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Sample records for group activity sabana

  1. Determinación de la actividad lignocelulolítica en sustrato natural de aislamientos fúngicos obtenidos de sabana de pastoreo y de bosque secundario de sabana inundable tropical Determination of lignocellulolytic activity in a natural substrate of native fungi strains obtained from savanna and of secondary forest from a tropical flooded savanna

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    Martha Lucía Ortiz Moreno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar aislamientos de hongos ligninolíticos y celulolíticos que pudieran degradar desechos de cosecha y mejorar las características del suelo en los Llanos Orientales, se realizó un muestreo siguiendo la metodología de transepto y muestras integradas. Se obtuvo una cepa ligninolítica (005L Verticillium spp. y 72 cepas celulolíticas. La comparación de los usos del suelo (sabana de pastoreo y bosque secundario mostró que no existía una relación entre el número de géneros obtenidos y las características del suelo. Posteriormente, se realizó la cuantificación de la actividad celulolítica y ligninolítica de los aislamientos para identificar las cepas que posteriormente serían evaluadas en el sustrato natural pasto seco (Brachiaria spp.. Se encontraron dos cepas con alta actividad exoglucanasa (055C y 061C Penicillium spp. y una cepa con alta actividad endoglucanasa (019C Trichoderma spp. respecto al control Trichoderma viride. En el sustrato natural se evaluaron los consorcios de las cepas seleccionadas formados por pares: una ligninolítica y una celulolítica. Las pruebas mostraron que los aislamientos promisorios aumentaron su actividad enzimática en el sustrato pasto superando a los controles positivos (Pleurotus ostreatus para lignina y T. viride para celulosa y que los consorcios no afectaron la capacidad enzimática de las cepas que los formaban. Por lo tanto, se recomienda utilizar estos consorcios para el desarrollo de biofertilizantes acondicionadores del suelo, empleando especialmente el consorcio formado por las cepas 005L (Verticillium spp. y 055C (Penicillium spp., que mostró alta actividad ligninolítica y celulolítica.The aim of this work was to identify lignolytic and cellulolytic fungal strains capable of degrading harvest waste and thereby improving the soil characteristics of the eastern Llanos of Colombia. Sampling was carried out using the transept methodology and

  2. A pollen diagram from “Laguna de la Herrera” (Sabana de Bogota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der T.; Gonzalez, E.

    1965-01-01

    The Laguna de La Herrera (alt. ca 2550 m) is a lake situated on the western border of the Sabana de Bogotá, near Mosquera (dept. of Cundinamarca, Colombia) (fig. 2). This part of the Sabana has a relatively dry climate (appr. 600—700 mm rainfall), as it lies in the rain-shadow of the hills that bord

  3. Actividad microbiana en suelos de sabanas de los Llanos Orientales de Venezuela convertidas en pasturas

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    Y Gómez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el efecto de la variabilidad temporal y de las prácticas de manejo agrícola sobre las propiedades químicas y parámetros bioquímicos en un típico suelo Ultisol de pasturas nativas e introducidas de las sabanas orientales de los Llanos de Venezuela. La variabilidad temporal, el manejo agrícola y el efecto interactivo de ambos factores, afectaron las propiedades químicas y los parámetros bioquímicos. El carbono orgánico total e hidrosoluble experimentaron una significativa disminución durante la estación lluviosa. La respiración basal, la amonificación de la arginina (AA y la hidrólisis del diacetato de fluorisceína (DAF mostraron que en esas sabanas existe una baja actividad microbiana. La transformación de sabanas nativas a sistemas de pasturas de B. brizantha y S. capitata, incrementaron el contenido de materia orgánica en el suelo. La AA, y la respiración basal fueron indicadores sensibles, con los cuales se pueden estimar cambios en la calidad del suelo y reflejar el efecto causado por la interacción de los cambios temporales y las prácticas de manejo.Microbial activity in Eastern Venezuelan savannas turned into grasslands. We studied the effects of season and management practices on chemical properties and biochemical parameters in a typical Ultisol soil of native and introduced pastures of the Eastern savannas of Venezuela. Sseason, soil management, and their interaction, significantly affected chemical properties and biochemical parameters. The total carbon and the water soluble carbon experienced a significant decrease during the wet pereiod. The basal respiration, the arginine ammonification (AA and the fluoriscein diacetate hydrolysis showed showed a relatively low microbial activity. The transformation of native savannas to pastures systems of B. brizantha and S. capitata increased the organic matter content in soil. The AA and the basal respiration were sensible indicators to estimate changes in soil

  4. Contribución al estudio de la biología y capacidad de control de Encarsia Formosa Gahan en la Sabana de Bogotá Biology ano control activity ,of Encarsia formosa Gahan in Bogota (Colombia

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    Español Jeannette Amparo

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la introducción de Encarsia formosa Ganan.(Hvrnenóptero-Aphelinidae, parásito espec ífico de la mosca blanca Trisleurodes vaporariorum (Westwood Ouaintance
    & Baker, se realizó un estudio de biología, comportamiento y adaptación del parásito en condiciones de laboratorio e invernadero a nivel de la Sabana de Bogotá, A partir de las primeras liberaciones de Encsrsie, se observó una buena capacidad de búsqueda, dispersión, adaptación y eficiencia
    de control sobre la mayoría de hospederos vegetales muestreados, En condiciones de la boratorio sobre plantas de tomate, se obtuvo una fecundidad promedia de 63 huevos/
    hembra/20 días, una longevidad promedia de 41,4 días, una relación de sexos de 361: 1 Hembras/macho, una duración del ciclo de vida de 22,1 días cuando parasitó ninfas en tercer instar y de 12,7 días cuando parasitó ninfas de mosca blanca en cuarto instar, En la evaluación del control ejercido sobre las ninfas de mosca blanca en plantas de tomate se determinó un mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en los folíolos medios y apicales y un mayor porcentaje de predación en los folíolos basales, En cuanto al control ejercido por Encarsia formosa sobre plantas de tomate y tabaco en laboratorio y tomate,  milflores y alstroemeria bajo condiciones de
    invernadero y sometidas a libre infestación de la plaga y el parásito se determinó un buen control expresado en un alto porcentaje de parasitismo superior al 70% y un bajo
    porcentaje de predación.
    Some preliminary studies on behavior and adaptation of the newly introduced Encarsia formosa Gahan as a parasite of the greenhouse whitefly Trisleurodes vaporariorum (Westwood under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were determined. Different plant hosts of T. vaporariorum were considered. Using tomato as a host for the greenhouse whitefly it was found that E. formosa showed and average
    fecundity of 63 eggs per female in 20 days, an adult

  5. Equinodermos (Echinodermata) del occidente del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Valle García, R. del; M. Abreu Pérez; Rodríguez, R.; Solís-Marín, F. A.; A. Laguarda-Figueras; Durán González, A. de la L.

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderms (Echinodermata) from western Archipelago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba. The Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago, central north region of Cuba, has been submitted to a significant tourist development, with the corresponding increase of hotel infrastructure and highways. We sampled 20 stations considering biotope variation in the macrolagoon and the external areas. The samplings were carried out in March - April and October - November, 2001 (20 days per sampling). Towards the external area - where ...

  6. Variación en la actividad microbiana por cambio de uso en suelos en sabanas, Llanos Orientales, Venezuela

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    Yrma Gómez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En los llanos orientales de Venezuela la forma tradicional de uso de las sabanas de Trachypogon ha sido el pastoreo extensivo. La presión sobre éstas para obtener una mayor productividad animal ha estimulado la introducción de plantas exóticas para forrajes, tales como: Brachiaria brizantha y Andropogon gayanus. A pesar de que grandes extensiones de sabanas están siendo sometidas a este cambio de uso de la tierra, es escasa la información acerca del efecto que estas pasturas y la actividad de pastoreo tienen sobre la actividad microbiana en el suelo; por lo que el objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el impacto que el pastoreo extensivo y la substitución de la cobertura nativa tienen sobre la actividad microbiana en estos suelos. El muestreo fue llevado a cabo durante las temporadas de sequía y lluvias. Los parámetros empleados para determinar cambios en la actividad microbiana fueron la respiración inducida por sustrato (RIS, la respiración basal (RB, la actividad de la deshidrogenasa (DHS, la hidrólisis del diacetato de fluorisceína (DAF y la amonificación de la arginina (AA. La similitud de las características estructurales de los suelos estudiados nos permite inferir, que las diferencias en los parámetros microbiológicos, están determinadas por las condiciones climáticas y el manejo del suelo. Los resultados muestran que en estos suelos existe una baja actividad microbiana. La temporada lluviosa provocó un incremento en todos los parámetros microbiológicos determinados. B. brizantha hizo un mayor aporte de carbono al suelo y promovió una mayor actividad heterotrófica. El pastoreo extensivo y la baja carga animal en las sabanas de los llanos orientales de Venezuela no afectaron la actividad microbiana del suelo.Soil microbial activity variation after land use changes in savannah, Llanos Orientales, Venezuela. In West plains of Venezuela, the traditional land use of the Trachypogon savannah, has been the

  7. La Sabana de Bogotá y su lago en el Pleniglacial Medio

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    Hamenn Thomas Van Der

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante buena parte del Pleistoceno (últimos  2.5 millones de años, la Sabana de Bogotá fue un lago. En su extensa historia presenta cambios frecuentes de nivel, especialmente durante las épocas interglaciales en las cuales el lago se contraía y dejaba una amplia zona pantanosa y boscosa entre su orilla y el pie de los cerros (VAN DER HAMMEN & GONZÁLEZ 1960-1963; HOOGHIEMSTRA,1984. Durante el último interglacial y en los interestadiales y estadiales de la parte temprana del último glacial existía un lago relativamente grande; en los bordes y especialmente en la parte baja de los valles que desembocan a la Sabana (como el de Tenjo se encontraba vegetación pantanosa, especialmente con Alnus acuminata (Aliso acompañado en ocasiones de Weinmannia sp. y Vallea stipularis.

  8. Tres patos ocasionales en la Sabana de Bogotá y la Laguna de Fúquene

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    Borrero José Ignacio

    1944-12-01

    Full Text Available Agradezco al Dr. Armando Dugand la ayuda que se sirvió dispensarme para la presentación de este articulo. Creo de interes, para principiar, hacer una breve descripción de las condiciones de la Sabana de Bogotá y la Laguna de Fúquene, como localidades de paso o estacionamiento temporal para las especies migratorias de Anátidas.  La Sabana de Bogotá ocupa una vasta altiplanicie de unos 2000 kilómetros cuadrados a 2600 mts. de altura media, rodeada de montanas o cerros en toda su extensión y cruzada por pequeños rios. El rio Bogotá, que la atraviesa, forma en sus riberas y en casi toda su extensión grandes lagunas y pantanos apropiados para la llegada de los patos y otras aves acuáticas que anualmente vienen del Norte y otras regiones.

  9. A dynamic policy for grouping maintenance activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Wildeman (Ralph); R. Dekker (Rommert); A.C.J.M. Smit

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA maintenance activity carried out on a technical system often involves a system-dependent set-up cost that is the same for all maintenance activities carried out on that system. Grouping activities thus saves costs since execution of a group of activities requires only one set-up. Many

  10. Restos de megafauna asociadas a artefactos en la Sabana de Bogotá Restos de megafauna asociadas a artefactos en la Sabana de Bogotá

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    Correal Urrego Gonzalo

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Luego de una amplia exploración que cubrió el Valle del río Cauca y la Sabana de Bogotá, excavaciones recientes dentro del plan de estudios "Medio ambiente pleistocénico y el hombre prehistórico en Colombia", permitieron el hallazgo por primera vez en nuestro territorio de evidencias culturales precerámicas asociadas a fauna pleistocénica.  Las investigaciones aquí resumidas se adelantaron por el Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Museo de Historia Natural- Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, con el apoyo financiero de la Fundación de Investigaciones Arqueológicas del Banco de la República.At the archaelogical site TIBITÓ 1, Sabana de Bogotá, there have been found for the first time in Colombia stone and bone artifacts associated with the remains of mastodon (Haplomastodon sp.; Cuvieronius hyodon, horse (Equus amerhippus sp. and deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Bone fragments dated by the C-14 process gave an age of 11.740 ± 110 y BO (Late Pleistocene.

  11. Mastering group leadership. An active learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Dawn M

    2002-09-01

    Leading therapeutic groups is an underused but viable treatment role for nurses in all specialty areas. A dynamic psychoeducational group model provides structure as nurses invest and collaboratively participate to actively learn the group leader role. this article highlights the sequencing of instruction of group theory and skills with examples from a baccalaureate nursing curriculum. Samples from student journals reveal their growing assimilation of the group leader role as learners actively participated in groups, collaborated, and reflected on their learning. Examples of creatively adapted group exercises, as well as selected nursing group leader interventions, demonstrate group leadership as a skill that can increase nurses' repertoire of therapeutic responses. Therapeutic groups are both exciting and cost-effective treatment strategies for use with mentally ill clients. The skills of an accomplished group leader are transferable from within the psychiatric population to working with families, bereavement groups, and other client populations, ranging from people with diabetes to survivors of catastrophic crises. Group leadership ability complements the management and negotiation skills needed in professional nursing roles. When students and staff nurses grow in group leadership expertise, clients in various settings will be better served with this currently underused treatment option.

  12. Equinodermos (Echinodermata) del occidente del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    R. del Valle García; M. Abreu Pérez; Rodríguez, R.; F.A. Solís-Marín; A. Laguarda-Figueras; A. de la L. Durán González

    2008-01-01

    El Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, región norte central de Cuba, ha sido sometido a un gran desarrollo turístico, con el correspondiente aumento de la infraestructura hotelera y de carreteras. Se muestreó un total de 20 estaciones, teniendo en cuenta los diferentes biotopos tanto en la macrolaguna como en las áreas externas. Los muestreos se llevaron a cabo en marzo-abril y octubre-noviembre del 2001, ambos con 20 días de duración. Hacia la zona externa donde existe un menor impacto antrópico, ...

  13. Actividad microbiana en suelos de sabanas de los Llanos Orientales de Venezuela convertidas en pasturas

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Gómez; Paolini, J.

    2014-01-01

    Se determinó el efecto de la variabilidad temporal y de las prácticas de manejo agrícola sobre las propiedades químicas y parámetros bioquímicos en un típico suelo Ultisol de pasturas nativas e introducidas de las sabanas orientales de los Llanos de Venezuela. La variabilidad temporal, el manejo agrícola y el efecto interactivo de ambos factores, afectaron las propiedades químicas y los parámetros bioquímicos. El carbono orgánico total e hidrosoluble experimentaron una significativa disminuci...

  14. Calidad total en la Universidad de la Sabana: un modelo a desarrollar

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Quiñones, Martha Elena; Aldana de Vega, Luzángela

    2010-01-01

    Cuando hace seis años la Universidad de la Sabana se disponía a iniciar la carrera de Administración de Instituciones de Servicio, finalmente denominada Administración de Servicios de Bienestar, se tenia una meta clara y definida: proporcional al país profesionales con un perfil gerencial capaces de liderar la producción de servicios en la banca, el comercio, la salud, la educación, la hotelería, el transporte, las cajas de compensación familiar… y en la atención al cliente en las demás organ...

  15. Análisis de las condiciones que favorecen el desarrollo de la actividad convectiva de las tormentas eléctricas en la Sabana de Bogotá

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    Eslava Ramírez Jesus Antonio

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La predicción de la actividad convectiva en los trópicos es un problema aun sin resolver. Las dificultades para resolverlo están asociadas con el hecho de que este fenómeno se presenta a menudo como resultado de una compleja interacción entre características locales y condiciones en el flujo de gran escala. En este trabajo, se analizan registros sobre días con ocurrencia de tormentas eléctricas conjuntamente con datos de superficie y de altura de aproximadamente 10 años, con el objeto de determinar las condiciones tanto de grande escala como de escala local que favorecen el desarrollo de la actividad convectiva en la Sabana de Bogotá. Como resultado principal del trabajo se concluye que, de acuerdo a los registros correspondientes a la superficie isobárica de 700 hPa, las tormentas eléctricas en ésta región se presentan con vientos debiles y alto contenido de humedad, situación que es propia de la zona de convergencia de los alisios y del brazo ascendente ecuatorial de la celda de Hadley. El análisis muestra además que, la convección local ó térmica reforzada por el efecto orográfico, sirve de  mecanismo disparador de las tormentas eléctricas en la Sabana de Bogotá. Estas conclusiones explican el origen y desarrollo de este fenómeno y permiten dar algunas recomendaciones para su diagnóstico y pronóstico. Finalmente, se sugiere un modelo de circulación del aire durante el desarrollo de la actividad convectiva en la Sabana de Bogotá.

    Convective activity prediction in the

  16. Small Group Activities for Introductory Business Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundrake, George

    1999-01-01

    Describes numerous small-group activities for the following areas of basic business education: consumer credit, marketing, business organization, entrepreneurship, insurance, risk management, economics, personal finance, business careers, global markets, and government regulation. (SK)

  17. Modeling Group Rapports through Tourist School Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Moldovan; Răzvan Sandu ENOIU; Adriana LEIBOVICI

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the research was the evaluation of the developing social climate by determining group cohesion and affective and sympathetic inter personal relationships between the components of the experimental group bent to the tourist program done by the researcher and between the ones of the witness group that has done extracurricular tourist activities after the traditional program, in its free time and during holidays.

  18. Modeling Group Rapports through Tourist School Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Moldovan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was the evaluation of the developing social climate by determining group cohesion and affective and sympathetic inter personal relationships between the components of the experimental group bent to the tourist program done by the researcher and between the ones of the witness group that has done extracurricular tourist activities after the traditional program, in its free time and during holidays.

  19. Upper pleistocene and holocene climate and vegetation of the “Sabana de Bogota” (Colombia, South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der Th.; Gonzalez, E.

    1960-01-01

    The uppermost 32 metres of a 2436 metre core principally of lake sediments, Pleistocene and Holocene in age from the Sabana de Bogotá were analysed for its pollen content, at intervals of 10—15 cm. About seventy species, genera of families could be recognized, many of them for the first time. The re

  20. LAS COMUNIDADES VEGETALES DE LA SABANA DEL PARQUE NACIONAL EL PALMAR (ARGENTINA

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    William B. Batista

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional El Palmar, Entre Ríos, preserva desde 1965 el mayor remanente de la sabana de Butia yatay , un ecosistema rico en especies amenazado por la actividad humana. Para estudiar el funcio - namiento de este ecosistema y gestionar su preservación, es necesario contar con una adecuada carac - terización de la heterogeneidad de su vegetación. En este trabajo presentamos una clasificación fitoso - ciológica de las comunidades vegetales de la sabana del Parque, describimos su estructura, composición y diversidad florística y detallamos su distribución en el paisaje. Con el fin de estratificar la obtención de datos, delimitamos primero las principales unidades geomorfológicas del paisaje. En la primavera de 1999 y en el verano siguiente, realizamos censos florísticos completos en 73 “stands” de sabana con diferentes historias de incendio, distribuidos en las diferentes unidades geomorfológicas. Utilizamos técnicas de análisis multivariado y clasificación numérica para agrupar los censos en comunidades y las especies en grupos florísticos. Finalmente, resumimos las diferencias entre las comunidades en un esca - lamiento multidimensional métrico. Obtuvimos 7 comunidades, descriptas por 20 grupos florísticos. El patrón de similitudes entre estas comunidades sugiere que la heterogeneidad florística se ordena según dos componentes, uno asociado con diferencias en la textura del suelo y el otro con diferencias en el régimen de humedad del suelo. Tres de las comunidades, afines entre sí, se distribuyen en las terrazas altas e interfluvios que conforman la matriz del paisaje, en correspondencia con diferencias graduales de topografía y suelos. Estas comunidades cambian sucesionalmente por el avance de la lignificación des - encadenada por la exclusión del ganado y mantenida por la escasez de incendios naturales. Las restantes cuatro comunidades aparecen estrictamente asociadas con afloramientos rocosos, dep

  1. Los horticultores de la Sabana Centro de Cundinamarca no tienen una organización moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villate París

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ¿Cómo hacer para que un grupo de cultivadores de hortalizas cambien de una estructura de subsistencia a organización. ¿En forma de conglomerado como una red de productores que garantice una oferta de calidad nacional e internacional? En este artículo se resume la metodología aplicada y los principales resultados obtenidos, gracias a la aplicación de herramientas de prospectiva, así como análisis de modelos de redes económicas, teorías de dinámica empresarial, estudio de variables de entorno nacional y de tendencias internacionales sobre los productos hortícolas y en una región seleccionada como fueron los municipios de la provincia de Sabana Centro en Cundinamarca.

  2. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are s

  3. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are

  4. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  5. Identificación de agentes infecciosos asociados con Diarrea Neonatal Bovina en la Sabana de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Dolly Pardo M.; Olimpo Oliver E.

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Determinar los agentes infecciosos asociados causalmente a la presentación de Diarrea Neonatal Bovina (DNB) en terneros menores de 5 semanas de vida, procedentes de fincas lecheras y de producción mixta de la Sabana de Bogotá. Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron por conveniencia 21 fincas, se realizó seguimiento de 620 terneros desde el nacimiento hasta las 5 semanas de edad, se tomaron muestras de materia fecal de los animales que presentaron cuadro clínico de diarrea y d...

  6. CONDICIÓN AMBIENTAL DE LOS POBLADOS DE CERRILLOS, SABANA BONITA Y PEÑAS BLANCAS, PUNTARENAS, COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Chassoul Acosta, María José

    2015-01-01

    resultados mostrados en este artículo son parte de una investigación más grande que propone un modelo de desarrollo sostenible para las comunidades de Cerrillos, Sabana Bonita y Peñas Blancas de Esparza, Puntarenas. Específicamente se analiza el equilibrio existente entre las actividades que realizan los habitantes y el uso que le brindan a los recursos naturales, a partir de los datos obtenidos de la aplicación de una encuesta que indaga sobre variables como: energía, suelo, agua, residuos, ...

  7. Group Activities in Task-based Communicative Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓一琳; 王宇澄

    2005-01-01

    In a task-based communicative classroom, group activities are effective ways to devdop students' 4 basic language skills. However, not all group activities can reach the expected results. English teachers should pay attention to some aspects in organizing a classroom group activity.

  8. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  9. Individual and Group Dynamics in Purchasing Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Lei; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2010-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is of constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behaviors of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchasing orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plot. It's found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and t...

  10. Activities of the Boom and Chassis Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell, Jason Scott; Meeks, Thomas Bayne; Merkel, Kelly; Nelson, Brent; Winchell, Tom

    Group One of the NASA Lunar Enabler Project has designed the primary chassis and boom structures for the lunar vehicle. Both components also feature V-clamps that were adapted to interface connections within the structure. The chassis features a front end, rear end section, middle cross-section, and face plate. The rear section contains an extra compartment for the engine, hydraulic pump, fuel bottles, and oil reservoir necessary for the wheel drives. Each section consists of tubular aluminum 6061-T6. The boom features four degrees of freedom system, where the minimum factor of safety of any part is 1.5 (but, normally much higher). It consists of a tapered upper boom, lower boom, and three elbows that complement the articulation joints. Each section of the boom has been constructed from aluminum 6061-T6. There are four joints and eight V-clamps in the boom assembly. The V-clamps feature support rings that prevent axial rotation. They provide easy adaptability and assembly.

  11. Currículo por competencias en la Universidad de La Sabana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica María Ospina Romero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo analizar si el desarrollo de la práctica educativa de los profesores de las asignaturas de Cuidado de Enfermería corresponde a la formación por competencias, con relación a la planeación, ejecución y evaluación de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje. El estudio, de tipo descriptivo cualitativo, se llevó a cabo durante el primer semestre de 2006 en la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad de La Sabana. Sus principales hallazgos son: con relación a la programación de las asignaturas se encontró que éstas tienen los elementos básicos de la educación por competencias, contemplando el saber ser, el conocer y el hacer propios de cada asignatura. Sin embargo, dentro de esta programación no se encuentra la metodología que se empleará en las clases. Tampoco hay una relación clara entre las estrategias didácticas, el proceso evaluativo y el logro de las competencias. En el desarrollo de las clases se encontró que los profesores manejan los temas en forma clara y concisa, pero hay diferencias entre el profesor novato, que se centra más en los contenidos, y el experto, que se ocupa de forma más natural por los procesos y por promover el análisis. La metodología más utilizada por los profesores durante las clases consiste en realizar y responder preguntas mientras se expone o se discute determinado tema. Con relación al proceso evaluativo, éste se centra principalmente en los contenidos, excepto en las prácticas donde se valora el saber, el hacer y el ser en forma integral. Falta evidenciar la autoevaluación y la coevaluación en todas las asignaturas, aspectos necesarios dentro de la formación por competencias. La recuperación es una herramienta valiosa que apunta a la educación por competencias, es aplicada en todas las asignaturas y permite valorar en forma individual los logros del alumno al establecer un plan de mejoramiento orientado por el profesor.

  12. Variación en la actividad microbiana por cambio de uso en suelos en sabanas, Llanos Orientales, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrma Gómez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En los llanos orientales de Venezuela la forma tradicional de uso de las sabanas de Trachypogon ha sido el pastoreo extensivo. La presión sobre éstas para obtener una mayor productividad animal ha estimulado la introducción de plantas exóticas para forrajes, tales como: Brachiaria brizantha y Andropogon gayanus. A pesar de que grandes extensiones de sabanas están siendo sometidas a este cambio de uso de la tierra, es escasa la información acerca del efecto que estas pasturas y la actividad de pastoreo tienen sobre la actividad microbiana en el suelo; por lo que el objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el impacto que el pastoreo extensivo y la substitución de la cobertura nativa tienen sobre la actividad microbiana en estos suelos. El muestreo fue llevado a cabo durante las temporadas de sequía y lluvias. Los parámetros empleados para determinar cambios en la actividad microbiana fueron la respiración inducida por sustrato (RIS, la respiración basal (RB, la actividad de la deshidrogenasa (DHS, la hidrólisis del diacetato de fluorisceína (DAF y la amonificación de la arginina (AA. La similitud de las características estructurales de los suelos estudiados nos permite inferir, que las diferencias en los parámetros microbiológicos, están determinadas por las condiciones climáticas y el manejo del suelo. Los resultados muestran que en estos suelos existe una baja actividad microbiana. La temporada lluviosa provocó un incremento en todos los parámetros microbiológicos determinados. B. brizantha hizo un mayor aporte de carbono al suelo y promovió una mayor actividad heterotrófica. El pastoreo extensivo y la baja carga animal en las sabanas de los llanos orientales de Venezuela no afectaron la actividad microbiana del suelo.

  13. Facilitating Active Engagement of the University Student in a Large-Group Setting Using Group Work Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Gemma K.; Mahon, Catherine; Lillis, Seamus

    2017-01-01

    It is envisaged that small-group exercises as part of a large-group session would facilitate not only group work exercises (a valuable employability skill), but also peer learning. In this article, such a strategy to facilitate the active engagement of the student in a large-group setting was explored. The production of student-led resources was…

  14. Arquitectura e imaginarios urbanos en las Sabanas del Sur de Bolivar, 1948 – 1968 (actual Departamento de Sucre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Arturo Martinez Osorio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, analiza la manera particular como se construye la idea de una arquitectura moderna en el contexto de las Sabanas del Sur de Bolivar lo que se conoce actualmente como el departamento de Sucre. Se examinan los distintos imaginarios urbanos identificados, la ciudad y región de prosperidad y progreso contrapuesta a una provincia marginal olvidada por una administración que no atendía sus necesidades. Estas diferentes formas de aprehender el mundo, confluyen en un objetivo, el deseo de transformar la ciudad, ligado al interés por una autonomía regional, motivo de la creación del departamento de Sucre.

  15. BASELINE PLASMA CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITIES IN ARGENTINE SADDLE HORSES FROM SABANA DE BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ariza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de la actividad colinesterasa (ChE en animales domésticos es de importancia en diagnóstico e investigación. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo principal la determinación de la línea base de actividad ChE plasmática (acetilcolines-terasa, AChE y butirilcolinesterasa, BChE en 60 caballos Silla Argentino muestreados en fincas de equinos ubicadas en Bogotá (Colombia y sus alrededores. Las actividades catalíticas de AChE y BChE plasmáticas fueron medidas mediante espectrofotome-tría visible (405 nm. Los valores promedio ± desviación estándar de actividad AChE (nmols/ml/ min para machos (n=32 fueron 1566 ± 301. En intervalos de edad, los resultados fueron, 0.5–5 años: 1526 ± 295, 6–10 años: 1532 ± 313, 11-15 años: 1615 ± 279, y > 15 años: 1617 ± 335. En hembras (n=28, la actividad AChE fue 1323 ± 432, con valores en intervalos de edad, 0.5-5 años: 719 ± 108, 6–10 años: 1603 ± 313, 11–15 años: 1225 ± 294, > 15 años: 1519 ± 369. La BChE en machos fue 3304 ± 822; con intervalos de edad, 0.5-5 años: 3383 ± 715, 6–10 años: 3360 ± 766, 11-15 años: 3267 ± 1064, > 15 años: 3206 ± 861. En hembras, la BChE fue 3097 ± 432, con intervalos de edad: 0.5-5 años: 2467 ± 981, 6–10 años: 3668 ± 750, 11-15 años: 3238 ± 979, y > 15 años: 3015 ± 925. La actividad AChE fue significativamente diferente entre machos y hembras (test t, p < 0.05 y en ambos géneros al comparar los grupos etáreos (ANAVA, p < 0.05. BChE tuvo valores más altos que AChE, sin embargo, no en forma significativa cuando se compararon los resultados entre los dos géneros, ni cuando se compararon los grupos etáreos en los dos géneros. En una prueba adicional, 15 muestras fueron tomadas al azar y mantenidas a 4oC durante 72 horas para ser anali-zadas cada 24 horas; AChE y BChE no mostraron variaciones significativas entre las mediciones hechas en este período de tiempo. El presente estudio permitió determinar lineas base de los dos tipos de colinesterasas plasmáticas en caballos tipo silla Argentino con el propósito de ofrecer valores de referencia con fines diagnósticos y comparativos para clínicos e investigadores.

  16. Teaching Group Interdependence: A Campus Murder Mystery Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth M.; Shearer Dunn, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to Communication; small group; interpersonal. Objectives: This single activity demonstrates: (1) how interdependence can lead to better group outcomes than individual outcomes can; (2) how diversity of knowledge from multiple contributors helps group functioning; and (3) how students can be introduced to members of the…

  17. Identificación de agentes infecciosos asociados con Diarrea Neonatal Bovina en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Pardo M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los agentes infecciosos asociados causalmente a la presentación de Diarrea Neonatal Bovina (DNB en terneros menores de 5 semanas de vida, procedentes de fincas lecheras y de producción mixta de la Sabana de Bogotá. Materiales y métodos. Se seleccionaron por conveniencia 21 fincas, se realizó seguimiento de 620 terneros desde el nacimiento hasta las 5 semanas de edad, se tomaron muestras de materia fecal de los animales que presentaron cuadro clínico de diarrea y de terneros clínicamente sanos como controles pareados. Se realizaron pruebas de ELISA para diagnóstico de E.coli F5, Rotavirus, Coronavirus, Cryptosporidium sp., y Salmonella sp., prueba de Ritchie para diagnóstico de Giardia sp., y tinción de Ziehl Neelsen modificada para Cryptosporidium sp. Se evaluó la asociación epidemiológica entre los agentes y la presentación de diarrea usando prueba de c2, seguido de un modelo de regresión logística (p<0.05. Resultados. Se encontró en la prueba de ELISA que de la totalidad de las muestras, 51 (38.3%, 26 (19.7%, 10 (7.5% y 1 (0.75% fueron positivas a Cryptosporidium sp., rotavirus, E coli F5 y coronavirus, respectivamente. Los animales positivos a Rotavirus por la prueba de ELISA y a Cryptosporidium sp., por la técnica de Ziehl Neelsen modificada tuvieron 2.6 y 7.0 veces mayor probabilidad que los demás animales de presentar DNB, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Los resultados presentados son los primeros que muestran el papel y la importancia del Cryptosporidium sp., y del Rotavirus en la DNB en las explotaciones ganaderas de la Sabana de Bogotá y en Colombia.

  18. Surface functional groups and redox property of modified activated carbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xianglan; Deng Shengfu; Liu Qiong; Zhang Yan; Cheng Lei

    2011-01-01

    A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared using HNO3, H2O2 and steam as activation agents with the aim to introduce functional groups to carbon surface in the ACs preparation process. The effects of concentration of activation agent, activation time on the surface functional groups and redox property of ACs were characterized by Temperature Program Desorption (TPD) and Cyclic Voitammetry (CV). Results showed that lactone groups of ACs activated by HNO3 increase with activation time, and the carboxyl groups increase with the concentration of HNO3. Carbonyl/quinine groups of ACs activated by H2O2 increase with the activation time and the concentration of H2O2, although the acidic groups decrease with the concentration of H2O2. The redox property reflected by CV at 0 and 0.5 V is different with any kinds of oxygen functional groups characterized by TPD, but it is consistent with the SO2 catalytic oxidization/oxidation properties indicated by TPR.

  19. Effects of Collaborative Activities on Group Identity in Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungsung; Seo, Sumin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of collaborative activities on group identity in a virtual world such as "Second Life." To achieve this purpose, this study adopted events that promoted participants' interactions using tools inherent in "Second Life." The interactive tools given to the control group in…

  20. Implementing Small-Group Activities in Large Lecture Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazedjian, Ani; Kolkhorst, Brittany Boyle

    2007-01-01

    This study examines student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of small-group work in a large lecture class. The article considers and illustrates from students' perspectives the ways in which small-group activities could enhance comprehension of course material, reduce anonymity associated with large lecture classes, and promote student…

  1. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  2. "Group Intelligence": An Active Learning Exploration of Diversity in Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Christopher J.; Salaita, Meisa K.; Hughes, Catherine H.; Lynn, David G.; Fristoe, Adam; Fristoe, Ariel; Grover, Martha A.

    2017-01-01

    "Group Intelligence" is an active learning, inquiry-based activity that introduces prebiotic chemistry, emergent complexity, and diversity's importance to adaptability across scales. Students explore the molecular emergence of order and function through theatrical exercises and games. Through 20 min of audio instruction and a discussion…

  3. Mobilizing and Activating Group Demands: The American Agriculture Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, William P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the American agriculture movement begun in 1977 provides insight into group behavior, mobilization, and activation. Leaders who had recruited participants and organized local and state activities were interviewed. Problems of organizing, specifically when protest is involved, are also discussed. (KC)

  4. Trithorax group proteins: switching genes on and keeping them active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuettengruber, Bernd; Martinez, Anne-Marie; Iovino, Nicola; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2011-11-23

    Cellular memory is provided by two counteracting groups of chromatin proteins termed Trithorax group (TrxG) and Polycomb group (PcG) proteins. TrxG proteins activate transcription and are perhaps best known because of the involvement of the TrxG protein MLL in leukaemia. However, in terms of molecular analysis, they have lived in the shadow of their more famous counterparts, the PcG proteins. Recent advances have improved our understanding of TrxG protein function and demonstrated that the heterogeneous group of TrxG proteins is of critical importance in the epigenetic regulation of the cell cycle, senescence, DNA damage and stem cell biology.

  5. CAMBIOS EN EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE NITRÓGENO Y AGUA EN EL SUELO DE UN MATORRAL DESÉRTICO TRANSFORMADO A SABANA DE BUFFEL (Pennisetum ciliare (L. Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Celaya Michel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El cambio de uso de suelo es uno de los principales factores de la degradación de los ecosistemas naturales, al modificar los procesos de transferencia de nitrógeno y agua reduciendo su productividad. En el presente trabajo, se describe cómo la transformación de matorrales desérticos a sabanas de zacate buffel en la región central de Sonora (RCS afecta dichos almacenes de recursos del suelo. Para entenderlo, se seleccionaron parcelas en el matorral bajo el dosel de árboles de Olneya tesota (NA y espacios abiertos sin cobertura vegetal aparente (NI, y en la sabana de buffel, bajo la misma especie de árbol (SA, inter-espacio (SI y bajo el pasto buffel (SB. Se analizó el nitrógeno total y las formas disponibles de este nutrimento en el suelo, así como contenido de agua en el suelo a diferentes profundidades durante cuatro años (2010 al 2013. Se encontró una pérdida anual de 12.5 kg N ha-1 debido a la transformación del ecosistema natural dominado por árboles y arbustos que generan islas de fertilidad e inter-espacios, a una sabana dominada por buffel e inter-espacios a sabana. La humedad del suelo indica que en la parte superficial del suelo, los espacios abiertos tienen más humedad, pero en la parte profunda de 150 a 200 cm la cubierta vegetal de los árboles y buffel almacenan más agua. Los resultados sugieren que el cambio de matorrales a sabanas de buffel ha disminuido los reservorios de nitrógeno y agua, e impactado las propiedades físicas del suelo, la fertilidad, y los reservorios hídricos del suelo. El estudio sugiere que los cambios espaciales y temporales en nitrógeno y agua en el suelo repercutirán de manera importante en el balance hidrológico y funcionamiento del ecosistema transformado.

  6. Tomografía geoeléctrica: dos ejemplos en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briceno Guarupe Luis Alberto

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available

    With the new technologies about math algorithms and software interpretation to solve the inverse problem, two examples of electric tomography were done in two different places and over quaternary deposits that correspond to Sabana de Bogota. The first, placed, near the location of Tenjo, was done to see the behaviour of the geoelectrical model with low resistivity and electric contrast materials (alluvial deposits of Formaci6n Sabana. While the second, over deposits of fluvial-glacier origen, like Rio Tunjuelito's deposits, shows effects over high resistivity materials with great lateral variations of resistivity. The evaluation of the quality of data was made with lithologic columns in both cases, in general, the results were coherent and showed high resolution. The reached depths of investigation were 30% for the first example and 40%, for the second, situating the electrodes with Wenner amd Wenner-Sciumberguer arrays. Using the results of these two examples, clearly we can see that the depth of investigation depends on the media, the geometric array and the lenght of the section. This geophysic tool is very useful in shallow applications (100 m depth, and where high resolution and quality are needed.

    Con base a las nuevas tecnologías en exploración geoeléctrica en cuanto a algoritmos para resolver el problema inverso y software de interpretación, se hicieron dos secciones tomográficas o “imaging”. Los dos ejemplos se realizaron, en ubicaciones diferentes y sobre sedimentos no consolidados de edad cuaternaria. EI primero, ubicado en cercanias de Tenjo, se realizó para analizar el comportamiento del modelo geoeléctrico sobre materiales de baja resistividad

  7. The Surface Groups and Active Site of Fibrous Mineral Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Fa-qin; WAN Pu; FENG Qi-ming; SONG Gong-bao; PENG Tong-jiang; LI Ping; LI Guo-wu

    2004-01-01

    The exposed and transformed groups of fibrous brucite,wollastonite,chrysotile asbestos,sepiolite,palygorskite,clinoptilolite,crocidolite and diatomaceous earth mineral materials are analyzed by IR spectra after acid and alikali etching,strong mechanical and polarity molecular interaction.The results show the active sites concentrate on the ends in stick mineral materials and on the defect or hole edge in pipe mineral materials.The inside active site of mineral materials plays a main role in small molecular substance.The shape of minerals influence their distribution and density of active site.The strong mechanical impulsion and weak chemical force change the active site feature of minerals,the powder process enables minerals exposed more surface group and more combined types.The surface processing with the small polarity molecular or the brand of middle molecular may produce ionation and new coordinate bond,and change the active properties and level of original mineral materials.

  8. Paleoecología del Holoceno en la Gran Sabana, SE Venezuela: Análisis preliminar de polen y microcarbones en la Laguna Encantada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya, E.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gran Sabana region (SE Venezuela is characterized by extensive neotropical savannas, in a warm and wet climate, apparently more suitable for the existence of rain forests. Two main types of hypotheses have been proposed to explain this situation: natural factors, such as climate changes or soil poverty, and burning by humans. This study analyzes the pollen and charcoal content of a 7,500 years old peat bog, at the shore of Laguna Encantada. The savanna landscape has dominated the area during the whole interval, but local fi res did not appear until around 1,200 years ago, when the present communities began to establish. An expansion of gallery forests, likely due to a climatic shift, has been recorded around 4,000 years ago, followed by a deforestation triggered by fire, leading to present-day situation. These results, together with former similar studies, suggest that the present Gran Sabana landscape resulted from the interaction of diverse factors, being climate changes more related to its origin and human induced fires more linked to the recent expansion.

    La región de la Gran Sabana, al SE de Venezuela, se caracteriza por la presencia de extensas sabanas neotropicales, en un clima cálido y húmedo, que parece más propicio para la existencia de bosques húmedos. Existen dos grandes grupos de hipótesis para explicar esta configuración vegetal: las naturales (cambios climáticos, pobreza de suelos y las antrópicas (incendios provocados. El presente estudio utiliza el análisis de polen y microcarbones para reconstruir las tendencias paleoambientales, de la vegetación y del régimen de incendios, en la turbera litoral de la Laguna Encantada, durante los últimos 7.500 años. Las sabanas han dominado el paisaje durante todo este tiempo, a pesar de que los incendios locales no afectaron el área hasta hace unos 1.200 años, momento en el cual se establecen las comunidades actuales. Hacia los 4.000 años antes del presente tuvo

  9. Estudio Palinológico de los 35 mts. Superiores de la Sección Tarragona, Sabana de Bogotá Estudio Palinológico de los 35 mts. Superiores de la Sección Tarragona, Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueñas J. Hernando

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se da a conocer el resulrado del estudio palinológico de los 35 metros superiores de la sección Tarragona, localizada en la Sabana de Bogotá, a 2.560 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Se describen 2 géneros (Spirotremesporites, Striadyadosporites y 5 especies(Spirotremesporites simplex, Spirotremesporites multiplex, Spirotremesporites ecuatorialis, Striadyadosporites elongatus y Striadyadosporites constrictus de fungi fósil, 14 tipos de polen, 8 tipos de esporas triletes, 4 tipos de Pediastrum y un tipo especial de Chlorococcales. Con base en la relación de polen de elementos de páramo a polen de elementos de bosque (Pp/Pb y a la estrarigrafía, se dividió el diagrama depolen en 8 zonas climáticas (vegetación, con las cuales fue posible correlacionar la sección Tarragona con otras secciones levantadas en la Sabana de Bogotá y regiones aledañas. Utilizando esta correlación y las fechas de edad absoluta que se han obtenido en las diferentes secciones del área, fue posible efectuar una correlacion tentativa con las unidades cronoestratigráficas europeas.  Los 35 metros superiores de la sección Tarragona representan la historia geológica de por lo menos los últimos 500.000 años de la Sabana de Bogotá.In this study it is given the result of the palynological study of the uppermost 35 meters of the Tarragona section, located in the Sabana de Bogotá at an altitude of 2.560 meters above sea level.  It is described: 2 genus (Spirotremesporites, Striadyadosporites and 5 species (Spirotremesporites simplex, Spirotremesporites multiplex, Spirotremesporites ecuatorialis, Striadyadosporites elongatus and Striadyadosporites constrictus of fossil fungi, 14 types of pollen, 8 types of trilete spores, 4 types of Pediastrum and one special type of Chlorococcales.  On the basis of the relation, Pollen of paramo elements to Pollen of forest elements (Pp/Pb and the stratigraphy it was possible to divide the pollen diagram

  10. HDAC Inhibitors without an Active Site Zn2+-Binding Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vickers, Chris J.; Olsen, Christian Adam; Leman, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural and synthetic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors generally derive their strong binding affinity and high potency from a key functional group that binds to the Zn2+ ion within the enzyme active site. However, this feature is also thought to carry the potential liability of undesirable off......-target interactions with other metalloenzymes. As a step toward mitigating this issue, here, we describe the design, synthesis, and structure−activity characterizations of cyclic α3β-tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors that lack the presumed indispensable Zn2+-binding group. The lead compounds (e.g., 15 and 26) display good...

  11. Activation of both Group I and Group II metabotropic glutamatergic receptors suppress retinogeniculate transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Y-W; Sherman, S M

    2013-07-09

    Relay cells of dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) receive a Class 1 glutamatergic input from the retina and a Class 2 input from cortical layer 6. Among the properties of Class 2 synapses is the ability to activate metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and mGluR activation is known to affect thalamocortical transmission via regulating retinogeniculate and thalamocortical synapses. Using brain slices, we studied the effects of Group I (dihydroxyphenylglycine) and Group II ((2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine) mGluR agonists on retinogeniculate synapses. We showed that both agonists inhibit retinogeniculate excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) through presynaptic mechanisms, and their effects are additive and independent. We also found high-frequency stimulation of the layer 6 corticothalamic input produced a similar suppression of retinogeniculate EPSCs, suggesting layer 6 projection to LGN as a plausible source of activating these presynaptic mGluRs.

  12. Caracterización de procesos en empresas hortícolas de la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Álvarez Ochoa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ante la firma de los tratados comerciales y la inminente entrada de productos extranjeros que competirán con la producción nacional es necesario realizar una evaluación de las empresas con miras a determinar si existen las condiciones que permitan asegurar la competitividad. El sector agropecuario es un sector muy fragmentado, donde predominan las pequeñas explotaciones de tipo familiar que no disponen de suficientes recursos y mucho menos de una gestión que encauce el actuar hacia el mejoramiento, pero para ello es necesario el estudio de las empresas pertenecientes a aquellos sectores que presentan ventajas competitivas con el fin de determinar su estado para así proponer modelos que permitan una mejor gestión. En este artículo se presenta un análisis de las empresas pertenecientes a uno de los sectores con posibilidades de inserción en mercados externos como es el caso de las productoras de hortalizas de la sabana de Bogotá, el cual describe las principales características de sus procesos gerenciales, operativos y de soporte evidenciando su estado y posible contribución al logro de los objetivos de las mismas.

  13. Case report: pulicosis por Ctenocephalides felis felis en ovinos y caprinos en la sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Benavides Ortiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the rearing of hair sheep and goats are expanding in various regions for being an alternative for meat and milk production at competitive prices due to their adaptability and easiness to digest rough fodder. Among the ectoparasites that affect small ruminants traditionally are recognized the lice and the sheep keds Melophagus ovinus (Díptera: Hippoboscidae, however fleas are not included. Here the occurrence of the common cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Díptera: Siphonaptera affecting sheep and goats in a farm at the Sabana de Bogotá are described an so there was performed an epidemiological and parasitological evaluation. The barn maintained animals in rotational grazing at an approximated stocking rate of 25 head/ha, receiving additional supplements of hay and silage. The presence of the flea was confirmed in sheep and goats, young and adult, as well as in dogs. Diverse degrees of anemia were evidenced but the association between flea infestation and anemia, or the presence of other anemia producing agents could not be studied. In the farm synthetic parasiticides are not used, extracts of Ruda (Ruta graveolens are administered to mitigate parasitosis, without major efficacy. Sheep and goat breeders in the tropics should consider flea infestation as an agent causing adverse animal welfare situations in their farms. Control should start from the knowledge of the life cycle of the flea, trying to interrupt it.

  14. Utilización del modelo cam-clay modificado en suelos cohesivos de la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernando Camacho Tauta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de estudiar el comportamiento mecánico de arcillas típicas de la Sabana de Bogotá, se llevó a cabo un programa de investigación experimental en laboratorio que incluyó ensayos básicos de caracterización, consolidación unidimensional y compresión triaxial consolidada no drenada. De los resultados se obtuvieron los principales parámetros de resistencia y deformabilidad de acuerdo con la teoría del estado crítico. Estos parámetros permiten conformar un modelo de comportamiento bajo el régimen elastoplástico. Se utilizó el modelo Cam-Clay Modificado (CCM para reproducir las deformaciones resultantes para cada trayectoria de esfuerzos aplicada. Se compararon las curvas producidas por el modelo con respecto a los resultados experimentales, lo que permitió identificar bajo cuales condiciones el modelo simula mejor el comportamiento del suelo y sobre qué variables se debe trabajar para obtener un modelo constitutivo completo.

  15. The evolution of star formation activity in galaxy groups

    CERN Document Server

    Erfanianfar, G; Finoguenov, A; Wuyts, S; Wilman, D; Biviano, A; Ziparo, F; Salvato, M; Nandra, K; Lutz, D; Elbaz, D; Dickinson, M; Tanaka, M; Mirkazemi, M; Balogh, M L; Altieri, M B; Aussel, H; Bauer, F; Berta, S; Bielby, R M; Brandt, N; Cappelluti, N; Cimatti, A; Cooper, M; Fadda, D; Ilbert, O; Floch, E Le; Magnelli, B; Mulchaey, J S; Nordon, R; Newman, J A; Poglitsch, A; Pozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of the total star formation (SF) activity, total stellar mass and halo occupation distribution in massive halos by using one of the largest X-ray selected sample of galaxy groups with secure spectroscopic identification in the major blank field surveys (ECDFS, CDFN, COSMOS, AEGIS). We provide an accurate measurement of SFR for the bulk of the star-forming galaxies using very deep mid-infrared Spitzer MIPS and far-infrared Herschel PACS observations. For undetected IR sources, we provide a well-calibrated SFR from SED fitting. We observe a clear evolution in the level of SF activity in galaxy groups. The total SF activity in the high redshift groups (0.5groups at z~0. We show that the level of SF activity is declining more rapidly in the more massive halos than in the more common lower mass ...

  16. Forestry Activities. A Guide for Youth Group Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Twenty-six activities related to forestry, conservation, and outdoor education comprise the content of this leader's guide. Designed for use with youth groups, ideas and techniques range from forest conservation mobiles, locating forest fires, and Christmas tree uses to litterbug campaigns, watershed experiments, and crossword puzzles. Activities…

  17. XPS of nitrogen-containing functional groups on activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.J.J.; Bekkum, van H.

    1995-01-01

    XPS is used to study the binding energy of the Cls, Nls and Ols photoelectrons of surface groups on several nitrogen-containing activated carbons. Specific binding energies are assigned to amide (399.9 eV). lactam and imidc (399.7 eV). pyridine (398.7 eV), pyrrole (400.7 eV), alkylamine. secondary a

  18. In-group and out-group membership mediates anterior cingulate activation to social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austen Krill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was employed to examine sensitivity to social exclusion in three conditions: same-race, other-race, and self-resembling faces. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, specifically the dorsal ACC, has been targeted as a key substrate in the physical and social pain matrix and was hypothesized to regulate activation response to various facial conditions. We show that participants demonstrated greatest ACC activation when being excluded by self-resembling and same-race faces, relative to other-race faces. Additionally, participants expressed greater distress and showed increased ACC activation as a result of exclusion in the same-race condition relative to the other-race condition. A positive correlation between implicit racial bias and activation in the amygdala was also evident. Implicit attitude about other-race faces partly explains levels of concern about exclusion by out-group individuals. These findings suggest that individuals are more distressed and their brain (i.e. neural alarm system responds with greater activation when being excluded by individuals whom they are more likely to share group membership with.

  19. Investigation into the surface active groups of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-cai; XUE Han-ling; Deng Jun; Wen Hu; ZHANG Xing-hai

    2001-01-01

    The oxidation heat of coal is the direct reason leading to coal spontaneous combustion.When coal is exposed in oxygen atmosphere, the physical adsorption and chemisorption happened, and then which resulting chemical reaction followed heat between coal and oxygen. Owing to the complexity and uncertain of molecular structure of coal, it was only reduced that bridge bonds, side chains and O2-containing functional groups in coal may be prone to oxidation in last year, but not to deeply investigate into the structures and the type of the active radicals. In this paper, according to the last achievements in coal structure research, the hypomethylether bond,hypoalkyl bond of α-carbon atom with hydroxyl and α-carbon atom with hypomethy side chain and hypomettyl bonds linking up two aromatic hydrocarbon in bridge bonds, and methoxy, aldehyde and alkyls of α-carbon atom with hydroxy in side bonds are inferred to be free radical easily to lead to oxidize coal under the ambient temperature and pressure. The order from strong to week of oxide activation of the seven surface active groups is aldehyde side chains, hypomethylether bonds, hypoalkyl bonds of α-carbon atom with hydroxyl, hypoalkyl bonds of α-carbon atom with hypomethyl, hypomethyl bonds linking up two aromatic hydrocarbon, methoxy, alkyls side chains of α-carbon atom with hydroxyl. Because of the two unsaturated molecular tracks of C2, unpaired eleotron clouds of the part of surface active groups of coal enter molecular tracks of O2 to lead to chemisorb on the conjugate effect and induced effect of surface active groups, and then chemical reaction followed heat happens in them. On the basis of change of bond energy, weighted average method is adopted to count the reactionheat value of each mol CO, CO2 and H2O. The property of coal spontaneous combustion is different for the different number and oxidability of the active structure in the coal resulting in the different oxidation heat.

  20. Sialidase activity of the "Streptococcus milleri group" and other viridans group streptococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Beighton, D.; Whiley, R A

    1990-01-01

    Viridans group streptococci were examined for the production of sialidase (neuraminidase) activity, using the fluorescent substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid in a simple and rapid (15-min) assay. Sialidase was produced by all strains of Streptococcus oralis and S. intermedius and by a majority of S. mitis strains. S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. gordonii, S. sanguis, S. vestibularis, S. salivarius, S. anginosus, S. constellatus, "S. parasanguis," and the "tufted fibril g...

  1. Hidden Markov Models for the Activity Profile of Terrorist Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Tartakovsky, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a d-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of d = 2 corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, respectively. Two strategies for spurt detection and tracking are developed here: a model-independent strategy that uses the exponential weighted moving-average (EWMA) filter to track the strength of the group as measured by the number of attacks perpetrated by it, and a state estimation strategy that exploits the underlying HMM structure. The EWMA strategy is robust to modeling uncertainties and errors, and tracks persistent changes (changes that last for a sufficiently long duration) in the strength of the group. On the othe...

  2. FORRAJEO DE Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) Y VALOR DEL PARCHE EN CERCAS VIVAS JÓVENES DE LA SABANA DE BOGOTÁ

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Tellez-Farfán; Francisco Alejnadro Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    El copetón Zonotrichia capensis tiene una amplia distribución en América neotropical, es un ave tolerante a las intervenciones humanas, pero sabemos poco sobre su comportamiento de forrajeo en los Andes colombianos. Por ello, estudiamos la estrategia de forrajeo del copetón y, adicionalmente, el valor de parches alimentarios a lo largo de dos cercas vivas jóvenes (plantación < 2 años), en relación con la distancia a una zona de ronda del río Bogotá, en Cajicá, Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia. E...

