WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater resource management

  1. Fresh Groundwater Resources in Georgia and Management Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2015-04-01

    Fresh water represents conditioned factor for human body's life. That's why the superiority of drinking water is recognized as human body's priority according to the international declarations. World is experiencing deficit of quality water. Natural Disasters caused by the pollution of the fresh groundwater is also very painful and acute, because it needed more time, more material and financial means for the liquidation of their results, and what the most important practically is, it is impossible to renew the initial natural conditions completely. All these conditions that the rational use of fresh groundwater passed by the interests of separate countries and became worldwide, international problem - fresh water became as considerable raw material for the worlds import and export. The fresh groundwater place the important role among the water recourses of Georgia. Their existing is considerably connected to the development of industry and agriculture, also with water supply issue of populated area. Groundwater management requires precise knowledge of sources (aquifers). Monitoring of Georgia's most important aquifers started many years ago and has provided large amount of data. This was interrupted at the beginning of the 1990s. It could be noted that fresh water existing in the country is distinguished with high quality. According to the mineralization and temperature parameters groundwater is generally divided into the following groups: 1) Fresh drinking waters (mineralization not exceeding 1.0 g/l); 2) Mineral waters (mineralization over 1.0 g/l); 3) Thermal waters -- healing (20˚C - 35˚C), Geothermal (40˚C - 108˚C). Below we present briefly review about the situation of fresh groundwater resources, started recovery of groundwater monitoring network and the analysis of the management problems.

  2. Integrated groundwater resource management in Indus Basin using satellite gravimetry and physical modeling tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naveed; Hossain, Faisal; Lee, Hyongki; Akhter, Gulraiz

    2017-03-01

    Reliable and frequent information on groundwater behavior and dynamics is very important for effective groundwater resource management at appropriate spatial scales. This information is rarely available in developing countries and thus poses a challenge for groundwater managers. The in situ data and groundwater modeling tools are limited in their ability to cover large domains. Remote sensing technology can now be used to continuously collect information on hydrological cycle in a cost-effective way. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a remote sensing integrated physical modeling approach for groundwater management in Indus Basin. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Satellite (GRACE)-based gravity anomalies from 2003 to 2010 were processed to generate monthly groundwater storage changes using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The groundwater storage is the key parameter of interest for groundwater resource management. The spatial and temporal patterns in groundwater storage (GWS) are useful for devising the appropriate groundwater management strategies. GRACE-estimated GWS information with large-scale coverage is valuable for basin-scale monitoring and decision making. This frequently available information is found useful for the identification of groundwater recharge areas, groundwater storage depletion, and pinpointing of the areas where groundwater sustainability is at risk. The GWS anomalies were found to favorably agree with groundwater model simulations from Visual MODFLOW and in situ data. Mostly, a moderate to severe GWS depletion is observed causing a vulnerable situation to the sustainability of this groundwater resource. For the sustainable groundwater management, the region needs to implement groundwater policies and adopt water conservation techniques.

  3. Aquifers of Arkansas: protection, management, and hydrologic and geochemical characteristics of groundwater resources in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Merriman, Katherine R.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Fugitt, D. Todd; Spellman, Jane L.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Blackstock, Joshua M.; Battreal, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen aquifers in Arkansas that currently serve or have served as sources of water supply are described with respect to existing groundwater protection and management programs, geology, hydrologic characteristics, water use, water levels, deductive analysis, projections of hydrologic conditions, and water quality. State and Federal protection and management programs are described according to regulatory oversight, management strategies, and ambient groundwater-monitoring programs that currently (2013) are in place for assessing and protecting groundwater resources throughout the State.

  4. Using airborne geophysical surveys to improve groundwater resource management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Peterson, Steven M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, groundwater management requires more accurate hydrogeologic frameworks for groundwater models. These complex issues have created the demand for innovative approaches to data collection. In complicated terrains, groundwater modelers benefit from continuous high‐resolution geologic maps and their related hydrogeologic‐parameter estimates. The USGS and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for near‐continuous coverage of areas of the North Platte River valley in western Nebraska. The survey objectives were to map the aquifers and bedrock topography of the area to help improve the understanding of groundwater‐surface‐water relationships, leading to improved water management decisions. Frequency‐domain heliborne electromagnetic surveys were completed, using a unique survey design to collect resistivity data that can be related to lithologic information to refine groundwater model inputs. To render the geophysical data useful to multidimensional groundwater models, numerical inversion is necessary to convert the measured data into a depth‐dependent subsurface resistivity model. This inverted model, in conjunction with sensitivity analysis, geological ground truth (boreholes and surface geology maps), and geological interpretation, is used to characterize hydrogeologic features. Interpreted two‐ and three‐dimensional data coverage provides the groundwater modeler with a high‐resolution hydrogeologic framework and a quantitative estimate of framework uncertainty. This method of creating hydrogeologic frameworks improved the understanding of flow path orientation by redefining the location of the paleochannels and associated bedrock highs. The improved models reflect actual hydrogeology at a level of accuracy not achievable using previous data sets.

  5. Economic, social and resource management factors influencing groundwater trade: Evidence from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bruce; Webb, John; Stott, Kerry; Cheng, Xiang; Wilkinson, Roger; Cossens, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    In Victoria, Australia, most groundwater resources are now fully allocated and opportunities for new groundwater development can only occur through trading of license entitlements. Groundwater usage has rarely exceeded 50% of the available licensed volume, even in the 2008/9 drought year, and 50 to 70% of individual license holders use less than 5% of their allocation each year. However, little groundwater trading is occurring at present. Interviews were conducted with groundwater license holders and water brokers to investigate why the Victorian groundwater trade market is underdeveloped. Responses show there is a complex mix of social, economic, institutional and technical reasons. Barriers to trade are influenced by the circumstances of each groundwater user, administrative process and resource management rules. Water brokers deal with few trades at low margins and noted unrealistic selling prices and administrative difficulties. Irrigators who have successfully traded identify that there are few participants in trading, technical appraisals are expensive and administrative requirements and fees are burdensome, especially when compared to surface water trading. Opportunities to facilitate trade include groundwater management plan refinement and improved information provision. Simplifying transaction processes and costs, demonstrating good resource stewardship and preventing third party impacts from trade could address some concerns raised by market participants. There are, however, numerous individual circumstances that inhibit groundwater trading, so it is unlikely that policy and process changes alone could increase usage rates without greater demand for groundwater or more favourable farming economic circumstances.

  6. A Quantitative Groundwater Resource Management under Uncertainty Using a Retrospective Optimization Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislar E. Kifanyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resources are a major concern for any socio-economic development. As the quality of many surface fresh water sources increasingly deteriorate, more pressure is being imparted into groundwater aquifers. Since groundwater and the aquifers that host it are inherently vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts, there is a need for sustainable pumping strategies. However, groundwater resource management is challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of aquifer systems. Aquifer hydrogeology is highly uncertain, and thus it is imperative that this uncertainty is accounted for when managing groundwater resource pumping. This, therefore, underscores the need for an efficient optimization tool which can sustainably manage the resource under uncertainty conditions. In this paper, we apply a procedure which is new within the context of groundwater resource management—the Retrospective Optimization Approximation (ROA method. This method is capable of designing sustainable groundwater pumping strategies for aquifers which are characterized by uncertainty arising due to scarcity of input data. ROA framework solves and evaluates a sequence of optimization sub-problems in an increasing number of realizations. We used k-means clustering sampling technique for the realizations selection. The methodology is demonstrated through application to an hypothetical example. The optimization problem was solved and analyzed using “Active Set” algorithm implemented under MATLAB environment. The results indicate that the ROA sampling based method is a promising approach for optimizing groundwater pumping rates under conditions of hydrogeological uncertainty.

  7. Irrigator responses to groundwater resource management in northern Victoria, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bruce C.; Webb, John; Wilkinson, Roger; Cherry, Don

    2014-10-01

    In northern Victoria, farmers are the biggest users of groundwater and therefore the main stakeholders in plans that seek to sustainably manage the resource. Interviews with 30 irrigation farmers in two study areas, analysed using qualitative social research methods, showed that the overwhelming majority of groundwater users agreed with the need for groundwater management and thought that the current plans had achieved sustainable resource use. The farmers also expressed a strong need for clear technical explanations for management decisions, in particular easily understood water level data. The social licence to implement the management plans arose through effective consultation with the community during plan development. Several additional factors combined to gain acceptance for the plans: good data on groundwater usage and aquifer levels is available; irrigation farmers had been exposed to usage restrictions since the late 1990s; an ‘adaptive’ management approach is in use which allowed refinements to be readily incorporated and fortuitously, plan development coincided with the 1998-2009 drought, when declines in groundwater levels reinforced the usefulness of the plans. The imposition of a nation-wide water use reduction plan in 2012 had relatively little impact in Victoria because of the early implementation of effective groundwater management plans. However, economic difficulties that reduce groundwater users’ capacity to pay groundwater management charges mean that the future of the plans in Victoria is not assured. Nevertheless, the high level of trust that exists between Victorian irrigation farmers and the management agencies suggests that the continued use of a consultative approach will continue to produce workable outcomes. Lessons from the Victorian experience may be difficult to apply in other areas of groundwater use in Australia and overseas, where there may be a quite different history of development and culture of groundwater management.

  8. Forecasting and Managing Groundwater Resources Using InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Knight, R. J.; Chen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater management is highly dependent on the type and quality of field data available describing a given aquifer system. Our increasing reliance on groundwater, especially as traditional surface supplies continue to be overexploited due to rising population and standard of living, requires that we better understand the state of our subsurface supplies and how to best manage them. The dense spatial and temporal variability of subsidence provided by time series InSAR allows us to constrain the extent of an aquifer, its storage coefficient, estimates of hydraulic head, and hydraulic conductivity. We present examples of these parameters associated with groundwater systems in the San Luis Valley, CO, and the Central Valley area of California, as observed by several spaceborne radar systems and validated by comparison with field data. Groundwater is one component of a water system, which includes surface supplies and all of the various sources and end uses of water in a particular area. Confined aquifers remain the most difficult components of a full water system to characterize and properly manage, as they lie deep underground and are hidden from direct observation. We show that observing subtle deformations of the surface elevations on the order of mm to cm yield important constraints on the underlying aquifer and its hydraulic properties, because variations in the surface height expresses changes in water pressure below. The fundamental relation between pressure and stress resulting in changes in hydraulic head yields a simple linear relationship between deformation Δb, hydraulic head Δh, and skeletal storage coefficient: Sk = Δb / Δh, so that measuring deformation everywhere above an aquifer over time yields change in head. Using InSAR-observed temporal response of the head (deformation) to changes in forcing by water sources and sinks, and applying the one dimensional diffusion equation resulting from Darcy's Law and the continuity relation allows us to

  9. Groundwater resources management through the applications of simulation modeling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay

    2014-11-15

    The global population is increasing rapidly and expected to touch the 9.5 billion mark by 2050 from the current 7.2 billion. The management of the groundwater resources is a challenging task worldwide against the backdrop of the growing water demand for industrial, agricultural, and domestic uses and shrinking resources. Moreover, this task has been hampered significantly due to declining/rising groundwater levels and associated contamination. A broad range of solutions could be considered to address the aforementioned problems of groundwater management, but the effectiveness of all the solutions and their combinations cannot be verified with field experiments. Given their predictive capability, simulation models are often the only viable means of providing input to management decisions, as they can forecast the likely impacts of a particular water management strategy. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the simulation modeling applications for the management of groundwater resources. The past papers on the overview of groundwater simulation models, use of remote sensing and GIS in groundwater modeling, and application of simulation models in arid and semiarid regions are described in detail. Conclusions are drawn where gaps exist and more research needs to be focused. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Bayesian Decision Networks for sustainable groundwater resources management in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Hadis; Casper, Markus; Kholghi, Majid; Mosaedi, Abolfazl; Farmani, Raziyeh; Saadoddin, Amir; Meftah Halaghi, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents management of groundwater resource using a Bayesian Decision Network (BDN). The Kordkooy region in North East of Iran has been selected as study area. The region has been divided to three parts based on Transmissivity (T) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) values. The BDN parameters (prior probabilities and Conditional Probability Tables (CPTs) have been identified for each of the three zones. Three groups of management scenarios have been developed based on the two decision variables including "Crop pattern" and "Domestic water demand" across the three zones of the study area: 1) status quo management for all three zones representing current conditions. 2) the effect of change in cropping pattern on management endpoints and 3) the effect of increasing domestic water demand on management endpoints in the future. The outcomes arising from implementing each scenario have been predicted using the BDN for each of the zones. Results reveal that probability of drawdown in groundwater levels of southern areas is relatively high compared with other zones. Groundwater withdrawal from northern and northwestern areas of the study area should be limited due to the groundwater quality problems associated with shallow groundwater of these two zones. The ability of the Bayesian Decision Network to take into account key uncertainties in natural resources and performing a meaningful analysis in cases where there is not vast amount of information and observed data available -even based partly on expert opinion- emphasizes the advantage of this approach in groundwater resources management process, as limited data availability was a serious problem faced by groundwater resources of the study area.

  11. Hydro-environmental management of groundwater resources: A fuzzy-based multi-objective compromise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Rakhshandehroo, Gholam Reza

    2017-08-01

    Sustainable management of water resources necessitates close attention to social, economic and environmental aspects such as water quality and quantity concerns and potential conflicts. This study presents a new fuzzy-based multi-objective compromise methodology to determine the socio-optimal and sustainable policies for hydro-environmental management of groundwater resources, which simultaneously considers the conflicts and negotiation of involved stakeholders, uncertainties in decision makers' preferences, existing uncertainties in the groundwater parameters and groundwater quality and quantity issues. The fuzzy multi-objective simulation-optimization model is developed based on qualitative and quantitative groundwater simulation model (MODFLOW and MT3D), multi-objective optimization model (NSGA-II), Monte Carlo analysis and Fuzzy Transformation Method (FTM). Best compromise solutions (best management policies) on trade-off curves are determined using four different Fuzzy Social Choice (FSC) methods. Finally, a unanimity fallback bargaining method is utilized to suggest the most preferred FSC method. Kavar-Maharloo aquifer system in Fars, Iran, as a typical multi-stakeholder multi-objective real-world problem is considered to verify the proposed methodology. Results showed an effective performance of the framework for determining the most sustainable allocation policy in groundwater resource management.

  12. Groundwater modeling in integrated water resources management--visions for 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Møller, Ingelise; Hansen, Martin; Søndergaard, Verner

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater modeling is undergoing a change from traditional stand-alone studies toward being an integrated part of holistic water resources management procedures. This is illustrated by the development in Denmark, where comprehensive national databases for geologic borehole data, groundwater-related geophysical data, geologic models, as well as a national groundwater-surface water model have been established and integrated to support water management. This has enhanced the benefits of using groundwater models. Based on insight gained from this Danish experience, a scientifically realistic scenario for the use of groundwater modeling in 2020 has been developed, in which groundwater models will be a part of sophisticated databases and modeling systems. The databases and numerical models will be seamlessly integrated, and the tasks of monitoring and modeling will be merged. Numerical models for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater processes will be coupled in one integrated modeling system that can operate at a wide range of spatial scales. Furthermore, the management systems will be constructed with a focus on building credibility of model and data use among all stakeholders and on facilitating a learning process whereby data and models, as well as stakeholders' understanding of the system, are updated to currently available information. The key scientific challenges for achieving this are (1) developing new methodologies for integration of statistical and qualitative uncertainty; (2) mapping geological heterogeneity and developing scaling methodologies; (3) developing coupled model codes; and (4) developing integrated information systems, including quality assurance and uncertainty information that facilitate active stakeholder involvement and learning.

  13. A simulation/optimization model for groundwater resources management in the Afram Plains area, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidana, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeo logical data to A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeological data to describe groundwater flow in the Afram Plains area. A nonlinear optimization model was then developed and solved for the management of groundwater resources to meet irrigation and household needs. The objective was to maximize groundwater extraction for irrigation activities from the shallow aquifers of the southern Voltaian Sedimentary Basin that underly the area This would improve food security, raise the standard of living and ultimately alleviate poverty in the Afram Plains. The calibrated flow model is in tandem with the general hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in the area and fits the observed data with about a 98% degree of confidence. Groundwater resources may not be the limiting factor in the development of irrigated agriculture. Groundwater has tremendous potential to meet current and future irrigation needs. It was determined from this study that profit from maize irrigation in the Afram Plains area could rise from US$301, 000 in 2007 to over US$3.5 million by the end of the last management period (2013) as irrigation practice is improved, and the economic strength to increase the acreage for irrigation improves. Even with these margins of profit, the drawdown constraint was not reached in any of the management periods. It is expected that rechargefrom the irrigation water would reclaim the lost hydraulic head. The single significant constraint was the amount of land area that could be developed for irrigation in the area. The profit obtained per unit cubic meter of water used also improved over the same management period.

  14. Sustainable Management of Groundwater Resources: A Case Study from the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Zheng, C.; Zheng, L.; Wu, J.; Lei, Y.

    2005-12-01

    With the dramatic increase of population and rapid growth of municipal and industrial water demands, global water shortage is becoming more and more acute. One of the most striking examples for groundwater depletion is the North China Plain (NCP). As the most important center of agricultural production and home to more than 200 million people in China, NCP is experiencing a rapid depletion of its groundwater resources. Groundwater levels in many parts of NCP are currently declining at a rate of 1 m/year or even more due to excessive pumping. A numerical groundwater flow model was developed in this study for the Shijiazhuang region, a typical part of NCP where groundwater is the main water supply source for local agriculture irrigation and municipal and industrial water needs. The model indicated unsustainable groundwater utilization as the pumping exceeds recharge by a large amount. In this study, management optimization modeling was conducted to quantify and improve the sustainability of groundwater utilization in the study area. Based on the calibrated flow model, an optimization formulation was first set up to identify the optimal pumping well locations and rates that lead to the maximum total yield subject to a series of water level constraints. A second optimization formulation was then considered to minimize the total management costs required to meet the projected total water demands, also subject to the same set of water level constraints. The optimization models in this study provide a useful tool for developing cost-effective strategies for sustainable management of groundwater resources on the NCP. The findings from this study are of potentially wide interest to other parts of the world under similar hydrogeological and economic conditions.

  15. On the scope and management of pesticide pollution of Swedish groundwater resources: The Scanian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkesson, Maria; Sparrenbom, Charlotte J; Dahlqvist, Peter; Fraser, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Twenty-three south-Swedish public supply wells were studied to assess pesticide pollution of regional groundwater resources. Relations between pesticide occurrence, hydrogeology, and land use were analyzed using Kohonen's Self-Organizing Maps approach. Pesticides are demonstrated to be substantially present in regional groundwater, with detections in 18 wells. Concentrations above the drinking water threshold are confirmed for nine wells. Observations indicate considerable urban influence, and lagged effects of past, less restricted use. Modern, oxic waters from shallow, unconfined, unconsolidated or fracture-type bedrock aquifers appear particularly vulnerable. Least affected waters appear primarily associated with deeper wells, anoxic conditions, and more confined sediment aquifers lacking urban influence. Comprehensive, standardized monitoring of pesticides in groundwater need to be implemented nationwide to enable sound assessments of pollution status and trends, and to develop sound groundwater management plans in accordance with the Water Framework Directive. Further, existing water protection areas and associated regulations need to be reassessed.

  16. Optimal integrated management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, J.; Schütze, N.; Heck, V.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater systems in arid coastal regions are particularly at risk due to limited potential for groundwater replenishment and increasing water demand, caused by a continuously growing population. For ensuring a sustainable management of those regions, we developed a new simulation-based integrated water management system. The management system unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. Due to the large number of decision variables, a decomposition approach is applied to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for faster and more reliable solutions. It consists of an analytical inner optimisation loop to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water and an outer simulation-based optimisation loop to find the optimal groundwater abstraction pattern. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions and the aquifer response, including the seawater interface, is simulated by an artificial neural network. The methodology is applied exemplarily for the south Batinah re-gion/Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs aquifer sustainability, a multi-objective optimisation is performed which can provide sustainable solutions for water and agricultural management over long-term periods at farm and regional scales in respect of water resources, environment, and socio-economic development.

  17. Improved water resource management using three dimensional groundwater modelling for a highly complex environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Affolter, Annette; Radny, Dirk; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Huggenberger, Peter; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-04-01

    Proper allocation and management of groundwater is an important and critical challenge under rising water demands of various environmental sectors but good groundwater quality is often limited because of urbanization and contamination of aquifers. Given the predictive capability of groundwater models, they are often the only viable means of providing input to water management decisions. However, modelling flow and transport processes can be difficult due to their unknown subsurface heterogeneity and typically unknown distribution of contaminants. As a result water resource management tasks are based on uncertain assumption on contaminants patterns and this uncertainty is typically not incorporated into the assessment of risks associated with different proposed management scenarios. A three-dimensional groundwater model was used to improve water resource management for a study area, where drinking water production is close to different former landfills and industrial areas. To avoid drinking water contamination, artificial groundwater recharge with surface water into the gravel aquifer is used to create a hydraulic barrier between contaminated sites and drinking water extraction wells. The model was used for simulating existing and proposed water management strategies as a tool to ensure the utmost security for drinking water. A systematic evaluation of the flow direction and magnitude between existing observation points using a newly developed three point estimation method for a large amount of scenarios was carried out. Due to the numerous observation points 32 triangles (three-points) were created which cover the entire area around the Hardwald. We demonstrated that systematically applying our developed methodology helps to identify important locations which are sensitive to changing boundary conditions and where additional protection is required without highly computational demanding transport modelling. The presented integrated approach using the flow direction

  18. A regional groundwater-flow model for sustainable groundwater-resource management in the south Asian megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Bayzidul; Firoz, A. B. M.; Foglia, Laura; Marandi, Andres; Khan, Abidur Rahman; Schüth, Christoph; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The water resources that supply most of the megacities in the world are under increased pressure because of land transformation, population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate-change impacts. Dhaka, in Bangladesh, is one of the largest of 22 growing megacities in the world, and it depends on mainly groundwater for all kinds of water needs. The regional groundwater-flow model MODFLOW-2005 was used to simulate the interaction between aquifers and rivers in steady-state and transient conditions during the period 1981-2013, to assess the impact of development and climate change on the regional groundwater resources. Detailed hydro-stratigraphic units are described according to 150 lithology logs, and a three-dimensional model of the upper 400 m of the Greater Dhaka area was constructed. The results explain how the total abstraction (2.9 million m3/d) in the Dhaka megacity, which has caused regional cones of depression, is balanced by recharge and induced river leakage. The simulated outcome shows the general trend of groundwater flow in the sedimentary Holocene aquifers under a variety of hydrogeological conditions, which will assist in the future development of a rational and sustainable management approach.

  19. A regional groundwater-flow model for sustainable groundwater-resource management in the south Asian megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Bayzidul; Firoz, A. B. M.; Foglia, Laura; Marandi, Andres; Khan, Abidur Rahman; Schüth, Christoph; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-05-01

    The water resources that supply most of the megacities in the world are under increased pressure because of land transformation, population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate-change impacts. Dhaka, in Bangladesh, is one of the largest of 22 growing megacities in the world, and it depends on mainly groundwater for all kinds of water needs. The regional groundwater-flow model MODFLOW-2005 was used to simulate the interaction between aquifers and rivers in steady-state and transient conditions during the period 1981-2013, to assess the impact of development and climate change on the regional groundwater resources. Detailed hydro-stratigraphic units are described according to 150 lithology logs, and a three-dimensional model of the upper 400 m of the Greater Dhaka area was constructed. The results explain how the total abstraction (2.9 million m3/d) in the Dhaka megacity, which has caused regional cones of depression, is balanced by recharge and induced river leakage. The simulated outcome shows the general trend of groundwater flow in the sedimentary Holocene aquifers under a variety of hydrogeological conditions, which will assist in the future development of a rational and sustainable management approach.

  20. Management of Egypt's Surface and Groundwater Resources: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Yan, E.; Milewski, A.; Mohamed, L.; Farag, A. Z. A.

    2014-12-01

    The River Nile is the main source of fresh water in Egypt. Most of Egypt's River Nile water (>85%) originates as precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and is channeled by the Blue Nile. The construction (years: 2011 to 2017) of the Renaissance Dam (reservoir capacity: 70 x 109m3) on the Blue Nile poses an extreme threat to Egypt's population. If the reservoir was to be filled in 7 years, Egypt will lose (during each of 7 years following dam completion) a minimum of 15 x 109m3 of its annual allocation (55 x 109m3) to reservoir filling (10 x 109m3), evaporation (3.5 x 109m3), and infiltration (1.5 x 109m3). Three solutions are proposed: Solution I takes advantage of the cyclicity of Nile floods and is based on findings from a calibrated (against temporal head data) unconfined 2-dimensional transient groundwater flow model for Lake Nasser and surroundings and a calibrated (against lake levels) surface water model. Models show with time: (1) losses to infiltration will decrease (1975-193: 58.4 109m3; 1993-2001: 43.6 x 109m3) due to silting of Lake bottom and encroachment of excess Lake Nasser water will increase (e.g., 1975-1993: none; 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3). We propose to develop sustainable agricultural in the Western Desert: (1) In high flood years, excess Lake Nasser water (e.g., 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3) is channeled across the plateau bounding (from west) the River Nile valley to artificially recharge the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) that crops out west of the plateau and, (2) in low flood years, we extract the recharged groundwater. Solution II calls on mining the NSAS at reasonable rates. Using temporal (January 2003 - September 2012) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data we estimate the annual depletion rates at 2 x 109m3 due to artificial extraction (1.5 x 109m3) and natural discharge (0.5 x 109m3). Assuming current GRACE depletion rates, the recoverable groundwater (5,180 x 109m3) will last for 2500 years; if we were to quadruple

  1. Improved water resource management for a highly complex environment using three-dimensional groundwater modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Affolter, Annette; Radny, Dirk; Dressmann, Horst; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Huggenberger, Peter; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-08-01

    A three-dimensional groundwater model was used to improve water resource management for a study area in north-west Switzerland, where drinking-water production is close to former landfills and industrial areas. To avoid drinking-water contamination, artificial groundwater recharge with surface water is used to create a hydraulic barrier between the contaminated sites and drinking-water extraction wells. The model was used for simulating existing and proposed water management strategies as a tool to ensure the utmost security for drinking water. A systematic evaluation of the flow direction between existing observation points using a developed three-point estimation method for a large number of scenarios was carried out. It is demonstrated that systematically applying the developed methodology helps to identify vulnerable locations which are sensitive to changing boundary conditions such as those arising from changes to artificial groundwater recharge rates. At these locations, additional investigations and protection are required. The presented integrated approach, using the groundwater flow direction between observation points, can be easily transferred to a variety of hydrological settings to systematically evaluate groundwater modelling scenarios.

  2. Impact of water allocation strategies to manage groundwater resources in Western Australia: Equity and efficiency considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Md Sayed; Fogarty, James

    2017-05-01

    In many parts of the world groundwater is being depleting at an alarming rate. Where groundwater extraction is licenced, regulators often respond to resource depletion by reducing all individual licences by a fixed proportion. This approach can be effective in achieving a reduction in the volume of water extracted, but the approach is not efficient. In water resource management the issue of the equity-efficiency trade-off has been explored in a number of contexts, but not in the context of allocation from a groundwater system. To contribute to this knowledge gap we conduct an empirical case study for Western Australia's most important groundwater system: the Gnangara Groundwater System (GGS). Resource depletion is a serious issue for the GGS, and substantial reductions in groundwater extraction are required to stabilise the system. Using an individual-based farm optimization model we study both the overall impact and the distributional impact of a fixed percentage water allocation cut to horticulture sector licence holders. The model is parameterised using water licence specific data on farm area and water allocation. The modelling shows that much of the impact of water allocation reductions can be mitigated through changing the cropping mix and the irrigation technology used. The modelling also shows that the scope for gains through the aggregation of holdings into larger farms is much greater than the potential losses due to water allocation reductions. The impact of water allocation cuts is also shown to impact large farms more than small farms. For example, the expected loss in net revenue per ha for a 10-ha farm is around three times the expected loss per ha for a 1-ha farm; and the expected loss per ha for a 25-ha farm is around five times the expected loss per ha for a 1-ha farm.

  3. A decomposition approach for optimal management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels; Heck, Vera

    2013-04-01

    For ensuring an optimal sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments, we develop a new simulation based integrated water management system. It aims at achieving best possible solutions for groundwater withdrawals for agricultural and municipal water use including saline water management together with a substantial increase of the water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture. To achieve a robust and fast operation of the management system, it unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both, water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. However, such systems are characterized by a large number of decision variables if abstraction schemes, cropping patterns and cultivated acreages are optimised simultaneously for multiple years. Therefore, we apply the principle of decomposition to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for a faster and more reliable solution. At first, within an inner optimisation loop, cropping patterns and cultivated acreages are optimised to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions which can be derived analytically. Secondly, within an outer optimisation loop, a simulation based optimisation is performed to find optimal groundwater abstraction pattern by coupling an evolutionary optimisation algorithm with an artificial neural network for modelling the aquifer response, inclusive the seawater interface. We demonstrate the decomposition approach by an exemplary application of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. We show the effectiveness of our methodology for the evaluation

  4. Conjunctive management of surface and groundwater resources under projected future climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Amir; Tsai, Frank T.-C.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Naz, Bibi S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha

    2016-09-01

    This study introduces a mixed integer linear fractional programming (MILFP) method to optimize conjunctive use of future surface water and groundwater resources under projected climate change scenarios. The conjunctive management model maximizes the ratio of groundwater usage to reservoir water usage. Future inflows to the reservoirs were estimated from the future runoffs projected through hydroclimate modeling considering the Variable Infiltration Capacity model, and 11 sets of downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 global climate model projections. Bayesian model averaging was adopted to quantify uncertainty in future runoff projections and reservoir inflow projections due to uncertain future climate projections. Optimized conjunctive management solutions were investigated for a water supply network in northern Louisiana which includes the Sparta aquifer. Runoff projections under climate change scenarios indicate that runoff will likely decrease in winter and increase in other seasons. Results from the developed conjunctive management model with MILFP indicate that the future reservoir water, even at 2.5% low inflow cumulative probability level, could counterbalance groundwater pumping reduction to satisfy demands while improving the Sparta aquifer through conditional groundwater head constraints.

  5. Groundwater assessment in water resources management at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sabrina M.V.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Stellato, Thamiris B.; Silva, Tatiane B.S.C.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Silva, Douglas B. da; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: sabrinamoura@usp.br, E-mail: joyce.marques@usp.br, E-mail: luciremo@uol.com.br, E-mail: thamistellato@gmail.com, E-mail: tatianebscs@live.com, E-mail: mainarag@usp.br, E-mail: douglas.sbatista@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mapires@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    To comply with the guidelines for environmental control and legal requirements, the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/ CNEN - Brazil/ SP) performs the Environmental Monitoring Program for Chemical Stable Compounds (PMA-Q) since 2007, in attendance to the Term for the Adjustment of Conduct (TAC) signed between IPEN and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). The PMA-Q program includes the assessment of the IPEN's wastewater released in water body, and the groundwater assessment, which is carried out in nine monitoring wells. In groundwater is analyzed, by ion chromatography, species regulated by CONAMA 396/08 [01] fluoride, chloride, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, sulfate, sodium, potassium, ammonium, magnesium and calcium, besides other parameters. Furthermore, based on legal requirements, each year the program is reviewed and improvement actions are planned and implemented. Therefore, the integrated monitoring of groundwater should provide information on the quality and dynamics of the aquifer compared to seasonal variations and anthropogenic effects. Thus, this study intends to evaluate the chemical features of the institute groundwater, evaluating the database of the monitoring program from 2011 to 2014, for the ions chloride, nitrate-N, sulfate, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and bicarbonate, using these information diagrams will be developed for the characterization of the wells. This assessment will be essential to support the control actions of environmental pollution and the management of water resources. Making possible the establishment of groundwater Quality Reference Figures (QRF), according to the CONAMA 396/08 [01] rating, in order to demonstrate that the activities developed at IPEN are not affecting on the aquifer features. (author)

  6. Cooperative institutions for sustainable common pool resource management: Application to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh; Dinar, Ariel

    2012-09-01

    Beneficiaries of common pool resources (CPRs) may select available noncooperative and regulatory exogenous institutions for managing the resource, as well as cooperative management institutions. All these institutions may increase the long-term gains, prolong the life of the resource, and help to escape the tragedy of the commons trap. Cooperative game theory approaches can serve as the backbone of cooperative CPR management institutions. This paper formulates and applies several commonly used cooperative game theoretic solution concepts, namely, the core, Nash-Harsanyi, Shapley, and nucleolus. Through a numerical groundwater example, we show how CPR users can share the gains obtained from cooperation in a fair and efficient manner based on these cooperative solution concepts (management institutions). Although, based on their fairness rationales, various cooperative management institutions may suggest different allocations that are potentially acceptable to the users, these allocation solutions may not be stable as some users may find them unfair. This paper discusses how different methods, such as application of the plurality rule and power index, stability index, and propensity to disrupt concepts, can help identify the most stable and likely solutions for enforcing cooperation among the CPR beneficiaries. Furthermore, how the noncooperative managerial characteristics of the CPR users can affect the stability and acceptability of the different cooperative CPR management institutions is discussed, providing valuable policy insights for cooperative CPR management at community levels.

  7. The interplay of snow, surface water, and groundwater reservoirs for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, S.; Huntington, J.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate, growth in population and economy have increased the reliance on groundwater to augment supplies of surface water across the world, and especially the Western United States. Martis Valley, a high altitude, snow dominated watershed in the Sierra Nevada, California has both surface (river/reservoir) and groundwater resources that are utilized to meet demands within the valley. The recent drought and changing precipitation type (less snow, more rain) has stressed the regional surface water supply and has increased the reliance on groundwater pumping. The objective of this paper is to quantify how changes in climate and depletion of snow storage result in decreased groundwater recharge and increased groundwater use, and to assess if increased surface water storage can mitigate impacts to groundwater under historic and future climate conditions. These objectives require knowledge on the spatiotemporal distribution of groundwater recharge, discharge, and surface and groundwater interactions. We use a high resolution, physically-based integrated surface and groundwater model, GSFLOW, to identify key mechanisms that explain recent hydrologic changes in the region. The model was calibrated using a multi-criteria approach to various historical observed hydrologic fluxes (streamflow and groundwater pumping) and states (lake stage, groundwater head, snow cover area). Observations show that while groundwater use in the basin has increased significantly since the 1980's, it still remains a relatively minor component of annual consumptive water use. Model simulations suggest that changes from snow to rain will lead to increases in Hortonian and Dunnian runoff, and decreases in groundwater recharge and discharge to streams, which could have a greater impact on groundwater resources than increased pumping. These findings highlight the necessity of an integrated approach for evaluating natural and anthropogenic impacts on surface and groundwater resources.

  8. An approach to managing cumulative effects to groundwater resources in the Alberta oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennell, J.; Forrest, Francine [WorleyParsons Canada, Infrastructure and Environment (Canada); Klebek, Margaret [Alberta Environment, Clean Energy Policy Branch (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the Athabasca region of Northern Alberta, oil sands activity has raised many concerns over how mining and extracting processes might affect groundwater quality and quantity. The groundwater management framework was developed by Alberta Environment to address these concerns by identifying and managing the potential environmental effects of oil sands activity on groundwater in a science-based manner. This paper develops the framework using risk identification and performance monitoring. The decision-making approach was conducted using decision support tools such as modeling, monitoring and management. Results showed the complexity and variability of groundwater conditions in the Athabasca region and pointed out that knowledge in this area is still developing. This paper presented how the groundwater management framework was developed and pointed out that it will have to be updated as new information arrives.

  9. Numerical model to support the management of groundwater resources of a coastal karstic aquifer (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of the research is to define management apporouches for a coastal karstic aquifer. The core of the tools uses numerical modelling, applied to groundwater resource of Salento (southern Italy) and criteria to reduce the quantitative and qualitative degradation risks. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. The approach chosen was based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium by which it is assumed that the real heterogeneous aquifer can be simulated as homogeneous porous media within cells or elements. The modelled aquifer portion extends for 2230 km2, and it was uniformly discretized into 97,200 cells, each one of 0.6 km2. Vertically, to allow a good lithological and hydrogeological discretization, the area was divided into 12 layers, from 214 to -350 m asl. Thickness and geometry of layers was defined on the basis of the aquifer conceptualisation based on the 3d knowledge of hydrogeological complexes. For the boundary conditions, inactive cells were used along the boundary with the rest of Murgia-Salento aquifer, as conceptual underground watershed due to the absence of flow. About the sea boundary was used CHD boundary cells (Constant Head Boundary). Additional boundary conditions were used for SEAWAT modelling, as initial concentration and constant concentration, in the latter case for cells shaping the coastline. A mean annual net rainfall (recharge) was calculated in each cell with a GIS elaboration, ranged from 68 to 343 mm, 173 mm an average. The recharge or infiltration was calculated using an infiltration coefficient (IC) (defined as infiltration/net rainfall ratio) for each hydrogeological complex, assuming values equal to 1 inside endorheic areas. The mean annual recharge was equal to 150 mm. The model was implemented using MODFLOW and SEAWAT codes in steady-state conditions to obtain a starting point for following transient scenarios, using piezometric data of thirties as

  10. Groundwater depletion in Central Mexico: Use of GRACE and InSAR to support water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Martel, Richard; Rivera, Alfonso; Huang, Jianliang; Pavlic, Goran; Calderhead, Angus I.; Chaussard, Estelle; Garfias, Jaime; Salas, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater deficits occur in several areas of Central Mexico, where water resource assessment is limited by the availability and reliability of field data. In this context, GRACE and InSAR are used to remotely assess groundwater storage loss in one of Mexico's most important watersheds in terms of size and economic activity: the Lerma-Santiago-Pacifico (LSP). In situ data and Land Surface Models are used to subtract soil moisture and surface water storage changes from the total water storage change measured by GRACE satellites. As a result, groundwater mass change time-series are obtained for a 12 years period. ALOS-PALSAR images acquired from 2007 to 2011 were processed using the SBAS-InSAR algorithm to reveal areas subject to ground motion related to groundwater over-exploitation. In the perspective of providing guidance for groundwater management, GRACE and InSAR observations are compared with official water budgets and field observations. InSAR-derived subsidence mapping generally agrees well with official water budgets, and shows that deficits occur mainly in cities and irrigated agricultural areas. GRACE does not entirely detect the significant groundwater losses largely reported by official water budgets, literature and InSAR observations. The difference is interpreted as returns of wastewater to the groundwater flow systems, which limits the watershed scale groundwater depletion but suggests major impacts on groundwater quality. This phenomenon is enhanced by ground fracturing as noticed in the field. Studying the fate of the extracted groundwater is essential when comparing GRACE data with higher resolution observations, and particularly in the perspective of further InSAR/GRACE combination in hydrogeology.

  11. Use and abuse of the urban groundwater resource: Implications for a new management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drangert, J.-O.; Cronin, A. A.

    Various human activities threaten the groundwater quality and resource under urban areas, and yet residents increasingly depend on it for their livelihood. The anticipated expansion of the world's urban population from 3 to 6 billion in the coming 50 years does not only pose a large water management threat but also provides an opportunity to conserve groundwater in a better way than up to now. The authors argue for a new way to manage urban activities in order to conserve the precious groundwater resource. The focus is on the quality of the discharged water after use in households. Restrictions on what is added to water while using it, e.g. detergents, excreta, paint residues, oils, and pharmaceuticals, are important to simplify the treatment and reuse of used water. Avoiding mixing different wastewater flows has the same positive effect. If increased volumes of wastewater can be treated and reused, the demand on the groundwater resource is reduced, as also occurs with demand management measures. Reduced discharge of polluted water to the environment from households and utilities also conserves the quality of groundwater and reduces sophisticated treatment costs. L'urbanisation conduit à une demande élevée et concentrée d'eau de qualité adéquate, accompagnée du rejet d'importants volumes correspondants d'eaux usées. La nourriture est importée dans les villes tandis que les micro-organismes et les nutriments provenant des excrétas humains sont rejetés dans les rivières, les lacs et aussi les eaux souterraines. De plus, une large gamme de biens de consommation est évacuée par les égouts. Les créances environnementales, c'est-à-dire l'appauvrissement des conditions environnementales qui demandera des apports humains et économiques pour la réhabilitation, sont habituelles dans toutes les villes, et pas seulement dans l'hémisphère sud, comme cela est indiqué dans le rapport sur l'alimentation en eau et la santé publique du monde (publié par l

  12. Sustainable Management of Groundwater Resources on a Tropical Island: Issues and Dillemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, Ron; Gossling, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    Many developing countries have focused on tourism to generate additional income sources and to diversify the economy. The development of the necessary infrastructure in combination with the presence of a large number of tourists can have detrimental effects for the resource base on which local communities depend. In this article, the situation is described for the East Coast of Zanzibar, Tanzania. Causes and consequences of groundwater withdrawal are investigated, analyzed and put into contex...

  13. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  14. Optimizing water resources management in large river basins with integrated surface water-groundwater modeling: A surrogate-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Xin; Tian, Yong; Han, Feng; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-04-01

    Integrated surface water-groundwater modeling can provide a comprehensive and coherent understanding on basin-scale water cycle, but its high computational cost has impeded its application in real-world management. This study developed a new surrogate-based approach, SOIM (Surrogate-based Optimization for Integrated surface water-groundwater Modeling), to incorporate the integrated modeling into water management optimization. Its applicability and advantages were evaluated and validated through an optimization research on the conjunctive use of surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) for irrigation in a semiarid region in northwest China. GSFLOW, an integrated SW-GW model developed by USGS, was employed. The study results show that, due to the strong and complicated SW-GW interactions, basin-scale water saving could be achieved by spatially optimizing the ratios of groundwater use in different irrigation districts. The water-saving potential essentially stems from the reduction of nonbeneficial evapotranspiration from the aqueduct system and shallow groundwater, and its magnitude largely depends on both water management schemes and hydrological conditions. Important implications for water resources management in general include: first, environmental flow regulation needs to take into account interannual variation of hydrological conditions, as well as spatial complexity of SW-GW interactions; and second, to resolve water use conflicts between upper stream and lower stream, a system approach is highly desired to reflect ecological, economic, and social concerns in water management decisions. Overall, this study highlights that surrogate-based approaches like SOIM represent a promising solution to filling the gap between complex environmental modeling and real-world management decision-making.

  15. Water resources management strategies and its implications on hydrodynamic and hydrochemical changes of costal groundwater: Case of Grombalia shallow aquifer, NE Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaal, Fethi; Chekirbane, Anis; Chargui, Sameh; Sellami, Haykel; Tsujimura, Maki; Hezzi, Hmida; Faycel, Jelassi; Mlayah, Ammar

    2016-12-01

    Information on groundwater quantity as well as quality is required by water managers and decision-makers for defining a sustainable management strategy. This requires a comprehensive assessment of the surface water and groundwater resources. This paper provides an assessment of water resources management strategy in the Grombalia region (Northeast Tunisia) and its impact on quantity and quality evolution of groundwater resources based on an approach that combines (i) hydro-climatic data, (ii) field monitoring, (iii) historic piezometric records, and (iv) geochemical and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) analyses. We apply this approach to identify the origin of the various water resources and outline how the actual water management impact the quantity and quality of the groundwater in the region. As consequence of poor water resources management, the shallow groundwater levels have been disrupted: a groundwater rise is observed in the centre and a piezometric drawdown is observed in the upstream regions. Groundwater quality degradation was registered especially in the centre and downstream zones.

  16. Development of a Conductivity Sensor for Monitoring Groundwater Resources to Optimize Water Management in Smart City Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Lorena; Sendra, Sandra; Lloret, Jaime; Bosch, Ignacio

    2015-08-26

    The main aim of smart cities is to achieve the sustainable use of resources. In order to make the correct use of resources, an accurate monitoring and management is needed. In some places, like underground aquifers, access for monitoring can be difficult, therefore the use of sensors can be a good solution. Groundwater is very important as a water resource. Just in the USA, aquifers represent the water source for 50% of the population. However, aquifers are endangered due to the contamination. One of the most important parameters to monitor in groundwater is the salinity, as high salinity levels indicate groundwater salinization. In this paper, we present a specific sensor for monitoring groundwater salinization. The sensor is able to measure the electric conductivity of water, which is directly related to the water salinization. The sensor, which is composed of two copper coils, measures the magnetic field alterations due to the presence of electric charges in the water. Different salinities of the water generate different alterations. Our sensor has undergone several tests in order to obtain a conductivity sensor with enough accuracy. First, several prototypes are tested and are compared with the purpose of choosing the best combination of coils. After the best prototype was selected, it was calibrated using up to 30 different samples. Our conductivity sensor presents an operational range from 0.585 mS/cm to 73.8 mS/cm, which is wide enough to cover the typical range of water salinities. With this work, we have demonstrated that it is feasible to measure water conductivity using solenoid coils and that this is a low cost application for groundwater monitoring.

  17. Decision support model for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing groundwater resources management in the wet Pampa plain, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2013-06-01

    This paper gives an account of the implementation of a decision support system for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management in the southeastern Pampa plain of Argentina. The use of this system is demonstrated with an example from Dulce Stream Basin (1,000 km(2) encompassing 27 subwatersheds), which has high level of agricultural activities and extensive available data regarding aquifer geology. In the logic model, aquifer pollution hazard is assessed as a function of two primary topics: groundwater and soil conditions. This logic model shows the state of each evaluated landscape with respect to aquifer pollution hazard based mainly on the parameters of the DRASTIC and GOD models. The decision model allows prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management according to three main criteria including farming activities, agrochemical application, and irrigation use. Stakeholder participation, through interviews, in combination with expert judgment was used to select and weight each criterion. The resulting subwatershed priority map, by combining the logic and decision models, allowed identifying five subwatersheds in the upper and middle basin as the main aquifer protection areas. The results reasonably fit the natural conditions of the basin, identifying those subwatersheds with shallow water depth, loam-loam silt texture soil media and pasture land cover in the middle basin, and others with intensive agricultural activity, coinciding with the natural recharge area to the aquifer system. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this methodology in real-world situations are discussed.

  18. Promoting local management in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Frank

    2006-03-01

    There is a strong case for making greater effort to promote local groundwater management—in addition to other measures that regulate groundwater use. Though scattered, there are several examples—from India, Pakistan, Yemen and Egypt—where groundwater users effectively self-imposed restrictions on the use of groundwater. There are a number of recurrent themes in such spontaneously-developed examples of local regulation: the importance of not excluding potential users; the importance of simple, low transaction cost rules; the power of correct and accessible hydrogeological information; the possibility of making more use of demand and supply management strategies; and the important supportive role of local governments. The case is made, using examples, for actively promoting local groundwater management as an important element in balancing groundwater uses. Two programmes for promoting local groundwater management in South India are described—one focussing on participatory hydrological monitoring, and one focussing on micro-resource planning and training. In both cases the response was very positive and the conclusion is that promoting local groundwater regulation is not difficult, costly or sensitive and can reach the necessary scale quickly.

  19. Multi-Objective Groundwater Quantity Management. A Stochastic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndambuki, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The question of managing groundwater resources is one of implementing institutions that regulate the use of the resource so as to harvest maximum benefits without imparting undesirable consequences on the system. Traditionally, regional groundwater management problems have been solved deterministica

  20. Canada's groundwater resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivera, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential for life in arid and semiarid region. It is also important in humid regions, and is one of the fundamental requirements for the maintenance of natural landscapes and aquatic ecosystem...

