dutra; Macedo, D.A.; Nascimento, R.M.; Oliveira, G.V.M., E-mail: rivaldoeng.m@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the effects of adding expanded vermiculite ceramic block made from two different types of clay and analysis of the properties for three compositions at different sintering temperatures. Samples pressed at 40 MPa were sintered between 800 and 1100 ° C. The technological properties were determined according to the sintering temperature. The evaluation of the crystalline phases and microstructure was carried out by X-ray diffraction results indicated that with the addition of expanded vermiculite in the specimens there was an increase in porosity of the blocks together with the water absorption, therefore a reduction in apparent density, as well as the breakdown voltage of the three-point bending. This study demonstrates the possibility of formulating ceramic blocs order to improve the insulating properties of these materials. (author)

  20. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 216, Revision 1 (FGE.216Rev1). Consideration of genotoxic potential for α,β-unsaturated 2-Phenyl -2-Alkenals from Subgroup 3.3 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of five flavouring substances from subgroup 3.3 of FGE.19. In the Flavouring Group Evaluation 216 (FGE.216) additional genotoxicity...... of animals treated with 2-phenylcrotonaldehyde. Moreover, since the substance was genotoxic only without metabolic activation, it appears necessary to prove the absence of genotoxic effect locally in the gastro intestinal system using the Comet assay....

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of PEDOT Derivative with Carboxyl Group and Its Chemo/Bio Sensing Application as Nanocomposite, Immobilized Biological and Enhanced Optical Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long; Wen, Yangping; Yao, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jingkun; Duan, Xuemin; Zhang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electropolymerization of C4-EDOT-COOH and corresponding polymer's sensing application for environmental, pharmaceutical, biology and food. -- Highlights: •C4-EDOT-COOH monomer with good solubility in water was synthesized by an efficient five-step route. •That acidic conditions were favorable for the electropolymerization of C4-EDOT-COOH. •The resulting high-quality polymer film can be employed for the fabrication of chemo/bio-sensors and optical sensors. •These as-prepared sensors can be applied to the simple, fast and sensitive detection of different analytes. -- Abstract: Various electrochemical chemo/bio-sensors and optical sensors are facilely explored for the sensitive determination of biomolecules, drug molecules, environmental pollutants, and metal ions using a carboxylic-functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derivative (PC4), which is easily obtained by the direct electropolymerization of a water-soluble 4-((2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4] dioxin-2-yl) methoxy)-4-oxobutanoic acid (C4-EDOT-COOH) monomer in a microemulsion system. The effect of different pH values on the electropolymerization of C4-EDOT-COOH monomer is investigated, and the as-prepared PC4 film is characterized by electrochemical method, infrared spectrum, and scanning electron microscope. The resulting high-quality PC4 film as a sensing material not only can combine with various biologically active species via covalent linkage and inorganic materials via layer-by-layer self-assembly for the construction of electrochemical chemo/bio-sensors, but also excellent optical performance of PC4 can be employed for the fabrication of optical sensors. These as-prepared chemo/bio-sensors can be applied to the simple, fast and sensitive detection of environmental pollutants, pharmaceuticals, hazardous substances, and biological active substance and nutrients present in food by means of electrochemistry, ultraviolet and fluorescence spectroscopy. Satisfactory results

  2. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  3. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  4. Biosol Project: development of a new technology for the treatment of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. bio-remediation by means of the addition of a biomass material (part one)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The general mission of the project is to contribute to the development of new technologies based on the bio-remediation of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. It is pretended to develop a bio-remediation technology based on the use 'on site' of a biomass material with absorbent properties that allows to reduce time and costs of treatment of contaminated soils by hydrocarbons in comparison with other current technologies. The biomass must be biodegradable and to act as a bio-stimulator of the endogenous microbial population, which is the responsible of the degradation of the pollutants contained in the soil. Another objective to achieve is that the new technology has to be able to decontaminate soils over the maximum thresholds of concentration reached by similar technologies of bio-remediation (50.000 ppm), in order to obtain that the technique could be competitive in comparison with other techniques more conventional based on chemical or physical treatments, and more aggressive from an ecological point of view (for example: chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The amount and quality of published scientific works also demonstrate that still there are many points to investigate until understanding perfectly how the microorganisms interact with the different phases and compounds that conforms the porous matrix of the soil. In this sense IAP emphasizes the necessity to have a previous study of characterization for any contaminated soil that it wants to be treated by means of technologies based on the bio-remediation. In a similar line, it emphasizes the studies about bio-remediation presented in the 8. Consoil (May of 2003). The works presented in this forum put in evidence the necessity of arrange pilot experiences of application that allow to advance in the development of new technologies applicable to similar scales to the real ones. Also the bio-remediation based on the bio-stimulation of the endogenous microbial populations by means of the addition of