  3. Biomasa fúngica y bacteriana como indicadoras del secuestro de C en suelos de sabanas sustituidos por pinares en Uverito, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalis Zabala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas agrícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la relación (H:B en suelos de sabana nativa sustituidos por pinares (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, para establecer si éstos parámetros son indicadores sensibles de cambios en el contenido de carbono en suelos de Uverito, Venezuela. La relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI y la inhibición total por efecto combinado del inhibidor (ITC se llevaron a cabo para determinar, si los inhibidores microbianos tuvieron actividad sobre otros organismos para los cuales éstos no estaban destinados. La cuantificación de la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana se llevó a cabo mediante el uso de la cycloheximida como inhibidor fúngico, y la estreptomicina y el cloranfenicol como inhibidores bacterianos. Esta investigación evidencia que este cambio de uso de la tierra ejerció un efecto significativo sobre la biomasa microbiana del suelo, y muestra que en el sistema de pinares existe una dominancia del componente fúngico, en contraste con la sabana nativa, en la cual domina la biomasa bacteriana. La sustitución de la sabana nativa por plantaciones de pino en Uverito, promueve un mayor secuestro del carbono en el suelo. Los valores de la relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI tanto para la sabana nativa como para el sistema de pinares, resultaron ambos >1.0. La inhibición total combinada (ITC resultó menor en el sistema de pinares; a partir de lo cual, es posible inferir que una elevada proporción de la biomasa microbiana fue afectada por la combinaci

  4. Contaminación y riesgo sanitario en zonas urbanas de la subcuenca del río de La Sabana, ciudad de Acapulco, México.

    OpenAIRE

    América Rodríguez Herrera; Branly Olivier Salomé; Rocío López Velasco; María del Carmen Barragán Mendoza; Roberto Cañedo Villareal; Miguel Ángel Valera Pérez

    2013-01-01

    A menudo encontramos ciudades cuyo desarrollo está asociado a la ocupación de alguna cuenca hidrográfica sobre la cual no rigen políticas y acciones, públicas y/o privadas, suficientes para detener los procesos de degradación ambiental y social provocados por las transformaciones del territorio. Los casos estudiados son dos comunidades de la periferia de la ciudad de Acapulco, influenciadas por la insuficiencia y carencia de infraestructura sanitaria y el entorno fluvial del río de La Sabana,...

  5. Datación del agua subterránea en la sabana de bogotá y sus implicaciones hidrogeológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, César; Jiménez, Germán A.

    2012-01-01

    Muestras de agua representativas de los principales acuíferos de la Sabana de Bogotá, fueron procesadas con el objeto de determinar su edad. Para tal fin seextrajeron los carbonatos y, haciendo síntesis de Benceno, se midieron las concentraciones del Carbono-14 presente en el agua.  Las edades encontradas en la mayoría de las muestras indican que el agua subterránea se infiltro hace miles de años, con excepción de aquella extraída de pozos cercanos a la zona de recarga.Los resultados se utili...

  6. Fertilización por sitio específico en un cultivo de maíz (zea mays l.) en la sabana de bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Javier; González, Aura María; Leiva, Fabio Rodrigo; Guerrero, Laureano

    2010-01-01

    Se realizó un ensayo en el Centro Agropecuario Marengo (CAM), Sabana de Bogotá, para evaluar el manejo de la fertilidad por sitio específico en un cultivo de maíz. Se instaló una cuadrícula regular de 32 puntos (25 m x 25 m) para muestreo de variables del suelo y de desarrollo y rendimiento del cultivo. Mediante análisis de componentes principales de variables químicas del suelo y su humedad y de rendimiento del cultivo inmediatamente anterior, se identificaron dos zonas de manejo de la...

  7. Medical Student Perspectives of Active Learning: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Anne; Istas, Kathryn; Bonaminio, Giulia A; Paolo, Anthony M; Fontes, Joseph D; Davis, Nancy; Berardo, Benito A

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Medical student perspectives were sought about active learning, including concerns, challenges, perceived advantages and disadvantages, and appropriate role in the educational process. Focus groups were conducted with students from all years and campuses of a large U.S. state medical school. Students had considerable experience with active learning prior to medical school and conveyed accurate understanding of the concept and its major strategies. They appreciated the potential of active learning to deepen and broaden learning and its value for long-term professional development but had significant concerns about the efficiency of the process, the clarity of expectations provided, and the importance of receiving preparatory materials. Most significantly, active learning experiences were perceived as disconnected from grading and even as impeding preparation for school and national examinations. Insights: Medical students understand the concepts of active learning and have considerable experience in several formats prior to medical school. They are generally supportive of active learning concepts but frustrated by perceived inefficiencies and lack of contribution to the urgencies of achieving optimal grades and passing United States Medical Licensing Examinations, especially Step 1.

  8. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR PARCIAL DEL VIRUS DEL MOTEADO DEL CLAVEL (CarMV PRESENTE EN LA SABANA DE BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Yervid Rodríguez

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizó un estudio del virus moteado del clavel (CarMV, en el cual se analizaron con la prueba de ELISA muestras de clavel de diferentes variedades de la Sabana de Bogotá. Esta prueba indicó que el82% de las muestras analizadas eran positivas para el CarMV. El CarMV presente en las muestras positivas fue inoculado mecánicamente en plantas de clavel certificadas libres de virus. La partícula viral se purificó utilizando centrifugación en gradientes y colchones de sacarosa. La proteína de la cápside fue analizada por electroforesis SDS-PAGE, encontrándose una banda de proteína de masa molecular relativa aproximada de 38kDa. El tejido infectado con el CarMV se sometió a un proceso de extracción de RNA de doble cadena (dsRNA encontrándose de 3 a5 componentes electroforéticos cuyos tamaños fluctuaron aproximadamente entre 8.0 y 0.9 kpb. Este patrón de dsRNA pennitió diferenciar al menos 3 aislamientos virales. El análisis electroforético en geles de agarosa del RNA genómico de varios aislamientos virales, mostró una banda de peso molecular aproximado de 4.0 kb. El análisis del RNA genómico digerido con RNAsa TI pennitió diferenciar 2 grupos de patrones electroforéticos de los aislamientosestudiados.

  9. Insectos plagas y benéficos asociados al cultivo de mora (Rubus glaucus, benth en La Sabana, Madriz, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Jiménez-Martínez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available LA MORA (RUBUS GLAUCUS, BENTH ES UNA PLANTA en proceso de domesticación que se cultiva en pequeñas parcelas. Es hospedera de muchos insectos plaga y enfermedades. En Nicaragua se establecieron plantaciones de mora desde hace unos tres años, como alternativa de diversificación de fincas cafetaleras en los departamentos de Madriz y Nueva Segovia. Hasta ahora no hay información formal sobre los principales insectos plaga y benéficos presentes en este cultivo, que está tomando gran importancia. Por ello, se hizo una investigación para describir la fluctuación poblacional de los insectos plaga y sus depredadores naturales, asociados a este cultivo. El estudio se realizó en la finca La Patasta, municipio La Sabana, departamento de Madriz, entre septiembre de 2004 y abril de 2005. El monitoreo se realizó semanalmente en cinco sitios específicos, mediante capturas manuales de especimenes, con ayuda de bolsas de plástico y vasos de vidrio con alcohol. Como resultado, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de insectos de las principales familias Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Cantharidae, y de los órdenes Hemíptero (Cicadellidae, Pentatomidae, Miridae y Orthóptero (Acrididae y Tettigonidae. Igualmente, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de depredadores naturales de insectos de la familia Staphilinidae, Coccinelidae, Vespidae y Aracnidae, presentes en este cultivo.

  10. Dynamic regulation of Polycomb group activity during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic PcG function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding PcG function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract PcG activity in Arabidopsis.

  11. Enhanced biological activity of carotenoids stabilized by phenyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji Suk; Jeon, Sunhwa; Byun, Youn Jung; Koo, Sangho; Choi, Shin Sik

    2015-06-15

    Carotenoids are lipid soluble food ingredients with multifunction including antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, carotenoids are destructively oxidized upon reaction with radicals resulting in toxic effects on biological systems. Two synthetic carotenoids (BAS and BTS) containing the aromatic phenyl groups with a para-substituent (OMe and Me, respectively) at C-13 and C-13' position were prepared in order to overcome a structural instability of carotenoid. Both BAS and BTS exerted stronger radical scavenging activity than β-carotene in DPPH and ABTS assays. In particular, BTS significantly reduced in vivo ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and improved body growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditiselegans. BTS has a great potential for the advanced and modified carotenoid material with stability leading to enhanced bioavailability.

  12. A Small Group Activity About Bacterial Regulation And Complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Merkel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As teachers, we well understand the need for activities that help develop critical-thinking skills in microbiology. In our experience, one concept that students have difficulty understanding is transcriptional regulation of bacterial genes. To help with this, we developed and evaluated a paper-based activity to help students understand and apply the concepts of bacterial transcriptional regulation. While we don't identify it as such, we use a complementation experiment to assess student understanding of how regulation changes when new DNA is introduced. In Part 1 of this activity, students complete an open book, take-home assignment that asks them to define common terminology related to regulation, and draw the regulatory components of different scenarios involving positive and negative regulation. In Part 2, students work in small groups of 3-4 to depict the regulatory components for a different scenario. They are asked to explain the results of a complementation experiment based on this scenario. They then predict the results of a slightly different experiment. Students who completed the Regulation Activity did significantly better on post-test questions related to regulation, compared to pre-test questions.

  13. Monotonía, aislamiento y atraso agrícola. Descripciones de viajeros del siglo XIX e historia agraria de la Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherinne Giselle Mora Pacheco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes obras de Historia Agraria reproducen una descripción similar de la Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia durante el siglo XIX: vocación agrícola desde la Colonia; extensos campos cubiertos de trigo y cebada; reemplazo abrupto de cultivos por ganadería; crisis de la agricultura vinculada con las bonanzas agroexportadoras y la demanda de productos tropicales que no podían obtenerse en altitudes superiores a 2000 metros. Este artículo analiza cómo esta perspectiva ha perpetuado las descripciones de viajeros que visitaron la región durante el siglo XIX, basadas en sus orígenes, objetivos, intereses políticos y económicos, o en las afirmaciones de sus guías e informantes. Reconstruye un perfil de los viajeros que son citados con mayor frecuencia por los historiadores, sus apreciaciones sobre el paisaje sabanero y la actividad agrícola y ganadera y su influencia en las reconstrucciones que en la actualidad se hacen de la historia agraria de la Sabana de Bogotá durante el siglo XIX. Invita a contrastar los relatos de viajeros entre sí y con otras fuentes e ncorporar en los análisis los resultados de investigaciones sobre el periodo colonial y las condiciones biofísicas de las regiones objeto de estudio.

  14. Forest-savanna- morichal dynamics in relation to fire and human occupation in the southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) during the last millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Encarni; Rull, Valentí; Stansell, Nathan D.; Abbott, Mark B.; Nogué, Sandra; Bird, Broxton W.; Díaz, Wilmer A.

    2011-11-01

    The southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) holds a particular type of neotropical savanna characterized by the local occurrence of morichales ( Mauritia palm swamps) , in a climate apparently more suitable for rain forests. We present a paleoecological analysis of the last millennia of Lake Chonita (4°39'N-61°0'W, 884 m elevation), based on biological and physico-chemical proxies. Savannas dominated the region during the last millennia, but a significant vegetation replacement occurred in recent times. The site was covered by a treeless savanna with nearby rainforests from 3640 to 2180 cal yr BP. Water levels were higher than today until about 2800 cal yr BP. Forests retreated since about 2180 cal yr BP onwards, likely influenced by a higher fire incidence that facilitated a dramatic expansion of morichales. The simultaneous appearance of charcoal particles and Mauritia pollen around 2000 cal yr BP supports the potential pyrophilous nature of this palm and the importance of fire for its recent expansion. The whole picture suggests human settlements similar to today - in which fire is an essential element - since around 2000 yr ago. Therefore, present-day southern Gran Sabana landscapes seem to have been the result of the synergy between biogeographical, climatic and anthropogenic factors, mostly fire.

  15. Burning, fire prevention and landscape productions among the Pemon, Gran Sabana, Venezuela: toward an intercultural approach to wildland fire management in Neotropical Savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletto, Bjørn; Rodriguez, Iokiñe

    2013-01-30

    Wildland fire management in savanna landscapes increasingly incorporates indigenous knowledge to pursue strategies of controlled, prescriptive burning to control fuel loads. However, such participatory approaches are fraught with challenges because of contrasting views on the role of fire and the practices of prescribed burning between indigenous and state fire managers. Also, indigenous and state systems of knowledge and meanings associated with fire are not monolithic but instead characterized by conflicts and inconsistencies, which require new, communicative strategies in order to develop successful, intercultural approaches to fire management. This paper is based on long-term research on indigenous Pemon social constructs, rules and regulations regarding fire use, and traditional system of prescribed burning in the Gran Sabana, Venezuela. The authors review factors that act as constraints against successful intercultural fire management in the Gran Sabana, including conflicting perspectives on fire use within state agencies and in indigenous communities, and propose strategies for research and communicative planning to guide future efforts for more participatory and effective fire management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 4904 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  17. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: FRA is updating its announcement of the RSAC Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR FURTHER...

  18. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  19. 75 FR 76070 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  20. Environmental distribution, abundance and activity of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Biddle, J.; Teske, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many marine sedimentary microbes have only been identified by 16S rRNA sequences. Consequently, little is known about the types of metabolism, activity levels, or relative abundance of these groups in marine sediments. We found that one of these uncultured groups, called the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG), dominated clone libraries made from reverse transcribed 16S rRNA, and 454 pyrosequenced 16S rRNA genes, in the White Oak River estuary. Primers suitable for quantitative PCR were developed for MCG and used to show that 16S rRNA DNA copy numbers from MCG account for nearly all the archaeal 16S rRNA genes present. RT-qPCR shows much less MCG rRNA than total archaeal rRNA, but comparisons of different primers for each group suggest bias in the RNA-based work relative to the DNA-based work. There is no evidence of a population shift with depth below the sulfate-methane transition zone, suggesting that the metabolism of MCG may not be tied to sulfur or methane cycles. We classified 2,771 new sequences within the SSU Silva 106 database that, along with the classified sequences in the Silva database was used to make an MCG database of 4,646 sequences that allowed us to increase the named subgroups of MCG from 7 to 19. Percent terrestrial sequences in each subgroup is positively correlated with percent of the marine sequences that are nearshore, suggesting that membership in the different subgroups is not random, but dictated by environmental selective pressures. Given their high phylogenetic diversity, ubiquitous distribution in anoxic environments, and high DNA copy number relative to total archaea, members of MCG are most likely anaerobic heterotrophs who are integral to the post-depositional marine carbon cycle.

  1. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  2. Mezclas de Alfalfa y Gramíneas en la Serie Sabana de Bogotá Tipo Franco Arcilloso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaverra Gil. Hernán

    1960-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, Tibaitatá, y en la serie de suelos Sabana de Bogotá, tipo frnaco arcilloso, se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos con mezclas de alfalfa y gramíneas. En el primer ensayo, se sembraron simultáneamente con la alfalfa, ryegrass inglés, rygrass anual y orchoso. Los métodos de siembra utilizados fueron: a alfalfa y gramíneas sembradas al voleo, b alfalfa y gramíneas en el mismo surco, c alfalfa y gramíneas en surcos alternos, d alfalfa en surcos y gramíneas al voleo y e alfalfa en surcos y trébol blanco al voleo. En el segundo experimento se sembró la alfalfa en surcos separados 25 cm. Después de establecida la alfalfa e inmediatamente después del 4° corte se sembraron al voleo las siguientes gramíneas: ryegrass inglés, rygrass anual, orchoro, festuca media, pasto cinta y pasto rescate. Las finalidades del estudio fueron las de valorar el comportamiento de las gramíneas en mezcla con la alfalfa, mediante la determinación progresiva de la composición botánica y el rendimiento de forraje seco de las mezclas. La siembra simultánea de ryegrass inglés y ryegrass anual con la alfalfa dio como resultado una mala población de la leguminosa, especialmente en los dos primeros cortes. La competencia ejercida por estas dos gramíneas a la alfalfa, se redujo casi completamente, cuando se sembraron en surcos alternos o en la alfalfa establecida. Sea cual fuere el pasto sembrado, la siembra de gramíneas en alfalfa establecida, redujo la competencia entre los pastos asociados. En este ensayo el factor más importante en el establecimiento de las gramíneas, fue el agua disponible en el suelo. Bajo las condiciones del primer experimento el orchoro fue la gramínea que mejor creció en asocio de la alfalfa en todos los métodos de siembra estudiado. La producción promedia de la mezcla varió entre 2600 y 3145 Kg/hect. De forreje seco por corte y la proporción de orchoro entre

  3. Efectividad de cepas rizobianas nativas de sabana en Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mayz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Effectiveness of savannah native rhizobial strains in Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3 Resumen Se estima que la población mundial se incrementará y demandará mayor cantidad de alimentos y uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados. En Venezuela, el frijol es altamente consumido y se cultiva en las sabanas orientales, cuyas características edáficas pueden afectar negativamente la población rizobiana. Estos planteamientos refuerzan la importancia de la evaluación de la flora rizobiana nativa, y enfatizan la necesidad de aumentar la explotación de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno. En este contexto, se evaluaron 6 cepas rizobianas en el cultivar C4A-3, aisladas, de frijol cv. Tejero Criollo y previamente catalogadas como efectivas (JV91, JV94 y JV101 e inefectivas (JV99, JV103, y JV104 en el cultivar TC9-6. El experimento se llevó a cabo en umbráculo por 45 días, donde además se incluyeron dos tratamientos control no inoculados. La suspensión de las cepas individualmente cultivadas se usó para inoculación. De acuerdo con la tipología de la nodulación (número de nódulos, peso total y por nódulo, tamaño y color, los valores de los parámetros de crecimiento (peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago y los estimados de la concentración de nitrógeno y nitrógeno total, las cepas JV91, JV99 y JV101, fueron las más efectivas en la fijación de nitrógeno. El nitrógeno total y la concentración de nitrógeno tuvieron una correlación significativa con peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago. Los resultados muestran la existencia de cepas efectivas en los suelos de sabana para este cultivar, y enfatizan la importancia de evaluar las cepas indígenas, antes de proceder a la inoculación con foráneas. Palabras clave: Rhizobium; frijol; fijación de nitrógeno; Venezuela. Abstract It is estimated that world-wide population will increase and demand higher amount of food and use of nitrogen

  4. Substructure in the Most Massive GEEC Groups: Field-like Populations in Dynamically Active Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Annie; Wilman, David J; McGee, Sean L; Harris, William E; Connelly, Jennifer L; Balogh, Michael L; Mulchaey, John S; Bower, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    The presence of substructure in galaxy groups and clusters is believed to be a sign of recent galaxy accretion and can be used not only to probe the assembly history of these structures, but also the evolution of their member galaxies. Using the Dressler-Shectman (DS) Test, we study substructure in a sample of intermediate redshift (z ~ 0.4) galaxy groups from the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC) group catalog. We find that 4 of the 15 rich GEEC groups, with an average velocity dispersion of ~525 km s-1, are identified as having significant substructure. The identified regions of localized substructure lie on the group outskirts and in some cases appear to be infalling. In a comparison of galaxy properties for the members of groups with and without substructure, we find that the groups with substructure have a significantly higher fraction of blue and star-forming galaxies and a parent colour distribution that resembles that of the field population rather than the overall group population....

  5. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  6. Ensayos preliminares de microfiltración directa para potabilización de aguas superficiales en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Prieto P.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Un sistema de microfiltración a escala laboratorio fue estudiado como alternativa de potabilización para el agua de tres diferentes embalses de la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia. El desempeño del sistema fue evaluado basándose en la eficiencia de eliminación de parámetros clásicos, en el comportamiento del flujo de permeado y en el grado de recuperación del flujo después de la limpieza de la membrana. Ensayos adicionales fueron realizados adicionando CAP al agua de alimentación. Valores de presión de trabajo más bajos resultaron en velocidades de ensuciamiento menores y la adición de CAP redujo la tendencia al ensuciamiento irreversible de la membrana. El sistema de microfiltración directa es una alternativa potencial para la potabilización de agua superficial, pero estudios más profundos son indispensables para corroborar a largo término la idoneidad del proceso. / A microfiltration lab-scale system was studied as alternative to water purification of three reservoirs from the Sabana of Bogotá, Colombia. The system performance was evaluated based on the efficiency of classic parameters elimination, the flux behavior and the degree of flux recovery after membrane cleaning. Additional tests were made adding CAP to the feeding water. Lower work pressures lead to lower fouling membrane rates and the CAP addition reduced the irreversible fouling. Direct microfiltration system is a potential alternative for superficial water purification, but deeper studies are required to corroborate the process suitability to long term.

  7. Características bio-ecológicas en poblaciones de lombrices (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae de una sabana natural y una protegida en los llanos centrales de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Las lombrices de tierra tienen un papel importante en el ciclado de nutrientes y el mantenimiento de la fertilidad de los suelos. En este estudio se empleo el método de extracción manual para determinar la densidad y la biomasa de las lombrices de tierra en diferentes profundidades y en diferentes estaciones, seleccionando al azar cinco monolitos de 25cm2x30cm, ubicados en un área de 90x90m en una Sabana Protegida (SP y una Sabana Natural Intervenida (SNI. Adicionalmente, se estimó la densidad de los capullos, se analizaron las clases de etapas de desarrollo y se clasificaron los individuos en categorías ecológicas. Se estimó la humedad del suelo, la capacidad de campo, la temperatura, la densidad aparente y la textura del suelo. La SP presentó mejores condiciones físicas en el suelo que la SNI, mientras que la actividad de las lombrices de tierra estuvo limitada a los meses de lluvia y se observó un patrón de migración estacional en el perfil del suelo. En la SNI sólo se observó presencia de individuos en agosto y no se encontró diferencia significativa en sus biomasas con la SP. Los sistemas estuvieron dominados por individuos jóvenes con una categoría ecológica de tipo endo-anécica pertenecientes a la familia

  8. The Use of a Group Blog to Actively Support Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of blogs in higher education, there remains a lack of knowledge and consensus about the use and value of blogging in higher education, particularly when used for long periods. This article investigates the use of a group blog to assist traditional teaching activities and foster collaborative learning through the…

  9. Scaffolding of small groups' metacognitive activities with an avatar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, I.; Chiu, M.M.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Boxtel, C.A.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Metacognitive scaffolding in a computer-supported learning environment can influence students' metacognitive activities, metacognitive knowledge and domain knowledge. In this study we analyze how metacognitive activities mediate the relationships between different avatar scaffolds on students' learn

  10. ESTABLECIMIENTO DE VALORES DE BIOINDICACIÓN PARA MACROINVERTEBRADOS ACUÁTICOS DE LA SABANA DE BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RISS WOLFGANG

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una metodología que permite el establecimiento de un sistema de indicaciónbiológica para la contaminación orgánica de aguas corrientes sobre la base demacroinvertebrados acuáticos de la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia - Norte de losAndes. Se asignan valores numéricos de indicación para 57 familias del macrobentosobtenidos con el objeto de cumplir los requerimientos básicos del sistema BMWP,establecido para la bioindicación de contaminación orgánica en Inglaterra y - conciertas modificaciones - en España. El principal objeto de este estudio es expresar elefecto de la contaminación orgánica como un factor ambiental específico más queafecta la distribución de las familias del macrobentos en la región de estudio. Paraeste propósito, el empleo de un promedio ponderado, el cual permite obtener valoresde indicación numérica aplicables y fácilmente reproducibles, resultó ser tan o máseficiente que las técnicas multivariadas de regresión. El estudio se llevó a cabo deacuerdo con el siguiente diseño: 1. Se tomaron muestras en 28 sitios localizados en8 corrientes de agua en alturas de 2550 a 3300 msnm. Se tomaron datos biológicos ydatos fisicoquímicos por un periodo de dos años incluyendo periodos de diferentesniveles de caudal. 2. El macrobentos fue muestreado en diferentes coriotopos(microhábitats. 3. Se ordenaron 18 variables fisicoquímicas mediante un análisis defactores. Nueve de ellas fueron determinadas como componentes del primer factorambiental indicativo de contaminación orgánica. 4. Se calcularon los valores (scoresde calidad fisicoquímica (Cfq usando las nueve variables fisicoquímicas seleccionadasanteriormente. 5. Los valores de indicación (Tm que deben corresponder a latolerancia mínima (Tm a la contaminación orgánica fueron determinados para cadafamilia del macrobentos a través del quinto percentil de la curva de distribuciónnormal ajustada de las abundancias de las familias sobre las diez

  11. Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

  12. De la desintegración Espacial a la Conformación regional en la Sabana de Bogotá. Una Propuesta para el desarrollo de la Ciudad Región en el siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Báez, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación aborda el tema del desarrollo regional en torno a una gran metrópoli como Bogotá y la Sabana de Bogotá. El crecimiento, expansión y relación con los municipios vecinos. Su entorno territorial; es un tema de discusión que cada día adquiere más fuerza desde hace varias décadas. Bogotá y la Sabana de Bogotá, se consideran en la actualidad como un caso representativo del caótico modelo de expansión urbana y crecimiento demográfico, enfrentado al desarrollo urb...

  13. BIOINDICACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DEL AGUA EN LA SABANA DE BOGOTA – COLOMBIA, MEDIANTE LA UTILIZACIÓN DE LA LÓGICA DIFUSA NEUROADAPTATIVA COMO HERRAMIENTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUTIÉRREZ JUAN DAVID

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una implementación de la metodología de Lógica Difusa Neuro-Adaptativa (LDN-A que permite una estimación cuantitativa de la calidad del agua enla Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia. Se emplearon un total de 55 sitios correspondientesa 11 subcuencas de la Sabana de Bogotá. Los resultados obtenidos con la aplicaciónde la LDN-A fueron confrontados con los valores del índice fisicoquímico Cfq, paracomprobar el nivel de confiabilidad de la metodología de LDN-A, observándose unaregresión significativa.

  14. Estudio de factibilidad para la comercialización y distribución de sabanas y fundas desechables para los moteles de mediana y alta categoría en la ciudad de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Vigoya Barreto, Víctor Alfonso; Lara Rodríguez, Diego Fernando

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de investigación se desarrolla un estudio de factibilidad comercial y financiera sobre la venta de sabanas y fundas desechables, las cuales ya se comercializan ampliamente en países Europeos, con este estudio se quiere concluir si en la ciudad de Bogotá – Colombia es viable la distribución de estos productos para el mercado de los moteles de alta y mediana categoría.

  15. Evaluación del efecto de la intensidad de labranza en la formación de costra superficial de un oxisol de sabana en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia: III. Caracterizacion micromorfológica en superficie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Galvis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Para entender los cambios que ocurrieron en la superficie del suelo en diferentes sistemas de maíz y pastos se hizo necesario observar su microestructura utilizando metodologías de diversa índole como secciones delgadas y microscopia electrónica de barrido. Se constataron cambios importantes en la fábrica del suelo con los sistemas introducidos comparados con sabana y bosque..

  16. Novel, high-activity hydroprocessing catalysts: Iron group phosphides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianqin

    A series of iron, cobalt and nickel transition metal phosphides was synthesized by means of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) of the corresponding phosphates. The same materials, Fe2P, CoP and NO, were also prepared on a silica (SiO2) support. The phase purity of these catalysts was established by x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the surface properties were determined by N2 BET specific surface area (Sg) measurements and CO chemisorption. The activities of the silica-supported catalysts were tested in a three-phase trickle bed reactor for the simultaneous hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of quinoline and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene using a model liquid feed at realistic conditions (30 atm, 370°C). The reactivity studies showed that the nickel phosphide (Ni2P/SiO2) was the most active of the catalysts. Compared with a commercial Ni-Mo-S/gamma-Al 2O3 catalyst at the same conditions, Ni2P/silica had a substantially higher HDS activity (100% vs. 76%) and HDN activity (82% vs. 38%). Because of their good hydrotreating activity, an extensive study of the preparation of silica supported nickel phosphides, Ni2P/SiO 2, was carried out. The parameters investigated were the phosphorus content and the weight loading of the active phase. The most active composition was found to have a starting synthesis Ni/P ratio close to 1/2, and the best loading of this sample on silica was observed to be 18 wt.%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements were employed to determine the structures of the supported samples. The main phase before and after reaction was found to be Ni2P, but some sulfur was found to be retained after reaction. A comprehensive scrutiny of the HDN reaction mechanism was also made over the Ni2P/SiO2 sample (Ni/P = 1/2) by comparing the HDN activity of a series of piperidine derivatives of different structure. It was found that piperidine adsorption involved an alpha-H activation

  17. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  18. Activity report of ILD-TPC Asia group

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Y; Gros, P; Tian, J; Kawada, S; Fujii, K; Matsuda, T; Sugiyama, A; Nitoh, O; Watanabe, T; Fusayasu, T; Takahashi, T; Kobayashi, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of ILD-TPC Asia group is realization of high precision Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as a central tracker in International Linear Collider (ILC). We have been studying the many R&D items to build the real detector as a member of LCTPC collaboration. This paper describes the our efforts for realization of the ILD-TPC, the result of test beam using large prototype TPC, local field distortion, positive ion effects and gate devices, and cooling electronics which are key items to build ILD-TPC.

  19. Using Group Drawings Activities to Facilitate the Understanding of Systemic Aspects of Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arantes do Amaral, João Alberto; Hess, Aurélio; Gonçalves, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    ) Making drawings in groups promotes knowledge sharing among team members; 3) Making drawings in group fosters creativity and communication between students; 4) Drawing in groups reduces the students’ boredom, makes the lecture more dynamic and interesting; 5) Drawing in groups reinforces bonds between...... students. Our systems analysis suggests that group drawing improves student participation in classroom activities, strengthens bonds between students, and enhances learning....

  20. Cambios en las comunidades de peces de los arrecifes coralinos del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Claro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Al comparar la estructura de las comunidades de peces en los arrecifes del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey entre 1988-89 y el año 2000, mediante iguales censos visuales (ocho transeptos lineales de 2x50 m en cada estación, se observó una notable disminución de la riqueza de especies y una reducción en dos tercios de la densidad y biomasa de peces. Tal disminución de las poblaciones de peces parece estar relacionada con la alarmante disminución de la cobertura de corales escleractínios y una gran proliferación de algas, las cuales actualmente cubren 7080% del sustrato duro, impidiendo la recuperación de los corales y otros organismos bénticos. Grandes mortalidades de corales ocurrieron entre los dos periodos de estudio, lo cual parece ser consecuencia de las altas temperaturas provocadas por los eventos ENOS de 1995, 1997 y 1998. Estos fenómenos climáticos provocaron el blanqueamiento masivo de los corales y como consecuencia se produjo una gran proliferación de las algas. Asimismo en el período entre ambos muestreos ocurrió el enriquecimiento de nutrientes desde las lagunas interiores y la sobreexplotación de los recursos pesqueros. El conjunto de estos factores provocaron una marcada degradación del hábitat en los arrecifes. Tales cambios parecen haber afectado la disponibilidad de refugios y la alimentación para los peces, limitando el crecimiento individual y el tamaño de las poblaciones.Changes in fish communities of coral reefs at Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago, Cuba. A comparison of fish community structure in the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago (1988-1989 and 2000 using visual census surveys (eight belt transects 2x50 m in each site suggests a notable decrease on species richness, and a two thirds reduction in fish density and biomass on coral reefs. This decrease in fish populations may be related to the alarming decrease of scleractinian coral cover, and an enormous proliferation of algae, which currently covers 70-80% of

  1. Characterization of inhibitory mechanism and antifungal activity between group-1 and group-2 phytocystatins from taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Ming; Kumar, Senthil; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Venkatagiri, Shripathi; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-10-01

    Tarocystatin from Colocasia esculenta, a group-2 phytocystatin, is a defense protein against phytopathogenic nematodes and fungi. It is composed of a highly conserved N-terminal region, which is homological to group-1 cystatin, and a repetitive peptide at the C-terminus. The purified recombinant proteins of tarocystatin, such as full-length (FL), N-terminus (Nt) and C-terminus (Ct) peptides, were produced and their inhibitory activities against papain as well as their antifungal effects were investigated. Kinetic analysis revealed that FL peptide exhibited mixed type inhibition (K(ia) = 0.098 microM and K(ib) = 0.252 microM) and Nt peptide showed competitive inhibition (K(i) = 0.057 microM), whereas Ct peptide possessed weak papain activation properties. A shift in the inhibitory pattern from competitive inhibition of Nt peptide alone to mixed type inhibition of FL peptide implied that the Ct peptide has an regulatory effect on the function of FL peptide. Based on the inhibitory kinetics of FL (group-2) and Nt (group-1) peptides on papain activity, an inhibitory mechanism of group-2 phytocystatins and a regulatory mechanism of extended Ct peptide have each been proposed. By contrast, the antifungal activity of Nt peptide appeared to be greater than that of FL peptide, and the Ct peptide showed no effect on antifungal activity, indicating that the antifungal effect is not related to proteinase inhibitory activity. The results are valid for most phytocystatins with respect to the inhibitory mechanism against cysteine proteinase.

  2. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  3. Structure of ganglioside with CAD blood group antigen activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, B.K.; Blanchard, D.; Cartron, J.P.; van Kuik, G.A.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Marcus, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    The novel erythrocyte ganglioside which carries the blood group Cad determinant has been isolated, and its structure has been determined. The ganglioside contained Glu:Gal:GalNAc:GlcNAc in a molar ratio of 1.00:1.94:0.93:0.95. The ganglioside binds Helix pomatia lectin and its chromatographic mobility is similar to G/sub D3/. After treatment with ..beta..-hexosaminidase (human placenta HexA) the product migrated with sialosylparagloboside (SPG), no longer binds Helix lectin, and binds a human anti-SPG antibody. Treatment of this material with neuraminidase (V. cholera) yielded a product with the mobility of paragloboside that bound monoclonal antibody 1B2. NMR analysis revealed that the terminal GalNAc is linked ..beta..1-4 to Gal, and confirms the structure proposed previously: GalNAc..beta..1-4(NeuAc..cap alpha..2-3)Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc..beta..1-3Gal..beta..1-4Glc-Cer. This structure is consistent with the previous demonstration that a compound with the same chromatographic mobility as the Cad ganglioside could be synthesized by enzymatic transfer of GalNAc to sialosylparagloboside.

  4. Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu

    2016-01-01

    A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ε,δ)-expansion scheme is employed, where ε is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4/3.

  5. Effect of Different Types of Small-Group Activities on Students' Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Krista K.; Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Teaching reform efforts in chemistry education often involve engaging students in small-group activities of different types. This study focused on the analysis of how activity type affected the nature of group conversations. In particular, we analyzed the small-group conversations of students enrolled in a chemistry course for nonscience majors.…

  6. Bioindicación de la calidad del agua con lógica difusa Sugeno y macroinvertebrados acuáticos de la Sabana de Bogotá Bioindication of water quality in the Bogota Sabana using fuzzy logic Sugeno and aquatic microinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ospina Rodulfo

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Se presenta una implementación de la metodología de lógica difusa Sugeno que permite el cálculo de la calidad biológica del agua en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia. Se emplearon un total de 28 sitios correspondientes a 9 subcuencas de la Sabana de Bogotá. Los organismos utilizados para la implementación del modelo de lógica Sugeno fueron: Leptoceridae e Hydrobiosidae como indicadores de aguas limpias, Planariidae y Amphipoda como indicadores aguas contaminadas y como indicadores de aguas muy contaminadas se seleccionaron Psychodidae y Syrphidae. Adicionalmente se incluyo la familia Chironomidae. Los resultados obtenidos con la aplicación de la lógica Sugeno fueron confrontados con los valores del índice fisicoquímico (Cfq para comprobar el nivel de confiabilidad de la metodología de 1ógica Sugeno, observándose una correlación altamente significativa.

    An application of the Sugeno-rype fuzzy logic to calculate biological water quality in Bogota, Colombia is presented 28 sites corresponding to 9 watersheds in the Bogota area were used. The organisms selected were: Leptoceridae and Hidrobiosidae as indicators of dean waters, Planariidae and Amphipoda as indicators of polluted waters and Psychodida and Syrphidae as indicators of highly polluted waters Chironomids were also included. In order to prove the degree of reliability of Sugeno-type fuzzy logic, the results obtained were compared with values for the Cfq index, and a highly significant correlation was obtained.

  7. Enhancement of CA3 hippocampal network activity by activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ster, Jeanne; Mateos, José María; Grewe, Benjamin Friedrich; Coiret, Guyllaume; Corti, Corrado; Corsi, Mauro; Helmchen, Fritjof; Gerber, Urs

    2011-06-14

    Impaired function or expression of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRIIs) is observed in brain disorders such as schizophrenia. This class of receptor is thought to modulate activity of neuronal circuits primarily by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Here, we characterize a postsynaptic excitatory response mediated by somato-dendritic mGluRIIs in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in stratum oriens interneurons. The specific mGluRII agonists DCG-IV or LCCG-1 induced an inward current blocked by the mGluRII antagonist LY341495. Experiments with transgenic mice revealed a significant reduction of the inward current in mGluR3(-/-) but not in mGluR2(-/-) mice. The excitatory response was associated with periods of synchronized activity at theta frequency. Furthermore, cholinergically induced network oscillations exhibited decreased frequency when mGluRIIs were blocked. Thus, our data indicate that hippocampal responses are modulated not only by presynaptic mGluRIIs that reduce glutamate release but also by postsynaptic mGluRIIs that depolarize neurons and enhance CA3 network activity.

  8. Salivary Alpha Amylase Activity in Human Beings of Different Age Groups Subjected to Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-01-01

    ... in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip...

  9. LA CONTAMINACIÓN Y RIESGO SANITARIO EN ZONAS URBANAS DE LA SUBCUENCA DEL RÍO DE LA SABANA, CIUDAD DE ACAPULCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    America Libertad Rodriguez Herrera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A menudo encontramos ciudades cuyo desarrollo está asociado a la ocupación de alguna cuenca hidrográfica, sobre la cual no rigen políticas y acciones públicas y o privadas, suficientes para detener los procesos de degradación ambiental y social provocados por las transformaciones del territorio. Los casos estudiados son dos comunidades de la periferia de la ciudad de Acapulco, influenciadas por la insuficiencia y carencia de infraestructura sanitaria y el entorno fluvial del río de La Sabana, que desarrollan sus vidas en un ambiente degradado y contaminado. Los datos aportados confirman que las enfermedades más recurrentes son las de las vías respiratorias y del tracto digestivo, reconocidas por la OMS como enfermedades asociadas a la contaminación, así también que toda acción destinada a la mitigación del riesgo sanitario, debe enfocarse en la atención de la situación de vulnerabilidad bajo una perspectiva holista.

  10. Biomasa fúngica y bacteriana como indicadoras del secuestro de C en suelos de sabanas sustituidos por pinares en Uverito, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalis Zabala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas agrícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la relación (H:B en suelos de sabana nativa sustituidos por pinares (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, para establecer si éstos parámetros son indicadores sensibles de cambios en el contenido de carbono en suelos de Uverito, Venezuela. La relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI y la inhibición total por efecto combinado del inhibidor (ITC se llevaron a cabo para determinar, si los inhibidores microbianos tuvieron actividad sobre otros organismos para los cuales éstos no estaban destinados. La cuantificación de la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana se llevó a cabo mediante el uso de la cycloheximida como inhibidor fúngico, y la estreptomicina y el cloranfenicol como inhibidores bacterianos. Esta investigación evidencia que este cambio de uso de la tierra ejerció un efecto significativo sobre la biomasa microbiana del suelo, y muestra que en el sistema de pinares existe una dominancia del componente fúngico, en contraste con la sabana nativa, en la cual domina la biomasa bacteriana. La sustitución de la sabana nativa por plantaciones de pino en Uverito, promueve un mayor secuestro del carbono en el suelo. Los valores de la relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI tanto para la sabana nativa como para el sistema de pinares, resultaron ambos >1.0. La inhibición total combinada (ITC resultó menor en el sistema de pinares; a partir de lo cual, es posible inferir que una elevada proporción de la biomasa microbiana fue afectada por la combinaci

  11. LÓGICA DIFUSA COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA LA BIOINDICACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DEL AGUA CON MACROINVERTEBRADOS ACUÁTICOS EN LA SABANA DE BOGOTÁ - COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUTIÉRREZ JUAN DAVID

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una implementación de la metodología de lógica difusa (LD que permiteel cálculo de la calidad del agua en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia. Debido a que lasinteracciones entre los organismos acuáticos y las variables físicas y químicas sonun problema matemático de gran complejidad, se requiere de técnicas robustas parala construcción de tales modelos. La LD ofrece una posibilidad debido a su habilidadpara procesar simultáneamente la información “subjetiva” proveniente de expertosy la información “objetiva” recopilada mediante datos. Los resultados obtenidoscon la aplicación de la LD fueron confrontados con los valores del índice fisicoquímicoWQI (Water Quality Index, para comprobar el grado de confiabilidad de la metodologíade LD. La prueba de chi cuadrado mostró que no existe una diferencia significativaentre los valores esperados del índice WQI y los valores observados por la estimacióncon el sistema de LD

  12. Estudio mineralóglco de la fracción arena de algunos materiales arcillosos de la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Rubio de Cubides

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio mineralógico de la fracción arena de tres muestras de materiales arcillosos situados en la Sabana de Bogotá. Esta fracción se caracterizó porque los minerales reslstentes-turmallna, circón y rutilo constituyeron más de la mitad de la fracción pesada de la muestra. Esta fracción también se caracterizó por una riqueza de minerales opacos naturales (ilmenlta, especialmente, y algo de magnetita, siendo los de alteración sobre todo leucoxenos. Dos de las muestras exhibieron un alto contenido de minerales metamórficos, en especial estaurolita. De los resultados granulométricos y mineralógicos de los materiales, se deduce que las muestras han sufrido alteraciones químicas fuertes (lavado, ya que únicamente permanecen los minearles resistentes (turmalina, circón, rutilo y cuarzo.

  13. Determinación de géneros de endoparásitos que afectan a los equinos de las sabanas del Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Alonso Prada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se desarrolló en las sabanas del departamento del Casanare, con el fin de identificar los géneros de endoparásitos gastrointestinales y pulmonares que afectan a los equinos de esta región del país, se muestrearon cuatro municipios del departamento: Aguazul, Paz de Ariporo, Maní y El Yopal, entre los meses de junio de 2006 y abril de 2007, recolectando en cada uno de los municipios diez muestras de materia fecal fresca, directamente de los potreros y completamente al azar. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante las técnicas coprológicas de MacMaster, identificando huevos de tipo Strongylido spp., Strongyloide spp., Triodonthoforus spp., Habronema spp., y Oxyuros spp. Coprocultivo que determina la presencia de larvas L3 de pequeños strongylus (86,2%, Strongylus vulgaris (6,2%, Strongylus edentatus (3,6%, Strongylus equinus (2,8%, Strongyliodes westeri (1,1% y Trichostrongylus axei (0,20%. En el presente estudio mediante la técnica de Baermann no se encontraron larvas de Dyctiocaulus spp.

  14. Variación fenotípica de plantas del Cerrado (Sabana brasileña frente a la heterogeneidad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Variación fenotípica de plantas del Cerrado brasileño frente a la heterogeneidad ambiental - Este artículo es una revisión bibliográfica que presenta una síntesis comparando datos de cinco estudios desarrollados previamente, describiendo la variación de los caracteres vegetativos y reproductivos de siete especies de plantas en una Reserva Ecológica en Uberlândia, Minas Gerais (Brasil; 18º55'S; 48º17'O. La variación fenotípica fue investigada en un ecotono, donde el afloramiento de nacientes formaba una vereda en un área ocupada por la vegetación del cerrado sensu stricto (sabana brasileña. Todas las poblaciones de plantas analizadas presentaron algún tipo de alteración morfológica en respuesta a la heterogeneidad ambiental, caracterizando subpoblaciones, aspecto que sugiere un aumento de la variabilidad tanto de caracteres vegetativos como reproductivos. Existe una forma singular en la cual cada planta responde a los patrones edáficos de humedad encontrados en el ecotono. Además, los ajustes fenotípicos actúan de manera amplia, asociando las diversas características del organismo en un complejo proceso integrante.

  15. The importance of group activities for quality of life of women in postmenopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Calazans Negrão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the quality of life of postmenopausal women who participate in different activities groups for elderly. Methods: We selected 59 women, divided as follows: hydrotherapy group (n = 15, physical activity and bingo group (n = 15, and a control group(n = 29. Data collection was done through a questionnaire evaluating the Quality of Life(WHOQOL-Bref, the Blatt and Kupperman Menopausal Index and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. The assessments were conducted in two stages with an interval of two monthsbetween each one. Results: There was an improvement in quality of life of women participants in activities groups with respect to the control group, and in all domains of quality of life questionnaire, the control group had lower values. Significant differences occurred in the environment domain, in comparing the hydrotherapy group and physical activity/bingo groups, of which the latter showed better responses. Conclusion: The activities groups were positive for improving quality of life of postmenopausal women, emphasizing the importance of encouraging the practice of not only physical activities, but also those that stimulate the social and psychological profile of these women.

  16. Utilizing Adventure Activities with Intact Groups: A Sociodramatic Systems Approach to Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, H. Lee; Bonney, Warren C.

    1989-01-01

    Describes team-building activities for mental health counselors who function as consultants to staffs, groups, or other intact work systems. Provides rationale for application of strategic systems and sociodrama techniques to an adventure activity that allows a group to metaphorically enact its common issue. Provides example of a consultation…

  17. Teacher-Involved Conversations with Young Children during Small Group Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Tonia; Dangel, Julie Rainer

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the conversations of two preschool teachers with two- and three-year-old children during small-group activity settings in two high-quality child development centers. Using interviews, observations and videotaping of small-group activities, the conversations are characterized in terms of the kind and function of…

  18. Using Electronic Communication Tools in Online Group Activities to Develop Collaborative Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hanan; Ebner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using synchronous and asynchronous communication tools in online group activities to develop collaborative learning skills. An experimental study was implemented on a sample of faculty of education students in Mansoura University. The sample was divided into two groups, a group studied…

  19. The Exploration of the Relationship between Participation in Organized Activity and Cross-Group Friendships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonseok Suh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-group friendship is an important element in regard to reducing prejudice and increasing positive interracial interactions among young adults. In order to facilitate the formation of cross-group friendships, organized activity participation (e.g., community service and school-based extracurricular activities may provide an environment that supports positive cross-cultural interactions and contacts. The sample used for this study consisted of 601 college students. We tested whether participation in an organized activity contributes to the formation of cross-group friendships. The results of this study indicate that community service and school-based extracurricular activities significantly contribute to the formation of cross-group friendships among young adults. The findings also suggest that a variety of organized activities should be developed and implemented to facilitate cross-group friendships. We also discuss the practical implications of these findings.

  20. Active leave behavior of members in a fault-tolerant group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun

    2004-01-01

    Active replication is an effective means to enhance fault tolerant capability in distributed systems. A fault-tolerant group is composed of replicas of key components in a system. This paper analyzes three types of leave semantics of group members, and manifests activities a group member involves. Then it educes requirements for a group member to safely leave. As to quick-leave semantics, this paper proposes a solution and discusses the non-empty protocol and relay protocol in detail. Further, it gives proofs of correctness and termination property of the protocols. The solution is a building block for a practical and operational group membership module.

  1. Determinación de frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria, lactato deshidrogenasa, creatinkinasa y ácido láctico en caballos durante competencia de salto en la Sabana de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Andrea Guerrero Nieto

    2009-01-01

    El estudio presenta los primeros resultados de investigación en variables fisiológicas y sus cambios por el ejercicio en equinos en competencia de salto en el país. Se utilizaron 24 ejemplares de las razas Silla Argentina, PSI y mestizo de la Escuela de Equitación del Ejército Nacional de Colombia, que participaron en pruebas de salto (1,10 – 1,20 m) en diferentes centros ecuestres de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se determinó frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria y enzimas musculares (creatinq...

  2. Características y estado de conservación de los pastos marinos en áreas de interés del Archipiélago Sabana Camagüey, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Se caracterizó y evaluó el estado de conservación de los pastos marinos en áreas de interés conservacionista del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey en el periodo 2001-2003, considerando variables descriptivas de las angiospermas marinas, de la estructura del macrofitobentos y abióticas para conocer las causas de su afectación. Las áreas estudiadas fueron las bahías de Cárdenas, Santa Clara, Buena Vista, de Perros, Jigüey, La Gloria y Nuevitas, así como algunas lagunas arrecifales. Los pastos marino...

  3. Natural Interactions in Artifical Situations: Focus Groups as an Active Social Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    the interactions going on in the group can be described as natural occurring data (cf. Silverman, 2007). Thus this approach comes to terms with some of the problems addressed within both positivistic as well as constructivist uses of focus group methods. Secondly, framing focus groups as social experiments also......This chapter discuss the question of how the validity of focus group data can be reframed when approaching focus groups as social experiments in a science and technology approach. By using this frame we first of all comes to perceive the focus group discussion as an artificial situation, while...... highlights possibilities of a more active use of groups (by intervention) that resembles the interviewing situations as an active ethnomethodological breaching. It is within this framework of “stimulated or irritated” natural occurring data that focus groups will be discussed....

  4. Active ingredients of substance use-focused self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H

    2008-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of some of the probable active ingredients of self-help groups in light of four related theories that identify common social processes that appear to underlie effective psychosocial treatments for and continuing remission from these disorders. Social control theory specifies active ingredients such as bonding, goal direction and structure; social learning theory specifies the importance of norms and role models, behavioral economics and behavioral choice theory emphasizes involvement in rewarding activities other than substance use, and stress and coping theory highlights building self-efficacy and effective coping skills. A review of existing studies suggests that the emphasis on these active ingredients probably underlies some aspects of the effectiveness of self-help groups. Several issues that need to be addressed to enhance understanding of the active ingredients of action of self-help groups are discussed, including consideration of indices of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) affiliation as active ingredients, identification of personal characteristics that may moderate the influence of active ingredients on substance use outcomes, examination of whether active ingredients of self-help groups, can amplify or compensate for treatment, identification of potential detrimental effects of involvement in self-help groups and focusing on the link between active ingredients of self-help groups and other aspects of the overall recovery milieu, such as the family and social networks.

  5. FORRAJEO DE Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes: Emberizidae Y VALOR DEL PARCHE EN CERCAS VIVAS JÓVENES DE LA SABANA DE BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena TELLEZ-FARFÁN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El copetón Zonotrichia capensis tiene una amplia distribución en América neotropical, es un ave tolerante a las intervenciones humanas, pero sabemos poco sobre su comportamiento de forrajeo en los Andes colombianos. Por ello, estudiamos la estrategia de forrajeo del copetón y, adicionalmente, el valor de parches alimentarios a lo largo de dos cercas vivas jóvenes (plantación < 2 años, en relación con la distancia a una zona de ronda del río Bogotá, en Cajicá, Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia. El río es un área dominada por árboles en una matriz rural a urbana. Utilizamos parches artificiales hechos de bandejas de aluminio con semillas mezcladas con arena. Determinamos la proporción de consumo entre tres parches con diferentes densidades de alimento inicial, para determinar si los copetones obtienen información del parche. Usamos también parches artificiales para determinar si la distancia al río a lo largo de dos cercas vivas jóvenes afectaba el forrajeo. Nuestros resultados indican que Z. capensis no obtuvo información del parche y no reconoció diferencias en parches con diferente densidad inicial de alimento. Adicionalmente, la distancia al río afectó el valor de los parches de forrajeo en solo una de las cercas vivas examinadas donde hubo mayor consumo cerca al río. Al parecer, la densidad inicial de alimento no afectó el nivel de explotación del parche por parte de los copetones, mientras que el valor del parche en las cercas vivas jóvenes puede estar influido por la distancia al río.

  6. Germinación y crecimiento de una planta foránea, satureja sp. ( Labiaceae sobre tres sustratos orgánicos bajo condiciones controladas en la sabana de Bogotá, Colombia Germination and Growth of a Foreign Plant, Satureja sp.(Labiaceae Over Three Organic Substrates Under Controlled Conditions in the Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaparro de Barrera Angela

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido al creciente interés en la comercialización de productos no nativos, se realizó un análisis de germinación y crecimiento de la planta foránea, Ajedrea (Satureja sp., proveniente del Mediterráneo, considerada de importancia gastronómica y medicinal. La evaluación de germinación y crecimiento de la Ajedrea se hizo sobre diferentes sus-tratos, bajo condiciones de invernadero, en la Sabana de Bogotá, con el fin de determinar cuáles son las mejores condiciones para su cultivo. Se observó que el mayor porcentaje de germinación se presentó en las semillas sembradas en el tratamiento control de tierra con pH entre neutro y básico. El tratamiento que contenía además estiércol arrojó resultados satisfactorios en cuanto a longitud de vástago, biomasa y número de hojas. El tercer tratamiento de sustrato con hojarasca, no arrojó resultados satisfactorios en términos de porcentaje de germinación ni de otras variables medidas. Por lo tanto, si el interés comercial es obtener un mayor número de plántulas, se recomienda emplear el tratamiento control. Sin embargo, si se desea obtener una mayor longitud de vástago, y por lo tanto, mayor cantidad de hojas y biomasa, se recomienda emplear el tratamiento con estiércol.The increasing interest on global commercialization of products, motivated the evaluation of the germination and growth of the foreign plant, Ajedrea (Satureja sp., native to the Mediterranean, which has gastronomic and medicinal interest. The evaluation of Ajedrea was carried out in different substrates, under greenhouse conditions, in the Sabana de
    Bogotá, in order to determine which are the best conditions for its culture. The major germination percentage was found in the seeds sowed on control conditions (earth with a neutral and basic pH. The manure substrate showed notorious results concerning steam length, dry weight and leaf number. The third substrate, soil and trash, did not render results neither on

  7. Role of the phenolic hydroxyl group in the biological activities of simplified analogue of aplysiatoxin with antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Ryo C; Kamachi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Murakami, Akira; Nakagawa, Yu; Tokuda, Harukuni; Nagai, Hiroshi; Irie, Kazuhiro

    2010-10-15

    The 18-deoxy derivative (3) of a simplified analogue (1) of aplysiatoxin with antiproliferative activity was synthesized to examine the role of the phenolic hydroxyl group at position 18 in the biological activities of 1. Compound 3 as well as 1 showed significant affinity for protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), and the antiproliferative activity of 3 was slightly higher than that of 1. However, the anti-tumor-promoting activity of 3 was less than that of 1 in vitro, suggesting that the phenolic hydroxyl group of 1 is necessary for the anti-tumor-promoting activity but not for the binding of PKCδ and antiproliferative activity. Moreover, PKC isozyme selectivity of 3 was similar to that of 1, suggesting non-PKC receptors for these compounds to play some roles in the anti-tumor-promoting activity of 1.