  1. Geoelectrical parameter-based multivariate regression borehole yield model for predicting aquifer yield in managing groundwater resource sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Anthony Mogaji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a GIS-based multivariate regression (MVR yield rate prediction model of groundwater resource sustainability in the hard-rock geology terrain of southwestern Nigeria. This model can economically manage the aquifer yield rate potential predictions that are often overlooked in groundwater resources development. The proposed model relates the borehole yield rate inventory of the area to geoelectrically derived parameters. Three sets of borehole yield rate conditioning geoelectrically derived parameters—aquifer unit resistivity (ρ, aquifer unit thickness (D and coefficient of anisotropy (λ—were determined from the acquired and interpreted geophysical data. The extracted borehole yield rate values and the geoelectrically derived parameter values were regressed to develop the MVR relationship model by applying linear regression and GIS techniques. The sensitivity analysis results of the MVR model evaluated at P ⩽ 0.05 for the predictors ρ, D and λ provided values of 2.68 × 10−05, 2 × 10−02 and 2.09 × 10−06, respectively. The accuracy and predictive power tests conducted on the MVR model using the Theil inequality coefficient measurement approach, coupled with the sensitivity analysis results, confirmed the model yield rate estimation and prediction capability. The MVR borehole yield prediction model estimates were processed in a GIS environment to model an aquifer yield potential prediction map of the area. The information on the prediction map can serve as a scientific basis for predicting aquifer yield potential rates relevant in groundwater resources sustainability management. The developed MVR borehole yield rate prediction mode provides a good alternative to other methods used for this purpose.

  2. Review of Groundwater Protection and Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dan; ZHANG Ai-ping

    2008-01-01

    This review begins with an introduction of groundwater resources in China and their distribution characteristic, followed by an elaboration of the exploitation and utilization of groundwater and the negative environmental effects from groundwater overexploitation, and a description of the existing groundwater protection and management measures. At last, the existing problems in groundwater protection and management, with some suggestions, are presented.

  3. Simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of the effects of water-management options in the North Platte Natural Resources District, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven M.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Vrabel, Joseph; Ryter, Derek W.

    2015-08-12

    The North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD) has been actively collecting data and studying groundwater resources because of concerns about the future availability of the highly inter-connected surface-water and groundwater resources. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, describes a groundwater-flow model of the North Platte River valley from Bridgeport, Nebraska, extending west to 6 miles into Wyoming. The model was built to improve the understanding of the interaction of surface-water and groundwater resources, and as an optimization tool, the model is able to analyze the effects of water-management options on the simulated stream base flow of the North Platte River. The groundwater system and related sources and sinks of water were simulated using a newton formulation of the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional groundwater model, referred to as MODFLOW–NWT, which provided an improved ability to solve nonlinear unconfined aquifer simulations with wetting and drying of cells. Using previously published aquifer-base-altitude contours in conjunction with newer test-hole and geophysical data, a new base-of-aquifer altitude map was generated because of the strong effect of the aquifer-base topography on groundwater-flow direction and magnitude. The largest inflow to groundwater is recharge originating from water leaking from canals, which is much larger than recharge originating from infiltration of precipitation. The largest component of groundwater discharge from the study area is to the North Platte River and its tributaries, with smaller amounts of discharge to evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals for irrigation. Recharge from infiltration of precipitation was estimated with a daily soil-water-balance model. Annual recharge from canal seepage was estimated using available records from the Bureau of Reclamation and then modified with canal

  4. Studies on Resource Management of Sanjiang Plain Groundwater with the Analytical Finite Method Based on Square Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yongtai; DENG Hualing; XU Dan

    2006-01-01

    This article established groundwater flows differential equation mathematical model of Sanjiang Plain on the hydrology theory foundation, and used the analysis finite element method to liner change the differential equation into the large-scale system of linear equations. It took linear equations as a part of constraint conditions of the optimized model, carried on the groundwater flow status equation and the optimized model the coupling, and carries on the solution with the Lingo software. The results indicated that this local shallow layer groundwater resources were rich and have the big development potential. But recent years water resources disposition was unreasonable and ground water mining quantity was oversized, these caused the region water flux to assume the drop tendency.

  5. Challenges in groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers of East Africa: Investigations and lessons learnt in the Comoros Islands, Kenya and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Comte

    2016-03-01

    New hydrological insights: Results confirm the fundamental importance of coastal groundwater resources for the development of the region and the urgent need to match groundwater development with demographic and economic growth. Hydrogeological knowledge is fragmented, groundwater lacks a long-term monitoring infrastructure and information transfer from stakeholders to users is limited. Current trends in demography, climate, sea-level and land-use are further threatening freshwater availability. Despite possessing high-productivity aquifers, water quality from wells and boreholes is generally impacted by saltwater intrusion. Shallow large-diameter wells, following the traditional model of these areas, consistently prove to be less saline and more durable than deeper small-diameter boreholes. However, promoting the use of large numbers of shallow wells poses a significant challenge for governance, requiring coherent management of the resource at local and national scales and the engagement of local communities.

  6. Simulation of groundwater and surface-water resources and evaluation of water-management alternatives for the Chamokane Creek basin, Stevens County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D. Matthew; Kahle, Sue C.

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional, transient numerical model of groundwater and surface-water flow was constructed for Chamokane Creek basin to better understand the groundwater-flow system and its relation to surface-water resources. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-management agencies and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate the effects of potential increases in groundwater pumping on groundwater and surface-water resources in the basin. The Chamokane Creek model was constructed using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated model, GSFLOW. GSFLOW was developed to simulate coupled groundwater and surface-water resources. The model uses 1,000-foot grid cells that subdivide the model domain by 102 rows and 106 columns. Six hydrogeologic units in the model are represented using eight model layers. Daily precipitation and temperature were spatially distributed and subsequent groundwater recharge was computed within GSFLOW. Streamflows in Chamokane Creek and its major tributaries are simulated in the model by routing streamflow within a stream network that is coupled to the groundwater-flow system. Groundwater pumpage and surface-water diversions and returns specified in the model were derived from monthly and annual pumpage values previously estimated from another component of this study and new data reported by study partners. The model simulation period is water years 1980-2010 (October 1, 1979, to September 30, 2010), but the model was calibrated to the transient conditions for water years 1999-2010 (October 1, 1998, to September 30, 2010). Calibration was completed by using traditional trial-and-error methods and automated parameter-estimation techniques. The model adequately reproduces the measured time-series groundwater levels and daily streamflows. At well observation points, the mean difference between simulated and measured hydraulic heads is 7 feet with a root-mean-square error divided by the total difference in water levels

  7. STRATEGIC ISSUES GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION MANAGEMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Golovina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is a key component of our environment; it is a renewable, limited and vulnerable natural resource, which provides economic, social, and environmental well-being of the population. The most promising source of drinking water supply is groundwater usage. Drinking and industrial groundwater is one of the most important components of the groundwater mineral resource base in the Russian Federation. Modern system of groundwater extraction management and state regulation is currently imperfect and has definite disadvantages, among them - lack of control over natural resources by the state, an old system of tax rates for the use of groundwater, commercialization stage of licensing, the budget deficit, which is passed on other spheres of the national economy. This article provides general information about the state of groundwater production and supply in Russia, negative trends of groundwater usage, some actions for the improvement in the system of groundwater’s fund management are suggested. The most important amendments of the law “About mineral resources” are overviewed, effects of these changes are revealed and recommendations for future groundwater extraction regulation are given.

  8. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we provid

  9. Transboundary study of the Milk River aquifer (Canada, USA): geological, conceptual and numerical models for the sound management of the regional groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René

    2016-04-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), a semi-arid and water-short region. The extensive use of this regional sandstone aquifer over the 20th century has led to a major drop in water levels locally, and concerns about the durability of the resources have been raised since the mid-1950. Even though the Milk River Aquifer (MRA) has been studied for decades, most of the previous studies were limited by the international border, preventing a sound understanding of the aquifer dynamics. Yet, a complete portrait of the aquifer is required for proper management of this shared resource. The transboundary study of the MRA aims to overcome transboundary limitations by providing a comprehensive characterization of the groundwater resource at the aquifer scale, following a three-stage approach: 1) The development of a 3D unified geological model of the MRA (50,000 km2). The stratigraphic framework on both sides of the border was harmonized and various sources of geological data were unified to build the transboundary geological model. The delineation of the aquifer and the geometry and thicknesses of the geological units were defined continuously across the border. 2) Elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeological model by linking hydrogeological and geochemical data with the 3D unified geological model. This stage is based on a thorough literature review and focused complementary field work on both sides of the border. The conceptual model includes the determination of the groundwater flow pattern, the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties, a groundwater budget and the definition of the groundwater types. Isotopes (3H, 14C, 36Cl) were used to delineate the recharge area as well as the active and low-flow areas. 3) The building of a 3D numerical groundwater flow model of the MRA (26,000 km2). This model is a transposition of the geological and hydrogeological conceptual models. A pre

  10. Sustainability analysis of groundwater resources in a coastal aquifer, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Rich, Kendall; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2008-03-01

    Fort Morgan Peninsula is an attached portion of a dynamic barrier complex in the northern Gulf of Mexico and is a large tourist area that brings in a significant amount of revenue for Alabama. Many of the hotels and tourist attractions depend on the groundwater as their water supply. The over-withdrawal of groundwater and saltwater intrustion will have a negative impact on the ecology, tourism and economy if groundwater resources are not properly monitored and managed. In this study a calibrated groundwater flow model was used to analyze the sustainability of groundwater resources at Fort Morgan Peninsula. Detailed flow budgets were prepared to check the various components of inflow and outflow under different water use and climatic conditions. The results indicated the locations where groundwater was over-pumped and subjected to saltwater intrusion, or will be subjected to saltwater intrusion under a range of projected water use and climatic conditions.

  11. An integrated hydrogeological study to support sustainable development and management of groundwater resources: a case study from the Precambrian Crystalline Province, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhnure, Pandith; Peddi, Nageshwar Rao; Allani, Damodar Rao

    2016-03-01

    The rapid expansion of agriculture, industries and urbanization has triggered unplanned groundwater development leading to severe stress on groundwater resources in crystalline rocks of India. With depleting resources from shallow aquifers, end users have developed resources from deeper aquifers, which have proved to be counterproductive economically and ecologically. An integrated hydrogeological study has been undertaken in the semi-arid Madharam watershed (95 km2) in Telangana State, which is underlain by granites. The results reveal two aquifer systems: a weathered zone (maximum 30 m depth) and a fractured zone (30-85 m depth). The weathered zone is unsaturated to its maximum extent, forcing users to tap groundwater from deeper aquifers. Higher orders of transmissivity, specific yield and infiltration rates are observed in the recharge zone, while moderate orders are observed in an intermediate zone, and lower orders in the discharge zone. This is due to the large weathering-zone thickness and a higher sand content in the recharge zone than in the discharge zone, where the weathered residuum contains more clay. The NO3 - concentration is high in shallow irrigation wells, and F- is high in deeper wells. Positive correlation is observed between F- and depth in the recharge zone and its proximity. Nearly 50 % of groundwater samples are unfit for human consumption and the majority of irrigation-well samples are classed as medium to high risk for plant growth. Both supply-side and demand-side measures are recommended for sustainable development and management of this groundwater resource. The findings can be up-scaled to other similar environments.

  12. Sustainable groundwater management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven P.; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Faunt, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses data collection, modeling tools, and scientific analysis to help water managers plan for, and assess, hydrologic issues that can cause “undesirable results” associated with groundwater use. This information helps managers understand trends and investigate and predict effects of different groundwater-management strategies.

  13. Large-Scale Water Resources Management within the Framework of GLOWA-Danube - Part A: The Groundwater Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, R.; Rojanschi, V.; Wolf, J.; Braun, J.

    2003-04-01

    the catchment developed by the research group uses a finite difference approach (MODFLOW). A transport model (nitrogen) will be added in a second stage (MT3D). A three-dimensional conceptual hydrogeological model consisting of four layers was developed. Only aquifers with basin-wide occurrence are considered. Aquifers on the local scale cannot be included in the model due to insufficient data availability, the model grid resolution (1km2) used and various limitations arising from the MODFLOW-approach. The cell size of 1 km is compulsory for all models in DANUBIA in order to facilitate 1:1 parameter exchange. The concept of DANUBIA is based on the parallel execution of strictly independent disciplinary models. At each time step, the required parameters are exchanged. On the "physical side" the groundwater model has interfaces to a soil water and a surface water model which provide important parameters that are used as model boundary conditions. The soil water model calculates the groundwater recharge as the infiltration through a layered soil zone. The surface water model calculates the heads in the rivers, which are used to determine flow from the aquifers to the rivers and vice versa. The main aim of the groundwater model is to assess and forecast quantity and quality of the groundwater resources together with the other physically based models under conditions of global change. On the "socio-economic side", the groundwater model exchanges data with the so-called "Actors" component, a group of models concerned with the human impact on the water cycle. The amount of groundwater extraction for drinking water purposes is a boundary condition of the groundwater model calculated by the Actors models. The feedback between demand and supply invokes the need for complex optimization algorithms.

  14. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  15. A new concept of irrigation response units for effective management of surface and groundwater resources: a case study from the multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-09-09

    When estimating canal water supplies for large-scale irrigation schemes and especially in arid regions worldwide, the impact of all factors affecting the gross irrigation requirements (GIR) are not properly accounted for, which results in inefficient use of precious freshwater resources. This research shows that the concept of irrigation response units (IRU)—areas having unique combinations of factors effecting the GIR—allows for more precise estimates of GIR. An overlay analysis of soil texture and salinity, depth and salinity of groundwater, cropping patterns and irrigation methods was performed in a GIS environment, which yielded a total of 17 IRUs combinations of the Oktepa Zilol Chashmasi water consumers’ association in multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Groundwater contribution, leaching requirements, losses in the irrigation system through field application and conveyance and effective rainfall were included in GIR estimates. The GIR varied significantly among IRUs [average of 851 mm (±143 mm)] with a maximum (1051 mm) in IRU-12 and a minimum (629 mm) in IRUs-15, 16. Owing to varying groundwater levels in each IRU, the groundwater contribution played a key role in the estimation of the GIR. The maximum groundwater contribution occurred in IRUs dominated by cotton–fallow rotations as evidenced by an average value of 159 mm but a maximum of 254 mm and a minimum of 97 mm. Percolation losses depended on irrigation methods for different crops in their respective IRUs. The novel approach can guide water managers in this and similar regions to increase the accuracy of irrigation demands based on all the factor effecting the GIR. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  16. Groundwater development effects on different scale hydrogeological systems using head, hydrochemical and isotopic data and implications for water resources management: The Selva basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, A.; Menció, A.; Puig, R.; Soler, A.; Mas-Pla, J.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryHydrogeological resources in regional, large-scale groundwater systems are conditioned by their specific geological setting, which defines their capacity to supply human demand and their potential to recover from human-induced stress factors such as water withdrawal. In this paper, the hydrogeology of a range-and-basin hydrogeological system is described, based on potentiometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, in order to fulfill a twofold objective: to characterize the alteration brought about in the hydrogeological system by intensive groundwater withdrawal, where tectonic elements such as fault zones play a significant role in the flow behaviour, and to define groundwater hydrodynamics under current human pressures as a necessary step to achieve appropriate groundwater management. Hydraulic head data indicate the relationships between geological formations in the range areas and the sedimentary infill of the basin. In this set-up, fault zones and a fracture network have a direct effect on the recharge, and allow upward vertical flow from the basement to the sedimentary aquifers. Hydrochemical and isotopic data support this observation. The use of fluoride and nitrate as tracers for the contribution of deep and shallow flow systems provides a detailed portrait of the effects of pumping on the flow path distribution. Isotopic data depict seasonal trends in the water captured by wells. In this connection, we can differentiate between two distinct flow systems: a regional, large-scale, longer residence time system, originating in the surrounding ranges, and a local flow system constituted by infiltration in the lower areas of the basin. The two systems, with specific water qualities, contribute differently to the resources that are withdrawn, and their specific contributions, in the frame of the basin water budget, determine the potential for present sustainable water exploitation.

  17. Global change and the groundwater management challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-05-01

    With rivers in critical regions already exploited to capacity throughout the world and groundwater overdraft as well as large-scale contamination occurring in many areas, we have entered an era in which multiple simultaneous stresses will drive water management. Increasingly, groundwater resources are taking a more prominent role in providing freshwater supplies. We discuss the competing fresh groundwater needs for human consumption, food production, energy, and the environment, as well as physical hazards, and conflicts due to transboundary overexploitation. During the past 50 years, groundwater management modeling has focused on combining simulation with optimization methods to inspect important problems ranging from contaminant remediation to agricultural irrigation management. The compound challenges now faced by water planners require a new generation of aquifer management models that address the broad impacts of global change on aquifer storage and depletion trajectory management, land subsidence, groundwater-dependent ecosystems, seawater intrusion, anthropogenic and geogenic contamination, supply vulnerability, and long-term sustainability. The scope of research efforts is only beginning to address complex interactions using multiagent system models that are not readily formulated as optimization problems and that consider a suite of human behavioral responses.

  18. Groundwater Resources: Investigation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary P.

    A glance through the table of contents of this volume might suggest that it is yet another introductory text on principles of groundwater hydrology. All of the usual basic topics are covered including definitions of terms and concepts, aquifer types, drilling methods, and pumping tests. But partly because this book is intended for practicing groundwater consultants rather than students, other less elementary topics such as environmental isotope techniques, geochemical methods, interpretation and utilization of spring flow, geophysical methods, and groundwater balances are also included.According to the preface, ‘practical applicability’ is stressed ‘to show how groundwater investigations should be conducted using a systematic, well-directed effort’ and to describe ‘… what to do, what to avoid, and what kind of results one can reasonably expect …’ While this book was published as part of a series of monographs on water pollution, it is more in the nature of a handbook than a true monograph. That is, it is not an in-depth treatment of a single topic but presents a broad introduction to the ways in

  19. Large-scale water resources management within the framework of GLOWA-Danube. Part A: The groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Rojanschi, Vlad; Wolf, Jens; Braun, Juergen

    ), Software-Release No.: 0.9.2, Documentation Version: 0.10, Release Date: 27 March 2003] are required to solve the emerging problems. After a first successful public demonstration of the DANUBIA package (nine models) in May 2002 [Mauser, W., Stolz, R., Colgan, A., 2002. GLOWA-Danube: integrative techniques, scenarios and strategies regarding global change of the water cycle. In: GSF (Ed.), GLOWA, German Program on Global Change in the Hydrological Cycle (Phase I, 2000-2003) Status Report 2002. GSF, Munich, pp. 31-34], the research consortium is now preparing a first validation run of DANUBIA for the period 1995-1999 with all 15 models. After successful completion of the validation, a scenario run based on IPCC climate scenarios [IPCC, 2001. Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. In: Watson, R.T., Core Writing Team (Eds.), A Contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 398pp] for a five year period between 2025 and 2040 will follow at the end of 2003. The research group “Groundwater and Water Resources Management” at the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering, Universität Stuttgart, is contributing both a three-dimensional groundwater flow model of the catchment and an agent-based model for simulating water supply and distribution. This paper gives a general overview of the GLOWA-Danube project and describes the groundwater modeling segment. Nickel et al. deal with the water supply model in a second contribution to this special issue. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model consisting of four main layers has been developed and is in a continual state of refinement (MODFLOW, [McDonald, M.G., Harbaugh, A.W., 1988. A modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model: US Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Washington, USA (book 6, Chapter A1)]). One main research focus has

  20. Long term fluctuations of groundwater mine pollution in a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate: Implications for water resources management and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Water resources management and restoration strategies, and subsequently ecological and human life quality, are highly influenced by the presence of short and long term cycles affecting the intensity of a targeted pollution. On this respect, a typical acid mine drainage (AMD) groundwater from a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) was studied to unravel the effect of long term weather changes in water flow rate and metal pollutants concentration. Three well differentiated polluting stages were observed and the specific geochemical, mineralogical and hydrological processes involved (pyrite and enclosing rocks dissolution, evaporitic salts precipitation-redisolution and pluviometric long term fluctuations) were discussed. Evidencing the importance of including longer background monitoring stage in AMD management and restoration strategies, the present study strongly advise a minimum 5-years period of AMD continuous monitoring previous to the design of any AMD remediation system in regions with dry Mediterranean climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Can we manage groundwater? A method to determine the quantitative testability of groundwater management plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, E. K.; Peterson, T. J.; Costelloe, J.; Western, A. W.; Carrara, E.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest freshwater resource and due to overextraction, levels have declined in many regions causing extensive social and environmental impacts. Groundwater management seeks to balance and mitigate the detrimental impacts of development, with plans commonly used to outline management pathways. Thus, plan efficiency is crucial, but seldom are plans systematically and quantitatively assessed for effectiveness. This study frames groundwater management as a system control problem in order to develop a novel testability assessment rubric to determine if plans meet the requirements of a control loop, and subsequently, whether they can be quantitatively tested. Seven components of a management plan equivalent to basic components of a control loop were determined, and requirements of each component necessary to enable testability were defined. Each component was weighted based upon proposed relative importance, then segmented into rated categories depending on the degree the requirements were met. Component importance varied but, a defined objective or acceptable impact was necessary for plans to be testable. The rubric was developed within the context of the Australian groundwater management industry, and while use of the rubric is not limited to Australia, it was applied to 15 Australian groundwater management plans and approximately 47% were found to be testable. Considering the importance of effective groundwater management, and the central role of plans, our lack of ability to test many plans is concerning.

  2. Calculating and Evaluating the Groundwater Resource of Jian San Jiang Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the method of water balance,the parameters of groundwater resouce of Jian San Jiang area have been calculated in the paper. At the same time,the quality of water supplying and water mining can be calculated. Furthermore ,the groundwater resource have been evaluated. Thus ,the paper provides the important references for managers to using groundwater reasonable.

  3. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  4. Fresh groundwater resources in a large sand replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2016-08-01

    The anticipation of sea-level rise and increases in extreme weather conditions has led to the initiation of an innovative coastal management project called the Sand Engine. In this pilot project a large volume of sand (21.5 million m3) - also called sand replenishment or nourishment - was placed on the Dutch coast. The intention is that the sand is redistributed by wind, current, and tide, reinforcing local coastal defence structures and leading to a unique, dynamic environment. In this study we investigated the potential effect of the long-term morphological evolution of the large sand replenishment and climate change on fresh groundwater resources. The potential effects on the local groundwater system were quantified with a calibrated three-dimensional (3-D) groundwater model, in which both variable-density groundwater flow and salt transport were simulated. Model simulations showed that the long-term morphological evolution of the Sand Engine results in a substantial growth of fresh groundwater resources, in all adopted climate change scenarios. Thus, the application of a local sand replenishment could provide coastal areas the opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of the local fresh groundwater availability.

  5. Appraisal of groundwater resources in an island condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N C Mondal; V S Singh; D V Sarwade; M V Nandakumar

    2009-06-01

    A group of 36 coral islands is being scattered in the Arabian Sea of the western coast of India. On such islands,groundwater is the only source of fresh water for the islanders.The demand for groundwater is increasing every year due to growing population and urbanization.On the other side the peculiar hydrologic,geologic and geomorphic features restrict the availability of groundwater. Thus a proper understanding of the groundwater condition is important in order to meet this increasing demand and also to formulate future development and management strategies.Detailed hydrogeological,geophysical and hydrochemical studies had been carried out to identify potential fresh groundwater resources and quantify vulnerable parts of Andrott Island,Union Territory of Lakshadweep.Systematic collection and analysis of hydrological,geophysical and hydrochemical data gives an early signal of deterioration in groundwater quality in the peripheral parts of eastern and western coasts of this island and it suggests immediate measures for arresting the deterioration in groundwater quality as well as augmentation for restoration of aquifer in some parts of the island.

  6. Windows of Opportunity for Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Brozovic, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    To date, there has been little attention focused on how the value and effectiveness of groundwater management is influenced by the timing of regulatory intervention relative to aquifer depletion. To address this question, we develop an integrated framework that couples an agro-economic model of farmers' field-level irrigation decision-making with a model of a groundwater abstraction borehole. Unlike existing models that only consider the impact of aquifer depletion on groundwater extraction costs, our model also captures the dynamic changes in well productivity and how these in turn affect crop yields and farmer incomes. We use our model to analyze how the value of imposing groundwater quotas is affected by the prior level of depletion before regulations are introduced. Our results demonstrate that there is a range of aquifer conditions within which regulating groundwater use will deliver long-term economic benefits for farmers. In this range, restricting abstraction rates slows the rate of change in well yields and, as a result, increases agricultural production over the simulated planning horizon. Contrastingly, when current saturated thickness is outside this range, regulating groundwater use will provide negligible social benefits and will impose large negative impacts on farm-level profits. We suggest that there are 'windows of opportunity' for managing aquifer depletion that are a function of local hydrology as well as economic characteristics. Regulation that is too early will harm the rural economy needlessly, while regulation that is too late will be unable to prevent aquifer exhaustion. The insights from our model can be a valuable tool to help inform policy decisions about when, and at what level, regulations should be implemented in order to maximize the benefits obtained from limited groundwater resources.

  7. Coastal forests and groundwater: Using case studies to understand the effects of drivers and stressors for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Callahan; Devendra Amatya; Peter Stone

    2017-01-01

    Forests are receiving more attention for the ecosystem goods and services they provide and the potential change agents that may affect forest health and productivity. Highlighting case examples from coastal forests in South Carolina, USA, we describe groundwater processes with respect to stressors and potential responses of a wetland-rich forested landscape,...

  8. Drought and groundwater management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Jensen, Frank

    This paper considers the problem of a water management authority faced with the threat of a drought that hits at an uncertain date. Three management policies are investigated: i) a laissez-faire (open-access) policy of automatic adjustment through a zero marginal private net benefit condition, ii...

  9. Interdisciplinary and participatory approaches: the key to effective groundwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Foster, Stephen; Villholth, Karen G.

    2017-06-01

    The challenges of a changing world, which are progressively threatening sustainable use of groundwater resources, can only be rationally and effectively addressed through close collaboration between experts and practitioners from different disciplines. Furthermore, science and management need to build on stakeholder opinions and processes in order to generate useful knowledge and positive outcomes in terms of sustainable and equitable groundwater management. This essay provides a discussion of the status of and vision for participatory and inter-disciplinary approaches to groundwater evaluation and management as well as a conceptual framework and relevant research questions that will facilitate such approaches.

  10. Drought and groundwater management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Jensen, Frank

    This paper considers the problem of a water management authority faced with the threat of a drought that hits at an uncertain date. Three management policies are investigated: i) a laissez-faire (open-access) policy of automatic adjustment through a zero marginal private net benefit condition, ii......) a policy of optimal dynamic management ignoring the threat of the drought and relying on automatic adjustments through a zero marginal social net benefit condition, iii) an economically optimal dynamic policy taking account of the threat of a drought. In particular, we show that the optimal pre......-drought steady-state equilibrium stock size of water under policy iii) is smaller than under policy ii) and, hence, a precautionary stock size should not be built up prior to the drought....

  11. Conjunctive Surface Water and Groundwater Management under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change can result in significant impacts on regional and global surface water and groundwater resources. Using groundwater as a complimentary source of water has provided an effective means to satisfy the ever-increasing water demands and deal with surface water shortages problems due to robust capability of groundwater in responding to climate change. Conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater is crucial for integrated water resources management. It is helpful to reduce vulnerabilities of water supply systems and mitigate the water supply stress in responding to climate change. Some critical challenges and perspectives are discussed to help decision/policy makers develop more effective management and adaptation strategies for conjunctive water resources use in facing climate change under complex uncertainties.

  12. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  13. Human Resource Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; V.Sangeetha; Gopalakrishnan,S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  14. How to manage future groundwater resource of China under climate change and urbanization: An optimal stage investment design from modern portfolio theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Shanshan; Liang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Min; Zhang, Chang; Yuan, Yujie; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Ping; Liu, Jiayu; Huang, Lu

    2015-11-15

    Groundwater management in China has been facing challenges from both climate change and urbanization and is considered as a national priority nowadays. However, unprecedented uncertainty exists in future scenarios making it difficult to formulate management planning paradigms. In this paper, we apply modern portfolio theory (MPT) to formulate an optimal stage investment of groundwater contamination remediation in China. This approach generates optimal weights of investment to each stage of the groundwater management and helps maximize expected return while minimizing overall risk in the future. We find that the efficient frontier of investment displays an upward-sloping shape in risk-return space. The expected value of groundwater vulnerability index increases from 0.6118 to 0.6230 following with the risk of uncertainty increased from 0.0118 to 0.0297. If management investment is constrained not to exceed certain total cost until 2050 year, the efficient frontier could help decision makers make the most appropriate choice on the trade-off between risk and return. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a complex groundwater model to assess the relation among groundwater resource exploitation, seawater intrusion and land subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi Ting, Fang; Yih Chi, Tan; Chen, Jhong Bing

    2016-04-01

    The land subsidence, which is usually irreversible, in Taiwan Pintung Plain occurred due to groundwater overexploitation. Many of the land subsidence areas in Taiwan are located in coastal area. It could not only result in homeland loss, but also vulnerability to flooding because the function of drainage system and sea wall are weakened for the lowered ground surface. Groundwater salinization and seawater intrusion could happen more easily as well. This research focuses on grasping the trend of environmental change due to the damage and impact from inappropriate development of aquaculture in the last decades. The main task is developing the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and complex numerical model for conjunctive use of surface and groundwater which is composed of a few modules such as land use, land subsidence, contamination transportation and etc. An approach based on self-organizing map (SOM) is proposed to delineate groundwater recharge zones. Several topics will be studied such as coupling of surface water and groundwater modeling, assessing the benefit of improving groundwater resources by recharge, identifying the improper usage of groundwater resources, and investigating the effect of over-pumping on land subsidence in different depth. In addition, a complete plan for managing both the flooding and water resources will be instituted by scheming non-engineering adaptation strategies for homeland planning, ex. controlling pumping behavior in area vulnerable to land subsidence and increasing groundwater recharge.

  16. The Evaluation of Groundwater Resources Value of Beijing Based on Emergy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2015-01-01

    for industry (GWCRI 4.52%, groundwater contribution rate for agriculture (GWCRA 3.24%, and groundwater contribution rate for residential life (GWCRL 0.71%. The conclusions will provide important basis for the government’s scientific decision to improve the level of comprehensive management of water resource.

  17. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  18. Global governance principles for the sustainable development of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, K.I.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    A normative framework for the governance of groundwater is emerging at the global level. However, existing analyses have not comprehensively covered all the governance texts that have a bearing on transboundary groundwater resources or looked at them from the perspective of sustainable groundwater g

  19. Groundwater Systems and Resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guangcai; LIANG Yongping; SU Xiaosi; ZHAO Zhenghong; TAO Zhengping; YIN Lihe; YANG Yuncheng; WANG Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is.a large-scalesedimentary basin in northwestern China. The hydrostratigraphic units from bottom to top are pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic clastic rocks and Cenozoic deposits. The total thickness is up to 6000 m. Three groundwater systems are present in the Ordos Basin, based on the geological settings, I.e. The karst groundwater system, the Cretaceous dastic groundwater system and the Quaternary groundwater system. This paper describes systematically the groundwater flow patterns of each system and overall assessment of groundwater resources.

  20. Classification management plan of groundwater quality in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun Ming; Chen, Yu Ying; Pan, Shih Cheng; Li, Hui Jun; Hsiao, Fang Ke

    2017-04-01

    future, and will be able to effectively grasp the changes of the national sub-regional environmental resources, which can serve as one of the important references in national land zoning according to environmental resources. Keywords: Groundwater Quality Indicators, Groundwater Quality Classification management

  1. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Dynamic evaluation of groundwater resources in Zhangye Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiNa Mi; HongLang Xiao; ZhengLiang Yin; ShengChun Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater resource is vital to the sustainable development of socio-economics in arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. An estimation of the groundwater resources variation in Zhangye Basin was made during 1985–2013 based on long-term groundwater observation data and geostatistical method. The results show that from 1985 to 2013, groundwater storage exhibited tremendous dissimilarity on temporal and spatial scale for the whole Zhangye Basin, especially before and after implementation of the water diversion policy. Trend of groundwater storage varied from quick to slow decline or increase. The accumulative groundwater storage decreased nearly 47.52×108 m3, and annual average depletion rate reached 1.64×108 m3/a. Among which, the accumulative groundwater storage of the river and well water mixed irrigation district decreased by 37.48×108 m3, accounting for about 78.87% of the total groundwater depletion of the Zhangye Basin. Accumulative depletion of groundwater storage varied in respective irrigation districts. Though groundwater resources depletion rate slowed down from 2005, the overall storage in the whole basin and re-spective districts during 1985–2013 was still in a severe deficit such that, the groundwater resource was in a rather negative balance, which could threaten the local aquifer. This is the joint effect of climate change and human activities, however human activities, such as water diversion policy and groundwater exploitation, became increasingly intense. Our research results could provide a reasonable estimation for the groundwater balance in Zhangye Basin, providing a scientific basis for water resources unified planning and, this method can provide a relatively reliable way of estimation for large scale groundwater resources.

  3. Ground-water data for the Riley and Andrews Resource Areas, southeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Paul J.; Soja, Constance M.; Sidle, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Appraisals of the resources of selected management areas in eastern Oregon are being made by the U.S. Bureau of Land Mangement. To provide needed hydrologic information, the Bureau of Land Management requested the U.S. Geological Survey to inventory ground-water data for the Riley and Andrews Resource Areas. The inventory included field location of selected wells and springs; measurement of ground-water levels, temperatures, specific conductance, and pH; and the collection of ground-water samples from selected sources to determine dissolved chemical constituents.

  4. The role of the Spanish Committee of the International Association of Hydrogeologists in the management and protection of Spain's groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Llamas, M.-Ramón; Villarroya, Fermín

    Spain is a relatively large European country (ca. 500,000km2) with extensive semiarid areas in which there exists a large number of good aquifers. In some areas, these aquifers are intensively developed and are the most important sources of fresh water. Nevertheless, groundwater development and protection has rarely been duly considered by the Spanish Water Administration, despite the pressure to remedy this situation by various groups of experts, some of them members of the Water Administration. The Spanish Committee of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) has been very active during the last decade in promoting activities to spread groundwater science, technology, and management in Spain and outside, mostly in Latin America, and in trying to orient water policy toward issues of groundwater. These activities include mainly the organization of technical and scientific meetings on current topics such as groundwater in the new Water Act, overexploitation, groundwater in water-resources planning, groundwater pollution, natural-recharge estimation and others. The impact of these activities on the recent water policy of Spain seems significant, and the experience gained may be applicable to other countries. Résumé L'Espagne est un pays européen assez étendu (500,000km2 environ), où existent des zones semi-arides possédant de nombreux aquifères intéressants. Dans certaines régions, ces aquifères sont intensivement exploités et constituent les sources essentielles d'eau douce. Cependant, l'exploitation et la protection des eaux souterraines ont rarement été prises en compte de façon correcte par l'Administration Espagnole de l'Eau, malgré les pressions exercées pour remédier à la situation par différents groupes d'experts, dont certains sont membres de l'Administration de l'Eau. Le Comité Espagnol de l'Association Internationale des Hydrogéologues (AIH) a été particulièrement actif au cours de ces dix dernières années pour

  5. Integrated groundwater management: An overview of concepts and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Managing water is a grand challenge problem and has become one of humanity’s foremost priorities. Surface water resources are typically societally managed and relatively well understood; groundwater resources, however, are often hidden and more difficult to conceptualize. Replenishment rates of groundwater cannot match past and current rates of depletion in many parts of the world. In addition, declining quality of the remaining groundwater commonly cannot support all agricultural, industrial and urban demands and ecosystem functioning, especially in the developed world. In the developing world, it can fail to even meet essential human needs. The issue is: how do we manage this crucial resource in an acceptable way, one that considers the sustainability of the resource for future generations and the socioeconomic and environmental impacts? In many cases this means restoring aquifers of concern to some sustainable equilibrium over a negotiated period of time, and seeking opportunities for better managing groundwater conjunctively with surface water and other resource uses. However, there are many, often-interrelated, dimensions to managing groundwater effectively. Effective groundwater management is underpinned by sound science (biophysical and social) that actively engages the wider community and relevant stakeholders in the decision making process. Generally, an integrated approach will mean “thinking beyond the aquifer”, a view which considers the wider context of surface water links, catchment management and cross-sectoral issues with economics, energy, climate, agriculture and the environment. The aim of the book is to document for the first time the dimensions and requirements of sound integrated groundwater management (IGM). The primary focus is on groundwater management within its system, but integrates linkages beyond the aquifer. The book provides an encompassing synthesis for researchers, practitioners and water resource managers on the concepts and

  6. Thermal management of an urban groundwater body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Epting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a management concept for the sustainable thermal use of an urban groundwater body. The concept is designed to be applied for shallow thermal groundwater use and is based on (1 a characterization of the present thermal state of the investigated urban groundwater body; (2 the definition of development goals for specific aquifer regions, including future aquifer use and urbanization; and (3 an evaluation of the thermal use potential for these regions.

    The investigations conducted in the city of Basel (Switzerland focus on thermal processes down-gradient of thermal groundwater use, effects of heated buildings in the aquifer as well as the thermal influence of river-groundwater interaction. Investigation methods include: (1 short- and long-term data analysis; (2 high-resolution multilevel groundwater temperature monitoring; as well as (3 3-D numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport modeling and scenario development. The combination of these methods allows quantifying the thermal influence on the investigated urban groundwater body, including the influences of thermal groundwater use and additional heat from urbanization. Subsequently, management strategies for minimizing further groundwater temperature increase, targeting "potential natural" groundwater temperatures for specific aquifer regions and exploiting the thermal use potential are discussed.

  7. Factors influencing groundwater quality: towards an integrated management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Barbuti, G; Napoli, C; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The safety of groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly when these resources are the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in coastal areas. In Italy, 85% of the water used by the public is of underground origin. The aim of this report is to analyze the main factors that make groundwater vulnerable. Soil characteristics and filtration capacity can promote or hinder the diffusion of environmental contaminants. Global climate change influences the prevalence and degree of groundwater contamination. Anthropic pressure causes considerable exploitation of water resources, leading to reduced water availability and the progressive deterioration of water quality. Management of water quality will require a multidisciplinary, dynamic and practical approach focused on identifying the measures necessary to reduce contamination and mitigate the risks associated with the use of contaminated water resources.

  8. Groundwater resource-directed measures software

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-21

    Jul 21, 2006 ... 1Institute for Groundwater Studies, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa ... In this paper the methods developed for the GRDM .... The geothermal gradient for groundwater, that is, the.

  9. Groundwater management for agriculture and nature: an economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.

    As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering

  10. Groundwater Management for Agriculture and Nature : an Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering from desiccation. Since measures taken to raise gro

  11. Cockpit resource management training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, M.; Foushee, C.

    1984-01-01

    Cockpit resource management which is a multifaceted concept is outlined. The system involves the effective coordination of many resources: aircraft systems, company, air traffic control, equipment, navigational aids, documents, and manuals. The main concept, however, is group interaction. Problems which arise from lack of coordination, decision making, and lack of communication are pointed out. Implementation by the regional airline industry of cockpit resource management, designed to deal with human interactions problems in the most cost effective manner, is discussed.

  12. Medical pedagogical resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliquen, Bruno; Le Duff, Franck; Delamarre, Denis; Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to help the management of training resources for students using a pedagogical network available at the Medical School of Rennes. With the increase of the number of connections and the number of medical documents available on this network, the management of new contents requires a lot of efforts for the webmaster. In order to improve the management of the resources, we implemented an automatic web engine for teachers, able to manage the links for the most interesting resources for their practice.

  13. A Multi-Methodology for improving Adelaide's Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batelaan, Okke; Banks, Eddie; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Breciani, Etienne; Cook, Peter; Cranswick, Roger; Smith, Stan; Turnadge, Chris; Partington, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Pool Ramirez, Maria; Werner, Adrian; Xie, Yueqing; Yang, Yuting

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is a strategic and vital resource in South Australia playing a crucial role in sustaining a healthy environment, as well as supporting industries and economic development. In the Adelaide metropolitan region ten different aquifer units have been identified, extending to more than 500 m below sea level. Although salinity within most of these aquifers is variable, water suitable for commercial, irrigation and/or potable use is predominantly found in the deeper Tertiary aquifers. Groundwater currently contributes only 9000 ML/yr of Adelaide's total water consumption of 216,000 ML, while in the Northern Adelaide Plains 17000 ML/yr is used. However, major industries, market gardeners, golf courses, and local councils are highly dependent on this resource. Despite recent rapid expansion in managed aquifer recharge, and the potential for increased extraction of groundwater, particularly for the commercial and irrigation supplies, little is known about the sources and ages of Adelaide's groundwater. The aim of this study is therefore to provide a robust conceptualisation of Adelaide's groundwater system. The study focuses on three important knowledge gaps: 1. Does groundwater flow from the Adelaide Hills into the sedimentary aquifers on the plains? 2. What is the potential for encroachment of seawater if groundwater extraction increases? 3. How isolated are the different aquifers, or does water leak from one to the other? A multi-tool approach has been used to improve the conceptual understanding of groundwater flow processes; including the installation of new groundwater monitoring wells from the hills to the coast, an extensive groundwater sampling campaign of new and existing groundwater wells for chemistry and environmental tracers analysis, and development of a regional scale numerical model rigorously tested under different scenario conditions. The model allows quantification of otherwise hardly quantifiable quantities such as flow across fault zones and

  14. Hydroeconomic modeling of sustainable groundwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Duncan; Cayar, Mesut; Taghavi, Ali; Mitchell, David; Hatchett, Steve; Howitt, Richard

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, California passed legislation requiring the sustainable management of critically overdrafted groundwater basins, located primarily in the Central Valley agricultural region. Hydroeconomic modeling of the agricultural economy, groundwater, and surface water systems is critically important to simulate potential transition paths to sustainable management of the basins. The requirement for sustainable groundwater use by 2040 is mandated for many overdrafted groundwater basins that are decoupled from environmental and river flow effects. We argue that, for such cases, a modeling approach that integrates a biophysical response function from a hydrologic model into an economic model of groundwater use is preferable to embedding an economic response function in a complex hydrologic model as is more commonly done. Using this preferred approach, we develop a dynamic hydroeconomic model for the Kings and Tulare Lake subbasins of California and evaluate three groundwater management institutions—open access, perfect foresight, and managed pumping. We quantify the costs and benefits of sustainable groundwater management, including energy pumping savings, drought reserve values, and avoided capital costs. Our analysis finds that, for basins that are severely depleted, losses in crop net revenue are offset by the benefits of energy savings, drought reserve value, and avoided capital costs. This finding provides an empirical counterexample to the Gisser and Sanchez Effect.

  15. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  16. Groundwater Resources Pollution Risk: Application of the Holman Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Maio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to make an attempt to assess, through the application of the Holman Method, the effects that a careless management of human induced activities could have on aquifers and in particular on tapping wells used for human supply. Approach: The study had been applied to two different territories, as far as both the geomorphological and human induced aspects are concerned: the city of Aosta, the capital city of the Autonomous Aosta Valley region and three municipalities located in the centre of the Veneto region. Results: Thanks to the first results that had been obtained from the application of this method and other ones, it is hoped that a strategic territorial management approach will be adopted in the future so that the Groundwater Resources (GWR can coexist with the economic and urban developments. Conclusion: All the analysis had been implemented utilizing a Geographical Information System (GIS.

  17. Ecosystem services in sustainable groundwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinstra, Jaap; van Wensem, Joke

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem services concept seems to get foothold in environmental policy and management in Europe and, for instance, The Netherlands. With respect to groundwater management there is a challenge to incorporate this concept in such a way that it contributes to the sustainability of decisions. Groundwater is of vital importance to societies, which is reflected in the presented overview of groundwater related ecosystem services. Classifications of these services vary depending on the purpose of the listing (valuation, protection, mapping et cetera). Though the scientific basis is developing, the knowledge-availability still can be a critical factor in decision making based upon ecosystem services. The examples in this article illustrate that awareness of the value of groundwater can result in balanced decisions with respect to the use of ecosystem services. The ecosystem services concept contributes to this awareness and enhances the visibility of the groundwater functions in the decision making process. The success of the ecosystem services concept and its contribution to sustainable groundwater management will, however, largely depend on other aspects than the concept itself. Local and actual circumstances, policy ambitions and knowledge availability will play an important role. Solutions can be considered more sustainable when more of the key elements for sustainable groundwater management, as defined in this article, are fully used and the presented guidelines for long term use of ecosystem services are respected.

  18. Ecohydrology and Its Relation to Integrated Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Hayashi, Masaki; Batelaan, Okke

    2016-01-01

    In the twentieth century, groundwater characterization focused primarily on easily measured hydraulic metrics of water storage and flows. Twenty-first century concepts of groundwater availability, however, encompass other factors having societal value, such as ecological well-being. Effective ecohydrological science is a nexus of fundamental understanding derived from two scientific disciplines: (1) ecology, where scale, thresholds, feedbacks and tipping points for societal questions form the basis for the ecologic characterization, and (2) hydrology, where the characteristics, magnitude, and timing of water flows are characterized for a defined system of interest. In addition to ecohydrology itself, integrated groundwater management requires input from resource managers to understand which areas of the vast world of ecohydrology are important for decision making. Expectations of acceptable uncertainty, or even what ecohydrological outputs have utility, are often not well articulated within societal decision making frameworks, or within the science community itself. Similarly, “acceptable levels of impact” are difficult to define. Three examples are given to demonstrate the use of ecohydrological considerations for long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and their related ecosystem function. Such examples illustrate the importance of accommodating ecohydrogeological aspects into integrated groundwater management of the twenty-first century, regardless of society, climate, or setting.

  19. Surficial Geologic Map and Groundwater Resources of Woodstock, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG06-5 DeSimone, D., 2006,�Surficial Geologic Map and Groundwater Resources of Woodstock, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey Open-File Report...

  20. COMPREHENSIVE INTRODUCTION TO THE TECHNOLOGY OF GROUNDWATER MODELING AND OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武强; 田宝霖; 胡社荣; 金玉洁; 孙卫东; 田开铭

    1995-01-01

    Three numeric simulston and optimal managernent models on groundwater resources are introduced m this paper. These models stand for the present developing levels on the technology of groundwater modeling.and optimal management in China, and show the practical application situations of the technology. Each of the technology of unique characteristics and purposes. According to the tests of the practical engineering, these models have played a very important role in solving the difficult problems of groundwater resources.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  2. Irrigated agriculture and groundwater resources - towards an integrated vision and sustainable relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Garduño, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Globally, irrigated agriculture is the largest abstractor, and predominant consumer, of groundwater resources, with large groundwater-dependent agro-economies now having widely evolved especially in Asia. Such use is also causing resource depletion and degradation in more arid and drought-prone regions. In addition crop cultivation practices on irrigated land exert a major influence on groundwater recharge. The interrelationship is such that cross-sector action is required to agree more sustainable land and water management policies, and this paper presents an integrated vision of the challenges in this regard. It is recognised that 'institutional arrangements' are critical to the local implementation of management policies, although the focus here is limited to the conceptual understanding needed for formulation of an integrated policy and some practical interventions required to promote more sustainable groundwater irrigation.