  5. Effects of superfine refractory carbide additives on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiB2–TiC+Al2O3 composite ceramic cutting tool materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Bin; Ji, Wenbin; Huang, Chuanzhen; Wang, Jun; Li, Shasha; Xu, Kaitao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The superfine carbides determined the mechanical properties of composites. • Superfine HfC or TaC caused some oxide impurities in composites. • Superfine VC or NbC refined and homogenized the microstructure. • Failure of composites containing HfC or TaC was produced by larger grains. • Composite containing VC exhibited more bridging and transcrystalline failure. -- Abstract: A study to increase the mechanical properties of TiB 2 –TiC+Al 2 O 3 composite ceramic cutting tool material by using superfine refractory carbide additives is presented. Four superfine refractory carbides are considered to investigate their effects on the phase composition, element distribution, grain size, fracture surface, crack propagation of the metal ceramic. The physicochemical properties of superfine carbides, such as chemical activities and atom radius, were found to have the significant effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the metal ceramic. Hafnium carbide (HfC) and Tantalum carbide (TaC) reduced the mechanical properties of the metal ceramic because of their poor solubility with the Ni binder phase and the formation of oxides. The mechanical properties of the metal ceramic were increased by the addition of superfine niobium carbide (NbC) and vanadium carbide (VC), and their optimum values were a flexural strength of 1100 ± 62 MPa, fracture toughness of 8.5 ± 0.8 MPa.m1/2 and hardness of 21.53 ± 0.36 GPa, respectively, when 3.2 wt% superfine VC was used

  6. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  7. Effect of borax additive on the dielectric response of polypyrrole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-29

    Mar 29, 2018 ... fore, borax additive is effective on the properties of composite material. 2.5 Particle size of .... of a very mobile group of electric dipoles in PPy–50 wt% ..... [9] Cavdar A D, Mengelo˘glu F and Karakus K 2015 Measurement. 60 6.

  8. Effects of Bonding Types and Functional Groups on CO 2 Capture using Novel Multiphase Systems of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) which possess unique features including negligible vapor pressure and a high degree of tunability were synthesized and their physical and chemical properties as well as CO 2 capture

  9. FOREWORD: Materials metrology Materials metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Seton; Valdés, Joaquin

    2010-04-01

    calibration of the various instruments and standards used but also the reliable application of an accepted measurement procedure. Nowhere is this more evident than in the use of hardness scales, which are not directly traceable to the SI. This special issue of Metrologia includes a summary of the findings and conclusions of the Working Group and a further 14 papers covering the full range of properties of interest in science, engineering and standards making. It includes papers by authors at eight national measurement institutes and four other research centres. In addition to mechanical properties, there are papers addressing issues associated with the measurement of electromagnetic, acoustic and optical properties as well as those arising from the specific structural features of many new materials. As guest editors, we are extremely grateful to all the authors who have contributed to this special issue on the measurement of the properties of materials. We hope it will contribute to a wider appreciation of many of the associated issues and foster a growing understanding of the importance of ensuring that all such measurements are performed in accordance with accepted standards and procedures, with proper attention to the need to establish the traceability of the results. Only in this way can the performance, safety and fitness for purpose of products be guaranteed.

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 96 (FGE.96): Consideration of 88 flavouring substances considered by EFSA for which EU production volumes / anticipated production volumes have been submitted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...