  8. Impact of physical activity in group versus individual physical activity on fatigue in patients with breast cancer: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, Christine; Filion, Myriam; Brien, Marie-Chantale; Hogue, Jean-Charles; Laflamme, Christian; Lemieux, Julie

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity improves the quality of life of cancer survivors, but whether there is a difference between individual vs. group physical activity is unknown. To compare fatigue at 12 weeks in breast cancer survivors after participation in a program of group vs. individual video-assisted physical activity. This was a randomized phase II pilot study carried out in breast cancer survivors at a tertiary breast cancer center. Eligible patients were randomized to individual or group 12-week physical activity program. The primary outcome was fatigue (FACT-F). Aerobic capacity (6-min walk test), muscular strength, and quality-of-life (FACT-G and FACT-B) were assessed. Because of poor accrual, 200 consecutive breast cancer patients were surveyed about their physical activity habits to assess reasons for low recruitment. For all participants (n = 26; n = 12 for group vs. n = 14 for individual), there were some improvement in FACT-F, FACT-G, FACT-B, physical activity level, aerobic capacity, and shoulder strength. Among the 200 patients surveyed, 58% were interested to increase their physical activity level, 15% declared that they were already exercising enough, 9% declared being unable to, 3% declared having no time, and 2% declared having no interest, and other reasons (13%). Among the 200 patients surveyed, 25% preferred in group, 57% preferred alone, and 18% had no preference. Low recruitment precluded conclusions about the efficacy of physical activity practiced in group vs. individually, but both groups derived a benefit. Low willingness to change exercising habits could be the biggest barrier to physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modified activated carbons with amino groups and their copper adsorption properties in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hassan Mahaninia; Paria Rahimian; Tahereh Kaghazchi

    2015-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by two chemical methods and the adsorption of Cu (II) on activated carbons from aqueous solution containing amino groups was studied. The first method involved the chlorination of activated carbon following by substitution of chloride groups with amino groups, and the second involved the nitrilation of activated carbon with reduction of nitro groups to amino groups. Resultant activated carbons were characterized in terms of porous structure, elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, XPS, Boehm titration, and pHzpc. Kinetic and equilibrium tests were performed for copper adsorption in the batch mode. Also, adsorption mechanism and effect of pH on the adsorption of Cu (II) ions were discussed. Adsorption study shows enhanced adsorption for copper on the modified activated carbons, mainly by the presence of amino groups, and the Freundlich model is applicable for the activated carbons. It is suggested that binding of nitrogen atoms with Cu (II) ions is stronger than that with H+ions due to relatively higher divalent charge or stronger electrostatic force.

  10. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  11. A REVIEW OF OXYGEN-CONTAINING SURFACE GROUPS AND SURFACE MODIFICATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yongwen; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; XIA Qibin

    2004-01-01

    This review focused on the recent reports related to the function, characterization and modification of oxygen-containing surface groups of activated carbon (AC). The Oxygen-containing surface groups were briefly described, and the most frequently used techniques for characterization of the oxygen-containing surface groups on ACs were also briefly stated. A detailed discussion of the effects of the oxygen-containing surface groups on the adsorptive capacity of AC was given. The recent progresses in modification of the oxygen-containing surface groups of AC were also reviewed.

  12. Carboxylate groups play a major role in antitumor activity of Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chen; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping; Wang, Weijun

    2015-06-05

    In this paper, the structure difference between the polysaccharides isolated from fruit bodies (FGAP) and submerged fermentation system (SGAP) of Ganoderma applanatum was investigated by means of GPC, HPLC and IR, respectively. And their antitumor activities were evaluated against Sarcoma 180 in vivo. The results showed that FGAP and SGAP were typical polysaccharides with different molecular weights, monosaccharide components, and functional groups. Closely related to the distinct structures, FGAP exhibited a better antitumor activity than SGAP. Moreover, since FGAP contained carboxylate groups rather than SGAP, such groups were chemically introduced into SGAP (CSGAP) by carboxymethylation in order to identify their contribution to antitumor activity. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of CSGAP against Sarcoma 180 in vivo was significantly enhanced by comparison to the native SGAP and even higher than that of FGAP, suggesting that the carboxylate groups played a major role in antitumor activity of G. applanatum polysaccharide.

  13. The thermal stability of the framework, hydroxyl groups, and active sites of faujasites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishin, I.V.; Kalinin, V.P.; Nissenbaum, V.D. [Zelinskii Institute of Organic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Beyer, H.K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Karge, H.G. [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Soceity, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-07-01

    The effect of the framework composition on the crystallinity and {open_quotes}density{close_quotes} of hydroxyl groups and the concentration of active sites is reported for hydrogen forms of Y zeolites preheated at 400 - 1000{degrees}C. The increase in the Si/Al ratios results in improved resistance of the framework atoms and hydroxyl groups to high temperatures and in enhanced thermal stability of the sites that are active in the cracking of isooctane and disproportionation of ethylbenzene.

  14. Procedencia botánica del polen almacenado por Apís mellífera, en alrededores de la-Sabana de Bogotá. I:Polen en las Colmenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz de Boada Dilia

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó el polen almacenado en 30 colmenas de Apis mellifera, en tres apiarios de los alrededores de la Sabana de Bogotá. Apiario A1 de la vereda de Los Puentes Municipio de Mosquera. Conformación vegetal: El ecosistema de la región corresponde al bosque seco montano bajo, con unos 5 meses de verano. A2 en la zona urbana de la Sabana, Calle 145 No. 14-31 Barrio Los Cedritos, el ecosistema de la región corresponde a bosque de transición seco y húmedo montano bajo con períodos de lluvias fuertes por 6 meses al año. A3 Monasterio Santa María de Usme con· ecosistema bosque húmedo montano bajo
    con per íodos de lluvias alternando con épocas de verano. Se hicieron colectas durante 2 años con colección de referencia palinológica. En el estudio se diferenciaron 74 tipos de polen
    en total, de estos 37 corresponden a especies melliferas destacándose entre los Myrtaceae Eucaliptus globulus, Caprifoliaceae Sambucus nigrum, Tropeolaceae Tropeolum mejus, Compositae Chrysanthemum sp, y Oleaceae
    Fraxinus sp.

  15. Thrips Species (Thysanoptera thripidae more common in cut flower greenhouse in Bogotá plateau Especies de trips (Thysanoptera:Thripidae mas comunes en invernaderos de flores de la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corredor Dario

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available We report sorne species found in and around greenhouses at the Bogotá plateau, whith keys and drawings to make an easier identification. Three genera were found: Taeniothrips, Thrips and
    FrankDniella; this last genus has the highest number of species found inthe greenhouses. A key to identify F. occidentalis, F. auripes, F.panamensís, F. minuta, F. colombiana, Taeniothrips simplex and thrips tabaci, and a list of hosts for each species in and out of the greenhouses are presented.Se registran algunas especies de trips hallados dentro y alrededor de invernaderos en la sabana de Bogotá, se proponen claves y esquemas para facilitar su determinación. Se encontraron tres géneros a saber: Taeniothrips, Thrips y Frank#niella; este último género presenta el mayor número de especies en los invernaderos de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se propone una clave para las especies de F. occidentaKs, F.
    auripes, F. panamensis, F. minuta, F. colombiana, Taeniothrips simplex y Thrips tabaci. También, se presenta una lista de plantas hospedantes para cada especie de trips, dentro y fuera de invernaderos.

  16. Need for Cognition and Active Information Search in Small Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curseu, Petru Lucian

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…

  17. Need for Cognition and Active Information Search in Small Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curseu, Petru Lucian

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…

  18. Upper Elementary Boys' Participation during Group Singing Activities in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzy, Zadda M.

    2010-01-01

    As boys in the upper elementary grades become increasingly influenced by peer pressure, many are less likely to participate in singing activities because singing is considered a "feminine" activity. The purpose of this research was to explore if there was an effect on upper elementary boys' level of participation during group singing activities…

  19. IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON'S OXYGEN SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of varying physical and chemical properties of activated carbons on adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] was studied by treating two activated carbons to modify their surface functional groups and pore structures. Heat treatment (1200 K) in nitrogen (N2), air oxidat...

  20. Taking It to the Classroom: Number Board Games as a Small Group Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Siegler, Robert S.; Hitti, Aline

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether a theoretically based number board game could be translated into a practical classroom activity that improves Head Start children's numerical knowledge. Playing the number board game as a small group learning activity promoted low-income children's number line estimation, magnitude comparison, numeral identification, and…

  1. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): training persons with dementia to serve as group activity leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Cameron J; Skrajner, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an activity implemented by means of Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP). Four persons with early-stage dementia were trained to serve as leaders for a small-group activity played by nine persons with more advanced dementia. Assessments of leaders' ability to learn the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with this role, were taken, as were measures of players' engagement and affect during standard activities programming and RAMP activities. Leaders demonstrated the potential to fill the role of group activity leader effectively, and they expressed a high level of satisfaction with this role. Players' levels of positive engagement and pleasure during the RAMP activity were higher than during standard group activities. This study suggests that to the extent that procedural learning is available to persons with early-stage dementia, especially when they are assisted with external cueing, these individuals can successfully fill the role of volunteers when working with persons with more advanced dementia. This can provide a meaningful social role for leaders and increase access to high quality activities programming for large numbers of persons with dementia. Copyright 2004 The Gerontological Society of America

  2. Taking It to the Classroom: Number Board Games as a Small Group Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Siegler, Robert S.; Hitti, Aline

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether a theoretically based number board game could be translated into a practical classroom activity that improves Head Start children's numerical knowledge. Playing the number board game as a small group learning activity promoted low-income children's number line estimation, magnitude comparison, numeral identification, and…

  3. What Do We Want Small Group Activities For? Voices from EFL Teachers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental issue of why small group activities are utilized in the language learning classroom. Although these activities have gained popularity in the field of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), supported by a sound theoretical base, few studies have so far examined the reasons why language teachers are…

  4. [Cellulase and xylanase activities of Fusarium Lk:Fr. genus fungi of different trophic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchenko, I M; Sokolova, O V; Zhdanova, N M; Iarynchyn, A M; Iovenko, O M

    2008-01-01

    A comparative analysis of cellulase and xylanase activities of 26 fungal strains of phytopathogenic, saprophytic and endophytic Fusarium species has been realized using the qualitative reactions. The rare of their linear growth on the media with carboxymethyl cellulose or xylane has been studied. It was shown that the fungi of genus Fusarium belonging to different trophic groups possessed low activities of investigated enzymes as a whole, but in endophytic strains their levels were lower than in phytopathogenic ones. At the same time the distinct strain dependence of cellulase and xylanase activities was fixed in the fungi of different trophic groups. As far as the cellulase and xylanase activities in phytopathogenic isolates varied from complete absence to high levels, and since the activity maximum for each of the investigated strains was observed in different growth terms the conclusion was made that the cellulase and xylanase activities could not be considered as possible markers of the fungal isolate pathogenicity on the strain level.

  5. Variant for estimating the activity of tropical cyclone groups in the world ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshevich, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    It is especially important to know the character and the intensity level of tropical cyclone (TC) activity when the system for estimating the cyclonic danger and risk is formed. During seasons of increased cyclonic activity, when several TCs are simultaneously active, the total energy effect of the cyclone group joint action is not estimated numerically. Cyclonic activity is as a rule characterized by the number of TCs that occur in the considered zone. A variant of the criterion, according to which relative cyclonic activity is estimated, is presented.

  6. Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Shane M

    2014-01-01

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few {\\mu}Eh or less) with M = 128 in both cases, which is in contrast to conventional ab initio density matrix renormalization group.

  7. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Analogues of Chlorantraniliprole Containing Nitro Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qi; WANG Ming-zhong; XIONG Li-xia; LIU Zhi-li; LI Zheng-ming

    2011-01-01

    Twelve novel analogues of chlorantraniliprole containing nitro group were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS).Their evaluated insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm(Mythimna separata) indicate that the nitro-containing analogues showed favorable insecticidal activities,while the activity of compounds 5g at 0.25 mg/L was 40%,but still lower than chlorantraniliprole.

  8. Group cohesion and between session homework activities predict self-reported cognitive-behavioral skill use amongst participants of SMART Recovery groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Baker, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    SMART Recovery groups are cognitive-behaviorally oriented mutual support groups for individuals with addictions. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which the quality of group facilitation, group cohesion and the use of between session homework activities contribute to self-rated use of cognitive-behavioral skills amongst group participants. Participants attending SMART Recovery groups in Australia completed a cross sectional survey (N=124). The survey included measures of cognitive and behavioral skill utilization, group cohesion, quality of group facilitation and a rating of how frequently participants leave group meetings with an achievable between session homework plan. On average, participants had been attending SMART Recovery meetings for 9 months. Participants were most likely to attend SMART Recovery for problematic alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that group cohesion significantly predicted use of cognitive restructuring, but that only provision of homework at the end of each group session predicted self-reported behavioral activation. Both group cohesion and leaving a group with an achievable homework plan predicted participant use of cognitive behavioral skills. The concrete actions associated with homework activities may facilitate behavioral activation. There is a need for longitudinal research to examine the relationship between the utilization of cognitive and behavioral skills and participant outcomes (e.g. substance use, mental health) for people attending SMART Recovery groups.

  9. Catalytical Activities of Reconstructed Hemoglobin with Different Central Ions in Prosthetic Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-yu; SUN Bao-wei; LI Yuan-zong; CHANG Wen-bao

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin(Hb) was de-prosthetized, which was then reconstructed with the prosthetic groups with different central metal ions including Fe(Ⅲ), Co(Ⅱ) and Mn(Ⅱ). The spectral properties along with the catalase and peroxidase activities of the reconstructed hemoglobin were compared with those of Hb and prosthetic groups with different ions. When the central ion is iron, the reconstituted Hb(rHb) has the highest catalase and peroxidase activities. Maybe it is the reason that iron is chosen as the central ion in the prosthetic groups of natural hemoproteins. Different from peroxidase activity, the catalase activity of hemin cannot be enhanced by the microenvironment of apoHb. This result shows that the structure of apoHb is more similar to that of apoHRP than that of apocatalase.

  10. Health behaviors and participation in health promotion activities among hospital staff: which occupational group performs better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2014-10-22

    Staff health behaviors affect not only their own health but also their provision of health promotion services to their patients. Although different occupational groups work in hospitals, few studies have compared health behaviors among them. The objectives of this study were to examine health behaviors, including physical activity, eating 5 portions of fruits and vegetables per day (5 a day), and stress adaptation, and participation in hospital-based health promotion activities by occupational groups in hospitals. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among full-time employees in 100 hospitals across Taiwan. This analysis included 4202 physicians, 31639 nurses, 2315 pharmacists, 8161 other health professionals, and 13079 administrative personnel. Administrative personnel attended more health promotion lectures and clubs/groups than other health professionals, pharmacists and physicians, and those workers participated more than nurses. Participation in health promotion activities provided by hospitals was associated with better practice of health behaviors. After adjustment for socio-demographics and participation in health promotion activities, physicians, pharmacists, and other health professionals reported more 5 a day than administrative staff. Other health professionals reported more physical activity than administrative staff, and they reported more than physicians. Nurses reported the lowest level of physical activity, 5 a day, and stress adaptation of all occupational groups. Nurses had worse health behaviors and less participation in health promotion activities than other groups. Workplace health promotion program for health professionals is needed, with special emphasis on nurses. Hospital-based health promotion programs could take the differences of occupational groups into consideration to tailor programs to the needs of different occupational groups.

  11. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  12. Personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism associate with ABO blood groups through catecholamine activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2011-08-01

    Personality trait research has shown associations with many genes, prominently those of the catecholamine metabolism such as dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Because DBH gene is in linkage disequilibrium with ABO gene, there is reason to think that other catecholamine genes using the same substrate as DBH may also have associations with ABO blood groups, and this paper demonstrates how this may be so. Reasons include similarities in hapmap population frequency distributions, similarities in illness risks between ABO blood groups and DBH activities as well as between ABO blood groups and COMT activities and between ABO blood groups and MAOA activities. If ABO blood groups can be demonstrated to associate with all these catecholamine genes, then the catecholamine personality trait research can be applied to ABO blood groups and tested for confirmation. ABO blood typing is widely available and affords ability to test this hypothesis and thus confirm the possible joint association of personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism to catecholamine genes and to ABO blood groups. Clinical applications and implications are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potencial alelopático de Brassica campestris subsp. rapa y Lolium temulentum sobre tres especies de malezas de la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Zamorano

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron bioensayos con el objeto de evaluar el potencial alelopático de los extractos de hojas y residuos de nabo silvestre (Brassica campestris subsp. rapa [L.] Hook. f. y raigrás (Lolium temulentum L. sobre tres especies de malezas de la Sabana de Bogotá: cenizo (Chenopodium petiolare Kunth, malva blanca (Fuertesimalva limensis [L.] Fryxell y bledo (Amaranthus hybridus L.. Los bioensayos en el laboratorio se desarrollaron con la técnica de plántulas en solución nutritiva, bajo un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones y tres réplicas en el tiempo, y en invernadero, donde se usó mezcla de arena y turba (3:2 como sustrato y semillas pregerminadas. Los resultados obtenidos en laboratorio mostraron diferencias en los síntomas observados entre las diferentes especies, mientras que la variable peso fresco fue la que mejor describió el efecto de las concentración para los extractos de nabo, con una concentración que reduce la variable de respuesta en 50% (DC50 de 5,53 g· L-1 para bledo, 2,58 g· L-1 para cenizo y 7,72 g· L-1 para malva blanca. En el caso de raigrás, el peso fresco permitió el ajuste de una curva concentración-respuesta, con el fin de calcular la DC50. La respuesta entre las especies de malezas fue diferente respecto a la actividad de los extractos y de los residuos vegetales en suelo. En el caso del bledo, no se registraron diferencias entre los residuos en suelo y los extractos de nabo, mientras que con cenizo y malva blanca no hubo emergencia de plántulas bajo la condición de residuos en suelo de nabo. El peso fresco de plántulas de tomate disminuyó en cerca del 25% al crecer en residuos de nabo (6 ó 12 t· ha-1 de materia fresca y en cerca del 60% bajo residuos de raigrás (6 t· ha-1 de materia fresca.

  14. Identification of Partitions in a Homogeneous Activity Group Using Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People in public areas often appear in groups. People with homogeneous coarse-grained activities may be further divided into subgroups depending on more fine-grained behavioral differences. Automatically identifying these subgroups can benefit a variety of applications for group members. In this work, we focus on identifying such subgroups in a homogeneous activity group (i.e., a group of people who perform the same coarse-grained activity at the same time. We present a generic framework using sensors built in commodity mobile devices. Specifically, we propose a two-stage process, sensing modality selection given a coarse-grained activity, followed by multimodal clustering to identify subgroups. We develop one early fusion and one late fusion multimodal clustering algorithm. We evaluate our approaches using multiple datasets; two of them are with the same activity while the other has a different activity. The evaluation results show that the proposed multimodal-based approaches outperform existing work that uses only one single sensing modality and they also work in scenarios when manually selecting one sensing modality fails.

  15. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  16. The impact of group activities as a strategy for health promotion in the senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléria Bittar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of two groups of elderly about the impact of the participation/ non participation in some activities, had in their health and quality of life. Twenty interviews were conducted with two groups of elderly. In the first group, called Participant Group (PG 10 elderly men and women participated in the third age group, a project called "Healthy Aging", which are held in various physical and socialization activities; and with other 10 subjects the Non-Participant Group (NPG, which did not join the project. We compared the two groups’ answers and concluded that the elderly from PG reported better quality of life, health and willingness to form social bonds. Also according to the elderly of NPG, we seek to know their justifications and reasons for non-adherence to the project. They also reported perceiving significant changes in those who participated, understanding that the group was able to improve self-esteem, health and quality of life. We conclude that the group actions, aiming the principles that guide the assumptions of health promotion can create a space for exchanges and experiences, restoring the necessary conditions so that the elderly may have a fuller life, with quality of life and welfare.

  17. Work group I: Measures of the food and physical activity environment: instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    A work group was convened to identify the core challenges, content gaps, and corresponding possible solutions for improving food- and physical activity-environment instrumentation. Identified challenges included instrument proliferation, the scaling or grain of instruments and appropriate aggregation to the neighborhood or community level, and unknown sensitivity to change of most instruments. Solutions for addressing these challenges included establishing an interactive and real-time instrument repository, developing and enforcing high standards for instrument reporting, increasing community-researcher collaborations, and implementing surveillance of food and physical activity environment. Solid instrumentation will accelerate a better understanding of food- and physical activity-environment effects on eating and physical activity behaviors.

  18. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to prioritize the children´s perceived barriers. This was verified...... differences in children’s perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment Methods: Data were collected through 17 focus groups consisting of 111 children...... by a thematic analysis of data from the open discussions and go-along interviews. Results: The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identifying the same...

  19. Using activity-based costing to track resource use in group practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, T L; Siegel, G; Kaciuba, G; Lau, A H

    1999-09-01

    Research shows that understanding how resources are consumed can help group practices control costs. An American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons study used an activity-based costing (ABC) system to measure how resources are consumed in providing medical services. Teams of accounting professors observed 18 diverse orthopedic surgery practices. The researchers identified 17 resource-consuming business processes performed by nonphysician office staff. They measured resource consumption by assigning costs to each process according to how much time is spent on related work activities. When group practices understand how their resources are being consumed, they can reduce costs and optimize revenues by making adjustments in how administrative and clinical staff work.

  20. In-vehicle group activity modeling and simulation in sensor-based virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Telagamsetti, Durga; Poshtyar, Azin; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2016-05-01

    Human group activity recognition is a very complex and challenging task, especially for Partially Observable Group Activities (POGA) that occur in confined spaces with limited visual observability and often under severe occultation. In this paper, we present IRIS Virtual Environment Simulation Model (VESM) for the modeling and simulation of dynamic POGA. More specifically, we address sensor-based modeling and simulation of a specific category of POGA, called In-Vehicle Group Activities (IVGA). In VESM, human-alike animated characters, called humanoids, are employed to simulate complex in-vehicle group activities within the confined space of a modeled vehicle. Each articulated humanoid is kinematically modeled with comparable physical attributes and appearances that are linkable to its human counterpart. Each humanoid exhibits harmonious full-body motion - simulating human-like gestures and postures, facial impressions, and hands motions for coordinated dexterity. VESM facilitates the creation of interactive scenarios consisting of multiple humanoids with different personalities and intentions, which are capable of performing complicated human activities within the confined space inside a typical vehicle. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of VESM in terms of its capabilities to seamlessly generate time-synchronized, multi-source, and correlated imagery datasets of IVGA, which are useful for the training and testing of multi-source full-motion video processing and annotation. Furthermore, we demonstrate full-motion video processing of such simulated scenarios under different operational contextual constraints.

  1. The inclusion of children with special needs into optional group dance activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kralj, Neva

    2012-01-01

    The thesis explores the effects of dance/movement therapy based on the inclusion of two children with special needs into a dance group activity. The aim of the study was to determine to what extent methods of dance/movement therapy assist the development of social skills and influence interpersonal relations within the group. The study also explores to what extent integrating methods of dance/movement therapy into the group influences children’s feeling of satisfaction and success. The main r...

  2. Impacto socioeconómico de los fenómenos El Niño y La Niña en la Sabana de Bogotá durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Pabón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del análisis de la variabilidad climática asociada al ciclo ENOS para la Sabana de Bogotá. Para el análisis se tomaron los datos de anomalías de temperatura superficial del mar en las zonas EN 1+2, 3, 4 y 3+4 del Pacífico tropical, la temperatura media mensual del aire y de precipitación mensual. Se identificó una relación inversa entre las anomalías de TSM y la precipitación: condiciones cálidas (anomalías positivas de TSM reducen la precipitación regional, mientras que las condiciones frías (anomalías negativas asociadas a La Niña la incrementan. En el caso de la relación de las anomalías de TSM y la TMMA se observó una correspondencia directa, es decir, a ascenso de la TSM en el Pacifico tropical corresponden ascensos en la TMMA de la Sabana de Bogotá. Este efecto climático del ciclo ENOS en la Sabana de Bogotá durante el siglo XX ha traído impactos socioeconómicos considerables a la región. El evento El Niño desencadena en la región limitaciones en la disponibilidad de agua para diferentes propósitos (abastecimiento a la población, agricultura, industria, lo que ha afectado la producción agrícola y ha llevado al incremento temporal de precios al consumidor. Bajo el efecto climático del fenómeno El Niño se incrementa la frecuencia de los incendios de la cobertura vegetal, lo que afecta de manera especial los ecosistemas de la región. Las condiciones La Niña traen crecientes súbitas y deslizamientos (en las zonas de alta pendiente de los cerros orientales, principalmente e inundaciones en las partes bajas (en especial en las zonas ribereñas de los ríos Bogotá, Tunjuelo y San Cristóbal, así como anegamiento de terrenos. Esto impacta directamente en las viviendas y la población de sectores urbanos y rurales.

  3. Impacto socioeconómico de los fenómenos El Niño y La Niña en la Sabana de Bogotá durante el siglo xx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Germán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del análisis de la variabilidad climática asociada al ciclo ENOS para la Sabana de Bogotá. Para el análisis se tomaron los datos de anomalías de temperatura superficial del mar en las zonas EN 1+2, 3, 4 y 3+4 del Pacífico tropical, la temperatura media mensual del aire y de precipitación mensual. Se identificó una relación inversa entre las anomalías de TSM y la precipitación: condiciones cálidas (anomalías positivas de TSM reducen la precipitación regional, mientras que las condiciones frías (anomalías negativas asociadas a La Niña la incrementan. En el caso de la relación de las anomalías de TSM y la TMMA se observó una correspondencia directa, es decir, a ascenso de la TSM en el Pacifico tropical corresponden ascensos en la TMMA de la Sabana de Bogotá. Este efecto climático del ciclo ENOS en la Sabana de Bogotá durante el siglo XX ha traído impactos socioeconómicos considerables a la región. El evento El Niño desencadena en la región limitaciones en la disponibilidad de agua para diferentes propósitos (abastecimiento a la población, agricultura, industria, lo que ha afectado la producción agrícola y ha llevado al incremento temporal de precios al consumidor. Bajo el efecto climático del fenómeno El Niño se incrementa la frecuencia de los incendios de la cobertura vegetal, lo que afecta de manera especial los ecosistemas de la región. Las condiciones La Niña traen crecientes súbitas y deslizamientos (en las zonas de alta pendiente de los cerros orientales, principalmente e inundaciones en las partes bajas (en especial en las zonas ribereñas de los ríos Bogotá, Tunjuelo y San Cristóbal, así como anegamiento de terrenos. Esto impacta directamente en las viviendas y la población de sectores urbanos y rurales.

  4. [Preparation, characterization and adsorption performance of mesoporous activated carbon with acidic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Quan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Yu-Xuan

    2013-06-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons containing acidic groups were prepared with cotton stalk based fiber as raw materials and H3PO4 as activating agent by one step carbonization method. Effects of impregnation ratio, carbonization temperature and heat preservation time on the yield, elemental composition, oxygen-containing acid functional groups and adsorptive capacity of activated carbon were studied. The adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon AC-01 for p-nitroaniline and Pb(II) was studied, and the adsorption mechanism was also suggested according to the equilibrium experimental results. The maximum yield of activated carbons prepared from cotton stalk fiber reached 35.5% when the maximum mesoporous volume and BET surface area were 1.39 cm3 x g(-1) and 1 731 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The activated carbon AC-01 prepared under a H3 PO4/precursor ratio of 3:2 and activated at 900 degrees C for 90 min had a total pore volume of 1.02 cm3 x g(-1), a micoporous ratio of 31%, and a mesoporous ratio of 65%. The pore diameter of the mesoporous activated carbon was mainly distributed in the range of 2-5 nm. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II) and p-nitroaniline on cotton stalk fiber activated carbon were 123 mg x g(-1) and 427 mg x g(-1), respectively, which were both higher than those for commercial activated carbon fiber ACF-CK. The equilibrium adsorption experimental data showed that mesopore and oxygen-containing acid functional groups played an important role in the adsorption.

  5. Trans activation of plasmid-borne promoters by adenovirus and several herpes group viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, R D; Dunlop, M

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes experiments to test the ability of a number of viruses of the Herpes group, and also Adenovirus-2 and SV40, to activate transcription from the Herpes simplex virus-1 glycoprotein D and the rabbit beta-globin promoters. Plasmids containing these genes were transfected into HeLa cells which were then infected with various viruses. Transcriptional activation in trans of the plasmid-borne promoters was monitored by quantitative S1 nuclease analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA is...

  6. Weapons in disguise--activating mechanisms and protecting group chemistry in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jason C; Luesch, Hendrik

    2010-11-22

    Bioactive natural products often possess uniquely functionalized structures with unusual modes of action; however, the natural product itself is not always the active species. We discuss molecules that draw on protecting group chemistry or else require activation to unmask reactive centers, illustrating that nature is not only a source of complex structures but also a guide for elegant chemical transformations which provides ingenious chemical solutions for drug delivery.

  7. Structure-activity relationships in aminosterol antibiotics: the effect of stereochemistry at the 7-OH group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Tsemre-Dingel; Gassler, Frank; Shu, Youheng; Jones, Stephen; Selinsky, Barry S

    2013-06-01

    Squalamine and three aminosterol analogs have been shown to inhibit bacterial cell growth and induce lysis of large unilamellar phospholipid vesicles. The analogs differ in the identity of the polyamine attached at C3 of the sterol, and the stereochemistry of a hydroxyl substituent at C7. Analogs with a tetraammonium spermine polyamine are somewhat more active than analogs with a shorter trisammonium spermidine polyamine, and analogs with an axial (α) hydroxyl substituent at C7 are more active than analogs with the corresponding equatorial (β) hydroxyl group. There is some variability noted; the 7β-OH spermine analog is the most active compound against Escherichia coli, but the least effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lytic activity correlates well with antimicrobial activity of the compounds, but the lytic activity varies with the phospholipid composition of the vesicles.

  8. A method to quantify movement activity of groups of animals using automated image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianyu; Yu, Haizhen; Liu, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Most physiological and environmental changes are capable of inducing variations in animal behavior. The behavioral parameters have the possibility to be measured continuously in-situ by a non-invasive and non-contact approach, and have the potential to be used in the actual productions to predict stress conditions. Most vertebrates tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, shoals, bands, packs of conspecific individuals. Under culture conditions, the livestock or fish are in groups and interact on each other, so the aggregate behavior of the group should be studied rather than that of individuals. This paper presents a method to calculate the movement speed of a group of animal in a enclosure or a tank denoted by body length speed that correspond to group activity using computer vision technique. Frame sequences captured at special time interval were subtracted in pairs after image segmentation and identification. By labeling components caused by object movement in difference frame, the projected area caused by the movement of every object in the capture interval was calculated; this projected area was divided by the projected area of every object in the later frame to get body length moving distance of each object, and further could obtain the relative body length speed. The average speed of all object can well respond to the activity of the group. The group activity of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were quantified based on these methods. High UIA level condition elicited a marked increase in school activity at the first hour (P<0.05) exhibiting an avoidance reaction (trying to flee from high UIA condition), and then decreased gradually.

  9. THE MERGER HISTORY, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS, AND DWARF GALAXIES OF HICKSON COMPACT GROUP 59

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Charlton, J. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Eracleous, M.; Gronwall, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Hill, A. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Durrell, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E. [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zabludoff, A. I. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Maier, M. L. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, Colina el Pino S/N, La Serena (Chile); Elmegreen, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Johnson, K. E.; Walker, L. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P. O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Maybhate, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); English, J. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MN (Canada); Mulchaey, J. S., E-mail: iraklis@astro.psu.edu [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (Hubble Space Telescope), infrared (Spitzer), and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun }), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other are two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic H II regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at {approx}1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in HCG 59A by its {approx}10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR spectral energy distribution. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  10. Information Activities and Appropriation in Teacher Trainees' Digital, Group-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanell, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports results from an ethnographic study of teacher trainees' information activities in digital, group-based learning and their relation to the interplay between use and appropriation of digital tools and the learning environment. Method: The participants in the present study are 249 pre-school teacher trainees in…

  11. 76 FR 61149 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 4) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960-I-3. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Other Autoimmune Diseases Disability... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires--Group 4) Activity Under OMB... collection of information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and...

  12. An Initial Description and Pilot of Group Behavioral Activation Therapy for Anxious and Depressed Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian C.; Colognori, Daniela; Weissman, Adam S.; Bannon, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Transdiagnostic approaches for treating multiple problems within a single protocol are novel but gaining support. This report describes initial efforts to adapt reconceptualized behavioral activation (e.g., Jacobson, Martell, & Dimidjian, 2001) to a group format suitable for young adolescents, plus add a powerful exposure component to accommodate…

  13. Use of a Wiki-Based Software to Manage Research Group Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Vezenov, Dmitri V.; Simboli, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses use of the wiki software Confluence to organize research group activities and lab resources. Confluence can serve as an electronic lab notebook (ELN), as well as an information management and collaboration tool. The article provides a case study in how researchers can use wiki software in "home-grown" fashion to…

  14. Peer Groups and Substance Use: Examining the Direct and Interactive Effect of Leisure Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic…

  15. Singing as Language Learning Activity in Multilingual Toddler Groups in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultti, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on learning conditions in preschool that support multilingual children's linguistic development. The aim of this paper was to study singing activities through the experiences of ten multilingual children in toddler groups (one to three years of age) in eight Swedish preschools. A sociocultural theoretical approach is used to…

  16. 76 FR 16478 - Proposed Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 2) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires--Group 2) Activity: Comment... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960A-2. b. Hypertension Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21- 0960A-3. c. Non-ischemic Heart Disease (including Arrhythmias and Surgery) Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA...

  17. 76 FR 8846 - Proposed Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 1) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires--Group 1) Activity: Comment.... Titles: a. Hematologic and Lymphatic Conditions, Including Leukemia Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960C-2. c. Peripheral Nerve Conditions (Not Including Diabetic Sensory- Motor...

  18. 76 FR 33417 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 2) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires--Group 2) Activity Under OMB...) Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960A-2. b. Hypertension Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960A-4. d. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (Diabetic Sensory-Motor Peripheral...

  19. A New Monodisperse Reactive Resin with Active Groups on the Particle Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel reactive resin as active support was synthesized by an improved method based on seed swelling and surface coating polymerization. The resin is monosized beads with inner nucleus of cross-linked polymer and surface layer of copolymer containing epoxy groups. The physico-chemical structures of beads were characterized.

  20. Collaborative Activities Enabled by GroupScribbles (GS): An Exploratory Study of Learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli; Ng, Foo-Keong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of an exploratory cycle of a design-based research project and examines the learning effectiveness of collaborative activities that are supported by the GroupScribbles (GS) software technology in two Singapore primary science classrooms. The students had ten weeks of GS-based lessons in science, which were…

  1. Studies on Syntheses and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing Phosphorodithioate Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; ZHANG Shu-sheng; CHEN Xiao; JIAO Kui

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen new triazole organic phosphorus compounds were synthesized. Their structures were confirmed with IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and MS. The primary biological tests show that the titled compounds have the fungicidal activities, which are influenced by R groups and the substituents attached to the P atom.

  2. Studies on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole compounds Containing Thiophene Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; ZHANG Shu-sheng; HU Zhi-qiang; JIAO Kui

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen new triazole compounds containing thiophene groups were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by means of 1H NMR, IR, MS spectroscopies and elemental analyses. The preliminary biological tests show that the titled compounds exhibit some activities of fungicides and plant growth regulators.

  3. Activities for Learning about Conservation of Forest Resources: A Guide for Leaders of Youth Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to support the leader of a youth group in increasing the awareness of members of the need for good forest conservation practices. Sections include: (1) science fundamentals; (2) making informative exhibits; (3) gaining community involvement; (4) Christmas activities; (5) games and crafts; and (6) a list of resources and…

  4. Effects of Cooperative Group Work Activities on Pre-School Children's Pattern Recognition Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Kamuran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold; to investigate the effects of cooperative group-based work activities on children's pattern recognition skills in pre-school and to examine the teachers' opinions about the implementation process. In line with this objective, for the study, 57 children (25 girls and 32 boys) were chosen from two private schools…

  5. 77 FR 28530 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ..., composite airplane. The installation of winglets, as proposed by Tamarack, increases aerodynamic efficiency... Group's modification. The design change will install winglets and an Active Technology Load Alleviation System (ATLAS). The addition of the ATLAS mitigates the negative effects of the winglets by...

  6. 78 FR 10055 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... engine, four- passenger, composite airplane. The installation of winglets, as proposed by Tamarack... Aerospace Group's modification. The design change will install winglets and an Active Technology Load Alleviation System (ATLAS). The addition of the ATLAS mitigates the negative effects of the winglets...

  7. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  8. Formylation of N-arylpyrazole containing active amino group using Vilsmeier-Haack reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Luo; Ping Zhong; Xiao Hong Zhang; Qiu Lian Lin; Ye Na Chen

    2008-01-01

    Two species of N-arylpyrazoles containing active amino group were synthesized.And formylations of N-arylpyazoles containing amino in different position of pyrazole rings using Vilsmeier-Haack reaction gave a series of useful pyrazole intermediates.The important features of this protocol were cheap materials,easy process,mild reaction conditions and good yield of products.

  9. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Shane M.; Shiozaki, Toru [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-12-07

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few μE{sub h} or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation.

  10. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: density matrix renormalization group algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Shane M; Shiozaki, Toru

    2014-12-07

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few μE(h) or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation.

  11. The Influence of Some Romanian Interest Groups Upon the Activity of Government and Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on two specific interest groups, NGOs and trade unions, and on their influence upon the government and parliament. Our paper is based on an analyze of the activity of several interest groups during the period 2002-2004 and on the results of several researches and reports published on the last years. The analyze identifies petitioning for rule making, public meetings and debates, monitoring the activity of the public institutions and participating in advisory or regulatory committees as being the most common used mechanisms to influence the government and the parliament in Romania. Also, the analyze shows that administrative procedures affect the degree of bureaucratic autonomy. Overall, the results of this brief research show some pluralist forms of the interaction between the interest groups and the public institutions.

  12. Activities of the US-Japan Safety Monitor Joint Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard L. Savercool; Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    This paper documents the activities of the US-Japan exchange in the area of personnel safety at magnetic and laser fusion experiments. A near-miss event with a visiting scientist to the US in 1992 was the impetus for forming the Joint Working Group on Fusion Safety. This exchnge has been under way for over ten years and has provided many safety insights for both US and Japanese facility personnel at national institutes and at universities. The background and activities of the Joint Working Group are described, including the facilities that have been visited for safety walkthroughs, the participants from both countries, and the main safety issues examined during visits. Based on these visits, some operational safety ideas to enhance experiment safety are given. The near-term future plans of the Safety Monitor Joint Working group are also discussed.

  13. [Current state of the scientific activity of the Aachen group concerning number processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs-Domínguez, P

    The research group from Willmes and colleagues is one of the most advanced research groups in cognitive neuroscience. The use and nature of the numeric magnitude representation constitutes one of the study objects of the mentioned research group. This mental representation provokes a great controversy among the members of the scientific community studying number processing and arithmetic. As a consequence, there are several different theoretical models concerning number processing. In this work, we have reviewed some of the scientific studies realized by the Aachen group concerning number processing, with the aim to expound the current state of its activity. In the works from Willmes and colleagues, we can notice a logic sequence, regarding the formulation of work hypothesis. The course of evolution of their activity starts studying number processing and arithmetic on German listener population and continues with a progressive integration of the German deaf population into their work. There is, as well, an emergent trend in this group to research number processing at the classroom. This means to examine the underlying mental representations in the education field. The information included in the studies analyzed here, leads to several scientific questions which need to be researched in future studies, and questions and complements what has been supported by other research groups.

  14. Interrogating Surface Functional Group Heterogeneity of Activated Thermoplastics Using Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, Colleen E; Jackson, Joshua M; Shim, Sang-Hee; Soper, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel approach for characterizing surfaces utilizing super-resolution fluorescence microscopy with subdiffraction limit spatial resolution. Thermoplastic surfaces were activated by UV/O3 or O2 plasma treatment under various conditions to generate pendant surface-confined carboxylic acids (-COOH). These surface functional groups were then labeled with a photoswitchable dye and interrogated using single-molecule, localization-based, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to elucidate the surface heterogeneity of these functional groups across the activated surface. Data indicated nonuniform distributions of these functional groups for both COC and PMMA thermoplastics with the degree of heterogeneity being dose dependent. In addition, COC demonstrated relative higher surface density of functional groups compared to PMMA for both UV/O3 and O2 plasma treatment. The spatial distribution of -COOH groups secured from super-resolution imaging were used to simulate nonuniform patterns of electroosmotic flow in thermoplastic nanochannels. Simulations were compared to single-particle tracking of fluorescent nanoparticles within thermoplastic nanoslits to demonstrate the effects of surface functional group heterogeneity on the electrokinetic transport process.

  15. Pre-Session Satiation as a Treatment for Stereotypy During Group Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia Hoher; Neely, Leslie; Gerow, Stephanie; Lang, Russell; Goodwyn, Fara; Ninci, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities may engage in automatically reinforced behaviors that may interfere with learning opportunities. Manipulation of motivating operations has been shown to reduce automatically maintained behavior in some individuals. Considering behavioral indicators of satiation may assist in identifying the point at which an abolishing operation has begun to effect behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-session satiation of automatic reinforcement on subsequent levels of stereotypy and activity engagement during group activities for three males ages 5 to 13 years with developmental disabilities. Following functional analyses with analogue conditions, an alternating treatment design compared a pre-session access to stereotypy condition with a no-pre-session access condition prior to group activity sessions. Results indicated that pre-session satiation of the putative reinforcer produced by stereotypy was effective in decreasing stereotypy and increasing activity engagement during subsequent group activities for all participants. These findings add to the literature supporting the effectiveness of abolishing operations to decrease automatically maintained stereotypy.

  16. Energy Cost Expression for a Youth Compendium of Physical Activities: Rationale for Using Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, K A; Watson, K B; McMurray, R G; Bassett, D R; Butte, N F; Crouter, S E; Herrmann, S D; Trost, S G; Ainsworth, B E; Fulton, J E; Berrigan, D

    2017-08-08

    This study compared the accuracy of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) prediction using two methods of accounting for age dependency versus one standard (single) value across all ages. PAEE estimates were derived by pooling data from five studies. Participants, 6-18 years (n=929), engaged in 14 activities while in a room calorimeter or wearing a portable metabolic analyzer. Linear regression was used to estimate the measurement error in PAEE (expressed as METy) associated with using age-groups (6-9, 10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 years) and age-in-years (each year of chronological age (e.g., 12=12.0-12.99 years)) versus the standard (a single value across all ages). Age-groups and age-in-years showed similar error, and both showed less error than the standard method for cycling, skilled and moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities. For sedentary and light activities, the standard had similar error to the other two methods. Mean values for root mean square error ranged from 0.2-1.7 METy across all activities. Error reduction ranged from -0.2-21.7% for age-groups and -0.23-18.2% for age-in-years, compared to the standard. Accounting for age showed lower errors than a standard (single) value; using an age-dependent model in the Youth Compendium is recommended.

  17. The Effects of Group Musical Activity on Psychiatric Patients in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Rumball

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Musical activity, particularly as the application of music therapy, has been found to produce numerous benefits within a psychiatric setting. This study has explored a selection of these benefits in psychiatric patients in a hospital in India, examining these effects within a culture not typically studied in this field. Observations of seven sessions of group musical activity was undertaken and questionnaire and interview data collected from both patients and staff. Questionnaire data demonstrated improvements in mood, energy, and attention levels, both during and following the sessions. The quantitative data was integrated with interview responses and is discussed with reference to previous research. Interviews and observation found improvements in the categories of interaction, learning and confidence. Alongside these variables, specific musical factors were considered which strongly indicate that the application of musical activity as a therapy, as distinct from other group effects, contributed to the benefits found.

  18. Effects of sulfate group in red seaweed polysaccharides on anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanai; Mao, Xuan; Peng, Xiaohui; Tang, Shunqing

    2014-01-30

    In this paper, the structural effects of two main red seaweed polysaccharides (agarose and carrageenan) and their sulfated derivatives on the anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The substitution position rather than the substitution degree of sulfate groups shows the biggest impact on both the anticoagulant activity and the cell proliferation. Among them, C-2 of 3,6-anhydro-α-d-Galp is the most favorable position for substitution, whereas C-6 of β-d-Galp is the most disadvantageous. Moreover, the secondary structures of glycans also play a key role in biological activities. These demonstrations warrant that the red seaweed polysaccharides should be seriously considered in biomedical applications after carefully tailoring the sulfate groups.

  19. “Conviv\\^{e}ncia” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups.

  20. La amenaza sísmica de la Sabana de Bogotá frente a un sismo de magnitud M > 7.0, cuyo origen esté en el Piedemonte Llanero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Chicangana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra cómo un gran sismo originado en el Sistema de Fallas de la Falla Frontal de la Cordillera Oriental ( SFFFCO puede causar grandes daños y pérdidas de vidas, tanto en el área metropolitana de Bogotá, D. C., como en el resto de la Sabana de Bogotá. El grado de la amenaza sísmica de la ciudad ante un sismo cercano, originado en el Piedemonte Llanero, cuya distancia es inferior a 250 km y con una magnitud > 7.0, es muy alto, si se tiene presente que sus suelos, de origen lagunar, se ubican hacia el occidente y el noroccidente, zonas en las que, durante las dos últimas décadas, se ha ido extendiendo el área metropolitana.

  1. Abundancia y distribución de la tonina Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821) en dos áreas del archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Cao, H.

    2004-01-01

    Entre los años 2000 - 2003 se evaluó la abundancia y distribución de delfines toninas en áreas del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, específicamente en zonas adyacentes a Cayo Coco y en la zona norte de Matanzas. Se realizaron 12 salidas de campo, seis en cada área, recorriéndose un total de 2 007,8 millas náuticas, para un total de 322 h 79 min. Durante estas salidas se registraron cada 30 minutos variables oceanográficas a lo largo de transectos lineales y utilizando la técnica d...

  2. Reports on Activities of the IODE Groups of Experts: IODE Group of Experts on Technical Aspects of Data Exchange (GETADE)

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, G.

    2002-01-01

    The IODE Group of Experts on the Technical Aspects of Data Exchange (GETADE) has the following terms of reference (IODE-XV, 1996): (i) Collaborate with IGOSS-CP, IODE GE-MIM and the data management groups of other international bodies and scientific programmes in the development of technical solutions for the management, exchange and easier integration of oceanographic data and information with data from other disciplines. (ii) Collaborate with IODE GE-MIM in the development of a com...

  3. Enzymatic activity of the intestine in effect of pesticides of pyrethroid group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddas Khamrakulova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of investigation was to study the effect of pesticides from group of pyrethroids (e.g. decis on the enzymatic function in the homogenate of the mucosal membrane of the proximal and distal segments of the small intestine.Determination of the degree of the activity of hydrolytic enzymes in the homogenates of some parts of the intestine allowed to show effect of pesticide decis on the gradient of distribution of enzymatic activity along the intestine. For characteristic of the enzymatic activity of the small intestine there was performed study of the activity of dipeptidase, amylase, invertase and alkaline phosphatase in the homogenate of the mucosal membrane from proximal and distal parts in multiple effects of pesticide decis in toxic dose (1/20 LD50 during 4 months.Changes of the enzymatic activity in acute poisoning were depended on the time of pesticide exposure and site of the bowel. The different digestive enzymes have different response to effect ofpesticidesof pyrethroid group (decis, there are differences in the reactions of proximal and distal part of the small intestine and there is correlation between changes of activity of the majority hydrolases and administered dose of pesticides.

  4. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, Janice M.; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K.; Daigle, Courtney L.; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Hernandez, Carlos E.; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Tracking of individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. We describe several tracking systems that are currently in use for laying hens and review each, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suited, and relevant issues to fit the best technology for the intended purpose. Abstract Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns

  5. Synergistic effect between defect sites and functional groups on the hydrolysis of cellulose over activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Guo Shiou; Sievers, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    The chemical oxidation of activated carbon by H2 O2 and H2 SO4 is investigated, structural and chemical modifications are characterized, and the materials are used as catalysts for the hydrolysis of cellulose. Treatment with H2 O2 enlarges the pore size and imparts functional groups such as phenols, lactones, and carboxylic acids. H2 SO4 treatment targets the edges of carbon sheets primarily, and this effect is more pronounced with a higher temperature. Adsorption isotherms demonstrate that the adsorption of oligomers on functionalized carbon is dominated by van der Waals forces. The materials treated chemically are active for the hydrolysis of cellulose despite the relative weakness of most of their acid sites. It is proposed that a synergistic effect between defect sites and functional groups enhances the activity by inducing a conformational change in the glucan chains if they are adsorbed at defect sites. This activates the glycosidic bonds for hydrolysis by in-plane functional groups. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. FORRAJEO DE Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes: Emberizidae Y VALOR DEL PARCHE EN CERCAS VIVAS JÓVENES DE LA SABANA DE BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Tellez-Farfán

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El copetón Zonotrichia capensis tiene una amplia distribución en América neotropical, es un ave tolerante a las intervenciones humanas, pero sabemos poco sobre su comportamiento de forrajeo en los Andes colombianos. Por ello, estudiamos la estrategia de forrajeo del copetón y, adicionalmente, el valor de parches alimentarios a lo largo de dos cercas vivas jóvenes (plantación < 2 años, en relación con la distancia a una zona de ronda del río Bogotá, en Cajicá, Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia. El río es un área dominada por árboles en una matriz rural a urbana. Utilizamos parches artificiales hechos de bandejas de aluminio con semillas mezcladas con arena. Determinamos la proporción de consumo entre tres parches con diferentes densidades de alimento inicial, para determinar si los copetones obtienen información del parche. Usamos también parches artificiales para determinar si la distancia al río a lo largo de dos cercas vivas jóvenes afectaba el forrajeo. Nuestros resultados indican que Z. capensis no obtuvo información del parche y no reconoció diferencias en parches con diferente densidad inicial de alimento. Adicionalmente, la distancia al río afectó el valor de los parches de forrajeo en solo una de las cercas vivas examinadas donde hubo mayor consumo cerca al río. Al parecer, la densidad inicial de alimento no afectó el nivel de explotación del parche por parte de los copetones, mientras que el valor del parche en las cercas vivas jóvenes puede estar influido por la distancia al río.Foraging Behavior of Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes: Emberizidae and Patch Value in Young Live Fences in the Bogotá High PlateauThe Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis is a widely distributed species in neotropical America, it is tolerant to human interventions, but we know little about its foraging ecology on the Colombian Andes. Therefore, we studied the foraging strategy and, additionally, the value of foraging patches

  7. Comportamiento de la mastitis bovina y su impacto económico en algunos hatos de la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rodríguez Martínez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la caracterización de la mastitis en diez hatos representativos de la Sabana de Bogotá, enfocándose al estudio del problema durante dos años de visitas bimensuales. Se realizaron diferentes tipos de pruebas de campo y de laboratorio: manejo del hato en general, registros de producción, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Cultivos bacteriológicos en medios Agar sangre, Agar Mac Conkey, Agar Sabouraud, recuento de células somáticas, en 644 vacas y 2576 cuartos con visitas bimensuales lo que arrojó un total de 7866 observaciones en vacas y 31464 observaciones en cuartos durante el estudio. Complementario al estudio se llevó a cabo un seguimiento semanal durante tres meses, en un grupo de 30 vacas en tres fincas con ordeño manual para determinar el efecto de la infección sobre la producción de leche por cuarto, mediante la utilización de un balde ideado por el autor. Los resultados sugieren un mayor efecto de la infección en hatos con ordeño mecánico donde se encontró un 61,2% de infección en vacas y un 30% de infección subclínica por cuartos y un 4,7 % de cuartos con mastitis clínica. En ordeño manual la infección fue de 48% en vacas, 23,6% en cuartos y 3,6% de casos de cuartos con mastitis clínica. Se encontró una correlación del 91 % entre el CMT y el recuento de células somáticas lo que concuerda con los resultados de otros investigadores. En relación a los diferentes microorganismos aislados, se encontró como dominante el Streptococcus agalactiae en ordeño manual y Staphylococcus aureus en ordeño mecánico y se descartó la posibilidad de encontrar microorganismos coliformes como causales de mastitis durante el estudio. Referente al efecto de la infección sobre la producción se registraron pérdidas hasta de cinco litros diarios por vaca afectada tomando como indicador el CMT y el pesaje de la leche. También se pudo definir una disminución de la producción por cuarto de: 0,42; 0,90; 1,47; y 2

  8. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O.; Baek, Eun J.; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-01-01

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine. PMID:26078220

  9. CHAIN FOOD ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COMPETITIVENESS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLES GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Pawlewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems of Polish agriculture is insuffi cient state horizontal integration of agricultural producers. Identifi cation of factors that affect the improvement of the competitiveness of producer groups in the food chain can help in the development of such entities. The aim of the publication is to present activities that should improve competitiveness in the food chain which are undertaken by groups of raw materials producers on the example of fruit and vegetable producers groups operating in Kujawsko-Pomorskie region. In studies the method of participant observation interview were used. The measurement was conducted in late April and May 2013 and included 19 leaders of producer groups. According to them the most important factor infl uencing the market position of the groups in the food chain, was the high quality of the manufactured goods in farms affi liated farmers. Few respondents identifi ed marketing as an opportunity to strengthen the competitive advantage of producer groups in the food supply chain. This is due to the fact that farmers are far removed in the supply chain from consumers with whom they have contact only in the form of market random retail.

  10. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O; Baek, Eun J; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-06-16

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine.

  11. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  12. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  13. Antibacterial Activity of New Dibenzoxepinone Oximes with Fluorine and Trifluoromethyl Group Substituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the antimicrobial activity of some newly synthesized dibenz[b,e]oxepin derivatives bearing the oximino moiety, and fluorine (F and trifluoromethyl (CF3 group substituents. The chemical structure and purity of the new compounds were assessed by using elemental analysis, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The new compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, by qualitative and quantitative assays. Our results demonstrated that the CF3 and F disubstituted compounds could be considered for the further development of novel antimicrobial drugs.

  14. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Oxazolidinone Analogs Containing Substituted Thiazole/Fused-Bicyclic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen novel oxazolidinone analogs containing substituted thiazole/fused-bicyclic(imidazo[1,2-b] pyridazine/imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole) groups were designed and synthesized. A new method for the preparation of the key intermediate compound 11 was proposed. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and MS, and their in vitro antibacterial activities against staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Among them, compound 16a displays a promising antibacterial activity comparable to that of linezolid.

  15. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a-r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others.

  16. Historical, theoretical methodological foundations of recreational activity of different population groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Andreeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to justify and develop historical, theoretical and methodological foundations of recreational activity to meet the recreational needs of different population groups. Material and Methods: analysis and systematization of the special scientific and methodological literature and informational Internet resources; comparative method, historical analysis; systemic approach. The study involved school and college students and adults, in total of 1150 persons. Results: historical backgrounds of formation and development of recreation in the world and Ukraine are analyzed. Theoretical generalization of certain concepts of motivation in the area of physical recreation is provided, as well as theoretical and organizational principles of leisure and recreation in foreign countries are discussed. Conclusions: historical backgrounds of development of knowledge about recreation are identified and conceptual approaches to development of the theoretical and methodological foundations of recreational activities of various population groups are determined.

  17. New Horizons in C-F Activation by Main Group Electrophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozerov, Oleg V. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-02-13

    This technical report describes progress on the DOE sponsored project "New Horizons in C-F Activation by Main Group Electrophiles" during the period of 09/15/2010 – 08/31/2015. The main goal of this project was to develop improved catalysts for conversion of carbon-fluorine bonds in potentially harmful compounds. The approach involved combining of a highly reactive positively charged main-group compound with a highly unreactive negatively charged species (anions) as a way to access potent catalysts for carbon-fluorine bond activation. This report details progress made in improving synthetic pathways to a variety of new anions with improved properties and analysis of their potential in catalysis.