  3. Groundwater resource vulnerability and spatial variability of nitrate contamination: Insights from high density tubewell monitoring in a hard rock aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvaneshwari, Sriramulu; Riotte, Jean; Sekhar, M; Mohan Kumar, M S; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Duprey, Jean Louis; Audry, Stephane; Giriraja, P R; Praveenkumarreddy, Yerabham; Moger, Hemanth; Durand, Patrick; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Ruiz, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    Agriculture has been increasingly relying on groundwater irrigation for the last decades, leading to severe groundwater depletion and/or nitrate contamination. Understanding the links between nitrate concentration and groundwater resource is a prerequisite for assessing the sustainability of irrigated systems. The Berambadi catchment (ORE-BVET/Kabini Critical Zone Observatory) in Southern India is a typical example of intensive irrigated agriculture and then an ideal site to study the relative influences of land use, management practices and aquifer properties on NO3 spatial distribution in groundwater. The monitoring of >200 tube wells revealed nitrate concentrations from 1 to 360mg/L. Three configurations of groundwater level and elevation gradient were identified: i) NO3 hot spots associated to deep groundwater levels (30-60m) and low groundwater elevation gradient suggest small groundwater reserve with absence of lateral flow, then degradation of groundwater quality due to recycling through pumping and return flow; ii) high groundwater elevation gradient, moderate NO3 concentrations suggest that significant lateral flow prevented NO3 enrichment; iii) low NO3 concentrations, low groundwater elevation gradient and shallow groundwater indicate a large reserve. We propose that mapping groundwater level and gradient could be used to delineate zones vulnerable to agriculture intensification in catchments where groundwater from low-yielding aquifers is the only source of irrigation. Then, wells located in low groundwater elevation gradient zones are likely to be suitable for assessing the impacts of local agricultural systems, while wells located in zones with high elevation gradient would reflect the average groundwater quality of the catchment, and hence should be used for regional mapping of groundwater quality. Irrigation with NO3 concentrated groundwater induces a "hidden" input of nitrogen to the crop which can reach 200kgN/ha/yr in hotspot areas, enhancing

  4. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the source of drinking water for ∼1.4 million people in the Coastal Plain Province of Maryland (USA). In addition, groundwater is essential for commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approximately 0.757 × 109 L d–1 (200 million gallons/d) were withdrawn in 2010. As a result of decades of withdrawals from the coastal plain confined aquifers, groundwater levels have declined by as much as 70 m (230 ft) from estimated prepumping levels. Other issues posing challenges to long-term groundwater sustainability include degraded water quality from both man-made and natural sources, reduced stream base flow, land subsidence, and changing recharge patterns (drought) caused by climate change. In Maryland, groundwater supply is managed primarily by the Maryland Department of the Environment, which seeks to balance reasonable use of the resource with long-term sustainability. The chief goal of groundwater management in Maryland is to ensure safe and adequate supplies for all current and future users through the implementation of appropriate usage, planning, and conservation policies. To assist in that effort, the geographic information system (GIS)–based Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System was developed as a tool to help water managers access and visualize groundwater data for use in the evaluation of groundwater allocation and use permits. The system, contained within an ESRI ArcMap desktop environment, includes both interpreted and basic data for 16 aquifers and 14 confining units. Data map layers include aquifer and ­confining unit layer surfaces, aquifer extents, borehole information, hydraulic properties, time-series groundwater-level data, well records, and geophysical and lithologic logs. The aquifer and confining unit layer surfaces were generated specifically for the GIS system. The system also contains select groundwater-quality data and map layers that quantify groundwater and surface-water withdrawals. The aquifer

  5. Sustainable groundwater development and management in the Quaternary Hang-Jia-Hu Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琰

    2002-01-01

    Based on the results of study on regional water supply system, water quality assessments, Quaternary aquifers investigation, and correlation analysis of groundwater depression resulting from land subsidence in the Hang-Jia-Hu Quaternary Plain, this paper presents the groundwater resources policy and sustainable management methods suitable for this area. Suggestions for controlling land subsidence by implementation of wise groundwater policy and management measures are also given.

  6. Natural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265-acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 15 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan works toward sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL’s ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text.

  7. Global assessments of submarine groundwater discharge and groundwater resources under the pressures of humanity and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.; Burnett, W. C.; Aureli, A.

    2006-12-01

    We report here the global-scale assessment of both fresh and saline groundwater discharges based solely on observational data. Prior estimates have been limited to various water balance and hydrodynamic modeling calculations and range over orders of magnitude. Our observations suggest the global volumes of fresh groundwater discharge and recirculated seawater per unit shoreline length depending on the distance from the shoreline, precipitation, and seawater depth. On a world-wide scale, these flows are compared with the global river discharge. We show via automated measurements that precipitation and wave pumping are important controls of terrestrial (fresh) and marine-induced (recirculated seawater) subterranean flows, respectively. The Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Changes (GRAPHIC) Project, an initiative of UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (IHP), seeks to improve the understanding and management of groundwater as a vital contributor to the global water cycle, ecosystems and communities, under changing climatic and anthropomorphic regimes. GRAPHIC focuses on variations of the flows, stocks, and quality of groundwater recharge, discharge and storage and on groundwater-related management and policy (http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/USE/GRAPHIC/GRAPHIC.htm). This GRAPHIC project will deal with groundwater resources assessment and future forecasting under the various pressures of humanity and climate changes. The structure of the GRAPHIC project has been divided into; (A) Subjects; thematic, cross-region issues, (B) Methods; methodological approaches (1:Database and Monitoring, 2:Satelite GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), 3:Modeling and Simulation, 4:Paleohydrology), and (C) Regions; representative geographical areas, where pilot studies will be made.

  8. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1997, eleven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  9. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  10. Integrated Groundwater Resources Management Using the DPSIR Approach in a GIS Environment Context: A Case Study from the Gallikos River Basin, North Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Mattas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Gallikos River basin is located in the northern part of Greece, and the coastal section is part of a deltaic system. The basin has been influenced by anthropogenic activities during the last decades, leading to continuous water resource degradation. The holistic approach of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR framework was applied in order to investigate the main causes and origins of pressures and to optimize the measures for sustainable management of water resources. The major driving forces that affect the Gallikos River basin are urbanization, intensive agriculture, industry and the regional development strategy. The main pressures on water resources are the overexploitation of aquifers, water quality degradation, and decrease of river discharge. Recommended responses were based on the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC, and sum up to rationalization of water resources, land use management and appropriate utilization of waste, especially so effluent. The application of the DPSIR analysis in this paper links the socioeconomic drivers to the water resource pressures, the responses based on the WFD and the national legislation and is as a useful tool for land-use planning and decision making in the area of water protection.

  11. Anthropization of groundwater resources in the Mediterranean region: processes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Remini, Boualem

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview is provided of processes and challenges related to Mediterranean groundwater resources and associated changes in recent decades. While most studies are focused thematically and/or geographically, this paper addresses different stages of groundwater exploitation in the region and their consequences. Examples emphasize the complex interactions between the physical and social dimensions of uses and evolution of groundwater. In natural conditions, Mediterranean groundwater resources represent a wide range of hydrogeological contexts, recharge conditions and rates of exploitation. They have been actively exploited for millennia but their pseudo-natural regimes have been considerably modified in the last 50 years, especially to satisfy agricultural demand (80% of total water consumption in North Africa), as well as for tourism and coastal cities. Climate variability affects groundwater dynamics but the various forms of anthropization are more important drivers of hydrological change, including changes in land use and vegetation, hydraulic works, and intense pumpings. These changes affect both the quantity and quality of groundwater at different scales, and modify the nature of hydrogeological processes, their location, timing, and intensity. The frequent cases of drastic overexploitation illustrate the fragility of Mediterranean groundwater resources and the limits of present forms of management. There is no easy way to maintain or recover sustainability, which is often threatened by short-term interests. To achieve this goal, a significant improvement in hydrogeological knowledge and closer collaboration between the various disciplines of water sciences are indispensable.

  12. Anthropization of groundwater resources in the Mediterranean region: processes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Remini, Boualem

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive overview is provided of processes and challenges related to Mediterranean groundwater resources and associated changes in recent decades. While most studies are focused thematically and/or geographically, this paper addresses different stages of groundwater exploitation in the region and their consequences. Examples emphasize the complex interactions between the physical and social dimensions of uses and evolution of groundwater. In natural conditions, Mediterranean groundwater resources represent a wide range of hydrogeological contexts, recharge conditions and rates of exploitation. They have been actively exploited for millennia but their pseudo-natural regimes have been considerably modified in the last 50 years, especially to satisfy agricultural demand (80% of total water consumption in North Africa), as well as for tourism and coastal cities. Climate variability affects groundwater dynamics but the various forms of anthropization are more important drivers of hydrological change, including changes in land use and vegetation, hydraulic works, and intense pumpings. These changes affect both the quantity and quality of groundwater at different scales, and modify the nature of hydrogeological processes, their location, timing, and intensity. The frequent cases of drastic overexploitation illustrate the fragility of Mediterranean groundwater resources and the limits of present forms of management. There is no easy way to maintain or recover sustainability, which is often threatened by short-term interests. To achieve this goal, a significant improvement in hydrogeological knowledge and closer collaboration between the various disciplines of water sciences are indispensable.

  13. Optimal dynamic management of groundwater pollutant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, S.M.; Remson, I.

    1982-01-01

    The linear programing-superposition method is presented for managing multiple sources of groundwater pollution over time. The method uses any linear solute transport simulation model to generate a unit source-concentration response matrix that is incorporated into a management model. -from Authors

  14. Storage resource manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelmutov, T.; Bakken, J.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management on shared storage components on the Grid[1,2]. SRMs support protocol negotiation and reliable replication mechanism. The SRM standard supports independent SRM implementations, allowing for a uniform access to heterogeneous storage elements. SRMs allow site-specific policies at each location. Resource Reservations made through SRMs have limited lifetimes and allow for automatic collection of unused resources thus preventing clogging of storage systems with ''orphan'' files. At Fermilab, data handling systems use the SRM management interface to the dCache Distributed Disk Cache [5,6] and the Enstore Tape Storage System [15] as key components to satisfy current and future user requests [4]. The SAM project offers the SRM interface for its internal caches as well.

  15. Strategic Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Muqaj

    2016-01-01

    Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM) represents an important and sensitive aspect of the functioning and development of a company, business, institution, state, public or private agency of a country. SHRM is based on a point of view of the psychological practices, especially by investing on empowerment, broad training and teamwork. This way it remains the primary resource to maintain stability and competitiveness. SHRM has lately evolved on fast and secure steps, and the transformation...

  16. Hydrogeology and Groundwater Resources of the Coastal Aquifers of Southeastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    The glacially derived aquifer systems of southeastern Massachusetts compose the largest groundwater reservoir in the State. Population increases, land-use changes, and climate change in this area could lead to three primary environmental effects that relate directly to groundwater resources - (1) increases in pumping that could adversely affect environmentally sensitive groundwater-fed surface waters, such as ponds, streams, and wetlands; (2) changes in land use that could affect the quality of water in the aquifer; and (3) changes in precipitation and mean sea level that can affect water levels, streamflow, and the position of the freshwater/saltwater boundary. Therefore, understanding groundwater flow and the factors that can affect it is critical to managing and protecting this vital resource.

  17. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  18. Quality of groundwater resources in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Ehsanullah; Baba, Alper

    2017-07-01

    Water is the main source of energy production and economy in Afghanistan where agriculture accounts for more than 50% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Access to safe drinking water is still a problem in the country, which has caused different health issues and even child mortality especially in rural areas. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the country. However, little knowledge is available about the quality of groundwater throughout the entire country, and its quality has not been investigated extensively yet like in other countries in the world. While most people think that consuming groundwater is a reliable and safe source of drinking water for health, the United Nations (UN) agencies report various kinds of waterborne diseases and even child mortalities due to drinking water quality in the country. In this article, significant geogenic and anthropogenic factors that play a vital role in groundwater contamination of the country are identified and explained. Different geogenic contaminations such as arsenic, fluoride, sulfate, and boron occur in several areas of Afghanistan that have a direct effect on human health. The water quality mapping for Afghanistan is completed for half of the country, which shows that groundwater is plagued by high levels of fluoride and arsenic in some areas. The water quality mapping of the other half of the country cannot be completed due to security concerns currently. Also, there are different kinds of waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, and dysentery that can be seen in different parts of the country because of anthropogenic activities which continuously deteriorate groundwater.

  19. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s.Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area.Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late summer

  20. Groundwater: A Vital Resource. Student Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carla, Ed.

    Twenty-three activities dealing with various aspects of groundwater are provided in this manual. The activities are arranged under four headings: (1) the water cycle; (2) water distribution in soils (considering such topics as calculating water table depth and purifying water by filtering); (3) water quality (considering such topics as acid rain,…

  1. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Atsunao Marui; Adrian H. Gallardo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damagedthree reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuc...

  2. Impact of Irrigated Agroecosystems on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains and North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Longuevergne, L.; Cao, G.; Shen, Y.; Gates, J. B.; Reedy, R. W.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    the monitoring well network are attributed to regional overestimation of groundwater level declines from monitoring wells in urban regions. Many strategies are being evaluated to move towards more sustainable water resource management. Transfer of water from the Yangste River to the NCP should relieve some of the water stress in the region. Other proposed approaches include more efficient irrigation, deficit irrigation, mulching, crop rotation, and no irrigation. Future system management needs to consider tradeoffs between water consumption, crop yield, and lifespan of these aquifers.

  3. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  4. Recharge Net Metering to Incentivize Sustainable Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A. T.; Coburn, C.; Kiparsky, M.; Lockwood, B. S.; Bannister, M.; Camara, K.; Lozano, S.

    2016-12-01

    Stormwater runoff has often been viewed as a nuisance rather than a resource, but with passage of the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (2014), many basins in California are taking a fresh look at options to enhance groundwater supplies with excess winter flows. In some basins, stormwater can be used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR), routing surface water to enhance groundwater resources. As with many public infrastructure programs, financing for stormwater-MAR projects can be a challenge, and there is a need for incentives that will engage stakeholders and offset operation and maintenance costs. The Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency (PVWMA), in central costal California, recently launched California's first Recharge Net Metering (ReNeM) program. MAR projects that are part of the ReNeM program are intended to generate ≥100 ac-ft/yr of infiltration benefit during a normal water year. A team of university and Resource Conservation District partners will collaborate to identify and assess potential project sites, screening for hydrologic conditions, expected runoff, ease and cost of project construction, and ability to measure benefits to water supply and quality. The team will also collect data and samples to measure the performance of each operating project. Groundwater wells within the PVWMA's service area are metered, and agency customers pay an augmentation fee for each unit of groundwater pumped. ReNeM projects will earn rebates of augmentation fees based on the amount of water infiltrated, with rebates calculated using a formula that accounts for uncertainties in the fate of infiltrated water, and inefficiencies in recovery. The pilot ReNeM program seeks to contribute 1000 ac-ft/yr of infiltration benefit by the end of the initial five-year operating period. ReNeM offers incentives that are distinct from those derived from traditional groundwater banking, and thus offers the potential for an innovative addition to the portfolio of options for

  5. Depletion mapping and constrained optimization to support managing groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Kniffin, Maribeth; Barlow, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater models often serve as management tools to evaluate competing water uses including ecosystems, irrigated agriculture, industry, municipal supply, and others. Depletion potential mapping—showing the model-calculated potential impacts that wells have on stream baseflow - can form the basis for multiple potential management approaches in an oversubscribed basin. Specific management approaches can include scenarios proposed by stakeholders, systematic changes in well pumping based on depletion potential, and formal constrained optimization, which can be used to quantify the tradeoff between water use and stream baseflow. Variables such as the maximum amount of reduction allowed in each well and various groupings of wells using, for example, K-means clustering considering spatial proximity and depletion potential are considered. These approaches provide a potential starting point and guidance for resource managers and stakeholders to make decisions about groundwater management in a basin, spreading responsibility in different ways. We illustrate these approaches in the Little Plover River basin in central Wisconsin, United States—home to a rich agricultural tradition, with farmland and urban areas both in close proximity to a groundwater-dependent trout stream. Groundwater withdrawals have reduced baseflow supplying the Little Plover River below a legally established minimum. The techniques in this work were developed in response to engaged stakeholders with various interests and goals for the basin. They sought to develop a collaborative management plan at a watershed scale that restores the flow rate in the river in a manner that incorporates principles of shared governance and results in effective and minimally disruptive changes in groundwater extraction practices.

  6. Development of an Open-GIS decision aid system for ecological and economical management of surface and groundwater resources in the Bistrita River Basin (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Trifu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bistrita River Basin (a length of 283 km, a surface of 7039 km2, a mean discharge of 65 m3/s is one of the most important tributary of the Siret River, which is the second major affluent of the Danube River. Heavily influenced by hydraulic management and highly polluted by agricultural and urban activities in some stretches, the Bistrita river has been studied in the framework of the Diminish Project (LIFE03 ENV/ RO/000539, funded by the Life Environment Program. The project aims to support the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and to combat the nutrient pollution by developing an integrated, on-line, GIS-based support system for the management of the water quality in relation with human activities, using socio-economical analysis, at the scale of the river catchments. Based on modeling approaches the decisional system allows to predict which strategy will lead to the most effective reduction of nutrient concentrations within the Bistrita hydrological network and of nutrient loads transported by the Siret River into the Danube.

    The consequences of the nutrient pollution are discussed for two basin areas, from two points of view: i the effects of point and diffuse pollution for surface and groundwater, on the basis of the basin response to the changing pressures over the river catchments (industrial, rural, urban, agricultural changes, ii the economical valuation of environmental costs and cost-effectiveness of the measures, that can be proposed from socio-economic scenarios, for reaching the "good ecological status" of this river.

  7. A multicriterion approach to groundwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Magnouni, Samir; Treichel, Wiktor

    1994-06-01

    A new approach to groundwater quantity (hydraulic) management, based on a multicriterion decision aid methodology, is presented. The method couples a hydrodynamic groundwater flow simulation model with the decision aid one. It takes into account multiple criteria used by the decision maker (DM) in evaluating a management scenario as well as the hydrodynamic behavior of the groundwater system. The finite element and embedding methods are used to integrate the groundwater flow model into a multiobjective linear programming (LP) problem. Constraints on head, pumping rates, hydraulic gradient and velocity vector may be included in the management model. The piecewise linear utility function is assessed for modeling the DM's preferences. The best compromise solution is determined from the continuous Pareto set by solving a piecewise LP problem. User friendly software was developed to realize this methodology which is able to treat real scale problems. An illustrative example of an unconfined aquifer management is presented. Nonlinearities resulting from functional dependence of aquifer parameters on hydraulic head are handled iteratively.

  8. Study on protection and reclamation for the groundwater resources in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ig-Hwan; Cho, Byong-Wook; Lee, Byung-Dae [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the protection of contaminated groundwater and reclamation in the Pusan area. Groundwater Busan city is highly subjected to groundwater contamination due to its unfavorable geographical features; it is located in the estuaries of the Nakdong river, most of the urban area are composed of highlands, and the large population resides in the downhill. Heavy pumping and deterioration of groundwater are currently found to be significant compared to other major cities, resulting in shortage of water resources and contamination of groundwater. The first step of the research aims at investigating hydrogeological features which includes analysis of climate and hydrologic data, investigation of geology and structural pattern, acquisition of hydrological data, inspection of wells, measurement of groundwater level, analysis of water samples, investigation of groundwater contamination, isotope analysis, and monitoring water level by automated data logger to identify seawater intrusion. The second step is to simulate the two-dimensional flow model after construction of the database. Aside from this, abandoned wells were transformed into observation wells. An effort for remedy of contaminated groundwater was made and the water quality was constantly monitored to improve the deteriorated water to the drinking water. Kriging analysis and geostatistical analysis were carried out in order to verify the effect of seawater intrusion, showing that there is no clear evidence of seawater intrusion. Instead, it is clear that groundwater in the inland district was preferentially contaminated by pollutants originated from human activities. Based on the two-dimensional flow model, only 0.021 m{sup 3} may be allocated to each person a day from public wells for emergency. In order to ensure that protection and remediation of groundwater of the Busan area are able to accomplish, well-controlled management of aquifer systems needs to be maintained and

  9. Analysis of groundwater recoverable resource by numerical method in Linfen Basin of Shanxi, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping BAI; Yeyao WANG; Jinsheng WANG

    2008-01-01

    Calculation of the groundwater recoverable resource is the main part of groundwater resource evaluation. The three-dimensional groundwater flow model in Linfen Basin was established by GMS software. Then the numerical model was calibrated by observed groundwater level from February to December in 2 000. Based on the calibrated model, the groundwater recoverable resource is calculated. The simulation result shows that under the given value of the groundwater recoverable resource, the groundwater level would decrease significantly in the first 1 000 days, while the water level would drop slowly in 1 000 to 2 000 days, and the water level change tend to be stable after 2000 days.

  10. Wireless communications resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B; Seo, H

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies continue to evolve to address the insatiable demand for faster response times, larger bandwidth, and reliable transmission. Yet as the industry moves toward the development of post 3G systems, engineers have consumed all the affordable physical layer technologies discovered to date. This has necessitated more intelligent and optimized utilization of available wireless resources. Wireless Communications Resource Managem ent, Lee, Park, and Seo cover all aspects of this critical topic, from the preliminary concepts and mathematical tools to detailed descriptions of all the resource management techniques. Readers will be able to more effectively leverage limited spectrum and maximize device battery power, as well as address channel loss, shadowing, and multipath fading phenomena.

  11. Enterprise Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silli Panigrahy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design and develop information system for Noblesonics Pvt. Ltd to assist in improving their manufacturing process. The proposed system was designed to enable a small manufacturing company’s transition from traditional method of record keeping and planning utilizing ERM (Enterprise Resource Management software. This will potentially help the company to trace the employee, customer, order details and the inventory record. The reports generated from the new system would facilitate the company to manage their inventory and schedule their work process.

  12. The Evolution of Groundwater Management Paradigms in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to trace the evolution of key water-related laws and management practices in Kansas, from the enactment of the Kansas Water Resources Appropriation Act of 1945 to the present, in order to highlight the state's efforts to create a more sustainable water future and in hopes that others will benefit from Kansas' experience. The 1945 Act provides the basic framework of water law (prior appropriation) in Kansas. Progression of groundwater management in the state encompasses local ground-water management districts (GMDs) and their water-management programs, minimum-streamflow and TMDL standards, water-use reporting and water metering programs, use of modified safe-yield policies in some GMDs, the subbasin water-resources-management program, the integrated resource planning/Aquifer Storage and Recovery project of the City of Wichita, the Central Kansas Water Bank, enhanced aquifer subunits management, and various water conservation programs. While these have all contributed to the slowing down of declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and in associated ecosystems, they have not yet succeeded in halting those declines. Based on the assumption that the different management approaches have to operate easily within the prevailing water rights and law framework to succeed, a number of steps are suggested here that may help further halt the declines of the High Plains aquifer. These include eliminating the "use it or lose it" maxim in the prior-appropriation framework, broadening the definition of "beneficial use," regulating domestic and other "exempt" wells, encouraging voluntary "sharing the shortage" agreements, and determining to what extent water rights may be regulated in the public interest without a compensable "taking." Further necessary measures include determining to what extent water-rights holders might be subjected to reasonable dictates without having the security of their rights altered.

  13. Integrated Water Resources Management Improving Langat Basin Ecosystem Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlin B. Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem provides us with all the goods and services that form the base of our economic, social cultural and spiritual life. Good scientific information will be required for managing the environment by using the Ecosystem approach. The groundwater is considered as a possible supplementary of alternative water source, and some factories already started shifting their water source from surface water to groundwater. Uncontrolled use of groundwater, however, may induce serious environmental problems, e.g., land subsidence, saltwater intrusion to the aquifer. The establishment of a balanced multi-sector and integrated groundwater resources and environmental management plan is deemed urgent to attain a sustainable groundwater resources use and to maintain a favorable groundwater quality in the Langat Basin. To achieve sustainable lifestyle in large scale ecosystem requires integrated and holistic approaches from all stakeholders. Through Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR it was determined a revolutionized water resources management, providing a sustainable supply while minimizing the environmental impact of surface storage. By using underground geologic formations to store water, by integrated water resources management advisory system (IWRMAS aquifer recharge can now easily applied to obviate water resource and environmental problems, including seasonal shortages, emergency storage, ground subsidence and saline intrusion.

  14. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  15. [Management human resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, F P

    2004-01-01

    The management of human resources may follow different models, defined as bureaucratic, technocratic or managerial-entrepreneurial models. The latter being the most used. However, the relationship individual-enterprise is based on both a legal and a psychological contract regardless of the model used. The winning concept considers the personnel as the first and most important customer to be trained, informed and kept updated. For these reasons it is necessary to create a warm working environment, which is the first marketing tool, thus improving the marketing skills (enterprise-customer). The improved results (products, processes and publications) will be achieved by total quality management, which includes training and transformation of the chief's role from the hierarchical management to a coaching approach. This approach will recreativity, personality and competence of the personnel. This new type of leadership is based on the authority recognised by the personnel, service and motivation.

  16. Strategic Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Muqaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM represents an important and sensitive aspect of the functioning and development of a company, business, institution, state, public or private agency of a country. SHRM is based on a point of view of the psychological practices, especially by investing on empowerment, broad training and teamwork. This way it remains the primary resource to maintain stability and competitiveness. SHRM has lately evolved on fast and secure steps, and the transformation from Management of Human Resources to SHRM is becoming popular, but it still remains impossible to exactly estimate how much SHRM has taken place in updating the practices of HRM in organizations and institutions in general. This manuscript aims to make a reflection on strategic management, influence factors in its practices on some organizations. Researchers aim to identify influential factors that play key roles in SHRM, to determine its challenges and priorities which lay ahead, in order to select the most appropriate model for achieving a desirable performance. SHRM is a key factor in the achievement of the objectives of the organization, based on HR through continuous performance growth, it’s a complex process, unpredictable and influenced by many outside and inside factors, which aims to find the shortest way to achieve strategic competitive advantages, by creating structure planning, organizing, thinking values, culture, communication, perspectives and image of the organization. While traditional management of HR is focused on the individual performance of employees, the scientific one is based on the organizational performance, the role of the HRM system as main factor on solving business issues and achievement of competitive advantage within its kind.

  17. Modeling sustainable groundwater management: packaging and sequencing of policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Encarna; Dinar, Ariel

    2013-04-15

    Of the many studies estimating effectiveness of policy reforms most have been considering various types of policy reforms in isolation from each other. Such pattern has also been the case in water resource regulations. In the case of groundwater almost all policy interventions considered in the literature have been implemented individually, without taking into account the possible interactions and impacts among them. In this paper, we focus on two policy instruments: water quota and uniform water tax. The paper demonstrates how packaging and sequencing sets of policy interventions, with possible triggers to initiate their time of implementation, may be more effective in achieving a sustainable groundwater management than single policies when environmental externalities exist. The policy instruments are applied to the Western la Mancha aquifer in Southeast Spain, a major aquifer that is managed by a command and control approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The 3D simulation and optimized management model of groundwater systems based on ecoenvironmental water demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Through the study of mutual process between groundwater systems and eco-environmental water demand, the eco-environmental water demand is brought into groundwater systems model as the important water consumption item and unification of groundwater's economic, environmental and ecological functions were taken into account. Based on eco-environmental water demand at Da'an in Jilin province, a three-dimensional simulation and optimized management model of groundwater systems was established. All water balance components of groundwater systems in 1998 and 1999 were simulated with this model and the best optimal exploitation scheme of groundwater systems in 2000 was determined, so that groundwater resource was efficiently utilized and good economic, ecologic and social benefits were obtained.

  19. Groundwater resource exploration in Salem district, Tamil Nadu using GIS and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, G.; Selvarani, A. Geetha; Elangovan, K.

    2016-03-01

    Since last decade, the value per barrel of potable groundwater has outpaced the value of a barrel of oil in many areas of the world. Hence, proper assessment of groundwater potential and management practices are the needs of the day. Establishing relationship between remote sensing data and hydrologic phenomenon can maximize the efficiency of water resources development projects. Present study focuses on groundwater potential assessment in Salem district, Tamil Nadu to investigate groundwater resource potential. At the same, all thematic layers important from ground water occurrence and movement point of view were digitized and integrated in the GIS environment. The weights of different parameters/themes were computed using weighed index overlay analysis (WIOA), analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic technique. Through this integrated GIS analysis, groundwater prospect map of the study area was prepared qualitatively. Field verification at observation wells was used to verify identified potential zones and depth of water measured at observation wells. Generated map from weighed overlay using AHP performed very well in predicting the groundwater surface and hence this methodology proves to be a promising tool for future.

  20. Evaluation of groundwater resources in a tiny Andrott Island, Union Territory of Lakshadweep, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V S; Sarwade, D V; Mondal, N C; Nanadakumar, M V; Singh, B

    2009-11-01

    Lakshadweep is a group of 36 coral islands scattered in the Arabian Sea off the western coast of India. On such small tiny islands, groundwater is the only source of fresh water for the islanders. Due to the growing population on these islands, demand for fresh water is also increasing and on the other side the peculiar hydrologic, geologic and geomorphic features restrict the availability of groundwater. Therefore, a proper understanding of the groundwater condition is important in order to meet this increasing demand and also to formulate future development and management strategies. Detailed hydrogeological, geophysical and hydrochemical studies have been carried out to identify potential fresh groundwater resources and quantify vulnerable parts of Andrott Island, Union Territory of Lakshadweep. Systematic collection and analysis of hydrological, geophysical and hydrochemical data reveal that fresh groundwater is only available between 2.5 to 5.0 m depths and provide an early sign of deterioration in groundwater quality in the peripheral parts of eastern and western coasts of this island. It suggests immediate measures for arresting the deterioration in groundwater quality as well as augmentation for restoration of aquifer in some parts of the island.

  1. Web GIS design and realization for groundwater resources in the Yellow River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Jianguo; GONG; Huili; ZHAO; Wenji; ZHANG; Xiaosong; Y

    2004-01-01

    This article brings forward a design and realization scheme of Web GIS in the Yellow River basin for the management of groundwater resources. The main goals are to manage and share data of massive-scale, to support the research of groundwater resources in the Yellow River basin. In this paper we point out the necessity and feasibility of building the distributed Web GIS for geographical research objects on a large scale.We put forward some solutions for the construction of this kind of system including a holistic deployment strategy in the Internet, a scheme of distributed data storage and management, a design of application structure based on three tires architecture by each province and how they collaborate with each other. It also illuminates how the application server works, and sets forth the relations among databases which work together in this system.

  2. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  3. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  4. ANALYSIS AND CALCULATION OF REGULATED WATER RESOURCES OF GROUNDWATER RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chang-lei; CHI Bao-ming; GAO Shu-qin

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater reservoir is a kind of important engineering, which can optimize water resources arran-gement by means of artificial regulation. Regulated water is the blood and value performance of groundwater reser-voir. To resolve the problem of real-time quantification of regulated water, the paper analyzed sources and composi-tions of regulated water in detail. Then, under the conditions of satisfying water demand inside research area, the pa-per analyzed quantity available and regulation coefficient of different regulated water and established a formula tocalculate regulated water. At last, based on a pore groundwater reservoir in the middle reaches of the Yinma River,Jilin Province, the paper calculated regulated water with the formula and the result shows that the method is feasible.With some constraint conditions, the formula can be adopted in other similar areas.

  5. Evaluation of the impact of fuel hydrocarbons and oxygenates on groundwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tom; Rong, Yue; Harmon, Thomas; Suffet, Mel

    2004-01-01

    The environmental behavior of fuel oxygenates (other than methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE]) is poorly understood because few data have been systematically collected and analyzed. This study evaluated the potential for groundwater resource contamination by fuel hydrocarbons (FHCs) and oxygenates (e.g., tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], tertamyl methyl ether [TAME], diisopropyl ether [DIPE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], and MTBE) by examining their occurrence, distribution, and spatial extent in groundwater beneath leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) facilities, focusing on data collected from over 7200 monitoring wells in 868 LUFT sites from the greater Los Angeles, CA, region. Excluding the composite measure total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline (TPHG), TBA has the greatestsite maximum (geometric mean) groundwater concentration among the study analytes; therefore, its presence needs to be confirmed at LUFT sites so that specific cleanup strategies can be developed. The alternative ether oxygenates (DIPE, TAME, and ETBE) are less likely to be detected in groundwater beneath LUFT facilities in the area of California studied and when detected are present at lower dissolved concentrations than MTBE, benzene, or TBA. Groundwater plume length was used as an initial indicator of the threat of contamination to drinking water resources. Approximately 500 LUFT sites were randomly selected and analyzed. The results demonstrate MTBE to pose the greatest problem, followed by TBA and benzene. The alternative ether oxygenates were relatively localized and indicated lesser potential for groundwater resource contamination. However, all indications suggest the alternative ether oxygenates would pose groundwater contamination threats similar to MTBE if their scale of usage is expanded. Plume length data suggest that in the absence of a completely new design and construction of the underground storage tank (UST) system, an effective management strategy may involve placing greater emphasis

  6. Conjunctive management of multi-reservoir network system and groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, A.; Tsai, F. T. C.

    2015-12-01

    This study develops a successive mixed-integer linear fractional programming (successive MILFP) method to conjunctively manage water resources provided by a multi-reservoir network system and a groundwater system. The conjunctive management objectives are to maximize groundwater withdrawals and maximize reservoir storages while satisfying water demands and raising groundwater level to a target level. The decision variables in the management problem are reservoir releases and spills, network flows and groundwater pumping rates. Using the fractional programming approach, the objective function is defined as a ratio of total groundwater withdraws to total reservoir storage deficits from the maximum storages. Maximizing this ratio function tends to maximizing groundwater use and minimizing surface water use. This study introduces a conditional constraint on groundwater head in order to sustain aquifers from overpumping: if current groundwater level is less than a target level, groundwater head at the next time period has to be raised; otherwise, it is allowed to decrease up to a certain extent. This conditional constraint is formulated into a set of mixed binary nonlinear constraints and results in a mixed-integer nonlinear fractional programming (MINLFP) problem. To solve the MINLFP problem, we first use the response matrix approach to linearize groundwater head with respect to pumping rate and reduce the problem to an MILFP problem. Using the Charnes-Cooper transformation, the MILFP is transformed to an equivalent mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). The solution of the MILP is successively updated by updating the response matrix in every iteration. The study uses IBM CPLEX to solve the MILP problem. The methodology is applied to water resources management in northern Louisiana. This conjunctive management approach aims to recover the declining groundwater level of the stressed Sparta aquifer by using surface water from a network of four reservoirs as an

  7. Resources from waste : integrated resource management phase 1 study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corps, C. [Asset Strategics, Victoria BC (Canada); Salter, S. [Farallon Consultants Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Lucey, P. [Aqua-Tex Scientific Consulting Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); O' Riordan, J.

    2008-02-29

    Integrated resource management (IRM) of municipal waste streams and water systems requires a structured analysis of options that consider environmental aspects such as greenhouse gases, carbon taxes and credits. Each option's inputs and outputs are assessed to determine the net highest and best use and value. IRM focuses on resource recovery and extracting maximum value. It considers the overall net impact on the taxpayer and requires the integration of liquid and solid waste streams to maximize values for recovering energy in the form of biofuels, heat, minerals, water and reducing electricity demand. IRM is linked to water management through reuse of treated water for groundwater recharge and to offset potable water use for non-potable purposes such as irrigation, including potential commercial use, which contributes to maintaining or improving the health of watersheds. This report presented a conceptual design for the application of IRM in the province of British Columbia (BC) and analyzed its potential contribution to the provincial climate change agenda. The report discussed traditional waste management, the IRM approach, and resource recovery technology and opportunities. The business case for IRM in BC was also outlined. It was concluded that IRM has the potential to be a viable solution to water, solid and liquid waste management that should be less expensive, result in fewer environmental impacts, and provide greater flexibility than traditional approaches to waste management. 63 refs., 17 tabs., 21 figs., 10 appendices.

  8. Groundwater resource exploration in Salem district, Tamil Nadu using GIS and remote sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Maheswaran; A Geetha Selvarani; K Elangovan

    2016-03-01

    Since last decade, the value per barrel of potable groundwater has outpaced the value of a barrel of oil in many areas of the world. Hence, proper assessment of groundwater potential and management practices are the needs of the day. Establishing relationship between remote sensing data and hydrologic phenomenon can maximize the efficiency of water resources development projects. Present study focuses on groundwater potential assessment in Salem district, Tamil Nadu to investigate groundwater resourcepotential. At the same, all thematic layers important from ground water occurrence and movement point of view were digitized and integrated in the GIS environment. The weights of different parameters/themes were computed using weighed index overlay analysis (WIOA), analytic hierarchy process (AHP) andfuzzy logic technique. Through this integrated GIS analysis, groundwater prospect map of the study area was prepared qualitatively. Field verification at observation wells was used to verify identified potential zones and depth of water measured at observation wells. Generated map from weighed overlay using AHP performed very well in predicting the groundwater surface and hence this methodology proves to be a promising tool for future.

  9. Climate change impact on freshwater resources in a deltaic environment: A groundwater modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiatos, Ioannis; Alexopoulos, John D.; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kotsopoulos, Spyros; Ghionis, George; Poulos, Serafim

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is expected to affect the hydrological cycle, altering seawater level and groundwater recharge to coastal aquifers with various other associated impacts on natural ecosystems and human activities. As the sustainable use of groundwater resources is a great challenge for many countries in the world, groundwater modeling has become a very useful and well established tool for studying groundwater management problems. This study investigates the impacts of climate change on the groundwater of the deltaic plain of River Pinios (Central Greece). Geophysical data processing indicates that the phreatic aquifer extends mainly in the central and northern parts of the region. A one-layer transient groundwater flow and contaminant mass transport model of the aquifer system is calibrated and validated. Impacts of climate change were evaluated by incorporating the estimated recharge input and sea level change of different future scenarios within the simulation models. The most noticeable and consistent result of the climate change impact simulations is a prominent sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifer mainly as a result of sea level change which underlines the need for a more effective planning of environmental measures.

  10. A groundwater management plan for Stuttgart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasin, Sandra; Carle, Achim; Lang, Ulrich; Kirchholtes, Hermann Josef

    2016-09-01

    In general, groundwater in urban areas is exposed to anthropogenic influence and suffers from concentrations of contaminants. Stuttgart, as a highly industrialized city, has more than 5000 contaminated sites which might influence the Stuttgart's mineral water quality. Despite tremendous efforts and intensive single site orientated remediation since 1984 in downtown, the mineral springs were still affected with chlorinated hydrocarbons at low concentrations. Therefore, the applied practices of environmental management and measures for mitigation of pollution sources were not sufficient and had to be adjusted. The main goal of this study is to define an integral remediation plan (a groundwater management plan), focusing on the key sources of chlorinated solvents which are relevant for the mineral springs. For the large-scale investigated area of 26.6km(2) and eight aquifers, an extensive investigation and characterization methods were used in order to delineate the contamination plumes. By means of a 3D numerical model, the prioritization of the contaminated sites could be performed. Five contaminated sites with high remediation priority and need for optimized or additional remediation efforts were determined. For those five contaminated sites feasibility studies were performed which resulted in recommendation of remediation measures with total costs of more than 12.5 million euros. The proposed strategy and approach are suitable for multiple sources of contamination. Only in this way, the contributions of single contaminated sites to the total groundwater contamination can be identified and local remediation measures with their spatial impact simulated. Due to very complex geological conditions, technically there is no alternative to this strategy in order to achieve the contamination reduction in groundwater.

  11. Karst groundwater: a challenge for new resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalowicz, Michel

    2005-03-01

    Karst aquifers have complex and original characteristics which make them very different from other aquifers: high heterogeneity created and organised by groundwater flow; large voids, high flow velocities up to several hundreds of m/h, high flow rate springs up to some tens of m3/s. Different conceptual models, known from the literature, attempt to take into account all these particularities. The study methods used in classical hydrogeology—bore hole, pumping test and distributed models—are generally invalid and unsuccessful in karst aquifers, because the results cannot be extended to the whole aquifer nor to some parts, as is done in non-karst aquifers. Presently, karst hydrogeologists use a specific investigation methodology (described here), which is comparable to that used in surface hydrology. Important points remain unsolved. Some of them are related to fundamental aspects suc h as the void structure - only a conduit network, or a conduit network plus a porous matrix -, the functioning - threshold effects and non-linearities -, the modeling of the functioning - double or triple porosity, or viscous flow in conduits - and of karst genesis. Some other points deal with practical aspects, such as the assessment of aquifer storage capacity or vulnerability, or the prediction of the location of highly productive zones. Los acuíferos kársticos tienen características originales y complejas que los hacen muy diferentes de otros acuíferos: alta heterogeneidad creada y organizada por el flujo de agua subterránea, espacios grandes, velocidades altas de flujo de hasta varios cientos de m/h, manantiales con ritmo alto de flujo de hasta algunas decenas de m3/s. Diferentes modelos conceptuales que se conocen en la literatura tratan de tomar en cuenta todas estas particularidades. Los métodos de estudio usados en hidrogeología clásica- pozos, pruebas de bombeo y modelos distribuidos- son generalmente inválidos y no exitosos en acuíferos kársticos, debido a que

  12. Integrated Resource Management at a Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur

  13. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Souris-Red-Rainy region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Harold O.

    1978-01-01

    A broad-perspective analysis of the ground-water resources and present and possible future water development and management in the Souris-Red-Rainy Region is presented. The region includes the basins of the Souris River within Montana and North Dakota; the Red River of the North in South Dakota, North Dakota, and Minnesota; and the Rainy River within Minnesota. The region includes 59,645 square miles, mostly in North Dakota and Minnesota.

  14. Resources Management in Active Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In an active network, users can insert customized active codes into active nodes to execute. Thus it needs more resources than those required by conventional networks, and these resources must be effectively monitored and managed. Management policies in existing OSs are too complicated to apply to simple active packets. In this paper, we present new resources management policies that are mainly adoped to manage CPU, storage and transmission bandwidth. Namely, we use SPF algorithm to schedule and process active packets, and import an interval queue method to allocate transmission bandwidth, and use feedback mechanism to control congestion. At the same time, we design some experiments on prototype systems with and without resources management policies respectively. The experiments results show that management policies presented by us can effectively manage resources in active nodes and can improve the performance of active networks.

  15. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    resources, i.e. security of supply, but also the need for efficient recovery of the same resources after the use-phase of the products. While this recovery may appear simple, considerable challenges exist. Management and recovery of resources in waste materials, or in general residual streams in society......, depends on the quality of these resources and technological abilities to extract resources from mixed materials, e.g. mobile phones, solar cells, or mixed domestic waste. The "effort" invested in recovery of secondary resources should not be more than the "benefit" associated with the secondary resources....... Over the recent decades, DTU Environment has worked extensively both with resource recovery technologies and life cycle assessment (LCA) models (www.EASETECH.dk) dedicated to evaluating resource management and recovery systems. Advanced sustainability assessments of resource recovery and utilization...

  16. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Atsunao; Gallardo, Adrian H

    2015-07-21

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  17. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunao Marui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  18. Quantifying the Impact of a Transboundary Streamflow Agreement on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, J.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Many groundwater aquifers in important agricultural areas are exploited beyond their sustainable limits. Groundwater overuse can reduce streamflow across political boundaries, leading to transboundary management challenges. Although conflicts over transboundary water resources do arise, these conflicts can also prompt improved aquifer management. Portions of the Republican River Basin, which overlies the High Plains Aquifer in the central United States, have been under court-ordered groundwater restrictions to meet interstate streamflow requirements since 2004, following the 2002 Kansas v. Nebraska and Colorado Supreme Court case. We examined the impacts of these restrictions on groundwater levels, pumping volume, agricultural productivity, and streamflow in the Nebraska portion of the basin to assess how transboundary agreements can affect groundwater sustainability in agricultural systems. We synthesized available data for 1990-2014 to analyze trends before and after restrictions went into effect in 2004. After controlling for climate covariates, we found that restrictions reduced pumping volumes in the study area, resulting in increased streamflow across the Nebraska-Kansas border. Furthermore, restrictions appear to have reversed the declining trend in groundwater storage. Notably, this reversal contrasts with continuing decline in the unrestricted Kansas portion of the basin, suggesting the court-ordered restrictions have altered the sustainability trajectory of this region. The impacts of pumping restrictions on regional agricultural yields and productivity are examined. Our analysis of this system suggests that by setting external limits on resource use, enforceable transboundary water agreements can stimulate sustainable groundwater management and counter local incentives for overextraction.

  19. SLA-aware Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yih Leong; Perrott, Ron; Harmer, Terence J.; Cunningham, Christina; Wright, Peter; Kennedy, John; Edmonds, Andy; Bayon, Victor; Maza, Jacek; Berginc, Gregor; Hadalin, Primož

    The management of infrastructure resources in a large-scale environment such as Grid Computing is a challenging task and places significant demands on resource discovery, scheduling and the underlying communication channels. The fulfillment of the business goals and service quality in such an environment requires an infrastructure to cope with changes in demand and infrastructure performance. In this paper, we propose an abstract service-oriented framework for SLA-aware dynamic resource management. The framework provides selfmanaging, self-configuration and self-healing strategies in order to support autonomic and ambient service management. We study an SLA negotiation process at the infrastructure resource layer, live migration for resource re-provisioning, a multi-layer architecture framework to monitor infrastructure resources and a harmonized interface to access arbitrary sources of infrastructure resources based on SLA requirements. Resource usage will be optimized according to the provider policies and SLA requirements.

  20. GPS Application for Groundwater Resource Assessment, Hermanus, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnady, C.; Mlisa, A.; Wonnacott, R.; Calais, E.