  11. Binding cooperativity between a ligand carbonyl group and a hydrophobic side chain can be enhanced by additional H-bonds in a distance dependent manner: A case study with thrombin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed M; Hangauer, David G

    2015-01-01

    One of the underappreciated non-covalent binding factors, which can significantly affect ligand-protein binding affinity, is the cooperativity between ligand functional groups. Using four different series of thrombin inhibitors, we reveal a strong positive cooperativity between an H-bond accepting carbonyl functionality and the adjacent P3 hydrophobic side chain. Adding an H-bond donating amine adjacent to the P3 hydrophobic side chain further increases this positive cooperativity thereby improving the Ki by as much as 546-fold. In contrast, adding an amidine multiple H-bond/salt bridge group in the distal S1 pocket does not affect this cooperativity. An analysis of the crystallographic B-factors of the ligand groups inside the binding site indicates that the strong cooperativity is mainly due to a significant mutual reduction in the residual mobility of the hydrophobic side chain and the H-bonding functionalities that is absent when the separation distance is large. This type of cooperativity is important to encode in binding affinity prediction software, and to consider in SAR studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Advisory group for the comprehensive review of the Agency's regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. Vienna, 1-12 September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.

    1981-05-01

    The discussions and recommendations for the revision of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials are reported. The last revision of the regulations was published in 1973. The regulations have been adopted by all international bodies concerned with transport and by almost all individual Member States. In view of the developments in the means of transport, the volume of traffic and the nature of materials transported, Member States and international organizations rely on the Agency for advice and guidance. Hence the regulations are to be reviewed by 1983

  13. Additive lattice kirigami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  14. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 215 (FGE.215): Seven α,β-Unsaturated Cinnamyl Ketones from subgroup 3.2 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of flavouring substances from subgroup 3.2 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 215 (FGE.215). The Flavour Industry has...

  16. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Fo od Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Proce ssing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evalua tion 35, Revision 1 (FGE.35Rev1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate three flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 35, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present ...

  17. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2016. Scientific opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 313, (FGE.313): α,β-unsaturated 3(2H)-furanone derivatives from chemical group 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of EFSA was requested to evaluate three flavouring substances, 2,5-dimethyl-4-ethoxyfuran-3(2H)-one [FL-no: 13.117], 2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one [FL-no: 13.119] and 4-Acetyl-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one [FL-no: 13......–activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that the two flavouring substances [FL-no: 13.117, 13.119] do not give rise to safety concerns at their level of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the Maximised...... Survey-derived Daily Intake (MSDI) approach. For the flavouring substance [FL-no: 13.175], toxicity data are required. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substance, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity...

  18. Report of 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors, Yayoi Research Group; 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In this report, the lecture materials of Yayoi Research Group, 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors which was held at the University of Tokyo on March 25, 1996, are collected. This workshop was held also as 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. This workshop has the character of the preparatory meeting for the session on `Interface effect in nuclear fusion energy system` of the international workshop `Interface effect in quantum energy system`, and 6 lectures and one comment were given. The topics were deuterium transport in Mo under deuterium ion implantation, the change of the stratum structure of graphite by hydrogen ion irradiation, the tritium behavior in opposing materials, the basic studies of the irradiation effects of solid breeding materials, the research on the behavior of hydroxyl group on the surface of solid breeding materials, the sweep gas effect on the surface of solid breeding materials, and the dynamic behavior of ion-implanted deuterium in proton-conductive oxides. (K.I.)

  19. State of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis: highlights from the 4th Collaborative Materials Exercise of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, J.M.; Pellegrini, K.L.; Marsden, Oliva

    2017-01-01

    The Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) recently completed its fourth Collaborative Materials Exercise (CMX-4) in the 21 year history of the Group. This was also the largest materials exercise to date, with participating laboratories from 16 countries or international organizations. Exercise samples (including three separate samples of low enriched uranium oxide) were shipped as part of an illicit trafficking scenario, for which each laboratory was asked to conduct nuclear forensic analyses in support of a fictitious criminal investigation. In all, over 30 analytical techniques were applied to characterize exercise materials, for which ten of those techniques were applied to ITWG exercises for the first time. An objective review of the state of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis based upon the outcome of this most recent exercise is provided. (author)

  20. State of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis: highlights from the 4th Collaborative Materials Exercise of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Marsden, Oliva; Pellegrini, Kristi L.

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) recently completed its fourth Collaborative Materials Exercise (CMX-4) in the 21 year history of the Group. This was also the largest materials exercise to date, with participating laboratories from 16 countries or international organizations. Moreover, exercise samples (including three separate samples of low enriched uranium oxide) were shipped as part of an illicit trafficking scenario, for which each laboratory was asked to conduct nuclear forensic analyses in support of a fictitious criminal investigation. In all, over 30 analytical techniques were applied to characterize exercise materials, for which ten of those techniques were applied to ITWG exercises for the first time. We performed an objective review of the state of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis based upon the outcome of this most recent exercise is provided.