  18. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  19. Engagement in elderly persons with dementia attending animal-assisted group activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christine; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Bergland, Astrid; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Ihlebæk, Camilla

    2016-09-02

    The need for meaningful activities that enhance engagement is very important among persons with dementia (PWDs), both for PWDs still living at home, as well as for PWDs admitted to a nursing home (NH). In this study, we systematically registered behaviours related to engagement in a group animal-assisted activity (AAA) intervention for 21 PWDs in NHs and among 28 home-dwelling PWDs attending a day care centre. The participants interacted with a dog and its handler for 30 minutes, twice a week for 12 weeks. Video-recordings were carried out early (week 2) and late (week 10) during the intervention period and behaviours were categorized by the use of an ethogram. AAA seems to create engagement in PWDs, and might be a suitable and health promoting intervention for both NH residents and participants of a day care centre. Degree of dementia should be considered when planning individual or group based AAA.

  20. Organocatalytic chemo- and regioselective oxyarylation of styrenes via a cascade reaction: remote activation of hydroxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Chen; Jiang, Fei; Wang, Shu-Liang; Shi, Feng; Tu, Shu-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    The first organocatalytic oxyarylation of styrenes has been established through a cascade of vinylogous Michael addition/alkoxyl transfer reactions of o- or p-hydroxylstyrenes with quinone imine ketals. The process leads to a highly chemo- and regioselective oxyarylation of styrenes and provides access to m-alkylated anilines in generally high yields and excellent diastereoselectivity (up to 99% yield, >95:5 dr). An investigation of the reaction pathway revealed that the existence and position of the hydroxyl group of styrene played crucial roles in the cascade reaction, suggesting that the two reactants were simultaneously activated by binaphthyl-derived phosphoric acid via hydrogen bonding interactions and long-distance conjugative effects. In addition, the activating group of the hydroxyl functionality in the products can be easily removed or transformed, demonstrating the applicability and utility of this strategy in styrene oxyarylation and in the synthesis of styrene-based compounds.

  1. Modelling the exposure of wildlife to radiation: key findings and activities of IAEA working groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, LM2E, Cadarache (France); Johansen, Mathew P. [ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Menai, NSW (Australia); Goulet, Richard [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Environmental Risk Assessment Division, 280 Slater, Ottawa, K1A0H3 (Canada); Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins (United States); Stark, Karolina; Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Andersson, Pal [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE-171 16, Stockholm (Sweden); Copplestone, David [Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Yankovich, Tamara L.; Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, 1400, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    In total, participants from 14 countries, representing 19 organisations, actively participated in the model application/inter-comparison activities of the IAEA's EMRAS II programme Biota Modelling Group. A range of models/approaches were used by participants (e.g. the ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, the ICRP Framework). The agreed objectives of the group were: 'To improve Member State's capabilities for protection of the environment by comparing and validating models being used, or developed, for biota dose assessment (that may be used) as part of the regulatory process of licensing and compliance monitoring of authorised releases of radionuclides.' The activities of the group, the findings of which will be described, included: - An assessment of the predicted unweighted absorbed dose rates for 74 radionuclides estimated by 10 approaches for five of the ICRPs Reference Animal and Plant geometries assuming 1 Bq per unit organism or media. - Modelling the effect of heterogeneous distributions of radionuclides in sediment profiles on the estimated exposure of organisms. - Model prediction - field data comparisons for freshwater ecosystems in a uranium mining area and a number of wetland environments. - An evaluation of the application of available models to a scenario considering radioactive waste buried in shallow trenches. - Estimating the contribution of {sup 235}U to dose rates in freshwater environments. - Evaluation of the factors contributing to variation in modelling results. The work of the group continues within the framework of the IAEA's MODARIA programme, which was initiated in 2012. The work plan of the MODARIA working group has largely been defined by the findings of the previous EMRAS programme. On-going activities of the working group, which will be described, include the development of a database of dynamic parameters for wildlife dose assessment and exercises involving modelling the exposure of organisms in the marine coastal

  2. Control of Surface Functional Groups on Pertechntate Sorption on Activated Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Wang; H. Gao; R. Yeredla; H. Xu; M. Abrecht; G.D. Stasio

    2006-07-05

    {sup 99}Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) varying from 9.5 x 10{sup 5} to 3.2 x 10{sup 3} mL/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with K{sub d} remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10{sup 3} - 1.8 x 10{sup 3} mL/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified to be carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during material processing.

  3. Moms in motion: a group-mediated cognitive-behavioral physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brawley Lawrence R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When examining the prevalence of physical inactivity by gender and age, women over the age of 25 are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior. Childbearing and motherhood have been explored as one possible explanation for this increased risk. Post natal exercise studies to date demonstrate promising physical and psychological outcomes, however few physical activity interventions have been theory-driven and tailored to post natal exercise initiates. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention based upon social-cognitive theory and group dynamics (GMCB to a standard care postnatal exercise program (SE. Method A randomized, two-arm intervention design was used. Fifty-seven post natal women were randomized to one of two conditions: (1 a standard exercise treatment (SE and (2 a standard exercise treatment plus group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention (GMCB. Participants in both conditions participated in a four-week intensive phase where participants received standard exercise training. In addition, GMCB participants received self-regulatory behavioral skills training via six group-mediated counseling sessions. Following the intensive phase, participants engaged in a four-week home-based phase of self-structured exercise. Measures of physical activity, barrier efficacy, and proximal outcome expectations were administered and data were analyzed using ANCOVA procedures. Results and discussion ANCOVA of change scores for frequency, minutes, and volume of physical activity revealed significant treatment effects over the intensive and home-based phases (p's Conclusion While both exercise programs resulted in improvements to exercise participation, the GMCB intervention produced greater improvement in overall physical activity, barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations.

  4. Active Galactic Nuclei in Groups and Clusters of Galaxies: Detection and Host Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Timothy J; Mulchaey, John S; Berti, Angela; Jeltema, Tesla E

    2009-01-01

    The incidence and properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the field, groups, and clusters can provide new information about how these objects are triggered and fueled, similar to how these environments have been employed to study galaxy evolution. We have obtained new XMM-Newton observations of seven X-ray selected groups and poor clusters with 0.02 10^{41}; M_R2.5}(L_X>10^{41}; M_Rgroups (92% significance), a result consistent with the hypothesis that the change in AGN fraction is directly connected to environment.

  5. Synthesis, insecticidal, and acaricidal activities of novel 2-aryl-pyrrole derivatives containing ester groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yongqiang; Ou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Pengxiang; Huang, Zhiqiang; Bi, Fuchun; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Qingmin

    2008-11-12

    A series of novel 2-aryl-pyrrole derivatives containing ester groups were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm, mosquito, diamondback moth, green rice leafhopper, and bean aphids and acaricidal activities against spider mite of these new compounds were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that some of these title compounds exhibited excellent insecticidal and acaricidal activities. The insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm of compounds IVa, IVd, IVe, IVf, IVg, IVi, IVk, and IVp were equal to commercialized Chlorfenapyr, and the insecticidal activities of most of compounds IVb, IVc, IVd, IVf, IVg, IVj, IVk, IVl, IVs, IVt, IVu, IVw, IVx, IVz, and Chlorfenapyr against mosquito at 0.10 mg kg (-1) were 100%, and the acaricidal activities of compounds IVd, IVe, IVf, IVg, IVh, IVi, and IVk were equal or superior to Chlorfenapyr. Especially, the results indicated that the acaricidal activity of [4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-cyano-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrrol-1-yl]methyl 3-methylbutanoate ( IVg) against spider mite was 2.65-fold as high as that of Chlorfenapyr from the value of LC 50.

  6. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, Janice M; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K; Daigle, Courtney L; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Hernandez, Carlos E; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J

    2016-02-02

    Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds.

  7. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M. Siegford

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds.

  8. Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance Oxygen Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yongjun; Tang, Pei; Zhou, Hu; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hanjun; Yan, Ning; Hu, Gang; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Ding

    2016-02-24

    A heterogeneous, inexpensive and environment-friendly carbon catalytic system was developed for the C-H bond arylation of benzene resulting in the subsequent formation of biaryl compounds. The oxygen-containing groups on these graphene oxide sheets play an essential role in the observed catalytic activity. The catalytic results of model compounds and DFT calculations show that these functional groups promote this reaction by stabilization and activation of K ions at the same time of facilitating the leaving of I. And further mechanisms studies show that it is the charge induced capabilities of oxygen groups connected to specific carbon skeleton together with the giant π-reaction platform provided by the π-domain of graphene that played the vital roles in the observed excellent catalytic activity. D. Mei acknowledges the support from the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  9. Anticancer and DNA binding activities of platinum (IV) complexes; importance of leaving group departure rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouryasin, Zahra; Yousefi, Reza; Nabavizadeh, S Masoud; Rashidi, Mehdi; Hamidizadeh, Peyman; Alavianmehr, Mohammad-Mehdi; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2014-03-01

    The two six-coordinate Pt(IV) complexes, containing bidentate nitrogen donor/methyl ligands with general formula [Pt(X)2Me2((t)bu2bpy)], where (t)bu2bpy = 4,4'-ditert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine and X = Cl (C1) or Br (C2), serving as the leaving groups were synthesized for evaluation of their anticancer activities and DNA binding properties. To examine anticancer activities of the synthetic complexes, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/AO) staining method were performed. The binding properties of these complexes to DNA and purine nucleotides were examined, using different spectroscopic techniques. These complexes demonstrated significant anticancer activities against three cancer cell lines Jurkat, K562, and MCF-7. On the basis of the results of EB/AO staining, C1 and C2 were also capable to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. These complexes comprise halide leaving groups, displaying different departure rates; accordingly, they demonstrated slightly dissimilar anticancer activity and significantly different DNA/purine nucleotide binding properties. The results of DNA interaction studies of these complexes suggest a mixed-binding mode, comprising partial intercalation and groove binding. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that the newly synthesized Pt(IV) complexes are promising class of the potential anticancer agents which can be considered as molecular templates in designing novel platinum anticancer drugs. This study also highlights the importance of leaving group in anticancer activity and DNA binding properties of Pt(IV) complexes.

  10. Synthesis, algal inhibition activities and QSAR studies of novel gramine compounds containing ester functional groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YU Liangmin; JIANG Xiaohui; XIA Shuwei; ZHAO Haizhou

    2009-01-01

    2,5,6-Tribromo-l-methylgramine (TBG), isolated from bryozoan Zoobotryon pellucidum was shown to be very efficient in preventing recruitment of larval settlement. In order to improve the compatibility of TBG and its analogues with other ingredients in antifouling paints, structural modification of TBG was focused mainly on halogen substitution and N-substitution. Two halogen-substitute gramines and their derivatives which contain ester functional groups at N-position of gramines were synthesized. Algal inhibition activities of the synthesized compounds against algae Nitzschia closterium were evaluated and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50) range was 1.06-6.74 μg ml-1. Compounds that had a long chain ester group exhibited extremely high antifouling activity. Quantitive Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies with multiple linear regression analysis were applied to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptors and biological activity of the synthesized compounds. The results show that the toxicity (log (1/EC50)) is correlated well with the partition coefficient log P. Thus, these products have potential function as antifouling agents.

  11. Stages of change and physical activity in a group of university students. Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Gómez-Ramírez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The stages of change can be defined as changes in the behavior of the conduct of the people, which follows a series of steps. The present study sought to determine the stages of change with regard to the practice of physical activity of a group of college students. Its approach was quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional design. The sample of 193 students of the physiotherapy program from a private university in the city of Cali, selected by simple random sampling, through the OpenEpi statistical software version 3.0.1. A questionnaire of stages of change of physical activity in its short form was used. Analysis was descriptive and correlation with some sociodemographic variables using the Chi-square test. 89.6% of the university students is in the first three stages of change, i.e. are sedentary and a 10.31% was categorized as physically active. The variable associated with the stages of change was the sex with a value p<0.05. The majority of the participants in the study population is young and is at risk of classified as inactive physical. There is potential in this group to promote healthy habits through the practice of physical activity.

  12. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kehan Xu,1,* Lei Huang,1,* Zheng Xu,2 Yanwei Wang,1,3 Guojing Bai,1 Qiuye Wu,1 Xiaoyan Wang,1 Shichong Yu,1 Yuanying Jiang1 1School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 2Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 3Number 422 Hospital of PLA, Zhanjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r, which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. Keywords: triazole, synthesis, antifungal activity, CYP51

  13. Mechanical Feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei in Galaxies, Groups, and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, B R

    2012-01-01

    The radiative cooling timescales at the centers of hot atmospheres surrounding elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters are much shorter than their ages. Therefore, hot atmospheres are expected to cool and to form stars. Cold gas and star formation are observed in central cluster galaxies but at levels below those expected from an unimpeded cooling flow. X-ray observations have shown that wholesale cooling is being offset by mechanical heating from radio active galactic nuclei. Feedback is widely considered to be an important and perhaps unavoidable consequence of the evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. We show that cooling X-ray atmospheres and the ensuing star formation and nuclear activity are probably coupled to a self-regulated feedback loop. While the energetics are now reasonably well understood, other aspects of feedback are not. We highlight the problems of atmospheric heating and transport processes, accretion, and nuclear activity, and we discuss the potential role of black hole sp...

  14. Activated carbon fibers with a high content of surface functional groups by phosphoric acid activation of PPTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Muñiz, Alberto; Suárez-García, Fabián; Martínez-Alonso, Amelia; Tascón, Juan M D

    2011-09-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared by chemical activation of poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide (PPTA) with phosphoric acid, with a particular focus on the effects of impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature on both surface chemistry and porous texture. Thermogravimetric studies of the pyrolysis of PPTA impregnated with different amounts of phosphoric acid indicated that this reagent has a strong influence on the thermal degradation of the polymer, lowering the decomposition temperature and increasing the carbon yield. As concerns surface chemistry, TPD and chemical analysis results indicated that the addition of phosphoric acid increases the concentration of oxygenated surface groups, with a maximum at an impregnation ratio of 100 wt.%. The resulting materials present uncommon properties, namely a large amount of oxygen- and phosphorus-containing surface groups and a high nitrogen content. Porosity development following H(3)PO(4) activation was very significant, with values close to 1700 m(2)/g and 0.80 cm(3)/g being reached for the BET surface area and total pore volume, respectively. The pore size distributions remained confined to the micropore and narrow mesopore (<10 nm) range.

  15. Activities in a social networking-based discussion group by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Na; Wang, Xiangping; Zhang, Rongchun; Liu, Zhiguo; Liang, Shuhui; Yao, Shaowei; Tao, Qin; Jia, Hui; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2017-10-01

    Online social networking is increasingly being used among medical practitioners. However, few studies have evaluated its use in therapeutic endoscopy. Here, we aimed to analyze the shared topics and activities of a group of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) doctors in a social networking-based endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography discussion group (EDG). Six ERCP trainers working in Xijing Hospital and 48 graduated endoscopists who had finished ERCP training in the same hospital were invited to join in EDG. All group members were informed not to divulge any private information of patients when using EDG. The activities of group members on EDG were retrospectively extracted. The individual data of the graduated endoscopists were collected by a questionnaire. From June 2014 to May 2015, 6924 messages were posted on EDG, half of which were ERCP related. In total, 214 ERCP-related topics were shared, which could be categorized into three types: sharing experience/cases (52.3%), asking questions (38.3%), and sharing literatures/advances (9.3%). Among the 48 graduated endoscopists, 21 had a low case volume of less than 50 per year and 27 had a high volume case volume of 50 or more. High-volume graduated endoscopists posted more ERCP-related messages (P=0.008) and shared more discussion topics (P=0.003) compared with low-volume graduated endoscopists. A survey showed that EDG was useful for graduated endoscopists in ERCP performance and management of post-ERCP complications, etc. A wide range of ERCP-related topics were shared on the social networking-based EDG. The ERCP-related behaviors on EDG were more active in graduated endoscopists with an ERCP case volume of more than 50 per year.

  16. Friendship groups and physical activity: qualitative findings on how physical activity is initiated and maintained among 10–11 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Angie S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many youth physical activity interventions have minimal effect. To design better interventions we need to understand more about the factors that influence youth activity. Application of self-determination theory to youth physical activity, particularly the relatedness and competence, might suggest that friends and friendship groups influence the initiation and maintenance of youth physical activity. In this study we examined this issue. Methods Seventeen focus groups were conducted with 113, 10–11 year old children, from 11 primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: 1 the nature of children's friendship groups; 2 associations between physical activity and social group status; and 3 how friendship groups affect the initiation and maintenance of physical activity. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Participants reported that there were three different types of friendship groups; School friends; Neighborhood friends; and Other Friends who were friends from organized activities or children of their parents' friends. Participants had multiple groups of friends and engaged in different activities with the different groups. Possessing several groups of friends was desirable as it kept the friendships fresh and interesting. Physical activity was perceived as a positive attribute and linked to social status among boys. Among girls the association between physical activity ability and social status was more complex, appearing to differ by the norms of the group to which participants belonged. Some participants reported that low activity ability could be perceived as desirable in some social groups. Participants reported that friends provide support to initiate physical activity via co-participation (i.e. engaging in activity together; modeling of being active; and providing verbal support to engage in activity. Enjoyment was the most important

  17. Bronchodilator activity of xanthine derivatives substituted with functional groups at the 1- or 7-position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Kurita, M; Sakai, R; Konno, K; Sanae, F; Ohshima, T; Takagi, K; Hasegawa, T; Iwasaki, N

    1993-05-14

    Xanthine derivatives with several functional groups at the 1- or 7-position were synthesized, and their pharmacological activities in guinea pigs were studied. In general, the in vitro tracheal relaxant action and positive chronotropic action of 3-propylxanthines were increased by substitutions with nonpolar functional groups at the 1-position, but decreased by any substitution at the 7-position. On the other hand, because positive chronotropic actions of substituents with allyl, aminoalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, and normal alkyl groups were much less than tracheal muscle became very high with substitutions of 3'-butenyl, (dimethylamino)ethyl, 2'-ethoxyethyl, 3'-methoxypropyl, and n-propyl groups at the 1-position and of 2'-ethoxyethyl, 2'-oxopropyl, and n-propyl groups at the 7-position, compared with theophylline and the corresponding unsubstituted xanthines, 3-propylxanthine and 1-methyl-3-propylxanthine. When compounds were intraduodenally administered to the guinea pig, 1-(2'-ethoxyethyl)-, 1-(3'-methoxypropyl)-, 1-(3'-butenyl)-, and 1-[(dimethylamino)-ethyl]-3-propylxanthines, 1-methyl-7-(2'-oxopropyl)-3-propylxanthine, and denbufylline (1,3-di-n-butyl-7-(2'-oxopropyl)xanthine) effectively inhibited the acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm without heart stimulation or central nervous system-stimulation at the effective dosage range. Particularly, the bronchodilatory effect of 1-(2'-ethoxyethyl)-3-propylxanthine was much stronger and more continuous than those of theophylline and pentoxifylline. On the other hand, there were certain relationships among the in vitro tracheal relaxant activities of these compounds, their affinities for adenosine (A1) receptors in the brain membrane, and their inhibition of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) in the tracheal muscle. The affinity for A2 receptors of these compounds was very low or negligible. This suggests that both the action on A1 receptors or interaction with adenosine and the cyclic AMP-PDE inhibitory activity contribute

  18. Role of allyl group in the hydroxyl and peroxyl radical scavenging activity of S-allylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Perla D; Alvarez-Idaboy, J Raúl; Aguilar-González, Adriana; Lira-Rocha, Alfonso; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Galano, Annia

    2011-11-17

    S-Allylcysteine (SAC) is the most abundant compound in aged garlic extracts, and its antioxidant properties have been demonstrated. It is known that SAC is able to scavenge different reactive species including hydroxyl radical (•OH), although its potential ability to scavenge peroxyl radical (ROO•) has not been explored. In this work the ability of SAC to scavenge ROO• was evaluated, as well as the role of the allyl group (-S-CH(2)-CH═CH(2)) in its free radical scavenging activity. Two derived compounds of SAC were prepared: S-benzylcysteine (SBC) and S-propylcysteine (SPC). Their abilities to scavenge •OH and ROO• were measured. A computational analysis was performed to elucidate the mechanism by which these compounds scavenge •OH and ROO•. SAC was able to scavenge •OH and ROO•, in a concentration-dependent way. Such activity was significantly ameliorated when the allyl group was replaced by benzyl or propyl groups. It was shown for the first time that SAC is able to scavenge ROO•.

  19. NEWBORNS OF HIGH RISK GROUPS AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CARDIAC ACTIVITY DURING THE PERIOD OF EARLY ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Tumaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study characteristics of electrophysiological cardiac activity in children of risk groups and to assess possibilities of Holter-electrocardiography (H-ECG in revealing of cardiac dysfunction during the period of early adaptation. Patients and methods: 250 newborns were examined. The main group consisted of 200 children with cerebral ischemia (CI. This group was divided into 2 subgroups: 100 full-term and 100 premature (at various gestation age infants. Control group contained 50 children born at 38–40th weeks of gestation with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery, APGAR score of 8–9 points. Complex examination included H-ECG according the standard technic with evaluation of the hearth rate (HR during sleep and wakefulness; HRmin, HRmax; arrhythmias, conductivity disorders, duration of the intervals; rhythm variability. Results: according to the ECG children with CI, especially premature ones, and children delivered via Cesarean section more often had ST-T disturbances, arrhythmias (sinus tachycardia, less often — sinus bradycardia and conductivity disorders, Q-Tc prolongation. H-EGC revealed decrease of sleep HR, HRmin and HRmax in children with CI especially in delivered via Cesarean section. The most common arrhythmia was supraventricular extrasystole.  Pauses in rhythms and variability were the highest in premature children delivered via Cesarean section. Conclusions: hypoxia/ischemia is a trigger for development of cardiovascular dysfuncion in newborns. Premature and children delivered via Cesarean section form a group of high risk. H-ECG widens possibilities of revealing of symptoms of cardiac dysfunction (disturbances at the basal level of functioning, of adaptation resources of the sinus node, electric instability of the myocardium and heart rate variability in children of risk group for development of cardiovascular disorders. 

  20. Cycles of activity, group composition, and diet of Lemur mongoz mongoz Linnaeus 1766 in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, R W; Tattersall, I

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary study of the ecology and behavior of Lemur mongoz mongoz was carried out in the northwest of Madagascar. The animals were observed for approximately 250 h in July till August, 1973, and for 50 h in June, 1974. L.m.mongoz has been reported to be diurnal and to live in groups of 6-8 individuals. However, we found the animals to be nocturnal and that groups contained an adult male, an adult female and their offspring (groups numbering from 2 to 4 individuals). L.m.mongoz is thus the only species of the genus Lemur studied to date that is active exclusively at night and that lives in family groups. L.m.mongoz was also found to have a very specialized diet. During our study, it was observed to feed on only five species of plant and mainly on the nectar-producing parts (flowers and nectaries) of four of these species. It spent most of its feeding time licking nectar from the flowers of the kapok tree, Ceiba pentandra, and is probably a major pollinator of this tree in Madagascar. In Africa and South and Central America, the kapok tree is usually bat-pollinated. A dietary preference for nectar, although common among bats, has not previously been observed in primates.

  1. The Study of ABO Groups and Rh Factor in Active and Non-active Carriers of Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydeh Alaoddolehei et al.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During past eight decades, many studies have been performed to determine relationship between infectious diseases and blood groups. Interaction of microorganisms and RBC membrane is probably because of antigenic similarity, adherence through specific receptors or demodulation of antibody response (1. The first known relationship between blood groups and infectious diseases was seen in Plasmodium vivax. It is believed that sensitivity to HIV infection is related to blood groups and Rh factor (2. Hepatitis is a general word which caused by many factors such as DNA virus named HBV (hepatitis B virus. Several serologic determinants [eg. Glycoprotein surface antigen (HBsAg, viral peptide antigen (HBeAg, antibody against viral nucleoprotein (HBcAb] and PCR lead to recognition of HBV (3. A number of individuals with chronic infection (presence of HBsAg are divided to active and onactive groups. All cases are positive in HBcAb and negative in HBsAb. Active cases are recognized by detection of HBeAg and HBV-DNA, some clinical symptoms and elevated laboratory tests (ALT and AST (4. This study was performed based on presence of ABO and Rh antigens on other cells (5 which could be used as receptors for viruses. All individuals infected with HBV in the past or present time who were referred to a clinic were enrolled to this study. Fifty-five patients (10 female and 45 male were active and 182 (64 female and118 male were non-active out of 237 person with HBsAg. The blood samples were collected and ABO and Rh typing was done by Blood Filtration and Investigation Co (Palayesh and Pajohesh of blood company. Lot. No: MAbA09 antiserum. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using ||2 test. This study showed that active individuals have A (18.2%, B (18.2%, O (58.2%, AB (5.4%, Rh positive (96.4% and Rh negative (3.6% and nonactive individuals have A (26.9%, B (25.3%, O (41.2%, AB (6.6%, Rh positive (98.4% and Rh negative (1.6% (Table 1. These findings revealed that

  2. Coherent states of the Euclidean group and activation regions of primary visual cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Davide; Sanguinetti, Gonzalo; Sarti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The uncertainty principle of SE(2) allows to construct a coherent states transform that is strictly related to the Bargmann transform for the second Heisenberg group H2. The corresponding target space is characterized constructively and related to the almost complex structure of SE(2) as a contact manifold. Such a coherent state transform provides a model for neural activity maps in the primary visual cortex, that are then described in terms of minimal uncertainty states. The results of the model are compared with the experimental measurements.

  3. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen;

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti...... with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier...

  4. Applied nuclear physics group - activities report. 1977-1997; Grupo de fisica nuclear aplicada - relatorio de atividades. 1977-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    1998-06-01

    This report presents the activities conducted by the Applied Nuclear Physics group of the Londrina State University - Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory - Brazil, from the activities beginning (1977) up to the end of the year 1997.

  5. Cytotoxic Activity of Pyrovalerone Derivatives, an Emerging Group of Psychostimulant Designer Cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszak, Jakub; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Woldan-Tambor, Agata; Zawilska, Jolanta B

    2016-08-01

    The growing popularity of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has aroused the concerns of public health specialists. The pyrovalerone derivatives are a branch of synthetic cathinones, a very popular group of psychostimulant NPS. Despite numerous case reports of fatal intoxications, little is known about the cytotoxicity of these substances. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the toxic properties of pyrovalerone, its highly prevalent derivative 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (3,4-MDPV) with its two major metabolites (catechol-MDPV and methylcatechol-MDPV) and the structural isomer 2,3-MDPV, together with newer members of the group, i.e., α-pyrrolidinovalerothiophenone (α-PVT) and α-pyrrolidinooctanophenone (PV9), using model human cell lines for neurons (SH-SY5Y), hepatocytes (Hep G2), and upper airway epithelium (RPMI 2650). We found that the first generation pyrovalerones (pyrovalerone, 3,4-MDPV, and 2,3-MDPV) produced a modest decrease of mitochondrial activity in the three examined cell lines, but were active in lower concentrations than methamphetamine used as a reference psychostimulant compound. Since catechol-MDPV displayed greater toxic potential than the parent compound, we suggest that the toxicity of 3,4-MDPV could be attributed to activity of this metabolite. Strikingly, the two new generation pyrovalerones, α-PVT and PV9, seem to be the most potent cytotoxic compounds: both induced highly pronounced mitochondrial dysfunction; the latter also demonstrated significant damage to cell membranes. The reported in vitro toxic activity of pyrovalerone cathinones against different cell types reinforces existing concerns regarding the health risks associated with the intake of these drugs.

  6. Behavioural activation for depression; an update of meta-analysis of effectiveness and sub group analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ekers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a common, disabling condition for which psychological treatments are recommended. Behavioural activation has attracted increased interest in recent years. It has been over 5 years since our meta-analyses summarised the evidence supporting and this systematic review updates those findings and examines moderators of treatment effect. METHOD: Randomised trials of behavioural activation for depression versus controls or anti-depressant medication were identified using electronic database searches, previous reviews and reference lists. Data on symptom level and study level moderators were extracted and analysed using meta-analysis, sub-group analysis and meta-regression respectively. RESULTS: Twenty six randomised controlled trials including 1524 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. A random effects meta-analysis of symptom level post treatment showed behavioural activation to be superior to controls (SMD -0.74 CI -0.91 to -0.56, k = 25, N = 1088 and medication (SMD -0.42 CI -0.83 to-0.00, k = 4, N = 283. Study quality was low in the majority of studies and follow- up time periods short. There was no indication of publication bias and subgroup analysis showed limited association between moderators and effect size. CONCLUSIONS: The results in this meta-analysis support and strengthen the evidence base indicating Behavioural Activation is an effective treatment for depression. Further high quality research with longer term follow-up is needed to strengthen the evidence base.

  7. Active games in physical education students of special medical group with limited capacity of cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva M.V.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the directions of the development an effective methods of usage moving elements of sports and games in exercises. The experiment involved students of special medical groups that have various abnormalities of the cardiovascular system. The study was conducted in four stages: a search, the first experimental, the second experimental, final. We used questioning and education registry books of academic work. Found that the use of sports and outdoor games is students' interest, and increasing motivation for physical activity. Justified by the possibility of using games and exercises performed their adaptation by changing the pulse value. The resulting modification of gaming exercises are divided into three groups: the game in the area of heart rate to 110, 110-130 and 130-150 beats per minute. The first version of the experimental procedure at a heart rate of 110 and 110-130 beats per minute was ineffective for the emergence of significant positive changes in the functional state of the cardiovascular system students. Recommended experimental procedure based on the alternation and equivalence ratio of mobile elements and sports games and increases the heart rate to 130-150 beats per minute. Application of the method increases the overall level of physical health, improves the functional state of the cardiovascular system, health, activity and mood of the students.

  8. Nonplanar tertiary amides in rigid chiral tricyclic dilactams. Peptide group distortions and vibrational optical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderková, Markéta; Profant, Václav; Hodačová, Jana; Sebestík, Jaroslav; Pazderka, Tomáš; Novotná, Pavlína; Urbanová, Marie; Safařík, Martin; Buděšínský, Miloš; Tichý, Miloš; Bednárová, Lucie; Baumruk, Vladimír; Maloň, Petr

    2013-08-22

    We investigate amide nonplanarity in vibrational optical activity (VOA) spectra of tricyclic spirodilactams 5,8-diazatricyclo[6,3,0,0(1,5)]undecan-4,9-dione (I) and its 6,6',7,7'-tetradeuterio derivative (II). These rigid molecules constrain amide groups to nonplanar geometries with twisted pyramidal arrangements of bonds to amide nitrogen atoms. We have collected a full range vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra including signals of C-H and C-D stretching vibrations. We report normal-mode analysis and a comparison of calculated to experimental VCD and ROA. The data provide band-to-band assignment and offer a possibility to evaluate roles of constrained nonplanar tertiary amide groups and rigid chiral skeletons. Nonplanarity shows as single-signed VCD and ROA amide I signals, prevailing the couplets expected to arise from the amide-amide interaction. Amide-amide coupling dominates amide II (mainly C'-N stretching, modified in tertiary amides by the absence of a N-H bond) transitions (strong couplet in VCD, no significant ROA) probably due to the close proximity of amide nitrogen atoms. At lower wavenumbers, ROA spectra exhibit another likely manifestation of amide nonplanarity, showing signals of amide V (δ(oop)(N-C) at ~570 cm(-1)) and amide VI (δ(oop)(C'═O) at ~700 cm(-1) and ~650 cm(-1)) vibrations.

  9. 5-HT7 receptor modulators: Amino groups attached to biphenyl scaffold determine functional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjae; Park, Hyeri; Lee, Jeongeun; Tae, Jinsung; Kim, Hak Joong; Min, Sun-Joon; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Hyunah

    2016-11-10

    5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) agonists and antagonists have been reported to be used for treatment of neuropathic pain and depression, respectively. In this study, as a novel scaffold for 5-HT7R modulators, we designed and prepared a series of biphenyl-3-yl-methanamine derivatives with various amino groups. Evaluation of functional activities as well as binding affinities of the title compounds identified partial agonists (EC50 = 0.55-3.2 μM) and full antagonists (IC50 = 5.57-23.1 μM) depending on the amino substituents. Molecular docking study suggested that the ligand-based switch in functional activity from agonist to antagonist results from the size of the amino groups and thereby different binding modes to 5-HT7R. In particular, interaction of the ligand with Arg367 of 5-HT7R is shown to differentiate agonists and antagonists. In the pharmacophore model study, two distinct pharmacophore models can tell whether a ligand is an agonist or an antagonist. Taken together, this study provides valuable information for designing novel compounds with selective agonistic or antagonistic properties against 5-HT7R.

  10. Skin subspace color modeling for daytime and nighttime group activity recognition in confined operational spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Poshtyar, Azin; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2016-05-01

    In many military and homeland security persistent surveillance applications, accurate detection of different skin colors in varying observability and illumination conditions is a valuable capability for video analytics. One of those applications is In-Vehicle Group Activity (IVGA) recognition, in which significant changes in observability and illumination may occur during the course of a specific human group activity of interest. Most of the existing skin color detection algorithms, however, are unable to perform satisfactorily in confined operational spaces with partial observability and occultation, as well as under diverse and changing levels of illumination intensity, reflection, and diffraction. In this paper, we investigate the salient features of ten popular color spaces for skin subspace color modeling. More specifically, we examine the advantages and disadvantages of each of these color spaces, as well as the stability and suitability of their features in differentiating skin colors under various illumination conditions. The salient features of different color subspaces are methodically discussed and graphically presented. Furthermore, we present robust and adaptive algorithms for skin color detection based on this analysis. Through examples, we demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of these new color skin detection algorithms and discuss their applicability for skin detection in IVGA recognition applications.

  11. Capacidad de uso de las tierras en la microcuenca El Limón, complejo de cuencas Sabana Yegua, República Dominicana Land use capacity in the mini watershed El Limón, Sabana Yegua Watershed Complex, Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldané Cuello Espinoza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio aborda el análisis biofísico de las tierras en la microcuenca El Limón, en el complejo de Cuencas Altas de Sabana Yegua en República Dominicana. El objetivo del ensayo fue determinar la capacidad de uso de las tierras considerando las limitaciones del suelo, el clima y la geomorfología que presenta. Se propone una serie de prácticas de manejo como opciones para reducir la erosión, mejorar el suelo y acondicionar los caminos, lo que permitiría mantener condiciones favorables para el manejo racional del sistema. De esa forma, con este objetivo se establecen y se integran por primera vez en una cuenca del país varios elementos limitantes para con su identificación proponer prácticas apropiadas que controlen el problema de degradación acelerada que experimenta el área bajo estudio. Para ello, se determinaron parámetros fundamentales, los cuales abarcan factores de erosión, suelo, drenaje y clima, en función de lo que establece la metodología MAG/FAO/UNED (1996, la cual se usa en Costa Rica para determinar la capacidad de uso de las tierras y ha sido adaptada al área objeto de este estudio. Esta metodología integra clases de tierras que van desde la I hasta la VIII según la frecuencia y grado de las limitantes que se identifican. Para su aplicación en la microcuenca El Limón, se han incluido otros parámetros físicos que no contemplan dicha metodología, tales como la densidad aparente del suelo y los parámetros climáticos de lluvia y temperatura, estos últimos con el fin de establecer la zona de vida del área. Se pudo determinar que las clases de tierras en la microcuenca El Limón van desde la III hasta la VIII, las cuales son aptas para protección, sistemas forestales y agroforestería. De igual manera, se estableció que las mayores limitantes que se presentan son las concernientes a la erosión y al drenaje del suelo. Para frenar y corregir los efectos de estas limitantes, las prácticas de manejo

  12. A New Calibrated Sunspot Group Series Since 1749: Statistics of Active Day Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Usoskin, I G; Lockwood, M; Mursula, K; Owens, M; Solanki, S K

    2015-01-01

    Although the sunspot-number series have existed since the mid-19th century, they are still the subject of intense debate, with the largest uncertainty being related to the "calibration" of the visual acuity of individual observers in the past. Daisy-chain regression methods are applied to inter-calibrate the observers which may lead to significant bias and error accumulation. Here we present a novel method to calibrate the visual acuity of the key observers to the reference data set of Royal Greenwich Observatory sunspot groups for the period 1900-1976, using the statistics of the active-day fraction. For each observer we independently evaluate their observational thresholds [S_S] defined such that the observer is assumed to miss all of the groups with an area smaller than S_S and report all the groups larger than S_S. Next, using a Monte-Carlo method we construct, from the reference data set, a correction matrix for each observer. The correction matrices are significantly non-linear and cannot be approximate...

  13. Activity budgets in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming LI

    2009-01-01

    We examined time allocation by Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus roxellana in the montane, temperate and highly seasonal forests of the Shennongjia Nature Reserve in China, in order to improve our understanding of the ecological and social influences on monkey behavior. We collected data on activity budgets in relation to food availability in a group of monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except February 2004), using instantaneous scan samples. The monkeys spent 36.21% of daytime moving (n=21, 269 records), 24.39% foraging, 9.33% inactive, 11.7% performing social behaviors, and 18.38% performing other behaviors. There were seasonal and annual variations in the proportions of time devoted to some activities. These variations were largely attributed to seasonal or annual fluctuations in the distribution and quality of food resources. Adult males spent more time moving, searching, and displaying other behaviors, but less time feeding and performing social behaviors than adult females. Adults performed other behaviors more often and moving less often than juveniles. These differences in activity budgets may reflect fundamental differences in reproductive biology, parental investment, and development among the different age/sex classes.

  14. The Revealing Dust: Mid-Infrared Activity in Hickson Compact Group Galaxy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, S C; Hornschemeier, A E; Charlton, J C; Hibbard, J E

    2007-01-01

    We present a sample of 46 galaxy nuclei from 12 nearby (z<4500 km/s) Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) with a complete suite of 1-24 micron 2MASS+Spitzer nuclear photometry. For all objects in the sample, blue emission from stellar photospheres dominates in the near-IR through the 3.6 micron IRAC band. Twenty-five of 46 (54%) galaxy nuclei show red, mid-IR continua characteristic of hot dust powered by ongoing star formation and/or accretion onto a central black hole. We introduce alpha_{IRAC}, the spectral index of a power-law fit to the 4.5-8.0 micron IRAC data, and demonstrate that it cleanly separates the mid-IR active and non-active HCG nuclei. This parameter is more powerful for identifying low to moderate-luminosity mid-IR activity than other measures which include data at rest-frame lambda<3.6 micron that may be dominated by stellar photospheric emission. While the HCG galaxies clearly have a bimodal distribution in this parameter space, a comparison sample from the Spitzer Nearby Galaxy Survey (SIN...

  15. Transposon display supports transpositional activity of elements in species of the saltans group of Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nathalia De Setta; Ana Paula Pimentel Costa; Fabrício Ramon Lopes; Marie-Anne Van Sluys; Cláudia Márcia Aparecida Carareto

    2007-01-01

    Mobilization of two element subfamilies (canonical and O-type) from Drosophila sturtevanti and D. saltans was evaluated for copy number and transposition activity using the transposon display (TD) technique. Pairwise distances between strains regarding the insertion polymorphism profile were estimated. Amplification of the element based on copy number estimates was highly variable among the strains (D. sturtevanti, canonical 20.11, O-type 9.00; D. saltans, canonical 16.4, O-type 12.60 insertions, on average). The larger values obtained by TD compared to our previous data by Southern blotting support the higher sensitivity of TD over Southern analysis for estimating transposable element copy numbers. The higher numbers of the canonical element and the greater divergence in its distribution within the genome of D. sturtevanti (24.8%) compared to the O-type (16.7%), as well as the greater divergence in the distribution of the canonical P element, between the D. sturtevanti (24.8%) and the D. saltans (18.3%) strains, suggest that the canonical element occupies more sites within the D. sturtevanti genome, most probably due to recent transposition activity. These data corroborate the hypothesis that the O-type is the oldest subfamily of elements in the saltans group and suggest that the canonical element is or has been transpositionally active until more recently in D. sturtevanti.

  16. Towards the Development of a Second-Order Approximation in Activity Coefficient Models Based on Group Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Constantinou, Leonidas; Gani, Rafiqul

    1996-01-01

    A simple modification of group contribution based models for estimation of liquid phase activity coefficients is proposed. The main feature of this modification is that contributions estimated from the present first-order groups in many instances are found insufficient since the first-order groups...

  17. Correlación de las alteraciones producidas por la leptospirosis a nivel hepato-renal con variables productivas y reproductivas en bovinos de la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Díaz Rojas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se llevó a cabo en cuatro fincas con ganaderías lecheras especializadas localizadas en la sabana de Bogotá, de las cuales se tomaron un total de 78 animales divididos en tres grupos etáreos: vacas, novillas y terneras. La leptospira spp se diagnosticó por el método de Microaglutinación-Lisis (MAT; se realizó un seguimiento serológico durante un año en nueve muestreos y se evaluaron títulos a L. hardjo, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, L. pomona, L. canicola y L. grippotyphosa, pruebas hepáticas como: alanino amino transferasa (ALAT, aspartato amino transferasa (ASAT y pruebas renales como: nitrógeno ureico en sangre (BUN y creatinina, estas se compararon con los registros de variables productivas como: producción de leche y variables reproductivas como: intervalo entre partos, días abiertos y servicios por concepción. La prevalencia a Leptospira spp encontrada en bovinos en cuatro fincas de la sabana de Bogotá, fue de 31,74%. La mayor prevalencia durante el estudio fue para el serovar L. hardjo 12,7% (90/711; con respecto a las fincas el serovar que presentó la mayor prevalencia fue L. icterohaemorrhagiae en la finca cuatro con 29% (24/85. El grupo etáreo número dos (novillas reportó la mayor prevalencia al serovar L. icterohaemorrhagiae con 16,5% (20/127. No se reportan cambios en los rangos fisiológicos para los grupos etáreos y fincas en las variables hepáticas y renales: ALAT con 20.452 U/L en promedio y creatinina 1,2769 mg/dl en promedio. Existió una leve disminución del BUN 12,934 mg/dl. El valor de ASAT estuvo por encima del rango normal 108,96 U/L. Los valores para las variables productivas fueron los siguientes: días abiertos 238,64 días, intervalo entre partos 522,78 días, servicios por concepción 2,56 servicios; no hubo una asociación directa entre los serovares en los diferentes muestreos con la variable producción de leche.

  18. Los espantos de La sabana: leyendas y religiosidad de los Llanos venezolanos (The ghosts of Savannah: Legends and religion of the Venezuelan Ilanos - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n30p572

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny González Muñoz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos culturales de los pueblos rurales de América Latina en cuanto a su parte inmaterial, están íntimamente relacionados con la memoria colectiva y/o social, la cual puede fungir, entre otras cosas, para afianzar la transmisión de leyendas creadas por la sabiduría popular por medio de la tradición oral. En los llanos centro-occidentales venezolanos a lo largo de más dos siglos se ha diseminado cantidad de leyendas que cuentan la aparición de espíritus que vagan por las sabanas solitarias, sobre todo en las noches de mayor oscuridad; los llamados “espantos de la sabana” son las almas de antiguos pobladores, ya conocidos, que deambulan pidiendo oraciones para su descanso eterno, o por no poder encontrar la paz que procuran. Dichas narraciones, al pasar de generación en generación forman parte de la identidad llanera y son incluidas en la literatura nacional; en el presente artículo se destaca esta característica colocando como ejemplo la novela de Rómulo Gallegos, Cantaclaro, así como coplas populares o aquellas recopiladas por Alberto Arvelo Torrealba para establecer el enlace existente entre la creación y transmisión de las leyendas y la religiosidad de dicha cultura. Palabras clave: Espantos de la sabana. Leyendas populares. Llanos centro-occidentales venezolanos. Religiosidad. Abstract Cultural processes of rural populations in Latin America while its immaterial dimension, are closely related to social and collective memory, which can serve, among other thins, to strengthen the transmission of legends created by wisdom through oral tradition. In the plains of the Midwest Venezuelan, during more than two centuries, were heard many legends that tell the apparition of spirits which roam the savannas lonely, especially on the darkest nights. These "ghosts of Savannah" are the souls of old settlers who roam (roam because they can not find peace or because they are asking for prayers for his eternal rest. These stories

  19. covR Mediated Antibiofilm Activity of 3-Furancarboxaldehyde Increases the Virulence of Group A Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Ashwinkumar Subramenium

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes, a multi-virulent, exclusive human pathogen responsible for various invasive and non-invasive diseases possesses biofilm forming phenomenon as one of its pathogenic armaments. Recently, antibiofilm agents have gained prime importance, since inhibiting the biofilm formation is expected to reduce development of antibiotic resistance and increase their susceptibility to the host immune cells.The current study demonstrates the antibiofilm activity of 3Furancarboxaldehyde (3FCA, a floral honey derived compound, against GAS biofilm, which was divulged using crystal violet assay, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The report is extended to study its effect on various aspects of GAS (morphology, virulence, aggregation at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (132μg/ml. 3FCA was found to alter the growth pattern of GAS in solid and liquid medium and increased the rate of auto-aggregation. Electron microscopy unveiled the increase in extra polymeric substances around cell. Gene expression studies showed down-regulation of covR gene, which is speculated to be the prime target for the antibiofilm activity. Increased hyaluronic acid production and down regulation of srtB gene is attributed to the enhanced rate of auto-aggregation. The virulence genes (srv, mga, luxS and hasA were also found to be over expressed, which was manifested with the increased susceptibility of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to 3FCA treated GAS. The toxicity of 3FCA was ruled out with no adverse effect on C. elegans.Though 3FCA possess antibiofilm activity against GAS, it was also found to increase the virulence of GAS. This study demonstrates that, covR mediated antibiofilm activity may increase the virulence of GAS. This also emphasizes the importance to analyse the acclimatization response and virulence of the pathogen in the presence of antibiofilm compounds prior to their clinical trials.

  20. Teaching high-school Geoscience through a group-based activity: the Geotrivia experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, Athanasia

    2015-04-01

    Geotrivia is an educational game which aims at the enhancement of geoscience teaching in secondary education, through an interactive group-based activity. As behavioural teaching methods no longer excite students in a multitask society, new approaches should be implemented to keep up with novel learning methodologies and team-based techniques. Thus, the main aim of the experiment was to come up with an alternative learning process on geology and geography in order to upgrade and attract more students to Geosciences. Geotrivia is based on the techniques of motivation (competition to be the winner) and enjoyable educational time (it is funny to play a game) in terms of team-based student collaboration. Pedagogical aims of Geotrivia consist of team-based work, independency, autonomy and initiative, active participation, student self-evaluation and metacognition. Geotrivia is a card game, consisting of about 150 playing cards, a whistle and an hourglass. Each playing card contains a geology- or geography-related question and the answer to the question is given in the lower part of the card. Class students are divided in about 4 groups of about 5 students each. The aim of each group is to collect as many cards as possible. The hourglass is flipped and a member of the team takes the pack of cards and uses it to ask questions to his team; the other members have to answer as many questions. The team wins a card when they give a correct answer. The game is played at the end of each curriculum unit; a comprehensive version of the game is held at end of the school year. Most -but not all- questions are based on the course syllabus, which deals with the geology and geography of Europe at junior high school level (e.g. what is the cause of high seismicity in Greece?). Accordingly, Geotrivia questions can be adjusted to each country school book of geology - geography at any grade. To evaluate the results of Geotrivia, we used the methodology of pretest and posttest, an

  1. Local community intervention through depression screening and group activity for elderly suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Ono, Yutaka; Watanabe, Naoki; Tanaka, Eriko; Kudoh, Seijiro; Sakashita, Tomoe; Sakamoto, Shinji; Neichi, Keiko; Satoh, Kyoko; Nakamura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Kimio

    2006-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate outcomes of a community-based program to prevent suicide among the elderly (>or=65 years old) using a quasi-experimental design with two neighboring references. During 1999-2004, the program including depression screening and group activity was conducted by the public health nurses in the Minami district (population 1685) of Nagawa town, rural Japan. Pre-post changes in the risk of completing suicide were estimated by the incidence rate ratios (IRR). The risk for Minami's elderly females was reduced by 74% (age-adjusted IRR, 0.26; 90% CI, 0.07-0.98) more than the historical trend, while there was no change in the risk of Minami's males and nor in the male or female references. The local intervention using public health nursing would be effective against suicide for elderly females without diffusing to the surroundings.

  2. Continuous-Flow Monolithic Silica Microreactors with Arenesulphonic Acid Groups: Structure–Catalytic Activity Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ciemięga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of monolithic silica microreactors activated with sulphonic acid groups and a packed bed reactor with Amberlyst 15 resin were compared in the esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol. The monolithic microreactors were made of single silica rods with complex pore architecture, differing in the size of mesopores, and in particular, flow-through macropores which significantly affected the flow characteristic of the continuous system. The highest ester productivity of 105.2 mol·molH+−1·h−1 was achieved in microreactor M1 with the largest porosity, characterized by a total pore volume of 4 cm3·g−1, mesopores with 20 nm diameter, and large flow-through macropores 30–50 μm in size. The strong impact of the permeability of the monoliths on a reaction kinetics was shown.

  3. Trithorax and Polycomb group-dependent regulation: a tale of opposing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Sarah J; Paro, Renato

    2015-09-01

    Intricate layers of regulation determine the unique gene expression profiles of a given cell and, therefore, underlie the immense phenotypic diversity observed among cell types. Understanding the mechanisms that govern which genes are expressed and which genes are silenced is a fundamental focus in biology. The Polycomb and Trithorax group chromatin proteins play important roles promoting the stable and heritable repression and activation of gene expression, respectively. These proteins, which are conserved across metazoans, modulate post-translational modifications on histone tails and regulate nucleosomal structures. Here, we review recent advances that have shed light on the mechanisms by which these two classes of proteins act to maintain epigenetic memory and allow dynamic switches in gene expression during development.

  4. PHOTOINDUCED ALIGNMENT OF OPTICALLY ACTIVE POLYMER CONTAINING A TEMPO RADICAL END GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Chen Dong; Yong Zhang; Ze-da Xu; Xing-he Fan; Xiao-fang Chen; Xin-hua Wan; Qi-feng Zhou

    2003-01-01

    A new azobenzene side-chain polymer (TEMPO-PAZ) containing TEMPO (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinooxy) radical end group was synthesized by free radical copolymerization. Photoinduced alignment was studied on the polymer films at room temperature with linearly polarized light of 514.5 nm. The experimental results showed that the magnetic response intensity of the TEMPO-PAZ could be easily controlled by choosing the appropriate polarized light irradiating times, presumably due to the nitroxide radical in the TEMPO-PAZ molecular structure. For the polymer investigated here, the photoinduced alignment technique was introduced to increase the magnetic response intensity of polymer under irradiation, aiming originally at searching for a new photo-active organic magnetic multifunctionai materials.On the other hand, experimental results also showed that the TEMPO-PAZ can be used as a material for optical image storage.

  5. Area and Flux Distributions of Active Regions, Sunspot Groups, and Sunspots: A Multi-Database Study

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Windmueller, John C; Amouzou, Ernest C; Longcope, Dana W; Tlatov, Andrey G; Nagovitsyn, Yury A; Pevtsov, Alexei A; Chapman, Gary A; Cookson, Angela M; Yeates, Anthony R; Watson, Fraser T; Balmaceda, Laura A; DeLuca, Edward E; Martens, Petrus C H

    2014-01-01

    In this work we take advantage of eleven different sunspot group, sunspot, and active region databases to characterize the area and flux distributions of photospheric magnetic structures. We find that, when taken separately, different databases are better fitted by different distributions (as has been reported previously in the literature). However, we find that all our databases can be reconciled by the simple application of a proportionality constant, and that, in reality, different databases are sampling different parts of a composite distribution. This composite distribution is made up by linear combination of Weibull and log-normal distributions -- where a pure Weibull (log-normal) characterizes the distribution of structures with fluxes below (above) $10^{21}$Mx ($10^{22}$Mx). Additionally, we demonstrate that the Weibull distribution shows the expected linear behaviour of a power-law distribution (when extended into smaller fluxes), making our results compatible with the results of Parnell et al.\\ (200...

  6. Characterization of bacterial functional groups and microbial activity in microcosms with glyphosate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Sofia; Bonetto, Mariana; Baigorria, Tomas; Pegoraro, Vanesa; Ortiz, Jimena; Faggioli, Valeria; Conde, Belen; Cazorla, Cristian; Boccolini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate is a worldwide used herbicide as c. 90% of transgenic crops are tolerant to it. Microbial degradation of glyphosate molecule in soil is considered the most important process that determines its persistence in the environment. However, the impact of this herbicide on target groups of soil biota remains poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the abundance of bacterial groups and global microbial activity, under controlled conditions with application of increasing doses of glyphosate. A bioassay was carried out in microcosms using an agricultural soil (Typic Argiudoll) with registered history of glyphosate application from National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA, EEA Marcos Juarez, Argentina). Glyphosate of commercial formulation (74.7%) was used and the following treatments were evaluated: Soil without glyphosate (control), and Soil with doses equivalent to 1.12 and 11.2 kg ai ha-1. Microbiological parameters were estimated at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after herbicide application by counting heterotrophic, cellulolytic, nitrogen fixing (N), and nitrifying bacteria; and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA), microbial respiration (MR) and microbial biomass (C-BM). The N cycle related bacteria showed greater sensitivity to glyphosate with significant increases in abundance. On the other hand the C cycle parameters were strongly conditioned by the time elapsed since the application of the herbicide, as did the MR. The FDA declined with the highest dose, while the C-BM was not affected. Therefore, we conclude that in the studied experimental conditions glyphosate stimulated bacterial growth (i.e. target abundances) representing a source of N, C and nutrients. On the other hand, enzymatic activity (FDA) decreased when glyphosate was applied in the highest dose, whereas, it had no effect on the MR nor C-BM, which could be attributable to the organic matter content of the soil. However, future research in field conditions is necessary, for

  7. Using Small Group Debates to Actively Engage Students in an Introductory Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce A. Shaw

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Debates stimulate critical thinking and can be a highly effective way to actively engage students in the classroom. This paper describes a small group debate format in which groups of four to six students debated preassigned topics in microbiology in front of the rest of the class. Rapid advancements in science, especially in microbiology, provide the scaffolding for students to locate and share evidence-based information from a plethora of complex and often conflicting sources. Student-generated debate presentations can be a welcome respite from the lecture format. Debates were scheduled throughout the course to coincide with topics being covered. Questionnaires distributed immediately after each debate revealed that the debates were well received by students and were effective in changing student attitudes and misconceptions. Debate preparation provided students the opportunity to gain proficiency in accessing information from electronic databases, to use resources from professional organizations, and to synthesize and analyze information. In addition, the debate process gave students experience in developing oral communication skills.

  8. Using small group debates to actively engage students in an introductory microbiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joyce A

    2012-01-01

    Debates stimulate critical thinking and can be a highly effective way to actively engage students in the classroom. This paper describes a small group debate format in which groups of four to six students debated preassigned topics in microbiology in front of the rest of the class. Rapid advancements in science, especially in microbiology, provide the scaffolding for students to locate and share evidence-based information from a plethora of complex and often conflicting sources. Student-generated debate presentations can be a welcome respite from the lecture format. Debates were scheduled throughout the course to coincide with topics being covered. Questionnaires distributed immediately after each debate revealed that the debates were well received by students and were effective in changing student attitudes and misconceptions. Debate preparation provided students the opportunity to gain proficiency in accessing information from electronic databases, to use resources from professional organizations, and to synthesize and analyze information. In addition, the debate process gave students experience in developing oral communication skills.