    2009-04-01

    TrigNet (http://www.trignet.co.za/footprint/home.jsp) is a network of permanent continuously operating GPS (cGPS) base stations distributed throughout South Africa at approximately 200 - 300 km spacing. Data from 21 of the stations is continuously streamed to the TrigNet control centre in the offices of the Chief Directorate: Surveys and Mapping, from where it is made available within 30 minutes after each hour for 24 hours a day. All stations record 1-second epoch data on both GPS frequencies (L1 and L2) through geodetic-standard choke ring antennas. The real-time Trignet station HERM is situated in the grounds of the Hermanus Magnetic Observatory (HMO), in a coastal town about 100 km SW of the City of Cape Town. The Overstrand Municipality of the Greater Hermanus Area has embarked on a major groundwater development to augment the water supply. As a foundation for sustainable management of the groundwater resource, a detailed monitoring programme was developed for a better understanding of the hydraulic system, and of the interconnections between surface water, the shallow primary aquifer and the remarkable, deep, fractured-rock (FR) aquifer of the Table Mountain Group (TMG), which underlies a large part of the Western Cape province in South Africa. A thick, extensive FR aquifer system like the ~1 km thick Peninsula Aquifer in the TMG provides an opportunity for fundamental advances in understanding interactions between fluid flow and mechanical deformation, through analysis of the "hydro-mechanical" coupling in FR permeability, fluid transport and deep storage in FR porosity. Present knowledge of skeletal-framework compressibility, the main factor in specific storage, is based on published data from similar rocks elsewhere. Up-scaling from dry-sample laboratory measurements of elastic properties of borehole-core samples at ~10-cm scale to saturated rock volumes on 100- to 1000-m scale, is methodologically problematic. Measuring directly the compaction of, and

  1. Optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater resources with stochastic dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Optimal management of conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater has been attempted with different algorithms in the literature. In this study, a hydro-economic modelling approach to optimize conjunctive use of scarce surface water and groundwater resources under uncertainty is presented. A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) approach is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocations and water curtailments. Dynamic allocation problems with inclusion of groundwater resources proved to be more complex to solve with SDP than pure surface water allocation problems due to head-dependent pumping costs. These dynamic pumping costs strongly affect the total costs and can lead to non-convexity of the future cost function. The water user groups (agriculture, industry, domestic) are characterized by inelastic demands and fixed water allocation and water supply curtailment costs. As in traditional SDP approaches, one step-ahead sub-problems are solved to find the optimal management at any time knowing the inflow scenario and reservoir/aquifer storage levels. These non-linear sub-problems are solved using a genetic algorithm (GA) that minimizes the sum of the immediate and future costs for given surface water reservoir and groundwater aquifer end storages. The immediate cost is found by solving a simple linear allocation sub-problem, and the future costs are assessed by interpolation in the total cost matrix from the following time step. Total costs for all stages, reservoir states, and inflow scenarios are used as future costs to drive a forward moving simulation under uncertain water availability. The use of a GA to solve the sub-problems is computationally more costly than a traditional SDP approach with linearly interpolated future costs. However, in a two-reservoir system the future cost function would have to be represented by a set of planes, and strict convexity in both the surface water and groundwater dimension cannot be maintained

  2. [Research of early-warning method for regional groundwater pollution based on risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-Ping; Wang, Ye-Yao; Guo, Yong-Li; Zhou, You-Ya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in China, and China's overall situation of groundwater pollution is not optimistic at present. Groundwater pollution risk evaluation and early-warning are the effective measures to prevent groundwater pollution. At present, research of groundwater early-warning method at home and abroad is still at the exploratory stage, and the sophisticated technology has not been developed for reference. This paper briefly described the data and technological demand of the early-warning method in different scales, and the main factors influencing the early-warning results of groundwater pollution were classified as protection performance of geological medium, characteristics of pollution sources, groundwater dynamics and groundwater value. Then the main early-warning indexes of groundwater pollution were screened to establish the early-warning model of regional or watershed scale by the index overlay method. At last, the established early-warning model was used in Baotou plain, and the different early-warning grades were zoned by the model. The research results could provide scientific support for the local management department to protect the groundwater resources.

  3. RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Duane G.; Narbutovskih, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the groundwater monitoring plan for Waste Management Area C located in the 200 East Area of the DOE Hanford Site. This plan is required under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA).

  4. Regime shifts in resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Resource management has to take account of the possibility of tipping points and regime shifts in ecological systems that provide the resources. This article focuses on the typical model of regime shifts in the ecological literature and analyzes optimal management and common-property issues when tra

  5. Human Resource Management. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Cynthia D.; And Others

    This book offers students, practicing managers, and human resource professionals a comprehensive, current, research-based introduction to the human resource management (HRM) function. It is organized in eight sections, logically following the progression of individuals into, through, and out of the organization. Part 1, overview and introduction,…

  6. Water resources management in Rostov region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, O.

    2009-04-01

    Proper management of water resources leads to the development of the region. Nowadays there is an urgent problem - water shortage. Many European countries face this problem, Russia is not the excluding. In addition, there is a problem not only of water quantity, but quality as well. Although Rostov region is well provided with fresh water, the water resources are unevenly disturbed within region. Rostov region is heavily populated and receive moderate rainfall. Groundwater has a limited capacity for renewal. At the same time, Rostov region is industrial and agricultural one that is why pressures from agriculture, industry and domestic users affect the quantity of water resources. Both water quality and availability must be integrated in long-term planning and policy implications concerning water management. In Russia there are high standards for water quality. Effectively managed water-supply and resource protection systems generate the indispensable basis for agricultural and industrial production. Throughout the Region, urban and rural development has thrived where water sources have been effectively managed. Rostov region can be divided into three parts: northern districts, central part of the region and southern ones. Main cities in the region have not enough available drinking water. In the region ground water is used for curing and water supplying purpose.

  7. Thermal management of an unconsolidated shallow urban groundwater body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Epting

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development of tools for the sustainable thermal management of a shallow unconsolidated urban groundwater body in the city of Basel (Switzerland. The concept of the investigations is based on (1 a characterization of the present thermal state of the urban groundwater body, and (2 the evaluation of potential mitigation measures for the future thermal management of specific regions within the groundwater body. The investigations focus on thermal processes down-gradient of thermal groundwater use, effects of heated buildings in the subsurface as well as the thermal influence of river–groundwater interaction. Investigation methods include (1 short- and long-term data analysis, (2 high-resolution multilevel groundwater temperature monitoring, as well as (3 3-D numerical groundwater flow and heat transport modeling and scenario development. The combination of these methods allows for the quantifying of the thermal influences on the investigated urban groundwater body, including the influences of thermal groundwater use and heated subsurface constructions. Subsequently, first implications for management strategies are discussed, including minimizing further groundwater temperature increase, targeting "potential natural" groundwater temperatures for specific aquifer regions and exploiting the thermal potential.

  8. Forecasting the Depletion of Transboundary Groundwater Resources in Hyper-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in awareness about the overexploitation of transboundary groundwater resources in hyper-arid environments that occurred in the last decades has highlighted the need to better map, monitor and manage these resources. Climate change, economic and population growth are driving forces that put more pressure on these fragile but fundamental resources. The aim of our approach is to address the question of whether or not groundwater resources, especially non-renewable, could serve as "backstop" water resource during water shortage periods that would probably affect the drylands in the upcoming 100 years. The high dependence of arid regions on these resources requires prudent management to be able to preserve their fossil aquifers and exploit them in a more sustainable way. We use the NetLogo environment with the FAO Aquastat Database to evaluate if the actual trends of extraction, consumption and use of non-renewable groundwater resources would remain feasible with the future climate change impacts and the population growth scenarios. The case studies selected are three: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, shared between Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad; the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, with Algeria, Tunisia and Libya and the Umm Radhuma Dammam Aquifer, in its central part, shared between Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain. The reason these three fossil aquifers were selected are manifold. First, they represent properly transboundary non-renewable groundwater resources, with all the implications that derive from this, i.e. the necessity of scientific and socio-political cooperation among riparians, the importance of monitoring the status of shared resources and the need to elaborate a shared management policy. Furthermore, each country is characterized by hyper-arid climatic conditions, which will be exacerbated in the next century by climate change and lead to probable severe water shortage periods. Together with climate change, the rate of population

  9. LHCb: Self managing experiment resources

    CERN Multimedia

    Stagni, F

    2013-01-01

    Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System ( Resource Status System ) delivering real time informatio...

  10. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  11. Information resource management concepts for records managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seesing, P.R.

    1992-10-01

    Information Resource Management (ERM) is the label given to the various approaches used to foster greater accountability for the use of computing resources. It is a corporate philosophy that treats information as it would its other resources. There is a reorientation from simply expenditures to considering the value of the data stored on that hardware. Accountability for computing resources is expanding beyond just the data processing (DP) or management information systems (MIS) manager to include senior organization management and user management. Management`s goal for office automation is being refocused from saving money to improving productivity. A model developed by Richard Nolan (1982) illustrates the basic evolution of computer use in organizations. Computer Era: (1) Initiation (computer acquisition), (2) Contagion (intense system development), (3) Control (proliferation of management controls). Data Resource Era: (4) Integration (user service orientation), (5) Data Administration (corporate value of information), (6) Maturity (strategic approach to information technology). The first three stages mark the growth of traditional data processing and management information systems departments. The development of the IRM philosophy in an organization involves the restructuring of the DP organization and new management techniques. The three stages of the Data Resource Era represent the evolution of IRM. This paper examines each of them in greater detail.

  12. Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, W.; Lesser, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretaría de Recursos Hidráulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands.

  13. Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, W.; Lesser, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretari??a de Recursos Hidra??ulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands. ?? 1981.

  14. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  15. Qualitative analysis of Orzooiyeh plain groundwater resources using GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unsustainable development of human societies, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, is one of the most important environmental hazards that require preservation of groundwater resources, and permanent study of qualitative and quantitative changes through sampling. Accordingly, this research attempts to assess and analyze the spatial variation of quantitative and qualitative indicators of Orzooiyeh groundwater resources in the Kerman province by using the geographic information system (GIS. Methods: This study attempts to survey the spatial analysis of these indexes using GIS techniques besides the evaluation of the groundwater resources quality in the study area. For this purpose, data quality indicators and statistics such as electrical conductivity, pH, sulphate, residual total dissolved solids (TDS, sodium, calcium; magnesium and chlorine of 28 selected wells sampled by the Kerman regional water organization were used. Results: A comparison of the present research results with standard of Industrial Research of Iran and also the World Health Organization (WHO shows that, among the measured indices, the electrical conductivity and TDS in the chosen samples are higher than the national standard of Iran and of the WHO but other indices are more favourable. Conclusion: Results showed that the electrical conductivity index of 64.3% of the samples have an optimal level, 71.4% have the limit of Iran national standard and only 3.6% of them have the WHO standard. The TDS index, too, did not reach national standards in any of the samples and in 82.1% of the samples this index was on the national standard limit. As per this index, only 32.1% of the samples were in the WHO standards.

  16. Policy Instruments for Groundwater Management in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands agriculture and nature have conflicting interests with respect to groundwater management. Insight into the suitability of policy instruments to achieve optimal groundwater level and extraction management in the Netherlands is, however, missing. In this paper the suitability of pol

  17. Geospatial Data Management Platform for Urban Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanaru, D.; Priceputu, A.; Gogu, C. R.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the large amount of civil work projects and research studies, large quantities of geo-data are produced for the urban environments. These data are usually redundant as well as they are spread in different institutions or private companies. Time consuming operations like data processing and information harmonisation represents the main reason to systematically avoid the re-use of data. The urban groundwater data shows the same complex situation. The underground structures (subway lines, deep foundations, underground parkings, and others), the urban facility networks (sewer systems, water supply networks, heating conduits, etc), the drainage systems, the surface water works and many others modify continuously. As consequence, their influence on groundwater changes systematically. However, these activities provide a large quantity of data, aquifers modelling and then behaviour prediction can be done using monitored quantitative and qualitative parameters. Due to the rapid evolution of technology in the past few years, transferring large amounts of information through internet has now become a feasible solution for sharing geoscience data. Furthermore, standard platform-independent means to do this have been developed (specific mark-up languages like: GML, GeoSciML, WaterML, GWML, CityML). They allow easily large geospatial databases updating and sharing through internet, even between different companies or between research centres that do not necessarily use the same database structures. For Bucharest City (Romania) an integrated platform for groundwater geospatial data management is developed under the framework of a national research project - "Sedimentary media modeling platform for groundwater management in urban areas" (SIMPA) financed by the National Authority for Scientific Research of Romania. The platform architecture is based on three components: a geospatial database, a desktop application (a complex set of hydrogeological and geological analysis

  18. Evaluation of the sustainability of deep groundwater as an arsenic-safe resource in the Bengal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaela, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2008-01-01

    Tens of millions of people in the Bengal Basin region of Bangladesh and India drink groundwater containing unsafe concentrations of arsenic. This high-arsenic groundwater is produced from shallow (150 m where groundwater arsenic concentrations are nearly uniformly low, and many more wells are needed, however, the sustainability of deep, arsenic-safe groundwater has not been previously assessed. Deeper pumping could induce downward migration of dissolved arsenic, permanently destroying the deep resource. Here, it is shown, through quantitative, large-scale hydrogeologic analysis and simulation of the entire basin, that the deeper part of the aquifer system may provide a sustainable source of arsenic-safe water if its utilization is limited to domestic supply. Simulations provide two explanations for this result: deep domestic pumping only slightly perturbs the deep groundwater flow system, and substantial shallow pumping for irrigation forms a hydraulic barrier that protects deeper resources from shallow arsenic sources. Additional analysis indicates that this simple management approach could provide arsenic-safe drinking water to >90% of the arsenic-impacted region over a 1,000-year timescale. This insight may assist water-resources managers in alleviating one of the world's largest groundwater contamination problems.

  19. Evaluation of the sustainability of deep groundwater as an arsenic-safe resource in the Bengal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2008-01-01

    Tens of millions of people in the Bengal Basin region of Bangladesh and India drink groundwater containing unsafe concentrations of arsenic. This high-arsenic groundwater is produced from shallow (150 m where groundwater arsenic concentrations are nearly uniformly low, and many more wells are needed, however, the sustainability of deep, arsenic-safe ground-water has not been previously assessed. Deeper pumping could induce downward migration of dissolved arsenic, permanently destroying the deep resource. Here, it is shown, through quantitative, large-scale hydrogeologic analysis and simulation of the entire basin, that the deeper part of the aquifer system may provide a sustainable source of arsenic-safe water if its utilization is limited to domestic supply. Simulations provide two explanations for this result: deep domestic pumping only slightly perturbs the deep groundwater flow system, and substantial shallow pumping for irrigation forms a hydraulic barrier that protects deeper resources from shallow arsenic sources. Additional analysis indicates that this simple management approach could provide arsenic-safe drinking water to >90% of the arsenic-impacted region over a 1,000-year timescale. This insight may assist water-resources managers in alleviating one of the world's largest groundwater contamination problems. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  20. Information resource management concepts for records managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seesing, P.R.

    1992-10-01

    Information Resource Management (ERM) is the label given to the various approaches used to foster greater accountability for the use of computing resources. It is a corporate philosophy that treats information as it would its other resources. There is a reorientation from simply expenditures to considering the value of the data stored on that hardware. Accountability for computing resources is expanding beyond just the data processing (DP) or management information systems (MIS) manager to include senior organization management and user management. Management's goal for office automation is being refocused from saving money to improving productivity. A model developed by Richard Nolan (1982) illustrates the basic evolution of computer use in organizations. Computer Era: (1) Initiation (computer acquisition), (2) Contagion (intense system development), (3) Control (proliferation of management controls). Data Resource Era: (4) Integration (user service orientation), (5) Data Administration (corporate value of information), (6) Maturity (strategic approach to information technology). The first three stages mark the growth of traditional data processing and management information systems departments. The development of the IRM philosophy in an organization involves the restructuring of the DP organization and new management techniques. The three stages of the Data Resource Era represent the evolution of IRM. This paper examines each of them in greater detail.

  1. An approach of groundwater management in Barcelona City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criollo, Rotman; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Velasco, Violeta; Marazuela, Miguel Angel; Burdons, Silvia; Enrich, Monica; Cardona, Fidel

    2017-04-01

    Urban groundwater is a valuable resource since its quantity is larger than frequently expected due to additional recharge sources (Lerner, 2002; Vázquez-Suñé et al., 2003). Its interaction with the complex infrastructures network makes the water authorities a challenge to ensure a proper water management. Necessary datasets to ensure a suitable water management have normally different origins and formats. At the same time, the water management of a city involves different decision makers with different knowledges. In this scenario, it is a necessity to create a common environment where different actors would be able to understand and analyze problems in the same way. It should be also necessary to store, analyze and visualize all the required data in the same formats within its geographical context by using standardized specific tools. To apply these recommendations for the urban groundwater management of the Barcelona City Council, we have implemented a software platform developed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. These GIS-based tools will give support to the users for storing, managing, and analyzing geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical data in 2D and in a 3D context (Velasco et al., 2013). This implementation will improve the groundwater management in Barcelona city optimizing the analysis and decision making processes. References Lerner, D.N., (2002). Identifying and quantifying urban recharge: a review. Hydrogeology Journal, 10 (1), pp. 143-152 Vázquez-Suñé, E., Sánchez-Vila, X. & Carrera, J. (2005). Introductory review of specific factors influencing urban groundwater, an emerging branch of hydrogeology, with reference to Barcelona, Spain. Hydrogeology Journal, 13: 522. doi:10.1007/s10040-004-0360-2 Velasco, V., Gogu, R., Vázquez-Suñè, E., Garriga A., Ramos, E., Riera, J., Alcaraz, M. (2013). The use of GIS-based 3D geological tools to improve hydrogeological models of sedimentary media in an urban environment

  2. California Groundwater Management During Drought: Existing and Future Regulatory Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, E.; Boland-Brien, S.; Vanderburgh, B.; Landau, K.; Bean, J.; Peltier, T.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater has served as an effective buffer to California's crippling drought of 2012-2015, allowing continued agricultural production in many areas where surface water deliveries have been curtailed. However, over-reliance on groundwater has caused plummeting groundwater levels in much of the state's heavily agricultural regions, with annual groundwater overdraft state-wide estimated in the millions of acre-feet per year. Prior to 2015, California water law did not allow for the effective monitoring or assessment of groundwater use; passage of new state regulations will require development of locally-managed plans that, for the first time, require comprehensive groundwater management and groundwater basin sustainability. Because these plans are not required to be implemented for another 25 years, groundwater levels will likely continue to decrease. Some communities that are 100-percent reliant on groundwater as a source of municipal supply may face shortages and supply issues, which may exacerbate known water quality concerns. Examination of community water systems that are reliant on groundwater, their existing water quality issues, and their response to the current drought (through existing mandatory conservation requirements imposed by California state regulators) can identify areas that are particularly susceptible to continued groundwater overdraft.

  3. Hydrologic Influences on the Potential Benefits of Basinwide Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.

    1987-01-01

    The potential benefits of basinwide groundwater management in agricultural areas are analyzed with an optimization model. The model incorporates functions to compute spatial and temporal groundwater responses to hydraulic stresses, net agricultural revenues as a function of water use, and groundwater recharge from individual stream reaches. Stream recharge is computed on the basis of both groundwater elevations and the amount of streamflow. The model can be run either to maximize basinwide net revenue over a planning period or to simulate private optimization by individual agricultural sectors. The effects of several hydrologic factors on the benefits of basinwide groundwater management are estimated by comparing model results for conditions in the Salinas Valley in California prior to reservoir construction with a number of other hydrologic scenarios. Results indicate that basinwide groundwater management and reservoir operation may be close substitutes for each other under certain conditions, that an interesting relationship appears to exist between the potential benefits of groundwater management and the annual amount of streamflow available for recharge, and that consideration of stochastic variations in streamflow is unnecessary in the analysis of systems relying primarily on groundwater. A framework is also presented for identifying strategies that meet environmental constraints while minimizing the revenue losses to current water users. For all scenarios considered, basinwide groundwater management generates larger revenues than private optimization while using considerably less water.

  4. Investigation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg Concentrations in Groundwater Resources of Razan Plain

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sobhan Ardakani; M. Maanijou; Asadi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Iran is located in the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required fresh water is exploited from groundwater resources. Due to the increasing pol-lution of water resources, the purpose of this study was evaluation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg concentrations in groundwater resources of Razan Plain and preparing the zoning map using GIS. Materials & Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 selected stations during two seasons in 2012. The samples were ...

  5. Groundwater simulation and management models for the upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Wagner, Brian J.; Lite, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Klamath Basin encompasses about 8,000 square miles, extending from the Cascade Range east to the Basin and Range geologic province in south-central Oregon and northern California. The geography of the basin is dominated by forested volcanic uplands separated by broad interior basins. Most of the interior basins once held broad shallow lakes and extensive wetlands, but most of these areas have been drained or otherwise modified and are now cultivated. Major parts of the interior basins are managed as wildlife refuges, primarily for migratory waterfowl. The permeable volcanic bedrock of the upper Klamath Basin hosts a substantial regional groundwater system that provides much of the flow to major streams and lakes that, in turn, provide water for wildlife habitat and are the principal source of irrigation water for the basin's agricultural economy. Increased allocation of surface water for endangered species in the past decade has resulted in increased groundwater pumping and growing interest in the use of groundwater for irrigation. The potential effects of increased groundwater pumping on groundwater levels and discharge to springs and streams has caused concern among groundwater users, wildlife and Tribal interests, and State and Federal resource managers. To provide information on the potential impacts of increased groundwater development and to aid in the development of a groundwater management strategy, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Oregon Water Resources Department and the Bureau of Reclamation, has developed a groundwater model that can simulate the response of the hydrologic system to these new stresses. The groundwater model was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW finite-difference modeling code and calibrated using inverse methods to transient conditions from 1989 through 2004 with quarterly stress periods. Groundwater recharge and agricultural and municipal pumping are specified for each stress period. All

  6. Analyses of infrequent (quasi-decadal) large groundwater recharge events in the northern Great Basin: Their importance for groundwater availability, use, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Rumsey, Christine; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Susong, David D.; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of research linking climatic variability to hydrologic responses in the western United States. Although much effort has been spent to assess and predict changes in surface water resources, little has been done to understand how climatic events and changes affect groundwater resources. This study focuses on characterizing and quantifying the effects of large, multiyear, quasi-decadal groundwater recharge events in the northern Utah portion of the Great Basin for the period 1960–2013. Annual groundwater level data were analyzed with climatic data to characterize climatic conditions and frequency of these large recharge events. Using observed water-level changes and multivariate analysis, five large groundwater recharge events were identified with a frequency of about 11–13 years. These events were generally characterized as having above-average annual precipitation and snow water equivalent and below-average seasonal temperatures, especially during the spring (April through June). Existing groundwater flow models for several basins within the study area were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage from these events. Simulated groundwater storage increases per basin from a single recharge event ranged from about 115 to 205 Mm3. Extrapolating these amounts over the entire northern Great Basin indicates that a single large quasi-decadal recharge event could result in billions of cubic meters of groundwater storage. Understanding the role of these large quasi-decadal recharge events in replenishing aquifers and sustaining water supplies is crucial for long-term groundwater management.

  7. Analyses of infrequent (quasi-decadal) large groundwater recharge events in the northern Great Basin: Their importance for groundwater availability, use, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Pruitt, Tom; Rumsey, Christine; Susong, David D.

    2016-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of research linking climatic variability to hydrologic responses in the western United States. Although much effort has been spent to assess and predict changes in surface water resources, little has been done to understand how climatic events and changes affect groundwater resources. This study focuses on characterizing and quantifying the effects of large, multiyear, quasi-decadal groundwater recharge events in the northern Utah portion of the Great Basin for the period 1960–2013. Annual groundwater level data were analyzed with climatic data to characterize climatic conditions and frequency of these large recharge events. Using observed water-level changes and multivariate analysis, five large groundwater recharge events were identified with a frequency of about 11–13 years. These events were generally characterized as having above-average annual precipitation and snow water equivalent and below-average seasonal temperatures, especially during the spring (April through June). Existing groundwater flow models for several basins within the study area were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage from these events. Simulated groundwater storage increases per basin from a single recharge event ranged from about 115 to 205 million cubic meters. Extrapolating these amounts over the entire northern Great Basin indicates that a single large quasi-decadal recharge event could result in billions of cubic meters of groundwater storage. Understanding the role of these large quasi-decadal recharge events in replenishing aquifers and sustaining water supplies is crucial for long-term groundwater management.

  8. Analyses of infrequent (quasi-decadal) large groundwater recharge events in the northern Great Basin: Their importance for groundwater availability, use, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Rumsey, Christine A.; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Susong, David D.; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-10-01

    There has been a considerable amount of research linking climatic variability to hydrologic responses in the western United States. Although much effort has been spent to assess and predict changes in surface water resources, little has been done to understand how climatic events and changes affect groundwater resources. This study focuses on characterizing and quantifying the effects of large, multiyear, quasi-decadal groundwater recharge events in the northern Utah portion of the Great Basin for the period 1960-2013. Annual groundwater level data were analyzed with climatic data to characterize climatic conditions and frequency of these large recharge events. Using observed water-level changes and multivariate analysis, five large groundwater recharge events were identified with a frequency of about 11-13 years. These events were generally characterized as having above-average annual precipitation and snow water equivalent and below-average seasonal temperatures, especially during the spring (April through June). Existing groundwater flow models for several basins within the study area were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage from these events. Simulated groundwater storage increases per basin from a single recharge event ranged from about 115 to 205 Mm3. Extrapolating these amounts over the entire northern Great Basin indicates that a single large quasi-decadal recharge event could result in billions of cubic meters of groundwater storage. Understanding the role of these large quasi-decadal recharge events in replenishing aquifers and sustaining water supplies is crucial for long-term groundwater management.

  9. A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized while maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the management model to describe transient solute transport and is developed using the US Geological Survey solute transport simulation model. The management model was applied to a complex hypothetical groundwater system. -from Author

  10. Sustainable groundwater management system based on the regional hydrological cycle in the warm humid country, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, J.; Crest Kumamoto Groundwater Team

    2011-12-01

    The increase of precipitation variability with the global warming and the rapid population growth lead to the shortage of water resources on a global scale. Groundwater bocome attracted as a relatively stable water resource because of its larger reservoir and a longer residence time. As our country belongs to a warm humid climate with much precipitation and a steep topography, the regional hydrological cycle is extremely active. Surface water could be taken easily and was often used to a water supply until now, but recently groundwater is taking the place of surface water because of the stability of water supply. While in our hydro-climatic condition, the sustainable use of groundwater is possible under the appropriative management, that is, groundwater pumping rate does not exceed the recharge rate in a basin. For the sustainable use of groundwater resources, this project aims to develop new technologies relating to the quantity and quality aspects of groundwater resources. For the precise understanding of groundwater flow system, new technologies will be developed, like frequency changeable electric resistivity exploration method to evaluate an aquifer structure. There are many problems about groundwater quality including nitrate-nitrogen contamination and toxic substances from the domestic and industrial waste disposals. It is necessary to understand the production mechanism to prevent groundwater contamination and the degradation process of nitrate-nitrogen contamination to improve the water quality. Therefore this project will develop new technologies including the reduction of NO3=N and natural toxic substances loads before groundwater recharge, the on-site removal of contaminants from aquifers, and simple and effective equipment to improve groundwater quality after pumping. Furthermore, this project will also develop a new biological monitoring technique for local groundwater users to notice the contamination at a glance; change colar fish by specific ion

  11. Issues of Sustainability of Coastal Groundwater Resources: Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Mullen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The largest city in Benin, West Africa (Cotonou, is reliant upon groundwater for its public water supply. This groundwater is derived from the Godomey well field which is located approximately 5 Km north of the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and in close proximity to Lake Nokoue—a shallow lake containing water with elevated concentration of chloride and other elements. Historical data indicate increased chloride concentration in a number of wells nearest to the lake, with unknown contribution from groundwater encroachment from the coastal area. Hence, there is substantial interest in better characterizing this groundwater system for the purpose of determining appropriate management practices and degree of sustainability. Among the efforts attempted to date are a series of numerical models ranging from assessment of flow to a recent effort to include density-dependent transport from the lake. In addition, substantial field characterization has been pursued including assessment of shallow water chemistry along the region of the coastal lagoon and border of the lake, characterization of hydraulic response to pumpage in the aquifer system, estimation of the distribution of electrical resistivity with depth along the coastal lagoons, and installation of multi-level piezometers at seven locations in the lake. When integrated across methods, these numerical and field results indicate that the lake remains a primary concern in terms of a source of salinity in the aquifer. Further, the coastal region appears to be more complex than previously suggested and may represent a future source of salt-water encroachment as suggested by current presence of saline waters at relatively shallow depths along the coast. Finally, hydraulic testing suggests that both natural and pumping-based fluctuations in water levels are present in this system. Substantial additional characterization and modeling efforts may provide a significantly greater understanding of the

  12. Multi-modeling assessment of recent changes in groundwater resource: application to the semi-arid Haouz plain (Central Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakir, Younes; Brahim, Berjamy; Page Michel, Le; Fathallah, Sghrer; Houda, Nassah; Lionel, Jarlan; Raki Salah, Er; Vincent, Simonneaux; Said, Khabba

    2015-04-01

    The Haouz plain (6000 km2) is a part of the Tensift basin located in the Central Morocco. The plain has a semi-arid climate (250 mm/y of rainfall) and is bordered in the south by the High-Atlas mountains. Because the plain is highly anthropized, the water resources face heavy demands from various competing sectors, including agriculture (over than 273000 ha of irrigated areas), water supply for more than 2 million inhabitants and about 2 millions of tourists annually. Consequently the groundwater is being depleted on a large area of the plain, with problems of water scarcity which pose serious threats to water supplies and to sustainable development. The groundwater in the Haouz plain was modeled previously by MODFLOW (USGS groundwater numerical modeling) with annual time steps. In the present study a multi-modeling approach is applied. The aim is to enhance the evaluation of the groundwater pumping for irrigation, one of the most difficult data to estimate, and to improve the water balance assessment. In this purpose, two other models were added: SAMIR (Satellite Estimation of Agricultural Water Demand) and WEAP (integrated water resources planning). The three models are implemented at a monthly time step and calibrated over the 2001-2011 period, corresponding to 120 time steps. This multi-modeling allows assessing the evolution of water resources both in time and space. The results show deep changes during the last years which affect generally the water resources and groundwater particularly. These changes are induced by a remarkable urbanism development, succession of droughts, intensive agriculture activities and weak management of irrigation and water resources. Some indicators of these changes are as follow: (i) the groundwater table decrease varies between 1 to 3m/year, (ii) the groundwater depletion during the last ten year is equivalent to 50% of the lost reserves during 40 years, (iii) the annual groundwater deficit is about 100 hm3, (iv) the renewable

  13. Pleistocene paleo-groundwater as a pristine fresh water resource in southern Germany--evidence from stable and radiogenic isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Baier, Alfons; Subert, Hannah L; Kowol, Sigrid; Balk, Laura; Barth, Johannes A C

    2014-10-15

    Shallow groundwater aquifers are often influenced by anthropogenic contaminants or increased nutrient levels. In contrast, deeper aquifers hold potentially pristine paleo-waters that are not influenced by modern recharge. They thus represent important water resources, but their recharge history is often unknown. In this study groundwater from two aquifers in southern Germany were analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope compositions. One sampling campaign targeted the upper aquifer that is actively recharged by modern precipitation, whereas the second campaign sampled the confined, deep Benkersandstein aquifer. The groundwater samples from both aquifers were compared to the local meteoric water line to investigate sources and conditions of groundwater recharge. In addition, the deep groundwater was dated by tritium and radiocarbon analyses. Stable and radiogenic isotope data indicate that the deep-aquifer groundwater was not part of the hydrological water cycle in the recent human history. The results show that the groundwater is older than ~20,000 years and most likely originates from isotopically depleted melt waters of the Pleistocene ice age. Today, the use of this aquifer is strictly regulated to preserve the pristine water. Clear identification of such non-renewable paleo-waters by means of isotope geochemistry will help local water authorities to enact and justify measures for conservation of these valuable resources for future generations in the context of a sustainable water management.

  14. Geophysical and geochemical characterisation of groundwater resources in Western Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Banda, Kawawa Eddy; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    both ground-based and airborne geophysical methods as well as extensive water quality sampling. The occurrence of saline groundwater follows a clear spatial pattern and appears to be related to the palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi, whose northernmost extension reached into the Machile area. Because the lake...... precipitation has formed limited freshwater reservoirs in a generally saline area, which need to be sustainably managed. We will present initial results from the geophysical and geochemical surveys conducted over the past few years. We will interpret these findings in terms of the geologic history of Southern...

  15. Interannual to Multidecadal Climate Variability and Groundwater Resources of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, J. J.; Kuss, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate variability and change have important implications for groundwater recharge, discharge, contaminant transport, and resource sustainability. Reliable predictions of groundwater sustainability due to climate change will require improved understanding of the effects of global scale atmosphere-ocean climate oscillations on interannual to multidecadal timescales. Climate variability on these timescales partially controls precipitation, air temperature, drought, evapotranspiration, streamflow, recharge, and mobilization of subsurface-chemical reservoirs. Climate variability can augment or diminish human stresses on groundwater, and the responses in storage can be dramatic when different climate cycles lie coincident in a positive or negative phase of variability. Thus, understanding climate variability has particular relevance for management decisions during drought and for water resources close to the limits of sustainability. Major findings will be presented from a national scale study of climate variability on recharge rates and groundwater levels, and will highlight regional aquifers of the western United States, including the Basin and Range (700,000 km2), Central Valley (52,000 km2), High Plains (450,000 km2), and Mississippi Embayment (181,000 km2) aquifer systems. Using singular spectrum analysis, the groundwater pumping signal was removed and natural variations were identified in groundwater levels as partially coincident with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (2-6 year cycle), North Atlantic Oscillation (3-6 year cycle), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) (10-25 year cycle), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) (50-80 year cycle). The PDO was the most significant contributor to recharge and groundwater level fluctuations in most aquifers. In the Central Valley and the Basin and Range, the PDO contributes to the greatest amount of variance (ranging from 13.6-83%) in all precipitation and groundwater level time series, with moderate to strong

  16. Resource management: Hotel Zira human resource management department analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is changing at a fast pace in a number of different areas, economically, politically technologically and socially. All these facts have strong impact on how managers organize their work. Traditionally they focus on delivering efficiency through large bureaucracies which are hierarchical in nature, very much around process and stability. What this mitigates against perhaps it is innovation and flexibility. A demand is no longer predictable and service has to be equally flexible for demand that exists nowadays. The emergence of post bureaucratic organizations is about being leaner, flatter and being much more network-based. Within that network employees are being empowered to take responsibility for producing innovations themselves. In order to speed up the process it is critical to systematize the process of managing people in the back office. Human Resource Management strategies are being transformed by internal social networks and social human resource technologies to better collaborative, transition into social enterprises, and change the positioning of human resource departments from back office to front office activities. All of these subjects are applied and the case study of hotel Zira human resource department is explained and showed in detail with the specific questionnaire. One of the main challenges that human resource management is also facing is the talent management and the number one responsibility of leadership is how to manage talent, how to attract it, utilize and eventually retain it.

  17. HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN SLOVAK TRANSPORT COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Farkašová, V.; KLIEŠTIK T.

    2005-01-01

    The article deals with human resource management in a transport company. It shortly examines the following: quality management, the functions of human resources management and requirements to the human resources personnel.

  18. The Impact of Water Diversion on Groundwater Resources in an Inland River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Zheng, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is one of the most intensely exploited and ecologically stressed inland river basins in the world. The HRB is characterized by three distinct ecohydrological systems: the mountainous upper reach where most of the water resources for the HRB originate from the rainfall, snow and permafrost; the middle reach with an arid climate and irrigated agriculture; and the lower reach dominated by wide stretches of Gobi desert. The study site, Zhangye Basin, is situated in the middle reach. It contains 92% population of the HRB and consumes about 80% of water resources as a regional agricultural and industrial center. To improve the deteriorating health of the ecosystems in the lower HRB, the Chinese government initiated the Heihe Water Diversion Project (HWDP) in 2000, which stipulated that at least 0.95 billion cubic meters of surface water must be delivered from the middle reach to the lower reach annually. A three-dimensional groundwater flow model has been developed for the Zhangye Basin to understand groundwater-surface water interactions in the Zhangye Basin and assess how the HWDP project has impacted the groundwater availability and water budgets in the region. The flow model has been reasonably calibrated using multiple sources of field data. The output of the groundwater model provided estimates of head differences before and after the HWDP project between 1999 and 2010. The results show that the groundwater level has declined widely, except in the Zhangye urban area where the groundwater level has increased by 0.5 to 7m and a few other localized spots. The calculated water budgets indicate that the spring discharge to the Heihe River has been continuously decreasing, and the total river leakage to the aquifer has been increasing. These results are in reasonable agreement with those from previous studies based on independent water balance calculation. The groundwater model is being integrated with surface water and land use data to

  19. Simulation of Saline Groundwater Resources Surrounding Salt Lake in Fars Province of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyat Kholghi, Majid; Bastani, Mehrdad; Rakhshandeoroo, Gholamreza

    2010-05-01

    One of the most salty lakes in Iran is located in North-East of Fars province with Electrical Conductivities (EC) of up to 61420 μmhos/cm where water supply depends severely on groundwater resources. Increasing demand for freshwater and overexploitation of the aquifer has caused a drawdown in groundwater levels followed by a seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifer in the vicinity of salt lake. Because of invalid appropriate groundwater flow and solute transport parameter values of the coastal system, studying and modelling of saltwater intrusion in this region is in some way complicated. These unknown parameters are consisted of hydraulic conductivity, porosity, specific storage coefficient and longitudinal dispersivity. In this research, it is tried to facilitate study this problem by means of SEAWAT code, which is suitable for variable-density groundwater flow modelling. In the process of calibrating the simulation and estimating the required unknown parameters, an attempt at inverse modelling of a seawater intrusion system is made by using genetic algorithm method as the optimization procedure. The auto-calibration objective function is defined with the root mean square errors (RMSE) between the observed and the simulated values. The observed data are consisted of both hydraulic heads and concentrations obtained from observation wells. Firstly, the SEAWAT code has been used for forward solution part of salt water intrusion phenomena and then a program is written in MATLAB for coupling the forward and inverse processes. In the developed code, the flow and transport parameters are estimated simultaneously in steady and transient states. Using these estimated parameters in the structure of the simulation consequences more accurate results and more trustable model for next applications in management of the coastal aquifer. Key words seawater intrusion; saline groundwater resources; SEAWAT; genetic algorithm; Fars province

  20. Sustainability issues for resource managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Bottom; Gordon H. Reeves; Martha H. Brookes

    1996-01-01

    Throughout their history, conservation science and sustainable-yield management have failed to maintain the productivity of living resources. Repeated overexploitation of economic species, loss of biological diversity, and degradation of regional environments now call into question the economic ideas and values that have formed the foundation of scientific management...

  1. Contribution of the Multi Attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.

    2014-09-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have been often identified as an impediment to the realization and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholders preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), what facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation in the different stages of the planning process to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes were defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resources availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes of preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties of the results were notable but did not influence heavily on the alternative ranking. The expected

  2. Contribution of the multi-attribute value theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management - application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have often been identified as an impediment to the realisation and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires the clarification of stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholder preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards the definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), which facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi-attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation into the different stages of the planning process, to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes was defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resource availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes in preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the approval of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties in the results were notable, but did not influence the alternative ranking heavily. The

  3. Contribution of the Multi Attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Apperl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have been often identified as an impediment to the realization and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholders preferences and values, improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach, what facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation in the different stages of the planning process to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain, subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes were defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resources availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes of preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties of the results were notable but did not influence heavily on the alternative ranking

  4. Environmental and resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen bringer bl.a. de seneste resultater (i forkortet udgave) fra et igangværende flerårigt forskningsprojekt - The Danish Environmental Management Survey (DEMS) - der sigter efter løbende at analysere og vurdere den igangværende 'forgrønnelse' i erhvervslivet i et longitudinalt perspektiv...

  5. NASA information resources management handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Handbook (NHB) implements recent changes to Federal laws and regulations involving the acquisition, management, and use of Federal Information Processing (FIP) resources. This document defines NASA's Information Resources Management (IRM) practices and procedures and is applicable to all NASA personnel. The dynamic nature of the IRM environment requires that the controlling management practices and procedures for an Agency at the leading edge of technology, such as NASA, must be periodically updated to reflect the changes in this environment. This revision has been undertaken to accommodate changes in the technology and the impact of new laws and regulations dealing with IRM. The contents of this document will be subject to a complete review annually to determine its continued applicability to the acquisition, management, and use of FIP resources by NASA. Updates to this document will be accomplished by page changes. This revision cancels NHB 2410.1D, dated April 1985.

  6. Groundwater management based on monitoring of land subsidence and groundwater levels in the Kanto Groundwater Basin, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kazaoka, O.; Kusuda, T.; Nirei, H.

    2015-11-01

    Over 40 million people live on and exploit the groundwater resources of the Kanto Plain. The Plain encompasses metropolitan Tokyo and much of Chiba Prefecture. Useable groundwater extends to the base of the Kanto Plain, some 2500 to 3000 m below sea level. Much of the Kanto Plain surface is at sea level. By the early 1970s, with increasing urbanization and industrial expansion, local overdraft of groundwater resources caused major ground subsidence and damage to commercial and residential structures as well as to local and regional infrastructure. Parts of the lowlands around Tokyo subsided to 4.0 m below sea level; particularly affected were the suburbs of Funabashi and Gyotoku in western Chiba. In the southern Kanto Plain, regulations, mainly by local government and later by regional agencies, led to installation of about 500 monitoring wells and almost 5000 bench marks by the 1990's. Many of them are still working with new monitoring system. Long-term monitoring is important. The monitoring systems are costly, but the resulting data provide continuous measurement of the "health" of the Kanto Groundwater Basin, and thus permit sustainable use of the groundwater resource.

  7. Graphic engine resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautin, Mikhail; Dwarakinath, Ashok; Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    2008-01-01

    Modern consumer-grade 3D graphic cards boast a computation/memory resource that can easily rival or even exceed that of standard desktop PCs. Although these cards are mainly designed for 3D gaming applications, their enormous computational power has attracted developers to port an increasing number of scientific computation programs to these cards, including matrix computation, collision detection, cryptography, database sorting, etc. As more and more applications run on 3D graphic cards, there is a need to allocate the computation/memory resource on these cards among the sharing applications more fairly and efficiently. In this paper, we describe the design, implementation and evaluation of a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) scheduler based on Deficit Round Robin scheduling that successfully allocates to every process an equal share of the GPU time regardless of their demand. This scheduler, called GERM, estimates the execution time of each GPU command group based on dynamically collected statistics, and controls each process's GPU command production rate through its CPU scheduling priority. Measurements on the first GERM prototype show that this approach can keep the maximal GPU time consumption difference among concurrent GPU processes consistently below 5% for a variety of application mixes.

  8. Long-term detection and hydrochemistry of groundwater resources in Egypt: Case study of Siwa Oasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. Aly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water, it is said, will be the oil of the twenty-first century. Successful water management will be the key to future economic growth and social wealth in both developed and developing countries. Due to the continuous agricultural expansion, urban development, and increased demands on limited water supplies, Egypt is compelled to look for unconventional water resources. One of the most important sources is groundwater in the western desert of Egypt. More water abstraction is currently taking place raising the dangers of overexploitation and deterioration of water quality in Siwa Oasis located in Egypt western desert. The main objectives of this study are to monitor the quality of the Siwa Oasis groundwater over ten years. The present paper presents the results of this investigation and the future outlook for the situation of the limited water resources of the oasis. The data showed spatial differences between water qualities obtained from different locations within the Oasis. It was also observed that there are temporal changes and that water quality is deteriorating in alarming rate over time. Most studied water samples were considered unsuitable for irrigation due to salinity hazards. The reason that may contribute to speeding up groundwater quality deterioration is the unsafe ground water mining on the deep sandstone aquifers which causes the decreases of the fresh water vertical movement from the deep sandstone aquifer to the surface limestone aquifer.

  9. Pleistocene paleo-groundwater as a pristine fresh water resource in southern Germany – evidence from stable and radiogenic isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldern, Robert van, E-mail: robert.van.geldern@fau.de [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Baier, Alfons; Subert, Hannah L. [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Kowol, Sigrid [Erlanger Stadtwerke AG, Äußere Brucker Str. 33, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Balk, Laura; Barth, Johannes A.C. [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Shallow groundwater aquifers are often influenced by anthropogenic contaminants or increased nutrient levels. In contrast, deeper aquifers hold potentially pristine paleo-waters that are not influenced by modern recharge. They thus represent important water resources, but their recharge history is often unknown. In this study groundwater from two aquifers in southern Germany were analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope compositions. One sampling campaign targeted the upper aquifer that is actively recharged by modern precipitation, whereas the second campaign sampled the confined, deep Benkersandstein aquifer. The groundwater samples from both aquifers were compared to the local meteoric water line to investigate sources and conditions of groundwater recharge. In addition, the deep groundwater was dated by tritium and radiocarbon analyses. Stable and radiogenic isotope data indicate that the deep-aquifer groundwater was not part of the hydrological water cycle in the recent human history. The results show that the groundwater is older than ∼20,000 years and most likely originates from isotopically depleted melt waters of the Pleistocene ice age. Today, the use of this aquifer is strictly regulated to preserve the pristine water. Clear identification of such non-renewable paleo-waters by means of isotope geochemistry will help local water authorities to enact and justify measures for conservation of these valuable resources for future generations in the context of a sustainable water management. - Highlights: • Groundwater from deep aquifer identified as paleo-water with age over 20,000 years. • Low stable isotope values indicate recharge during Pleistocene. • Shallow aquifer mirrors stable isotope signature of average modern precipitation. • Identification of non-renewable paleo-waters enhance sustainable water management. • Strict protection measures of authorities justified by isotope geochemistry.

  10. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  11. Modeling of Groundwater Quantity and Quality Management, Nile Valley, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, R.; Fogg, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater levels have been rising in the Luxor area of Egypt due to increased agricultural irrigation following the construction of the Aswan High Dam (AHD) in 1970. This has led to soil and groundwater salinity problems caused by increasing evapotranspiration from shallower water table, as well as the degradation of historical monuments whose foundations are weakening by capillary rise of water into the columns and stonework. While similar salinity problems exist elsewhere in the world (e.g., San Joaquin Valley of California), we hypothesize that as long as groundwater discharge to the Nile River continues and serves as a sink for the salt, the regional salt balance will be manageable and will not lead to irreversible salinization of soils. Further, we hypothesize that if a groundwater system such as this one becomes overdrafted, thereby cutting off groundwater discharge to the River, the system salt balance will be less manageable and possibly non-sustainable. With groundwater flow modeling we are investigating approaches for managing the irrigation and groundwater levels so as to eliminate water stresses on Egyptian monuments and antiquities. Consequences of possible actions for managing the water table through groundwater pumping and alternative irrigation practices will be presented. Moreover, through the use of high resolution modeling of system heterogeneity, we will simulate the long term salt balance of the system under various scenarios, including the overdraft case. The salt source will be a function of groundwater discharge to the surface via bare-soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The built-in heterogeneity will account for dispersion, fast transport in connected media and slow mass transfer between aquifer and aquitard materials. Key Words: Groundwater, modeling, water quality, sustainability, salinity, irrigated agriculture, Nile aquifer.