  1. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  2. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 3 (FGE.23Rev3): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives from chemical groups 15, 16, 22, 26 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 20 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... of the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 20 candidate substances....

  3. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Flavouring Group Evaluation 46, Revision 1 (FGE.46Rev1): Ammonia and three ammonium salts from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... in a wide range of food items up to very high amounts. Hydrogen sulphide is also reported to occur naturally in a wide range of food items. In its evaluation, the Panel as a default used the “Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake” (MSDI) approach to estimate the per capita intakes of the flavouring...... substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured at the use...

  4. Atom-Economical Dimerization Strategy by the Rhodium-Catalyzed Addition of Carboxylic Acids to Allenes: Protecting-Group-Free Synthesis of Clavosolide A and Late-Stage Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydl, Alexander M; Breit, Bernhard

    2015-12-14

    Natural products of polyketide origin with a high level of symmetry, in particular C2 -symmetric diolides as a special macrolactone-based product class, often possess a broad spectrum of biological activity. An efficient route to this important structural motif was developed as part of a concise and highly convergent synthesis of clavosolide A. This strategy features an atom-economic "head-to-tail" dimerization by the stereoselective rhodium-catalyzed addition of carboxylic acids to terminal allenes with the simultaneous construction of two new stereocenters. The excellent efficiency and selectivity with which the C2 -symmetric core structures were obtained are remarkable considering the outcome under classical dimerization conditions. Furthermore, this approach facilitates late-stage modification and provides ready access to potential new lead structures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Radiation curable Michael addition compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.W.; Friedlander, C.B.; McDonald, W.H.; Dowbenko, R.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation polymerizable acrylyloxy-containing reaction products are provided from Michael addition reaction of an amide containing at least two acrylate groups with a primary or secondary amine. The resulting amine adducts of the amide, which contain at least one acrylate group per molecule, possesses high cure rates in air and are useful in compositions for forming coatings. (author)

  6. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im...... for scalable manufacturing. In relation to interface problems it is shown how a flexible void area may be included into a standard minimum compliance problem by employing an additional design variable field and a sensitivity filter. Furthermore, it is shown how the design of coated structures may be modeled...

  7. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Data-Treatment Chemicals, Construction Materials, Transportation, On-site Equipment, and other Processes for Use in Spreadsheets for Environmental Footprint Analysis (SEFA): Revised Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report estimates environmental emission factors (EmF) for key chemicals, construction and treatment materials, transportation/on-site equipment, and other processes used at remediation sites. The basis for chemical, construction, and treatment material EmFs is life cycle inv...

  8. Assessment of cellular materials generated by co-cultured ‘inflamed’ and healthy periodontal ligament stem cells from patient-matched groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hao-Ning [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100048 (China); Xia, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The 309th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100091 (China); Xu, Jie; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Chen, Fa-Ming, E-mail: cfmsunhh@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-08-01

    Recently, stem cells derived from the'inflamed’ periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue of periodontally diseased teeth (I-PDLSCs) have been increasingly suggested as a more readily accessible source of cells for regenerative therapies than those derived from healthy PDL tissue (H-PDLSCs). However, substantial evidence indicates that I-PDLSCs exhibit impaired functionalities compared with H-PDLSCs. In this study, patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were co-cultured at various ratios. Cellular materials derived from these cultures were investigated regarding their osteogenic potential in vitro and capacity to form new bone following in vivo transplantation. While patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs could co-exist in co-culture systems, the proportion of I-PDLSCs tended to increase during in vitro incubation. Compared with H-PDLSC monoculture, the presence of I-PDLSCs in the co-cultures appeared to enhance the overall cell proliferation. Although not completely rescued, the osteogenic and regenerative potentials of the cellular materials generated by co-cultured I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were significantly improved compared with those derived from I-PDLSC monocultures. Notably, cells in co-cultures containing either 50% I-PDLSCs plus 50% H-PDLSCs or 25% I-PDLSCs plus 75% H-PDLSCs expressed osteogenesis-related proteins and genes at levels similar to those expressed in H-PDLSC monocultures (P>0.05). Irrespective of the percentage of I-PDLSCs, robust cellular materials were obtained from co-cultures with 50% or more H-PDLSCs, which exhibited equivalent potential to form new bone in vivo compared with sheets generated by H-PDLSC monocultures. These data suggest that the co-culture of I-PDLSCs with patient-matched H-PDLSCs is a practical and effective method for increasing the overall osteogenic and regenerative potentials of resultant cellular materials. - Highlights: • Co-culturing H-PDLSCs with I-PDLSCs led to rapid cell expansion. • H-PDLSCs and I-PDLSCs co