  9. Unique lead adsorption behavior of activated hydroxyl group in two-dimensional titanium carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiuming; Guo, Jianxin; Zhang, Qingrui; Xiang, Jianyong; Liu, Baozhong; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Riping; Tian, Yongjun

    2014-03-19

    The functional groups and site interactions on the surfaces of two-dimensional (2D) layered titanium carbide can be tailored to attain some extraordinary physical properties. Herein a 2D alk-MXene (Ti3C2(OH/ONa)(x)F(2-x)) material, prepared by chemical exfoliation followed by alkalization intercalation, exhibits preferential Pb(II) sorption behavior when competing cations (Ca(II)/Mg(II)) coexisted at high levels. Kinetic tests show that the sorption equilibrium is achieved in as short a time as 120 s. Attractively, the alk-MXene presents efficient Pb(II) uptake performance with the applied sorption capacities of 4500 kg water per alk-MXene, and the effluent Pb(II) contents are below the drinking water standard recommended by the World Health Organization (10 μg/L). Experimental and computational studies suggest that the sorption behavior is related to the hydroxyl groups in activated Ti sites, where Pb(II) ion exchange is facilitated by the formation of a hexagonal potential trap.

  10. Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzler, Brian P.; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Wittkopf, Jarrid A.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-12-01

    Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW-1 in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density. Recently, however, an alternative technology, hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), has gained significant attention, because of the possibility to use stable platinum-group-metal-free catalysts, with inherent, long-term cost advantages. In this Perspective, we discuss the cost profile of PEMFCs and the advantages offered by HEMFCs. In particular, we discuss catalyst development needs for HEMFCs and set catalyst activity targets to achieve performance parity with state-of-the-art automotive PEMFCs. Meeting these targets requires careful optimization of nanostructures to pack high surface areas into a small volume, while maintaining high area-specific activity and favourable pore-transport properties.

  11. Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzler, Brian P; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Wittkopf, Jarrid A; Yan, Yushan

    2016-12-06

    Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW(-1) in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density. Recently, however, an alternative technology, hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), has gained significant attention, because of the possibility to use stable platinum-group-metal-free catalysts, with inherent, long-term cost advantages. In this Perspective, we discuss the cost profile of PEMFCs and the advantages offered by HEMFCs. In particular, we discuss catalyst development needs for HEMFCs and set catalyst activity targets to achieve performance parity with state-of-the-art automotive PEMFCs. Meeting these targets requires careful optimization of nanostructures to pack high surface areas into a small volume, while maintaining high area-specific activity and favourable pore-transport properties.

  12. FACTORS IN STRENGHTNING OF TERRORIST ACTIVITY OF “ISLAMIC STATE” GROUPING ACROSS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Aleksandrovich Lobanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available XXI century was marked by the strengthening of globalization and integration processes in whole world. This led to the fact that the international community, especially European countries, faced the number of new threats to the spread of Islamic terrorism, the most urgent of which is the activity of “Islamic State” grouping. In this context it’s important to determine the reasons of intense activity growth of IS and its influence in Europe. The article analyzes the factors, contributing to the spread of terrorism. Also it gives some recommendations, implementation of which, according to the author, could decrease the level of terrorist threat. The purpose of the research is to determine factors of growing influence of “Islamic State” and increasing number of terrorist attacks in European countries. The author concludes that IS problem is a comprehensive threat, to prevent which a number of efforts – both within the European continent and in Middle East – is required. It also requires a systematic approach and a high level of consolidation and coordination within the international community.

  13. Epigenome changes in active and inactive Polycomb-group-controlled regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, Achim; O'Neill, Laura P; D'Eliseo, Donatella; Turner, Bryan M; Orlando, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins conveys epigenetic inheritance of repressed transcriptional states. In Drosophila, the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) maintains the silent state by inhibiting the transcription machinery and chromatin remodelling at core promoters. Using immunoprecipitation of in vivo formaldehyde-fixed chromatin in phenotypically diverse cultured cell lines, we have mapped PRC1 components, the histone methyl transferase (HMT) Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and histone H3 modifications in active and inactive PcG-controlled regions. We show that PRC1 components are present in both cases, but at different levels. In particular, active target promoters are nearly devoid of E(z) and Polycomb. Moreover, repressed regions are trimethylated at lysines 9 and 27, suggesting that these histone modifications represent a mark for inactive PcG-controlled regions. These PcG-specific repressive marks are maintained by the action of the E(z) HMT, an enzyme that has an important role not only in establishing but also in maintaining PcG repression. PMID:15448640

  14. Evaluation of Hylife-II and Sombrero using 175- and 566- group neutron transport and activation cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D; Latkowski, J; Sanz, J

    1999-06-18

    Recent modifications to the TART Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code enable calculation of 566-group neutron spectra. This expanded group structure represents a significant improvement over the 50- and 175-group structures that have been previously available. To support use of this new capability, neutron activation cross section libraries have been created in the 175- and 566-group structures starting from the FENDL/A-2.0 pointwise data. Neutron spectra have been calculated for the first walls of the HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO inertial fusion energy power plant designs and have been used in subsequent neutron activation calculations. The results obtained using the two different group structures are compared to each other as well as to those obtained using a 175-group version of the EAF3.1 activation cross section library.

  15. Evaluation of HYLIFE-II and Sombrero using 175- and 566-group neutron transport and activation cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2000-01-01

    Recent modifications to the TART Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code allow enable calculation of 566-group neutron spectra. This expanded group structure represents a significant improvement over the 50- and 175-group structures that have been previously available. To support use of this new capability, neutron activation cross-section libraries have been created in the 175- and 566-group structures starting from the FENDL/A-2.0 pointwise data. Neutron spectra have been calculated for the first walls of the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero inertial fusion energy power plant designs and have been used in subsequent neutron activation calculations. The results obtained using the two different group structures are compared with each other as well as to those obtained using a 175-group version of the EAF3.1 activation cross-section library.

  16. Effects of biological oxidants on the catalytic activity and structure of group VIA phospholipase A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haowei; Bao, Shunzhong; Ramanadham, Sasanka; Turk, John

    2006-05-23

    Group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) is expressed in phagocytes, vascular cells, pancreatic islet beta-cells, neurons, and other cells and plays roles in transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, secretion, and other events. A bromoenol lactone (BEL) suicide substrate used to study iPLA(2)beta functions inactivates iPLA(2)beta by alkylating Cys thiols. Because thiol redox reactions are important in signaling and some cells that express iPLA(2)beta produce biological oxidants, iPLA(2)beta might be subject to redox regulation. We report that biological concentrations of H(2)O(2), NO, and HOCl inactivate iPLA(2)beta, and this can be partially reversed by dithiothreitol (DTT). Oxidant-treated iPLA(2)beta modifications were studied by LC-MS/MS analyses of tryptic digests and included DTT-reversible events, e.g., formation of disulfide bonds and sulfenic acids, and others not so reversed, e.g., formation of sulfonic acids, Trp oxides, and Met sulfoxides. W(460) oxidation could cause irreversible inactivation because it is near the lipase consensus sequence ((463)GTSTG(467)), and site-directed mutagenesis of W(460) yields active mutant enzymes that exhibit no DTT-irreversible oxidative inactivation. Cys651-sulfenic acid formation could be one DTT-reversible inactivation event because Cys651 modification correlates closely with activity loss and its mutagenesis reduces sensitivity to inhibition. Intermolecular disulfide bond formation might also cause reversible inactivation because oxidant-treated iPLA(2)beta contains DTT-reducible oligomers, and oligomerization occurs with time- and temperature-dependent iPLA(2)beta inactivation that is attenuated by DTT or ATP. Subjecting insulinoma cells to oxidative stress induces iPLA(2)beta oligomerization, loss of activity, and subcellular redistribution and reduces the rate of release of arachidonate from phospholipids. These findings raise the possibility that redox reactions affect iPLA(2)beta functions.

  17. The impact of an online Facebook support group for people with multiple sclerosis on non-active users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Steadman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a debilitating disease and there is little research on support networks for people with MS (PwMS. More specifically, most studies on online support groups focus on those who actively participate in the group, whereas the majority of those who utilise online support groups do so in a passive way.Objectives: This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group.Method: An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted.Results: Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease,informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information and social companionship (place of belonging. Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease, informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group and social companionship (non-active status.Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important,the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.

  18. The impact of an online Facebook support group for people with multiple sclerosis on non-active users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Jacqui; Pretorius, Chrisma

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease and there is little research on support networks for people with MS (PwMS). More specifically, most studies on online support groups focus on those who actively participate in the group, whereas the majority of those who utilise online support groups do so in a passive way. This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group. An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information) and social companionship (place of belonging). Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group) and social companionship (non-active status). These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important, the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.

  19. Does chess instruction improve mathematical problem-solving ability? Two experimental studies with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Gobet, Fernand

    2017-06-23

    It has been proposed that playing chess enables children to improve their ability in mathematics. These claims have been recently evaluated in a meta-analysis (Sala & Gobet, 2016, Educational Research Review, 18, 46-57), which indicated a significant effect in favor of the groups playing chess. However, the meta-analysis also showed that most of the reviewed studies used a poor experimental design (in particular, they lacked an active control group). We ran two experiments that used a three-group design including both an active and a passive control group, with a focus on mathematical ability. In the first experiment (N = 233), a group of third and fourth graders was taught chess for 25 hours and tested on mathematical problem-solving tasks. Participants also filled in a questionnaire assessing their meta-cognitive ability for mathematics problems. The group playing chess was compared to an active control group (playing checkers) and a passive control group. The three groups showed no statistically significant difference in mathematical problem-solving or metacognitive abilities in the posttest. The second experiment (N = 52) broadly used the same design, but the Oriental game of Go replaced checkers in the active control group. While the chess-treated group and the passive control group slightly outperformed the active control group with mathematical problem solving, the differences were not statistically significant. No differences were found with respect to metacognitive ability. These results suggest that the effects (if any) of chess instruction, when rigorously tested, are modest and that such interventions should not replace the traditional curriculum in mathematics.

  20. Mentors' experiences of using the Active Mentoring model to support older adults with intellectual disability to participate in community groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Bigby, Christine; Stancliffe, Roger J; Balandin, Susan; Craig, Diane; Anderson, Kate

    2013-12-01

    Social inclusion is a widely acknowledged goal; who is best positioned to provide support and how support is delivered are key questions. Using Active Mentoring training, members of community groups mentored a person with intellectual disability and supported their inclusion in that group. Interviews with 14 mentors explored their experiences of supporting a previously unknown person with intellectual disability to participate in their community group. The core theme was No Different From Us. Mentors saw beyond the disability, they valued others, were community leaders, and had intrinsic qualities. With some basic orientation to the task, mentors were able to support the inclusion of their mentee in the group. Community members are willing to support people with intellectual disability to join their community groups. The Active Mentoring training is one way of harnessing the goodwill of community groups and their members to include people with intellectual disability to participate on an individual basis in community groups.

  1. Importancia de los modelos conceptuales y teorías de enfermería: experiencia de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad de La Sabana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Moreno Fergusson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La disciplina de enfermería ha tenido un desarrollo significativo desde los inicios del siglo XX, lo cual se evidencia en la formaci ón de posgrado, y en el desarrollo de modelos conceptuales y teorías de enfermería, como producto de la actividad investigativa. El artículo destaca la importancia de llevar estos modelos y teorías a la práctica, como una estrategia para fortalecer el conocimiento disciplinar, con las consecuentes repercusiones en términos de calidad, autonomía y visibilidad del cuidado de enfermería. Se presenta la experiencia de la aplicación del modelo de adaptaci ón de Roy como marco de referencia de las asignaturas del campo de fundamentación profesional en la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad de La Sabana, las etapas que se siguieron para su implementación y los resultados obtenidos.

  2. Diseño de un estado financiero de propósito especial – ambiental, aplicado al sector de la industria de los lácteos en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Mogollon Pita

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Para realizar la presente investigación se estudiaron cinco empresas del sector lácteo ubicadas en la Sabana de Bogotá, porque su proceso productivo y comercial tiene gran incidencia sobre el medio ambiente. A dichas empresas se les analizó el proceso productivo y los estados financieros con el ánimo de detectar qué cuentas están relacionadas con aspectos medioambientales, con el fin de incluirlas dentro del estado financiero propuesto. Para la construcción del estado financiero de propósito especial-ambiental, se tuvo en cuenta la estructura del Plan Único de Cuentas para comerciantes, establecido mediante el decreto 2650/93, así mismo se siguieron las recomendaciones sobre información ambiental de la Unión Europea. El Estado financiero de propósito especial – ambiental, permitirá conocer de manera clara y sencilla cuáles han sido las inversiones, los ingresos, los costos y los gastos del ente económico en un período dado. Así mismo se podrá conocer la estructura patrimonial medioambiental puesto que en él se verán reflejados los activos, pasivos y patrimonio que la compañía tiene comprometidos con el medio ambiente.

  3. Structure-activity relationships of nonisomerizable derivatives of tamoxifen: importance of hydroxyl group and side chain positioning for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C S; Parker, C J; McCague, R; Jordan, V C

    1991-03-01

    The antiestrogen tamoxifen [(Z)-1(p-beta-dimethylaminoethoxy-phenyl)-1,2-diphenylbut-1-ene] is an effective anticancer agent against estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. The alkylaminoethane side chain is essential for antiestrogenic activity, but the potency of the antiestrogen can be increased by para hydroxylation of the phenyl ring on carbon 1 of but-1-ene. This compound, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, is a metabolite of tamoxifen and has a very high binding affinity for ER [J. Endocrinol. 75:305-316 (1977)] because the hydroxyl is located in the equivalent position as the 3-phenolic hydroxyl of 17 beta-estradiol. In this study, we have examined the relationship between the relative positions of the hydroxyl and the alkyl-aminoethane side chain and the pharmacological activity of the ligand. A fixed seven-membered ring derivative of the triphenylethylene was used to prevent isomerization. All compounds were tested, with and without 17 beta-estradiol, for their effects on the growth of estrogen-responsive T47D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro. The growth of MDA-MB-231 ER-negative breast cancer cells was not affected by any of the compounds tested, at a concentration (1 microM) that had a profound estrogenic or antiestrogenic action in ER-positive cell lines. The relative binding affinity of the compounds was determined using rat uterine ER and was found to be consistent with the observed potencies in vitro. The compounds found to be antiestrogens in vitro were antiestrogenic against estradiol (0.08 micrograms daily) in the 3-day immature rat uterine weight test. All compounds were partial agonists in vivo. In general, the estrogenic and antiestrogenic results obtained in vivo were consistent with the potency estimates obtained with the breast cancer cells in vitro. The results of this extensive structure-activity relationship study demonstrate that the substitution for 4-hydroxytamoxifen appears to be optimal to produce a potent antiestrogen; all

  4. Examining the Impact of Novel Pre-activity Tasks on Macroskills: The Case of Group Discussion on Writing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of most researchers in the field of second and foreign language teaching is lessening the problems and eliminating the hinders on the way of learning a language. Writing is considered as one of the most challenging and complicated tasks for learners to perform particularly when they have to write in a second or foreign language. Numerous studies were done on the importance of the pre-writing stage and activities which are directly and indirectly related to the theme of the writing. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to examine the effects of group discussion as a pre- activity task on writing ability. To this aim, 27 Iranian EFL learners, who were at the same level –intermediate- studying at Shokuh and Safir Institutes, Birjand, Iran were chosen randomly. Two groups- one control and one experimental group- were studied. In control group the conventional method was used in teaching writing, while in experimental group, group discussion pre-activity task was administered. After 16 sessions, the obtained data of the pretests and posttests was analyzed by SPSS software. According to the results, researcher strongly concluded that group discussion has no significant effect on writing ability of Iranian intermediate learners. This study can help teachers and syllabus designers in choosing and applying an effective pre-activity task. Keywords: writing ability, pre-activity task, group discussion, EFL learners

  5. Apheresis activity in Spain: a survey of the Spanish Apheresis Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Miguel; Cid, Joan; Areal, Carlos; Romon, Iñigo; Muncunill, Josep

    2013-12-01

    The Spanish Apheresis Group is a scientific association of physicians and nurses representing most of the medical centers in the country that are involved in apheresis. The group developed a survey in order to get information about the types and number of apheresis procedures performed in Spain. We received responses from 66 centers and we were able to collect data from at least one center of each autonomous region. There were 7 centers (11%) that did not perform any kind of apheresis procedures, 26 (39%) centers performed therapeutic apheresis procedures only, 18 (27%) centers performed apheresis donations only, and 15 (23%) centers performed both types of apheresis procedures. Regarding therapeutic apheresis in adult patients, plasma exchange (34%) and stem cell collections (30%) were the two therapeutic procedures most frequently reported, followed by erythrocytapheresis (13%) and extracorporeal photochemotherapy (11%). Regarding apheresis donation, our survey showed that the most frequent was multicomponent donation (45%) followed by plasmapheresis (28%) and single plateletapheresis (21%). When analyzing the current instrumentation for performing apheresis procedures, centers used the Spectra, Optia, and Trima devices (TerumoBCT) as the most frequent ones, followed by the MCS+(Haemonetics), Amicus (Fenwal), and Fresenius devices. In conclusion, we report here the first nationwide survey performed in Spain in order to get information about apheresis activities in our country. The survey is representative of Spain because we were able to collect data from at least one center from each of the different 17 autonomous regions, and we found a wide variety of therapeutic and donation procedures, as well as instrumentation used.

  6. Chronology of the 2007 eruption of Stromboli and the activity of the Scientific Synthesis Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, Franco; Civetta, Lucia; Rosi, Mauro; Scandone, Roberto

    2009-05-01

    On 27 February 2007, at 12.49 GMT, a new eruption of Stromboli took place with the effusion of a lava flow from a fracture cutting the flank of the NE cone, which rapidly reached the sea. The eruption had been heralded by an increase in the amplitude of tremor and flank movement since at least the 14th of February. Short-term precursors were an increase in the rate of occurrence of small landslides within the "Sciara del Fuoco" scar on the North-western flank of the volcano. A new effusive vent opened at 18.30 GMT on the Sciara del Fuoco at an height of 400 m asl. The new lava emission caused the sudden termination of the summit flow and initiated a period of non-stationary lava outpouring which ended on 2 April, 2007. The eruption has been characterized by a rapid decrease in the eruption rate after the first days and subsequently by episodic pulse increases. On the 15th of March, the increase in lava outpouring, monitored by a thermal camera, heralded by 9 min the occurrence of a violent paroxysmal explosion with the formation of an impulsive eruption column and the emission of small pumices mingled with black scoriae. The pumice had a bulk composition similar to that of the lava and of the black scoriae, but with a distinct lower content of phenocrysts. A similar feature has been repeatedly observed during the major explosive paroxysms of Stromboli. Short term precursors of the paroxysm were recorded by strainmeter and tiltmeter stations. The volcano monitoring activity has been made by a joint team of researchers from the INGV sections of Catania, Napoli, Palermo and Rome, along with researchers from the Universities of Florence, Pisa, Roma Tre, and Palermo. The scientific activity was coordinated by a Synthesis Group made up by scientists responsible for the different monitoring techniques of INGV and Universities and by the volcanic experts of Commissione Nazionale Grandi Rischi of the Prime Minister Office (Civil Protection Department). The group made a

  7. Natural variation in 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in the urine of Finnish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja; Solatie, Dina; Vesterbacka, Pia

    2011-11-01

    A study to determine activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the urine of certain Finnish population groups was conducted, to investigate the variation in natural background level of urinary excretion. The study participants were divided into three groups mainly based on their diet. The first group comprised recreational fishermen and the second group represented people consuming more reindeer meat than an average Finn, while people using drinking water with very high activity concentrations of (210)Po were selected for the third group. The fourth group was a control group. The mean urinary excretion of (210)Po in groups 1 and 2 was 73 and 100 mBq d(-1), respectively. These values were higher than the value of the control group (20 mBq d(-1)) and the mean values reported in the literature. The mean daily urinary excretion of (210)Pb in groups 1 and 2, 70 and 52 mBq d(-1), was also slightly higher than that in the control group (32 mBq d(-1)). In contrast, the excretion rates of both (210)Po and (210)Pb for the members of group 3 were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. This was clearly due to the elevated levels of natural radionuclides in their drinking water. The present study demonstrates the importance of possessing good knowledge of the background levels, in order to allow the determination of the additional exposure due, for example, to the malevolent use of radiation.

  8. Transdiagnostic group behavioral activation and exposure therapy for youth anxiety and depression: Initial randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian C; Crocco, Sofia T; Esseling, Petra; Areizaga, Margaret J; Lindner, Alison M; Skriner, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are debilitating and commonly co-occurring in young adolescents, yet few interventions are designed to treat both disorder classes together. Initial efficacy is presented of a school-based transdiagnostic group behavioral activation therapy (GBAT) that emphasizes anti-avoidance in vivo exposure. Youth (N = 35; ages 12-14; 50.9% male) were randomly assigned to either GBAT (n = 21) or WL (n = 14) after completing a double-gated screening process. Multi-reporter, multi-domain outcomes were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and four-month follow-up (FU). GBAT was associated with greater posttreatment remission rates than WL in principal diagnosis (57.1% vs. 28.6%; X1(2) = 2.76, p = .09) and secondary diagnosis (70.6% vs. 10%; X1(2) = 9.26, p = .003), and greater improvement in Clinical Global Impairment - Severity ratings, B = -1.10 (0.42), p = .01. Symptom outcomes were not significantly different at posttreatment. GBAT produced greater posttreatment behavioral activation (large effect size) and fewer negative thoughts (medium effect), two transdiagnostic processes, both at the trend level. Most outcomes showed linear improvement from pretreatment to FU that did not differ depending on initial condition assignment. Sample size was small, but GBAT is a promising transdiagnostic intervention for youth anxiety and unipolar mood disorders that can feasibly and acceptably be applied in school settings.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity: The experiences of a group of South African adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchar, Lauren; Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie; Derman, Wayne

    2016-02-01

    Participation in regular physical activity promotes physical health and psychosocial well-being. Interventions are thus needed to promote physical activity, particularly among groups of individuals, such as persons with disability, who are marginalised from physical activity. This study explored the experiences of a group of South African adolescents with cerebral palsy. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 adolescents with cerebral palsy. The results provided insight into a range of factors that promote and hinder participation in physical activity among adolescents with cerebral palsy in resource-scarce environments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The effect of skin-to-skin contact at birth, early versus immediate, on the duration of exclusive human lactancy in full-term newborns treated at the Clínica Universidad de La Sabana: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Sergio; Gamboa, Oscar; Rodríguez, Fabio; Cala, Sandra; Gualdrón, Nathalie; Obando, Evelyn; Padrón, María Lucía

    2016-10-26

    Human lactancy is a simple and cost-effective strategy that influences infant and maternal mortality rates. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is an immediate postpartum period strategy that has proven to benefit the initiation and continuation of human lactation and to decrease hospitalization during the first week of life. This study aims to determine the effect of SSC initiation at birth (immediate versus early) in healthy, full-term newborns treated at the Universidad de La Sabana Clinic on the duration of exclusive human lactation. A randomized, blind clinical trial will be performed with full-term healthy newborns born at the Universidad de La Sabana Clinic. The blind trial participants will be those persons measuring the results and analyzing the data. The sample size will be calculated for a type I error of 5 %, a two-tailed type II error of 20 %, and an estimated percentage loss of 30 %; 150 infants will be included in each group. Randomization will be performed using permuted, size-6 blocks. Descriptive analysis will be conducted using central tendency and dispersion measurements. A bivariate analysis will be performed to determine which variables are associated with exclusive lactancy at 6 months. For continuous variables, Student's t test will be used for independent samples, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test will be used if the assumptions of normality for the t tests are not fulfilled. The assumption of normality will be evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Categorical variables in contingency tables will be constructed to assess the independence between variables using the chi-square test, or Fisher's exact test when the assumption of the number of cases is not met by the values in the contingency tables multiplied by two. This will be calculated as a measurement of the effect of relative risk (RR) with confidence intervals; the adjusted measurements will be calculated using a multivariate regression Poisson model. Variables with

  11. Dextromethorphan Efficiently Increases Bactericidal Activity, Attenuates Inflammatory Responses, and Prevents Group A Streptococcal Sepsis▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Han; Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Lu, Shiou-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2011-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from mild throat and skin infections to severe invasive diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Dextromethorphan (DM), a dextrorotatory morphinan and a widely used antitussive drug, has recently been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of DM in GAS infection using an air pouch infection mouse model. Our results showed that DM treatment increased the survival rate of GAS-infected mice. Bacterial numbers in the air pouch were lower in mice treated with DM than in those infected with GAS alone. The bacterial elimination efficacy was associated with increased cell viability and bactericidal activity of air-pouch-infiltrating cells. Moreover, DM treatment prevented bacterial dissemination in the blood and reduced serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-1β and the chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), and RANTES. In addition, GAS-induced mouse liver injury was reduced by DM treatment. Taken together, DM can increase bacterial killing and reduce inflammatory responses to prevent sepsis in GAS infection. The consideration of DM as an adjunct treatment in combination with antibiotics against bacterial infection warrants further study. PMID:21199930

  12. Identification of an active ID-like group of SINEs in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Jamison, Nicole

    2007-09-01

    The mouse genome consists of five known families of SINEs: B1, B2, B4/RSINE, ID, and MIR. Using RT-PCR we identified a germ-line transcript that demonstrates 92.7% sequence identity to ID (excluding primer sequence), yet a BLAST search identified numerous matches of 100% sequence identity. We analyzed four of these elements for their presence in orthologous genes in strains and subspecies of Mus musculus as well as other species of Mus using a PCR-based assay. All four analyzed elements were identified either only in M. musculus or exclusively in both M. musculus and M. domesticus, indicative of recent integrations. In conjunction with the identification of transcripts, we present an active ID-like group of elements that is not derived from the proposed BC1 master gene of ID elements. A BLAST of the rat genome indicated that these elements were not in the rat. Therefore, this family of SINEs has recently evolved, and since it has thus far been observed mainly in M. musculus, we refer to this family as MMIDL.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N‧-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

  14. Representations of happiness and life satisfaction in the group of educated and socially active young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokurina, Irina G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the differences in the social representations of happiness among optimists and pessimists in the group of socially active, educated young members of the international youth organization Association Internationale des Etudiants en Sciences Economiques et Commerciales . To assess the degree of optimism and pessimism we used the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS developed by E. Diener, while social representation, divided into the nucleus and peripheral zones, were examined using Verges’ technique within the framework of the concept of social mindsets offered by S. Moskovichi. It has been shown that, irrespective of the optimism or pessimism of the participants, the nucleus of their representations of happiness contains such a value as love. However, only in optimists’ representations is this value combined in the nucleus with the values of family and friendship. In the pessimists’ nucleus zone of the representation of happiness, love is presented as an independent value, primarily associated with striking emotional experiences, which has aspects of psychological addiction. Considerable differences between optimists and pessimists have also been found in the peripheral zone of the representation of happiness. Only optimists have such associations as “knowledge”, “children”, and “faith” in their peripheral area. In our opinion, the major scale of differences between optimists and pessimists is formed by the factor of sociocentricity and egocentricity.

  15. Synthesis, Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing Thioamide Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘法谦; 秦永其; 许良忠; 陆路德; 杨绪杰; 汪信

    2005-01-01

    Two compounds 2-benzoyl-N-phenyl-2-( 1,2,4-triazol- 1-yl)thioacetamide (1) and 2-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-N-phenyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)thioacetamide (2) were synthesized from substituted acetophenone, triazole and phenyl isothiocyanate by several step reactions. The structure of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/c, a =0.8806(2) nm, b= 1.2097(2) nm, c= 1.4809(3) nm, β=105.88°, Z=4, V=1.5173(6) nm3, Dc= 1.411 Mg/m3, μ=0.22 mm-1, F(000)=672, final R1=0.040 and Rw=0.103. There is obvious potentially weak C—H…N intermolecular interaction in the crystal, which stabilizes the structure. The results of biological test show that the two compounds have antifungal and plant growth regulating activities.

  16. The Austrian Botanic Gardens Work Group, an Example of Active Networking to Promote Small Botanic Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roland K. EBERWEIN

    2011-01-01

    The continuously increasing demands on botanic gardens during the last few decades have led to a huge in increase administration and an urgent need for additional specialized personnel, especially botanists, teachers, database specialists and administrative staff. Instead of meeting these requirements, many botanic gardens are faceing a severe decrease in funding and personnel. Larger gardens provide the opportunity to distribute several tasks to different employees, whereas small gardens are short staffed and often nn by a single curator who has to fulfill all functions. In order to meet actual demands more easily, the Austrian botanic gardens are linked nationally via an active workgroup.This network not only allows the distribution of information but also facilitates the sharing of duties. A listserver speeds up the communication and correspondence within the workgroup, collection priorities and projects (e. g., GSPC) are coordinated, seedbanking becomes decentralized, printedmatters are shared and distributed, etc. Small gardens with only few employees can participate in projects by taking on small-ideally using with their special resources-in order not to fall behind. In addition, there is also an urgent need for international networking by means of plant and seed exchange (Index Semihum), BGCI membership, discussion groups, personal contacts and projects. Mission statements,special marketing strategies for public relations, integrating projects of other workgroup members and adapted public awareness programs are important to focus attention to small gardens and to help them keep alive.

  17. Leukotriene C4 Potentiates IL-33-Induced Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Activation and Lung Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Sean J; Portillo, Alex; Cavagnero, Kellen; Baum, Rachel E; Naji, Luay H; Badrani, Jana H; Mehta, Amit; Croft, Michael; Broide, David H; Doherty, Taylor A

    2017-08-01

    Asthma is a complex disease that is promoted by dysregulated immunity and the presence of many cytokine and lipid mediators. Despite this, there is a paucity of data demonstrating the combined effects of multiple mediators in asthma pathogenesis. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have recently been shown to play important roles in the initiation of allergic inflammation; however, it is unclear whether lipid mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), which are present in asthma, could further amplify the effects of IL-33 on ILC2 activation and lung inflammation. In this article, we show that airway challenges with the parent CysLT, leukotriene C4 (LTC4), given in combination with low-dose IL-33 to naive wild-type mice, led to synergistic increases in airway Th2 cytokines, eosinophilia, and peribronchial inflammation compared with IL-33 alone. Further, the numbers of proliferating and cytokine-producing lung ILC2s were increased after challenge with both LTC4 and IL-33. Levels of CysLT1R, CysLT2R, and candidate leukotriene E4 receptor P2Y12 mRNAs were increased in ILC2s. The synergistic effect of LTC4 with IL-33 was completely dependent upon CysLT1R, because CysLT1R(-/-) mice, but not CysLT2R(-/-) mice, had abrogated responses. Further, CysLTs directly potentiated IL-5 and IL-13 production from purified ILC2s stimulated with IL-33 and resulted in NFAT1 nuclear translocation. Finally, CysLT1R(-/-) mice had reduced lung eosinophils and ILC2 responses after exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata Thus, CysLT1R promotes LTC4- and Alternaria-induced ILC2 activation and lung inflammation. These findings suggest that multiple pathways likely exist in asthma to activate ILC2s and propagate inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of New MKC-442 Analogues with an Alkynyl-Substituted 6-Benzyl Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Youssef L.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerreg.; La Colla, Paolo;

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis and antiviral activities are reported of a series of 6-(3-alkynyl benzyl)-substituted analogues of MKC-442 (6-benzyl-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-isopropyluracil), a highly potent agent against HIV. The 3-alkynyl group is assumed to give a better stacking of the substituted benzyl group to revers...

  19. Sport and Physical Activity in the Lives of Looked-After Children: A "Hidden Group" in Research, Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarmby, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Looked-after children are arguably one of the most disadvantaged groups in society and constitute a "hidden group" in relation to sport and physical activity research, policy and practice. Research on looked-after children has explored the views of caregivers, practitioners and policy-makers who have often been asked to speak for…

  20. Evaluation Tools to Guide Students' Peer-Assessment and Self-Assessment in Group Activities for the Lab and Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation tools are provided that help students' peer-assessment and self-assessment in group activities for the laboratories and classroom. The self- and peer-evaluations have helped teachers provide better feedback to the students and feel more confident in assigning each individual a grade for their contribution to the group laboratory project.

  1. The Effectiveness of Individual/Small Group Singing Activities on Kindergartners' Use of Singing Voice and Developmental Music Aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Joanne

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the comparative effectiveness of two teaching strategies, large-group and individual/small group singing activities, on kindergartners' developmental music aptitude. Examines improvements in children's singing and musical aptitude in order to ascertain length of time and types of instruction necessary to affect improvement. (MJP)

  2. Comparing the effects of group and home-based physical activity on mental health in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Salehe Mortazavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study focuses on comparing the effects of home-based (HB and group-based (GB physical activity on mental health in a sample of older adults in Shahr-e-kord. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, a twice-weekly physical activity program for 2 months was provided either individually at home or in a group format for 181 people who were divided into two groups (HB and GB. The outcome, mental health, was measured with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Results: Mental health status improved after participation in the physical activity program. The decrease in GHQ-28 total score in GB group, 3 months after intervention, was 3.61 ΁ 2.28 (P < 0.001. In HB group, this reduction was 1.20 ΁ 2.32 during the same period (P < 0.001. The difference of these "before-after differences" between the two groups in the GHQ-28 and all its subscales was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Also, the effects of GB physical activity on mental health compared with HB physical activity, adjusted for related baseline variables, were significant. Conclusions: These findings reveal the probable effects of GB rather than HB physical activity on mental health among the elderly.

  3. Invented Spelling Activities in Small Groups and Early Spelling and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Salvador, Liliana; Albuquerque, Ana; Silva, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of an invented spelling programme conducted in small groups on children's written language acquisition in Portuguese. We expected the experimental group to have better post-test results than the control group in spelling and reading. Participants were 160 preschool-age children who were randomly divided into an…

  4. Invented Spelling Activities in Small Groups and Early Spelling and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Salvador, Liliana; Albuquerque, Ana; Silva, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of an invented spelling programme conducted in small groups on children's written language acquisition in Portuguese. We expected the experimental group to have better post-test results than the control group in spelling and reading. Participants were 160 preschool-age children who were randomly divided into an…

  5. Forming and activating an internal facilitation group for successful implementation: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Megan B; Gillespie, Chris; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Jones, Ellen A; Park, Angela M; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen; Rose, Adam J

    This study focuses on an implementation facilitation strategy to improve the delivery of anticoagulation care within pharmacy-run clinics across 8 Veterans Health Administration (VA) medical centers. Other studies have explored various models of implementation facilitation, including external facilitation (EF), internal facilitation (IF), and blended facilitation (BF) combining both approaches. This study focuses on the use of an internal facilitation team of anticoagulation coordinators representing 8 VA anticoagulation clinics to enhance the implementation process. This study examines how the team became instrumental in the successful implementation of evidence-based practice change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted annually over 4 years with representatives from each site, the internal facilitators (site champions), at 8 VA hospitals (47 interviews). Additionally, five external facilitators, experts in quality improvement and anticoagulation care who guided the implementation, were interviewed. Analysis drew on a deductive approach based on the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model and emergent thematic analysis to identify factors related to effectiveness of the internal facilitation team. Key findings are that the following factors enhanced successful uptake of the anticoagulation initiative: 1) Regular participation by the site champion in the internal facilitation team; 2) Champion strongly committed to being an agent of change; and 3) Champion received greater support from their supervisors. The first and second factors are interrelated, as internal facilitators who actively and regularly participated in the internal facilitation team often became truly committed to the improvement project. Both factors relate to the third, as supervisor support not only facilitated changes in practice, but also facilitated regular team attendance and stronger participation. Our study adds to implementation science by

  6. Predictors of willingness to pay for physical activity of socially vulnerable groups in community-based programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Wagemakers, M.A.E.; Koelen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) is used to assess individuals’ value attribution to health-related quality of life interventions. Little is known about predictors of WTP for sport and physical activity in socially vulnerable groups in communitybased physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. This study addresses

  7. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  8. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  9. Tuning the leaving group in 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucoside results in improved activity-based retaining beta-glucosidase probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Willems, Lianne I.; Witte, Martin D.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2012-01-01

    The potency of 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglycosides in activity-based profiling of human acid beta-glucosidase is drastically improved by introducing an N-phenyl trifluoroacetimidate leaving group at the anomeric center. Protonation by the general acid-base catalyst in the active site turned out to be a

  10. Activities of the task group 8 on thin film PV module reliability (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being used increasingly to provide renewable energy to schools, residences, small businesses and utilities. At this time, the home owners and small businesses have considerable difficulty in detecting module and/or system degradation and especially enforcing warranty. It needs to be noted that IEC 61215-1 (test req.), -2 (test proc.) and -1-1 (c-Si) are forecasted to be circulated end of Feb 2016 and only editorial changes would be possible. 61215 series does include thin film technologies and would be replacing 61646. Moreover, IEC 61215-1, section 7.2 power output and electric circuitry does contain significant changes to acceptance criteria regarding rated label values, particularly rated power. Even though it is believed that consensus could be achieved within IEC TC82 WG2, some of the smaller players that do not participate actively in IEC TC82 - may not be surprised and must be informed. The other tech specific parts 61215-1-2 (CdTe), -1-3 (a-Si, µc-Si) and -1-4 (CIS, CIGS) are out for comments. The IEC closing date was January 29, 2016. The additions alternative damp heat (DH) test proposed Solar Frontier is being reviewed. In the past, only 600 V systems were permitted in the grid-connected residential and commercial systems in the US. The US commercial systems can now use higher voltage (1,000-1500V) in order to reduce BOS component costs. It is believed that there would not be any problems. The Task Group 8 is collecting data on higher voltage systems.

  11. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir.

  12. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1 the experience of psychological well-being, (2 the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3 the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants.

  13. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1) the experience of psychological well-being, (2) the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3) the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants. PMID:24875239

  14. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  15. Antitumor activities and interaction with DNA of oxaliplatin-type platinum complexes with linear or branched alkoxyacetates as leaving groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runting; Gou, Shaohua; Liu, Xia; Lou, Liguang

    2011-08-01

    Five oxaliplatin-typed platinum complexes containing trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane chelating platinum cores, characteristic of linear or branched alkoxycarboxylates as leaving groups, were biologically evaluated. These compounds showed higher antitumor activity, lower toxicity in vivo than cisplatin or oxaliplatin. And the results revealed that the antitumor activity and interaction with DNA of these compounds were highly related to the nature of leaving groups. Among these complexes, 5a, cis-(trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane) bis (2-tert-butoxyacetate) platinum(II), showed the highest antitumor activity and the lowest toxicity.

  16. Group III alcohol dehydrogenase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum: insights into enzymatic activity and organization of the metal ion-containing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Fodor, Krisztian; von der Heyde, Amélie; Klippel, Barbara; Wilmanns, Matthias; Antranikian, Garabed

    2014-05-01

    NAD(P)(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely distributed in all phyla. These proteins can be assigned to three nonhomologous groups of isozymes, with group III being highly diverse with regards to catalytic activity and primary structure. Members of group III ADHs share a conserved stretch of amino acid residues important for cofactor binding and metal ion coordination, while sequence identities for complete proteins are highly diverse (90 %). A putative group III ADH PaYqhD has been identified in BLAST analysis from the plant pathogenic enterobacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum. The PaYqhD gene was expressed in the heterologous host Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified in a two-step purification procedure to homogeneity indicating an obligate dimerization of monomers. Four conserved amino acid residues involved in metal ion coordination were substituted with alanine, and their importance for catalytic activity was confirmed by circular dichroism spectrum determination, in vitro, and growth experiments. PaYqhD exhibits optimal activity at 40 °C with short carbon chain aldehyde compounds and NADPH as cofactor indicating the enzyme to be an aldehyde reductase. No oxidative activities towards alcoholic compounds were detectable. EDTA completely inhibited catalytic activity and was fully restored by the addition of Co(2+). Activity measurements together with sequence alignments and structure analysis confirmed that PaYqhD belongs to the butanol dehydrogenase-like enzymes within group III of ADHs.

  17. Perceptions of the activity, the social climate, and the self during group exercise classes regulate intrinsic satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Gottschall, Jinger S.; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to com...

  18. The structure-anticoagulant activity relationships of sulfated lacquer polysaccharide: effect of carboxyl group and position of sulfation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhong; Du, Yumin; Huang, Ronghua; Wan, Yunyang; Wen, Yan

    2005-07-01

    Regiospecific oxidation of the primary hydroxyl groups in lacquer polysaccharide (LPL, Mw 6.85 x 10(4)) and its NaIO4 oxidation derivatives (LPLde) to C-6 carboxy groups was achieved with NaOCl in the presence of Tempo and NaBr. Sulfate groups were incorporated into the oxidated polysaccharides using Py.SO3 complex as a reagent. Reactivity of polysaccharide hydroxyl group was C-6 > C-2 > C-4. Sulfate groups were mainly linked to the second hydroxy at C-2 in the products. The results of APTT assay showed after incorporation of carboxyl groups into lacquer polysaccharides, the intrinsic coagulation pathway was promoted, and all sulfated polysaccharides had very weak anticoagulant activity within the scope of studied DS (0.39-1.11). These indicated that carboxyl groups and sulfate groups had the synergistic action. At the same time, the anticoagulant activity increased very slowly with the DS in the second hydroxy. This indicated that 6-O-SO3- in the side chains took an important role in the anticoagulant activity.

  19. Synthesis and optical activity of isosorbide chiral derivative containing fluorocarbon group as chiral dopant in liquid crystal materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Liang Xie; Yin He Su; Chun Xiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Novel isosorbide derivative containing perfluorocarbon group, bi(perfluorooctanesulfonyl)isosorbide ester as chiral dopant in liquid crystal, was synthesized. Chemical structure was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 19F NMR. The optical texture of the mixture was observed by polarized optical microscopy (POM). Novel chiral dopant containing perfluorocarbon group had excellent optical activity. Its specific rotation and molar rotation were noticeable higher than those of bi(4-chloromethylbenzenecarbonic)isosorbide ester. The fluorocarbon group improved the molar rotation of chiral compound and did not affect optical rotation direction. The texture of the mixture added isosorbide derivative with fluorocarbon group showed the oily streak texture.

  20. Supporting active learning in an undergraduate geotechnical engineering course using group-based audience response systems quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The use of audience response systems (ARSs) or 'clickers' in higher education has increased over the recent years, predominantly owing to their ability to actively engage students, for promoting individual and group learning, and for providing instantaneous feedback to students and teachers. This paper describes how group-based ARS quizzes have been integrated into an undergraduate civil engineering course on foundation design. Overall, the ARS summary quizzes were very well received by the students. Feedback obtained from the students indicates that the majority believed the group-based quizzes were useful activities, which helped to improve their understanding of course materials, encouraged self-assessment, and assisted preparation for their summative examination. Providing students with clickers does not, however, necessarily guarantee the class will be engaged with the activity. If an ARS activity is to be successful, careful planning and design must be carried out and modifications adopted where necessary, which should be informed by the literature and relevant student feedback.

  1. 76 FR 35950 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 3) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...--Group 3).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: a. Central Nervous System and Neuromusculo Diseases..., VA Form 21-0960G-1. e. Gallbladder and Pancreas Conditions, Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA...

  2. Niveles de exposición a fungicidas ditiocarbamatos y su relación con las condiciones de trabajo en el sector floricultor en la Sabana de Bogotá D.C. (Cundinamarca) y Rionegro (Antioquia), Colombia, durante el año 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Cordoba, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    El interés del estudio de investigación se basó en recolectar datos de exposición ocupacional a plaguicidas ditiocarbamatos en el sector floricultor. Objetivo: Determinar los niveles de exposición a fungicidas ditiocarbamatos y su relación con las condiciones laborales de los trabajadores del sector floricultor en la Sabana de Bogotá D.C. (Cundinamarca) y Rionegro (Antioquia), Colombia, durante el año 2011. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal, en 358 trabajadores...

  3. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  4. Final Report: Main Group Element Chemistry in Service of Hydrogen Storage and Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Dixon; Anthony J. Arduengo, III

    2010-09-30

    goal was met in terms of reducing the number of costly experiments and helping to focus the experimental effort on the potentially optimal targets. We have used computational chemistry approaches to predict the thermodynamic properties of a wide range of compounds containing boron, nitrogen, hydrogen, and other elements as appropriate including carbon. These calculations were done in most cases with high level molecular orbital theory methods that have small error bars on the order of ± 1 to 2 kcal/mol. The results were used to benchmark more approximate methods such as density functional theory for larger systems and for database development. We predicted reliable thermodynamics for thousands of compounds for release and regeneration schemes to aid/guide materials design and process design and simulation. These are the first reliable computed values for these compounds and for many represent the only available values. Overall, the computational results have provided us with new insights into the chemistry of main group and organic-base chemical hydrogen systems from the release of hydrogen to the regeneration of spent fuel. A number of experimental accomplishments were also made in this project. The experimental work on hydrogen storage materials centered on activated polarized σ- or π-bonded frameworks that hold the potential for ready dihydrogen activation, uptake, and eventually release. To this end, a large number of non-traditional valence systems including carbenes, cyanocarbons, and C-B and and B-N systems were synthesized and examined. During the course of these studies an important lead arose from the novel valency of a class of stable organic singlet bi-radical systems. A synthetic strategy to an “endless” hydrogen storage polymer has been developed based on our cyanocarbon chemistry. A key issue with the synthetic efforts was being able to link the kinetics of release with the size of the substituents as it was difficult to develop a low molecular

  5. The influence of friendship groups and media on eating behavior and physical activity in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MD E.J.M. Wouters; Prof Rinie Geenen

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of overweight and obesity results from individual factors and from meso- and macro environmental factors. Adolescents are especially vulnerable to unhealthy changes in life style. One major influence on health behavior in this age group is represented by friends in peer groups.

  6. The influence of friendship groups and media on eating behavior and physical activity in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Geenen, Rinie

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of overweight and obesity results from individual factors and from meso- and macro environmental factors. Adolescents are especially vulnerable to unhealthy changes in life style. One major influence on health behavior in this age group is represented by friends in peer groups. Y

  7. Immunochemical studies on blood groups LXII. Fractionation of hog and human A, H, and AH blood group active substance on insoluble immunoadsorbents of Dolichos and Lotus lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M E; Kabat, E A

    1976-02-01

    The purified lectins from Lotus tetragonolobus and Dolichos biflorus were coupled to Sepharose 2B to make insoluble adsorbents for purification and fractionation of blood group A and H active glycoproteins. With both adsorbents, hog gastric mucin A + H blood substance (HGM), purified by phenol-ethanol precipitation, yielded fractions showing only A, only H, or AH activities. The AH fraction was obtained when the adsorbent column was overloaded with HGM and its A and H specificities seem to be carried on the same molecules since they were not separable by chromatography on either column. However A and H specificities of blood group substance from the stomach of a presumably heterozygous individual hog were both on the same molecules as they too could not be fractionated on either column. Analytical properties of the isolated fractions were generally similar to those of the unfractionated material, the purfied A substances had a higher galactosamine/fucose ratio than did the H substances. Although the original A + H showed very little specific optical rotation, the separated A and H substances rotated positively and negatively, respectively. The lectin-Sepharose adsorbents have also proven useful in isolating A or H substances directly from the crude commercial hog gastric mucin. Blood group A2 substance from a human ovarian cyst yielded two fractions on the Lotus-Sepharose column; the effluent did not interact with the Lotus lectin but precipitated the Ulex and Dolichos lectins and anti-A, and appears to contain type 1 H determinants. The other fraction reacted with Lotus and Ulex lectin as well as with Dolichos and anti-A.

  8. Using A Facebook Group As An Adjunct To A Pilot mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumper, Megan A; Mendoza, Jason A; Arseniev-Koehler, Alina; Holm, Matthew; Waite, Alan; Moreno, Megan A

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, most adolescents do not obtain the recommended amounts of physical activity for optimal health. Around 80% of adolescents own a mobile device, and social media is frequently used by adolescents on mobile devices. Few studies have examined the use of social media as part of an intervention to promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a Facebook group as part of a mHealth physical activity intervention trial. Adolescents, ages 14-18 years, were recruited for a four week physical activity intervention using the FitBit Flex. Participants were also given the option to join a private Facebook group where they could interact and were given badges for fitness accomplishments. The research assistant moderator posted on the Facebook group an average of 25.3 times (SD=7.2). Post-intervention, participants completed a phone interview about their experience. Of 30 intervention participants (avg age 16.0 (SD=1.1), 60.0% female), 17 opted to join the Facebook group (avg age 16.3 (SD=1.2), 47.0% female) of which 10 completed a qualitative interview. Participants averaged 4.9 interactions (SD=8.7) on the Facebook group wall throughout the intervention. From the interview responses, major themes included enjoying the badge feature of the Facebook group and wanting more content and interaction. In conclusion, participants used and enjoyed having the Facebook group, particularly the badge feature of the group, as an adjunct to the physical activity intervention.

  9. Planetology group s complex educational activity at Eötvös University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.; Kereszturi, A.; Sik, A.; Varga, T.; Berczi, S.

    We describe the educational activities and the new educational materials made by the Planetology Group at the Eötvös University. Our specialization is in planetary surface geomorphology and cartography. We worked out and distributed various educational units, including Online hypermedia package, Atlas of Planetary Bodies in the Little Atlas Series of the Solar System [1], and On - and offline lecture note series educational video on Petrologic Studies of Solar System Materials. Hypermedia: We have prepared an online hypermedia environment for the distant education of planetology in Hungary. Our educational outreach project on our website includes a daily cosmic calendar, a monthly star map, and planetary topographic or photomosaic maps with nomenclature. Seminar: We organized an autumn semester course in 2001 named General Planetology at the Eötvös Loránd University of Sciences . In this course we kept lectures from a general point of view dealing with certain processes and spheres of planetary bodies. The Atlas of Planetary Bodies: In this - free - printed educational material we collected the most important and typical features of our planetary neighbours - one feature for every body. Bodies of the Solar System - Slide Series: Like an assistant or a teaching material we compiled a series of photo slides. Video Education Online: A newly created video series have been made available online for download. The content of the film is related to our textbook (fig. 1., left) on Meteorites and Lunar Samples, where students can make their own drawings and colorings of the textures of thin sections. Under support of the Commission on Planetary Cartography of the International Cartographic Association we have prepared a multilingual map of Mars [3] for use in Central European universities, in Coatian, Czech, Hungarian and Polish languages. References: [1] Bérczi Sz. Hargitai H., Kereszturi Á., Sik A. (2001): Little Atlas of the Solar System Series (3): Atlas of

  10. Effects of using nursing home residents to serve as group activity leaders: lessons learned from the RAP project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrajner, Michael J; Haberman, Jessica L; Camp, Cameron J; Tusick, Melanie; Frentiu, Cristina; Gorzelle, Gregg

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that persons with early to moderate stage dementia are capable of leading small group activities for persons with more advanced dementia. In this study, we built upon this previous work by training residents in long-term care facilities to fill the role of group activity leaders using a Resident-Assisted Programming (RAP) training regimen. There were two stages to the program. In the first stage, RAP training was provided by researchers. In the second stage, RAP training was provided to residents by activities staff members of long-term care facilities who had been trained by researchers. We examine the effects of RAP implemented by researchers and by activities staff member on long-term care resident with dementia who took part in these RAP activities. We also examined effects produced by two types of small group activities: two Montessori-based activities and an activity which focuses on persons with more advanced dementia, based on the work of Jitka Zgola. Results demonstrate that levels of positive engagement seen in players during RAP (resident-led activities) were typically higher than those observed during standard activities programming led by site staff. In general, Montessori-Based Dementia Programming® produced more constructive engagement than Zgola-based programming (ZBP), though ZBP did increase a positive form of engagement involving observing activities with interest. In addition, RAP implemented by activities staff members produced effects that were, on the whole, similar to those produced when RAP was implemented by researchers. Implications of these findings for providing meaningful social roles for persons with dementia residing in long-term care, and suggestions for further research in this area, are discussed.

  11. Efecto de Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae sobre la productividad de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cure José Ricardo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En varios países se utilizan con éxito especies de abejorros del género Bombus para la polinización de tomate, reportándose incrementos de productividad hasta del 40%. En la Sabana de Bogotá existen varias especies nativas del género, por lo que se planteó examinar su potencial, desde el punto de vista de su cría en cautiverio y de su utilización como polinizadores de tomate y otras solanáceas. En este trabajo se evaluó el potencial de la especie nativa Bombus atratus como polinizador de tomate, mediante la introducción al cultivo de colonias criadas en cautiverio. Se comparó la autopolinización espontánea de la planta, frente a la obtenida con ayuda de las obreras de B. atratus. Los frutos visitados por ellas presentaron incrementos significativos para las variables ‘peso fresco del fruto’ (40,9%, ‘número de semillas’ (103,3%, ‘diámetro ecuatorial’ (14,3% y ‘proporción de lóculos bien desarrollados’ (42,2%. La relativa facilidad para la cría de esta especie en cautiverio, y el potencial demostrado en el aumento de productividad del tomate bajo invernadero, muestran la necesidad de profundizar en estos estudios en Colombia.

  12. Determinantes endógenos y exógenos de la localización industrial metropolitana: un análisis no paramétrico para el caso de la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melba Rubiano Briu00F1ez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La localización de las actividades económicas dentro de un territorio específico es relevante en el contexto del desarrollo económico regional y territorial. Por ello, se realizó el análisis de los "determinantes de la localización industrial" en el área de influencia inmediata a Bogotá, entendidos como el conjunto de incentivos de orden geográfico-ambiental, económicos y regulatorios que facilitan la relocalización de una porción del valor agregado, del personal ocupado y de la inversión neta en los municipios del área de influencia inmediata de la capital. Mediante la investigación realizada se identificó un umbral metropolitano que abarca diferentes zonas de la geografía cundinamarquesa. Se postularon, además, dos propiedades de la localización industrial metropolitana y se indagó acerca de los determinantes endógenos de la localización industrial. Mediante el trabajo de campo, se dedujeron los determinantes de la localización exógenos a las firmas industriales, esto es, los que le ofrecen el territorio y que éstas captan a través de algún tipo de externalidades; además, se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la encuesta sobre localización industrial en la Sabana de Bogotá para cada eje, y organizados en sus tres componentes: actividad económica, pautas de localización y elementos de prospectiva.

  13. EVALUATION OF WORK PLACE GROUP AND INTERNET BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH EXERCISE BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology

  14. Effect of phosphate activating group on oligonucleotide formation on montmorillonite: the regioselective formation of 3',5'-linked oligoadenylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabahar, K. J.; Cole, T. D.; Ferris, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of amine structure on the montmorillonite-catalyzed oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoramidates of adenosine are investigated. 4-Aminopyridine derivatives yielded oligoadenylates as long as dodecamers with a regioselectivity for 3',5'-phosphodiester bond formation averaging 88%. Linear and cyclic oligomers are obtained and no A5'ppA-containing products are detected. Oligomers as long as the hexanucleotide are obtained using 2-aminobenzimidazole as the activating group. A predominance of pA2'pA is detected in the dimer fraction along with cyclic 3',5'-trimer; no A5'ppA-containing oligomers were detected. Little or no oligomer formation was observed when morpholine, piperidine, pyrazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and 2-pyridone are used as phosphate-activating groups. The effects of the structure of the phosphate activating group on the oligomer structure and chain lengths are discussed.