  12. Local IWRM organizations for groundwater regulation: The experiences of the Aquifer Management Councils (COTAS) in Guanajuato, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, P.; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.; Vincent, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence of groundwater management by aquifer users emerging under Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) initiatives is presented, by analyzing the Consejos Técnicos de Aguas (COTAS; Technical Water Councils or Aquifer Management Councils) in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, established

  13. Conceptual models and sustainable groundwater resource indicators as transfer tools to stakeholders of the Lake Champlain transboundary aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, René; Rivard, Christine; Carrier, Marc-André; Parent, Michel; Laurencelle, Marc; Beaudry, Châtelaine; Martin, Alex; Bleser, Joshua; Lavoie, Roxane; Bourque, Édith; Ouellet, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Regional aquifer assessments produce a wealth of scientific and technical information that is essential for the sound management of groundwater resources. However, regional water stakeholders are not generally groundwater specialists and cannot be expected to readily handle specialized hydrogeological maps and data. Without efficient information transfer, groundwater resources cannot be adequately considered in water governance by watershed organizations and in land-use planning by regional municipalities. This presentation provides an overview of the efforts undertaken to transfer information as part of a four-year regional aquifer assessment in the transboundary Canada-USA Champlain Lake watershed, with an emphasis on the southern Quebec part. This project was part of both the provincial aquifer assessment program (Programme d'acquisition des connaissances sur les eaux souterraines, PACES) of the Quebec Environment Ministry and the National inventory of regional key aquifers of Natural Resources Canada. In Quebec, the study area extends over 9 000 km2 and includes three major watersheds and 106 municipalities with 792 000 inhabitants. Five distinct hydrogeological contexts were defined based on bedrock geology and hydrogeological conditions: St. Lawrence Lowlands (North and South), Appalachian Piedmont, Appalachian Uplands, and Monteregian Hills. Extensive fieldwork filled knowledge and spatial data gaps identified during the compilation of existing data. To illustrate hydrogeological contexts, two conceptual models of different areas were developed. These conceptual models reflect three aspects of aquifer conditions: geological context, groundwater dynamics and groundwater quality. The first representation of the conceptual model presents the geological context including typical surficial geology units as well as major bedrock geology units (including faults and dykes). The second representation shows schematic groundwater flow paths, relative well yields of

  14. Management of karstic coastal groundwater in a changing environment (Salento, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: groundwater management, numerical modelling, MODFLOW, SEAWAT, climate change, coastal karst aquifer We have been witness, during the second half of the 20th century, of an increase of groundwater discharge. Today a great number of aquifers are overexploited in the world. Problems ties to overexploitation, as piezometric decline and increase of seawater intrusion, are so more amplify in the coastal aquifers, and in particular, in karst coastal aquifers. Seawater intrusion, in fact, is a pervasive problem affecting coastal aquifer, where the concentration of population and the increasing water demand creates risks of overexploitation, especially in those areas where is the only resource of drinking and irrigation water. The whole effect could be a groundwater quality and quantity degradation. This is very often the case of coastal karst aquifers of Mediterranean countries. The general purpose of this paper is to prove the capability of large-scale numerical models in management of groundwater, in particular for achieve forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. Study area is the karst coastal aquifer of Salento (Southern Italy), largely utilized to satisfy the agricultural demand and drinking demand with huge effects in terms of reduced availability and increasing salinity. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. Groundwater flow modelling is based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium. Three forecast transient scenarios, referred to 2001-2020, 2021-2040 and 2041-2060, were implemented, on the basis of calibrated and validated model, with the aim to predicting the evolution of piezometric level and seawater intrusion. The scenarios were discussed considering the effects of climate change, sea level rise and change of sea salinity. Some irrigation discharge scenarios were considered in the discussion . Results shows qualitative and quantitative

  15. Overview of groundwater management approaches at salinisation risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Zuffianò, Livia Emanuela

    2013-04-01

    All natural waters contain dissolved minerals from interactions with atmospheric and soil gases, mixing with other solutions, and/or interactions with the biosphere and lithosphere. In many cases, these processes result in natural waters containing solute or salinity above concentrations recommended for a specified use, which creates significant social and economic problems. Groundwater salinisation can be caused by natural phenomena and anthropogenic activities. For the former case, we can distinguish terrestrial and marine phenomena. Approximately 16% of the total area of continental earth is potentially involved in groundwater salinisation. Seawater intrusion can be considered to be the primary phenomenon to be studied in terms of groundwater salinisation. Three schematic approaches to the protection of groundwater via salinisation mitigation and/or groundwater salinity improvement are described based on the classifications of the primary salinisation sources and focusing on the effect of seawater intrusion. The complexity of these approaches generally increases due to difficulties caused by groundwater quality and quantity degradation and increased demand for quality water. In order from the lowest to the highest complexity, these approaches are the engineering approach, the discharge management approach, and the water and land management approach. The engineering approach is realised on the local or detailed scale with the purpose of controlling the salinisation, optimising the well discharge with specific technical solutions and/or completing works to improve the quality and/or quantity of the discharged fresh groundwater. The discharge management approach encompasses at least an entire coastal aquifer and defines rules concerning groundwater utilisation and well discharge. The water and land management approach should be applied on the regional scale. Briefly, this approach becomes necessary when one or more need creates an overall framework of high

  16. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of groundwater resources in Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Kirby, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The water resources of Rush Valley were assessed during 2008-2010 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater-flow system and updating the groundwater budget. Surface-water resources within Rush Valley are limited and are generally used for agriculture. Groundwater is the principal water source for most other uses including supplementing irrigation. Most groundwater withdrawal in Rush Valley is from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer where conditions are generally unconfined near the mountain front and confined at lower altitudes near the valley center. Productive aquifers also occur in fractured bedrock along the valley margins and beneath the basin-fill deposits in some areas.

  17. RIMS: Resource Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is given of the capabilities and functions of the resource management system (RIMS). It is a simple interactive DMS tool which allows users to build, modify, and maintain data management applications. The RIMS minimizes programmer support required to develop/maintain small data base applications. The RIMS also assists in bringing the United Information Services (UIS) budget system work inhouse. Information is also given on the relationship between the RIMS and the user community.

  18. Groundwater Resources of Ribeira Paul Basin, Island of Santo Antao, Cape Verde, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  19. Groundwater Resources of Ribeira Faja Basin, Island of Sao Nicolau, Cape Verde, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Plummer, L. Niel; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  20. Groundwater Resources of Mosteiros Basin, Island of Fogo, Cape Verde, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Plummer, L. Niel; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  1. Modelling the distribution of tritium in groundwater across South Africa to assess the vulnerability and sustainability of groundwater resources in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, Jared; Miller, Jodie; Watson, Andrew; Butler, Mike

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is critical for sustaining human populations, especially in semi-arid to arid areas, where surface water availability is low. Shallow groundwater is usually abstracted for this purpose because it is the easiest to access and assumed to be renewable and regularly recharged by precipitation. Renewable, regularly recharged groundwater is also called modern groundwater, ie groundwater that has recently been in contact with the atmosphere. Tritium can be used to determine whether or not a groundwater resource is modern because the half-life of tritium is only 12.36 years and tritium is dominantly produced in the upper atmosphere and not in the rock mass. For this reason, groundwater with detectable tritium activities likely has a residence age of less than 50 years. In this study, tritium activities in 277 boreholes distributed across South Africa were used to develop a national model for tritium activity in groundwater in order to establish the extent of modern groundwater across South Africa. The tritium model was combined with modelled depth to water using 3079 measured static water levels obtained from the National Groundwater Archive and validated against a separate set of 40 tritium activities along the west coast of South Africa. The model showed good agreement with the distribution of rainfall which has been previously documented across the globe (Gleeson et al., 2015), although the arid Karoo basin in south west South Africa shows higher than expected tritium levels given the very low regional precipitation levels. To assess the vulnerability of groundwater to degradation in quality and quantity, the tritium model was incorporated into a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) model which incorporated other indicators of groundwater stress including mean annual precipitation, mean annual surface temperature, electrical conductivity (as a proxy for groundwater salinization), potential evaporation, population density and cultivated land usage. The MCE model

  2. Global Depletion of Groundwater Resources: Past and Future Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, M. F.; de Graaf, I. E. M.; Van Beek, L. P.; Wada, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, about 17% of the crops are irrigated, yet irrigation accounts for 40% of the global food production. As more than 40% of irrigation water comes from groundwater, groundwater abstraction rates are large and exceed natural recharge rates in many regions of the world, thus leading to groundwater depletion. In this paper we provide an overview of recent research on global groundwater depletion. We start with presenting various estimates of global groundwater depletion, both from flux based as well as volume based methods. We also present estimates of the contribution of non-renewable groundwater to irrigation water consumption and how this contribution developed during the last 50 years. Next, using a flux based method, we provide projections of groundwater depletion for the coming century under various socio-economic and climate scenarios. As groundwater depletion contributes to sea-level rise, we also provide estimates of this contribution from the past as well as for future scenarios. Finally, we show recent results of groundwater level changes and change in river flow as a result of global groundwater abstractions as obtained from a global groundwater flow model.

  3. Groundwater Level Changes Due to Extreme Weather—An Evaluation Tool for Sustainable Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, extreme and exceptional droughts have significantly impacted many economic sectors in the US, especially in California, Oklahoma, and Texas. The record drought of 2011–2014 affected almost 90% of Texas areas and 95% of Oklahoma state areas. In 2011 alone, around $1.6 billion in agricultural production were lost as a result of drought in Oklahoma, and $7.6 billion in Texas. The agricultural sectors in Oklahoma and Texas rely mainly on groundwater resources from the non-replenishable Ogallala Aquifer in Panhandle and other aquifers around the states. The exceptional droughts of 2011–2014 not only caused meteorologically induced water scarcity (due to low precipitation, but also prompted farmers to overuse groundwater to maintain the imperiled production. Comprehensive studies on groundwater levels, and thus the actual water availability/scarcity across all aquifers in Oklahoma and Texas are still limited. Existing studies are mainly focused on a small number of selected sites or aquifers over a short time span of well monitoring, which does not allow for a holistic geospatial and temporal evaluation of groundwater level variations. This paper aims at addressing those issues with the proposed geospatial groundwater visualization model to assess availability of groundwater resources for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses both in Oklahoma and Texas in the time frame of 2003–2014. The model is an evaluation tool that can be used by decision-makers for designing sustainable water management practices and by teachers and researchers for educational purposes.

  4. Looking at groundwater research landscape of Jakarta Basin for better water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawan, Dasapta Erwin; Priyambodho, Adhi; Novianti Rachmi, Cut; Maulana Wibowo, Dimas

    2017-07-01

    Based on our experience, defining the gap between what we know and what we don’t know is the hardest part in proposing water management strategy. Many techniques have been introduced to make this stage easier, and one of them is bibliometric analysis. The following paper is the second part of our bibliometric project in the search for a gap in the water resources research in Jakarta. This paper starts to analyse the visualisations that had been extracted from the previous paper based on our database. Using the keyword “groundwater Jakarta”, we managed to get 70 relevant papers. Several visualisations have been built using open source applications. Word cloud analysis shows that the trend to discuss groundwater in scientific sense had only been started in the early 2000’s. This is presumably due to the emerging regional autonomy in which forcing regions to understand their groundwater setting before creating a management strategy. More papers in the later time has been induced by more geo-hazards (land subsidence and floods) resulted in the vast groundwater pumping. More and more resources have been utilized to get more groundwater data. Water scientists by then understood that these hazards had been started long before the 2000’s. This had become the starting point of data era later on. The next era will be the era of water management. Hydrologists had been proposing integrated water management Jakarta and its nearby groundwater basins. Most of them have been strongly suggested to manage all water bodies, rainfall, surface water, and groundwater as one system. In the 2010’s we identify more papers are discussing in water quality following the vast discussion in water quantity in the previous era. People have been more aware the importance of quality in providing water system for the citizen. Then five years later, we believe that water researchers have also put their mind in the interactions between surface water and groundwater, especially in the

  5. Hanford cultural resources management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C. (ed.)

    1989-06-01

    As a federal agency, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by Congress and the President to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historical, and cultural resources on lands it administers, to manage these in a spirit of stewardship for future generations, and to protect and preserve the rights of Native Americans to religious freedom. The purpose of this document is to describe how the DOE-Richland Operations (DOE-RL) will meet those responsibilities on the Hanford Site, pursuant to guidelines for Agency Responsibilities under the Historic Preservation Act (FR 53:31, February 17, 1988). This document is intended for multiple uses. Among other things, the text is designed as a manual for cultural resource managers to follow and as an explanation of the process of cultural resource regulatory compliance for the DOE-RL and Site contractors. 10 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Imagined Communities, Contested Watersheds: Challenges to Integrated Water Resources Management in Agricultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Cecilia; de Loe, Rob C.; Kreutzwiser, Reid D.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated water resources management is one of the major bottom-up alternatives that emerged during the 1980s in North America as part of the trend towards more holistic and participatory styles of environmental governance. It aims to protect surface and groundwater resources by focusing on the integrated and collaborative management of land and…

  7. Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project Shoal Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; R. Schumer; D. Boyle; G. Pohll; J. Chapman

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the development of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Project Shoal Area (PSA and surrounding area that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Nevada personnel to evaluate the impact of proposed water-use scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the PSA and surrounding Fairview Basin. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to groundwater levels near the PSA and others did not, together they demonstrate the utility of the management tool for the evaluation of proposed changes in groundwater use in or near the PSA.

  8. Modelling groundwater systems: Understanding and improving groundwater quantity and quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebrahim, G.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important natural resources. It is the principal source of drinking water in rural and many urban cities, and widely used for irrigation in most arid and semi-arid countries. However, recently it has become apparent that many human activities are negatively impacting b

  9. Advances in water resources management

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih; Wang, Mu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides in-depth coverage of such topics as multi-reservoir system operation theory and practice, management of aquifer systems connected to streams using semi-analytical models, one-dimensional model of water quality and aquatic ecosystem-ecotoxicology in river systems, environmental and health impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale gas, bioaugmentation for water resources protection, wastewater renovation by flotation for water pollution control, determination of receiving water’s reaeration coefficient in the presence of salinity for water quality management, sensitivity analysis for stream water quality management, river ice process, and computer-aided mathematical modeling of water properties. This critical volume will serve as a valuable reference work for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of water resources systems, and scientists and researchers. The goals of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series are: (1) to cover entire environmental fields, includin...

  10. Effects of 3-D Visualization of Groundwater Modeling for Water Resource Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J. L.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2006-12-01

    The rise of 3-D visualization hardware and software technology provides important opportunities to advance scientific and policy research. Although the petroleum industry has used immersive 3-D technology since the early 1990's for the visualization of geologic data among experts, there has been little use of this technology for decision making. The Decision Theater at ASU is a new facility using immersive visualization technology designed to combine scientific research at the university with policy decision making in the community. I document a case study in the use of 3-D immersive technology for water resource management in Arizona. Since the turn of the 20th century, natural hydrologic processes in the greater Phoenix region (Salt River Valley) have been shut down via the construction of dams, canals, wells, water treatment plants, and recharge facilities. Water from rivers that once naturally recharged the groundwater aquifer have thus been diverted while continuing groundwater outflow from wells has drawn the aquifer down hundreds of feet. MODFLOW is used to simulate groundwater response to the different water management decisions which impact the artificial and natural inflow and outflow. The East Valley Water Forum, a partnership of water providers east of Phoenix, used the 3-D capabilities of the Decision Theater to build visualizations of the East Salt River Valley groundwater system based on MODFLOW outputs to aid the design of a regional groundwater management plan. The resulting visualizations are now being integrated into policy decisions about long term water management. I address challenges in visualizing scientific information for policy making and highlight the roles of policy actors, specifically geologists, computer scientists, and political decision makers, involved in designing the visualizations. The results show that policy actors respond differently to the 3-D visualization techniques based on their experience, background, and objectives

  11. Unsustainable Groundwater Exploitation and Stochastic Regime Shifts: Converging Management Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suresh; Park, Jeryang

    2014-05-01

    Increasing water security concerns arise from projected increases in competing freshwater demands, resulting from rapid urbanization, growing affluent population, and the need for increased production of food and bio-energy. These global trends in concert with the convergence of three groups of threats are likely to exacerbate freshwater security issues: (1) increasing dependency on effectively non-renewable groundwater ("peak water"); (2) increasing groundwater quality impairment("land-use intensification") from larger contaminant loads delivered from the vadose zone and surface water; and (3) increasing uncertainties in groundwater demand/supply from climate change ("stochastic risks"). Here, we present a conceptual framework for exploring water security threats, with a consideration of aquifers as complex hydrological systems with two stable states. Regime shifts in groundwater pumping -- from "sufficient" to "insufficient" -- result from changes in both internal system dynamics and external forcing from stochastic divers (non-stationary demands, hydro-climatic patterns). Examples from recent related work, in groundwater and surface water systems and ecosystems, are briefly reviewed as a prelude to presentation of model simulations of hypothetical scenarios of regime-shifts (tipping points) involving groundwater quantity and quality constraints. In addition to three types of widely recognized tipping points, we introduce a new type, stochastic tipping, that contributes to unexpected, undesirable regime shifts, resulting in inability to meet groundwater pumping needs, even when the perceived precariousness is small and the system is far from bifurcation point (deterministic tipping). Implications to sustainable groundwater management are discussed.

  12. Groundwater modeling of Saq Aquifer Buraydah Al Qassim for better water management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salamah, Ibrahim S; Ghazaw, Yousry M; Ghumman, Abdul Razzaq

    2011-02-01

    Saudi Arabia is an arid country. It has limited water supplies. About 80-90% of water supplies come from groundwater, which is depleting day by day. It needs appropriate management. This paper has investigated groundwater modeling of Saq Aquifer in Buraydah Al Qassim to estimate the impact of its excessive use on depletion of Saq Aquifer. MODFLOW model has been used in this study. Data regarding the aquifer parameters was measured by pumping tests. Groundwater levels and discharge of wells in the area for the year 2008 and previous record of year 1999 have been collected from Municipal Authority of Buraydah. Location of wells was determined by Garmin. The model has been run for different sets of pumping rates to recommend an optimal use of groundwater resources and get prolonged life of aquifer. Simulations have been made for a long future period of 27 years (2008-2035). Model results concluded that pumping from the Saq Aquifer in Buraydah area will result into significant cones of depression if the existing excessive pumping rates prevail. A drawdown up to 28 m was encountered for model run for 27 years for existing rates of pumping. Aquifer withdrawals and drawdowns will be optimal with the conservation alternative. The management scheme has been recommended to be adopted for the future protection of groundwater resources in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  13. Depleting groundwater resources mitigating surface freshwater scarcity - a trend in the recent past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Van Beek, L. P.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decades, human water use more than doubled, yet available surface freshwater resources are finite. As a result, water scarcity has become prevalent in many (semi-)arid regions of the world (e.g., India, Pakistan, North East China, the MENA region). In such regions, the demand often exceeds the available surface freshwater resources primarily due to heavy irrigation which requires large volumes of water in a certain time of the year, when groundwater is additionally used to supplement the deficiency. Excessive groundwater pumping, however, often leads to overexploitation, i.e. groundwater abstraction exceeding groundwater recharge. Here, we quantified globally the impact of depleting groundwater resources on mitigating surface freshwater scarcity and the trend between 1960 and 2000 at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree. We downscaled available country statistics of groundwater abstraction to 0.5 degree, while we simulated groundwater recharge with the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB at the same spatial resolution considering not only natural groundwater recharge but also artificial recharge, i.e. return flow from irrigation. Water scarcity was estimated by confronting computed water demand for livestock, irrigation, industry and households with simulated surface freshwater availability (PCR-GLOBWB) at 0.5 degree. We thus performed a simulation run with/without groundwater pumping to assess the impact on alleviating surface freshwater scarcity. The results indicated that in many of (semi-)arid regions (e.g., North Wet India, North East Pakistan, North East China, West and Central USA, Central Mexico, North Iran, Central Saudi Arabia) large amounts of groundwater abstraction significantly mitigates the intensity of surface freshwater scarcity, while depleting the resources. Our estimate of global groundwater depletion reached close to 280 km3/yr. In most of the MENA region, the intensity of surface freshwater scarcity was eased by 30% up to 50% as

  14. Ground-Water Recharge in Humid Areas of the United States--A Summary of Ground-Water Resources Program Studies, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2007-01-01

    Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.

  15. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  16. Sustainable management of a coupled groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem using multi-criteria simulation based optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels; Lennartz, Franz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new simulation-based integrated water management tool for sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments. This tool delivers optimised groundwater withdrawal scenarios considering saltwater intrusion as a result of agricultural and municipal water abstraction. It also yields a substantially improved water use efficiency of irrigated agriculture. To allow for a robust and fast operation we unified process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques. The aquifer behaviour is represented using an artificial neural network (ANN) which emulates a numerical density-dependent groundwater flow model. The impact of agriculture is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). Simulation-based optimisation techniques together with the SCWPF and ANN deliver optimal groundwater abstraction and cropping patterns. To address contradicting objectives, e.g. profit-oriented agriculture vs. sustainable abstraction scenarios, we performed multi-objective optimisations using a multi-criteria optimisation algorithm.

  17. Action COST 621 »Groundwater management of coastal karstic aquifers«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Petrič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available COST 621 »Groundwater management of coastal karstic aquifers” is an international project in the frame of the European Union in which 12 European countries, including Slovenia, took an active part in the years 1997-2002. The main objective of the Action is to increase the knowledge necessary to establish criteria for improving groundwaterresource utilisation in karstic coastal aquifers and for recovering groundwater resource in aquifers over-exploited and salinised due to sea water intrusion. Based on gathered results “Guidelines for the groundwater management of coastal karstic aquifers” were compiled and will be published as a special booklet. In this way the dissemination of the results will be provided.

  18. Analyses of surface and groundwater flow characteristics of the Ljubljana moor and water resources vulnerability to climate and land use change and groundwater overdraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globevnik, Lidija; Bracic Zeleznik, Branka

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest water resource of Slovenian capital is groundwater of Ljubljana moor (Ljubljansko barje) aquifer. Quantity and quality of groundwater in Ljubljana moor aquifer directly depend on precipitation, surface water and riparian ecosystems of the Moor and indirectly by groundwater recharge from higher-lying mountainous karstic areas of forests and grasslands. Maintaining high groundwater level of the Ljubljana moor not only sustain stable water balance of aquifer, but also its riparian and wetland character. It also inhibit larger subsidence of the terrain. The paper addresses the vulnerability of the Ljubljana moor water resources to climate and land use change and due to groundwater overdraft. The results should help in selecting suitable mitigation measures and management of the Ljubljana moor area. We analyze surface and groundwater flow characteristics of water recharge area of one water work on the Ljubljana moor (Brest) from the point of view of climate change, changes in land use and water pumping practices. The I\\vska River, a tributary to the Ljubljanica River, recharges the area in the gravel bar, which lies just below the hills. We use existing data of meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological monitoring and simulate rainfall-runoff processes. We use a conceptual semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model HBV-Light and simulate hydrological characteristics of the Ljubljana Moor (groundwater level fluctuations and recharge, surface - groundwater interchange) with two hydrodynamic models, DHI MIKE FLOOD (surface flow, 2D simulation) and DHI MIKE SHE (groundwater flow). For a calibration of runoff model HBV Light and MIKE SHE we use measured daily discharge data of the river I\\vska (1970-2010) and groundwater level data along the river (2010-2013) respectively. In groundwater modelling, we include the data of water pumping. Daily precipitation and temperature for period 2020 - 2050 are from ESAMBLE project for two GCM climate scenarios. We

  19. Earth observation for regional scale environmental and natural resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Brookshire, D.; Faulkner, S.; Chivoiu, B.; Bridge, B.; Broadbent, C.

    2013-12-01

    Earth observations (EO) provide critical information to natural resource assessment. Three examples are presented: conserving potable groundwater in intense agricultural regions, maximizing ecosystem service benefits at regional scales from afforestation investment and management, and enabling integrated natural and behavioral sciences for resource management and policy analysis. In each of these cases EO of different resolutions are used in different ways to help in the classification, characterization, and availability of natural resources and ecosystem services. To inform decisions, each example includes a spatiotemporal economic model to optimize the net societal benefits of resource development and exploitation. 1) EO is used for monitoring land use in intensively cultivated agricultural regions. Archival imagery is coupled to a hydrogeological process model to evaluate the tradeoff between agrochemical use and retention of potable groundwater. EO is used to couple individual producers and regional resource managers using information from markets and natural systems to aid in the objective of maximizing agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality. The contribution of EO is input to a nitrate loading and transport model to estimate the cumulative impact on groundwater at specified distances from specific sites (wells) for 35 Iowa counties and two aquifers. 2) Land use/land cover (LULC) derived from EO is used to compare biological carbon sequestration alternatives and their provisioning of ecosystem services. EO is used to target land attributes that are more or less desirable for enhancing ecosystem services in two parishes in Louisiana. Ecological production functions are coupled with value data to maximize the expected return on investment in carbon sequestration and other ancillary ecosystem services while minimizing the risk. 3) Environmental and natural resources management decisions employ probabilistic estimates of yet-to-find or yet

  20. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  1. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  2. Management and Development of the Western Resources Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown

    2009-03-09

    The purpose of this project was to manage the Western Resources Project, which included a comprehensive, basin-wide set of experiments investigating the impacts of coal bed methane (CBM; a.k.a. coal bed natural gas, CBNG) production on surface and groundwater in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. This project included a number of participants including Apache Corporation, Conoco Phillips, Marathon, the Ucross Foundation, Stanford University, the University of Wyoming, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, and Western Research Institute.

  3. Application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quantity and quality management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amlan Das; Bithin Datta

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents the state-of-the-art on application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quality and quantity management. In order to solve optimisation-based groundwater management models, researchers have used various mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming (LP), nonlinear programming (NLP), mixed-integer programming (MIP), optimal control theory-based mathematical programming, differential dynamic programming (DDP), stochastic programming (SP), combinatorial optimisation (CO), and multiple objective programming for multipurpose management. Studies reported in the literature on the application of these methods are reviewed in this paper.

  4. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

    2001-07-01

    Plans to double the proportion of land under forest cover in Ireland by the year 2035 have been initiated. The plan, primarily financially driven, ignores potential environmental impacts of forestry, particularly impacts on groundwater resources and quality. Since groundwater supplies almost 25% of Ireland's total potable water, these impacts are important. Field investigations indicate that afforestation leads to a reduction in runoff by as much as 20%, mainly due to interception of rainfall by forest canopies. Clearfelling has the opposite impact. Implications are that uncoordinated forestry practices can potentially exacerbate flooding. Groundwater recharge is affected by forestry, largely due to greater uptake of soil water by trees and to increased water-holding capacity of forest soils, arising from higher organic contents. Recharge rates under forests can be reduced to one tenth that under grass or heathland. Groundwater quality may be affected by enhanced acidification and nitrification under forests, due partly to scavenging of atmospheric pollutants by forest canopies, and partly to greater deposition of highly acid leaf litter. The slower recharge rates of groundwater under forests lead to significant delays in manifestation of deterioration in groundwater quality. Résumé. Des plans sont à l'étude pour doubler la proportion du couvert forestier en Irlande d'ici à 2035. Le plan, primitivement déterminé sur une base financière, ignore les impacts environnementaux potentiels de la foresterie, et particulièrement les impacts sur les ressources en eau souterraine et leur qualité. Du fait que les eaux souterraines satisfont presque 25% du total de l'eau potable de l'Irlande, ces impacts sont importants. Les études de terrain montrent que le reboisement conduit à une réduction du ruissellement d'au moins 20%, principalement à cause d'une interception de la pluie par le couvert forestier. Les coupes ont un impact contraire. Les implications sont

  5. The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges facing sustainable and adaptive groundwater management ... provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. ... of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management.

  6. An Overview of Groundwater Governance and Management in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Qi, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the legislative and administrative water management systems is essential to translate hydrological expertise into real actions. This study provides an overview of groundwater governance and management in China, including the existing laws, regulations, institutional arrangements and governing practices. Respectable progress has been made in a relatively short period of time in the legislation of China's groundwater governance. However, the implementation of the laws and regulations has not been as successful as their formulation process. Groundwater overdraft and quality deterioration has not been fundamentally brought under control. Institutional deficiencies, statutory deficiencies, enforcement deficiencies, insufficient public participation and information disclosure are some of the major reasons for poor groundwater management in China. To better address the problems in contemporary groundwater management, the legislation system should firstly be improved. Secondly, institutional reforms are needed to straighten out several critical relationships, including the relationship between the national and local governments, the relationship among different ministries with water-related jurisdiction, and the relationship between river basin based and administrative division based management approaches. Thirdly, a national water-monitoring network should be constructed with improved metering techniques. Data publishing and information sharing should also be promoted.

  7. Groundwater abstraction management in Sana'a Basin, Yemen: a local community approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Taha M.

    2016-09-01

    Overexploitation of groundwater resources in Sana'a Basin, Yemen, is causing severe water shortages associated water quality degradation. Groundwater abstraction is five times higher than natural recharge and the water-level decline is about 4-8 m/year. About 90 % of the groundwater resource is used for agricultural activities. The situation is further aggravated by the absence of a proper water-management approach for the Basin. Water scarcity in the Wadi As-Ssirr catchment, the study area, is the most severe and this area has the highest well density (average 6.8 wells/km2) compared with other wadi catchments. A local scheme of groundwater abstraction redistribution is proposed, involving the retirement of a substantial number of wells. The scheme encourages participation of the local community via collective actions to reduce the groundwater overexploitation, and ultimately leads to a locally acceptable, manageable groundwater abstraction pattern. The proposed method suggests using 587 wells rather than 1,359, thus reducing the well density to 2.9 wells/km2. Three scenarios are suggested, involving different reductions to the well yields and/or the number of pumping hours for both dry and wet seasons. The third scenario is selected as a first trial for the communities to action; the resulting predicted reduction, by 2,371,999 m3, is about 6 % of the estimated annual demand. Initially, the groundwater abstraction volume should not be changed significantly until there are protective measures in place, such as improved irrigation efficiency, with the aim of increasing the income of farmers and reducing water use.

  8. Resource management in wireless networking

    CERN Document Server

    Cardei, Mihaela; Du, Ding-Zhu

    2005-01-01

    This is the first book that provides readers with a deep technical overview of recent advances in resource management for wireless networks at different layers of the protocol stack. The subject is explored in various wireless networks, such as ad hoc wireless networks, 3G/4G cellular, IEEE 802.11, and Bluetooth personal area networks.Survey chapters give an excellent introduction to key topics in resource management for wireless networks, while experts will be satisfied by the technical depth of the knowledge imparted in chapters exploring hot research topics.The subject area discussed in this book is very relevant today, considering the recent remarkable growth of wireless networking and the convergence of wireless personal communications, internet technologies and real-time multimedia.This volume is a very good companion for practitioners working on implementing solutions for multimedia and Quality of Service - sensitive applications over wireless networks.Written for:Researchers, faculty members, students...

  9. Benchmarking of human resources management

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Akinnusi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of human resource management (HRM) which, today, plays a strategic partnership role in management. The focus of the paper is on HRM in the public sector, where much hope rests on HRM as a means of transforming the public service and achieving much needed service delivery. However, a critical evaluation of HRM practices in the public sector reveals that these services leave much to be desired. The paper suggests the adoption of benchmarking as a process to revamp HR...

  10. Towards sustainable groundwater use: setting long-term goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Alley, William M; Allen, Diana M; Sophocleous, Marios A; Zhou, Yangxiao; Taniguchi, Makoto; VanderSteen, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of crucial earth resources, such as groundwater, is a critical issue. We consider groundwater sustainability a value-driven process of intra- and intergenerational equity that balances the environment, society, and economy. Synthesizing hydrogeological science and current sustainability concepts, we emphasize three sustainability approaches: setting multigenerational sustainability goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively. As most aquifer problems are long-term problems, we propose that multigenerational goals (50 to 100 years) for water quantity and quality that acknowledge the connections between groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems be set for many aquifers. The goals should be set by a watershed- or aquifer-based community in an inclusive and participatory manner. Policies for shorter time horizons should be developed by backcasting, and measures implemented through adaptive management to achieve the long-term goals. Two case histories illustrate the importance and complexity of a multigenerational perspective and adaptive management. These approaches could transform aquifer depletion and contamination to more sustainable groundwater use, providing groundwater for current and future generations while protecting ecological integrity and resilience.

  11. Game Theory in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George

    2015-04-01

    Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will

  12. 1999 Annual Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Correction - Action Report (Volumes I, II, and III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-06-14

    This Corrective Action Report (CAR) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is being prepared to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit Number SC1 890 008 989, dated October 31, 1999. This CAR compiles and presents all groundwater sampling and monitoring activities that are conducted at the MWMF. As set forth in previous agreements with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), all groundwater associated with the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) (comprised of the MWMF, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, and Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground) will be addressed under this RCRA Permit. This CAR is the first to be written for the MWMF and presents monitoring activities and results as an outcome of Interim Status and limited Permitted Status activities. All 1999 groundwater monitoring activities were conducted while the MWMF was operated during Interim Status. Changes to the groundwater monitoring program were made upon receipt of the RCRA Permit, where feasible. During 1999, 152 single-screened and six multi-screened groundwater monitoring wells at the BGC monitored groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer as required by the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR), settlement agreements 87-52-SW and 91-51-SW, and RCRA Permit SC1 890 008 989. However, overall compliance with the recently issued RCRA Permit could not be implemented until the year 2000 due to the effective date of the RCRA Permit and scheduling of groundwater monitoring activities. Changes have been made to the groundwater monitoring network to meet Permit requirements for all 2000 sampling events.

  13. Groundwater Management Policies for Maintaining Stream Flow Given Variable Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohll, G.; Carroll, R. W.; Brozovic, N.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater is an important resource to agriculture throughout the semi-arid United States, where farmers often supplement surface water diversions with groundwater pumping. Understanding the complex exchange over space and time between rivers and aquifers is important in developing management alternatives that are capable of preserving stream flow for habitat and increasing water deliveries downstream while minimizing lost crop production. Previous integrated hydrologic-economic models have generally assumed superposition of the impacts of groundwater pumping on the hydrologic system for analytical tractability. Although this assumption may be reasonable for some surface water-groundwater systems, in many systems the behavior diverges considerably from the linear assumption. We present analyses using an integrated hydrologic-economic model of surface water-groundwater interaction with nonlinear dynamics, developed for the Mason Valley area in Nevada. The study area has active water conflict between upstream and downstream water users, where groundwater pumping has an important impact on streamflow. The model replicates the movement of water throughout the coupled river and aquifer of the Walker River system and is used to analyze hypothetical tradeoffs between increasing streamflow at the basin outlet and meeting crop water demands for irrigation. The model is run from 1997 to 2006 to capture wet and dry climatic conditions, including a four year drought period in which groundwater pumping accounts for more than 50% of the irrigated water budget. Three alternate groundwater management policies are analyzed to compare economic performance (resulting from reductions in crop area due to reduced groundwater pumping) and hydrologic impact (in terms of increased stream discharge at the basin outlet). First, uniform pumping quotas are the simplest policy to implement and are modeled here as equal reductions in groundwater pumping for each stakeholder at a lumped field

  14. Evaluation of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, Oregon and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brian J.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2014-01-01

    The water resources of the upper Klamath Basin, in southern Oregon and northern California, are managed to achieve various complex and interconnected purposes. Since 2001, irrigators in the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Irrigation Project (Project) have been required to limit surface-water diversions to protect habitat for endangered freshwater and anadromous fishes. The reductions in irrigation diversions have led to an increased demand for groundwater by Project irrigators, particularly in drought years. The potential effects of sustained pumping on groundwater and surface-water resources have caused concern among Federal and state agencies, Indian tribes, wildlife groups, and groundwater users. To aid in the development of a viable groundwater-management strategy for the Project, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Klamath Water and Power Agency and the Oregon Water Resources Department, developed a groundwater-management model that links groundwater simulation with techniques of constrained optimization. The overall goal of the groundwater-management model is to determine the patterns of groundwater pumping that, to the extent possible, meet the supplemental groundwater demands of the Project. To ensure that groundwater development does not adversely affect groundwater and surface-water resources, the groundwater-management model includes constraints to (1) limit the effects of groundwater withdrawal on groundwater discharge to streams and lakes that support critical habitat for fish listed under the Endangered Species Act, (2) ensure that drawdowns do not exceed limits allowed by Oregon water law, and (3) ensure that groundwater withdrawal does not adversely affect agricultural drain flows that supply a substantial portion of water for irrigators and wildlife refuges in downslope areas of the Project. Groundwater-management alternatives were tested and designed within the framework of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (currently [2013

  15. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tanana, Heather [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Holt, Rebecca [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Unconventional fuel development will require scarce water resources. In an environment characterized by scarcity, and where most water resources are fully allocated, prospective development will require minimizing water use and seeking to use water resources in the most efficient manner. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater provides just such an opportunity. Conjunctive use includes two main practices: First, integrating surface water diversions and groundwater withdrawals to maximize efficiency and minimize impacts on other resource users and ecological processes. Second, conjunctive use includes capturing surplus or unused surface water and injecting or infiltrating that water into groundwater aquifers in order to increase recharge rates. Conjunctive management holds promise as a means of addressing some of the West's most intractable problems. Conjunctive management can firm up water supplies by more effectively capturing spring runoff and surplus water, and by integrating its use with groundwater withdrawals; surface and groundwater use can be further integrated with managed aquifer recharge projects. Such integration can maximize water storage and availability, while simultaneously minimizing evaporative loss, reservoir sedimentation, and surface use impacts. Any of these impacts, if left unresolved, could derail commercial-scale unconventional fuel development. Unconventional fuel developers could therefore benefit from incorporating conjunctive use into their development plans. Despite its advantages, conjunctive use is not a panacea. Conjunctive use means using resources in harmony to maximize and stabilize long-term supplies it does not mean maximizing the use of two separate but interrelated resources for unsustainable short-term gains and it cannot resolve all problems or provide water where no unappropriated water exists. Moreover, conjunctive use may pose risks to ecological values forgone when water that would otherwise remain in a stream

  16. Application of Harmony Search algorithm to the solution of groundwater management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer Ayvaz, M.

    2009-06-01

    This study proposes a groundwater resources management model in which the solution is performed through a combined simulation-optimization model. A modular three-dimensional finite difference groundwater flow model, MODFLOW is used as the simulation model. This model is then combined with a Harmony Search (HS) optimization algorithm which is based on the musical process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. The performance of the proposed HS based management model is tested on three separate groundwater management problems: (i) maximization of total pumping from an aquifer (steady-state); (ii) minimization of the total pumping cost to satisfy the given demand (steady-state); and (iii) minimization of the pumping cost to satisfy the given demand for multiple management periods (transient). The sensitivity of HS algorithm is evaluated by performing a sensitivity analysis which aims to determine the impact of related solution parameters on convergence behavior. The results show that HS yields nearly same or better solutions than the previous solution methods and may be used to solve management problems in groundwater modeling.

  17. Review: Optimization methods for groundwater modeling and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, William W.-G.

    2015-09-01

    Optimization methods have been used in groundwater modeling as well as for the planning and management of groundwater systems. This paper reviews and evaluates the various optimization methods that have been used for solving the inverse problem of parameter identification (estimation), experimental design, and groundwater planning and management. Various model selection criteria are discussed, as well as criteria used for model discrimination. The inverse problem of parameter identification concerns the optimal determination of model parameters using water-level observations. In general, the optimal experimental design seeks to find sampling strategies for the purpose of estimating the unknown model parameters. A typical objective of optimal conjunctive-use planning of surface water and groundwater is to minimize the operational costs of meeting water demand. The optimization methods include mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming, quadratic programming, dynamic programming, stochastic programming, nonlinear programming, and the global search algorithms such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, and tabu search. Emphasis is placed on groundwater flow problems as opposed to contaminant transport problems. A typical two-dimensional groundwater flow problem is used to explain the basic formulations and algorithms that have been used to solve the formulated optimization problems.

  18. Groundwater resource degradation in coastal plains: The example of the Cecina area (Tuscany - Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Sergio [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@igg.cnr.i; Cortecci, Gianni; Squarci, Paolo [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    The paper describes the degradation of the groundwater resources in the Cecina area, where seawater intrusion, B contamination and NO{sub 3} pollution are all affecting the heavily exploited Pleistocene aquifer. Over-pumping has brought water levels to about 0 m.a.s.l. as far as about 7 km from the shore line, thereby promoting the seawater intrusion. The intrusion, which is characterized by cation exchange phenomena and Ca-Cl type waters, enters the plain mostly through the shallower horizons. The saline front, which advanced from 0.5 to 1 km in 4 a, has by now reached the foot of the hills to the east of the town, where it is also affecting wells of the local aqueduct. Boron contamination, linked to past discharge of industrial waste transported downstream by the river, reached concentrations as high as 3.5 mg/L in the mid-1980s. Although a decreasing trend is now under way, B content is still close to 1 mg/L. The presence of high NO{sub 3}, which, together with the seawater intrusion, represents a major issue for groundwater management in the area, is linked to the widespread utilization of fertilizers. Nitrate concentration, which reaches a maximum of about 300 mg/L in the shallow aquifer horizons and then decreases rather regularly with depth, is strongly influenced by precipitation. However, irrigation also contributes significantly to transporting the NO{sub 3} contamination to depth, as clearly shown by {delta}{sup 18}O data. The severe decline in the quality of the groundwater resource in the Cecina area is further compounded by an overall decrease in water availability in the region of Tuscany, as evidenced by long-term monitoring of precipitation and fluvial discharge.

  19. UNIX Resource Managers: Capacity Planning and Resource Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Gunther, Neil J.

    2000-01-01

    The latest implementations of commercial UNIX to offer mainframe style capacity management on enterprise servers include: AIX Workload Manager (WLM), HP-UX Process Resource Manager (PRM), Solaris Resource Manager (SRM), as well as SGI and Compaq. The ability to manage server capacity is achieved by making significant modifications to the standard UNIX operating system so that processes are inherently tied to specific users. Those users, in turn, are granted only a certain fraction of system r...

  20. Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria. ... flood conditions. Suggestions were made on ways of planning sustainable water supply systems for Nigeria. Key words: Water Resources, Management, Strategies, Climate Change ...

  1. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  2. Human Resources Management and Organizational Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Aspiannor Masrie; Seniwati

    2010-01-01

    This Paper extends the literatur on the connection betwwen human resource management and organizational politics in Indonesia. This paper provides a critical examination of the meaning of organizational politics (OP) for human resource management (HRM).

  3. Human Resources Management and Organizational Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Aspiannor Masrie; Seniwati

    2010-01-01

    This Paper extends the literatur on the connection betwwen human resource management and organizational politics in Indonesia. This paper provides a critical examination of the meaning of organizational politics (OP) for human resource management (HRM).

  4. Risk Analysis on Groundwater Resources Carrying Capacity Based on Blind Number Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji; YU Sujun

    2007-01-01

    Blind numbers of evaluation indices about groundwater resources carrying capacity are defined from the concomitancy of randomness, fuzziness, grey property and unascertainment of groundwater system.Based on fuzzy theory, a comprehensive evaluation model on groundwaterresources carrying capacity is constructed with blind information. Then arisk assessment model of surcharge about groundwater resources carryingcapacity is established on blind reliability theory. The probable value"*"'matrix of fuzzy membership degree about carrying capacity corresponding to each judgment level can be obtained with the aid of blind algorithm as well as the subjective reliability "×" matrix. And then a graph of"groundwater carrying capacity v.s. accumulative reliability" can be gained.Based on the graph, fuzzy membership degree of groundwater resourcescarrying capacity to each judgment level under different risk probabilitycan be got. Thus, a comparatively reasonable judgment to groundwaterresources carrying capacity might be obtained, with comprehensive analysis to the state of society, economy technology and ecology.

  5. Ground-water resources of Catron County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basabilvazo, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground-water and related surface-water resources in Catron County, the largest county in New Mexico. The county is located in the Lower Colorado River Basin and the Rio Grande Basin, and the Continental Divide is the boundary between the two river basins. Increases in water used for mining activities (coal, mineral, and geothermal), irrigated agriculture, reservoir construction, or domestic purposes could affect the quantity or quality of ground- water and surface-water resources in the county. Parts of seven major drainage basins are within the two regional river basins in the county--Carrizo Wash, North Plains, Rio Salado, San Agustin, Alamosa Creek, Gila, and San Francisco Basins. The San Francisco, Gila, and Tularosa Rivers typically flow perennially. During periods of low flow, most streamflow is derived from baseflow. The stream channels of the Rio Salado and Carrizo Wash Basins are commonly perennial in their upper reaches and ephemeral in their lower reaches. Largo Creek in the Carrizo Wash Basin is perennial downstream from Quemado Lake and ephemeral in the lower reaches. Aquifers in Catron County include Quaternary alluvium and bolson fill; Quaternary to Tertiary Gila Conglomerate; Tertiary Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Datil Group, and Baca Formation; Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Crevasse Canyon Formation, Gallup Sandstone, Mancos Shale, and Dakota Sandstone; Triassic Chinle Formation; and undifferentiated rocks of Permian age. Water in the aquifers in the county generally is unconfined; however, confined conditions may exist where the aquifers are overlain by other units of lower permeability. Yields of ground water from the Quaternary alluvium in the county range from 1 to 375 gallons per minute. Yields of ground water from the alluvium in the Carrizo Wash Basin are as much as 250 gallons per minute for short time periods. North of the Plains of San Agustin, ground-water yields from the

  6. Physically-Based Assessment of Intrinsic Groundwater Resource Vulnerability in AN Urban Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, T.; Therrien, R.; Lemieux, J.; Molson, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Several methods exist to assess intrinsic groundwater (re)source vulnerability for the purpose of sustainable groundwater management and protection. However, several methods are empirical and limited in their application to specific types of hydrogeological systems. Recent studies suggest that a physically-based approach could be better suited to provide a general, conceptual and operational basis for groundwater vulnerability assessment. A novel method for physically-based assessment of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability is currently under development and tested to explore the potential of an integrated modelling approach, combining groundwater travel time probability and future scenario modelling in conjunction with the fully integrated HydroGeoSphere model. To determine the intrinsic groundwater resource vulnerability, a fully coupled 2D surface water and 3D variably-saturated groundwater flow model in conjunction with a 3D geological model (GoCAD) has been developed for a case study of the Rivière Saint-Charles (Québec/Canada) regional scale, urban watershed. The model has been calibrated under transient flow conditions for the hydrogeological, variably-saturated subsurface system, coupled with the overland flow zone by taking into account monthly recharge variation and evapotranspiration. To better determine the intrinsic groundwater vulnerability, two independent approaches are considered and subsequently combined in a simple, holistic multi-criteria-decision analyse. Most data for the model comes from an extensive hydrogeological database for the watershed, whereas data gaps have been complemented via field tests and literature review. The subsurface is composed of nine hydrofacies, ranging from unconsolidated fluvioglacial sediments to low permeability bedrock. The overland flow zone is divided into five major zones (Urban, Rural, Forest, River and Lake) to simulate the differences in landuse, whereas the unsaturated zone is represented via the model

  7. Impact of climate change on irrigation requirements in terms of groundwater resources

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin; Li, Yilian

    2013-01-01

    Climate change affects not only water resources but also water demand for irrigation. A large proportion of the world’s agriculture depends on groundwater, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In several regions, aquifer resources face depletion. Groundwater recharge has been viewed as a by-product of irrigation return flow, and with climate change, aquifer storage of such flow will be vital. A general review, for a broad-based audience, is given of work on global warming and groundwater...

  8. Integrated assessment of groundwater resources in the Ouémé basin, Benin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, R.; Sonneveld, B. G. J. S.; Götzinger, J.; Keyzer, M. A.; Pande, S.; Printz, A.; Gaiser, T.

    An integrated assessment of groundwater resources in Benin, West Africa was performed within the framework of the EC-funded research project RIVERTWIN ( www.rivertwin.org). The assessment included a spatial analysis of groundwater relevant parameters taken from more than 4000 wells stored in a countrywide water database (BDI - Banque des Données Intégrée) and an estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge using a modified version of the hydrological model HBV. Additionally, a socio-economic assessment of the impacts of groundwater availability and accessibility on national health issues as well as an assessment of groundwater development costs was carried out. The analysis revealed particularly unfavourable conditions for groundwater use in the northern part of the country where groundwater recharge during the wet season does not lead to the formation of persistent groundwater storage in its shallow, unconfined aquifers. Poor storage capacity and hydraulic properties of the deeper fractured aquifers additionally limit the capacity of individual wells to capture groundwater recharge. Including climate change scenarios forecasting less precipitation (generated from global climate models (GCM) based on IPCC scenarios) indicates that the situation in water scarce regions will worsen, as recharge volumes lessen and occur over a shorter time period. Drilling more wells may be a limited option to capture larger portions of the recharge, since the capture zone and therefore the regional influence of existing wells is rather small. In the south, deeper confined aquifers guarantee better and more reliable yields, yet the lack of long-term monitoring and groundwater age data does not allow an appraisal of the limits of the sustainable use of these aquifers. Finally, it has been shown that access to suitable aquifers and diarrhea prevalence are spatially correlated. Access to groundwater is thereby not only a function of aquifer suitability

  9. A Holistic Assessment of the Sustainability of Groundwater Resources in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, G.; Zheng, C.; Liu, J.; Li, W.