  9. Assessment of cellular materials generated by co-cultured ‘inflamed’ and healthy periodontal ligament stem cells from patient-matched groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hao-Ning; Xia, Yu; Xu, Jie; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stem cells derived from the'inflamed’ periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue of periodontally diseased teeth (I-PDLSCs) have been increasingly suggested as a more readily accessible source of cells for regenerative therapies than those derived from healthy PDL tissue (H-PDLSCs). However, substantial evidence indicates that I-PDLSCs exhibit impaired functionalities compared with H-PDLSCs. In this study, patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were co-cultured at various ratios. Cellular materials derived from these cultures were investigated regarding their osteogenic potential in vitro and capacity to form new bone following in vivo transplantation. While patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs could co-exist in co-culture systems, the proportion of I-PDLSCs tended to increase during in vitro incubation. Compared with H-PDLSC monoculture, the presence of I-PDLSCs in the co-cultures appeared to enhance the overall cell proliferation. Although not completely rescued, the osteogenic and regenerative potentials of the cellular materials generated by co-cultured I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were significantly improved compared with those derived from I-PDLSC monocultures. Notably, cells in co-cultures containing either 50% I-PDLSCs plus 50% H-PDLSCs or 25% I-PDLSCs plus 75% H-PDLSCs expressed osteogenesis-related proteins and genes at levels similar to those expressed in H-PDLSC monocultures (P>0.05). Irrespective of the percentage of I-PDLSCs, robust cellular materials were obtained from co-cultures with 50% or more H-PDLSCs, which exhibited equivalent potential to form new bone in vivo compared with sheets generated by H-PDLSC monocultures. These data suggest that the co-culture of I-PDLSCs with patient-matched H-PDLSCs is a practical and effective method for increasing the overall osteogenic and regenerative potentials of resultant cellular materials. - Highlights: • Co-culturing H-PDLSCs with I-PDLSCs led to rapid cell expansion. • H-PDLSCs and I-PDLSCs co

  10. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  11. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    on the microstructure and mechanical properties of sand cast been investigated ... owed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy. 12wt%Si alloy .... 28 materials. 29. Element. Aluminum. Silicon. Al. Si. Ca. Fe. Cu. Zn. Mn. Mg. Cr. B. 99.71.

  12. International working group on life management of nuclear power plants (IWG-LMNPP). Regular meeting. 30 August - 1 September 1995. Working material. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This meeting of the International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) was organized to review the national programmes of the countries and to advise the IAEA on its technical meetings and activities in the subject areas taking into consideration current progress, problems and operating experience. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. International working group on life management of nuclear power plants (IWG-LMNPP). Regular meeting. 30 August - 1 September 1995. Working material. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This meeting of the International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP) was organized to review the national programmes of the countries and to advise the IAEA on its technical meetings and activities in the subject areas taking into consideration current progress, problems and operating experience. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 3 (FGE.09Rev3): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 17 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the subs...

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 4 (FGE.09Rev4): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present revi...

  16. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific O pinion Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 4 (FGE.23Rev4): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives from chemical groups 15, 16, 22, 26 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision i...... also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 21 candidate substances. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...