  15. Contexts, Mechanisms, and Outcomes That Matter in Dutch Community-Based Physical Activity Programs Targeting Socially Vulnerable Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herens, Marion; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; van Ophem, Johan; Koelen, Maria

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a practitioner-based approach to identify key combinations of contextual factors (C) and mechanisms (M) that trigger outcomes (O) in Dutch community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs targeting socially vulnerable groups. Data were collected in six programs using semi-structured interviews and focus groups using a timeline technique. Sessions were recorded, anonymized, and transcribed. A realist synthesis protocol was used for data-driven and thematic analysis of CMO configurations. CMO configurations related to community outreach, program sustainability, intersectoral collaboration, and enhancing participants' active lifestyles. We have refined the CBHEPA program theory by showing that actors' passion for, and past experiences with, physical activity programs trigger outcomes, alongside their commitment to socially vulnerable target groups. Project discontinuity, limited access to resources, and a trainer's stand-alone position were negative configurations. The authors conclude that local governance structures appear often to lack adaptive capacity to accommodate multilevel processes to sustain programs.

  16. The Governance Features of Social Enterprise and Social Network Activities of Collective Food Buying Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; de Schutter, Olivier; Hudon, Marek; Mathijs, Erik; Annaert, Bernd; Avermaete, Tessa; Bleeckx, Thomas; de Callatay, Charlotte; De Snijder, Pepijn; Fernandez-Wulff, Paula; Joachain, Helene; Vivero, Jose-Luis

    2017-01-01

    Collective food buying groups, such as community supported agriculture or self-organized citizen groups for delivery of food baskets, have emerged throughout the world as an important niche innovation for promoting more sustainable agri-food systems. These initiatives seek to bring about societal change. They do so, however, not through protest or interest-based lobbying, but by organizing a protected space for learning and experimentation with lifestyle changes for sustainable food consumpti...

  17. NO-inhibiting and vasotropic activity of some compounds with thioamidine group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakov, S Ya; Kucherenko, N G; Trishkina, A I; Filimonova, M V; Shevchuk, A G; Shtein, L V; Verkhovskii, Yu G; Konoplyannikov, A G; Mandrugin, A A; Fedoseev, V M; Skvortsov, V G

    2002-10-01

    Using the method of electron paramagnetic spectroscopy we demonstrated that thiazine-thiazoline compounds and aminoethyl isothiourea containing the thioamidine group inhibit NO production in the liver of endotoxin-treated mice. Injection of these agents to anesthetized rats increased arterial pressure and enhanced respiration rate. This effect probably reflects inhibition of not only inducible, but also the constitutive synthesis of NO by compounds with thioamidine group.

  18. Final Report: Main Group Element Chemistry in Service of Hydrogen Storage and Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Dixon; Anthony J. Arduengo, III

    2010-09-30

    goal was met in terms of reducing the number of costly experiments and helping to focus the experimental effort on the potentially optimal targets. We have used computational chemistry approaches to predict the thermodynamic properties of a wide range of compounds containing boron, nitrogen, hydrogen, and other elements as appropriate including carbon. These calculations were done in most cases with high level molecular orbital theory methods that have small error bars on the order of ± 1 to 2 kcal/mol. The results were used to benchmark more approximate methods such as density functional theory for larger systems and for database development. We predicted reliable thermodynamics for thousands of compounds for release and regeneration schemes to aid/guide materials design and process design and simulation. These are the first reliable computed values for these compounds and for many represent the only available values. Overall, the computational results have provided us with new insights into the chemistry of main group and organic-base chemical hydrogen systems from the release of hydrogen to the regeneration of spent fuel. A number of experimental accomplishments were also made in this project. The experimental work on hydrogen storage materials centered on activated polarized σ- or π-bonded frameworks that hold the potential for ready dihydrogen activation, uptake, and eventually release. To this end, a large number of non-traditional valence systems including carbenes, cyanocarbons, and C-B and and B-N systems were synthesized and examined. During the course of these studies an important lead arose from the novel valency of a class of stable organic singlet bi-radical systems. A synthetic strategy to an “endless” hydrogen storage polymer has been developed based on our cyanocarbon chemistry. A key issue with the synthetic efforts was being able to link the kinetics of release with the size of the substituents as it was difficult to develop a low molecular

  19. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  20. Active placebo control groups of pharmacological interventions were rarely used but merited serious consideration: a methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob Solgaard; Bielefeldt, Andreas Ørsted; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2017-07-01

    Active placebos are control interventions that mimic the side effects of the experimental interventions in randomized trials and are sometimes used to reduce the risk of unblinding. We wanted to assess how often randomized clinical drug trials use active placebo control groups; to provide a catalog, and a characterization, of such trials; and to analyze methodological arguments for and against the use of active placebo. An overview consisting of three thematically linked substudies. In an observational substudy, we assessed the prevalence of active placebo groups based on a random sample of 200 PubMed indexed placebo-controlled randomized drug trials published in October 2013. In a systematic review, we identified and characterized trials with active placebo control groups irrespective of publication time. In a third substudy, we reviewed publications with substantial methodological comments on active placebo groups (searches in PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and HighWirePress). The prevalence of trials with active placebo groups published in 2013 was 1 out of 200 (95% confidence interval: 0-2), 0.5% (0-1%). We identified and characterized 89 randomized trials (published 1961-2014) using active placebos, for example, antihistamines, anticholinergic drugs, and sedatives. Such trials typically involved a crossover design, the experimental intervention had noticeable side effects, and the outcomes were patient-reported. The use of active placebos was clustered in specific research settings and did not appear to reflect consistently the side effect profile of the experimental intervention, for example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were compared with active placebos in pain trials but not in depression trials. We identified and analyzed 25 methods publications with substantial comments. The main argument for active placebo was to reduce risk of unblinding; the main argument against was the risk of unintended therapeutic effect. Pharmacological

  1. [Survey on evidence-based medicine teaching activities in the German-speaking area: a target-group specific analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Joshua; Valipour, Arash; Strametz, Reinhard; Meyer, Gabriele; Lühmann, Dagmar; Steurer, Johann; Horvath, Karl; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Forster, Johannes; Sauder, Karsta; Ollenschläger, Günther; Ochsendorf, Falk; Weberschock, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    A survey conducted in 2011/12 on evidence-based medicine teaching activities in Germany, Austria and Switzerland shows an apparent increase of undergraduate and postgraduate teaching activities addressing different target groups. The potential target-group specific or generalised nature of teaching activities in EbM were explored by comparing the contents and structures of educational offers in order to detect differences and commonalities. First, several large institutions of the healthcare system were contacted. In addition, the participants of the EbM Academy were consulted as key informants, and the members of the German-speaking colleges of general practitioners and the German Network for EBM were asked to identify potential providers of EbM teaching activities. In the second step pretested detailed questionnaires were sent out that allowed a target-group specific analysis of contents, structures and didactic methods. Altogether, 185 teaching activities in EbM are described; 117 (6.8%) of these address students, 70 (37.8%) physicians and 55 (29.7%) caregivers and members of other healthcare professions. Further target groups include people interested in the healthcare system with a total of 38 (i.e., 20.5%) and patients with 18 (9.7%) teaching activities (multiple responses allowed). Students are mainly taught in obligatory seminars, courses or lectures with a high number of participants, whereas teaching activities addressing other target groups are mostly offered to small groups of participants in the form of optional seminars, courses or workshops lasting a similar length of time. As regards the content, attendees from all target groups with only little previous knowledge are taught the first three steps of EbM according to Sackett. Specialised contents are not distributed evenly and reveal some adaptation to the respective target groups. Structural differences between the target groups are most likely attributed to distinct framework conditions in

  2. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Zerbato

    Full Text Available Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  3. Interactions between odorant functional group and hydrocarbon structure influence activity in glomerular response modules in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett A; Farahbod, Haleh; Leon, Michael

    2005-03-07

    To investigate the effect of odorant hydrocarbon structure on spatial representations in the olfactory bulb systematically, we exposed rats to odorant chemicals possessing one of four different oxygen-containing functional groups on one of five different hydrocarbon backbones. We also used several hydrocarbon odorants lacking other functional groups. Hydrocarbon structural categories included straight-chained, branched, double-bonded, alicyclic, and aromatic features. Activity throughout the entire glomerular layer was measured as uptake of [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose and was mapped into anatomically standardized data matrices for statistical comparisons across different animals. Patterns evoked by straight-chained aliphatic odorants confirmed an association of activity in particular glomerular response modules with particular functional groups. However, the amount of activity in these same modules also was affected significantly by differences in hydrocarbon structure. Thus, the molecular features recognized by receptors projecting to these response modules appear to involve both functional group and hydrocarbon structural elements. In addition, particular benzyl and cyclohexyl odorants evoked activity in dorsal modules previously associated with the ketone functional group, which represents an exception to the rule of one feature per response module that had emerged from our previous studies. These dorsal modules also responded to nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds involving pyridine and pyrazine rings. The unexpected overlap in modular responses to ketones and odorants seemingly unrelated to ketones may reflect some covert shared molecular feature, the existence of odorant sensory neurons with multiple specificities, or a mosaic of sensory neuron projections to these particular modules.

  4. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbato, Madeleine; Holic, Nathalie; Moniot-Frin, Sophie; Ingrao, Dina; Galy, Anne; Perea, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP) and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  5. Specific antibiotics and nematode trophic groups agree in assessing fungal:bacterial activity in agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S; Dam, M; Vestergaard, M;

    2012-01-01

    There are no methods at hand with a long and proven record for assessing the relative contribution of fungi and bacteria to decomposer activity in soil. Whereas a multitude of methods to determine fungal and bacterial biomass are available, activity assays traditionally relied on the substrate...

  6. Physical activity locations in Georgia: frequency of use by socio-demographic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J. M. Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Active outdoor recreation helps to mitigate health consequences associated with sedentary behavior. Enhanced understanding of socio-demographic differences in physical activity (PA) location preferences could therefore contribute to health promotion.This study examined frequency o fuse fo rvarious PA locations in Georgia,a state with historically high levels of...

  7. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the children´s perceptions of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly for those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have...... more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls’ requests for more “hanging-out” facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Conclusion: Based on the results from this study, we......Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...

  8. Effect of Natural Sunlight on Bacterial Activity and Differential Sensitivity of Natural Bacterioplankton Groups in Northwestern Mediterranean Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Gasol, Josep M.; Lefort, Thomas; Hofer, Julia; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural sunlight on heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton in short-term experiments. We used a single-cell level approach involving flow cytometry combined with physiological probes and microautoradiography to determine sunlight effects on the activity and integrity of the cells. After 4 h of sunlight exposure, most bacterial cells maintained membrane integrity and viability as assessed by the simultaneous staining with propidium iodide and SYBR green I. In contrast, a significant inhibition of heterotrophic bacterial activity was detected, measured by 5-cyano-2,3 ditolyl tetrazolium chloride reduction and leucine incorporation. We applied microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization to test the sensitivity of the different bacterial groups naturally occurring in the Northwestern Mediterranean to sunlight. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes groups appeared to be highly resistant to solar radiation, with small changes in activity after exposure. On the contrary, Alphaproteobacteria bacteria were more sensitive to radiation as measured by the cell-specific incorporation of labeled amino acids, leucine, and ATP. Within Alphaproteobacteria, bacteria belonging to the Roseobacter group showed higher resistance than members of the SAR11 cluster. The activity of Roseobacter was stimulated by exposure to photosynthetic available radiation compared to the dark treatment. Our results suggest that UV radiation can significantly affect the in situ single-cell activity of bacterioplankton and that naturally dominating phylogenetic bacterial groups have different sensitivity to natural levels of incident solar radiation. PMID:16957198

  9. Analysis of activity in swine producers group based on agricultural producers association in Biała district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Knecht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of pigs producer groups formation in Poland is quite dynamic. Currently on the pork market 181 groups operate, which includes about 4000 swine producers. The aim of this study was to characterize the activities of the Agricultural Producers Association in Biała District. The research tool was a personal questionnaire and the research sample consisted of 30 farmers. It has been shown that after joining the producers group, the investigated households reported an increase in sales volume and improved the flock production parameters. Majority of the respondents were not satisfied with the cooperation with meat processing companies.

  10. Seeking Shared Practice: A Juxtaposition of the Attributes and Activities of Organized Fossil Groups with Those of Professional Paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Ellis, Shari; Dunckel, Betty A.; Hendy, Austin J. W.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to define the attributes and practices of organized fossil groups (e.g., clubs, paleontological societies) as amateur paleontologists, as well as those of professional paleontologists, and explore the potential for these two groups to work collaboratively as a formalized community. Such an investigation is necessary to develop design principles for an online environment that supports this community and encourages communication and shared practice among individuals with different backgrounds in paleontology and who are geographically isolated. A national survey of fossil group representatives and professional paleontologists was used to address the research questions. The results provide a rich description of the attributes and activities of both groups and are discussed in terms of three design principles for supporting the two groups in a form of collaboration and fellowship via a coherent shared practice within an online learning community.

  11. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    OpenAIRE

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Olsen, David B.; Søndergaard, Hans; Daugaard, Jens R.; Bysted, Anette; Dirk L. Christensen; Saltin, Bengt; Helge, Jørn W

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index). Study design: Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq) and 15 eating a western...

  12. Exploring students' learning effectiveness and attitude in Group Scribbles-supported collaborative reading activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, C. P.; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Chen, W.

    2014-01-01

    and interest were enhanced as well. Further analyses were done to probe students' interaction processes in the networked collaborative classroom and different collaboration patterns and behaviours were identified. Based on the findings obtained, implications for future learning design to empower L1 learning......Improving students' reading comprehension is of significance. In this study, collaborative learning supported by Group Scribbles (GS), a networked technology, was integrated into a primary reading class. Forty-seven 10-year-old students from two 4th grade classes participated in the study....... Experimental and control groups were established to investigate the effectiveness of GS-supported collaborative learning in enhancing students' reading comprehension. The results affirmed the effectiveness of the intervention designed. In the experiment group, students' learning attitudes, motivation...

  13. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  14. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  15. Multidrug reverting activity toward leukemia cells in a group of new verapamil analogues with low cardiovascular activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biscardi, Monica; Teodori, Elisabetta; Caporale, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    of these proteins, several attempts have been made to modulate their expression and activity (protein kinase C inhibitors, anti-MDR-1 oligonucleotides, pharmacological competitors and transcriptional inhibitors). Six new compounds (MM 36, CTS 4, CTS 9, CTS 12, CTS 27 and CTS 41), derived from verapamil (VRP), were......), in the presence or absence of inhibitors, showed that these compounds function well. All the resistance modifying agents potentiated IDA activity inducing a significant reduction (PVRP at each of the concentrations tested, but MM 36, CTS 27 and CTS 41 demonstrated...... 36, CTS 27 and CTS 41, that are the most interesting compounds as MDR inhibitors, followed this course: MM 36>CTS 27>CTS 41, the last one presenting no cardiovascular activity. Chemosensivity to IDA in K-562/doxR cells and AML blasts could be enhanced in vitro by the adjuvant use of the six new VRP...

  16. Relationships Between Vocal Activity and Perception of Communicators in Small Group Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, John A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to investigate the relationships between vocal activity level and interpersonal attraction, perceived credibility, perceived homophily or interpersonal similarity and perceived power or ability to influence. (MH)

  17. Nonequilibrium dynamics of active matter with correlated noise: A dynamical renormalization group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachan, Devin; Levine, Alex; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2014-03-01

    Biology is rife with examples of active materials - soft matter systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states by energy input at the micro scale. For example, solutions of active micron scale swimmers produce active fluids showing phenomena reminiscent of turbulent convection at low Reynolds number; cytoskeletal networks driven by endogenous molecular motors produce active solids whose mechanics and low frequency strain fluctuations depend sensitively on motor activity. One hallmark of these systems is that they are driven at the micro scale by temporally correlated forces. In this talk, we study how correlated noise at the micro scale leads to novel long wavelength and long time scale dynamics at the macro scale in a simple model system. Specifically, we study the fluctuations of a ϕ4 scalar field obeying model A dynamics and driven by noise with a finite correlation time τ. We show that the effective dynamical system at long length and time scales is driven by white noise with a renormalized amplitude and renormalized transport coefficients. We discuss the implications of this result for a broad class of active matter systems driven at the micro scale by colored noise.

  18. The OMERACT Ultrasound Group: status of current activities and research directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, Richard J; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Iagnocco, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a relatively new imaging modality in rheumatology that offers great potential as a diagnostic and management tool. In 2004, an OMERACT Ultrasound Special Interest Group was formed to address the metric qualities of US as a potential outcome measure. A preliminary systematic rev...

  19. Group Tasks, Activities, Dynamics, and Interactions in Collaborative Robotics Projects with Elementary and Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Timothy T.; Boecking, Melanie; Stone, Jennifer; Tiger, Erin Price; Gomez, Alvaro; Guillen, Adrienne; Arreguin, Analisa

    2014-01-01

    Robotics provide the opportunity for students to bring their individual interests, perspectives and areas of expertise together in order to work collaboratively on real-world science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) problems. This paper examines the nature of collaboration that manifests in groups of elementary and middle school…

  20. 76 FR 72997 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... recommendations on how best to mitigate any consequences. The Task Group includes experts and key stakeholders... other RSIA priorities are met. Contact: Douglas Taylor, (202) 493-6255. Task 06-01--Locomotive Safety... existing rules, and adopt existing industry and engineering best practices. The proposed amendments include...

  1. A phylogenetic group of Escherichia coli associated with active left-sided inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas M; Nielsen, Eva M; Litrup, Eva;

    2009-01-01

    group (triplex PCR), extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) genes and multilocus sequence type (MLST) between E. coli strains isolated from IBD patients with past or present involvement of the left side of the colon and from controls. RESULTS: Fecal samples were collected from 18 patients and from...

  2. Effects of Applying STR for Group Learning Activities on Learning Performance in a Synchronous Cyber Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony C. T.; Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to apply Speech to Text Recognition (STR) for individual oral presentations and group discussions of students in a synchronous cyber classroom. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of applying STR on learning performance. Students' perceptions and behavioral intentions toward using STR were also investigated.…

  3. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups in five provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui-zhen; Li, Zhen-shan; Wang, Rong-hua

    2015-07-01

    The quantities and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important factors in the planning and management of MSW. Daily human activities were classified into three groups: maintenance activities (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care, MA); subsistence activities (providing the financial support requirements, SA); and leisure activities (social and recreational pursuits, LA). A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in five provinces (Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan and Sichuan) of China. These five provinces were chosen for this study and the distribution patterns of MSW generated by different activities and resident groups were revealed. The results show that waste generation in SA and LA fluctuated slightly from 2003 to 2008. For general waste generation in the five provinces, MA accounts for more than 70% of total MSW, SA approximately 10%, and LA between 10% and 16% by urban residents in 2008. Females produced more daily MSW than males in MA. Males produced more daily MSW than females in SA and LA. The wastes produced at weekends in MA and LA were far greater than on weekdays, but less than on weekdays for SA wastes. Furthermore, one of the model parameters (the waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure) is inversely proportional to per-capita disposable income of urban residents. A significant correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation by SA was observed with a high coefficient of determination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison Between Individually and Group-Based Insulin Pump Initiation by Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstråle, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Depending on available resources, competencies, and pedagogic preference, initiation of insulin pump therapy can be performed on either an individual or a group basis. Here we compared the two models with respect to resources used. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) was used to compare initiating insulin pump treatment in groups (GT) to individual treatment (IT). Activities and cost drivers were identified, timed, or estimated at location. Medical quality and patient satisfaction were assumed to be noninferior and were not measured. GT was about 30% less time-consuming and 17% less cost driving per patient and activity compared to IT. As a batch driver (16 patients in one group) GT produced an upward jigsaw-shaped accumulative cost curve compared to the incremental increase incurred by IT. Taking the alternate cost for those not attending into account, and realizing the cost of opportunity gained, suggested that GT was cost neutral already when 5 of 16 patients attended, and that a second group could be initiated at no additional cost as the attendance rate reached 15:1. We found TDABC to be effective in comparing treatment alternatives, improving cost control and decision making. Everything else being equal, if the setup is available, our data suggest that initiating insulin pump treatment in groups is far more cost effective than on an individual basis and that TDABC may be used to find the balance point.

  5. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  6. Perspective: Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breat...

  7. Activation of group IVC phospholipase A2 by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induces apoptosis of human coronary artery endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Sean M.; Elgayyar, Mona A.; Menn, Fu-Minn; Vulava, Vijay M.; McKay, Larry; Sanseverino, John; Sayler, Gary; Tucker, Dawn E.; Leslie, Christina C.; Lu, Kim P.; Ramos, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal tar mixtures and tobacco sources, is considered a significant risk factor for the development of heart disease in humans. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of PAHs present at a Superfund site on human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCAEC) phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and apoptosis. Extremely high levels of 12 out of 15 EPA high-priority PAHs were present in both the streambed and floodplain sediments at a site where an urban creek and its adjacent floodplain were extensively contaminated by PAHs and other coal tar compounds. Nine of the 12 compounds and a coal tar mixture (SRM 1597A) activated group IVC PLA2 in HCAECs, and activation of this enzyme was associated with histone fragmentation and poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Genetic silencing of group IVC PLA2 inhibited both 3H-fatty acid release and histone fragmentation by PAHs and SRM 1597A, indicating that individual PAHs and a coal tar mixture induce apoptosis of HCAECs via a mechanism that involves group IVC PLA2. Western blot analysis of aortas isolated from feral mice (Peromyscus leucopus) inhabiting the Superfund site showed increased PARP and caspase-3 cleavage when compared to reference mice. These data suggest that PAHs induce apoptosis of HCAECs via activation of group IVC PLA2. PMID:21132278

  8. The Social Interaction and Activity Patterns of Children from Two San Groups Living as Refugees on a Namibian Military Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Christine

    1988-01-01

    Observation of the social interaction and activity patterns of young children from two San (or Bushman) groups (Sekele and Kwengo) who lived with their families in identical settlements on the same military base revealed marked intergroup differences, especially in patterns of social interaction among girls. Discusses influences of cultural…

  9. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  10. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  11. Understanding EFL Students' Participation in Group Peer Feedback of L2 Writing: A Case Study from an Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shulin; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    While the last three decades have witnessed a growing body of research on peer feedback in first language (L1) and second language (L2) writing, research about students' motives for participating in group peer feedback has remained underexplored. In order to fill this important gap, this case study, guided by the constructs of activity and motive…

  12. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Olsen, David B.; Søndergaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq) and 15 eating a western diet (TAB), age (mean (range)); 38, (22–58) yrs, BMI; 28 (20–40) were subjected to an oral glucose...

  13. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  14. Human RBCs blood group conversion from A to O using a novel α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase of high specific activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU ChengYu; XU Hua; WANG LiSheng; ZHANG JianGeng; ZHANG YangPei

    2008-01-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (aNAGA) can convert group A human red blood cells (RBCs) to group O. One novel aNAGA gene was cloned by PCR from Elizabethkingia meningosepticum isolated from a domestic clinical sample. Pure recombinant aNAGA was obtained by genetic engineering and protein purification with a calculated molecule of 49.6 kD. aNAGA was selective for terminal a-N-acetylgalacto-samine residue with a high specific activity, aNAGA could completely remove A antigens of 1 U (about 100 mL) group A1 or A2 RBCs in 1 h at pH 6.8 and 25℃ with a consumption of 1.5 or 0.4 mg recombinant enzyme. Enzyme-converted group A RBCs did not agglutinate after being mixed with monoclonal anti-A or sera of groups A, B, AB and O. Other blood group antigens except ABO had no change. FCM analy-sis showed that A antigens and A1 antigens disappeared while H antigens increased. It indicated thataNAGA successfully converted human blood group A RBCs to universally transfusable group O RBCs without the risk of ABO-incompatible transfusion reactions. This aNAGA was suitable for producing universal RBCs to increase clinical transfusion safety, improve the RBCs supply, and to decrease transfusion cost and support transfusion service in case of emergency,

  15. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  16. Promote the equality and fairness for everyone in physical education activity-the case of mixed group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA PETRACOVSCHI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSince the classes are mixed in Romania but the lessons of physical education are still practicing by usingseparated groups for male and female, especially for team sports (e.g. football, handball, etc where boys areplaying against boys and girls against girls, the purpose of this study is to identify and combat gender stereotypesby using games and plays for mixed group in physical education activity. Also, using the mix group in thephysical activity during all the school period will be a main method of learning civic rules, the respect ofdifference and will encourage the process of socialization between boys and girls.MethodsThe experiment was conducted between 15October 2009 to 15 May 2010 by a group of 20 students (13 girls and7 boys at the age of 13 (VII grade in Romanian system using the sociometrical method.Results and discussionIf the initial testing shows that the choice of partner is primarily based on gender, the results made after finaltesting (after 7 months of work carried out by groups combined reveals that the partner’s choice is madeaccording to sporting skills and physical development.ConclusionsThe conclusions highlight the importance of early work on mixed groups from the age of 9. The idea is tocombat the stereotypes in so called "masculine" or "feminine" sports and to emphasize the respect for equalityand fairness between students according to individual possibilities

  17. Structure-Activity Relationship of Curcumin: Role of the Methoxy Group in Anti-inflammatory and Anticolitis Effects of Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haixia; Du, Zheyuan; Wang, Weicang; Song, Mingyue; Sanidad, Katherine; Sukamtoh, Elvira; Zheng, Jennifer; Tian, Li; Xiao, Hang; Liu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Guodong

    2017-06-07

    Curcumin, a dietary compound from turmeric, has beneficial effects on inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Most previous studies have focused on the structure-activity relationship of the thiol-reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups of curcumin, so little is known about the roles of methoxy groups in biological activities of curcumin. Here we synthesized a series of curcumin analogues with different substitution groups (R = H-, Br-, Cl-, F-, NO2-, CH3-, and OH-) to replace the methoxy group and evaluated their biological effects in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin, Cur-OH, and Cur-Br (25 μM) suppressed 74.91 ± 0.88, 77.75 ± 0.89, and 71.75 ± 0.90% of LPS-induced NO production, respectively (P 0.05). In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, the Cur-Br analogue also showed a beneficial effect the same as curcumin (P effect in the animal model (P > 0.05). Together, the analogues have dramatically different effects on inflammation, supporting that the substitution group on the methoxy position plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin. The methoxy group is a potential structural candidate for modification to design curcumin-based drugs for inflammatory diseases.

  18. Studying the evolution of galaxies in compact groups over the past 3 Gyr. I. The nuclear activity

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsakis, T; Ciesla, L; Krongold, Y; Charmandaris, V; Zezas, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the first -- of a series -- study of the evolution of galaxies in compact groups over the past 3 Gyr. This paper focuses on the evolution of the nuclear activity and how it has been affected by the dense environment of the groups. Our analysis is based on the largest multiwavelength compact group sample to-date, containing complete ultraviolet-to-infrared (UV-to-IR) photometry for 1,770 isolated groups (7,417 galaxies). We classified the nuclear activity of the galaxies based on optical emission line and mid-infrared diagnostic methods, as well as using spectral energy distribution fitting. We observe a 15% increase on the number of the AGN-hosting late-type galaxies found in dynamically old groups, over the past 3 Gyr, accompanied by the corresponding decrease of their circumnuclear star formation. Comparing our compact group results with those of local isolated field and interacting pair galaxies, we find no differences in the AGN at the same redshift range. Based on both optical and mid-IR colou...

  19. Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies. After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.

  20. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G.H.; Ditiu, L.; Migliori, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... of isoniazid for treatment of LTBI, with an estimated median (range) uptake of 55% (5-92.5%). Symptoms and sputum examination could be used more widely when screening for active tuberculosis. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection might be better focused by targeted use of interferon-gamma release assays...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...

  1. Jack bean urease: the effect of active-site binding inhibitors on the reactivity of enzyme thiol groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Barbara; Zaborska, Wiesława

    2007-10-01

    In view of the complexity of the role of the active site flap cysteine in the urease catalysis, in this work we studied how the presence of typical active-site binding inhibitors of urease, phenylphosphorodiamidate (PPD), acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), boric acid and fluoride, affects the reactivity of enzyme thiol groups, the active site flap thiol in particular. For that the inhibitor-urease complexes were prepared with excess inhibitors and had their thiol groups titrated with DTNB. The effects observed were analyzed in terms of the structures of the inhibitor-urease complexes reported in the literature. We found that the effectiveness in preventing the active site cysteine from the modification by disulfides, varied among the inhibitors studied, even though they all bind to the active site. The variations were accounted for by different extents of geometrical distortion in the active site that the inhibitors introduced upon binding, leaving the flap either open in AHA-, boric acid- and fluoride-inhibited urease, like in the native enzyme or closed in PPD-inhibited urease. Among the inhibitors, only PPD was found to be able to thoroughly protect the flap cysteines from the further reaction with disulfides, this apparently resulting from the closed conformation of the flap. Accordingly, in practical terms PPD may be regarded as the most suitable inhibitor for active-site protection experiments in inhibition studies of urease.

  2. Socio-demographic patterning of physical activity across migrant groups in India: results from the Indian Migration Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Sullivan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between rural to urban migration and physical activity (PA in India. METHODS: 6,447 (42% women participants comprising 2077 rural, 2,094 migrants and 2,276 urban were recruited. Total activity (MET hr/day, activity intensity (min/day, PA Level (PAL television viewing and sleeping (min/day were estimated and associations with migrant status examined, adjusting for the sib-pair design, age, site, occupation, education, and socio-economic position (SEP. RESULTS: Total activity was highest in rural men whereas migrant and urban men had broadly similar activity levels (p<0.001. Women showed similar patterns, but slightly lower levels of total activity. Sedentary behaviour and television viewing were lower in rural residents and similar in migrant and urban groups. Sleep duration was highest in the rural group and lowest in urban non-migrants. Migrant men had considerably lower odds of being in the highest quartile of total activity than rural men, a finding that persisted after adjustment for age, SEP and education (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37, 0.74. For women, odds ratios attenuated and associations were removed after adjusting for age, SEP and education. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that migrants have already acquired PA levels that closely resemble long-term urban residents. Effective public health interventions to increase PA are needed.

  3. Determinants of Practising Selected Forms of Physical Activity in a Group of Administrative and Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In recent years, a decline in the level of physical activity has been observed all over the world. The number of professions where work is performed in a sitting position has increased. This has had many consequences for our health, the society, and the economy. The aim of this work was to determine which forms of physical activity are the most popular in administrative and office workers, depending on the motives which encourage them to be active. Material and methods. In 2014, a diagnostic survey was carried out among 937 persons in administrative and office positions using a questionnaire form designed by the authors. The study involved persons aged 18 to 65 years, and most of the respondents were female (n = 669. A qualitative analysis of the data was carried out using logistic regression, and the findings were considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. Results. Changing the shape of one’s body was found to be the main determinant of using the gym among the respondents. Persons who jogged regularly, on the other hand, did so in order to increase physical fitness, and those who practised Nordic walking were motivated by the need to care for their health. As far as swimming is concerned, persons who had friends that engaged in this form of activity undertook it almost ten times more often than those who did not have such support from their family and friends (OR = 9.58. Respondents who desired to meet new people were over five times more likely to choose team games as an active form of spending their leisure time (OR = 5.21 than other respondents. Finally, those who engaged in physical activity in order to strengthen family bonds preferred playing and playing games with children in the open air. Conclusions. The predominant forms of physical activity which were regularly performed by the respondents were walking, cycling, and doing gymnastic exercise at home. The respondents were mainly motivated to pursue these

  4. Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) urease. Probing acid-base groups of the active site by pH variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Barbara; Ciurli, Stefano

    2005-07-01

    A pH-variation study of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) urease steady-state kinetic parameters and of the inhibition constant of boric acid, a urease competitive inhibitor, was performed using both noninhibitory organic (MES, HEPES and CHES) and inhibitory inorganic (phosphate) buffers, in an effort to elucidate the functions exercised in the catalysis by the ionizable groups of the enzyme active site. The results obtained are consistent with the requirement for three groups utilized by urease with pK(a)s equal to 5.3+/-0.2, 6.6+/-0.2 and 9.1+/-0.4. Based on the appearance of the ionization step with pK(a)=5.3 in v(max)-pH, K(M)-pH and K(i)-pH profiles, we assigned this group as participating both in the substrate binding and catalytic reaction. As shown by its presence in v(max)-pH and K(M)-pH curves, the obvious role of the group with pK(a)=9.1 is the participation in the catalytic reaction. One function of the group featuring pK(a)=6.6, which was derived from a two-maxima v(max)-pH profile obtained upon increasing phosphate buffer concentration, an effect the first time observed for urease-phosphate systems, is the substrate binding, another possible function being modulation of the active site structure controlled by the ionic strength. It is also possible that the pK(a)=6.6 is a merger of two pK(a)s close in value. The study establishes that regular bell-shaped activity-pH profiles, commonly reported for urease, entail more complex pH-dependent behavior of the urease active site ionizable groups, which could be experimentally derived using species interacting with the enzyme, in addition to changing solution pH and ionic strength.

  5. Reversible dissociation of active octamer of cyanase to inactive dimer promoted by alteration of the sulfhydryl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P M; Johnson, W V; Korte, J J; Xiong, X F; Sung, Y C; Fuchs, J A

    1988-04-25

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate resulting in the decomposition of cyanate to ammonia and bicarbonate. In this study, the role of the single sulfhydryl group in each of the eight identical subunits of cyanase was investigated. Tetranitromethane, methyl methanethiosulfonate, N-ethylmaleimide, and Hg2+ all reacted with the sulfhydryl group to give derivatives which had reduced activities and which dissociated reversibly to inactive dimer. Association of inactive dimer to active octamer was facilitated by the presence of azide (cyanate analog) and bicarbonate, increased temperature and enzyme concentration, and presence of phosphate. Nitration of tyrosine residues by tetranitromethane occurred only in the absence of azide and bicarbonate, suggesting that at least some of the tyrosine residues become exposed when octamer dissociates to dimer. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to prepare a mutant enzyme in which serine was substituted for cysteine. The mutant enzyme was catalytically active and had properties very similar to native enzyme, except that it was less stable to treatment with urea and to high temperatures. These results establish that in native cyanase the sulfhydryl group per se is not required for catalytic activity, but it may play a role in stabilizing octameric structure, and that octameric structure is required for catalytic activity.

  6. Coordinated regulation of Myc trans-activation targets by Polycomb and the Trithorax group protein Ash1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodliffe, Julie M; Cole, Michael D; Wieschaus, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background The Myc oncoprotein is a transcriptional regulator whose function is essential for normal development. Myc is capable of binding to 10% of the mammalian genome, and it is unclear how a developing embryo controls the DNA binding of its abundant Myc proteins in order to avoid Myc's potential for inducing tumorigenesis. Results To identify chromatin binding proteins with a potential role in controlling Myc activity, we established a genetic assay for dMyc activity in Drosophila. We conducted a genome-wide screen using this assay, and identified the Trithorax Group protein Ash1 as a modifier of dMyc activity. Ash1 is a histone methyltransferase known for its role in opposing repression by Polycomb. Using RNAi in the embryo and Affymetrix microarrays, we show that ash1 RNAi causes the increased expression of many genes, suggesting that it is directly or indirectly required for repression in the embryo, in contrast to its known role in maintenance of activation. Many of these genes also respond similarly upon depletion of Pc and pho transcripts, as determined by concurrent microarray analysis of Pc and pho RNAi embryos, suggesting that the three are required for low levels of expression of a common set of targets. Further, many of these overlapping targets are also activated by Myc overexpression. We identify a second group of genes whose expression in the embryo requires Ash1, consistent with its previously established role in maintenance of activation. We find that this second group of Ash1 targets overlaps those activated by Myc and that ectopic Myc overcomes their requirement for Ash1. Conclusion Genetic, genomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest a model in which Pc, Ash1 and Pho are required to maintain a low level of expression of embryonic targets of activation by Myc, and that this occurs, directly or indirectly, by a combination of disparate chromatin modifications. PMID:17519021

  7. Coordinated regulation of Myc trans-activation targets by Polycomb and the Trithorax group protein Ash1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Michael D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Myc oncoprotein is a transcriptional regulator whose function is essential for normal development. Myc is capable of binding to 10% of the mammalian genome, and it is unclear how a developing embryo controls the DNA binding of its abundant Myc proteins in order to avoid Myc's potential for inducing tumorigenesis. Results To identify chromatin binding proteins with a potential role in controlling Myc activity, we established a genetic assay for dMyc activity in Drosophila. We conducted a genome-wide screen using this assay, and identified the Trithorax Group protein Ash1 as a modifier of dMyc activity. Ash1 is a histone methyltransferase known for its role in opposing repression by Polycomb. Using RNAi in the embryo and Affymetrix microarrays, we show that ash1 RNAi causes the increased expression of many genes, suggesting that it is directly or indirectly required for repression in the embryo, in contrast to its known role in maintenance of activation. Many of these genes also respond similarly upon depletion of Pc and pho transcripts, as determined by concurrent microarray analysis of Pc and pho RNAi embryos, suggesting that the three are required for low levels of expression of a common set of targets. Further, many of these overlapping targets are also activated by Myc overexpression. We identify a second group of genes whose expression in the embryo requires Ash1, consistent with its previously established role in maintenance of activation. We find that this second group of Ash1 targets overlaps those activated by Myc and that ectopic Myc overcomes their requirement for Ash1. Conclusion Genetic, genomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest a model in which Pc, Ash1 and Pho are required to maintain a low level of expression of embryonic targets of activation by Myc, and that this occurs, directly or indirectly, by a combination of disparate chromatin modifications.

  8. Students' Evaluation of Google Hangouts through a Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…

  9. A summary of major activities of the UNH and NRL groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    The major activities of the SMM GRS team members at the University of New Hampshire and the Naval Research Laboratory since the last semi-annual report are summarized. An updated list of published papers and invited papers or contributed papers presented at scientific meetings is provided.

  10. 77 FR 42949 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ..., four-passenger, composite airplane. The installation of winglets, as proposed by Tamarack, increases... design change will install winglets and an Active Technology Load Alleviation system (ATLAS). The addition of the ATLAS mitigates the negative effects of the winglets by effectively aerodynamically...

  11. Structure–Activity Relationship of Oligomeric Flavan-3-ols: Importance of the Upper-Unit B-ring Hydroxyl Groups in the Dimeric Structure for Strong Activities

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    Yoshitomo Hamada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, which are composed of oligomeric flavan-3-ol units, are contained in various foodstuffs (e.g., fruits, vegetables, and drinks and are strongly biologically active compounds. We investigated which element of the proanthocyanidin structure is primarily responsible for this functionality. In this study, we elucidate the importance of the upper-unit of 4–8 condensed dimeric flavan-3-ols for antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae and cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell line HeLa S3 proliferation inhibitory activity. To clarify the important constituent unit of proanthocyanidin, we synthesized four dimeric compounds, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(+-catechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and (+-catechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin and performed structure–activity relationship (SAR studies. In addition to antimicrobial activity against S. cerevisiae and proliferation inhibitory activity on HeLa S3 cells, the correlation of 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups was low. On the basis of the results of our SAR studies, we concluded that B-ring hydroxyl groups of the upper-unit of the dimer are crucially important for strong and effective activity.

  12. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G H; Ditiu, L; Migliori, G B

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...... and in-patient contacts. Screening of immigrants is related to their contribution to national rates of tuberculosis. Only 25 (50%) out of 50 advise a request for symptoms in their guidelines. A total of 36 (72%) out of 50 countries recommend sputum examination for those with a persistent cough; 13...

  13. U.S. AMCOMs Activities for TTCP AER/WPN High Speed Strike Action Group 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    AGENCY USE ONLY 2. REPORT DATE November 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. AMCOM’s Activities for TTCP...Comparisons between two independent predictions are presented. These predictions include the internal flow path up to the combustor and full three...internal flow path up to the combustor and full three dimensional external aerodynamics. Background The Aviation and Missile, Research, Development

  14. Success of active tuberculosis case detection among high-risk groups in urban slums in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, R; Qadeer, E; Enarson, D A; Creswell, J; Stevens, R H; Stevens, R; Hinderaker, S G; Anwar, K; ul Haq, M

    2014-09-01

    In Pakistan, patients with symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis (TB) seek care from a wide array of health care providers, many of whom do not notify cases to the National TB Programme (NTP). We evaluated an active case detection intervention in five randomly selected districts in urban slums of Sindh Province, Pakistan. To evaluate the increase in case notification of smear-positive TB by active case finding at community-based chest camps by engaging the private providers. A cross-sectional study of TB case detection associated with a project using integrated intervention and chest camps. From April 2011 to September 2012, the total number of clients seen in the camps was 165 280. Of all the attendees, 13 481 (12.7%) were examined by sputum smear microscopy. The proportion of smear-positive results was significantly higher among those from engaged private providers than among those referred from camps (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.42-1.66). During the project, the total number of smear-positive TB notifications increased over the intervention period from 5158 to 8275. Active case detection by engaging private providers and chest camps can significantly increase the number of smear-positive TB case notifications.

  15. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity, fatty acids composition, and functional group analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Ahmad, Shabir; Bibi, Ahtaram; Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique; Kanwal, Farina; Zakir, Muhammad; Fatima, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Heliotropium bacciferum is paramount in medicinal perspective and belongs to Boraginaceae family. The crude and numerous fractions of leaves, stem, and roots of the plant were investigated for phytochemical analysis and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractions of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. The antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity of various extracts of the Heliotropium bacciferum was resolute against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with the avail of UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The stock solution (1000 mg/mL) and then several dilutions (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/mL) of the crude and fractions were prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The plant leaves (52.59 ± 0.84 to 90.74 ± 1.00), stem (50.19 ± 0.92 to 89.42 ± 1.10), and roots extracts (49.19 ± 0.52 to 90.01 ± 1.02) divulged magnificent antioxidant activities. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents a gas chromatograph hyphenated to mass spectrometer was used. The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as linoleic acid (65.70%), eicosadienoic acid (15.12%), oleic acid (8.72%), and palmitic acid (8.14%) were found in high percentage. The infrared spectra of all extracts of the plant were recorded by IR Prestige-21 FTIR model.

  16. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  17. Perceptions of the activity, the social climate, and the self during group exercise classes regulate intrinsic satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Gottschall, Jinger S; Conroy, David E

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to complete at least six group exercise classes each week and, following each exercise class, complete a questionnaire asking about the characteristics of the class and the participant's evaluation of the class. Intrinsic satisfaction was high, on average, but varied as much within-person from class-to-class as it did between exercisers. Participants reported the greatest intrinsic satisfaction when classes placed greater emphasis on exercisers' involvement with the group task, feelings of competence, and encouragement from the instructor. For the most part, exercise classes that were more intense than usual were perceived by exercisers as less intrinsically satisfying. Some overall characteristics of the exercise classes were also associated with intrinsic satisfaction. The social and motivational characteristics of group exercise classes contribute to exercisers' intrinsic satisfaction with classes and attention to those dynamics, as well as the intensity of the exercise, may improve adherence for exercise regimens.

  18. Vibrational and electronic optical activity of the chiral disulphide group: implications for disulphide bridge conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednárová, Lucie; Bour, Petr; Malon, Petr

    2010-05-15

    Using dihydrogendisulphide (H(2)S(2)), dimethyl- ((CH(3))(2)S(2)), and diethyldisulphide ((CH(3)CH(2))(2)S(2))as model molecules, theoretical ECD, VCD, and ROA spectra of nonplanar disulphides were calculated by DFT methods. Most of the calculated electronic and vibrational chiroptical features suffer an equivocal relation between calculatedsigns of ECD, VCD, or ROA and the sense of disulphide nonplanarity as noted earlier for low-lying ECD bands. This is a consequence of local C(2) symmetry of a disulphide group causing most electronic and vibrational transitions to occur as pairs falling to alternative A, B symmetry species, which become degenerate and switch their succession (and consequently the observed chiroptical sign pattern) at the energetically most favorable perpendicular conformation. According to present calculations, the key to resolving this ambiguity may involve the S-S stretching vibrational mode at approximately 500 cm(-1). The relation of signs of the relevant VCD and ROA features to sense of disulphide chirality seems simpler and less ambiguous. The right-handed arrangement of the S-S group (0 < chi(S-S) < 180 degrees) results in mostly negative VCD signals. Although relation to ROA still suffers some ambiguity, it gets clearer along the series H(2)S(2)-(CH(3))(2)S(2)-(CH(3)CH(2))(2)S(2). ROA is also attractive for the analysis of disulphide-containing peptides and proteins, because applying it to aqueous solutions is not problematic.

  19. OVERVIEW OF THE ACTIVITIES OF THE NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY WORKING GROUP ON EXTERNAL EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakoski, John A.; Smith, Curtis L.; Kim, Min Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The Orgranisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has established a Working Group on External Events (WGEV) that provides a forum for subject matter experts from the nuclear industry and regulators to improve the understanding and treatment of external hazards that would support the continued safety performance of nuclear installations, and improve the effectiveness of regulatory practices, in NEA member countries. This report provides a description of the ongoing work of the WGEV. The work of the WGEV includes the collection of information and conducting a workshop on severe weather and storm surge that brought together a diverse group of subject matter experts to identify commendable practices related to the treatment of severe weather and storm surge consideration in regulatory and operational decision-making. Other work of the WGEV includes looking at science-based screening of external events that are factored into decisions on the safe operation of nuclear facilities; and identification of commendable practices and knowledge gaps on riverine flooding.

  20. Increased cytotoxicity and streptolysin O activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kittang, Bård R; Chakrakodi, Bhavya

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 6...... infiltration and pro-inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest the contribution of SLO to epithelial cytotoxicity and tissue pathology in SDSE tissue infections.......Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 69......) were analyzed with respect to virulence factor expression and cytotoxic or inflammatory effects on human cells and 3D skin tissue models. SDSE strains efficiently infected the 3D-skin model and severe tissue pathology, inflammatory responses and altered production of host structural framework proteins...

  1. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. METHODS: Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. RESULTS: Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". CONCLUSIONS: Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  2. Design and methods of a multi-component physical activity program for adults with intellectual disabilities living in group homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bik C. Chow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID often live a sedentary lifestyle and have higher rates of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and methods of a multi-component physical activity (PA intervention program that aims to increase PA levels in adults with ID who live in group homes. The study employed a multi-component delayed treatment control group design involving adults with ID who lived in two group homes. Interventions included 30 exercise sessions in groups over a 10-week period and three educational lessons based on social cognitive theory that aimed to improve self-efficacy and social support for PA in the participants. In addition, staff training in exercise and advice on institutional PA policies were provided to the caregivers working in the group homes. Outcome measures on three aspects were collected: (1 physical fitness, (2 PA as assessed by an ActiGraph accelerometer, and (3 self-efficacy and social support for PA. Our major objective was to develop the intervention protocol, and the successful completion of this study will provide valuable evidence on how to promote active lifestyles in adults with ID.

  3. The Use of Group Activities in Introductory Biology Supports Learning Gains and Uniquely Benefits High-Achieving Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Marbach-Ad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of small-group active engagement (GAE exercises in an introductory biology course (BSCI207 taught in a large auditorium setting. BSCI207 (Principles of Biology III—Organismal Biology is the third introductory core course for Biological Sciences majors. In fall 2014, the instructors redesigned one section to include GAE activities to supplement lecture content. One section (n = 198 employed three lectures per week. The other section (n = 136 replaced one lecture per week with a GAE class. We explored the benefits and challenges associated with implementing GAE exercises and their relative effectiveness for unique student groups (e.g., minority students, high- and low-grade point average [GPA] students. Our findings show that undergraduates in the GAE class exhibited greater improvement in learning outcomes than undergraduates in the traditional class. Findings also indicate that high-achieving students experienced the greatest benefit from GAE activities. Some at-risk student groups (e.g., two-year transfer students showed comparably low learning gains in the course, despite the additional support that may have been afforded by active learning. Collectively, these findings provide valuable feedback that may assist other instructors who wish to revise their courses and recommendations for institutions regarding prerequisite coursework approval policies.

  4. Role of the C8 gem-dimethyl group of bryostatin 1 on its unique pattern of biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Gary E; Poudel, Yam B; Rudra, Arnab; Stephens, Jeffrey C; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E; Blumberg, Peter M

    2012-06-15

    The role of the C(8) gem-dimethyl group in the A-ring of bryostatin 1 has been examined through chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of a new analogue. Assays for biological function using U937, K562, and MV4-11 cells as well as the profiles for downregulation of PKC isozymes revealed that the presence of this group is not a critical determinant for the unique pattern of biological activity of bryostatin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extended Functional Groups (EFG: An Efficient Set for Chemical Characterization and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Chemical Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Salmina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a classification system termed “extended functional groups” (EFG, which are an extension of a set previously used by the CheckMol software, that covers in addition heterocyclic compound classes and periodic table groups. The functional groups are defined as SMARTS patterns and are available as part of the ToxAlerts tool (http://ochem.eu/alerts of the On-line CHEmical database and Modeling (OCHEM environment platform. The article describes the motivation and the main ideas behind this extension and demonstrates that EFG can be efficiently used to develop and interpret structure-activity relationship models.

  6. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity, Fatty Acids Composition, and Functional Group Analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium bacciferum is paramount in medicinal perspective and belongs to Boraginaceae family. The crude and numerous fractions of leaves, stem, and roots of the plant were investigated for phytochemical analysis and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractions of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. The antioxidant (free radical scavenging activity of various extracts of the Heliotropium bacciferum was resolute against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical with the avail of UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The stock solution (1000 mg/mL and then several dilutions (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/mL of the crude and fractions were prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The plant leaves (52.59 ± 0.84 to 90.74 ± 1.00, stem (50.19 ± 0.92 to 89.42 ± 1.10, and roots extracts (49.19 ± 0.52 to 90.01 ± 1.02 divulged magnificent antioxidant activities. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents a gas chromatograph hyphenated to mass spectrometer was used. The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as linoleic acid (65.70%, eicosadienoic acid (15.12%, oleic acid (8.72%, and palmitic acid (8.14% were found in high percentage. The infrared spectra of all extracts of the plant were recorded by IR Prestige-21 FTIR model.

  7. Improving physical quality of life with group physical activity in the adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorder

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    Mannu Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the change in quality of life over 32 weeks in depressed women assuming antidepressant drug with (experimental group or without (control group physical exercise from a study which results on objective dimension of outcome were already published. Methods Trial with randomized naturalistic control. Patients selected from the clinical activity registries of a Psychiatric University Unit. Inclusion criteria: female, between 40 and 60 years, diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorders (MMD, DSM-IV TR resistant to ongoing treatment. Exclusion criteria: diagnosis of psychotic disorders; any contraindications to physical activity. 30 patients (71.4% of the eligible participated to the study. Cases: 10 randomized patients undergoing pharmacological treatment plus physical activity. Controls: 20 patients undergoing only pharmacological therapy. Quality of life was measured by means of WHOQOL-Bref. Results The patients that made physical activity had their WHOQOL-Bref physical score improved from T0 to T8, the differences was statistically significant. In the control group WHOQOL-Bref physical remains the same and, consequentially, the difference between T0 and T8 do not reach any statistical significance. The perceived quality of life in the other domains did not change during the treatment in both groups. Thus no other differences were found between and within groups. Discussion and Conclusion The data presented in the previous paper found that physical activity seems a good adjunctive treatment in the long term management of patients with MDD. These new data indicated that physical activity may also improve the perceived physical quality of life. The dimensions related with social functioning, environment and psychical well being seem do not improved, unexpectedly, during the trial. Two objective dimension not strictly related to the depressive symptoms improved: social functioning and Clinical Global

  8. Carotenoid derivatives inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activity in bone and cancer cells by targeting key thiol groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnewiel-Hermoni, Karin; Motro, Yair; Miller, Yifat; Levy, Joseph; Sharoni, Yoav

    2014-10-01

    Aberrant activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) transcription system contributes to cancer progression, and has a harmful effect on bone health. Several major components of the NFkB pathway such as IkB Kinase (IKK) and the NFkB subunits contain cysteine residues that are critical for their activity. The interaction of electrophiles with these cysteine residues results in NFkB inhibition. Carotenoids, hydrophobic plant pigments, are devoid of electrophilic groups, and we have previously demonstrated that carotenoid derivatives, but not the native compounds activate the Nrf2 transcription system. The aim of the current study was to examine whether carotenoid derivatives inhibit NFkB, and, if so, to determine the molecular mechanism underpinning the inhibitory action. We report in the present study that a mixture of oxidized derivatives, prepared by ethanol extraction from partially oxidized lycopene preparation, inhibited NFkB reporter gene activity. In contrast, the intact carotenoid was inactive. A series of synthetic dialdehyde carotenoid derivatives inhibited reporter activity as well as several stages of the NFkB pathway in both cancer and bone cells. The activity of the carotenoid derivatives depended on the reactivity of the electrophilic groups in reactions such as Michael addition to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Specifically, carotenoid derivatives directly interacted with two key proteins of the NFkB pathway: the IKKβ and the p65 subunit. Direct interaction with IKKβ was found in an in vitro kinase assay with a recombinant enzyme. The inhibition by carotenoid derivatives of p65 transcriptional activity was observed in a reporter gene assay performed in the presence of excess p65. This inhibition action resulted, at least in part, from direct interaction of the carotenoid derivative with p65 leading to reduced binding of the protein to DNA as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) experiments. Importantly, we found by using

  9. Selection of a Model of Cerebral Activity for fMRI Group Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Merlin; Lavielle, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the statistical analysis of multi-sub ject fMRI data, with the purpose of identifying bain structures involved in certain cognitive or sensori-motor tasks, in a reproducible way across sub jects. To overcome certain limitations of standard voxel-based testing methods, as implemented in the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software, we introduce a Bayesian model selection approach to this problem, meaning that the most probable model of cerebral activity given the data is selected from a pre-defined collection of possible models. Based on a parcellation of the brain volume into functionally homogeneous regions, each model corresponds to a partition of the regions into those involved in the task under study and those inactive. This allows to incorporate prior information, and avoids the dependence of the SPM-like approach on an arbitrary threshold, called the cluster- forming threshold, to define active regions. By controlling a Bayesian risk, our approach balances false positive...

  10. COMPARISON OF LEVELS OF SELF-ESTEEM BY SEX AND LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN TWO GROUPS OF SENIOR ADULTS

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    Diego Rodríguez Méndez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to observe whether there are differences in the self-esteem score, depending on the level of physical activity (active-sedentary in a sample of senior adults. Twenty-six senior adults participated in the study with an average of 73 ± 9 years of age. The sedentary group (n = 12 belonged to the Santo Domingo Nursing Home in Heredia, Costa Rica, while the active group belonged to the project entitled Modulation of the Aging Process of the Movement for Life Program. Results: No significant differences were found in scores by level of physical activity (t = 0.931, p = 0.363; however, there were significant differences in self-esteem scores by gender (t = -2.255, p = 0.034. It was concluded that the level of physical activity does not affect self-esteem and that men’s level of self-esteem is higher than women’s.