    2010-12-01

    precipitation and an increase in groundwater pumping are the primary causes for groundwater depletion in the NCP. The numerical model makes it possible to integrate all the available data to provide a holistic approach to evaluate the sustainability of groundwater resources in the NCP.

  10. The origin and evolution of safe-yield policies in the Kansas groundwater management districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    The management of groundwater resources in Kansas continues to evolve. Declines in the High Plains aquifer led to the establishment of groundwater management districts in the mid-1970s and reduced streamflows prompted the enactment of minimum desirable streamflow standards in the mid-1980s. Nonetheless, groundwater levels and streamflows continued to decline, although at reduced rates compared to premid-1980s rates. As a result, "safe-yield" policies were revised to take into account natural groundwater discharge in the form of stream baseflow. These policies, although a step in the right direction, are deficient in several ways. In addition to the need for more accurate recharge data, pumping-induced streamflow depletion, natural stream losses, and groundwater evapotranspiration need to be accounted for in the revised safe-yield policies. Furthermore, the choice of the 90% flow-duration statistic as a measure of baseflow needs to be reevaluated, as it significantly underestimates mean baseflow estimated from baseflow separation computer programs; moreover, baseflow estimation needs to be refined and validated. ?? 2000 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  11. Statistical assessment of groundwater resources in Washim district (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajankar, P N; Tambekar, D H; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality of Washim district of Maharashtra (India) was assessed using quality parameters and water quality index (WQI). In this study, the WQI was analyzed by using pH, turbidity, temperature, nitrates, total phosphates, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total solids, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, respectively for residential and commercial uses. All the parameters were analyzed both in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to assess the groundwater quality and seasonal variations. The parameters like turbidity, solids and coliforms showed the seasonal variations. The WQI varied from 72 to 88 in pre-monsoon season and 64 to 88 in post-monsoon season. The results indicate that all groundwater samples in the study area have good water quality in pre-monsoon season but in post-monsoon season 9 percent samples indicated the change in water quality from good to medium, which reveals seasonal variation and groundwater quality deterioration.

  12. Handbook of human resources management

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Human resources topics are gaining more and more strategic importance in modern business management. Only those companies that find the right answers to the following questions have a sustainable basis for their future success: - How can we attract and select the right talent for our teams? - How can we develop the skills and behaviors which are key for our business? - How can we engage and retain the talent we need for our future? While most other management disciplines have their standards and procedures, Human Resources still lacks a broadly accepted basis for its work. Both the structured collection of reflected real-life experience and the multi-perspective view support readers in making informed and well-balanced decisions. With this handbook, Springer provides a landmark reference work on today’s HR management, based on the combined experience of more than 85 globally selected HR leaders and HR experts. Rather than theoretical discussions about definitions, the handbook focuses on sharing practical e...

  13. Water resources management in karst aquifers - concepts and modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, M.; Schmidt, S.; Abusaada, M.; Reimann, T.; Liedl, R.; Kordilla, J.; Geyer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources management schemes generally imply the availability of a spectrum of various sources of water with a variability of quantity and quality in space and time, and the availability and suitability of storage facilities to cover various demands of water consumers on quantity and quality. Aquifers are generally regarded as suitable reservoirs since large volumes of water can be stored in the subsurface, water is protected from contamination and evaporation and the underground passage assists in the removal of at least some groundwater contaminants. Favorable aquifer properties include high vertical hydraulic conductivities for infiltration, large storage coefficients and not too large hydraulic gradients / conductivities. The latter factors determine the degree of discharge, i.e. loss of groundwater. Considering the above criteria, fractured and karstified aquifers appear to not really fulfill the respective conditions for storage reservoirs. Although infiltration capacity is relatively high, due to low storativity and high hydraulic conductivities, the small quantity of water stored is rapidly discharged. However, for a number of specific conditions, even karst aquifers are suitable for groundwater management schemes. They can be subdivided into active and passive management strategies. Active management options include strategies such as overpumping, i.e. the depletion of the karst water resources below the spring outflow level, the construction of subsurface dams to prevent rapid discharge. Passive management options include the optimal use of the discharging groundwater under natural discharge conditions. System models that include the superposition of the effect of the different compartments soil zone, epikarst, vadose and phreatic zone assist in the optimal usage of the available groundwater resources, while taking into account the different water reservoirs. The elaboration and implementation of groundwater protection schemes employing well

  14. The evolution of groundwater rights and groundwater management in New Mexico and the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMars, Charles T.; Minier, Jeffrie D.

    Historically, rights in water originated as public property and only later became individualized rights to utilize the public resource, in a manner consistent with the public welfare needs of society, but protected by principles of property law. Five basic regulatory systems for rights in groundwater in the United States have evolved to date. The problems raised by the hydrologic differences between groundwater hydraulically connected to stream systems and groundwater in non-replenished aquifers have been resolved to some extent by a couple of leading court cases. Numerical modeling and other technical methodologies have also evolved to evaluate the scientific issues raised by the different hydrologic conditions, but these are not immune from criticism. The current role of aquifers is evolving into that of storage facilities for recycled water, and their utilization in this manner may be expanded even further in the future. The policy implications of the choices relating to joint management of ground and surface water cannot be overstated. As this paper demonstrates, proactive administration of future groundwater depletions that affect stream systems is essential to the ultimate ability to plan for exploitation, management and utilization of water resources in a rational way that coordinates present and future demand with the reality of scarcity of supply. The examples utilized in this paper demonstrate the need for capacity building, not just to develop good measurement techniques, or to train talented lawyers and judges to write good laws, but also for practical professional water managers to keep the process on a rational course, avoiding limitless exploitation of the resource as well as conservative protectionism that forever precludes its use. Historiquement, les droits d'eau étaient à l'origine un bien public; ils sont devenus plus tard des droits individualisés pour utiliser la ressource publique conformément aux besoins de salut public de la soci

  15. Assessment of climate change impacts on groundwater resources: the case study of Veneto and Friuli plain in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critto, Andrea; Pasini, Sara; Torresan, Silvia; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Climate change will have different impacts on water resources and water-dependent services worldwide. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. Research is needed to better understand how climate change will impact groundwater resources in specific regions and places and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with the envisaged effects of global climate change and the key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify impacts from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of impacts, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant impacts on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk assessment. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution models simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according with IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant outcomes from the described RRA application highlighted that potential climate change impacts will occur

  16. Use of Baysian belief networks for dealing with ambiquity in integrated groundwater management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, H.J.; Zorilla Miras, E.; De la Hera, A.; Brugnach, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    In integrated groundwater management, different knowledge frames and uncertainties need to be communicated and handled explicitly. This is necessary in order to select efficient adaptive groundwater management strategies. In this connection, Bayesian belief networks allow for integration of knowledg

  17. Long-Term Response of Groundwater Nitrate Concentrations to Management Regulations in Nebraska's Central Platte Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Exner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 16 years (1988–2003 of management practices on high groundwater nitrate concentrations in Nebraska's central Platte River valley was assessed in a 58,812-ha (145,215-ac groundwater quality management area intensively cropped to irrigated corn (Zea mays L.. Crop production and groundwater nitrate data were obtained from ~23,800 producer reports. The terrace, comprising ~56% of the study area, is much more intensively cropped to irrigated corn than the bottomland. From 1987 to 2003, average groundwater nitrate concentrations in the primary aquifer beneath the bottomland remained static at ~8 mg N/l. During the same period, average groundwater nitrate concentrations in the primary aquifer beneath the terrace decreased from 26.4 to 22.0 mg N/l at a slow, but significant (p < 0.0001, rate of 0.26 mg N/l/year. Approximately 20% of the decrease in nitrate concentrations can be attributed to increases in the amount of N removed from fields as a consequence of small annual increases in yield. During the study, producers converted ~15% of the ~28,300 furrow-irrigated terrace hectares (~69,800 ac to sprinkler irrigation. The conversion is associated with about an additional 50% of the decline in the nitrate concentration, and demonstrates the importance of both improved water and N management. Average N fertilizer application rates on the terrace were essentially unchanged during the study. The data indicate that groundwater nitrate concentrations have responded to improved management practices instituted by the Central Platte Natural Resources District.

  18. Methods for exploring uncertainty in groundwater management predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Hunt, Randall J.; Comunian, Alessandro; Fu, Baihua; Blakers, Rachel S; Jakeman, Anthony J; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Models of groundwater systems help to integrate knowledge about the natural and human system covering different spatial and temporal scales, often from multiple disciplines, in order to address a range of issues of concern to various stakeholders. A model is simply a tool to express what we think we know. Uncertainty, due to lack of knowledge or natural variability, means that there are always alternative models that may need to be considered. This chapter provides an overview of uncertainty in models and in the definition of a problem to model, highlights approaches to communicating and using predictions of uncertain outcomes and summarises commonly used methods to explore uncertainty in groundwater management predictions. It is intended to raise awareness of how alternative models and hence uncertainty can be explored in order to facilitate the integration of these techniques with groundwater management.

  19. Inexact Socio-Dynamic Modeling of Groundwater Contamination Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesselinov, V. V.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contamination may alter the behaviors of the public such as adaptation to such a contamination event. On the other hand, social behaviors may affect groundwater contamination and associated risk levels such as through changing ingestion amount of groundwater due to the contamination. Decisions should consider not only the contamination itself, but also social attitudes on such contamination events. Such decisions are inherently associated with uncertainty, such as subjective judgement from decision makers and their implicit knowledge on selection of whether to supply water or reduce the amount of supplied water under the scenario of the contamination. A socio-dynamic model based on the theories of information-gap and fuzzy sets is being developed to address the social behaviors facing the groundwater contamination and applied to a synthetic problem designed based on typical groundwater remediation sites where the effects of social behaviors on decisions are investigated and analyzed. Different uncertainties including deep uncertainty and vague/ambiguous uncertainty are effectively and integrally addressed. The results can provide scientifically-defensible decision supports for groundwater management in face of the contamination.

  20. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that groundwater overdraft is occurring worldwide. Economists argue that the cause of this overdraft is the open-access nature of the resource, which results in a "tragedy of the commons." Sustainable water management requires that some institution control the resource to limit this overdraft by reducing water extraction. This reduction creates scarcity and requires a method of rationing. The economically efficient outcome occurs when the lowest value uses of water are eliminated. This allocation, though, may have undesirable social consequences, such as the loss of small-scale farming, and political ramifications that make such an allocation unpopular to implement. This paper explores the economic cost of leaving water in low-value uses. The policy we explore is a moratorium on voluntary water sales to mining firms to protect the groundwater resource in northern Chile. This policy has accelerated the use of expensive desalinated water, whose cost is primarily driven by its heavy use of carbon-based electricity. Chile has a strong system of water property rights that economists argue ration water in a way that leads to the efficient allocation through water markets. This paper first explores the potential inefficiency of a water market when groundwater and surface water are linked, as well as when different users vary in their intensity of use. This theoretical background provides a framework for determining the economically efficient allocation of water and the losses associated with the moratorium in northern Chile. The policy does protect some environmental and cultural public goods, which potentially offset some or all of this cost. We provide a perspective on the magnitude of these public goods but do not attempt to value them explicitly. Instead, we demonstrate what their value must be so that the moratorium policy has a cost-to-benefit ratio of one. While the estimate of lost income from inefficiency is the main focus

  1. Optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater resources with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xinguo

    2014-01-01

    costs. As in traditional SDP approaches, one step-ahead sub-problems are solved to find the optimal management at any time knowing the inflow scenario and reservoir/aquifer storage levels. These non-linear sub-problems are solved using a genetic algorithm (GA) that minimizes the sum of the immediate......, reservoir states, and inflow scenarios are used as future costs to drive a forward moving simulation under uncertain water availability. The use of a GA to solve the sub-problems is computationally more costly than a traditional SDP approach with linearly interpolated future costs. However, in a two....... A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) approach is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocations and water curtailments. Dynamic allocation problems with inclusion of groundwater resources proved to be more complex to solve with SDP than pure surface water allocation problems due...

  2. Forest Resource Management Plans: A Sustainability Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pile, Lauren S.; Watts, Christine M.; Straka, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Forest Resource Management Plans is the capstone course in many forestry and natural resource management curricula. The management plans are developed by senior forestry students. Early management plans courses were commonly technical exercises, often performed on contrived forest "tracts" on university-owned or other public lands, with a goal of…

  3. Forest Resource Management Plans: A Sustainability Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pile, Lauren S.; Watts, Christine M.; Straka, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Forest Resource Management Plans is the capstone course in many forestry and natural resource management curricula. The management plans are developed by senior forestry students. Early management plans courses were commonly technical exercises, often performed on contrived forest "tracts" on university-owned or other public lands, with a goal of…

  4. Directions for social research to underpin improved groundwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Curtis, Allan; Sharp, Emily; Mendham, Emily

    2012-07-01

    SummaryImprovements in groundwater management require strategies to change human behaviour, yet there has been limited social research in the broad arena of groundwater management. This paper provides a critical review of the small but expanding literature on that topic to identify future directions for social researchers. Comprehensive search methods identified almost three hundred potentially relevant publications, which were sorted thematically and assessed in terms of their theoretical underpinning and the evidence used to support key findings. This process enabled the authors to identify a small number of high quality publications and to identify future research opportunities. The latter includes analysing how concepts of risk and sustainable yield are constructed differently by stakeholders, especially related to divisive issues concerning coal seam gas developments and reforms that reduce irrigation allocations; how governance arrangements can be improved to achieve more effective collaborative management of groundwater, especially if managed aquifer recharge is to be more widely implemented in rural agricultural contexts; and the role that trust and social norms can play in changing groundwater use practices.

  5. Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Raj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alleppey is one of the thickly populated coastal towns of the Kerala state in southern India. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the 240,991 people living in this region. The groundwater is being extracted from a multi-layer aquifer system of unconsolidated to semi-consolidated sedimentary formations, which range in age from Recent to Tertiary. The public water distribution system uses dug and tube wells. Though there were reports on fluoride contamination, this study reports for the first time excess fluoride and excess salinity in the drinking water of the region. The quality parameters, like Electrical Conductivity (EC ranges from 266 to 3900 μs/cm, the fluoride content ranges from 0.68 to 2.88 mg/L, and the chloride ranges between the 5.7 to 1253 mg/L. The main water types are Na-HCO3, Na-CO3 and Na-Cl. The aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− show positive correlation whereas F− and Ca2+ show negative correlation. The source of fluoride in the groundwater could be from dissolution of fluorapatite, which is a common mineral in the Tertiary sediments of the area. Long residence time, sediment–groundwater interaction and facies changes (Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3 during groundwater flow regime are the major factors responsible for the high fluoride content in the groundwater of the area. High strontium content and high EC in some of the wells indicate saline water intrusion that could be due to the excess pumping from the deeper aquifers of the area. The water quality index computation has revealed that 62% of groundwater belongs to poor quality and is not suitable for domestic purposes as per BIS and WHO standards. Since the groundwater is the only source of drinking water in the area, proper treatment strategies and regulating the groundwater extraction are required as the quality deterioration poses serious threat to human health.

  6. Artificial groundwater recharge as integral part of a water resources system in a humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfersberger, Hans; Stadler, Hermann

    2010-05-01

    managed aquifer recharge system have been evaluated. Among numerous results it could be shown that replacing the lawn by sand basins and operating them constantly during winter holds the largest potential to increase the infiltration volume. However, this is only an option for new to build structures since the current basin positions would lead to large direct losses of recharged groundwater into the river Mur. Adjusting the timing of infiltration and withdrawal based on subsurface travel time yields an increase of the pumped amount of about 11% given about the same extension the wells' capture zones. The overall costs of artificial groundwater recharge amount to 0,15 €/m³ excluding pumping and distribution costs compared to a water price of about 1,5 €/m³ charged to consumers. Currently, the implications of building a hydro power plant adjacent to the recharge site are evaluated emphasizing the need for innovative solutions given only limited land resources. On the basis of the projected impacts of climate change on the availability of surface water and groundwater in the South-Eastern alpine regions, the aquifers can act as a buffer system to help overcome the timely shift between supply and demand. Thus, also in predominantly humid regions artificial groundwater recharge represents a viable and sustainable solution to safeguard the supply of drinking water in the long term.

  7. Island groundwater resources, impacts of abstraction and a drying climate: Rottnest Island, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Eliza; Meredith, Karina T.; Baker, Andy; Post, Vincent E. A.; Andersen, Martin S.

    2016-11-01

    water lens was found to occur by older seawater (0.03-0.09 TU) in regions of the lens that were previously fresh or slightly brackish, while one sample (0.67 TU) suggests either modern seawater intrusion or mixing of older saline groundwaters (>60 years) with rainfall recharge. The use of tritium dating in this island aquifer was essential in identifying 'older' seawater that was previously unidentified until now. The isotopic and hydrochemical tools used in this paper quantify the effects of groundwater abstraction and climate variability on the freshwater lens and have implications for the sustainable management of the groundwater resource on Rottnest Island, and elsewhere.

  8. Retention practices in education human resources management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Department of Education Management and Policy Studies, University of Pretoria, ... teachers is premised on the principles of quality management which aim at continual ... (tenure) applied in the management of human resources in education.

  9. Application of natural resource valuation concepts for development of sustainable remediation plans for groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, John A; Paquette, Shawn; McHugh, Thomas; Gie, Elaine; Hemingway, Mark; Bianchi, Gino

    2017-04-07

    This paper explores the application of natural resource assessment and valuation procedures as a tool for developing groundwater remediation strategies that achieve the objectives for health and environmental protection, in balance with considerations of economic viability and conservation of natural resources. The natural resource assessment process, as applied under U.S. and international guidelines, entails characterization of groundwater contamination in terms of the pre-existing beneficial services of the impacted resource, the loss of these services caused by the contamination, and the measures and associated costs necessary to restore or replace the lost services. Under many regulatory programs, groundwater remediation objectives assume that the impacted groundwater may be used as a primary source of drinking water in the future, even if not presently in use. In combination with a regulatory preference for removal or treatment technologies, this assumed exposure, while protective of human health, can drive the remedy selection process toward remedies that may not be protective of the groundwater resource itself or of the other natural resources (energy, materials, chemicals, etc.) that may be consumed in the remediation effort. To achieve the same health and environmental protection goals under a sustainable remediation framework, natural resource assessment methods can be applied to restore the lost services and preserve the intact services of the groundwater so as to protect both current and future users of that resource. In this paper, we provide practical guidelines for use of natural resource assessment procedures in the remedy selection process and present a case study demonstrating the use of these protocols for development of sustainable remediation strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The evolution of groundwater management paradigms in Kansas and possible new steps towards water sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, Marios

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe purpose of this paper is to trace the evolution of key water-related laws and management practices in Kansas, from the enactment of the Kansas Water Resources Appropriation Act of 1945 to the present, in order to highlight the state's efforts to create a more sustainable water future and in hopes that others will benefit from Kansas' experience. The 1945 Act provides the basic framework of water law (prior appropriation) in Kansas. Progression of groundwater management in the state encompasses local Groundwater Management Districts (GMDs) and their water-management programs, minimum-streamflow and TMDL standards, water-use reporting and water metering programs, use of modified safe-yield policies in some GMDs, the subbasin water-resources-management program, the integrated resource planning/aquifer storage and recovery project of the city of Wichita, the Central Kansas Water Bank, enhanced aquifer subunits management, and various water conservation programs. While these have all contributed to the slowing down of declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and in associated ecosystems, they have not yet succeeded in halting those declines. Based on the assumption that the different management approaches have to operate easily within the prevailing water rights and law framework to succeed, a number of steps are suggested here that may help further diminish or reverse the declines of the High Plains aquifer. These include eliminating the "use it or lose it" maxim in the prior-appropriation framework, broadening the definition of "beneficial use," regulating domestic and other "exempt" wells, encouraging voluntary "sharing the shortage" agreements, and determining to what extent water rights may be regulated in the public interest without a compensable "taking". Further measures include establishing artificial recharge and/or aquifer storage and recovery projects wherever feasible and determining to what extent water-rights holders might be

  11. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  12. Managing Human Resource Learning for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    Managing human resource learning for innovation develops a systemic understanding of building innovative capabilities. Building innovative capabilities require active creation, coordination and absorption of useful knowledge and thus a cohesive management approach to learning. Often learning...... in organizations and work is approached without considerations on how to integrate it in the management of human resources. The book investigates the empirical conditions for managing human resources learning for innovation. With focus on innovative performance the importance of modes of innovation, clues...

  13. The influence of conceptual model uncertainty on management decisions for a groundwater-dependent ecosystem in karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Bibi R. N.; Merediz-Alonso, Gonzalo; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2011-03-01

    SummaryGroundwater management in karst is often based on limited hydrologic understanding of the aquifer. The geologic heterogeneities controlling the water flow are often insufficiently mapped. As karst aquifers are very vulnerable to pollution, groundwater protection and land use management are crucial to preserve water resources and maintain ecosystem services. Multiple Model Simulation highlights the impact of model structure uncertainty on management decisions using several plausible conceptual models. Multiple Model Simulation was used for this purpose on the Yucatan Peninsula, which is one of the world's largest karstic aquifers. The aquifer is the only available fresh water source for human users and ecosystems on the Peninsula. One of Mexico's largest protected areas, the groundwater-dependent Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (5280 km 2) is fed by the aquifer's thin freshwater lens. Increasing groundwater abstractions and pollution threatens the fresh water resource, and consequently the ecosystem integrity of both Sian Ka'an and the adjacent coastal environment. Seven different catchment-scale conceptual models were implemented in a distributed hydrological modelling approach. Equivalent porous medium conceptualizations with uniform and heterogeneous distributions of hydraulic conductivities were used. The models demonstrated that Sian Ka'an's wetlands are indeed groundwater-fed. The water quantities in the wetlands and the flooding dynamics are determined by the larger groundwater catchment. The overall water balance for the model domain showed that recharge constitutes 4400 ± 700 million m 3/year. Of this, 4-12% exits as overland flow, and 88-96% exits as groundwater flow. Net groundwater outflow from the model domain to the north via the Holbox fracture zone appears as an important cross-basin transfer between regions of the Peninsula. Probability maps of Sian Ka'an's catchment were obtained through automatic calibration and stochastic modelling

  14. Groundwater pumping effects on contaminant loading management in agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Kyu; Bae, Gwang-Ok; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2014-06-15

    Groundwater pumping changes the behavior of subsurface water, including the location of the water table and characteristics of the flow system, and eventually affects the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate from agricultural fertilizers. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the importance of considering the existing pumping conditions for contaminant loading management and to develop a management model to obtain a contaminant loading design more appropriate and practical for agricultural regions where groundwater pumping is common. Results from this study found that optimal designs for contaminant loading could be determined differently when the existing pumping conditions were considered. This study also showed that prediction of contamination and contaminant loading management without considering pumping activities might be unrealistic. Motivated by these results, a management model optimizing the permissible on-ground contaminant loading mass together with pumping rates was developed and applied to field investigation and monitoring data from Icheon, Korea. The analytical solution for 1-D unsaturated solute transport was integrated with the 3-D saturated solute transport model in order to approximate the fate of contaminants loaded periodically from on-ground sources. This model was further expanded to manage agricultural contaminant loading in regions where groundwater extraction tends to be concentrated in a specific period of time, such as during the rice-growing season, using a method that approximates contaminant leaching to a fluctuating water table. The results illustrated that the simultaneous management of groundwater quantity and quality was effective and appropriate to the agricultural contaminant loading management and the model developed in this study, which can consider time-variant pumping, could be used to accurately estimate and to reasonably manage contaminant loading in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Effectiveness of airborne multispectral thermal data for karst groundwater resources recognition in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Stefano; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo; Santini, Federico; Pascucci, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Currently the detection, use and management of groundwater in karst regions can be considered one of the most significant procedures for solving water scarcity problems during periods of low rainfall this because groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a key role in the water supply in karst areas worldwide [1]. In many countries of the Mediterranean area, where karst is widespread, groundwater resources are still underexploited, while surface waters are generally preferred [2]. Furthermore, carbonate aquifers constitute a crucial thermal water resource outside of volcanic areas, even if there is no detailed and reliable global assessment of thermal water resources. The composite hydrogeological characteristics of karst, particularly directions and zones of groundwater distribution, are not up till now adequately explained [3]. In view of the abovementioned reasons the present study aims at analyzing the detection capability of high spatial resolution thermal remote sensing of karst water resources in coastal areas in order to get useful information on the karst springs flow and on different characteristics of these environments. To this purpose MIVIS [4, 5] and TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (see sensors' characteristics in Table 1) acquired on two coastal areas of the Mediterranean area interested by karst activity, one located in Montenegro and one in Italy, were used. One study area is located in the Kotor Bay, a winding bay on the Adriatic Sea surrounded by high mountains in south-western Montenegro and characterized by many subaerial and submarine coastal springs related to deep karstic channels. The other study area is located in Santa Cesarea (Italy), encompassing coastal cold springs, the main local source of high quality water, and also a noticeable thermal groundwater outflow. The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the two airborne deployments on these areas. The preprocessing of the multispectral thermal imagery

  16. Chosen Concepts of Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a trial of clarifying and making order of terminology that is used in area of human resources management. This is an overview of basic definitions, conceptions and models of people management, that emerged from the beginning (XIX/XX century to nowadays. The article is a kind of presentation of human resources management evolution. It comprises a descriptions of broad range of human resources management models beginning from classic models (Harvard and Michigan models and finishing on strategic human resources models (orthodox model and human resources architecture, proposed by R.G. Klimecki S. A. Litz and D.P. Lepak S.A. Snell.

  17. The thermal impact of subsurface building structures on urban groundwater resources - A paradigmatic example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Jannis; Scheidler, Stefan; Affolter, Annette; Borer, Paul; Mueller, Matthias H; Egli, Lukas; García-Gil, Alejandro; Huggenberger, Peter

    2017-10-15

    Shallow subsurface thermal regimes in urban areas are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic activities, which include infrastructure development like underground traffic lines as well as industrial and residential subsurface buildings. In combination with the progressive use of shallow geothermal energy systems, this results in the so-called subsurface urban heat island effect. This article emphasizes the importance of considering the thermal impact of subsurface structures, which commonly is underestimated due to missing information and of reliable subsurface temperature data. Based on synthetic heat-transport models different settings of the urban environment were investigated, including: (1) hydraulic gradients and conductivities, which result in different groundwater flow velocities; (2) aquifer properties like groundwater thickness to aquitard and depth to water table; and (3) constructional features, such as building depths and thermal properties of building structures. Our results demonstrate that with rising groundwater flow velocities, the heat-load from building structures increase, whereas down-gradient groundwater temperatures decrease. Thermal impacts on subsurface resources therefore have to be related to the permeability of aquifers and hydraulic boundary conditions. In regard to the urban settings of Basel, Switzerland, flow velocities of around 1 md(-1) delineate a marker where either down-gradient temperature deviations or heat-loads into the subsurface are more relevant. Furthermore, no direct thermal influence on groundwater resources should be expected for aquifers with groundwater thicknesses larger 10m and when the distance of the building structure to the groundwater table is higher than around 10m. We demonstrate that measuring temperature changes down-gradient of subsurface structures is insufficient overall to assess thermal impacts, particularly in urban areas. Moreover, in areas which are densely urbanized, and where groundwater flow

  18. Groundwater Management During Intermediate-to-Deep Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, Shaun; Stanley, Edward; Mostade, Marc; Turner, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a safe, economic way to extract energy from coal with significant environmental benefits compared with other coal-based energy production methods. However, in the wrong hands, UCG can adversely impact groundwater systems in two ways: 1) by contamination with inorganic and organic compounds; and 2) groundwater depletion. The hydrogeological conditions of UCG are highly site-specific and so the risks to groundwater have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Site selection plays a fundamental role in managing these risks and it is possible to identify the general characteristics that will minimise risks of environmental impacts. However, large volumes of water, much of which will come from groundwater, are consumed during UCG projects, leading to possible significant groundwater depletion at such settings. Insufficient water supplies will impact the quality of the syngas produced by UCG because coal conversion efficiencies will decrease. Furthermore, depletion of groundwater levels may extend beyond the UCG site boundary, with consequent implications for regulatory regimes and any off-site groundwater users. Additional artificial water supplies may therefore be required, although the manner in which the water is delivered to the UCG system will also likely have an impact on syngas quality. Large volumes of water delivered via the injection well will likely impact gasification efficiency because 1) large amounts of heat will be used to vaporise the water leading to suppression of the reactor temperature and inhibition of (endothermic) gasification reactions; and 2) the "steam jacket" originally present around the UCG reactor will be absent, which will lead to further heat loss from the system. Additional water may therefore have to be supplied via the surrounding strata and/or coal seam, thus mimicking the natural conditions prior to groundwater depletion. Much of the hydrogeological modelling to date has focussed on a single

  19. Educational Resource Management: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Derek; Levacic, Rosalind

    2007-01-01

    This book offers practical guidance on management of financial and real resources in schools and college, and critically evaluates current tensions involved in the area of educational resource management. It is essential reading for educational leaders who wish to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of their resource utilisation…

  20. Educational Resource Management: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Derek; Levacic, Rosalind

    2007-01-01

    This book offers practical guidance on management of financial and real resources in schools and college, and critically evaluates current tensions involved in the area of educational resource management. It is essential reading for educational leaders who wish to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of their resource utilisation…

  1. Geospatial Technologies for Groundwater Management in Aurangabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha R.Mundhe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Aurangabad City is located in the heart of Maharashtra State an urban center of the Deccan sub-region. The water provided by the Aurangabad Municipal Corporation (AMC is not sufficient for the use of citizen. In this study, we have only considered the water resources available in the different area only in the Aurangabad city.All resources are mapped on the Google map/Google earth using KML platform. The Groundwater resources available in the Aurangabadare mapped in Google earth and detail availability of the water is provided. These ground water resources are divided into different Zones according to the availability of the water in that particular location. The spatial data of the available water resources according tothe area are mapped with all detail of the water available such as usage and different sources available along with their property so it's convenient for analysis the spatial data.

  2. Groundwater Resources Assessment For Joypurhat District Using Mathematical Modelling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Iquebal Hossain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study potential recharge as well as groundwater availability for 5 Upazillas (Akkelpur, Kalai, Joypurhat Sadar, Khetlal and Panchbibi of Joypurhat districts has been estimated using MIKE SHE modelling tools. The main aquifers of the study area are dominated by medium sands, medium and coarse sands with little gravels. The top of aquifers ranges from 15 m to 24 m and the screenable thickness of aquifers range from 33 m to 46 m within the depth range from 57 m to 87 m. Heavy abstraction of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and domestic uses results in excessive lowering of water table making the shallow and hand tubewells inoperable in the dry season. The upazilawise potential recharge for the study area was estimated through mathematical model using MIKE SHE modelling tools in an integrated approach. The required data were collected from the different relevant organisations. The potential recharge of the present study varies from 452 mm to 793 mm. Maximum depth to groundwater table in most of the places occurs at the end of April. At this time, groundwater table in most of the part of Kalai, Khetlal, Akkelpur and Panchbibi goes below suction limit causing HTWs and STWs partially/fully in operable.

  3. Groundwater surface mapping informs sources of catchment baseflow

    OpenAIRE

    J. F. Costelloe; T. J. Peterson; K. Halbert; A. W. Western; J. J. McDonnell

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater discharge is a major contributor to stream baseflow. Quantifying this flux is difficult, despite its considerable importance to water resource management and evaluation of the effects of groundwater extraction on streamflow. It is important to be able to differentiate between contributions to streamflow from regional groundwater discharge (more susceptible to groundwater extraction) compared to interflow processes (arguably less susceptible to groundwater ...

  4. Optimising resource management in neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard M; Griffiths, Jeff D; Williams, Janet E; Brouwers, Jakko

    2014-01-01

    To date, little research has been published regarding the effective and efficient management of resources (beds and staff) in neurorehabilitation, despite being an expensive service in limited supply. To demonstrate how mathematical modelling can be used to optimise service delivery, by way of a case study at a major 21 bed neurorehabilitation unit in the UK. An automated computer program for assigning weekly treatment sessions is developed. Queue modelling is used to construct a mathematical model of the hospital in terms of referral submissions to a waiting list, admission and treatment, and ultimately discharge. This is used to analyse the impact of hypothetical strategic decisions on a variety of performance measures and costs. The project culminates in a hybridised model of these two approaches, since a relationship is found between the number of therapy hours received each week (scheduling output) and length of stay (queuing model input). The introduction of the treatment scheduling program has substantially improved timetable quality (meaning a better and fairer service to patients) and has reduced employee time expended in its creation by approximately six hours each week (freeing up time for clinical work). The queuing model has been used to assess the effect of potential strategies, such as increasing the number of beds or employing more therapists. The use of mathematical modelling has not only optimised resources in the short term, but has allowed the optimality of longer term strategic decisions to be assessed.

  5. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  6. Assessment of Groundwater Resources of Dauphin Island and its Connection to Urban Sprawl and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, K. S.

    2009-12-01

    Dauphin Island is a barrier island about 28 miles south of Mobile, Alabama. The island relies heavily on the shallow aquifer underlying the barrier island. Worldwide, the largest volume of water used for human consumption and use comes from groundwater resources. On barrier islands such as Dauphin Island, the proportion of water used by humans coming from groundwater resources is even higher. Additionally, tourism is very important to the economy of Dauphin Island, and the hotels and tourist attractions rely on groundwater. Because of the large influx of people there are peaks in water demand during tourist season. The goal of this project is to quantify the impacts of urban growth on the aquifer and provide an estimate for sustainable withdrawal rates. The project will be carried out in two main phases. In the first phase a water resource assessment and analysis will be conducted using the SEAWAT model. SEAWAT simulates three-dimensional variable-density ground-water flow coupled with multi-species solute and heat transport. In the second phase the calibrated groundwater model for the island will be used to perform a scenario analysis which would help link groundwater availability with urban sprawl. In this paper we will describe the research methodology and procedures that will be used in the project.

  7. A socio-ecological investigation of options to manage groundwater degradation in the Western Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Caroline; Salem, Boshra

    2012-07-01

    Under increasing water scarcity, collective groundwater management is a global concern. This article presents an interdisciplinary analysis of this challenge drawing on a survey including 50 large and small farms and gardens in a village in an agricultural land reclamation area on the edge of the Western Desert of Egypt. Findings revealed that smallholders rely on a practice of shallow groundwater use, through which drainage water from adjacent irrigation areas is effectively recycled within the surface aquifer. Expanding agroindustrial activities in the surrounding area are socio-economically important, but by mining non-renewable water in the surrounding area, they set in motion a degradation process with social and ecological consequences for all users in the multi-layered aquifer system. Based on the findings of our investigation, we identify opportunities for local authorities to more systematically connect available environmental information sources and common pool resource management precedents, to counterbalance the degradation threat.

  8. Preliminary Prioritization of California Oil and Gas Fields for Regional Groundwater Monitoring Based on Intensity of Petroleum Resource Development and Proximity to Groundwater Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. A.; Landon, M. K.; Bennett, G.

    2016-12-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board is collaborating with the U.S. Geological Survey to implement a Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) to assess where and to what degree groundwater resources may be at risk of contamination from oil and gas development activities including stimulation, well integrity issues, produced water ponds, and underground injection. A key issue in the implementation of the RMP is that the state has 487 onshore oil fields covering 8,785 square kilometers but detailed characterization work can only be done in a few oil fields annually. The first step in the RMP is to prioritize fields using available data that indicate potential risk to groundwater from oil and gas development, including vertical proximity of groundwater and oil/gas resources, density of petroleum and water wells, and volume of water injected in oil fields. This study compiled data for these factors, computed summary metrics for each oil field, analyzed statewide distributions of summary metrics, used those distributions to define relative categories of potential risk for each factor, and combined these into an overall priority ranking. Aggregated results categorized 22% (107 fields) of the total number of onshore oil and gas fields in California as high priority, 23% as moderate priority, and 55% as low priority. On an area-weighted basis, 41% of the fields ranked high, 30% moderate, and 29% low, highlighting that larger fields tend to have higher potential risk because of greater intensity of development, sometimes coupled with closer proximity to groundwater. More than half of the fields ranked as high priority were located in the southern Central Valley or the Los Angeles Basin. The prioritization does not represent an assessment of groundwater risk from oil and gas development; rather, such assessments are planned to follow based on detailed analysis of data from the RMP near the oil fields selected for study in the future.

  9. Impacts of land use changes on groundwater resources in the Heihe River Basin%黑河流域土地利用变化对地下水资源的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王根绪; 杨玲媛; 陈玲

    2005-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have a great impact on the regional hydrological process.Based on three periods of remote sensing data from the 1960s and the long-term observed data of groundwater from the 1980s, the impacts of land use changes on the groundwater system in the middle reach of Heihe River Basin in recent three decades are analyzed by the perspective of groundwater recharge and discharge system. The results indicate that with the different intensities of land use changes, the impacts on the groundwater recharge were 2.602 × 108 m3/a in the former 15 years (1969-1985) and 0.218 ×108 m3/a in the latter 15 years (1986-2000), and the impacts on the groundwater discharge were 2.035 × 108 m3/a and 4.91 × 108 m3/a respectively. When the groundwater exploitation was in a reasonable range less than 3.0 × 108 m3/a, the land use changes could control the changes of regional groundwater resources. Influenced by the land use changes and the large-scale exploitation in the recent decade, the groundwater resources present apparently regional differences in Zhangye region. Realizing the impact of land use changes on groundwater system and the characteristics of spatial-temporal variations of regional groundwater resources would be very important for reasonably utilizing and managing water and soil resources.

  10. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  11. Benchmarking of human resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Akinnusi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of human resource management (HRM which, today, plays a strategic partnership role in management. The focus of the paper is on HRM in the public sector, where much hope rests on HRM as a means of transforming the public service and achieving much needed service delivery. However, a critical evaluation of HRM practices in the public sector reveals that these services leave much to be desired. The paper suggests the adoption of benchmarking as a process to revamp HRM in the public sector so that it is able to deliver on its promises. It describes the nature and process of benchmarking and highlights the inherent difficulties in applying benchmarking in HRM. It concludes with some suggestions for a plan of action. The process of identifying “best” practices in HRM requires the best collaborative efforts of HRM practitioners and academicians. If used creatively, benchmarking has the potential to bring about radical and positive changes in HRM in the public sector. The adoption of the benchmarking process is, in itself, a litmus test of the extent to which HRM in the public sector has grown professionally.

  12. Assessment of the development of aquifer management councils (COTAS) for sustainable groundwater management in Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Philippus; Sandoval Minero, Ricardo; Hoogesteger, Jaime

    2011-06-01

    Collective groundwater management by water users—self-regulation—is increasingly advocated as a complement to state regulation. This article analyzes the attempts by the Guanajuato State Water Commission (CEAG) in central Mexico to promote user self-regulation through the establishment and development of 14 Consejos Técnicos de Aguas (COTAS; Technical Water Councils). Based on a joint assessment by a former senior CEAG policy-maker and two researchers, Guanajuato's groundwater-management policy is reviewed to understand why user self-regulation was less successful than expected. It concludes that increasing awareness and improving the knowledge base on groundwater is not enough to trigger self-regulation by groundwater users. A wider delegation of responsibilities to the COTAS is necessary, combined with: (1) functioning mechanisms for enforcing groundwater legislation, especially concerning well permits and pumped volumes, and (2) mechanisms that ensure the legitimacy and accountability of users' representatives to both users and state agencies.

  13. Vulnerability Assessment of Groundwater Resources by Nutrient Source Apportionment to Individual Groundwater Wells: A Case Study in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, R.; Obenour, D. R.; Keyworth, A. J.; Genereux, D. P.; Mahinthakumar, K.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater contamination by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major concern in water table aquifers that underlie agricultural areas in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. High nutrient concentrations leaching into shallow groundwater can lead to human health problems and eutrophication of receiving surface waters. Liquid manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) stored in open-air lagoons and applied to spray fields can be a significant source of nutrients to groundwater, along with septic waste. In this study, we developed a model-based methodology for source apportionment and vulnerability assessment using sparse groundwater quality sampling measurements for Duplin County, North Carolina (NC), obtained by the NC Department of Environmental Quality (NC DEQ). This model provides information relevant to management by estimating the nutrient transport through the aquifer from different sources and addressing the uncertainty of nutrient contaminant propagation. First, the zones of influence (dependent on nutrient pathways) for individual groundwater monitoring wells were identified using a two-dimensional vertically averaged groundwater flow and transport model incorporating geologic uncertainty for the surficial aquifer system. A multiple linear regression approach is then applied to estimate the contribution weights for different nutrient source types using the nutrient measurements from monitoring wells and the potential sources within each zone of influence. Using the source contribution weights and their uncertainty, a probabilistic vulnerability assessment of the study area due to nutrient contamination is performed. Knowledge of the contribution of different nutrient sources to contamination at receptor locations (e.g., private wells, municipal wells, stream beds etc.) will be helpful in planning and implementation of appropriate mitigation measures.

  14. Valuing groundwater: A practical approach for integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groundwater economic values into decision making ... The methodology incorporates a 2-tiered valuation approach. .... groundwater systems in Botswana (SADC, 2010). .... tion) can be investigated to support water resource management.

  15. Beyond territory and scarcity - exploring conflicts over natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa......Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa...

  16. Large scale mapping of groundwater resources using a highly integrated set of tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Verner; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    platforms (e.g. SkyTEM) have made large-scale mapping attractive and affordable in the planning and administration of groundwater resources. The handling and optimized use of huge amounts of geophysical data covering large areas has also required a comprehensive database, where data can easily be stored......The aim of this abstract is to give a short description of the essential ideas of the Danish national strategy for large scale mapping of the groundwater resources.Emphasis will be put on a description of the advantages obtained by combining acquirement of spatially dense geophysical data covering...... large areas with information from an optimum number of new investigation boreholes, existing boreholes, logs and water samples to get an integrated and detailed description of the groundwater resources and their vulnerability.Development of more time efficient and airborne geophysical data acquisition...

  17. Strontium isotope geochemistry of alluvial groundwater: a tracer for groundwater resources characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Négrel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents strontium isotope and major ion data of shallow groundwater and river water from the Ile du Chambon catchment, located on the Allier river in the Massif Central (France. There are large variations in the major-element contents in the surface- and groundwater. Plotting of Na vs. Cl contents and Ca, Mg, NO3, K, SO4, HCO3, Sr concentrations reflect water–rock interaction (carbonate dissolution for Ca, Mg, HCO3 and Sr because the bedrock contains marly limestones, agricultural input (farming and fertilising and sewage effluents (for NO3, K, SO4, although some water samples are unpolluted. Sr contents and isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr vary from 0.70892 to 0.71180 along the hydrological cycle in the groundwater agree with previous work on groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the Loire catchment. The data plot along three directions in a 87Sr/86Sr v. 1/Sr diagram as a result of mixing, involving at least three geochemical signatures–Allier river water, and two distinct signatures that might be related to different water-rock interactions in the catchment. Mixing proportions are calculated and discussed. The alluvial aquifer of the Ile du Chambon catchment is considered, within the Sr isotope systematic, in a larger scheme that includes several alluvial aquifers of the Loire Allier catchment. Keywords: : Loire river, major and trace elements, Sr isotopic ratio, alluvial aquifer, hydrology

  18. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  19. SMSs INNOVATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra MIRONESCU; STEPIEN, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing the relationship between innovation and human resource management (HRM),attempting to establish whether innovation determines the firms human resource management or, conversely, human resource management influences the innovation level of the company. Based on this review, some research hypotheses are formulated. Articles findings results provide evidence that, in order to affect employee behaviour, the firms must develop a bundle of internally consistent HRM prac...

  20. How to quantify realization of WFD-objectives of groundwater resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Cors; Wuijts, Susanne; Boekhold, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is a major resource for drinking water in the Netherlands . Evaluation of the EU Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD) showed that protection of this valuable resource needs improval. Drinking Water Protection Files were set up to assess risks and identify actions needed regarding the identification and implementation of measures enhancing the protection level of groundwater resources in groundwater protection areas. Evaluation of these first generation protection files showed several issues for further improvement, among others on effectiveness of measures. In workshops we analyzed and discussed the feasibility to quantify the impact of measures by combining information on groundwater quality with experiences of stakeholders with success and failure factors. Although there is still a way to go in the quantification of the impact of measures regarding the EU-WFD objectives, these workshops contributed to insight in i) the joint experience we gained on measures and their implementation at different spatial scales, ii) the distribution of the measures over identified risks (i.e. nitrate, pesticides and emerging contaminants) and iii) the estimated contribution of methods to reach the WFD objectives and knowledge gaps. From discussions in the national working group on protection files, it became clear that this analysis is a valuable first step in prioritizing and implementing the measures. Adequate monitoring of implemented measures will additionally contribute to a more quantitative assessment of the realization of the objectives of groundwater resources.

  1. Resource Management in Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei IONESCU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile cloud computing is a major research topic in Information Technology & Communications. It integrates cloud computing, mobile computing and wireless networks. While mainly built on cloud computing, it has to operate using more heterogeneous resources with implications on how these resources are managed and used. Managing the resources of a mobile cloud is not a trivial task, involving vastly different architectures. The process is outside the scope of human users. Using the resources by the applications at both platform and software tiers come with its own challenges. This paper presents different approaches in use for managing cloud resources at infrastructure and platform levels.

  2. Quality of our groundwater resources: arsenic and fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater often contains arsenic or fluoride concentrations too high for drinking or cooking. These constituents, often naturally occurring, are not easy to remove. The right combination of natural or manmade conditions can lead to elevated arsenic or fluoride which includes continental source rocks, high alkalinity and pH, reducing conditions for arsenic, high phosphate, high temperature and high silica. Agencies responsible for safe drinking water should be aware of these conditions, be prepared to monitor, and treat if necessary.

  3. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Groundwater resistivity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available group to characterise the subsurface. This includes delineating drilling positions for water supply pur- poses (changes in both porosity and water saturation); defining pollution plumes around waste sites (changes in salinity of the groundwater... on the research project into aquifer dependant ecosystems in South Africa. The Langebaan Lagoon, West Coast National Park, has been classified as a wetland of international importance in terms of the Ramsar Convention because of its diverse bird life...