  17. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF MAIN GROUPS OF SUBSTANCES IN GRANULES ON THE BASIS OF MEDICINAL VEGETABLE RAW MATERIAL FOR TREATING GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridonov S.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last time a significant increasing of gastrointestinal tract diseases has been observed. The poor quality and irrational feeding, environmental pollution, psychological and other factors is the causes of this. Very often the gastrointestinal tract has a multifactorial pathological effects, also affecting the hepatosphere organs and urogenital system. Also a great importance have accompanying disorders of the central nervous system. Thus we must to require a comprehensive approach to the creation of drugs for use in gastroenterology, the assortment range of which should be expanded. Advantageous position in this case takes a phytotherapy using drugs based on medicinal plant raw material, which acting on the main areas of the pathological process. For this purpose the scientists from the National University of Pharmacy (Kharkov, Ukraine was created a complex herbal drug in the form of granules under the code name "Poligerbagastrin", includes the following types of medicinal plant raw material powders: helichrysum arenarium flowers, corn stigmas, horsetail grass, knotweed grass, horse chestnut seeds, licorice roots and wheat bran. Materials and methods To determine the quantity of biologically active substances the method of spectrophotometry in the visible and UV spectral region was used. This method is well studied and available, equipped with high-precision hardware. He also described in the Ukrainian normative documents and contained in the world's leading pharmacopoeias. For determination was used the unifieds methods, which shown in pharmacopoeia monographs and other reference literature. Determination was carried out with a spectrophotometer HP 8543 UV-VIZ of «Hewlett Packard» company, USA. Results and discussion For the quantitative determination of flavonoids was used a methodology, which based on the complexation reaction of isolated by acid hydrolysis and extraction with ethylacetate hydrolysis products with aluminum chloride in

  18. Multifunctional materials and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Jeon, Ki-Wan

    2017-08-22

    Forming multifunctional materials and composites thereof includes contacting a first material having a plurality of oxygen-containing functional groups with a chalcogenide compound, and initiating a chemical reaction between the first material and the chalcogenide compound, thereby replacing oxygen in some of the oxygen-containing functional groups with chalcogen from the chalcogen-containing compound to yield a second material having chalcogen-containing functional groups and oxygen-containing functional groups. The first material is a carbonaceous material or a macromolecular material. A product including the second material is collected and may be processed further to yield a modified product or a composite.

  19. Technical committee meeting on Liquid Metal Fast Reactor (LMFR) developments. 33rd annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWG-FR). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 33 years, the IAEA has actively encouraged and advocated international cooperation in fast reactor technology. The present publication contains information on the status of fast reactor development and on worldwide activities in this advanced nuclear power technology during 1999/2000, as reported at the 33. annual meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors. It is intended to provide information regarding the current status of LMFR development in IAEA Member States

  20. An exploratory, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, relative bioavailability study with an additional two-period crossover food-effect study exploring the pharmacokinetics of two novel formulations of pexmetinib (ARRY-614

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollenberg LA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lance A Wollenberg,1 Donald T Corson,2,3 Courtney A Nugent,1 Farran L Peterson,1 Ann M Ptaszynski,1 Alisha Arrigo,2,3 Coralee G Mannila,2,3 Kevin S Litwiler,1 Stacie J Bell1,4 1Array BioPharma, Boulder, 2Array BioPharma, Longmont, CO, 3Avista Pharma Solutions, Longmont, CO, 4Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, Ellicott City, MD, USA Background: Pexmetinib (ARRY-614 is a dual inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Tie2 signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Previous clinical experience in a Phase I dose-escalation study of myelodysplastic syndrome patients using pexmetinib administered as neat powder-in-capsule (PIC exhibited high variability in pharmacokinetics and excessive pill burden, prompting an effort to improve the formulation of pexmetinib. Methods: A relative bioavailability assessment encompassed three parallel treatment cohorts of unique subjects comparing the two new formulations (12 subjects per cohort, a liquid oral suspension (LOS and liquid-filled capsule (LFC and the current clinical PIC formulation (six subjects in a fasted state. The food-effect assessment was conducted as a crossover of the LOS and LFC formulations administered under fed and fasted conditions. Subjects were divided into two groups of equal size to evaluate potential period effects on the food-effect assessment. Results: The geometric mean values of the total plasma exposures based upon area-under-the-curve to the last quantifiable sample (AUClast of pexmetinib were approximately four- and twofold higher after administration of the LFC and LOS formulations, respectively, than after the PIC formulation, when the formulations were administered in the fasted state. When the LFC formulation was administered in the fed state, pexmetinib AUClast decreased by <5% compared with the fasted state. After administration of the LOS formulation in the fed state, pexmetinib AUClast was 34% greater than observed in the fasted