  11. Erwinia asparaginase achieves therapeutic activity after pegaspargase allergy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Wanda L; Asselin, Barbara; Supko, Jeffrey G; Devidas, Meenakshi; Kaiser, Nicole A; Plourde, Paul; Winick, Naomi J; Reaman, Gregory H; Raetz, Elizabeth; Carroll, William L; Hunger, Stephen P

    2013-07-25

    AALL07P2 evaluated whether substitution of Erwinia asparaginase 25000 IU/m(2) for 6 doses given intramuscularly Monday/Wednesday/Friday (M/W/F) to children and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and clinical allergy to pegaspargase would provide a 48-hour nadir serum asparaginase activity (NSAA) ≥ 0.10 IU/mL. AALL07P2 enrolled 55 eligible/evaluable patients. NSAA ≥ 0.1 IU/mL was achieved in 38 of 41 patients (92.7%) with acceptable samples 48 hours and in 38 of 43 patients (88.4%) 72 hours after dosing during course 1. Among samples obtained during all courses, 95.8% (252 of 263) of 48-hour samples and 84.5% (125 of 148) of 72-hour samples had NSAA ≥ 0.10-IU/mL. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the serum asparaginase activity-time course for all 6 doses given during course 1 to a 1-compartment open model with first order absorption. Erwinia asparaginase administered with this schedule achieved therapeutic NSAA at both 48 and 72 hours and was well tolerated with no reports of hemorrhage, thrombosis, or death, and few cases of grade 2 to 3 allergic reaction (n = 6), grade 1 to 3 hyperglycemia (n = 6), or grade 1 pancreatitis (n = 1). Following allergy to pegaspargase, Erwinia asparaginase 25000 IU/m(2) × 6 intramuscularly M/W/F can be substituted for a single dose of pegaspargase.

  12. Estudio de la paratuberculosis en un rebaño de ovinos de la sabana de Bogotá mediante la utilización de tres técnicas diagnósticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Mancipe Jiménez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en una granja de ovinos de la Sabana de Bogotá, donde la finalidad de la investigación fue realizar un estudio de la paratuberculosis en dicho rebaño, con el fin de diagnosticar mediante tres técnicas diagnósticas la presencia del Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Para esto se emplearon 250 hembras ovinas pertenecientes a la Granja Experimental ICA-San Jorge, donde se tomó a cada animal una muestra de materia fecal, y mediante la coloración de Zielh Neelsen se determinó la presencia de bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes. A continuación, se procedió a aplicar la prueba de intradermorreacción o tuberculinización (PPD Aviar® Sagar B-0653-034 a todas las ovejas y, por último, se realizó una prueba de serología (Elisa Pourquier®. De las muestras de materia fecal, solo diez resultaron positivas, de las cuales, cuatro fueron de carácter dudoso. En la tuberculinización se encontró que dieciséis animales resultaron positivos, debido a que presentaron una reacción ≥ 5 mm, pero tres de ellos fueron sospechosos, ya que en la medición arrojaron valores < 5 mm. En la prueba de Elisa se encontró que dos animales reaccionaron positivamente. Adicionalmente, se realizó un seguimiento de caso a uno de los animales objeto de estudio, que resultó positivo a las pruebas realizadas, a partir del cual, además, por medio de histopatología y necropsia, se logró confirmar la presencia de la enfermedad. Los hallazgos sugieren que para realizar un diagnóstico exitoso de la paratuberculosis, es necesaria la combinación de dos o más técnicas con el fin de determinar la distribución y el estado de la enfermedad en el rebaño.

  13. Identificación de Mycobacterium sp., en una población de tortugas morrocoy (Geochelone carbonaria en cautiverio y en su entorno, en un zoológico en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Natalia Agudelo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En un Zoológico de la Sabana de Bogotá, se presentó alta mortalidad de aves por tuberculosis aviar, en un encierro en el cual habitaban dos clases de animales diferentes: reptiles y aves. Se buscó establecer la presencia del Mycobacterium sp, por medio de la identificación molecular (PCR-PRA, en una población de 19 tortugas Morrocoy en cautiverio en el Zoológico mencionado anteriormente. Se procedió a tuberculinizar a todas las tortugas, las cuales resultaron negativas y se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal y muestras ambientales (agua y suelo y se cultivaron en medios OK/MSTA, LJ y OK respectivamente realizando baciloscopia para cada una de las muestras. De la muestras de materia fecal sólo cuatro fueron positivas a baciloscopia y de nueve muestras ambientales (suelo (n=7, agua (n=2, cinco fueron positivas (suelo (n=4, agua (n=1; en cuanto al crecimiento fueron negativas todas las de materia fecal de las tortugas Morrocoy. De las muestras ambientales (suelo, agua crecieron cinco y una muestras respectivamente. Adicionalmente se obtuvo muestras de la necropsia de una tortuga Icotea, (tejido, orina y absceso y sólo hubo crecimiento de la muestra de absceso. De la muestra de absceso se identificó Mycobacterium gordonae tipo 3, de las de suelo se obtuvo Mycobacterium avium tipo 3 y en el de agua se obtuvo Mycobacterium fortuitum tipo 1. Los hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de una vigilancia continua, que permita la identificación de la presencia de micobacterias; por medio de pruebas de laboratorio apropiadas (baciloscopia, cultivo, pruebas bioquímicas y moleculares; ya que se debe evitar que las tortugas sigan siendo parte de un ciclo epidemiológico de transmisión como portadores sanos y el contacto con los humanos debe darse sólo cuando sea estrictamente necesario, aplicando normas de bioseguridad.

  14. Determinación de frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria, lactato deshidrogenasa, creatinkinasa y ácido láctico en caballos durante competencia de salto en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Guerrero Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio presenta los primeros resultados de investigación en variables fisiológicas y sus cambios por el ejercicio en equinos en competencia de salto en el país. Se utilizaron 24 ejemplares de las razas Silla Argentina, PSI y mestizo de la Escuela de Equitación del Ejército Nacional de Colombia, que participaron en pruebas de salto (1,10 – 1,20 m en diferentes centros ecuestres de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se determinó frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria y enzimas musculares (creatinquinasa (CK, lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH y el ácido láctico.. Se tomaron tres muestras: reposo, inmediatamente después del ejercicio y a las 6 horas posejercicio. Para la frecuencia cardiaca se utilizó un monitor POLAR S625; la frecuencia respiratoria se determinó mediante fonendoscopio; y las enzimas y el ácido láctico se analizaron en laboratorio. Se utilizó el método estadístico ANAVA para enzimas musculares y acido láctico y estadística descriptiva para frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria. En los resultados se encontró un comportamiento estadísticamente significativo (p < 0.05 del ácido láctico y la enzima creatinkinasa, a diferencia del comportamiento de la enzima lactato deshidrogenasa, que fue no significativo. Las frecuencias cardiaca y respiratoria se elevaron de manera significativa posejercicio y regresaron a lo normal alrededor de las 6 seis horas. El ácido láctico se incrementó posejercicio y disminuyó a las 6 horas, contrario a lo reportado por otros autores. Se concluye que una vez analizadas estas variables, hay diferencias con los valores obtenidos por otros autores, que pueden deberse a la altitud, al tipo y tiempo de ejercicio realizado. Por tanto es indispensable continuar haciendo estudios en este campo.

  15. Fertilización por sitio específico en un cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L. en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Javier

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se realizó un ensayo en el Centro Agropecuario Marengo (CAM, Sabana de Bogotá, para evaluar el manejo de la fertilidad por sitio específico en un cultivo de maíz. Se instaló una cuadrícula regular de 32 puntos (25 m x 25 m para muestreo de variables del suelo y de desarrollo y rendimiento del cultivo. Mediante análisis de componentes principales de variables químicas del suelo y su humedad y de rendimiento del cultivo inmediatamente anterior, se identificaron dos zonas de manejo de la fertilidad. En cada una se aplicó un tratamiento de fertilización, considerando la variabilidad específica del suelo (AP1 y AP2 y un testigo con fertilización convencional (CAM1 y CAM2. Las variables evaluadas en los 32 puntos fueron: contenido de humedad y densidad aparente, a 2 profundidades, 110 días después de siembra (dds; altura de planta a 55, 90 y 140 dds; índice foliar a 140 dds; análisis foliar a 150 dds; mazorcas cosechadas, hileras por mazorca, granos por hilera, peso mazorca con y sin amero a 160 dds. Para el análisis de datos se usó estadística descriptiva y geoestadística, incluyendo análisis estructural, kriging y validación cruzada; igualmente se realizó un análisis de costos y beneficios, mediante presupuestos parciales, comparando AP1 y AP2 con CAM1 y CAM2. La metodología usada permitió identificar posibles distancias de muestreo para manejo de la fertilidad por sitio específico. Los mayores rendimientos y beneficios financieros se obtuvieron en AP1. Este artículo presenta resultados y recomendaciones para el manejo de la fertilidad por sitio específico en maíz para la zona.

  16. Calidad de vida y medio ambiente: residuos sólidos y bienestar en tres escuelas de la cuenca alta del río la Sabana, Acapulco, Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cañedo-Villareal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta resultados de investigación respecto a la clasificación de residuos sólidos urbanos (RSU generados por tres escuelas (primaria, secundaria y bachillerato de la cuenca alta del río La Sabana, en Acapulco, México. Además identifica el nivel de vida de las familias de los estudiantes de dichas escuelas y la calidad de vida (INCAVI de un grupo representativo del “Kilómetro 42”. La clasificación in situ de los RSU se hizo bajo las normas oficiales mexicanas; el nivel de vida se determinó de acuerdo con la regla AMAI 10X6 y el INCAVI, con la técnica de la comisión Stiglitz del gobierno francés. La primaria reportó la generación de 620 kg por ciclo escolar-1 de RSU, 5,7 kg per cápita, principalmente papel (25%; la secundaria, 1295 kg, 10,5 kg per cápita, y residuos de jardinería (13%; mientras que el bachillerato reportó 1196 kg, 11,5 kg per cápita, y plástico rígido (26%. Respecto al nivel de vida, clasificado en seis estratos, el 65% de familias de la escuela primaria está entre el primero y el segundo, 30% entre tercero y cuarto, y 5% entre quinto y sexto; de la secundaria, 21%, 68,4% y 10,6%; del bachillerato, 64,7%, 35,3% y 0%; consideradas las tres escuelas: 50%, 44,6% y 5,4%, respectivamente. Respecto a la percepción personal de calidad de vida, el 50% de las personas la considera buena, 31,3% mala y 18,8% muy mala; con el INCAVI resulta: 31,3% buena, 62,5% mala y 6,3% muy mala. Esto es una percepción positiva ante condiciones de vida escasas.

  17. Calidad de vida y medio ambiente: residuos sólidos y bienestar en tres escuelas de la cuenca alta del río La Sabana, Acapulco, Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cañedo-Villareal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta resultados de investigación respecto a la clasificación de residuos sólidos urbanos (RSU generados por tres escuelas (primaria, secundaria y bachillerato de la cuenca alta del río La Sabana, en Acapulco, México. Además identifica e l nivel de vida de las familias de los estudiantes de dichas escuelas y la calidad de vida (INCAVI de un grupo representativo del “Kilómetro 42”. La clasificaci ón in situ de los RSU se hizo bajo las normas oficiales mexicanas; el nivel de vida se determinó de acuerdo con la regla AMAI 10X6 y el INCAVI, con la técnica de la comisión Stiglitz del gobierno francés. La primaria reportó la generación de 620 kg por ciclo escolar -1 de RSU, 5,7 kg per cápita, principalmente papel (25%; la secundaria, 1295 kg, 10,5 kg per cápita, y residuos de jardinería (13%; mientras que el bachillerato reportó 1196 kg, 11,5 kg per cápita, y plástico rígido (26%. Respecto al nivel de vida, clasificado en seis estratos, el 65% de familias de la escuela primaria está entre el primero y el segundo, 30% entre tercero y cuarto, y 5% entre quinto y sexto; de la secundaria, 21%, 68,4% y 10,6%; del bachillerato, 64,7%, 35,3% y 0%; consideradas las tres escuelas: 50%, 44,6% y 5,4%, respectivamente. Respecto a la percepción personal de calidad de vida, el 50% de las personas la considera buena, 31,3% mala y 18,8% muy mala; con el INCAVI resulta: 31,3% buena, 62,5% mala y 6,3% muy mala. Esto es una percepción positiva ante condiciones de vida escasas

  18. Dinámica trófica, estrategias de consumo y alteraciones óseas en la sabana africana: resumen de un proyecto de investigación etoarqueológico (1991-1993

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    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The main results of a broad etho-archaeological research carried out in East Africa are succintly exposed. These provide an accurate explanation of the behavior exhibited by the main savanna and steppe predators with regard fo the process of carcass consumption, thereby creating a referential framework that can be useful for taphonomists. Carnivore behavior is accounted for in terms of its contextual variability, due to the changing selective pressure according to trophic dynamics. Therefore, the adaptive patterns of each predator are discussed and special emphasis is laid on the role played by ecology in shaping their behavior. Initial consumption strategies, bone accumulating agencies and contexts, the predatory range of each predator and bone modification patterns are the main subjects treated. As an innovative complement to these issues, the spatial analysis of bon

    Se exponen los principales resultados de un amplio proyecto de investigación etoarqueológica llevado a cabo en África oriental. Estos sirven de base para la interpretación del comportamiento de los predadores de sabana y estepa, con respecto al proceso de consumo de sus presas, creando al mismo tiempo un marco referencial de gran utilidad para la Tafonomía. El comportamiento de los carnívoros se explica en términos de su variabilidad contextual, debida a la modificación de la presión selectiva según la dinámica trófica. Por consiguiente, se discuten los principales patrones adaptativos de estos predadores y se pone especial énfasis en el papel jugado por la ecología en la conducta que exhibe cada uno de ellos. Las principales cuestiones tratadas son las estrategias iniciales de consumo, los agentes y contextos que generan acumulaciones óseas, el espectro cinegético de cada carnívoro y los patrones de alteración ósea. Como complemento innovador a estos temas, se presenta también el análisis espacial de dispersión de restos debido a la acción de los

  19. Evaluacion del comportamiento de las variedades industriales de fresa (Fragaria sp. totem y benton y de la variedad comercial chandler, en una localidad de la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho Luis Gustavo

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el fin de encontrar variedades de fresa (Fragaria sp. para la industria, se evaluó el comportamiento de las variedades industriales Totem y Benton bajo tratamientos de poda y no poda vs. Chandler como variedad testigo, en una localidad de la Sabana de Bogotá (Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales CIAA, en el municipio de Chía. EI diseño experimental utilizado fue completamente al azar con cinco tratamientos: Chandler, Totem, Totem con poda, Benton y Benton con poda, con cuatro repeticiones y 30 plantas muestra por unidad experimental. Las observaciones se registraron durante un año (Noviembre, 1993 a Noviembre, 1994 y se tomaron variables de las etapas vegetativa y reproductiva. La variedad de mejor comportamiento en la etapa vegetativa fue Totem, presentando hojas, coronas y estolones de mayor vigor y una producción cercana de la variedad testigo y un alto porcentaje de fruta de categoría 3, y este es un factor importante para la industria. En general, el fruto presenta características deseables para la industria. Esta variedad fue la de menor susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades. En general la variedad Benton no tuvo un buen comportamiento, presentando muy baja producción y un bajo porcentaje de fruta de categoría 3. EI fruto no mostro características deseables (maduración desuniforme y baja consistencia. Esta variedad presento alta susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades.

  20. EFNEP graduates' perspectives on social media to supplement nutrition education: focus group findings from active users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Benavente, Lisa; Goodell, L Suzanne; Lassiter, Annie; Jones, Lorelei; Bowen, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To identify ways to effectively use social media to communicate nutrition-related information to low-income populations. The authors conducted 4 focus groups with female Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program graduates who used social media at least twice a week (n = 26 total). Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify key themes. For participants, page content, page maintenance, and networking opportunities with others were important aspects of a nutrition education social media page. Trust emerged as a central theme, because participants expressed a need for reliable information from known, credible sources and safe places to share ideas. Using social media to provide nutrition-related messages may be an effective way to encourage sustained positive behavior changes resulting from educational programming and to engage participants beyond class time. Establishing the trustworthiness of the social media site is essential to its use among low-income participants. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Working group report on beam plasmas, electronic propulsion, and active experiments using beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, J. M.; Eastman, T.; Gabriel, S.; Hawkins, J.; Matossian, J.; Raitt, J.; Reeves, G.; Sasaki, S.; Szuszczewicz, E.; Winkler, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The JPL Workshop addressed a number of plasma issues that bear on advanced spaceborne technology for the years 2000 and beyond. Primary interest was on the permanently manned space station with a focus on identifying environmentally related issues requiring early clarification by spaceborne plasma experimentation. The Beams Working Group focused on environmentally related threats that platform operations could have on the conduct and integrity of spaceborne beam experiments and vice versa. Considerations were to include particle beams and plumes. For purposes of definition it was agreed that the term particle beams described a directed flow of charged or neutral particles allowing single-particle trajectories to represent the characteristics of the beam and its propagation. On the other hand, the word plume was adopted to describe a multidimensional flow (or expansion) of a plasma or neutral gas cloud. Within the framework of these definitions, experiment categories included: (1) Neutral- and charged-particle beam propagation, with considerations extending to high powers and currents. (2) Evolution and dynamics of naturally occurring and man-made plasma and neutral gas clouds. In both categories, scientific interest focused on interactions with the ambient geoplasma and the evolution of particle densities, energy distribution functions, waves, and fields.

  2. Recovering Physical Activity Missing Data Measured by Accelerometers: A Comparison of Individual and Group-Centered Recovery Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Chao; Jin, Jing; Zhu, Zheng; Zhang, Wenjie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which method, individual information-centered (IIC) or group information-centered (GIC), is more efficient in recovering missing physical activity (PA) data. Method: A total of 2,758 Chinese children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old (1,438 boys and 1,320 girls) wore ActiGraph GT3X/GT3X+…

  3. Group-specific small-subunit rRNA hybridization probes to characterize filamentous foaming in activated sludge systems.

    OpenAIRE

    de los Reyes, F L; Ritter, W; Raskin, L.

    1997-01-01

    Foaming in activated sludge systems is characterized by the formation of a thick, chocolate brown-colored scum that floats on the surface of aeration basins and secondary clarifiers. These viscous foams have been associated with the presence of filamentous mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. To aid in evaluating the microbial representation in foam, we developed and characterized group-, genus-, and species-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting the small subunit rRNA of the Mycobacteri...

  4. North-south asymmetry in small and large sunspot group activity and violation of even-odd solar cycle rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaraiah, J.

    2016-07-01

    According to Gnevyshev-Ohl (G-O) rule an odd-numbered cycle is stronger than its preceding even-numbered cycle. In the modern time the cycle pair (22, 23) violated this rule. By using the combined Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (GPR) and Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) sunspot group data during the period 1874-2015, and Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD) of sunspot groups during the period 1974-2015, here we have found that the solar cycle pair (22, 23) violated the G-O rule because, besides during cycle 23 a large deficiency of small sunspot groups in both the northern and the southern hemispheres, during cycle 22 a large abundance of small sunspot groups in the southern hemisphere. In the case of large and small sunspot groups the cycle pair (22, 23) violated the G-O rule in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively, suggesting the north-south asymmetry in solar activity has a significant contribution in the violation of G-O rule. The amplitude of solar cycle 24 is smaller than that of solar cycle 23. However, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) rate in the rising phases of the cycles 23 and 24 are almost same (even slightly large in cycle 24). From both the SOON and the DPD sunspot group data here we have also found that on the average the ratio of the number (counts) of large sunspot groups to the number of small sunspot groups is larger in the rising phase of cycle 24 than that in the corresponding phase of cycle 23. We suggest this could be a potential reason for the aforesaid discrepancy in the CME rates during the rising phases of cycles 23 and 24. These results have significant implication on solar cycle mechanism.

  5. A Rapid Review of the Factors Affecting Healthcare Students' Satisfaction with Small-Group, Active Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, James M; Grundy, Lisa; Monrouxe, Lynn V

    2016-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Problem-based learning (PBL) and other small-group, active learning methodologies have been widely adopted into undergraduate and postgraduate healthcare curricula across the world. Although much research has examined student perceptions of these innovative teaching pedagogies, there are still questions over which factors influence these views. This article aims to identify these key elements that affect healthcare student satisfaction with PBL and other small-group learning methods, including case-based and team-based learning. A systematic rapid review method was used to identify high-quality original research papers from the healthcare education literature from between 2009 and 2014. All papers were critically appraised before inclusion in line with published guidelines. Narrative synthesis was achieved using an inductively developed, thematic framework approach. Fifty-four papers were included in the narrative synthesis. The evidence suggests that, despite an initial period of negative emotion and anxiety, the perspectives of healthcare students toward small-group, active learning methods are generally positive. The key factors influencing this satisfaction level include (a) the facilitator role, (b) tutorial structure, (c) individual student factors, (d) case authenticity, (e) increased feedback, (f) group harmony, and (g) resource availability. Insights: Student satisfaction is an important determinant of healthcare education quality, and the findings of this review may be of value in future curriculum design. The evidence described here suggests that an ideal curriculum may be based on an expert-led, hybrid PBL model.

  6. Syntheses, characterization, and anti-cancer activities of pyridine-amide based compounds containing appended phenol or catechol groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Afsar Ali; Deepak Bansal; Nagendra K Kaushik; Neha Kaushik; Neha Kaushik; Eun Ha Choi; Rajeev Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Several pyridine-amide compounds appended with phenol/catechol groups are synthesized. These compounds consist of protected or deprotected phenol/catechol groups and offer pyridine, amide, and phenol/catechol functional groups. All compounds have been well-characterized by various spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis, thermal studies, and crystallography. The biological activities of all compounds were investigated while a few compounds significantly decreased the metabolic viability, growth and clonogenicity of T98G cells in dose dependent manner. Accumulation of ROS was observed in T98G cells, which displayed a compromised redox status as evident from increased cellular Caspase 3/7 activity and formation of micronuclei. The in silico pharmacokinetic studies suggest that all compounds have good bioavailability, water solubility and other drug-like parameters. A few compounds were identified as the lead molecules for future investigation due to their: (a) high activity against T98G brain, H-460 lung, and SNU-80 thyroid cancer cells; (b) low cytotoxicity in non-malignant HEK and MRC-5 cells; (c) low toxic risks based on in silico evaluation; (d) good theoretical oral bioavailability according to Lipinski ‘rule of five’ pharmacokinetic parameters; and (e) better drug-likeness and drug-score values.

  7. Practical routes to (SiH₃)₃P: applications in group IV semiconductor activation and in group III-V molecular synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jesse B; Chizmeshya, A V G; Tolle, J; D' Costa, V R; Menendez, J; Kouvetakis, J

    2010-05-21

    The (SiH₃)₃P hydride is introduced as a practical source for n-doping of group IV semiconductors and as a highly-reactive delivery agent of -(SiH₃)₂P functionalities in exploratory synthesis. In contrast to earlier methods, the compound is produced here in high purity quantitative yields via a new single-step method based on reactions of SiH₃Br and (Me₃Sn)₃P, circumventing the need for toxic and unstable starting materials. As an initial demonstration of its utility we synthesized monosubstituted Me₂M-P(SiH₃)₂ (M = Al, Ga, In) derivatives of Me₃M containing the (SiH₃)₂P ligand for the first time, in analogy to the known Me₂M-P(SiMe₃)₂ counterparts. A dimeric structure of Me₂M-P(SiH₃)₂ is proposed on the basis of spectroscopic characterizations and quantum chemical simulations. Next, in the context of materials synthesis, the (SiH₃)₃P compound was used to dope germanium for the first time by building a prototype p(++)Si(100)/i-Ge/n-Ge photodiode structure. The resultant n-type Ge layers contained active carrier concentrations of 3-4 × 10¹⁹ atoms cm⁻³ as determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and confirmed by SIMS. Strain analysis using high resolution XRD yielded a Si content of 4 × 10²⁰ atoms cm⁻³ in agreement with SIMS and within the range expected for incorporating Si₃P type units into the diamond cubic Ge matrix. Extensive characterizations for structure, morphology and crystallinity indicate that the Si co-dopant plays essentially a passive role and does not compromise the device quality of the host material nor does it fundamentally alter its optical properties.

  8. Using innovative group-work activities to enhance the problem-based learning experience for dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, R; Gouldsborough, I; Sheader, E; Speake, T

    2009-11-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) in medical and dental curricula is now well established, as such courses are seen to equip students with valuable transferable skills (e.g. problem-solving or team-working abilities), in addition to knowledge acquisition. However, it is often assumed that students improve in such skills without actually providing direct opportunity for practice, and without giving students feedback on their performance. 'The Manchester Dental Programme' (TMDP) was developed at The University of Manchester, UK as a 5-year, integrated enquiry-led curriculum. The existing PBL course was redesigned to include a unique, additional PBL session ('Session 4') that incorporated an activity for the group to complete, based on the subject material covered during student self-study. A summative mark was awarded for each activity that reflected the teamwork, organisational and overall capabilities of the groups. This paper describes the different types of activities developed for the Session 4 and presents an analysis of the perceptions of the students and staff involved. The student response to the Session 4 activities, obtained via questionnaires, was extremely positive, with the majority finding them fun, yet challenging, and 'worthwhile'. The activities were perceived to enhance subject understanding; develop students' problem-solving skills; allow the application of knowledge to new situations, and helped to identify gaps in knowledge to direct further study. Staff found the activities innovative and exciting learning tools for the students. The Session 4 activities described here are useful educational resources that could be adapted for other PBL courses in a wide variety of subject areas.

  9. Engaging Underrepresented Group Youth in Environmental Science Research Activities: Catalyst for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, K.; Cannady, M.; Dorph, R.; Rodriguez, V. A.; Romero, V.

    2016-12-01

    The UC Berkeley East Bay Academy for Young Scientists (EBAYS) program provides youth from non-dominant communities in the East San Francisco Bay Area with unique opportunities to develop deeper understanding of environmental science content, as well as fundamental scientific practice skills. A key component of EBAYS programming is collaborative research projects that generate information useful in addressing critical environmental issues. This important component also provides opportunities for youth to present results of their investigations to other community members and to the scientific community at large. Inclusion of the environmental science research component is intended to help address the following program goals: A) increasing appreciation for the value of scientific practices as a tool for addressing important community-based issues; B) helping raise community awareness of important issues; C) sparking interest in other forms of community activism; D) increasing understanding of key science concepts; and E) generating valuable environmental quality data. In an effort to assess the degree to which EBAYS programming accomplishes these goals, as well as to evaluate its capacity to be effectively replicated on a broader scale, EBAYS staff has engaged in an investigation of associated learning and youth development outcomes. In this regard a research strategy has been developed that includes the use of assessment tools that will help foster a deeper understanding of the ways in which EBAYS programming increases the extent to which participants value the application of science, affects their overall occupational trajectory, and inspires them to consider careers in STEM.

  10. Synthesis and in-vitro antibacterial activity of N-piperazinyl quinolone derivatives with 5-chloro-2-thienyl group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Fluoroquinolones are an important group of antimicrobial agents that are used widely in the treatment of various infectious diseases. The purpose of the present study was to synthesize new N-piperazinyl quinolone derivatives with 5-chloro-2-theinyl group having possible antimicrobial activity. Methods: Reaction of ciprofloxacin (1, norfloxacin (2 and enoxacin (3 with α-bromoketone 10 or α-bromooxime derivatives 11a-c in DMF, in the presence of NaHCO3 at room temperature, afforded corresponding ketones 4a-c or oxime derivatives 5-7(a-c, respectively. Results and major conclusion: The synthesized compounds were tested against a series of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results of MIC tests against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria revealed that ciprofloxacin derivatives (compounds 4a, 5a, 6a and 7a were more active than norfloxacin and enoxacin analogues. Compound 5a, containing N-[2-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl-2-hydroxyiminoethyl] residue provided a high in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with MIC of 0.06, 0.125, 0.5 and 0.125 μg/mL against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. feacalis and B. subtilis, respectively. Its activity was found to be 4 to 8 times better than reference drug (ciprofloxacin against all Gram-positive bacteria with the exception of E. feacalis.

  11. The Activity of [60]Fullerene Derivatives Bearing Amine and Carboxylic Solubilizing Groups against Escherichia coli: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry G. Deryabin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a comparative investigation of the antibacterial activity of two water-soluble fullerene derivatives bearing protonated amine (AF and deprotonated carboxylic (CF groups appended to the fullerene cage via organic linkers. The negatively charged fullerene derivative CF showed no tendency to bind to the bacterial cells and, consequently, no significant antibacterial activity. In contrast, the compound AF loaded with cationic groups showed strong and partially irreversible binding to the negatively charged Escherichia coli K12 TG1 cells and to human erythrocytes, also possessing negative zeta potential. Adsorption of AF on the bacterial surface was visualized by atomic force microscopy revealing the formation of specific clusters (AF aggregates surrounding the bacterial cell. Incubation of E. coli K12 TG1 with AF led to a dose-dependent bactericidal effect with LD50 = 79.1 µM. The presence of human erythrocytes in the test medium decreased the AF antibacterial activity. Thus we reveal that the water-soluble cationic fullerene derivative AF possesses promising antibacterial activity, which might be utilized in the development of novel types of chemical disinfectants.

  12. North-south asymmetry in small and large sunspot group activity and violation of even-odd solar cycle rule

    CERN Document Server

    Javaraiah, J

    2016-01-01

    According to Gnevyshev-Ohl (G-O) rule an odd-numbered cycle is stronger than its preceding even-numbered cycle. In the modern time the cycle pair (22, 23) violated this rule. By using the combined Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (GPR) and Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) sunspot group data during the period 1874-2015, and Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD) of sunspot groups during the period 1974-2015, here we have found that the solar cycle pair (22, 23) violated the G-O rule because, besides during cycle 23 a large deficiency of small sunspot groups in both the northern and the southern hemispheres, during cycle 22 a large abundance of small sunspot groups in the southern hemisphere. In the case of large and small sunspot groups the cycle pair (22, 23) violated the G-O rule in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively, suggesting the north-south asymmetry in solar activity has a significant contribution in the violation of G-O rule. The amplitude of solar cycle 24 is smaller than that...

  13. Urinary levels of high mobility group box-1 are associated with disease activity in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Tian Ma

    Full Text Available High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, a kind of pro-inflammatory mediator, is associated with inflammatory conditions and tissue damage. Our previous study demonstrated that the circulating levels of HMGB1 correlated with disease activity of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV. In the current study, we aimed to measure urinary levels of HMGB1 in AAV patients, correlated them to clinical activity index and analysed the immunohistochemical HMGB1 staining in kidney specimens.50 patients with AAV in active stage and 56 patients with AAV in remission were recruited. The urinary levels of HMGB1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, renal biopsy specimens from 27 patients with active AAV were randomly collected to evaluate the deposition of HMGB1.Urinary HMGB1 levels in AAV patients in active stage were significantly higher than those in AAV patients in remission and healthy controls (1.46 [0.56-3.43] versus 0.38 [0.10-1.35] mg/μmolCr, P=0.001; 1.46 [0.56-3.43] versus 0.48 [0.40-0.60] mg/μmolCr, P=0.000, respectively. Further analysis found that urinary levels of HMGB1 correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.354, p=0.012, C-reactive protein (r=0.289, p=0.042, and Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (r=0.350, p=0.013. Renal tissue of active AAV patients showed HMGB1 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and the extracellular space. The percentage of HMGB1-negative nuclei in renal tissue of patients with active AAV was significantly higher than that in normal controls (60.6±20.2 % versus 2.7±0.6 %, p<0.01.Urinary levels of HMGB1 may be associated with the disease activity in AAV patients.

  14. Neck collar, "act-as-usual" or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama; Kasch, Helge

    2007-01-01

    Study Design. Randomized, parallel-group trial. Objective. To compare the effect of 3 early intervention strategies following whiplash injury. Summary of Background Data. Long-lasting pain and disability, known as chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), may develop after a forced flexion......-extension trauma to the cervical spine. It is unclear whether this, in some cases disabling, condition can be prevented by early intervention. Active interventions have been recommended but have not been compared with information only. Methods. Participants were recruited from emergency units and general...... practitioners within 10 days after a whiplash injury and randomized to: 1) immobilization of the cervical spine in a rigid collar followed by active mobilization, 2) advice to "act-as-usual," or 3) an active mobilization program (Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy). Follow-up was carried out after 3, 6, and 12...

  15. Neck collar, "act-as-usual" or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama; Kasch, Helge

    2007-01-01

    practitioners within 10 days after a whiplash injury and randomized to: 1) immobilization of the cervical spine in a rigid collar followed by active mobilization, 2) advice to "act-as-usual," or 3) an active mobilization program (Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy). Follow-up was carried out after 3, 6, and 12......-extension trauma to the cervical spine. It is unclear whether this, in some cases disabling, condition can be prevented by early intervention. Active interventions have been recommended but have not been compared with information only. Methods. Participants were recruited from emergency units and general......Study Design. Randomized, parallel-group trial. Objective. To compare the effect of 3 early intervention strategies following whiplash injury. Summary of Background Data. Long-lasting pain and disability, known as chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), may develop after a forced flexion...

  16. Gas-phase formaldehyde adsorption isotherm studies on activated carbon: correlations of adsorption capacity to surface functional group density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ellison M; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E; Ramirez, David

    2011-08-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) adsorption isotherms were developed for the first time on three activated carbons representing one activated carbon fiber (ACF) cloth, one all-purpose granular activated carbon (GAC), and one GAC commercially promoted for gas-phase HCHO removal. The three activated carbons were evaluated for HCHO removal in the low-ppm(v) range and for water vapor adsorption from relative pressures of 0.1-0.9 at 26 °C where, according to the IUPAC isotherm classification system, the adsorption isotherms observed exhibited Type V behavior. A Type V adsorption isotherm model recently proposed by Qi and LeVan (Q-L) was selected to model the observed adsorption behavior because it reduces to a finite, nonzero limit at low partial pressures and it describes the entire range of adsorption considered in this study. The Q-L model was applied to a polar organic adsorbate to fit HCHO adsorption isotherms for the three activated carbons. The physical and chemical characteristics of the activated carbon surfaces were characterized using nitrogen adsorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Boehm titrations. At low concentrations, HCHO adsorption capacity was most strongly related to the density of basic surface functional groups (SFGs), while water vapor adsorption was most strongly influenced by the density of acidic SFGs.

  17. Ionosphere monitoring and forecast activities within the IAG working group "Ionosphere Prediction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mainul; Garcia-Rigo, Alberto; Erdogan, Eren; Cueto Santamaría, Marta; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Schmidt, Michael; Wilken, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Ionospheric disturbances can affect technologies in space and on Earth disrupting satellite and airline operations, communications networks, navigation systems. As the world becomes ever more dependent on these technologies, ionospheric disturbances as part of space weather pose an increasing risk to the economic vitality and national security. Therefore, having the knowledge of ionospheric state in advance during space weather events is becoming more and more important. To promote scientific cooperation we recently formed a Working Group (WG) called "Ionosphere Predictions" within the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) under Sub-Commission 4.3 "Atmosphere Remote Sensing" of the Commission 4 "Positioning and Applications". The general objective of the WG is to promote the development of ionosphere prediction algorithm/models based on the dependence of ionospheric characteristics on solar and magnetic conditions combining data from different sensors to improve the spatial and temporal resolution and sensitivity taking advantage of different sounding geometries and latency. Our presented work enables the possibility to compare total electron content (TEC) prediction approaches/results from different centers contributing to this WG such as German Aerospace Center (DLR), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Technische Universität München (TUM) and GMV. DLR developed a model-assisted TEC forecast algorithm taking benefit from actual trends of the TEC behavior at each grid point. Since during perturbations, characterized by large TEC fluctuations or ionization fronts, this approach may fail, the trend information is merged with the current background model which provides a stable climatological TEC behavior. The presented solution is a first step to regularly provide forecasted TEC services via SWACI/IMPC by DLR. UPC forecast model is based on applying linear regression to a temporal window of TEC maps in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain

  18. Group-specific small-subunit rRNA hybridization probes to characterize filamentous foaming in activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Reyes, F L; Ritter, W; Raskin, L

    1997-03-01

    Foaming in activated sludge systems is characterized by the formation of a thick, chocolate brown-colored scum that floats on the surface of aeration basins and secondary clarifiers. These viscous foams have been associated with the presence of filamentous mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. To aid in evaluating the microbial representation in foam, we developed and characterized group-, genus-, and species-specific oligonucleotide probes targeting the small subunit rRNA of the Mycobacterium complex, Gordona spp., and Gordona (Nocardia) amarae, respectively. The use of a universal base analog, 5-nitroindole, in oligonucleotide probe design was evaluated by comparing the characteristics of two different versions of the Mycobacterium complex probe. The temperature of dissociation of each probe was determined. Probe specificity studies with a diverse collection of 67 target and nontarget rRNAs demonstrated the specificity of the probes to the target groups. Whole-cell hybridizations with fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled probes were performed with pure cultures of various members of the Mycobacterium complex as well as with environmental samples from a full-scale activated sludge plant which experienced foaming. Quantitative membrane hybridizations with activated sludge and anaerobic digester foam showed that 15.0 to 18.3% of the total small-subunit rRNAs could be attributed to members of the Mycobacterium complex, of which a vast majority consisted of Gordona rRNA. Several G. amarae strains made up only a very small percentage of the Gordona strains present. We demonstrated that group-specific rRNA probes are useful tools for the in situ monitoring and identification of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge systems.

  19. Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2015-02-28

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.

  20. SUBSTITUTED 1,3-PHENYL(PYRIDYL PROPENONES AND DERIVATIVES WITH THIOSEMICARBAZIDIC GROUPS. STRUCTRURE – (HL-60 ANTILEUKEMIA ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Popusoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 3-(4-(Dimethylaminophenyl-1-(4-isothiocyanatophenylprop-2-en-1-one was obtained from the corresponding N,N-dimethylthyoureas by elimination of dimethylamine at heating with gaseous hydrogen chloride in chloroform and 1-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl-3-(pyridin-2-ilprop-2-en-1-one by treating 1,1-dimethyl-3-(4-(3-(pyridin-2-il-acryloyl-phenylthyourea with acetic anhydride. The difference in the reactivity of the groups >C=O and NCS in the synthesis with hydrazine hydrate and its derivatives allows the synthesis of some 1,3-disubstituted propenones with thiosemicarbazide groups (4- and 1,4-disubstituted in good yields. From 4-substituted thiosemicarbazides and 2-formilpyridine thiosemicarbazones were obtained. In the case of some derivatives, the propenone group in the reaction with hydrazine hydrate allows the formation of pyrazole derivatives. All obtained compounds were investigated for antileukemia activity. It was found that this activity is more pronounced for thiosemicarbazide derivatives with two pyridine nuclei at concentrations 10-5-10-7 mol/L.

  1. Chemometric Analysis of Some Biologically Active Groups of Drugs on the Basis Chromatographic and Molecular Modeling Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Jolanta; Koba, Marcin; Baczek, Tomasz; Bucinski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    In this work, three different groups of drugs such as 12 analgesic drugs, 11 cardiovascular system drugs and 36 "other" compounds, respectively, were analyzed with cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) methods. All chemometric analysis were based on the chromatographic parameters (logk and logk(w)) determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and also by molecular modeling descriptors calculated using various computer programs (HyperChem, Dragon, and the VCCLAB). The clustering of compounds were obtained by CA (using various algorithm as e.g. Ward method or unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages as well as Euclidean or Manhattan distance), and allowed to build dendrograms linked drugs with similar physicochemical and pharmacological properties were discussed. Moreover, the analysis performed for analyzed groups of compounds with the use of FA or PCA methods indicated that almost all information reached in input chromatographic parameters as well as in molecular modeling descriptors can be explained by first two factors. Additionally, all analyzed drugs were clustered according to their chemical structure and pharmacological activity. Summarized, the performed classification analysis of studied drugs was focused on similarities and differences in methods being used for chemometric analysis as well as focused abilities to drugs classification (clustering) according to their molecular structures and pharmacological activity performed on the basis of chromatographic experimental and molecular modeling data. Thus, the most important application of statistically important molecular descriptors taken from QSRR models to classification analysis allow detailed biological (pharmacological) classification of analyzed drugs.

  2. FUTURE BACHELORS’ TECHNOLOGY OF PROJECT LEARNING IN DESIGN GROUPS AS A MEANS OF INNOVATIVE TEACHING ACTIVITIES SUBJECT’S TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. ZARECHNAYA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the bachelor’s preparation, the basic conceptual idea of is to achieve efficiency and social and educational importance of integrative cultural and educational space as a system to ensure the teachers’ readiness to innovative professional work at school. The solution to this problem is in the competence-based approach to students’ design activity in the conditions of design groups as a means of mastering professionalvaluable innovative technologies of socialization of pupils and methodological tools of their motivation to the designer's creativity. The article notes that the process of mastering the future bachelors of professional competence in the design group based on the multidisciplinary integration and implemented in an environment of a complex interaction of its epistemological (scientifictheoretical and value (spiritual practice aspects. They are based on the integration of knowledge of different areas of science, the disclosure of the relationship and interdependence of general scientific, social, technological, aesthetic, economic, environmental, educational, psychological and other problems in the system of global problems of general and professional culture of the future teacher, teaching them values of subjectivation. Diversity and structure of such an interrelation and interdependence in project activities of students due to the specifics of scientific, aesthetic, design, technological, technical and economic means to achieve the desired, socially significant result of project activities. It also stems from the need of didactic thinking by students of dialectical nature monism categories and the principles of technology and aesthetics, and innovative teaching technologies and methods of students' teaching and the technological development of the world in accordance with the design principles of their development as active and creative subjects of social and labor relations. This article emphasizes

  3. Fit Minded College Edition Pilot Study: Can a Magazine-Based Discussion Group Improve Physical Activity in Female College Freshmen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitteri, Katelyn; Huberty, Jennifer; Ehlers, Diane; Bruening, Meg

    Initial efficacy of a magazine-based discussion group for improving physical activity (PA), self-worth, and eating behaviors in female college freshmen. Randomized control trial. A large university in southwestern United States. Thirty-seven female college freshmen were randomized to the intervention (n = 17) and control groups (n = 20) in September 2013. Participants completed an 8-week magazine-based discussion group program, Fit Minded College Edition, adapted from Fit Minded, a previously tested theory-based intervention. Education on PA, self-worth, and nutrition was provided using excerpts from women's health magazines. Participants also had access to a Web site with supplementary health and wellness material. The control group did not attend meetings or have access to the Web site but received the magazines. Interventions focusing on concepts of self-worth with less focus on weight and appearance may promote long term PA participation and healthy eating behaviors in college women. Self-reported PA, global self-worth, knowledge self-worth, self-efficacy, social support, eating behaviors (ie, fruit/veggie/junk food/sugar-sweetened beverage consumption), satisfaction, and Web site usage. Mean age of participants was 18.11 (SD = 0.32) years. Time × Intervention effects were observed for PA minutes per week (Partial η = 0.34), knowledge self-worth (Partial η = 0.02), and daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (Partial η = 0.17) (P < .05), with the intervention group reporting greater increases in PA and knowledge self-worth and greater decreases in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. A magazine-based discussion group may provide a promising platform to improve health behaviors in female college freshmen.

  4. Influence of landscape structure on the functional groups of an aphidophagous guild: Active-searching predators, furtive predators and parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Éléonore Maisonhaute

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A lot of studies focusing on the effect of agricultural landscapes demonstrate that many arthropod species are influenced by landscape structure. In particular, non–crop areas and landscape diversity are often associated with a higher abundance and diversity of natural enemies in fields. Numerous studies focused on the influence of landscape structure on ground beetles, spiders and ladybeetles but few on other natural enemies or different functional groups. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the influence of landscape structure on the functional groups, i.e., active-searching predators, furtive predators and parasitoids of aphidophagous guilds. Natural enemies were sampled on milkweed infested with aphids, growing along the borders of ditches adjacent to cornfields. The sampling occurred weekly from June to September in 2006 and 2007, in the region of Lanaudičre (Quebec, Canada. The landscapes within a radius 200 and 500 m around each site were analyzed. The abundance, richness and species composition (based on functional groups of natural enemies were related to landscape structure. The results indicated that landscape structure explained up to 21.6% of the variation in natural enemy assemblage and confirm the positive effects of non-crop areas and landscape diversity. A lower influence of landscape structure on species composition was observed (6.4 to 8.8% and varied greatly among the functional groups. Coccinellidae and furtive predators were the group most influenced by landscape structure. In conclusion, the influence of landscape varied greatly among the different species of the same functional group.

  5. Effect of temperature and time on microstructure and surface functional groups of activated carbon fibers prepared from liquefied wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers were prepared from liquefied wood through stream activation. The effects of activation temperature and time on the microstructure and surface functional groups of the liquefied wood activated carbon fibers (LWACFs were studied using analysis of burning behavior, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and SEM. The results showed that the burn-off value of the LWACFs increased gradually with the increase in temperature or time. All the LWACFs were far from being structurally graphitized, and in general, as temperature or time increased, the degree of graphitization and thickness of crystal structure increased. In addition, the LWACFs possessed rich micropores, and their specific surface area, pore volume, micropore size, and mesopore quantity were directly related to the activation temperature or time. The maximum specific surface area was found to be 2641 m2/g. The fractal dimension values of all samples were close to 3, indicating that their surfaces were very rough. Furthermore, with an increase in temperature or time, the elemental content of carbon increased, while that of oxygen decreased. Meanwhile, as the temperature or time increased, the relative content of graphitic carbon decreased, whereas that of carbon bonded to oxygen-containing functions increased. The surface of samples prepared at higher temperature or with longer time formed a considerable amount of holes.

  6. Tag team simulation: An innovative approach for promoting active engagement of participants and observers during group simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; Andersen, Patrea; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Guinea, Stephen; McAllister, Margaret; Lapkin, Samuel; Palmer, Lorinda; Niddrie, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Active participation in immersive simulation experiences can result in technical and non-technical skill enhancement. However, when simulations are conducted in large groups, maintaining the interest of observers so that they do not disengage from the learning experience can be challenging. We implemented Tag Team Simulation with the aim of ensuring that both participants and observers had active and integral roles in the simulation. In this paper we outline the features of this innovative approach and provide an example of its application to a pain simulation. Evaluation was conducted using the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale. A total of 444 year nursing students participated from a population of 536 (response rate 83%). Cronbach's alpha for the Scale was .94 indicating high internal consistency. The mean satisfaction score for participants was 4.63 compared to 4.56 for observers. An independent sample t test revealed no significant difference between these scores (t (300) = -1.414, p = 0.16). Tag team simulation is an effective approach for ensuring observers' and participants' active involvement during group-based simulations and one that is highly regarded by students. It has the potential for broad applicability across a range of leaning domains both within and beyond nursing.

  7. Role of phosphate groups on antiviral activity of casein phosphopeptide against feline calicivirus as a surrogate for norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebetwa, Ntshepisa; Mitani, Takakazu; Nakamura, Soichiro; Katayama, Shigeru

    2017-04-01

    Current research on the gastrointestinal digestion of milk-casein strongly suggests the existence of novel bioactive peptides with antiviral activities that are attributable to their immunostimulatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of casein peptides rich in phosphate groups, such as casein phosphopeptide (CPP-III). We prepared two types of CPP with different phosphorylation levels to clarify the role of the phosphate group. Further phosphorylation of CPP-III was conducted by dry heating with sodium pyrophosphate, whereas dephosphorylation was performed enzymatically using alkaline phosphatase and alkaline treatment. Feline calicivirus (FCV) strain F9, a typical norovirus surrogate, and Crandell Rees feline kidney cells were used as the target virus and host cells, respectively. Antiviral activity was determined based on the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction quantification of antiviral cytokine mRNA expression. Higher cell viability was observed in the host cells treated with phosphorylated CPP-III, and a significant up-regulation of type 1 interferon expression was induced compared to that treated with native CPP-III. However, dephosphorylation of CPP-III resulted in a decrease in the anti-FCV effect. The CPP effect was enhanced by the introduction of additional phosphates and conversely weakened by their elimination. Therefore, CPP-III phosphorylation represents an emerging approach for the production of food-grade antiviral agents. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Overview of Outreach Activities of the Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiol, S.; Balthasar, H.; Dumke, A.; Gross, C.; Michael, G.; Neu, D.; Platz, T.; Rosenberg, H.; Schreiner, B.; Walter, S. H. G.; van Gasselt, S.

    2014-04-01

    Planetary Sciences teach us how special our homeplanet is in the solar system. Incorporating a broad variety of natural science topics they count to the most fundamental branches of scientific research with a strong interdisciplinary character. However, since planetary sciences are not a school subject, children as well as adults are often lacking an overall awareness and understanding of that field. The mission of planetary education has to be fulfilled by research institutions. With several platforms and activities our group is engaged to address this topic. The Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin (FUB) is involved in space missions such as Mars Express with the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), Cassini to Saturn, and Dawn to the asteroids Vesta and Ceres. Moreover, we participate in developing a planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Information of our planetary research activities can be found on our institutes website [1]. Our outreach activities include press releases, an image download hub, permanent and special exhibition support, 3D-HD-animation production, science fairs, workshops, hands-on courses, public talks at observatories and schools, as well as media appearances in radio, press and TV.

  9. Dynamic Evolution of an X-shaped Structure above a Trans-equatorial Quadrupole Solar Active Region Group

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, J Q; Guo, Y; Ding, M D; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    In the solar corona, magnetic reconnection usually takes place at the singular configuration of magnetic field, in particular near a magnetic null owing to its high susceptibility to perturbations. In this Letter, we report a rare X-shaped structure, encompassing a magnetic null, above a trans-equatorial quadrupole active region group that is well observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). The observations show that this X-shaped structure is visible in all AIA EUV passbands and stably exists for days. However, possibly induced by flare activities at the northern part of the quadrupole active region group, the X-shaped structure starts to destabilize and meanwhile a jet erupted near its center at 15:05 UT on 2013 October 7. Through the non-linear force-free field modeling, we identify a magnetic null, which is above the quadrupole polarities and well corresponds to the X-shaped structure. After the jet eruption, the temperature and emission measure of the plasma near the X-shaped structure rise from ...

  10. PBL On Line: A proposal for the organization, part-time monitoring and assessment of PBL group activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Marti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the organisation of PBL (Project Based Learning for a subject included in the IT engineering degree course. It is the result of 10 years of experience of the implantation and continuous improvement of the PBL class structure. The latest innovations include the experience of part-time monitoring with PBL groups using the OpenMeetings tool in Moodle 2.0, the adoption of activities that improve learning and interdependence such as the jigsaw classroom, the clear definition of deliverables that students should present along the semester and the assessment criteria, both on groups and individuals. As a result of this experience, we present PBL student enrolment indexes, student assessment surveys and lecturers’ opinions. We conclude with some topics for discussion about the PBL methodology.

  11. QC group activity and enterprise culture construction%QC小组活动与企业文化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷秀清

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了QC小组的形成及特点,阐述了企业文化的内涵及作用,分析了QC小组活动与企业文化建设相结合的可能性,并提出了将两者有效结合的具体措施和方法,以期指导实践,促进企业不断创新和发展。%This thesis briefly introduces the formation and features of QC group,describes the connotation and functions of enterprise culture,analyzes the possibility for combining QC group activity with enterprise culture construction,and then puts forward specific measures and methods for the combination,with a view to guide practice and to promote constant creation and development of enterprise culture.

  12. Effects of message framing on self-report and accelerometer-assessed physical activity across age and gender groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Fung, Helene H

    2014-02-01

    This study compared message-framing effects on physical activity (PA) across age and gender groups. Participants included 111 younger and 100 older adults (68% were women), randomly assigned to read gain-framed or loss-framed PA messages in promotion pamphlets, and who wore accelerometers for the following 14 days. Using regression analyses controlling for demographic and health factors, we found significant age-by-gender-by-framing interactions predicting self-report (B = -4.39, p = .01) and accelerometer-assessed PA (B = -2.44, p = .02) during the follow-up period. Gain-framed messages were more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting PA behaviors only among older men. We speculated that the age-related positivity effect, as well as the age and gender differences in issue involvement, explained the group differences in framing. In addition, more time availability and higher self-efficacy among older men might have contributed to the results.

  13. On-demand electrochemical activation of the click reaction on self-assembled monolayers on gold presenting masked acetylene groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inseong; Kim, Young-Kwan; Min, Dal-Hee; Lee, SangWook; Yeo, Woon-Seok

    2011-10-26

    We report on a new surface modification method for grafting a "dynamic" property for on-demand activation of the click reaction. Our approach utilizes the acetylene group masked with dicobalt hexacarbonyl, Co(2)(CO)(6), which is not reactive toward the click reaction. Electrochemical treatment reveals the acetylene group on the selected region, which is then used as a chemical handle for surface functionalization via the click reaction with an azide-containing molecule. Electrochemical and chemical conversions on the surface were verified by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have demonstrated immobilization of an azide-modified RGD peptide and promotion of cell adhesion/migration to the region of electrochemical induction.

  14. Central domain of IL-33 is cleaved by mast cell proteases for potent activation of group-2 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançais, Emma; Duval, Anais; Mirey, Emilie; Roga, Stéphane; Espinosa, Eric; Cayrol, Corinne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2014-10-28

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an alarmin cytokine from the IL-1 family. IL-33 activates many immune cell types expressing the interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1) receptor ST2, including group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s, natural helper cells, nuocytes), the major producers of IL-5 and IL-13 during type-2 innate immune responses and allergic airway inflammation. IL-33 is likely to play a critical role in asthma because the IL33 and ST2/IL1RL1 genes have been reproducibly identified as major susceptibility loci in large-scale genome-wide association studies. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating IL-33 activity is thus urgently needed. Here, we investigated the role of mast cells, critical effector cells in allergic disorders, known to interact with ILC2s in vivo. We found that serine proteases secreted by activated mast cells (chymase and tryptase) generate mature forms of IL-33 with potent activity on ILC2s. The major forms produced by mast cell proteases, IL-33(95-270), IL-33(107-270), and IL-33(109-270), were 30-fold more potent than full-length human IL-33(1-270) for activation of ILC2s ex vivo. They induced a strong expansion of ILC2s and eosinophils in vivo, associated with elevated concentrations of IL-5 and IL-13. Murine IL-33 is also cleaved by mast cell tryptase, and a tryptase inhibitor reduced IL-33-dependent allergic airway inflammation in vivo. Our study identifies the central cleavage/activation domain of IL-33 (amino acids 66-111) as an important functional domain of the protein and suggests that interference with IL-33 cleavage and activation by mast cell and other inflammatory proteases could be useful to reduce IL-33-mediated responses in allergic asthma and other inflammatory diseases.