  4. Groundwater flow model management and case studies in Emilia-Romagna (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Chahoud

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of groundwater modeling to support the planning and management of water resources is a possible goal of a long and detailed course of study and research. The present work concerns some applications carried out within the aquifers of the Emilia-Romagna plain in northern Italy. The main features of the developed and available mathematical models are reported as well as the geological and hydrogeological description of the analyzed aquifers. The main operational choices that have characterized the implementation of all models and their continuous development and updating are discussed. Activity has been focused to maintain active the data stream between the models to improve their functionality along with time to give a basis for models management. Models have been used in different applications which indicate the potential for their use with targeted objectives of planning and management. Two examples at two different scales are given: the first shows the application to the entire aquifer of the Emilia-Romagna region, which has been able to adapt simulations to new groundwater bodies defined in accordance with 2000/60/EC directive, the current regulatory framework for the planning of water resources. This framework provides for the establishment of programs of measures whose level of effectiveness can be estimated with the support of models. The second concerns a more detailed scale model in reference to a specific evaluation of feasibility of an intervention of artificial recharge. The management approach used here is the result of over 10 years development and application and now allows to apply numerical models in a role of systematic service in support of the institutions involved in planning and management of groundwater resources.

  5. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  6. The Effectiveness of Human Resource Management Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric Ng Chee Hong; Lam Zheng Hao; Ramesh Kumar; Charles Ramendran; Vimala Kadiresan

    2012-01-01

    An effective human resource management practices namely employee empowerment, training and development, appraisal system compensation are the main factor for the success of a firm on employee retention...

  7. Computation of groundwater resources and recharge in Chithar River Basin, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, T; Babu, Savithri; Elango, L

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater recharge and available groundwater resources in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India spread over an area of 1,722 km(2) have been estimated by considering various hydrological, geological, and hydrogeological parameters, such as rainfall infiltration, drainage, geomorphic units, land use, rock types, depth of weathered and fractured zones, nature of soil, water level fluctuation, saturated thickness of aquifer, and groundwater abstraction. The digital ground elevation models indicate that the regional slope of the basin is towards east. The Proterozoic (Post-Archaean) basement of the study area consists of quartzite, calc-granulite, crystalline limestone, charnockite, and biotite gneiss with or without garnet. Three major soil types were identified namely, black cotton, deep red, and red sandy soils. The rainfall intensity gradually decreases from west to east. Groundwater occurs under water table conditions in the weathered zone and fluctuates between 0 and 25 m. The water table gains maximum during January after northeast monsoon and attains low during October. Groundwater abstraction for domestic/stock and irrigational needs in Chithar River basin has been estimated as 148.84 MCM (million m(3)). Groundwater recharge due to monsoon rainfall infiltration has been estimated as 170.05 MCM based on the water level rise during monsoon period. It is also estimated as 173.9 MCM using rainfall infiltration factor. An amount of 53.8 MCM of water is contributed to groundwater from surface water bodies. Recharge of groundwater due to return flow from irrigation has been computed as 147.6 MCM. The static groundwater reserve in Chithar River basin is estimated as 466.66 MCM and the dynamic reserve is about 187.7 MCM. In the present scenario, the aquifer is under safe condition for extraction of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes. If the existing water bodies are maintained properly, the extraction rate can be increased in future about 10% to 15%.

  8. Geologic and geophysical models for Osage County, Oklahoma, with implications for groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Smith, David V.; Pantea, Michael P.; Becker, Carol J.

    2016-06-16

    This report summarizes a three-dimensional (3-D) geologic model that was constructed to provide a framework to investigate groundwater resources of the Osage Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. This report also presents an analysis of an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey that assessed the spatial variation of electrical resistivity to depths as great as 300 meters in the subsurface. The report and model provide support for a countywide assessment of groundwater resources, emphasizing the Upper Pennsylvanian rock units in the shallow subsurface of central and eastern Osage County having electrical resistivity properties that may indicate aquifers.

  9. The use of surrogates for an optimal management of coupled groundwater-agriculture hydrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, J.; Schütze, N.; Brettschneider, M.; Schmitz, G. H.; Lennartz, F.

    2012-04-01

    For ensuring an optimal sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments, we develop a new simulation based integrated water management system. It aims at achieving best possible solutions for groundwater withdrawals for agricultural and municipal water use including saline water management together with a substantial increase of the water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture. To achieve a robust and fast operation of the management system regarding water quality and water quantity we develop appropriate surrogate models by combining physically based process modelling with methods of artificial intelligence. Thereby we use an artificial neural network for modelling the aquifer response, inclusive the seawater interface, which was trained on a scenario database generated by a numerical density depended groundwater flow model. For simulating the behaviour of high productive agricultural farms crop water production functions are generated by means of soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transport (SVAT)-models, adapted to the regional climate conditions, and a novel evolutionary optimisation algorithm for optimal irrigation scheduling and control. We apply both surrogates exemplarily within a simulation based optimisation environment using the characteristics of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into the coastal aquifer due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our methodology for the evaluation and optimisation of different irrigation practices, cropping pattern and resulting abstraction scenarios. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs. aquifer sustainability a multi-criterial optimisation is performed.

  10. APPLICATION OF MODERN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    resource management practices by women SME owner/managers in Kenya. The objectives of the ... parts of Kenya, who had been identified for entrepreneurship training in Nairobi in. 2013. ..... International Journal of Academic. Research in ...

  11. Management of surface water and groundwater withdrawals to maintain environmental stream flows in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.; Seelbach, Paul W.; Nicholas, James R.; Hamilton, David A.; Potter, Kenneth W.; Frevert, Donald K.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the State of Michigan enacted legislation requiring that new or increased high-capacity withdrawals (greater than 100,000 gallons per day) from either surface water or groundwater be reviewed to prevent Adverse Resource Impacts (ARI). Science- based guidance was sought in defining how groundwater or surface-water withdrawals affect streamflow and in quantifying the relation between reduced streamflow and changes in stream ecology. The implementation of the legislation led to a risk-based system based on a gradient of risk, ecological response curves, and estimation of groundwater-surface water interaction. All Michigan streams are included in the legislation, and, accordingly, all Michigan streams were classified into management types defined by size of watershed, stream-water temperature, and predicted fish assemblages. Different streamflow removal percentages define risk-based thresholds allowed for each type. These removal percentages were informed by ecological response curves of characteristic fish populations and finalized through a legislative workgroup process. The assessment process includes an on-line screening tool that may be used to evaluate new or increased withdrawals against the risk-based zones and allows withdrawals that are not likely to cause an ARI to proceed to water-use registration. The system is designed to consider cumulative impacts of high-capacity withdrawals and to promote user involvement in water resource management by the establishment of water-user committees as cumulative withdrawals indicate greater potential for ARI in the watershed.

  12. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1993 and 1993 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The AMB wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) are monitored for selected constituents to comply with the Natural Resources Defense council et al. Consent Decree of May 1988 that identifies the Met Lab HWMF as subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. In addition, the wells are monitored, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During the fourth quarter 1993, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards; pH, specific conductance, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water-table unit were similar to previous quarters.

  13. Evaluation model coupling exploitable groundwater resources and land subsidence control in regional loose sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Z. J.; Zhao, S. J.; Jin, WZ; Ma, Q. S.; Wu, X. H.

    2016-08-01

    The loose sediments in the Yangtze River Delta, the North China Plain, the plain of Northern Jiangsu and other districts in China are of great thickness, complex in structure and abundant in groundwater. Groundwater overexploitation easily results in geological disasters of land subsidence. Aiming at the issues, assessment models coupling exploitable groundwater resources and land subsidence control in regional loose sediments were brought up in this paper. The two models were: (1) a three dimensional groundwater seepage model with land subsidence based on the one dimensional Terzaghi consolidation theory; (2) a three dimensional full coupling model on groundwater seepage and land subsidence based on the Biot consolidation theory to simulate and calculate. It can be used to simulate and calculate the problems in real situations. Thus, the groundwater seepage and land subsidence were coupled together in the model to evaluate the amount of exploitable groundwater under the specific requirements of land subsidence control. The full coupling model, which considers the non-linear characteristics of soil mass and the dynamic changes of soil permeability with stress state based on the Biot consolidation theory, is more coincident with the variation characteristics of the hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil mass during the pumping process, making the evaluation results more scientific and reasonable.

  14. Rural and agricultural value of groundwater as an economic resource in the Limpopo region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahumani, BK

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available of effective groundwater pricing policy for better groundwater demand management in both domestic and agricultural use. Such policies could contribute to meeting the societal goals of economic efficiency and social equity. iv... ook die belangrikste bron van water, behalwe gedurende sekere tye wanneer besproeiingsdamme met vloedwater gevul word. Dan word grondwater om ekonomiese redes gedeeltelik met oppervlakwater vervang. In hierdie studie is die ekonomiese waarde...

  15. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTIPROJECT ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available А monograph is presented, whose purpose is to justify the need to adapt the system for human resources management to a multiproject context and to propose alternatives for making appropriate amendments. First chapter "Human resources management as a function of general management" examines the relationship between human resource management and organizational effectiveness in the light of the perception of human resources as the main competitive advantage of the modern organization and the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the management of human resources. Special attention is paid to the content and structure of this system. Chapter Two "The multiproject organization as a modern working environment" is dedicated to the project management as a management concept and clarifies the essence of project management, the concept of the project lifecycle, criteria and critical success factors of the project. Emphasis is placed on the multiproject organization as a natural environment of project management by clarifying the nature and characteristics of this type of organization and positioning options for structural projects in it. The focus in the chapter “Specifications of human resource management in the multiproject environment" is the need for changes in the management of human resources and alternatives to adapt the system for managing human resources to conditions of the multiproject environment through specific changes in its content and structure. Chapter Four "Human Resource Management in the multiproject environment" presents the results of an empirical study. Based on the outlined conceptual framework of the study, specifying the purpose, objectives, methodology and tools, consistently carried out a comparative analysis of human resources management as a strategic organizational priority project activity as a strategic organizational priority, efficiency and basic problems of multiproject medium degree of adapting the system

  16. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  17. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  18. Reducing the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination by using brackish groundwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ivan; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodríguez

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to find out whether or not, and to what extent, the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination are reduced when brackish groundwater is used instead of sea water. In order to answer this question, the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used, and two water production plants are compared. The brackish groundwater scenario is based on a plant located in Almería (southern Spain), while the sea water scenario is based on literature data. Four impact categories and two environmental indicators, one of them related to brine discharge, are included. The results show that the key life-cycle issue of brackish groundwater desalination is electricity consumption, and since this is substantially reduced with regard to using sea water, the life-cycle impacts are found to be almost 50% lower. An uncertainty analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation shows that these environmental savings are significant for all impact categories. Potential local impacts provoked by brine discharge are also found to be lower, due to a reduced content of salts. It is concluded that, when and wherever possible, exploitation of brackish groundwater resources should be assigned priority to sea water resources as an input for reverse osmosis desalination, although it must be taken into account that groundwater, as opposed to sea water, is a limited resource.

  19. Evaluating Groundwater Management Sustainability under Limited Data Availability in Semiarid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Senent-Aparicio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have devoted their efforts to finding an objective measurement of sustainability by developing evaluation tools based on sustainability indices. These indexes not only reveal the current state of water resources in a given area but also contribute to the development and implementation of effective sustainable water management and decision-making. The great disadvantage of these indices is that for proper application, a number of variables are necessary and they are usually not available in data-scarce aquifers. This study was designed to evaluate sustainability in groundwater resource management in an aquifer in a semiarid zone, using readily available parameters and under a pressure-state-response framework. This methodology has been applied to an aquifer in Southeast Spain with satisfactory results, since the indicators that were evaluated reflect the two main problems that hinder sustainable resource management: the contamination of groundwater by intensive local farming; and the need for external inputs from other basins to alleviate water stress. Therefore, the methodology used can be replicated in other areas with similar characteristics to those of the case study.

  20. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M; Grondona, M

    2002-12-19

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. This paper presents an overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  1. SLURM: Simplex Linux Utility for Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M; Grondona, M

    2003-04-22

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling, and stream copy modules. This paper presents an overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  2. Regional Analysis of the Effects of Oil and Gas Development on Groundwater Resources in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M. K.; McMahon, P. B.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Ball, L. B.; Gillespie, J. M.; Shimabukuro, D.; Taylor, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board is collaborating with the U.S. Geological Survey to implement a Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) to assess potential interactions between oil/gas stimulation treatment and groundwater resources. The effects of stimulation on groundwater resources will be difficult to distinguish from the effects of other past or present components of oil and gas development. As a result, the RMP is designed to provide an overall assessment of the effects of oil and gas development on groundwater quality. During 2016-17, the study is focused on selected priority oilfields in the eastern and western portions of the San Joaquin Valley in Kern County to: (1) produce three-dimensional (3D) salinity maps, (2) characterize the chemical composition of groundwater and produced water, and (3) identify the extent to which fluids from oil and gas development may be moving into protected (total dissolved solids less than 10,000 milligrams per liter) groundwater at regional scales. Analysis of available salinity data near oil/gas fields indicates there are regional patterns to salinity depth profiles; however, data gaps between the depths of water and oil/gas wells are common. These results provide a foundation for more detailed oilfield-scale salinity mapping, which includes geophysical methods (borehole, surface, and airborne) to fill data gaps. The RMP sampling-well networks are designed to evaluate groundwater quality along transects from oil/gas fields into adjacent aquifers and consist of existing wells supplemented by monitoring-well installation in priority locations identified by using 3D visualization of hydrogeologic data. The analytes include constituents with different transport characteristics such as dissolved gases, inorganic components (brines), and petroleum compounds. Analytes were selected because of their potential usefulness for understanding processes and pathways by which fluids from oilfield sources reach groundwater.

  3. Resource Management in Diffserv (RMD) Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westberg, L.; Jacobsson, M.; Oosthoek, S.; Partain, D.; Rexhepi, V.; Szabo, R.; Wallentin, P.; Karagiannis, G.; Westberg, L.; Jacobsson, M.; Oosthoek, S.; Partain, D.; Rexhepi, V.; Szabo, R.; Wallentin, P.; Karagiannis, G.

    2003-01-01

    This draft presents the work on the framework for the Resource Management in Diffserv (RMD) designed for edge-to-edge resource reservation in a Differentiated Services (Diffserv) domain. The RMD extends the Diffserv architecture with new resource reservation concepts and features. Moreover, this fra

  4. Managing Human Resources in a Multinational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumetzberger, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To develop more sensitivity for different patterns of human resource management in multinational companies. Design/methodology/approach: Systemic approach; the concepts and models are based on the evaluation of consulting projects in the field of human resource management. Findings: A concept of four typical varieties of human resource…

  5. Managing Human Resources in a Multinational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumetzberger, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To develop more sensitivity for different patterns of human resource management in multinational companies. Design/methodology/approach: Systemic approach; the concepts and models are based on the evaluation of consulting projects in the field of human resource management. Findings: A concept of four typical varieties of human resource…

  6. 7 CFR 210.14 - Resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource management. 210.14 Section 210.14 Agriculture... Participation § 210.14 Resource management. (a) Nonprofit school food service. School food authorities shall.... Expenditures of nonprofit school food service revenues shall be in accordance with the financial...

  7. Program Management Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Program Management Collection, which covers the topics of Assessment, Learning Disabilities, and Program Improvement. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management,…

  8. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Anne-Marie; Godskesen, Berit; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource......Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were...... used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2...

  9. Groundwater resources in the State of São Paulo (Brazil: the application of indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hirata

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Indicators, for groundwater resources, have mostly been employed to define the present status and the degradation tendency, regarding both quantity (under- or overexploitation and quality (natural and anthropic contamination. This work presents the application of indicators in order to draw a picture of the groundwater resources situation in the 22 Water Resource Management Units (WRMU of the State of São Paulo. The seven Indicators (I1 to I7 applied provide a general overview of groundwater dependence (I1, I2, availability (I3, I4, and quality (I5, I6, I7. Considering public supply (Indicator 1, one observes that 9 WRMUs show high (>50% of the population supplied by groundwater, 6, intermediate (49-25%, and 7, low (Indicadores, para recursos hídricos subterrâneos, têm sido utilizados principalmente para a avaliação da situação atual e tendência de degradação, com relação tanto à quantidade (sub- ou super-exploração como à qualidade (contaminações natural e antrópica. Neste sentido, este trabalho apresenta a aplicação de indicadores com o objetivo de obter um quadro geral da situação dos recursos hídricos nas 22 Unidades de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos (UGRHI do Estado de São Paulo. Foram aplicados 7 indicadores (I1 a I7 com o objetivo de fornecer uma visão geral com relação à dependência (I1 e I2, disponibilidade (I3 e I4, e qualidade (I5, I6 e I7 da água subterrânea. No que se refere ao abastecimento público (indicador 1, 9 UGRHIs apresentam alta ( > 50% da população é suprida por água subterrânea, 6, intermediária (49 a 25% e 7, baixa ( < 24% dependência do recurso hídrico subterrâneo. Os indicadores 3 e 4 mostram que o recurso ainda apresenta grande potencial para explotações adicionais na maioria das UGRHIs, no entanto há evidências de superexploração nas bacias do Alto Tietê, Turvo/Grande e Pardo e baixa disponibilidade nas bacias do Alto Tietê, Piracicaba/Capivari/Jundiaí, e Turvo

  10. Energy Efficient Resource Management in Mobile Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient computing has recently become hot research area. Many works have been carried out on conserving energy, but considering energy efficiency in grid computing is few. This paper proposes energy efficient resource management in mobile grid. The objective of energy efficient resource management in mobile grid is to maximize the utility of the mobile grid which is denoted as the sum of grid application utility. The utility function models benefits of application and system. By using nonlinear optimization theory, energy efficient resource management in mobile grid can be formulated as multi objective optimization problem. In order to derive a distributed algorithm to solve global optimization problem in mobile grid, we decompose the problem into the sub problems. The proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm decomposes the optimization problem via iterative method. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, the simulations are conducted to compare proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm with other energy aware scheduling algorithm.

  11. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Management Plan (RMP) describes the NTS Stewardship Mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. The NTS Stewardship Mission is to manage the land and facilities at the NTS as a unique and valuable national resource. The RMP has defined goals for twelve resource areas based on the principles of ecosystem management. These goals were established using an interdisciplinary team of DOE/NV resource specialists with input from surrounding land managers, private parties, and representatives of Native American governments. The overall goal of the RMP is to facilitate improved NTS land use management decisions within the Great Basin and Mojave Desert ecoregions.

  12. Cognitive resource management for heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief focuses on cognitive resource management in heterogeneous cellular networks (Het Net) with small cell deployment for the LTE-Advanced system. It introduces the Het Net features, presents practical approaches using cognitive radio technology in accommodating small cell data relay and optimizing resource allocation and examines the effectiveness of resource management among small cells given limited coordination bandwidth and wireless channel uncertainty. The authors introduce different network characteristics of small cell, investigate the mesh of small cell access points in

  13. Flood water storage as a resource for agriculture and groundwater recharge: the empting of artificial leaking ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oria, M.; Tanda, M.; Zanini, A.

    2008-12-01

    The large industrialization, intensive agriculture and the increasing population is giving rise to a lack of water resources. There is the need of capturing runoff for storing the water and using it during dry periods, but people now opposes to the realization of new dams. In Italy Public Authorities are showing a great interest in using ponds or small lakes located in the fluvial surroundings for storing water. The reservoirs can be filled up during flood events and can become, maintaining the water for a certain period, a resource for agriculture and a source of artificial recharge of groundwater. The hydraulic risks in the management of such small structures and the economic budget are lower than those involved in traditional reservoirs. In this work we propose a set of relationships with the aim of describing the interactions between the pond lakes and the beneath groundwater. This methodology allows to estimate the emptying time of the lake and its relative flow rate in a very fast way. It requires only a few parameters: the geometry of the problem, the initial lake and groundwater level and the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer and of the bottom of the lake. The solution of the problem was split in two cases: groundwater level always below the lakebed and groundwater level interacting with the lake level. It is possible to identify the two cases comparing the maximum flow rate drained from the aquifer (QS) to the one provided by the lake (QL). If QS is greater than QL the groundwater level maintains below the lakebed and vice versa. The two cases are well represented by simple relationships developed by the authors. These relationships were obtained using the results provided by a numerical model developed using MODFLOW 2000 with the LAKE3 package. Considering the first case, the relationship between the lake, groundwater level, the time and the leakance is represented by a straight line in a semi-logarithmic plane. In the case of the lake interconnected

  14. Nevada Test Site 2001 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2001 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Due to detections of TOC and TOX in some samples collected in 2000, a plan, as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), was executed to collect an increased number and type of samples in 2001. Results from all samples collected in 2001 were below ILs. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 RWMS and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year.

  15. Management of the Arsenic Groundwater System Lagunera - MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boochs, P. W.; Billib, M.; Aparicio, J.; Gutierrez, C.

    2007-05-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is considered one of the most important environmental causes of cancer mortality in the world. Groundwater resources of the Comarca Lagunera region (Northern Mexico), which represents the main source of drinking water for more than 2 million people in the area, show arsenic concentrations ranging from 5 to 750 micro g/l. Large areas have concentrations quite above the Mexican standard of 25 micro g/l for human use and consumption. The aquifer is overexploited and the groundwater levels at the central part of the aquifer are drawn down more than 100 m in less than 50 years. The drawdown provoked the dissolution and migration of the geogenic existing arsenic within the aquifer. The presence of arsenic has been related to several potential sources. It was found out, that the main source is geothermal activity, less mining and the use of arsenical pesticides. The process of the geneses of the arsenic pollution implicates, that the highest content is on the bottom of the aquifer. Data analysis showed, that arsenic concentration is correlated to the age of the groundwater. "Older" water has higher arsenic content than "younger" water and the oldest water can be found at the bottom of the aquifer. Before 1950 the groundwater level in the Comarca Lagunera was close to the surface and there were only dug and shallow wells with low groundwater abstraction. The water was pumped from the upper parts of the aquifer and because this was "young" water it had low arsenic content. Then after 1950 a lot of wells, mainly for irrigation, were built and in 2002 there were 2350 active wells with an abstraction of about 1088 Mio cbm/year. In consequence to this the groundwater level decreased extraordinary. More and more "older" water was pumped and the arsenic content increased. Furthermore at the beginning of 1960 the river Nazas was canalized and lined, so that the natural groundwater recharge by infiltration from the river was stopped. By this way, the

  16. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Cecilia - Nicoleta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with other material, financial resources, human resource is an indispensable element of each work process. The concept of human resource derives exactly from the fact that it has a limited nature and it is consumed by usage in the workplace. Any work process cannot be developed without the labour factor. Work is essentially a conscious activity specific to humans through which they release certain labour objects and transforms them according to his needs.

  17. Optimization of water resources management using SWOT analysis: the case of Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, P.; Voudouris, K.

    2008-03-01

    Zakynthos, an island of 408 km2 in the Ionian Sea, is completely dependent on its groundwater resources for fulfilling the demands of the water supplies. The use of groundwater resources has become particularly intensive during the last decades because of the intense urbanization, the tourist development and the irrigated land expansion that took place. The main aquifers are developed in limestones (karstic), sandstones of neogene deposits (confined) and alluvial deposits (phreatic). This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydrogeological characteristics and the groundwater quality. For this investigation, groundwater level measurements, drilling data, pumping tests and chemical analyses of groundwater samples were used. The average annual consumption that is abstracted from the aquifer systems, is 4.9 × 106 m3 year-1. The exploitable groundwater reserves were estimated to be 3.3 × 106 m3 year-1. In the last decades, the total abstractions exceed the natural recharge, due to the tourist development; therefore the aquifer systems are not used safely. The results of chemical analyses showed a deterioration of the groundwater quality. According to the analyses the shallow alluvial aquifer and the confined aquifer are polluted by nitrates at concentrations in excess of 25 mg L-1. High sulphate concentrations might be related to the dissolution of gypsum. Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in coastal parts of aquifer systems. The increased Cl- concentrations in karstic aquifer indicate signs of overexploitation. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was applied in order to evaluate the SWOT of the groundwater resources. Moreover, some recommendations are made to assist the rational management that aim at improving the sustainability of the groundwater resources of Zakynthos Island.

  18. EUGRIS: ''European Substainable Land and Groundwater Management Information System''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, J. [Federal Environmental Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation outlines and Accompanying Measure with the FP 5 to develop an web based EUropean Sustainable Land and GRoundwater Management Information System information system (EUGRIS). The management of contaminated land and groundwater requires an interdisciplinary approach and a considerable amount of supporting technical information and knowledge. EUGRIS will provide a generally available comprehensive and overarching information and innovation resource, to support both research and practical contaminated land and groundwater management. EUGRI is a gateway to provide a 'one stop shop' for information provided by research projects, legislation, standards, best practice and other technical guidance and policy/regulatory publications from the EC, participating Member and Accession States and from various international networks dealing with groundwater and land management issues. Different types of user can access information through different windows according to their needs. EUGRIS will provide its visitors with summary information (digests) and links to sources of more detailed and/or original information in a scaleable holistic and contexturally meaningful way. EUGRIS is being built in three stages: the design of the information system, the development of its software implementation, and the population of the system with information. The presentation is focussed on the concept of the development of the information system with the individual work packages. In the second part of the lecture in particular the work procedures are presented for the content wise replenishment by EUGRIS. The data collation for the proven pilot countries and the production of a European research data base, which opens contents and results of European-wide locked and current projects, form the emphasis thereby. (orig.)

  19. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, First quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    During first quarter 1994, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults, and the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), copper, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, mercury, nonvolatile beta, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in one Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) well. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  20. Investigation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg Concentrations in Groundwater Resources of Razan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is located in the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required fresh water is exploited from groundwater resources. Due to the increasing pol-lution of water resources, the purpose of this study was evaluation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg concentrations in groundwater resources of Razan Plain and preparing the zoning map using GIS. Materials & Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 selected stations during two seasons in 2012. The samples were filtered (0.45 ?m and maintained cool in polyethyl-ene bottles. The samples were taken for the analysis of cations, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Minor elements were determined using ICP-OES. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Also, Kriging Method was used to prepare spatial distribution maps of elements in groundwater samples. Results: The results showed that the mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg in the groundwater samples during the spring were 5.60±0.66, 0.21±0.04, 32.10±2.21 and 6990.0±302.10 ppb, respectively, and the mean concentrations of these elements in the groundwater samples in the summer were 4.86±0.46, 0.30±0.08, 25.55±3.63 and 3654.05±215.65 ppb, respectively. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (p<0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Conclusion: Although the groundwater resources of Razan Plain are not currently polluted with heavy metals, long-term excessive use of agricultural inputs and establishment of pollut-ing industries, can pose a threat to groundwater resources of this area. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:319-329

  1. A Consideration of Human Resource Management Future

    OpenAIRE

    Samad Nasiri; Sahar Valikhanfard Zanjani

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of future events, at best, is a risky endeavor. Researchers and theorists have different views about what will happen to human resource managers. Most research has been done on topics of technology, intellectual capital, and government regulation, workforce demographic changes, shrinking organizations, international management and globalization. It is evident that all the issues mentioned play a very important role in human resource management over the coming decades, and some ...

  2. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in the Southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  3. Strategic Management of Network Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Riis, Philip Holst

    2011-01-01

    analyzes these resources in terms of being valuable, rare, inimitable, immobile, and non-substitutable in the ERP solutions market. The study found four key complementary resources that contribute to competitive advantage, namely: (1) ERP core product; (2) horizontal add-ons; (3) vertical add-ons; and (4...

  4. Review of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in coastal zones of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions of the United States with management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, C A; Corbett, D R

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater serves as the primary drinking water source for over half of the coastal populations of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions, two of the fastest growing regions in the United States. Increased demand for this resource has exceeded sustainable yields in many areas and induced saltwater intrusion of coastal aquifers. A process associated with coastal groundwater, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), has been documented as a source of subsurface fluids to coastal ocean environments throughout the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions and is potentially a significant contributor to nearshore water and geochemical budgets (i.e., nutrients, carbon, trace metals) in many coastal regions. The importance of groundwater as a drinking water source for coastal populations and the influences of submarine groundwater discharge to the coastal ocean warrant increased research and management of this resource. This paper highlights findings from recent SGD studies on three hydrogeologically different continental margins (Onslow Bay, NC, southern Florida, and the Louisiana margin), provides background on the common methods of assessing SGD, and suggests a regional management plan for coastal groundwater resources. Suggested strategies call for assessments of SGD in areas of potentially significant discharge, development of new monitoring networks, and the incorporation of a regional coastal groundwater resources council.

  5. Ecology-oriented groundwater resource assessment in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. Y.; Wang, W. K.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, G. H.; Li, W. L.

    2016-08-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, a close relationship exists between groundwater and supergene eco-environmental issues such as swampiness, soil salinization, desertification, vegetation degradation, reduction of stream base flow, and disappearance of lakes and wetlands. When the maximum allowable withdrawal of groundwater (AWG) is assessed, an ecology-oriented regional groundwater resource assessment (RGRA) method should be used. In this study, a hierarchical assessment index system of the supergene eco-environment was established based on field survey data and analysis of the supergene eco-environment factors influenced by groundwater in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China. The assessment system comprised 11 indices, including geomorphological type, lithology and structure of the vadose zone, depth of the water table (DWT), total dissolved solids content of groundwater, etc. Weights for all indices were calculated using an analytical hierarchy process. Then, the current eco-environmental conditions were assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Under the imposed constraints, and using both the assessment results on the current eco-environment situation and the ecological constraint of DWT (1.5-5.0 m), the maximum AWG (0.408 × 108 m3/a or 24.29 % of the river base flow) was determined. This was achieved by combining the groundwater resource assessment with the supergene eco-environmental assessment based on FCE. If the maximum AWG is exceeded in a watershed, the eco-environment will gradually deteriorate and produce negative environmental effects. The ecology-oriented maximum AWG can be determined by the ecology-oriented RGRA method, and thus sustainable groundwater use in similar watersheds in other arid and semi-arid regions can be achieved.

  6. Ecology-oriented groundwater resource assessment in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. Y.; Wang, W. K.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, G. H.; Li, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, a close relationship exists between groundwater and supergene eco-environmental issues such as swampiness, soil salinization, desertification, vegetation degradation, reduction of stream base flow, and disappearance of lakes and wetlands. When the maximum allowable withdrawal of groundwater (AWG) is assessed, an ecology-oriented regional groundwater resource assessment (RGRA) method should be used. In this study, a hierarchical assessment index system of the supergene eco-environment was established based on field survey data and analysis of the supergene eco-environment factors influenced by groundwater in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China. The assessment system comprised 11 indices, including geomorphological type, lithology and structure of the vadose zone, depth of the water table (DWT), total dissolved solids content of groundwater, etc. Weights for all indices were calculated using an analytical hierarchy process. Then, the current eco-environmental conditions were assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Under the imposed constraints, and using both the assessment results on the current eco-environment situation and the ecological constraint of DWT (1.5-5.0 m), the maximum AWG (0.408 × 108 m3/a or 24.29 % of the river base flow) was determined. This was achieved by combining the groundwater resource assessment with the supergene eco-environmental assessment based on FCE. If the maximum AWG is exceeded in a watershed, the eco-environment will gradually deteriorate and produce negative environmental effects. The ecology-oriented maximum AWG can be determined by the ecology-oriented RGRA method, and thus sustainable groundwater use in similar watersheds in other arid and semi-arid regions can be achieved.

  7. Community-based natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben

    This technical note is the product of a long process of consultation with a wide range of resource persons who have over the years been involved in the Danish support to Community Based Natural Resource Management. It gives a brief introduction to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM......) and how this concept may be used as a development strategy. CBNRM has the triple objective of poverty reduction, natural resource conservation and good governance. The opportunity and challenge is to pursue these objectives simultaneously, as they are not, by default, mutually supportive. Lessons learnt......, resource conservation and good governance, and whether other resource management systems would be better will always be subject to context analysis and political debate. Accordingly, CBNRM is rather a development process and constant power struggle. Thus, even after years of implementation, donors...

  8. Assessment groundwater monitoring plan for single shell tank waste management area B-BX-BY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caggiano, J.A.

    1996-09-27

    Single Shell Tank Waste Management Area B-BX-BY has been placed into groundwater quality assessment monitoring under interim-status regulations. This document presents background and an assessment groundwater monitoring plan to evaluate any impacts of risks/spills from these Single Shell Tanks in WMA B-BX-BY on groundwater quality.

  9. Geology and ground-water resources of Washington County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Harold E.

    1964-01-01

    to the thickness of saturated material. Development of ground water for irrigation has been generally restricted to the South Platte, Arikaree, and Beaver valleys. There were 134 irrigation wells, 3 industrial wells, and 10 municipal wells in the county in 1959. The annual ground-water pumpage from Washington County is estimated to be 18,000 acre-ft; about 10,000 acre-ft is from the High Plains ground-water province. Although some ground water enters the county as underflow, most of the recharge to ground-water reservoirs is from precipitation on the land surface. Recharge to the Ogallala Formation in the county is assumed to be approximately equal to the natural discharge from the county by underflow because ground-water withdrawals are from storage, and no other significant amount of natural discharge is apparent. Undertow in the Ogallala was calculated to be 83,000 acre-ft per year and the rate of recharge from precipitation to be about 0.95 inch per year. Neither recharge nor discharge was calculated for that part of the county in the South Platte River basin. All ground water in Washington County has a high proportion of carbonate and is classed as hard to very hard. The sodium-adsorption-ratio for all samples analyzed was below the limit recommended for irrigation water. All the water from the Ogallala Formation and most of the water from the Chadron Formation is suitable for domestic use. Some water from the alluvial deposits overlying the Pierre Shale was exceptionally high in calcium, magnesium, and sodium sulfates. Ground water has been heavily developed for irrigation in the South Platte valley and in some parts of the Beaver and Arikaree valleys. Some additional areas, however, could be developed in the latter two valleys. Large quantities of ground water in the Ogallala Formation are available for future development. The quantity of water in storage in the High Plains ground-water province in Washington County is about 6.5 million acre-f

  10. Managing human resources to improve employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    Managers face increased challenges as the demand for health care services increases while the supply of employees with the requisite skills continues to lag. Employee retention will become more important in the effort to service health care needs. Appropriate human resource management strategies and policies implemented effectively can significantly assist managers in dealing with the employee retention challenges ahead.

  11. Integrated Spatial Modeling using Geoinformatics: A Prerequisite for Natural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katpatal, Y. B.

    2014-12-01

    Every natural system calls for complete visualization for its holistic and sustainable development. Many a times, especially in developing countries, the approaches deviate from this basic paradigm and results in ineffective management of the natural resources. This becomes more relevant in these countries which are witnessing heavy exodus of the rural population to urban areas increasing the pressures on the basic commodities. Spatial technologies which provide the opportunity to enhance the knowledge visualization of the policy makers and administrators which facilitates technical and scientific management of the resources. Increasing population has created negative impacts on the per capita availability of several resources, which has been well accepted in the statistical records of several developing countries. For instance, the per capita availability of water in India has decreased substantially in last decade and groundwater depletion is on the rise. There is hence a need of tool which helps in restoring the resource through visualization and evaluation temporally. Geological parameters play an important role in operation of several natural systems and earth sciences parameters may not be ignored. Spatial technologies enables application of 2D as well as 3D modeling taking into account variety of natural parameters related to diverse areas. The paper presents case studies where spatial technology has helped in not only understanding the natural systems but also providing solutions, especially in Indian context. The case studies relate to Groundwater Management, Watershed and Basin Management, Groundwater recharge, Environment sustainability using spatial technology. Key Words: Spatial model, Groundwater, Hydrogeology, Geoinformatics, Sustainable Development.

  12. Storm: lightning-fast resource management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frachtenberg, E. (Eitan); Petrini, F. (Fabrizio); Fernández, J. C. (Juan C.); Pakin, S. D. (Scott D.); Coll, S. (Salvador)

    2002-01-01

    Although workstation clusters are a common platform for high-performance computing (HPC), they remain more difficult to manage than sequential systems or even symmetric multiprocessors. Furthermore, as cluster sizes increase, the quality of the resource-management subsystem - essentially, all of the code that runs on a cluster other than the applications - increasingly impacts application efficiency. In this paper, we present STORM, a resource-management framework designed for scalability and performance. The key innovation behind STORMis a software architecture that enables resource management to exploit low-level network features. As a result of this HPC-application-like design, STORM is orders of magnitude faster than the best reported results in the literature on two sample resource-management functions: job launching and process scheduling.

  13. Storm: lightning-fast resource management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frachtenberg, E. (Eitan); Petrini, F. (Fabrizio); Fernández, J. C. (Juan C.); Pakin, S. D. (Scott D.); Coll, S. (Salvador)

    2002-01-01

    Although workstation clusters are a common platform for high-performance computing (HPC), they remain more difficult to manage than sequential systems or even symmetric multiprocessors. Furthermore, as cluster sizes increase, the quality of the resource-management subsystem - essentially, all of the code that runs on a cluster other than the applications - increasingly impacts application efficiency. In this paper, we present STORM, a resource-management framework designed for scalability and performance. The key innovation behind STORMis a software architecture that enables resource management to exploit low-level network features. As a result of this HPC-application-like design, STORM is orders of magnitude faster than the best reported results in the literature on two sample resource-management functions: job launching and process scheduling.

  14. Water resources planning and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Hussey, Karen

    2011-01-01

    .... There are growing concerns about water as a renewable resource, its availability for a wide range of users, aquatic ecosystem health, and global issues relating to climate change, water security...

  15. Water resource management: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2012-10-01

    Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India.

  16. Groundwater resource-directed measures software | Dennis | Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the need to promote social and economic development through the use of water, ... To be able to implement the National Water Act (NWA), the Minister needs to ... in resource quality objectives which are based on both the classification and ...

  17. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing

  18. Mitigating agricultural impacts on groundwater using distributed managed aquifer recharge ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C. M.; Russo, T. A.; Fisher, A. T.; Racz, A. J.; Wheat, C. G.; Los Huertos, M.; Lockwood, B. S.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater is likely to become increasingly important for irrigated agriculture due to anticipated changes to the hydrologic cycle associated with climate change. Protecting the quantity and quality of subsurface water supplies will require flexible management strategies that can enhance groundwater recharge. We present results from a study of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in central coastal California, and propose the use of distributed, small-scale (1-5 ha) MAR systems to improve the quantity and quality of recharge in agricultural basins. Our field site is located in a basin where the primary use of groundwater is irrigation for agriculture, and groundwater resources are increasingly threatened by seawater intrusion and nutrient contamination from fertilizer application. The MAR system we are monitoring is supplied by stormwater and irrigation runoff of variable quality, which is diverted from a wetland during periods of high flow. This MAR system delivers approximately 1x106 m3 of recharge annually to the underlying aquifer, a portion of which is recovered and distributed to growers during the dry season. Our sampling and measurements (at high spatial and temporal resolution) show that a significant percentage of the nitrogen load added during MAR operation is eliminated from recharge during shallow infiltration (~30% to 60%, ~40 kg NO3-N/d). Isotopic analyses of the residual nitrate indicate that a significant fraction of the nitrate load reduction is attributable to denitrification. When normalized to infiltration pond area, this system achieves a mean load reduction of 7 kg NO3-N/d/ha, which compares favorably with the nitrogen load reduction efficiency achieved by treatment wetlands receiving agricultural runoff. Much of the reduction in nitrogen load occurs during periods of rapid infiltration (0.2 to 2.0 m/day), as demonstrated with point measurements of infiltration rate collocated with fluid samples. These results suggest that developing a network of

  19. Human Resources Management Value in Knowledge-Based Society

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanova, Liudmila

    2009-01-01

    While building knowledge-based society and economy, particular importance in human resources management falls on the value of human resources and management expertise. The article analyses the features of human resources management competences in terms of completing human resources management functions in practice with a view to advantages of human resources management approaches compared with traditional approaches to human resources management. Upon research on personnel management function...

  20. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los

    2011-11-15

    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  1. A multi-method approach for groundwater resource assessment in coastal carbonate (karst) aquifers: the case study of Sierra Almijara (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, B.; Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Marín, A. I.; García-Orellana, J.; Rodellas, V.; Pérez, I.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the transference of water resources within hydrogeological systems, particularly in coastal aquifers, in which groundwater discharge may occur through multiple pathways (through springs, into rivers and streams, towards the sea, etc.), is crucial for sustainable groundwater use. This research aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the application of conventional recharge assessment methods coupled to isotopic techniques for accurately quantifying the hydrogeological balance and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from coastal carbonate aquifers. Sierra Almijara (Southern Spain), a carbonate aquifer formed of Triassic marbles, is considered as representative of Mediterranean coastal karst formations. The use of a multi-method approach has permitted the computation of a wide range of groundwater infiltration rates (17-60%) by means of direct application of hydrometeorological methods (Thornthwaite and Kessler) and spatially distributed information (modified APLIS method). A spatially weighted recharge rate of 42% results from the most coherent information on physiographic and hydrogeological characteristics of the studied system. Natural aquifer discharge and groundwater abstraction have been volumetrically quantified, based on flow and water-level data, while the relevance of SGD was estimated from the spatial analysis of salinity, 222Rn and the short-lived radium isotope 224Ra in coastal seawater. The total mean aquifer discharge (44.9-45.9 hm3 year-1) is in agreement with the average recharged groundwater (44.7 hm3 year-1), given that the system is volumetrically equilibrated during the study period. Besides the groundwater resources assessment, the methodological aspects of this research may be interesting for groundwater management and protection strategies in coastal areas, particularly karst environments.

  2. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

    2002-07-08

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. This paper presents a overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  3. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  4. Implication of Groundwater Resources Utilization in Mountainous Region for Slopeland Disaster Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chao; Hsu, Shih-Meng; Lo, Hung-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, groundwater resources from mountainous regions have been considered as an alternative water resource in Taiwan. According to previous research outcomes (Hsu, 2011), such a groundwater resource is capable of providing stable and high quality water resources. Additionally, another advantage of using the water resources is attributed to the contribution of slopeland disaster prevention. While pumping groundwater as water resources in hilly areas (e.g., at landslide-prone sites), pore-water pressures can be dropped, which can result in stabilizing landslide-prone slopes. However, the benefit to slope stability by using groundwater resources needs to be quantified. The purpose of this study is to investigate groundwater potential of a deep-seated landslide site first, and then to evaluate variations of slope stability by changing well pumping rate conditions. In this paper, the Baolong landslide site located at the Jiasian district of Kaohsiung city in Southern Taiwan has been selected as a case study. Hydrogeological investigation for the landslide site was conducted to clarify the complexity of field characteristics and to establish a precise conceptual model for simulation. The investigation content includes surficial geology investigation, borehole drilling (6 drilling boreholes and 350 meters drilling length in total), 45 m pumping well construction, borehole hydrogeological tests (borehole televiewer, caliper, borehole electrical logging, sonic logging, flowmeter measurement, pumping test, and double packer test), and laboratory tests from rock core samples (physical properties test of soil and rocks, triaxial permeability test of soil, porosity determination test using helium, and gas permeability test). Based on the aforementioned investigation results, a hydrogeological conceptual model for the Baolong landslide site was constructed, and a 2D slope stability model coupled with transient seepage flow model was used for numerical simulation to

  5. Genesis of economic relevant fresh groundwater resources in Pleistocene/ Neogene aquifers in Nam Dinh (Red River Delta, Vietnam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F.; Ludwig, R. R.; Noell, U.; Hoang, H. V.; Pham, N. Q.; Larsen, F.; Lindenmaier, F.

    2012-04-01

    Holocene sediments. Consequently, 14C groundwater age dating suggests increasing groundwater ages from fresh to saline pore water in Pleistocene and Neogene up to 14 ka, presuming that contamination with dead carbon is neglectable. Highest 14C ages of low saline water has been observed in the center of the exploited fresh water lens reaching up to 10 ka, reflecting low groundwater flux and recharge rates. Due to the overexploitation, the natural coastward directed groundwater flow has turned towards the centre of the abstraction cone with horizontal apparent velocities of up to 0.6 m/a. This suggests, that brackish and higher saline groundwater from the Red River area (East Nam Dinh) and offshore migrates towards the fresh water lens. Thus, more sustainable exploitation strategies urgently must be implemented to reduce overexploitation of limited and valuable fresh groundwater resources in Nam Dinh Province. Reference: Hoan H., Pham Q. N., Larsen F. Tran L. V., Wagner F., Christiansen A.V. (2010): Processes Controlling High Saline Groundwater in the Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam. 2nd Asia-Pacific Coastal Aquifer Management Meeting (ACAMM), October 18-21, 2011, Jeju Island, Korea.

  6. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Slobodan; Blazevic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    An enterprises human assets or, put more conventionally, its human resources tend to be one the most significant costs for most hospitality enterprises. In most hotels the payroll is the single biggest cost item, whilst in restaurants and bars it is usually second only to material costs. Furthermore, human resources are usually the first point of contact between an enterprise and its customers. The effective management of these human resources is therefore vital to the success of the enter...

  7. Human Resource Management should be more strategic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢存宇; 梅凯

    2010-01-01

    Today’s business environment is placing unparalleled demands on organizations to discover ways to operate more efficiently,while quickly responding to changing needs and demands in business and environment. Both new approaches and techniques are needed to meet these demands (Dangayach,2001). So,human resource management needs a long-term strategy and to be corresponding with a company’s business strategy. In other words,human resource management should be more strategic.

  8. [Guidelines for the management of human resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, E; Vaubourdolle, M; Pernet, P; Gerrier, F

    2013-06-01

    The management of human resources is a major issue for laboratory accreditation, since it allows to show the proofs of competency assessment, a basis to ensure the confidence. In this paper, the main processes involved are described: the general process for the management of human resources and the authorization for personnel process. Guidelines for document control are also proposed. At least, examples are given to facilitate the implementation of these guidelines in a medical laboratory.

  9. MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Herman

    2015-01-01

    Topic of this paper is human resources management in tourism with the aim of increasing the quality of products and services and achieving greater economic effects and competitiveness on the tourist market. Whereas products and services in tourism highly depend on quality human labor, the task of human resources management is to ensure high quality man labor, and encourage it by motivation, education as well as with the possibility of career advancement to maximal efficiency, and retention wi...

  10. Characterization of saline groundwater across the coastal aquifer of Israel as resource for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yospeh; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2015-04-01

    compared. The results have shown that using saline groundwater underneath the FSI as a resource for RO desalination process is beneficial in terms of fluxes: the flux reduction in the seawater desalination was 16% of the initial flux, while the flux reduction with the saline groundwater was only 9%. The SDI and total organic carbon were lower in saline groundwater than in seawater, which support the flux results. Therefore, using saline groundwater as feed water for desalination may be advantageous because of lower operational costs and reduced applied pressure needed and energy usage.

  11. Challenging (Strategic) Human Resource management Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Paauwe (Jaap); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo fully understand the relationship between human resource management and performance in different contexts, we are in need of a synthesis between resource-based theory and new institutionalism. We argue that differences in institutional settings (between for example countries or branch

  12. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  13. Challenging (Strategic) Human Resource management Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Paauwe (Jaap); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo fully understand the relationship between human resource management and performance in different contexts, we are in need of a synthesis between resource-based theory and new institutionalism. We argue that differences in institutional settings (between for example countries or

  14. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Southeastern States. Ground water is not completely 'self-renewing' because, where it is being mined, the reserve is being diminished and the reserve would be renewed only if pumping were stopped. Water is being mined at the rate of 5 million acre-feet per year in Arizona and 6 million in the High Plains of Texas. In contrast, water has been going into storage in the Snake River Plain of Idaho, where deep percolation from surface-water irrigation has added about 10 million acre-feet of storage since irrigation began. Situations in California illustrate problems of land subsidence resulting from pumping and use of water, and deterioration of ground-water reservoirs due to sea-water invasion. Much water development in the United States has been haphazard and rarely has there been integrated development of ground water and surface water. Competition is sharpening and new codes of water law are in the making. New laws, however, will not prevent the consequences of bad management. An important task for water management is to recognize the contingencies that may arise in the future and to prepare for them. The three most important tasks at hand are to make more efficient use of water, to develop improved quantitative evaluations of water supplies arid their quality, and to develop management practices which are based on scientific hydrology.