  15. Perceptions and the role of group exercise among New York City adults, 2010-2011: an examination of interpersonal factors and leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Melanie J; Yi, Stella S; Bartley, Katherine F; Eisenhower, Donna L

    2015-03-01

    To examine associations of descriptive norms (i.e., behaviors of social group members) and exercising 'with a partner' or 'as a part of a group' on weekly leisure-time physical activity. T-tests and adjusted multivariable linear models were used to test the associations between descriptive norms and exercising with a partner or as a part of a group with self-reported leisure-time physical activity using the cross-sectional, population-based New York City Physical Activity and Transit (PAT) Survey 2010-2011 (n=3806). Overall, 70.6% of adult New Yorkers reported having physically active friends. Having active friends was associated with increased leisure-time physical activity; however, the effect varied by sex. Compared to those who did not have active friends, males with active friends reported two times more activity (56 min/week) and women reported two and a half times more activity (35 min/week) (both p-valuesPhysically active males and females who usually engaged in leisure-time activities as a part of a group reported 1.4 times more activity than those who exercised alone (both p-valuesexercise were associated with leisure-time physical activity among adults. Based on these associations, encouraging group exercise may be an effective strategy for increasing leisure-time physical activity among certain subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of adolescence sports and exercise on adulthood leisure-time physical activity in educational groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahkonen Ossi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has become a major public health problem and clear educational differences in physical activity have been reported across Europe and USA. The origins of adulthood physical activity are suggested to be in childhood and adolescence physical activity. Hardly any studies have, however, examined if the educational differences in physical activity might also be due to educational differences in early experiences in physical activity. Thus, our aim was to examine how competitive sports in youth, and exercise in late adolescence, and opinions on physical education (PE in childhood determined adulthood leisure-time physical activity (LTPA in different educational groups. Methods We used cross-sectional population-based National FINRISK 2002 data for 1918 men and 2490 women aged 25 to 64 years. Competitive sports in youth, exercise in late adolescence, and opinions on PE in childhood were assessed retrospectively via self-reports. Adulthood LTPA was collected with 12-month recall. In 2008, we calculated structural equation models including latent variables among the low- ( Results Men more often than women reported that their experience of PE was interesting and pleasant as well as having learned useful skills during PE classes. Men, compared to women, had also been more active in the three selected competitive sports in youth and exercised in late adolescence. Participation in competitive sports in youth among the low-educated and exercise in late adolescence among the high-educated had a direct effect on adulthood LTPA. Among the low-educated, opinions on PE in childhood had an indirect effect on adulthood LTPA through participation in competitive sports in youth whereas among the high-educated, the indirect effect went through exercise in late adolescence. The effects were mainly similar between genders. Conclusions Our study answers to a strong need to assess the determinants of leisure-time physical activity to

  17. Antibacterial activity of diketopiperazines isolated from a marine fungus using t-butoxycarbonyl group as a simple tool for purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Bahaa El-Dien M; Rateb, Mostafa E

    2015-08-15

    Nine diketopiperazines were characterized from the culture of marine fungal isolate MR2012 which based on DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The isolated fungal metabolites 4-12 were unambiguously identified as a series of simple and re-arranged diketopiperazines by analysis of spectroscopic data. t-Butoxycarbonyl group (BOC) derivatization was used to separate the intractable mixture of 4 and 5. When all compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, the isolated metabolites showed moderate to weak effects, while the semisynthetic derivatives 4a and 5a displayed strong activity comparable to the positive control, tetracycline against gram positive bacteria.

  18. Access to Silylated Pyrazole Derivatives by Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Activation of a TMS group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistico, Laetitia; Querolle, Olivier; Meerpoel, Lieven; Angibaud, Patrick; Durandetti, Muriel; Maddaluno, Jacques

    2016-07-04

    A simple and efficient approach to new silylated heterocycles of potential interest in medicinal chemistry is presented. A set of bromophenyl trimethylsilyl pyrazole intermediates can be transformed by direct organometallic routes into two families of regioisomeric iodoaryl substrates; using either arylzinc or aryllithium chemistry, the TMS group remains on the pyrazole ring or translocates to the aryl moiety. These two families can then be efficiently transformed into benzo silino pyrazoles thanks to a single-step cyclization relying on the Pd-catalyzed activation of a non-activated C(sp(3) )-H bond alpha to a silicon atom. The experimental conditions used, which are fully compatible with the pyrazole ring, suggest that this reaction evolves through a concerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD) mechanism.

  19. Evaluación del efecto de la intensidad de labranza en la formación de costra superficial de un oxisol de sabana en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia: III. Caracterizacion micromorfológica en superficie. Evaluation of harrowing intensity on surface crusting on an oxisol of the eastern plains of Colombia : III. Micromorphological characterization in soil surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Galvis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Para entender los cambios que ocurrieron en la superficie del suelo en diferentes sistemas de maíz y pastos se hizo necesario observar su microestructura utilizando metodologías de diversa índole como secciones delgadas y microscopia electrónica de barrido. Se constataron cambios importantes en la fábrica del suelo con los sistemas introducidos comparados con sabana y bosque..To understand changes that happened on soil surface under different pasture and corn systems, it was necessary to observe its microstructure using methodologies such as thin soil sections and sweeping electronic microscopy. Important changes in soil fabric were observed under introduced systems compared to native savanna and forest systems.

  20. Evaluation of harrowing intensity on surface crusting on an oxisol of the eastern plains of Colombia: III. Micromorphological characterization in soil surface. Evaluación del efecto de la intensidad de labranza en la formación de costra superficial de un oxisol de sabana en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia: III. Caracterizacion micromorfológica en superficie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madero Edgar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand changes that happened on soil surface under different pasture and corn systems, it was necessary to observe its microstructure using methodologies such as thin soil sections and sweeping electronic microscopy. Important changes in soil fabric were observed under introduced systems compared to native savanna and forest systems.Para entender los cambios que ocurrieron en la superficie del suelo en diferentes sistemas de maíz y pastos se hizo necesario observar su microestructura utilizando metodologías de diversa índole como secciones delgadas y microscopia electrónica de barrido. Se constataron cambios importantes en la fábrica del suelo con los sistemas introducidos comparados con sabana y bosque..

  1. Oxime amides as a novel zinc binding group in histone deacetylase inhibitors: synthesis, biological activity, and computational evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Cinzia B; Cabri, Walter; Cini, Elena; De Cesare, Lucia; Fattorusso, Caterina; Giannini, Giuseppe; Persico, Marco; Petrella, Antonello; Rondinelli, Francesca; Rodriquez, Manuela; Russo, Adele; Taddei, Maurizio

    2011-04-14

    Several oxime containing molecules, characterized by a SAHA-like structure, were explored to select a potentially new biasing binding element for the zinc in HDAC catalytic site. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against the 11 human HDACs isoforms. After identification of a "hit" molecule, a programmed variation at the cap group and at the linker was carried out in order to increase HDAC inhibition and/or paralogue selectivity. Some of the new derivatives showed increased activity against a number of HDAC isoforms, even if their overall activity range is still far from the inhibition values reported for SAHA. Moreover, different from what was reported for their hydroxamic acid analogues the new α-oxime amide derivatives do not select between class I and class II HDACs; rather they target specific isoforms in each class. These somehow contradictory results were finally rationalized by a computational assisted SAR, which gave us the chance to understand how the oxime derivatives interact with the catalytic site and justify the observed activity profile.

  2. Differences in SpeB protease activity among group A streptococci associated with superficial, invasive, and autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Anhphan T; Noto, John P; Walwyn, Odaelys L; Tanz, Robert R; Shulman, Stanford T; Kabat, William; Bessen, Debra E

    2017-01-01

    The secreted cysteine proteinase SpeB is an important virulence factor of group A streptococci (GAS), whereby SpeB activity varies widely among strains. To establish the degree to which SpeB activity correlates with disease, GAS organisms were recovered from patients with pharyngitis, impetigo, invasive disease or acute rheumatic fever (ARF), and selected for analysis using rigorous sampling criteria; >300 GAS isolates were tested for SpeB activity by casein digestion assays, and each GAS isolate was scored as a SpeB-producer or non-producer. Highly significant statistical differences (p < 0.01) in SpeB production are observed between GAS recovered from patients with ARF (41.5% SpeB-non-producers) compared to pharyngitis (20.5%), invasive disease (16.7%), and impetigo (5.5%). SpeB activity differences between pharyngitis and impetigo isolates are also significant, whereas pharyngitis versus invasive isolates show no significant difference. The disproportionately greater number of SpeB-non-producers among ARF-associated isolates may indicate an altered transcriptional program for many rheumatogenic strains and/or a protective role for SpeB in GAS-triggered autoimmunity.

  3. Remarkable Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis Activity of Plants Traditionally Used by the Mbyá-Guarani Indigenous Group in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lia Costa Brandelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Taking into account the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant isolates, alternative drugs are essential for the successful treatment. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and popular wisdom about the use of medicinal plants is a powerful tool in this search. In this study, the activity of 10 medicinal plants extensively used in daily life by Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group was evaluated against seven different T. vaginalis isolates. Among the aqueous extracts tested, Verbena sp. (Guachu ka'a in Mbyá-Guarani language and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Guavira in Mbyá-Guarani language showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis with MIC value of 4.0 mg/mL reaching 100% of efficacy against the parasite. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extracts promoted complete growth abolishment after 4 h of incubation. In addition, the extracts tested did not promote a significant hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Our results show for the first time the potential activity of Verbena sp. and C. xanthocarpa against T. vaginalis. In addition, this study demonstrates that indigenous knowledge is an important source of new prototype antiprotozoal agents.

  4. Reconsidering Physical Activity Restrictions for Mononephric Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Maki; Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Koh, Chester J; Meeske, Kathleen A; Rangan, Kasey E; Rodgers, Cheryl; Rosenthal, Yael; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Freyer, David R

    2016-07-01

    Although traditional recommendations for mononephric childhood cancer survivors are to avoid contact sports in order to protect the remaining kidney, review of available evidence suggests that the majority of renal loss is caused by accidents not involving sports. An interdisciplinary team performed a review of the English literature published from 1999 to 2012 within the PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and National Guidelines Clearinghouse databases. The level of evidence and proposed recommendations were graded according to an established rubric and GRADE criteria. Our review found that kidney loss is most commonly caused by nonsports activities such as motor vehicle accidents and falls, implying that restrictions on sports-related activity in mononephric pediatric survivors are not well supported. This favors encouraging ordinary sports and related activities without restriction in mononephric childhood cancer survivors because the known benefits of exercise outweigh the exceedingly low risk of renal loss. Accordingly, activity recommendations for mononephric patients have been revised in the most current version of the Children's Oncology Group Long-term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers. This has important implications for this and similar populations who may now undertake individual and organized sports without undue regard for their mononephric status.

  5. Density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method as a common tool for large active-space CASSCF/CASPT2 calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Naoki; Guo, Sheng

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes an interface between the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method and the complete active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method and its analytical gradient, as well as an extension to the second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) method. This interfacing allows large active-space multi-reference computations to be easily performed. The interface and its extension are both implemented in terms of reduced density matrices (RDMs) which can be efficiently computed via the DMRG sweep algorithm. We also present benchmark results showing that, in practice, the DMRG-CASSCF calculations scale with active-space size in a polynomial manner in the case of quasi-1D systems. Geometry optimization of a binuclear iron-sulfur cluster using the DMRG-CASSCF analytical gradient is demonstrated, indicating that the inclusion of the valence p-orbitals of sulfur and double-shell d-orbitals of iron lead to non-negligible changes in the geometry compared to the results of small active-space calculations. With the exception of the selection of M values, many computational settings in these practical DMRG calculations have been tuned and black-boxed in our interface, and so the resulting DMRG-CASSCF and DMRG-CASPT2 calculations are now available to novice users as a common tool to compute strongly correlated electronic wavefunctions.

  6. Activation of Plant Innate Immunity by Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 3 and Its Inhibition by Salicylic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyong Woo Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs signal the presence of tissue damage to induce immune responses in plants and animals. Here, we report that High Mobility Group Box 3 (HMGB3 is a novel plant DAMP. Extracellular HMGB3, through receptor-like kinases BAK1 and BKK1, induced hallmark innate immune responses, including i MAPK activation, ii defense-related gene expression, iii callose deposition, and iv enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Infection by necrotrophic B. cinerea released HMGB3 into the extracellular space (apoplast. Silencing HMGBs enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea, while HMGB3 injection into apoplast restored resistance. Like its human counterpart, HMGB3 binds salicylic acid (SA, which results in inhibition of its DAMP activity. An SA-binding site mutant of HMGB3 retained its DAMP activity, which was no longer inhibited by SA, consistent with its reduced SA-binding activity. These results provide cross-kingdom evidence that HMGB proteins function as DAMPs and that SA is their conserved inhibitor.

  7. A key role for the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in invasive Group A streptococcal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson-Smith, Martina L; Zhang, Yueling; Ly, Diane; Donahue, Deborah; Hollands, Andrew; Nizet, Victor; Ranson, Marie; Ploplis, Victoria A; Walker, Mark J; Castellino, Francis J

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment of the serine protease plasmin is central to the pathogenesis of many bacterial species, including Group A streptococcus (GAS), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. A key process in invasive GAS disease is the ability to accumulate plasmin at the cell surface, however the role of host activators of plasminogen in this process is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) contributes to plasmin recruitment and subsequent invasive disease initiation in vivo. In the absence of a source of host plasminogen activators, streptokinase (Ska) was required to facilitate cell surface plasmin acquisition by GAS. However, in the absence of Ska, host activators were sufficient to promote cell surface plasmin acquisition by GAS strain 5448 during incubation with plasminogen or human plasma. Furthermore, GAS were able mediate a significant increase in the activation of zymogen pro-uPA in human plasma. In order to assess the contribution of uPA to invasive GAS disease, a previously undescribed transgenic mouse model of infection was employed. Both C57/black 6J, and AlbPLG1 mice expressing the human plasminogen transgene, were significantly more susceptible to invasive GAS disease than uPA-/- mice. The observed decrease in virulence in uPA-/-mice was found to correlate directly with a decrease in bacterial dissemination and reduced cell surface plasmin accumulation by GAS. These findings have significant implications for our understanding of GAS pathogenesis, and research aimed at therapeutic targeting of plasminogen activation in invasive bacterial infections.

  8. A key role for the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA in invasive Group A streptococcal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina L Sanderson-Smith

    Full Text Available Recruitment of the serine protease plasmin is central to the pathogenesis of many bacterial species, including Group A streptococcus (GAS, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. A key process in invasive GAS disease is the ability to accumulate plasmin at the cell surface, however the role of host activators of plasminogen in this process is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA contributes to plasmin recruitment and subsequent invasive disease initiation in vivo. In the absence of a source of host plasminogen activators, streptokinase (Ska was required to facilitate cell surface plasmin acquisition by GAS. However, in the absence of Ska, host activators were sufficient to promote cell surface plasmin acquisition by GAS strain 5448 during incubation with plasminogen or human plasma. Furthermore, GAS were able mediate a significant increase in the activation of zymogen pro-uPA in human plasma. In order to assess the contribution of uPA to invasive GAS disease, a previously undescribed transgenic mouse model of infection was employed. Both C57/black 6J, and AlbPLG1 mice expressing the human plasminogen transgene, were significantly more susceptible to invasive GAS disease than uPA-/- mice. The observed decrease in virulence in uPA-/-mice was found to correlate directly with a decrease in bacterial dissemination and reduced cell surface plasmin accumulation by GAS. These findings have significant implications for our understanding of GAS pathogenesis, and research aimed at therapeutic targeting of plasminogen activation in invasive bacterial infections.

  9. Modulating the activity of short arginine-tryptophan containing antibacterial peptides with N-terminal metallocenoyl groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bauke Albada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of small synthetic arginine and tryptophan containing peptides was prepared and analyzed for their antibacterial activity. The effect of N-terminal substitution with metallocenoyl groups such as ferrocene (FcCO and ruthenocene (RcCO was investigated. Antibacterial activity in different media, growth inhibition, and killing kinetics of the most active peptides were determined. The toxicity of selected derivatives was determined against erythrocytes and three human cancer cell lines. It was shown that the replacement of an N-terminal arginine residue with a metallocenoyl moiety modulates the activity of WRWRW-peptides against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MIC values of 2–6 µM for RcCO-W(RW2 and 1–11 µM for (RW3 were determined. Interestingly, W(RW2-peptides derivatized with ferrocene were significantly less active than those derivatized with ruthenocene which have similar structural but different electronic properties, suggesting a major influence of the latter. The high activities observed for the RcCO-W(RW2- and (RW3-peptides led to an investigation of the origin of activity of these peptides using several important activity-related parameters. Firstly, killing kinetics of the RcCO-W(RW2-peptide versus killing kinetics of the (RW3 derivative showed faster reduction of the colony forming units for the RcCO-W(RW2-peptide, although MIC values indicated higher activity for the (RW3-peptide. This was confirmed by growth inhibition studies. Secondly, hemolysis studies revealed that both peptides did not lead to significant destruction of erythrocytes, even up to 500 µg/mL for (RW3 and 250 µg/mL for RcCO-W(RW2. In addition, toxicity against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HT29, MCF7 showed that the (RW3-peptide had an IC50 value of ~140 µM and the RcW(RW2 one of ~90 µM, indicating a potentially interesting therapeutic window. Both the killing kinetics and growth inhibition studies presented in this work point to a

  10. Modulating the activity of short arginine-tryptophan containing antibacterial peptides with N-terminal metallocenoyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albada, H Bauke; Chiriac, Alina-Iulia; Wenzel, Michaela; Penkova, Maya; Bandow, Julia E; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2012-01-01

    A series of small synthetic arginine and tryptophan containing peptides was prepared and analyzed for their antibacterial activity. The effect of N-terminal substitution with metallocenoyl groups such as ferrocene (FcCO) and ruthenocene (RcCO) was investigated. Antibacterial activity in different media, growth inhibition, and killing kinetics of the most active peptides were determined. The toxicity of selected derivatives was determined against erythrocytes and three human cancer cell lines. It was shown that the replacement of an N-terminal arginine residue with a metallocenoyl moiety modulates the activity of WRWRW-peptides against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MIC values of 2-6 µM for RcCO-W(RW)(2) and 1-11 µM for (RW)(3) were determined. Interestingly, W(RW)(2)-peptides derivatized with ferrocene were significantly less active than those derivatized with ruthenocene which have similar structural but different electronic properties, suggesting a major influence of the latter. The high activities observed for the RcCO-W(RW)(2)- and (RW)(3)-peptides led to an investigation of the origin of activity of these peptides using several important activity-related parameters. Firstly, killing kinetics of the RcCO-W(RW)(2)-peptide versus killing kinetics of the (RW)(3) derivative showed faster reduction of the colony forming units for the RcCO-W(RW)(2)-peptide, although MIC values indicated higher activity for the (RW)(3)-peptide. This was confirmed by growth inhibition studies. Secondly, hemolysis studies revealed that both peptides did not lead to significant destruction of erythrocytes, even up to 500 µg/mL for (RW)(3) and 250 µg/mL for RcCO-W(RW)(2). In addition, toxicity against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HT29, MCF7) showed that the (RW)(3)-peptide had an IC(50) value of ~140 µM and the RcW(RW)(2) one of ~90 µM, indicating a potentially interesting therapeutic window. Both the killing kinetics and growth inhibition studies presented in

  11. Modelamiento geoeléctrico y gravimétrico de un sector del suroeste de la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arango Haupt Irene

    2000-08-01

    -layout-grid-align: none;">A subsurface geological modeling was carried out near the Soacha area. Based on both gravimetric and geoelectric measurements, the examination of surface geological data and the Terreros II well log, it is proposed that the basin deepens from southeast toward northwest, being the Guadalupe Group the bottom of the lithologic studied sequence. High resistivity values ranging from 300 to 380 ohm-m characterizes the Guadalupe Group, which is found at 60 m in the southeast and deepens to 240 m in the northwest of the area. Above this rock unit, following the same deeping tendence, should appear the Guaduas Formation (about 60 m thick, a thin belt of Tertiary sandstones (about 15 m thick and non-diferentiated Tertiary-Quaternary unconsolidated sediments. Simple Bouguer Gravity anomaly map shows variations between -142 to -149 mgal, with a regional decreasing from SE to NW that coincides in amplitude and direction with previous values for this zone. The Residual Anomaly map (ranging from 12.4 to 15.5 mgals, that was used for modeling, shows a relative gravity minimum which matches the trend of deeping and position of the basin and it borders a strong gradient anomaly, suggesting the continuity of the Sucre Fault in the subsurface, with a N45°W direction.

  12. Effect of hydroxyl groups on hydrophilic and photocatalytic activities of rare earth doped titanium dioxide thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军; 吴其; 钟汕; 顾馨; 刘娇; 郭海志; 张文龙; 彭海龙; 邹建国

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth (Y, La and Nd) doped TiO2 thin films were prepared on glass slides by sol-gel method. The photocatalytic de-composition of methylene blue in aqueous solution was used as a probe reaction to evaluate their photocatalytic activities. The effects of hydroxyl groups on hydrophilic and photocatalytic activities were investigated by means of techniques such as X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), optical contact angle, UV-Visible spectroscopy and VIS spectroscopy. The results showed that an appropriate doping of rare earth could cause the TiO2 lattice distortion, inhib-ited phase transition from anatase to rutile, accelerated surface hydroxylation and produced more hydroxyl groups, which resulted in a denser surface and smaller grains (40–60 nm), and a significant improvement in the hydrophilicity and photoreactivity of TiO2 thin films. The optimal content of rare earth was between 0.1 wt.%and 0.3 wt.%. Moreover, the modification mechanism of rare earth doping was also discussed.

  13. Theoretical study of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane and β-hexachlorocyclohexane isomers interaction with surface groups of activated carbon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Victorero, Carlos; Hernández-Valdés, Daniel; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Durimel, Axelle; Gaspard, Sarra; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises

    2014-06-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is employed in drinking water purification without almost any knowledge about the adsorption mechanism of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) onto it. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) is an organochlorinated contaminant present in water and soils of banana crops production zones of the Caribbean. The most relevant isomers of HCH are γ-HCH and β-HCH, both with great environmental persistence. A theoretical study of the influence of AC surface groups (SGs) on HCH adsorption is done in order to help to understand the process and may lead to improve the AC selection process. A simplified AC model consisting of naphthalene with a functional group was used to assess the influence of SGs over the adsorption process. The Multiple Minima Hypersurface (MMH) methodology was employed to study γ-HCH and β-HCH interactions with different AC SGs (hydroxyl and carboxyl) under different hydration and pH conditions. The results obtained showed that association of HCH with SGs preferentially occurs between the axial protons of HCH and SG's oxygen atom, and the most favorable interactions occurring with charged SGs. An increase in carboxylic SGs content is proposed to enhance HCH adsorption onto AC under neutral pH conditions. Finally, this work presents an inexpensive computer aided methodology for preselecting activated carbon SGs content for the removal of a given compound.

  14. Facilitators of Attendance and Adherence to Group-Based Physical Activity for Older Adults: A Literature Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy-Vawdon, Cassandra J; Schwarzman, Joanna; Nolan, Genevieve; de Silva, Renee; Menzies, David; Smith, Ben J

    2017-05-22

    This review examines program features that influence attendance and adherence to group-based physical activity (PA) by older adults. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL plus, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published from 1995-2016. Quantitative and qualitative studies investigating factors related to PA group attendance or adherence by persons aged 55 years and over, were included. Searching yielded eight quantitative and 13 qualitative studies, from 2044 titles. Quantitative findings identified social factors, instructor characteristics, PA types, class duration and frequency, and perceived PA outcomes as important for attendance and adherence, whilst qualitative studies identified settings, leadership, PA types, observable benefits and social support factors. Studies were predominantly low- to moderate-quality. This review identified design and delivery considerations for group-based PA programs to inform best-practice frameworks and industry capacity-building. Future research should use longitudinal and mixed-methods designs to strengthen evidence about facilitators of program reach and engagement.

  15. Gauging state-level and user group views of oyster reef restoration activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Nix, Ashby; Laborde, Luke; Piazza, Bryan P.

    2012-01-01

    Successful oyster reef restoration, like many conservation challenges, requires not only biological understanding of the resource, but also stakeholder cooperation and political support. To measure perceptions of oyster reef restoration activities and priorities for future restoration along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, a survey of 1500 individuals representing 4 user groups (oyster harvesters, shrimpers, environmental organization members, professionals), across 5 states (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) was conducted in 2011. All respondents highly supported reef restoration efforts, but there was a dichotomy in preferred restoration goals with commercial fishermen more likely to support oyster reef restoration for stock enhancement, while professionals and environmental organization members were more likely to support oyster reef restoration to enhance ecosystem services. All user groups identified enforcement, funding, and appropriate site selection as basic requirements for successful reef restoration. For management of restored oyster reefs, oyster harvesters and shrimpers were less likely to support options that restricted the use of reefs, including gear restrictions and permanent closures, but did support rotating annual reef closures, while other stakeholders were willing to consider all options, including annual reef closures and sanctuary reefs. Overall, there were clear differences in management and communication preferences across user groups, but few differences across states. Understanding these key differences in stakeholder support for, and willingness to accept specific management actions is critical in moving management and restoration forward while minimizing conflict.

  16. Coarse-scaling adjustment of fine-group neutron spectra for epithermal neutron beams in BNCT using multiple activation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Nievaart, Sander; Tsai, Pi-En; Liu, Hong-Ming; Moss, Ray; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide an improved and reliable neutron source description for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a spectrum adjustment procedure named coarse-scaling adjustment has been developed and applied to the neutron spectrum measurements of both the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) epithermal neutron beam in Taiwan and the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in The Netherlands, using multiple activation detectors. The coarse-scaling adjustment utilizes a similar idea as the well-known two-foil method, which adjusts the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes according to the Maxwellian distribution for thermal neutrons and 1/ E distribution over the epithermal neutron energy region. The coarse-scaling adjustment can effectively suppress the number of oscillations appearing in the adjusted spectrum and provide better smoothness. This paper also presents a sophisticated 9-step process utilizing twice the coarse-scaling adjustment which can adjust a given coarse-group spectrum into a fine-group structure, i.e. 640 groups, with satisfactory continuity and excellently matched reaction rates between measurements and calculation. The spectrum adjustment algorithm applied in this study is the same as the well-known SAND-II.

  17. Synthesis of ¹⁸O-labeled photosynthetically active chlorophylls at the 3- or 7-carbonyl group with high regioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Hidetada; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2010-09-01

    The 3- and 7-formyl groups of chlorophyll-d (Chl-d) and bacteriochlorophyll-e (BChl-e), respectively, were regioselectively labeled with an isotopically stable oxygen-18 (¹⁸O) atom to give 3¹-¹⁸O-labeled Chl-d and 7¹-¹⁸O-labeled BChl-e (ca. 90% ¹⁸O) by exchanging the carbonyl oxygen atoms in the presence of acidic H₂ ¹⁸O (ca. 95% ¹⁸O). Another photosynthetically active chlorophyll, BChl-a possessing the 3-acetyl group was treated under similar acidic conditions to afford a trace amount of 3¹-¹⁸O-labeled BChl-a and further demetallated compound, the corresponding 3¹-¹⁸O-labeled bacteriopheophytin-a as the major product with 55% ¹⁸O-degree. The FT-IR spectra of ¹⁸O-(un)labeled chlorophylls in the solution and the solid states showed that the 3- and 7-carbonyl stretching vibration modes moved to about a 30-cm⁻¹ lower wavenumber by ¹⁸O-labeling at the 3¹- and 7¹-oxo moieties. In artificial chlorosome-like self-aggregates of BChl-e, the ¹⁸O-labeled 7-carbonyl stretching mode was completely resolved from the specially hydrogen-bonded 13-C=O stretching mode, evidently indicating no interaction of the 7-CHO with other functional groups in the supramolecules.

  18. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Munch-Andersen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index. Study design: Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq and 15 eating a western diet (TAB, age (mean (range; 38, (22–58 yrs, BMI; 28 (20–40 were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, blood sampling, maximal oxygen uptake test, food interview/collection and monitoring of physical activity. Results: All Inuit had a normal OGTT. Fasting glucose (mmol/l, HbA1c (%, total cholesterol (mmol/l and HDL-C (mmol/l were for Qaanaaq women: 4.8±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 4.96±0.42, 1.34±0.06, for Qaanaaq men: 4.9±0.1, 5.7±0.1, 5.08±0.31, 1.28±0.09, for TAB women: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.22±0.39, 1.86±0.13, for TAB men: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.23±0.15, 1.60±0.10. No differences were found in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There was a more adverse distribution of small dense LDL-C particles and higher total cholesterol and HDL-C concentration in the western diet group. Conclusions: Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance was not found in the Inuit consuming either the western or the traditional diet, and this could, at least partly, be due to the high amount of regular daily physical activity. However, when considering the total cardio vascular risk profile the Inuit consuming a western diet had a less healthy profile than the Inuit consuming a traditional diet.

  19. C-terminal functionalization of nylon-3 polymers: effects of C-terminal groups on antibacterial and hemolytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihua; Markiewicz, Matthew J; Mowery, Brendan P; Weisblum, Bernard; Stahl, Shannon S; Gellman, Samuel H

    2012-02-13

    Nylon-3 polymers contain β-amino-acid-derived subunits and can be viewed as higher homologues of poly(α-amino acids). This structural relationship raises the possibility that nylon-3 polymers offer a platform for development of new materials with a variety of biological activities, a prospect that has recently begun to receive experimental support. Nylon-3 homo- and copolymers can be prepared via anionic ring-opening polymerization of β-lactams, and use of an N-acyl-β-lactam as coinitiator in the polymerization reaction allows placement of a specific functional group, borne by the N-acyl-β-lactam, at the N-terminus of each polymer chain. Controlling the unit at the C-termini of nylon-3 polymer chains, however, has been problematic. Here we describe a strategy for specifying C-terminal functionality that is based on the polymerization mechanism. After the anionic ring-opening polymerization is complete, we introduce a new β-lactam, approximately 1 equiv relative to the expected number of polymer chains. Because the polymer chains bear a reactive imide group at their C-termini, this new β-lactam should become attached at this position. If the terminating β-lactam bears a distinctive functional group, that functionality should be affixed to most or all C-termini in the reaction mixture. We use the new technique to compare the impact of N- and C-terminal placement of a critical hydrophobic fragment on the biological activity profile of nylon-3 copolymers. The synthetic advance described here should prove to be generally useful for tailoring the properties of nylon-3 materials.

  20. Effects of an adapted physical activity program in a group of elderly subjects with flexed posture: clinical and instrumental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frizziero Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flexed posture commonly increases with age and is related to musculoskeletal impairment and reduced physical performance. The purpose of this clinical study was to systematically compare the effects of a physical activity program that specifically address the flexed posture that marks a certain percentage of elderly individuals with a non specific exercise program for 3 months. Methods Participants were randomly divided into two groups: one followed an Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture and the other one completed a non-specific physical activity protocol for the elderly. A multidimensional clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 months including anthropometric data, clinical profile, measures of musculoskeletal impairment and disability. The instrumental assessment of posture was realized using a stereophotogrammetric system and a specific biomechanical model designed to describe the reciprocal position of the body segments on the sagittal plane in a upright posture. Results The Adapted Physical Activity program determined a significant improvement in several key parameters of the multidimensional assessment in comparison to the non-specific protocol: decreased occiput-to-wall distance, greater lower limb range of motion, better flexibility of pectoralis, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles, increased spine extensor muscles strength. Stereophotogrammetric analysis confirmed a reduced protrusion of the head and revealed a reduction in compensative postural adaptations to flexed posture characterized by knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in the participants of the specific program. Conclusion The Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture significantly improved postural alignment and musculoskeletal impairment of the elderly. The stereophotogrammetric evaluation of posture was useful to measure the global postural alignment and especially to analyse the possible compensatory strategies

  1. Why and how did Israel adopt activity-based hospital payment? The Procedure-Related Group incremental reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammli-Greenberg, Shuli; Waitzberg, Ruth; Perman, Vadim; Gamzu, Ronni

    2016-10-01

    Historically, Israel paid its non-profit hospitals on a perdiem (PD) basis. Recently, like other OECD countries, Israel has moved to activity-based payments. While most countries have adopted a diagnostic related group (DRG) payment system, Israel has chosen a Procedure-Related Group (PRG) system. This differs from the DRG system because it classifies patients by procedure rather than diagnosis. In Israel, the PRG system was found to be more feasible given the lack of data and information needed in the DRG classification system. The Ministry of Health (MoH) chose a payment scheme that depends only on inhouse creation of PRG codes and costing, thus avoiding dependence on hospital data. The PRG tariffs are priced by a joint Health and Finance Ministry commission and updated periodically. Moreover, PRGs are believed to achieve the same main efficiency objectives as DRGs: increasing the volume of activity, shortening unnecessary hospitalization days, and reducing the gaps between the costs and prices of activities. The PRG system is being adopted through an incremental reform that started in 2002 and was accelerated in 2010. The Israeli MoH involved the main players in the hospital market in the consolidation of this potentially controversial reform in order to avoid opposition. The reform was implemented incrementally in order to preserve the balance of resource allocation and overall expenditures of the system, thus becoming budget neutral. Yet, as long as gaps remain between marginal costs and prices of procedures, PRGs will not attain all their objectives. Moreover, it is still crucial to refine PRG rates to reflect the severity of cases, in order to tackle incentives for selection of patients within each procedure. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Abundance and single-cell activity of heterotrophic bacterial groups in the western Arctic Ocean in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikrad, Mrinalini P; Cottrell, M T; Kirchman, D L

    2012-04-01

    Environmental conditions in the western Arctic Ocean range from constant light and nutrient depletion in summer to complete darkness and sea ice cover in winter. This seasonal environmental variation is likely to have an effect on the use of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by heterotrophic bacteria in surface water. However, this effect is not well studied and we know little about the activity of specific bacterial clades in the surface oceans. The use of DOM by three bacterial subgroups in both winter and summer was examined by microautoradiography combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization. We found selective use of substrates by these groups, although the abundances of Ant4D3 (Antarctic Gammaproteobacteria), Polaribacter (Bacteroidetes), and SAR11 (Alphaproteobacteria) were not different between summer and winter in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. The number of cells taking up glucose within all three bacterial groups decreased significantly from summer to winter, while the percentage of cells using leucine did not show a clear pattern between seasons. The uptake of the amino acid mix increased substantially from summer to winter by the Ant4D3 group, although such a large increase in uptake was not seen for the other two groups. Use of glucose by bacteria, but not use of leucine or the amino acid mix, related strongly to inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll a, and other environmental factors. Our results suggest a switch in use of dissolved organic substrates from summer to winter and that the three phylogenetic subgroups examined fill different niches in DOM use in the two seasons.

  3. Influence of surface oxygenated groups on the formation of active Cu species and the catalytic activity of Cu/AC catalyst for the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Li, Zhong; Zheng, Huayan; Hao, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xia; Wang, Jiajun

    2016-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) supported Cu catalysts are employed to study the influence of surface oxygenated groups on the formation of active Cu species and the catalytic activity of Cu/AC catalyst for oxidative carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The AC supports are thermal treated under different temperatures in order to adjust the levels of surface oxygenated groups. The AC supports are characterized by BET, TPD-MS and XRD, and the Cu/AC catalysts are characterized by BET, XRD, TEM, XPS, AAS, CH3OH-TPD and N2O chemisorption. The results show that as the treatment temperature is below 800 °C, the BET surface area of the corresponding AC supports are nearly unchanged and close to that of the original AC (1529.6 m2/g). But as the thermal treatment temperature is elevated from 1000 to 1600 °C, the BET surface area of AC supports gradually decreases from 1407.6 to 972.2 m2/g. After loading of Cu, the BET surface area of copper catalysts is in the range of 834.4 to 1545.3 m2/g, which is slightly less than that of the respective supports. When AC is thermal treated at 400 and 600 °C, the unstable carboxylic acid and anhydrides groups are selectively removed, which has weakened the mobility and agglomeration of Cu species during the calcination process, and thus improve the Cu species dispersion over AC support. But as the treatment temperature is elevated from 600 °C to 1200 °C, the Cu species dispersion begins to decline suggesting further removal of stable surface oxygenated groups is unfavorable for Cu species dispersion. Moreover, higher thermal treatment temperature (above 1200 °C) promotes the graphitization degree of AC and leds to the decrease of Cu loading on AC support. Meanwhile, the removal of surface oxygenated groups by thermal treatment is conducive to the formation of more π-sites, and thus promote the reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and Cu0 as active centers. The specific surface area of (Cu+ + Cu0) is improved by thermal treatment of AC

  4. Defective homing is associated with altered Cdc42 activity in cells from patients with Fanconi anemia group A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Shang, Xun; Guo, Fukun; Murphy, Kim; Kirby, Michelle; Kelly, Patrick; Reeves, Lilith; Smith, Franklin O.; Williams, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies showed that Fanconi anemia (FA) murine stem cells have defective reconstitution after bone marrow (BM) transplantation. The mechanism underlying this defect is not known. Here, we report defective homing of FA patient BM progenitors transplanted into mouse models. Using cells from patients carrying mutations in FA complementation group A (FA-A), we show that when transplanted into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) recipient mice, FA-A BM cells exhibited impaired homing activity. FA-A cells also showed defects in both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Complementation of FA-A deficiency by reexpression of FANCA readily restored adhesion of FA-A cells. A significant decrease in the activity of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 was found associated with these defective functions in patient-derived cells, and expression of a constitutively active Cdc42 mutant was able to rescue the adhesion defect of FA-A cells. These results provide the first evidence that FA proteins influence human BM progenitor homing and adhesion via the small GTPase Cdc42-regulated signaling pathway. PMID:18565850

  5. A group-mediated physical activity intervention in older knee osteoarthritis patients: effects on social cognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Lucas, Alexander R; Devor, Steven T; Emery, Charles F; Hackshaw, Kevin V; Fairman, Ciaran M; Bowman, Jessica; Rejeski, W Jack

    2017-01-20

    The objective of the present study was to compare a group-mediated cognitive behavioral (GMCB) physical activity intervention with traditional exercise therapy (TRAD) upon select social cognitive outcomes in sedentary knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) patients. A total of 80 patients (mean age = 63.5 years; 84% women) were recruited using clinic and community-based strategies to a 12-month, single-blind, two-arm, randomized controlled trial. Mobility-related self-efficacy, self-regulatory self-efficacy (SRSE), and satisfaction with physical function (SPF) were assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Results of intent-to-treat 2 (Treatment: GMCB and TRAD) × 2 (Time: 3 and 12 month) analyses of covariance yielded significantly greater increases in SRSE and SPF (P physical activity and mobility at 3 and 12-months. The GMCB intervention yielded more favorable effects on important social cognitive outcomes than TRAD; these effects were related to improvements in physical activity and mobility.

  6. Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Myrcia (Myrtaceae): A Review of an Aromatic and Medicinal Group of Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascaes, Márcia Moraes; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças Bichara; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2015-10-09

    Myrcia is one of the largest genera of the economically important family Myrtaceae. Some of the species are used in folk medicine, such as a group known as "pedra-hume-caá" or "pedra-ume-caá" or "insulina vegetal" (insulin plant) that it is used for the treatment of diabetes. The species are an important source of essential oils, and most of the chemical studies on Myrcia describe the chemical composition of the essential oils, in which mono- and sesquiterpenes are predominant. The non-volatile compounds isolated from Myrcia are usually flavonoids, tannins, acetophenone derivatives and triterpenes. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial activities have been described to Myrcia essential oils, while hypoglycemic, anti-hemorrhagic and antioxidant activities were attributed to the extracts. Flavonoid glucosides and acetophenone derivatives showed aldose reductase and α-glucosidase inhibition, and could explain the traditional use of Myrcia species to treat diabetes. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory are some of the activities observed for other isolated compounds from Myrcia.

  7. Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Myrcia (Myrtaceae): A Review of an Aromatic and Medicinal Group of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascaes, Márcia Moraes; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças Bichara; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Myrcia is one of the largest genera of the economically important family Myrtaceae. Some of the species are used in folk medicine, such as a group known as “pedra-hume-caá” or “pedra-ume-caá” or “insulina vegetal” (insulin plant) that it is used for the treatment of diabetes. The species are an important source of essential oils, and most of the chemical studies on Myrcia describe the chemical composition of the essential oils, in which mono- and sesquiterpenes are predominant. The non-volatile compounds isolated from Myrcia are usually flavonoids, tannins, acetophenone derivatives and triterpenes. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial activities have been described to Myrcia essential oils, while hypoglycemic, anti-hemorrhagic and antioxidant activities were attributed to the extracts. Flavonoid glucosides and acetophenone derivatives showed aldose reductase and α-glucosidase inhibition, and could explain the traditional use of Myrcia species to treat diabetes. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory are some of the activities observed for other isolated compounds from Myrcia. PMID:26473832

  8. Group Work: Pleasure or Pain? An Effective Guidance Activity or a Poor Substitute for One-to-One Interactions with Young People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of personal learning and development (PLD) group work as a guidance activity in both career counselling and youth support practice. It introduces the FAAST model-a framework for planning, preparing and delivering PLD group sessions (Westergaard in Effective group work with young people. Open University, Maidenhead,…

  9. Antimicrobial and anti-virulence activity of capsaicin against erythromycin-resistant, cell-invasive Group A streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eMarini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide is the active component of Capsicum plants (chilli peppers, which are grown as food and for medicinal purposes since ancient times, and is responsible for the pungency of their fruit. Besides its multiple pharmacological and physiological properties (pain relief, cancer prevention, and beneficial cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal effects capsaicin has recently attracted considerable attention because of its antimicrobial and anti-virulence activity. This is the first study of its in vitro antibacterial and anti-virulence activity against Streptococcus pyogenes [Group A streptococci (GAS], a major human pathogen. The test strains were previously characterized, erythromycin-susceptible (n=5 and erythromycin-resistant (n=27, cell-invasive pharyngeal isolates. The MICs of capsaicin were 64-128 μg/mL (the most common MIC was 128 µg/mL. The action of capsaicin was bactericidal, as suggested by MBC values that were equal or close to the MICs, and by early detection of dead cells in the live/dead assay. No capsaicin-resistant mutants were obtained in single-step resistance selection studies. Interestingly, growth in presence of sublethal capsaicin concentrations induced an increase in biofilm production (p ≤ 0.05 and in the number of bacteria adhering to A549 monolayers, and a reduction in cell-invasiveness and haemolytic activity (both p ≤ 0.05. Cell invasiveness fell so dramatically that a highly invasive strain became non-invasive. The dose-response relationship, characterized by opposite effects of low and high capsaicin doses, suggests a hormetic response. The present study documents that capsaicin has promising bactericidal activity against erythromycin-resistant, cell-invasive pharyngeal GAS isolates. The fact that sublethal concentrations inhibited cell invasion and reduced haemolytic activity, two important virulence traits of GAS, is also interesting, considering that cell

  10. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M J A; Verstegen, M W A; Heetkamp, M J W; Schrama, J W

    2003-05-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five diets contained solvent-extracted coconut meal (SECM) and five diets contained soybean hulls (SBH) as the main fDF source. On an as-fed basis, pigs received 3.5, 13.2, 23.0, 32.7, or 42.4 g x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) of SECM or SBH. A total of 280 crossbred growing pigs were used, divided into clusters of 14 pigs each. Pigs were group-housed and fed at 2.5 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. All clusters were fed similar amounts of NE, ileal-digestible protein and amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Consequently, DMI differed among diets because NE content decreased with increasing DF content. After a 32-d preliminary period, HP was measured per cluster during a 7-d experimental period in environmentally controlled respiration chambers. Behavior of the pigs was recorded using time-lapse video recordings during two different days within the experimental period. Intake of digestible starch and fDF was different (P average, pigs spent 153 min standing, 42 min sitting, 202 min lying on their chest, and 1,043 min lying on their flanks each day. Pigs fed SECM diets spent, on average, less time (P time spent on physical activity (i.e., standing plus sitting, 195 min/d) was not affected by diet. Total HP and resting HP were affected by diet and were on average lower (P averaged 65 kJ x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) and was not affected by diet. There was a linear relationship (P < 0.001) between fDF intake and HP, but there was no relationship between fDF intake and AHP. During different parts of the day, fDF intake also affected HP. The saving effect of physical activity on the NE values of fDF from SECM and SBH were 0.56 and 0.84 kJ/g of fDF intake, respectively. Neither of

  11. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students' reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement.

  12. Defining active sacroiliitis on MRI for classification of axial spondyloarthritis: update by the ASAS MRI working group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Robert G W; Bakker, Pauline A C; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: The definition of a positive MRI for classification of axial SpA should continue to primarily depend on the imaging features of 'active sacroiliitis' until more data are available regarding MRI features of structural damage in the sacroiliac joint and MRI features in the spine and their utility......OBJECTIVES: To review and update the existing definition of a positive MRI for classification of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). METHODS: The Assessment in SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) MRI working group conducted a consensus exercise to review the definition of a positive MRI...... for inclusion in the ASAS classification criteria of axial SpA. Existing definitions and new data relevant to the MRI diagnosis and classification of sacroiliitis and spondylitis in axial SpA, published since the ASAS definition first appeared in print in 2009, were reviewed and discussed. The precise wording...

  13. The active gene that encodes human High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMG1) contains introns and maps to chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, S. [Dipartimento di Genetica e di Biologia dei Microrganismi, Milan (Italy); Finelli, P.; Rocchi, M. [Istituto di Genetica, Bari (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    The human genome contains a large number of sequences related to the cDNA for High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMG1), which so far has hampered the cloning and mapping of the active HMG1 gene. We show that the human HMG1 gene contains introns, while the HMG1-related sequences do not and most likely are retrotransposed pseudogenes. We identified eight YACs from the ICI and CEPH libraries that contain the human HMG1 gene. The HMG1 gene is similar in structure to the previously characterized murine homologue and maps to human chromosome 13 and q12, as determined by in situ hybridization. The mouse Hmg1 gene maps to the telomeric region of murine Chromosome 5, which is syntenic to the human 13q12 band. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Defining active sacroiliitis on MRI for classification of axial spondyloarthritis: update by the ASAS MRI working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Robert G W; Bakker, Pauline A C; van der Heijde, Désirée; Weber, Ulrich; Rudwaleit, Martin; Hermann, K G; Sieper, Joachim; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Bennett, Alex; Braun, Jürgen; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Dougados, Maxime; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Maksymowych, Walter P; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Østergaard, Mikkel; Poddubnyy, Denis; Reijnierse, Monique; van den Bosch, Filip; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene; Landewé, Robert

    2016-11-01

    To review and update the existing definition of a positive MRI for classification of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). The Assessment in SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) MRI working group conducted a consensus exercise to review the definition of a positive MRI for inclusion in the ASAS classification criteria of axial SpA. Existing definitions and new data relevant to the MRI diagnosis and classification of sacroiliitis and spondylitis in axial SpA, published since the ASAS definition first appeared in print in 2009, were reviewed and discussed. The precise wording of the existing definition was examined in detail and the data and a draft proposal were presented to and voted on by the ASAS membership. The clear presence of bone marrow oedema on MRI in subchondral bone is still considered to be the defining observation that determines the presence of active sacroiliitis. Structural damage lesions seen on MRI may contribute to a decision by the observer that inflammatory lesions are genuinely due to SpA but are not required to meet the definition. The existing definition was clarified adding guidelines and images to assist in the application of the definition. The definition of a positive MRI for classification of axial SpA should continue to primarily depend on the imaging features of 'active sacroiliitis' until more data are available regarding MRI features of structural damage in the sacroiliac joint and MRI features in the spine and their utility when used for classification purposes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of norfloxacin-transition metal complexes (group 11, IB): Spectroscopic, thermal, kinetic measurements and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2007-12-01

    The investigation of the new structures of Ag(I), Cu(II) and Au(III) complexes, [Ag 2(Nor) 2](NO 3) 2, [Cu(Nor) 2(H 2O) 2]SO 4·5H 2O and [Au(Nor) 2 (H 2O) 2]Cl 3 (where, Nor = norfloxacin) was done during the reaction of silver(I), copper(II) and gold(III) ions with norfloxacin drug ligand. Elemental analysis of CHN, infrared, electronic, 1H NMR and mass spectra, as well as thermo gravimetric analysis (TG and DTG) and conductivity measurements have been used to characterize the isolated complexes. The powder XRD studies confirm the amorphous nature of the complexes. The norfloxacin ligand is coordinated to Ag(I) and Au(III) ions as a neutral monodentate chelating through the N atom of piperidyl ring, but the copper(II) complex is coordinated through the carbonyl oxygen atom (quinolone group) and the oxygen atom of the carboxylic group. The norfloxacin and their metal complexes have been biologically tested, which resulted in norfloxacin complexes showing moderate activity against the gram positive and gram negative bacteria as well as against fungi.

  16. Theoretical study of chlordecone and surface groups interaction in an activated carbon model under acidic and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Carballo, Juan José; Melchor-Rodríguez, Kenia; Hernández-Valdés, Daniel; Enriquez-Victorero, Carlos; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Gaspard, Sarra; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises Javier

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) are widely used in the purification of drinking water without almost any knowledge about the adsorption mechanisms of the persistent organic pollutants. Chlordecone (CLD, Kepone) is an organochlorinated synthetic compound that has been used mainly as agricultural insecticide. CLD has been identified and listed as a persistent organic pollutant by the Stockholm Convention. The selection of the best suited AC for this type of contaminants is mainly an empirical and costly process. A theoretical study of the influence of AC surface groups (SGs) on CLD adsorption is done in order to help understanding the process. This may provide a first selection criteria for the preparation of AC with suitable surface properties. A model of AC consisting of a seven membered ring graphene sheet (coronene) with a functional group on the edge was used to evaluate the influence of the SGs over the adsorption. Multiple Minima Hypersurface methodology (MMH) coupled with PM7 semiempirical Hamiltonian was employed in order to study the interactions of the chlordecone with SGs (hydroxyl and carboxyl) at acidic and neutral pH and different hydration conditions. Selected structures were re-optimized using CAM-B3LYP to achieve a well-defined electron density to characterize the interactions by the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach. The deprotonated form of surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of AC models show the strongest interactions, suggesting a chemical adsorption. An increase in carboxylic SGs content is proposed to enhance CLD adsorption onto AC at neutral pH conditions.

  17. PRODUKTIVITAS PADANG PENGGEMBALAAN SABANA TIMOR BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold E. Manu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the West Timor savanna productive at different season. The location of this study is in the station of Lili field, Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology Naibonat Kupang, with 40 hectare of savannah for pasture, held in one year. The data collected are botanical composition, production, feed intake in savannah and forage quality also the carrying capacity. The data analyzed descriptively. The amount of goat used for measurement of feed intake in savannah is 10 does. The result showed that the averages of forage fluctuation available is between 0.61-4,33 ton/hectare. The lowest point of production is happened in the edge of dry season (October that is 0.61 ton/hectare. Then it increases in early of rainy (December and reaches the highest point in the early of dry season (April. From this point, then it decreases and reach the lowest point in October, so, the forage production in nature was increases in December. The composition rate of CP is very varied, that is 2.71-9.48%. The composition of CP in nature grass has no significant difference with the composition in other locations of Timor, that is 2.26 % in the ends of dry season and become 8-10% in the rainy. Most of forage on the pasture is nature grass that is upper 90% and relative less of leguminous plants. The lack proportion of leguminous plants in nature savannah result in the less of forage quality, especially during the dry season there is no legume proportion and the quality of nature grass become very low.

  18. La calentura no esta en las sabanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reales Edilma de

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Reconozcamos que una disciplina en el estricto sentido cuenta con un campo de saber específico y se identifica por un área científica donde son centrales el cultivo de teorías y la producción de nuevos conocimientos para la disciplina. Para asegurar que un campo del saber se ha constituido en disciplina o está en vía de serlo, se requiere que sus miembros conserven esa tendencia, es decir, que investiguen para dar lugar a conocimiento nuevo o a probar conocimiento existente en forma sistemática.

  19. Binding properties of a blood group Le(a+) active sialoglycoprotein, purified from human ovarian cyst, with applied lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; WU, J H; Watkins, W M; Chen, C P; Tsai, M C

    1996-06-07

    Studies on the structures and binding properties of the glycoproteins, purified from human ovarian cyst fluids, will aid the understanding of the carbohydrate alterations occurring during the biosynthesis of blood group antigens and neoplasm formation. These glycoproteins can also serve as important biological materials to study blood group A, B, H, Le(a), Le(b), Le(x), Le(y), T and Tn determinants, precursor type I and II sequences and cold agglutinin I and i epitopes. In this study, the binding property of a cyst glycoprotein from a human blood group Le(a+) nonsecretor individual, that contains an unusually high amount (18%) of sialic acid (HOC 350) was characterized by quantitative precipitin assay with a panel of lectins exhibiting a broad range of carbohydrate-binding specificities. Native HOC 350 reacted well only with three out of nineteen lectins tested. It precipitated about 80% of Ricinus communis (RCA1), 50% of Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and 37% of Bauhinia purpurea aba (BPA) agglutinins, respectively. However, its asialo product had dramatically enhanced reactivity and reacted well with many I/II (Gal beta1 --> 3/4GcNAc), T(Gal beta1 --> 3GalNAc) and Tn(GaNIAc alphaI --> Ser/Thr) active lectins. It bound best to Jacalin, BPA, and abrin-a and completely precipitated all the lectins added. Asialo-HOC 350 also reacted strongly with Wistaria floribunda, Abrus precatorius agglutinin, ricin and RCA1 and precipitated over 75% of the lectin nitrogen added, and moderately with Arachis hypogaea, Maclura pomifera, WGA, Vicia viosa-B4, Codium fragile tomentosoides and Ulex europaeus-II. But native HOC 350 and its asialo product reacted not at all or poorly with Dolichos biflorus, Helix pomatia, Lotus tetra-gonolobus, Ulex europaeus-I, Lens culinaris lectins and Con A. The lectin-glycoform interactions through bioactive sugars were confirmed by precipitin inhibition assay. Mapping the precipitation profiles of the interactions have led to the conclusion that HOC 350

  20. Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies in Afterschool Programs: Results from a Group-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L.; Giles, Catherine M.; deBlois, Madeleine E.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Chinfatt, Sherene; Cradock, Angie L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Afterschool programs can be health-promoting environments for children. Written policies positively influence nutrition and physical activity (PA) environments, but effective strategies for building staff capacity to write such policies have not been evaluated. This study measures the comprehensiveness of written nutrition, PA, and screen time policies in afterschool programs and assesses impact of the Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) intervention on key policies. METHODS Twenty afterschool programs in Boston, MA participated in a group-randomized, controlled trial from September 2010 to June 2011. Intervention program staff attended learning collaboratives focused on practice and policy change. The Out-of-School Time (OST) Policy Assessment Index evaluated written policies. Inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the measure and impact of the intervention on written policies were assessed. RESULTS The measure demonstrated moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (Spearman’s r=0.53 to 0.97) and construct validity. OSNAP was associated with significant increases in standards-based policy statements surrounding snacks (+2.6, p=0.003), beverages (+2.3, p=0.008), screen time (+0.8, p=0.046), family communication (+2.2, p=0.002), and a summary index of OSNAP goals (+3.3, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS OSNAP demonstrated success in building staff capacity to write health-promoting policy statements. Future research should focus on determining policy change impact on practices. PMID:24941286