  15. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Southeastern States. Ground water is not completely 'self-renewing' because, where it is being mined, the reserve is being diminished and the reserve would be renewed only if pumping were stopped. Water is being mined at the rate of 5 million acre-feet per year in Arizona and 6 million in the High Plains of Texas. In contrast, water has been going into storage in the Snake River Plain of Idaho, where deep percolation from surface-water irrigation has added about 10 million acre-feet of storage since irrigation began. Situations in California illustrate problems of land subsidence resulting from pumping and use of water, and deterioration of ground-water reservoirs due to sea-water invasion. Much water development in the United States has been haphazard and rarely has there been integrated development of ground water and surface water. Competition is sharpening and new codes of water law are in the making. New laws, however, will not prevent the consequences of bad management. An important task for water management is to recognize the contingencies that may arise in the future and to prepare for them. The three most important tasks at hand are to make more efficient use of water, to develop improved quantitative evaluations of water supplies arid their quality, and to develop management practices which are based on scientific hydrology.

  16. Bicultural Resourcefulness in Global Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth; Keita, Maria H.

    2016-01-01

    two or more cultures? Do they perceive their skills as resources? And how does corporate experience harness bicultural competences? Surprisingly, this study showed that the bicultural students were not aware of their strengths and advantages. In contrast, the corporate study provided ample evidence...

  17. Estimating the Impact of Drought on Groundwater Resources of the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L. Barkey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater resources of small coral islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in climate. A significant short-term threat is El Niño events, which typically induce a severe months-long drought for many atoll nations in the western and central Pacific regions that exhausts rainwater supply and necessitates the use of groundwater. This study quantifies fresh groundwater resources under both average rainfall and drought conditions for the Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI, a nation composed solely of atolls and which is severely impacted by El Niño droughts. The atoll island algebraic model is used to estimate the thickness of the freshwater lens for 680 inhabited and uninhabited islands of the RMI, with a focus on the severe 1998 drought. The model accounts for precipitation, island width, hydraulic conductivity of the upper Holocene-age sand aquifer, the depth to the contact between the Holocene aquifer and the lower Pleistocene-age limestone aquifer, and the presence of a reef flat plate underlying the ocean side of the island. Model results are tested for islands that have fresh groundwater data. Results highlight the fragility of groundwater resources for the nation. Average lens thickness during typical seasonal rainfall is approximately 4 m, with only 30% of the islands maintaining a lens thicker than 4.5% and 55% of the islands with a lens less than 2.5 m thick. Thicker lenses typically occur for larger islands, islands located on the leeward side of an atoll due to lower hydraulic conductivity, and islands located in the southern region of the RMI due to higher rainfall rates. During drought, groundwater on small islands (<300 m in width is completely depleted. Over half (54% of the islands are classified as “Highly Vulnerable” to drought. Results provide valuable information for RMI water resources planners, particularly during the current 2016 El Niño drought, and similar methods can be used to quantify

  18. Communication resources of managers and business professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Clarissa Araujo; Behlau, Mara

    2017-05-22

    To analyze the communication resources reported by managers in the business environment and compare the resources used to those reported by business professionals. 82 professionals volunteered to participate in the research, divided into 50 managers (MP) and 32 business professionals (BP) from industry section in Caxias do Sul and the surrounding region (Brazil). A questionnaire with 4 topics was used: personal data, self-assessment of communicative behavior, self-assessment of communicative resources, and selection of positive and negative resources influencing communication. Regarding communicative behavior, both groups reported normal voice but with significant differences regarding the use of softness in communication, 25% of MP and only 4% of BP. Both groups selected the following main positive resources: knowledge of subject, use of proper vocabulary, and objectivity. The negative resources were, similarly, the lack of subject domain, criticism or prejudgment, and improper vocabulary. Finally, analyzing the degree of influence of each communicative resource, the MP highlighted tone of voice as an important positive resource, while the BP pointed the subject domain. Still, the monotonous voice for MP and nervousness for BP were indicated as the main negative influences. Managers value more communicative resources connected to communicative attitude, such as tone of voice and expression, while business professionals worry about demonstrating security and technical understanding of the subject.

  19. Fresh groundwater resources in a large sand replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of sea-level rise and increases in extreme weather conditions has led to the initiation of an innovative coastal management project called the Sand Engine. In this pilot project a large volume of sand (21.5 million m3) – also called sand replenishment or nourishment – was placed on

  20. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    iron (0.3 to 6.4 milligrams per liter) and manganese (0.05 to 1.2 milligrams per liter) or is moderately hard to very hard (60 to 260 milligrams per liter as CaCO3).The principal use of ground water in the Hood Basin is for irrigation of crops, with an estimated withdrawal of 7,700 acre-feet in 1979. Additional ground-water withdrawals in 1979 were estimated as: Industrial, 2,600 acre-feet; public supply, 2,100 acre-feet; and domestic and stock supply, 200 acre-feet.

  1. Managing Water Resources for Drought: Insights from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Droughts bring great opportunities to better understand and improve water systems. California's economic powerhouse relies on highly engineered water systems to fulfill large and growing urban and agricultural water demands. Current and past droughts show these systems are highly robust and resilient to droughts, as they recover promptly. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper provides an overview of the economic and ecosystem impacts of the recent multi-year drought in California in the context of a global economy. We explore the potential of water markets, groundwater management and use of remote sensing technology to improve understanding of adaptation to drought. Insights for future management of water resources and scientific work are discussed.

  2. Human Resource Management in Virtual Organizations. Research in Human Resource Management Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Robert L., Ed.; Greenberger, David B., Ed.

    This document contains 14 papers on human resources (HR) and human resource management (HRM) in virtual organizations. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Rodger Griffeth); "Volume Preface" (Robert L. Heneman, David B. Greenberger); "The Virtual Organization: Definition, Description, and…

  3. Managing Human Resource Learning for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    Managing human resource learning for innovation develops a systemic understanding of building innovative capabilities. Building innovative capabilities require active creation, coordination and absorption of useful knowledge and thus a cohesive management approach to learning. Often learning...... in organizations and work is approached without considerations on how to integrate it in the management of human resources. The book investigates the empirical conditions for managing human resources learning for innovation. With focus on innovative performance the importance of modes of innovation, clues...... for organizing learning and ways of utilizing employee knowledge are considered as main challenges. Identification of principles and management instruments are based on research, which means generated form theoretical knowledge and empirical panel data covering firms from the private urban sector in Denmark...

  4. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over a large scale, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs have been developed over the recent decades. However, few models consider the feedback between water availability and water demand, and even fewer models explicitly incorporate water allocation from surface water and groundwater resources. Here, we integrate a global water demand model into a global water balance model, and simulate water withdrawal and consumptive water use over the period 1979–2010, considering water allocation from surface water and groundwater resources and explicitly taking into account feedbacks between supply and demand, using two re-analysis products: ERA-Interim and MERRA. We implement an irrigation water scheme, which works dynamically with daily surface and soil water balance, and include a newly available extensive reservoir data set. Simulated surface water and groundwater withdrawal show generally good agreement with available reported national and sub-national statistics. The results show a consistent increase in both surface water and groundwater use worldwide, but groundwater use has been increasing more rapidly than surface water use since the 1990s. Human impacts on terrestrial water storage (TWS signals are evident, altering the seasonal and inter-annual variability. The alteration is particularly large over the heavily regulated basins such as the Colorado and the Columbia, and over the major irrigated basins such as the Mississippi, the Indus, and the Ganges. Including human water use generally improves the correlation of simulated TWS anomalies with those of the GRACE observations.

  5. Geology and ground-water resources of Rock County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, E.F.

    1964-01-01

    . This sandstone also yields some water to uncased wells that tap the deeper rocks of the Upper Cambrian series. East of the Rock River the Platteville, Decorah, and Galena formations undifferentiated, or Platteville-Galena unit, is the principal source of water for domestic and stock wells. Unconsolidated deposits of glacial origin cover most of Rock County and supply water to many small wells. In the outwash deposits along the Rock River, wells of extremely high capacity have been developed for industrial and municipal use. The most significant feature of the bedrock surface in Rock County is the ancestral Rock River valley, which has been filled with glacial outwash to a depth of at least 396 feet below the present land surface. East of the buried valley the bedrock has a fiat, relatively undissected surface. West of the valley the bedrock surface is rugged and greatly dissected. Ground water in Rock County occurs under both water-table and artesian conditions; however, because of the interconnection and close relation of all ground water in the county, the entire system is considered to be a single groundwater body whose surface may be represented by one piezometric map. Recharge occurs locally, throughout the county. Nearly all recharge is derived directly from precipitation that percolates downward to become a part of the groundwater body. Natural movement of water in the consolidated water-bearing units is generally toward the buried Rock and Sugar River valleys. Movement of water in the sandstones of Cambrian age was calculated to be about 44 million gallons a day toward the Rock River. Discharge from wells in Rock County in 1957 was about 23 million gallons a day. Nearly 90 percent of this water was drawn from the area along the Rock River. Drilled wells, most of which were drilled by the cable-tool method, range in diameter from 3 to 26 inches, and in depth from 46 to 1,225 feet. Driven wells in alluvium and glacial drift are usually 1? to 2? in

  6. Fostering assumption-based stress-test thinking in managing groundwater systems: learning to avoid failures due to basic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; El Sawah, Sondoss

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable groundwater resource management can only be achieved if planning processes address the basic dynamics of the groundwater system. Conceptual and distributed groundwater models do not necessarily translate into an understanding of how a plan might operate in reality. Prompted by Australian experiences, `iterative closed-question modelling' has been used to develop a process of iterative dialogue about management options, objectives and knowledge. Simple hypothetical models of basic system dynamics that satisfy agreed assumptions are used to stress-test the ability of a proposed management plan to achieve desired future conditions. Participants learn from models in which a plan succeeds and fails, updating their assumptions, expectations or plan. Their new understanding is tested against further hypothetical models. The models act as intellectual devices that confront users with new scenarios to discuss. This theoretical approach is illustrated using simple one and two-cell groundwater models that convey basic notions of capture and spatial impacts of pumping. Simple extensions can address uncertain climate, managed-aquifer recharge and alternate water sources. Having learnt to address the dynamics captured by these models, participants may be better placed to address local conditions and develop more effective arrangements to achieve management outcomes.

  7. The Palouse Basin Participatory Model Pilot Project: A Participatory Approach to Bi-state Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.

  8. Water resources. [mapping and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in applying ERTS-1 data to water resources problems, nevertheless, more time and effort still appear necessary for further quantification of results, including the specification of thematic measurement accuracies. More modeling can be done very profitably. In particular, more strategy models describing the processes wherein ERTS-1 data would be acquired, analyzed, processed, and utilized in operational situations could be profitably accomplished. It is generally observed that the ERTS-1 data applicability is evident in several areas and that the next most general and substantive steps in the implementation of the data in operational situations would be greatly encouraged by the establishment of an operational earth resources satellite organization and capability. Further encouragement of this operational capability would be facilitated by all investigators striving to document their procedures as fully as possible and by providing time and cost comparisons between ERTS-1 and conventional acquisition approaches.

  9. Strategic Management of Human Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Madlena Nen

    2014-01-01

    In the context of Romania’s integration into European structures, the modernization process of educational system constitutes a natural necessity. This scientific approach has proposed a comprehensive approach of the issue of the Community programs efficiency on highly qualified human resources as part of Romania's accession to the European structures. I want to highlight that, in the content of this work, educational system integration into European structures is presented, analy...

  10. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  11. Mining wastewater management and its effects on groundwater and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, A; Ozdemir, S

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale mining activities have a huge impact on the environment. Determination of the size of the effect and monitoring it is vital. In this study, risk assessment studies in mining areas and the effect of mining on groundwater and ecosystems were investigated. Best management practices and risk assessment steps were determined, especially in areas with huge amounts of mining wastewater. The pollution of groundwater and its reaching humans is a risk of major importance. Our study showed, using many cases with different parameters and countries, that the management of mining wastewater is vital. Environmental impact assessments and monitoring studies must be carried out before operation and at the closure of the mine. Policies must be in place and ready to apply. Factors of climate, geology, ecology and human health must be considered over a long period. Currently, only the developed countries are applying policies and paying attention to the risk. International assessments and health risk assessments should be carried out according to international standards.

  12. Data Assimilation for Management of Industrial Groundwater Contamination at a Regional Scale

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is one of the main sources for drinking water and agricultural activities. Various activities of both humans and nature may lead to groundwater pollution. Very often, pollution, or contamination, of groundwater goes undetected for long periods of time until it begins to a ect human health and/or the environment. Cleanup technologies used to remediate pollution can be costly and remediation processes are often protracted. A more practical and feasible way to manage groundwater contamination is to monitor and predict contamination and act as soon as there is risk to the population and the environment. Predicting groundwater contamination requires advanced numerical models of groundwater ow and solute transport. Such numerical modeling is increasingly becoming a reference criterion for water resources assessment and environmental protection. Subsurface numerical models are, however, subject to many sources of uncertainties from unknown parameters and approximate dynamics. This dissertation considers the sequential data assimilation approach and tackles the groundwater contamination problem at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Industrial concentration data are used to monitor and predict the fate of organic contaminants using a threedimensional coupled ow and reactive transport model. We propose a number of 5 novel assimilation techniques that address di erent challenges, including prohibitive computational burden, the nonlinearity and coupling of the subsurface dynamics, and the structural and parametric uncertainties. We also investigate the problem of optimal observational designs to optimize the location and the number of wells. The proposed new methods are based on the ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), which provides an e cient numerical solution to the Bayesian ltering problem. The dissertation rst investigates in depth the popular joint and dual ltering formulations of the state-parameters estimation problem. New methodologies, algorithmically

  13. Saltwater Intrusion: Climate change mitigation or just water resources management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, G. A.; Gleeson, T.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and population growth are expected to substantially increase the vulnerability of global water resources throughout the 21st century. Coastal groundwater systems are a nexus of the world's changing oceanic and hydrologic systems and a critical resource for the over one billion people living in coastal areas as well as for terrestrial and offshore ecosystems. Synthesis studies and detailed simulations predict that rising sea levels could negatively impact coastal aquifers by causing saltwater to intrude landward within coastal aquifers or by saltwater inundation of coastal regions. Saltwater intrusion caused by excessive extraction is already impacting entire island nations and globally in diverse regions such as Nile River delta in Egypt, Queensland, Australia and Long Island, USA. However, the vulnerability of coastal aquifers to sea level rise and excessive extraction has not been systematically compared. Here we show that coastal aquifers are much more vulnerable to groundwater extraction than predicted sea level rise in wide-ranging hydrogeologic conditions and population densities. Low lying areas with small hydraulic gradients are more sensitive to climate change but a review of existing coastal aquifer indicates that saltwater intrusion problems are more likely to arise where water demand is high. No cases studies were found linking saltwater intrusion to sea level rise during the past century. Humans are a key driver in the hydrology of coastal aquifers and that adapting to sea level rise at the expense of better water management is misguided.

  14. Groundwater Resources and Land Subsidence investigations in the Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderhead, A. I.; Martel, R.; Rivera, A.; Garfias, J.; Therrien, R.

    2007-05-01

    The sustained growth in population in the Toluca Valley and neighboring Mexico City has primarily depended on the continuous development of both local and regional water resources for industrial, agricultural and domestic uses. The Toluca Valley Basin, covering an area of approximately 2000 Km2, is the focus of this study. Currently, there is a significant net loss of water within the basin primarily due to groundwater pumping, and the loss is increasing with time. These stresses on the aquifer have caused significant changes on the water flow patterns, a reversal in the direction of hydraulic gradients, the disappearance of artesian springs and wetlands and noticeable land subsidence within the basin. Neighboring Mexico City's land subsidence problems have been well documented, however, no comprehensive studies exist for the Toluca Basin. This study is divided into two parts: 1) investigation of groundwater depletion in the Toluca Valley; and 2) assessment of land subsidence in the Toluca Valley. We examine various changes in regional flow patterns, and groundwater levels decline throughout the valley and 3D numerical flow simulations are run to predict the ever decreasing level of the piezometric surface. Currently there is a net loss (recharge - extraction) of 142 Mm3 per year of groundwater within the Toluca Basin aquifers. We have documented a decrease in groundwater levels with a rate of up to 1.4 m/year between 1970 and 2006 in the central part of the valley. At the current rate of consumption, groundwater resources will not be sustainable for the population of the valley. Directly related to the drawdown in groundwater levels is the occurrence of land subsidence throughout the valley. Neighboring Mexico City, where total subsidence of up to 9 meters has been observed, has a similar geology as the one in the Toluca valley. We have documented several sites in the Toluca Valley where land subsidence is occurring. Ongoing work includes the mapping of regional

  15. Integrative learning for practicing adaptive resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. McLoughlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive resource management is a learning-by-doing approach to natural resource management. Its effective practice involves the activation, completion, and regeneration of the "adaptive management cycle" while working toward achieving a flexible set of collaboratively identified objectives. This iterative process requires application of single-, double-, and triple-loop learning, to strategically modify inputs, outputs, assumptions, and hypotheses linked to improving policies, management strategies, and actions, along with transforming governance. Obtaining an appropriate balance between these three modes of learning has been difficult to achieve in practice and building capacity in this area can be achieved through an emphasis on reflexive learning, by employing adaptive feedback systems. A heuristic reflexive learning framework for adaptive resource management is presented in this manuscript. It is built on the conceptual pillars of the following: stakeholder driven adaptive feedback systems; strategic adaptive management (SAM; and hierarchy theory. The SAM Reflexive Learning Framework (SRLF emphasizes the types, roles, and transfer of information within a reflexive learning context. Its adaptive feedback systems enhance the facilitation of single-, double-, and triple-loop learning. Focus on the reflexive learning process is further fostered by streamlining objectives within and across all governance levels; incorporating multiple interlinked adaptive management cycles; having learning as an ongoing, nested process; recognizing when and where to employ the three-modes of learning; distinguishing initiating conditions for this learning; and contemplating practitioner mandates for this learning across governance levels. The SRLF is a key enabler for implementing the "adaptive management cycle," and thereby translating the theory of adaptive resource management into practice. It promotes the heuristics of adaptive management within a cohesive

  16. GREAT (Groundwater Resources & Educational Activities for Teaching). An Iowa Project for Earth/Life/General Science, 7th-9th Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gail, Ed.

    These resource materials are a part of a larger plan for groundwater education, as detailed in the Iowa Groundwater Education Strategy. The six units are arranged in priority order. The first unit covers the basics of groundwater and hydrogeology in Iowa. The other five units cover Iowa's groundwater issues in priority order, as outlined in the…

  17. Explaining nitrate pollution pressure on the groundwater resource in Kinshasa using a multivariate statistical modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfumu Kihumba, Antoine; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2013-04-01

    Drinking water in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, is provided by extracting groundwater from the local aquifer, particularly in peripheral areas. The exploited groundwater body is mainly unconfined and located within a continuous detrital aquifer, primarily composed of sedimentary formations. However, the aquifer is subjected to an increasing threat of anthropogenic pollution pressure. Understanding the detailed origin of this pollution pressure is important for sustainable drinking water management in Kinshasa. The present study aims to explain the observed nitrate pollution problem, nitrate being considered as a good tracer for other pollution threats. The analysis is made in terms of physical attributes that are readily available using a statistical modelling approach. For the nitrate data, use was made of a historical groundwater quality assessment study, for which the data were re-analysed. The physical attributes are related to the topography, land use, geology and hydrogeology of the region. Prior to the statistical modelling, intrinsic and specific vulnerability for nitrate pollution was assessed. This vulnerability assessment showed that the alluvium area in the northern part of the region is the most vulnerable area. This area consists of urban land use with poor sanitation. Re-analysis of the nitrate pollution data demonstrated that the spatial variability of nitrate concentrations in the groundwater body is high, and coherent with the fragmented land use of the region and the intrinsic and specific vulnerability maps. For the statistical modeling use was made of multiple regression and regression tree analysis. The results demonstrated the significant impact of land use variables on the Kinshasa groundwater nitrate pollution and the need for a detailed delineation of groundwater capture zones around the monitoring stations. Key words: Groundwater , Isotopic, Kinshasa, Modelling, Pollution, Physico-chemical.

  18. Human Resources Management & Development Handbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, William R., Ed.

    This revised handbook on the theory and practice of human resources management and development (HRM/D) focuses on people management and the personnel development processes. The book's 18 parts and 102 chapters by 107 contributors provide authoritative and comprehensive information on every aspect of modern HRM/D. Part 1 provides an overview of…

  19. Important Features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko V. Šolar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  20. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  1. Emerging technologies for knowledge resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Pandian, M

    2007-01-01

    Emerging Technologies for Knowledge Resource Management examines various factors that contribute to an enabled environment for optimum utilisation of information resources. These include the digital form of information resources, which are inherently sharable, consortia as a concept to bring people and materials together and unified portals as technology to bring together disparate and heterogeneous resources for sharing and access. The book provides a step-by-step guideline for system analysis and requirements analysis. The book also provides reviews of existing portal models for sharing reso

  2. Robust decision analysis for environmental management of groundwater contamination sites

    CERN Document Server

    Vesselinov, Velimir V; Katzman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to many other engineering fields, the uncertainties in subsurface processes (e.g., fluid flow and contaminant transport in aquifers) and their parameters are notoriously difficult to observe, measure, and characterize. This causes severe uncertainties that need to be addressed in any decision analysis related to optimal management and remediation of groundwater contamination sites. Furthermore, decision analyses typically rely heavily on complex data analyses and/or model predictions, which are often poorly constrained as well. Recently, we have developed a model-driven decision-support framework (called MADS; http://mads.lanl.gov) for the management and remediation of subsurface contamination sites in which severe uncertainties and complex physics-based models are coupled to perform scientifically defensible decision analyses. The decision analyses are based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT). We demonstrate the MADS capabilities by solving a decision problem related to optimal monitoring ...

  3. Enabling Adaptive Grid Scheduling and Resource Management

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarevic, Aleksandar; Prnjat, Ognjen

    2007-01-01

    Wider adoption of the Grid concept has led to an increasing amount of federated computational, storage and visualisation resources being available to scientists and researchers. Distributed and heterogeneous nature of these resources renders most of the legacy cluster monitoring and management approaches inappropriate, and poses new challenges in workflow scheduling on such systems. Effective resource utilisation monitoring and highly granular yet adaptive measurements are prerequisites for a more efficient Grid scheduler. We present a suite of measurement applications able to monitor per-process resource utilisation, and a customisable tool for emulating observed utilisation models. We also outline our future work on a predictive and probabilistic Grid scheduler. The research is undertaken as part of UK e-Science EPSRC sponsored project SO-GRM (Self-Organising Grid Resource Management) in cooperation with BT.

  4. Development and Testing of a Groundwater Management Model for the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test, Central Nevada Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas P. Boyle; Gregg Lamorey; Scott Bassett; Greg Pohll; Jenny Chapman

    2006-01-25

    This document describes the development and application of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) and surrounding areas that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and state personnel to evaluate the impact of future proposed scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage the necessary temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the CNTA and surrounding Hot Creek Valley. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, geothermal energy production, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to the region near CNTA and others did not, together they demonstrate the usefulness of the management tool for managers who need to evaluate the impact proposed changes in groundwater use in or near CNTA may have on radionuclide migration.

  5. Modeling Groundwater and Return Flow in an Integrated Framework to Investigate the Resilience of U.S. Water Resources in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, N.; Leung, L. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Liu, L.; Huang, M.; Li, H. Y.; Tesfa, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    To advance understanding of the interactions between human activities and the water cycle, an integrated terrestrial water cycle component has been added to an Earth system model. This includes a land surface model fully coupled to a river routing model and generic water management model applicable globally at 1/2o resolution and regionally at 1/8o resolution. A global integrated assessment model and its regionalized version for the U.S. are used to simulate water demand consistent with the energy technology and socio-economics scenarios. Human influence on the hydrologic cycle includes regulation and storage, consumptive use and overall redistribution of water resources in space and time. As groundwater provides an important source of water supply for irrigation and other uses worldwide, the integrated modeling framework has been extended to represent groundwater as an additional supply source, and to account for the return flow generated from the groundwater and surface water withdrawals. In this presentation, we evaluate the groundwater supply and return flow modules by analyzing the simulated regulated flow, reservoir storage and supply deficit for irrigation and non irrigation sectors over major hydrologic regions of the conterminous U.S. The modeling framework is then used to provide insights on the resilience of future water resources in the U.S. ensured specifically by the return flow and groundwater dependence.

  6. A systems engineering management approach to resource management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a program management response to the following question: How can the traditional practice of systems engineering management, including requirements specification, be adapted, enhanced, or modified to build future planning and scheduling systems for effective operations? The systems engineering management process, as traditionally practiced, is examined. Extensible resource management systems are discussed. It is concluded that extensible systems are a partial solution to problems presented by requirements that are incomplete, partially immeasurable, and often dynamic. There are positive indications that resource management systems have been characterized and modeled sufficiently to allow their implementation as extensible systems.

  7. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction.

  8. THE GROUNDWATER RESOURCES AND ITS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTH EDGE OF TARIM BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There is a potential to certain extend for groundwater development in the piedmont plain in south edge of Tarim Basin. If the surface water use keeps the scale as present, the maximum safe yield of groundwater is about 2. 05 × 109m3/a that is 55.8% of the recharge. Thus the evapotranspiration discharge will reduce 60. 4%, while spring water reducing 35.6%. If the surface water use rate is up to 80% and coefficient of canal water use increase to 0. 55 in the future, the maximum safe yield of groundwater will reduce to 1.85 × 109m3/a with the recharge reducing to 3.1 × 109m3. However, the sustainable groundwater development is depended on the protection of the quality aspect linked with the quantity aspect. In particular, protection of the glacier and water conservation forestry in the Kunlun Mountains and coordinating development of surface water and groundwater should be taken seriously. Besides, the legislation, administrative management and the technology construction, and ability construction are also critical important and necessary.

  9. 16 CFR 1000.22 - Office of Human Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Human Resources Management. 1000... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.22 Office of Human Resources Management. The Office of Human Resources Management, which is managed by the Director of the Office, provides human resources management support......

  10. Human Resources Management within Civil Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Teodor Alistar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to examine the notion of management, as an area of study which analyses, regulates and renders the theoretical and technical support in order to provide rationality within the processes that unfold in the civil service. In order to accomplish this task, human resources management will be analyzed as a process which relies in exerting four main functions: ensuring, developing, motivating and maintaining the human resources, which are conditioned by external factors that must be taken into consideration, such as: legislative framework, labor force, unions, cultural context (here one includes management practices and philosophy, and economic circumstances. All these factors are considered to have a significant impact on the management of human resources.

  11. Integrated socio-hydrogeological approach to tackle nitrate contamination in groundwater resources. The case of Grombalia Basin (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, V; Sacchi, E; Kammoun, S; Tringali, C; Trabelsi, R; Zouari, K; Daniele, S

    2017-09-01

    Nitrate contamination still remains one of the main groundwater quality issues in several aquifers worldwide, despite the perduring efforts of the international scientific community to effectively tackle this problem. The classical hydrogeological and isotopic investigations are obviously of paramount importance for the characterization of contaminant sources, but are clearly not sufficient for the correct and long-term protection of groundwater resources. This paper aims at demonstrating the effectiveness of the socio-hydrogeological approach as the best tool to tackle groundwater quality issues, while contributing bridging the gap between science and society. An integrated survey, including land use, hydrochemical (physicochemical parameters and major ions) and isotopic (δ(15)NNO3 and δ(18)ONO3) analyses, coupled to capacity building and participatory activities was carried out to correctly attribute the nitrate origin in groundwater from the Grombalia Basin (North Tunisia), a region where only synthetic fertilizers have been generally identified as the main source of such pollution. Results demonstrates that the basin is characterized by high nitrate concentrations, often exceeding the statutory limits for drinking water, in both the shallow and deep aquifers, whereas sources are associated to both agricultural and urban activities. The public participation of local actors proved to be a fundamental element for the development of the hydrogeological investigation, as it permitted to obtain relevant information to support data interpretation, and eventually guaranteed the correct assessment of contaminant sources in the studied area. In addition, such activity, if adequately transferred to regulators, will ensure the effective adoption of management practices based on the research outcomes and tailored on the real needs of the local population, proving the added value to include it in any integrated investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  12. International human resources management challenges and changes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the issues related to human resource management (HRM) in an international context. It gives perspectives and future direction in International HRM research. The chapters explore the models, tools and processes used by international organizations in order to assist international managers to better face the challenges and changes in HRM. It is suitable to HR managers, engineers, entrepreneurs, practitioners, academics and researchers in the field.

  13. Adaptive management of watersheds and related resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of learning about natural resources through the practice of management has been around for several decades and by now is associated with the term adaptive management. The objectives of this paper are to offer a framework for adaptive management that includes an operational definition, a description of conditions in which it can be usefully applied, and a systematic approach to its application. Adaptive decisionmaking is described as iterative, learning-based management in two phases, each with its own mechanisms for feedback and adaptation. The linkages between traditional experimental science and adaptive management are discussed.

  14. FREE MARKETS - A STIMULUS OR IMPEDIMENT FOR INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Sehlke; Stephen E. Draper

    2005-04-01

    A significant philosophical water management controversy exists over the balance between economics, social equity and environmental protection in integrated water resources management. For many, the economic outcomes predominate, even to the marginalization of the others. This conviction became significant in the United States in 1980 when the United States Supreme Court ruled that groundwater, under certain circumstances, could be considered a commodity of interstate commerce. The ruling differentiated between water as a human need and as an economic good. (Sporhase, 1982)

  15. Analysis of the potential contamination risk of groundwater resources circulating in areas with anthropogenic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spizzico

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The area investigated is located in the province of Brindisi (Italy. It is a generally flat area separated from the nearby carbonatic plateau of the Murgia by quite indistinct and high fault scarps. As regards the geological features, carbonatic basement rocks and post-cretaceous terrains made up of calabrian calcarenites and middle-upper Pleistocenic marine terraced deposits can be distinguished. In the examined area there are two different hydrogeological environments. The first is represented by deep groundwater, the main groundwater resource in Apulia. The second hydrogeological environment, now of lesser importance than the deep aquifer in terms of size and use, is made up of some small shallow groundwater systems situated in post-calabrian sands and located in the eastern area. During some sampling cycles carried out in the studied area, water was withdrawn from both the deep aquifer and from the shallow groundwater. For every sample, the necessary parameters were determined for the physical and chemical characterisation of two different hydrogeological environments. Moreover, some chemical parameters indicating anthropogenic activities were determined. Analysis of the aerial distribution of the measured parameters has shown some main areas subject to different conditions of contamination risk, in accordance with the hydrogeological and geological features of the investigated area. In the south-eastern part of the investigated area, the important action performed by the surface aquifer for protecting the deep groundwater from contamination of anthropogenic origin is clear. On the other hand, in the shallow groundwater, areas of nitrate and nitrite contamination have been identified, which result from the extensive use of fertilizers.

  16. Groundwater resources of the Devils Postpile National Monument—Current conditions and future vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, Deborah

    2017-06-15

    This study presents an extensive database on groundwater conditions in and around Devils Postpile National Monument. The database contains chemical analyses of springs and the monument water-supply well, including major-ion chemistry, trace element chemistry, and the first information on a list of organic compounds known as emerging contaminants. Diurnal, seasonal, and annual variations in groundwater discharge and chemistry are evaluated from data collected at five main monitoring sites, where streams carry the aggregate flow from entire groups of springs. These springs drain the Mammoth Mountain area and, during the fall months, contribute a significant fraction of the San Joaquin River flow within the monument. The period of this study, from fall 2012 to fall 2015, includes some of the driest years on record, though the seasonal variability observed in 2013 might have been near normal. The spring-fed streams generally flowed at rates well below those observed during a sequence of wet years in the late 1990s. However, persistence of flow and reasonably stable water chemistry through the recent dry years are indicative of a sizeable groundwater system that should provide a reliable resource during similar droughts in the future. Only a few emerging contaminants were detected at trace levels below 1 microgram per liter (μg/L), suggesting that local human visitation is not degrading groundwater quality. No indication of salt from the ski area on the north side of Mammoth Mountain could be found in any of the groundwaters. Chemical data instead show that natural mineral water, such as that discharged from local soda springs, is the main source of anomalous chloride in the monument supply well and in the San Joaquin River. The results of the study are used to develop a set of recommendations for future monitoring to enable detection of deleterious impacts to groundwater quality and quantity

  17. Global Modeling of Withdrawal, Allocation and Consumptive Use of Surface Water and Groundwater Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over large scales, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been developed in recent decades. However, few models consider the interaction between terrestrial water fluxes, and human activities and associated water use, and even fewer models distinguish water use from surface water and groundwater resources. Here, we couple a global water demand model with a global hydrological model and dynamically simulate daily water withdrawal and consumptive water use over the period 1979-2010, using two re-analysis products: ERA-Interim and MERRA. We explicitly take into account the mutual feedback between supply and demand, and implement a newly developed water allocation scheme to distinguish surface water and groundwater use. Moreover, we include a new irrigation scheme, which works dynamically with a daily surface and soil water balance, and incorporate the newly available extensive global reservoir data set (GRanD). Simulated surface water and groundwater withdrawals generally show good agreement with reported national and sub-national statistics. The results show a consistent increase in both surface water and groundwater use worldwide, with a more rapid increase in groundwater use since the 1990s. Human impacts on terrestrial water storage (TWS) signals are evident, altering the seasonal and inter-annual variability. This alteration is particularly large over heavily regulated basins such as the Colorado and the Columbia, and over the major irrigated basins such as the Mississippi, the Indus, and the Ganges. Including human water use and associated reservoir operations generally improves the correlation of simulated TWS anomalies with those of the GRACE observations.

  18. Composite Analysis of Landuse and Groundwater Resources of Rod-Kohi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rod-kohi system of irrigation is often generally referred to as flood irrigation or spate irrigation system in which floods of the hill torrents are diverted into plain area for irrigation purpose. In rod-kohi region where uncertainty exists in flood water availability for irrigation use, groundwater is a valuable resource used mainly as supplement source of irrigation. The region, being rich in natural resources, is remained far behind in terms of data availability and data quality, the situation that has affected incredibly the needs of future planning and development. In the present study, major landuse/landcover classes of the region were identified and delineated using Landsat ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus image data and related with groundwater potential for interactive analysis in GIS (Geographic Information System. The potential groundwater zones were delineated and assessed on the basis of aquifer characteristics in the region. Rangeland and exposed rocks were identified over 70% of the rod-kohi region i.e. total area about 42 Mha (Million hectares. Share of cropped area and bare soil or culturable waste was about 3.5 and 15.4%, respectively. High and medium potential of groundwater were estimated in about 2.3 Mha out of which 60% exist under bare soil, 16% under cropped area and the rest underneath other landuse classes. High efficiency irrigation techniques like drip and rain-gun system need to be adopted in areas having substantial groundwater potential in order to sustain agriculture production. The study would provide base for detail investigation

  19. Managing service quality: Human resource management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Govender

    2000-01-01

    This article reports the results of an empirical evaluation of a conceptual service encounter management model (Govender, 1999). The various hypotheses proposed to show a relationship between formal and informal socialisation strategies, and the bank employees' perception of the organisational climate and their role are empirically evaluated. Furthermore, the mediated effects of these socialization tactics on the bank customers perception of the service quality was also ascertained by matchin...

  20. Assessment of the development of aquifer management councils (COTAS) for sustainable groundwater management in Guanajuato, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, P.; Sandoval Minero, R.; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Collective groundwater management by water users—self-regulation—is increasingly advocated as a complement to state regulation. This article analyzes the attempts by the Guanajuato State Water Commission (CEAG) in central Mexico to promote user self-regulation through the establishment and

  1. Assessment of the development of aquifer management councils (COTAS) for sustainable groundwater management in Guanajuato, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, P.; Sandoval Minero, R.; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Collective groundwater management by water users—self-regulation—is increasingly advocated as a complement to state regulation. This article analyzes the attempts by the Guanajuato State Water Commission (CEAG) in central Mexico to promote user self-regulation through the establishment and developme

  2. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2009-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of

  3. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2011-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun Williams

    2013-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The Idaho National Laboratory is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through regular reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices

  5. Bicultural Resourcefulness in Global Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth; Keita, Maria H.

    2016-01-01

    typologies that will help global businesses gain a clearer understanding of the competences that biculturals can offer them. This study explores biculturalism in two set-tings: business education and global corporations. What unique skills and abilities allow biculturals to take advantage of knowledge from...... two or more cultures? Do they perceive their skills as resources? And how does corporate experience harness bicultural competences? Surprisingly, this study showed that the bicultural students were not aware of their strengths and advantages. In contrast, the corporate study provided ample evidence...... of how bicultural abilities were acknowledged and leveraged in international business, once bilculturals were established in the workplace. This article presents a theoreti-cal matrix of bicultural competences, based on the concepts of frame switch-ing and meta-cognition. The matrix categories are: 1...

  6. Management, Resources and Reproductive Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Wallner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a relationship between environmental conditions and reproductive performance in modern humans. Birth rates and sex ratio (SRB at birth were analyzed from large data scales. The results include data from people working or living under different job respectively socio-economic conditions, such as employees working in the academic field, employees under supervisory or hire and fire conditions, and people who have better access to resources. The results show that employees who have better jobs and earn more money do have more children and females under better socio-economic conditions do give birth to more sons. In conclusion, it is suggested that different socio-economic environmental conditions may have an impact on female and male birth rates and SRBs, which may be related to stress perception rates.

  7. Assessing the spatial variability of constraints on groundwater abstractions due to potential adverse resource impacts on surface water ecosystems - a GIS based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, K. A.; Mayer, A. S.; Reeves, H. W.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater contributions to streams, particularly in periods of low flow, can be critical to sustaining aquatic ecosystems. Groundwater abstractions in areas where the groundwater is in hydraulic connection with the surface water can deplete these flows potentially causing adverse resource impacts. In particular, the passage of the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence Basin Water Resources Compact in 2008 has brought increasing awareness to this issue in the Great Lakes Basin. As a requirement of this legislation, each of the Great Lakes States must take steps to limit water withdrawals that may potentially impact water-dependent natural resources. The State of Michigan has developed an automated “Water Withdrawal Assessment Tool” to assist in this process. By using the methodology as developed for the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Tool, this study examines spatial variations in maximum allowable pumping rates under these constraints. The pumping rates are constrained either by the local hydrogeology or concerns related to adverse impacts to the surface water ecosystems. A simple analytical model is used to calculate streamflow depletion as a function of hypothetical groundwater abstraction rates and positions. The inputs to this model are obtained from a GIS database including such spatially relevant information as aquifer characteristics, streamflows, and a stream network. The maximum pumping rates are averaged over the HUC-8 watershed scale. We explore the characteristics that play the largest role in the variability of maximum pumping rates, such as hydrogeologic parameters, stream density, and stream flows. We also discuss limitations of the analytical approach to assessing water availability. Understanding how these restrictions on adverse resource impacts constrain groundwater usage and which hydrogeologic characteristics and spatial variables have the most influence on potential streamflow depletions have important water resources policy and management

  8. The International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH): reflecting on 60 years of contributions to groundwater science and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckmeier, Willi; Howard, Ken; Chilton, John

    2016-08-01

    The 60th anniversary of the founding of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) is an important milestone that allows pause for reflection on how the association has evolved over the years and the contributions it has made to groundwater science and water management. IAH was founded in 1956 at the 20th International Geological Congress and developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s in response to a growing global interest in groundwater mapping and in sound approaches to resource protection and sustainable aquifer management. Incorporated in 2000, IAH has now secured its position as the world's leading international association specialising in groundwater with over 4,100 members in 131 countries. Much credit for this success must go to members, past and present, whose individual efforts and collaboration with sister institutions are documented here. These members have shaped the association's goals and contributed selflessly to its scientific programmes, publications and educational and charitable activities. Looking ahead to the next 60 years, it is essential that IAH does not rest on past achievements but listens and adjusts to the needs of members while continuing to pursue its mission of furthering the understanding, wise use and protection of groundwater resources throughout the world.

  9. Evolving Groundwater Rights and Management in Metropolitan Los Angeles: Implications for Water Supply and Stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porse, E.; Pincetl, S.; Glickfeld, M.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater supports many aspects of human life. In cities, groundwater can provide a cost-effective source of water for drinking and industrial uses, while groundwater basins provide storage. The role of groundwater in a city's water supply tends to change over time. In the Los Angeles metropolitan area, groundwater is critical. Over decades, users in the region's many basins allocated annual pumping rights to groundwater among users through adjudications. These rights were determined through collective processes over decades, which contributed to the complex array of public and private organizations involved in water management. The rights also continue to evolve. We analyzed changes in the distribution of groundwater rights over time for adjudicated basins in Southern Los Angeles County. Results indicate that groundwater rights are increasingly: 1) controlled or regulated by public institutions and municipalities, and 2) consolidated among larger users. Yet, both the percentage of total supplies provided by groundwater, as well as the distribution of groundwater rights, varies widely among cities and communities throughout Los Angeles. As metropolitan Los Angeles faces reduced water imports and emphasizes local water reliance, access to pumping rights and storage capacity in groundwater basins will become even more vital. We discuss implications of our results for future urban water management.

  10. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Managed aquifer recharge on the west coast north of Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantis Water Resource Management Scheme (AWRMS) located some 40 km north of Cape Town shows how insightful planning and management can expand the groundwater supply potential of a primary aquifer for bulk urban water supply. The AWRMS...

  11. Managing Human Resources in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Holt; Mayrhofer, Wolfgang

    Provides an analysis of the ten most important themes in European HRM. This work takes a thematic yet critical approach and includes three distinct country examples in each chapter, and special attention to dilemmas, controversies, paradoxes and problems in the field. It is a useful read for thos...... and diversity management and virtual HRM. Written and edited by leading European authorities, this text is essential reading for all those studying or working in HRM in Europe, and allows an exciting synthesis of theory and practice, illustrated with living case studies....

  12. Groundwater renewable resources in karst areas, the case of the Kleśnica River basin (Sudety Mountains, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olichwer, Tomasz; Otrębski, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The karst-fractured medium constitutes a considerable groundwater capacity, as shown on the example of the Kleśnica River basin. The paleozoic crystalline limestones in the research area are good collectors of the groundwater. The Kleśnica River basin, one of the largest crystalline limestone lens, is situated in the Sudety Mountains. Groundwater renewable resources were distinguished with the use of hydrological methods, on the basis of hydrometric measurements of the flow discharge of the Kleśnica River during the low-flow period (2009-2010). The mean module of the groundwater runoff equals 20.79 dm3/s*km2, and includes the study of the river catchments areas with extremely high groundwater runoff. The groundwater renewable resources in the Kleśnica River basin are almost twice higher than in the neighbouring river basins (the Kamienica and Morawka River basins), in which there are no significant outcrops of carbonate rocks. These considerable renewable resources also provide a high runoff in the spring, 7.98 dm3/s*km2. The high values of the runoffs indicate, that the groundwater is coming from the regional circulation system and, on a smaller scale, from the local system. The groundwater from both systems flows into the fractured system through the karst of carbonate massif rocks and their weathering fringes.

  13. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

    2002-04-24

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, and scheduling modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. Development will take place in four phases: Phase I results in a solid infrastructure; Phase II produces a functional but limited interactive job initiation capability without use of the interconnect/switch; Phase III provides switch support and documentation; Phase IV provides job status, fault-tolerance, and job queuing and control through Livermore's Distributed Production Control System (DPCS), a meta-batch and resource management system.

  14. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  15. Turning Video Resource Management into Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Big data makes cloud computing more and more popular in various fields. Video resources are very useful and important to education, security monitoring, and so on. However, issues of their huge volumes, complex data types, inefficient processing performance, weak security, and long times for loading pose challenges in video resource management. The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS is an open-source framework, which can provide cloud-based platforms and presents an opportunity for solving these problems. This paper presents video resource management architecture based on HDFS to provide a uniform framework and a five-layer model for standardizing the current various algorithms and applications. The architecture, basic model, and key algorithms are designed for turning video resources into a cloud computing environment. The design was tested by establishing a simulation system prototype.

  16. Resource Management in Broadband Communication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Stenhuus

    2003-01-01

    This thesis - Resource Management in Broadband Communication Networks - deals with different ways of optimizing the available resources of data- or telecommunication networks. Especially topics like optimal routing, load balancing and fast recovery of routes in case of link failures are covered...... in communication networks. For instance, the results show that a network controlled by simulated ants can balance the load quickly and efficiently, thereby postponing local hot-spots or in some cases even avoid hot-spots. Furthermore, the results clearly demonstrate, that systems using simulated ants obtain....... The first part gives a brief description of some of the existing protocols for routing and controlling resources, such as RSVP, OSPF, BGP, PNNI, etc. The remaining part concerns the following two fundamentally different approaches to resource management etc.: - Software agents - Simulated ants...

  17. Resource Management in Constrained Dynamic Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jinwoo

    Resource management is considered in this dissertation for systems with limited resources, possibly combined with other system constraints, in unpredictably dynamic environments. Resources may represent fuel, power, capabilities, energy, and so on. Resource management is important for many practical systems; usually, resources are limited, and their use must be optimized. Furthermore, systems are often constrained, and constraints must be satisfied for safe operation. Simplistic resource management can result in poor use of resources and failure of the system. Furthermore, many real-world situations involve dynamic environments. Many traditional problems are formulated based on the assumptions of given probabilities or perfect knowledge of future events. However, in many cases, the future is completely unknown, and information on or probabilities about future events are not available. In other words, we operate in unpredictably dynamic situations. Thus, a method is needed to handle dynamic situations without knowledge of the future, but few formal methods have been developed to address them. Thus, the goal is to design resource management methods for constrained systems, with limited resources, in unpredictably dynamic environments. To this end, resource management is organized hierarchically into two levels: 1) planning, and 2) control. In the planning level, the set of tasks to be performed is scheduled based on limited resources to maximize resource usage in unpredictably dynamic environments. In the control level, the system controller is designed to follow the schedule by considering all the system constraints for safe and efficient operation. Consequently, this dissertation is mainly divided into two parts: 1) planning level design, based on finite state machines, and 2) control level methods, based on model predictive control. We define a recomposable restricted finite state machine to handle limited resource situations and unpredictably dynamic environments

  18. Loss of Shallow Geothermal Resources in Urban Environment Due to the Absence of Thermal Management Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, A.; Vázquez-Suñé, E.; Sánchez-Navarro, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Shallow geothermal energy resources are of interest worldwide for the development of strategies against climate change. The current regulative framework for the sustainable implementation of the technologies exploiting this resources is facing several barriers. In the case of groundwater heat pumps, the thermal interference between exploitations may be endangering their feasibility in urban environments. Uncertainty in prediction of the sustainability of shallow geothermal energy development in urban groundwater bodies stems from the absence of a scientific-based legal regulatory framework which protects stakeholders from thermal interferences between existent exploitations systems. The present work consists of a numerical study aimed at understanding and predicting the thermal interference between groundwater heat pumps where several induced heat plumes in an urban ground water body coalesce, thus generating a heat island effect. A transient groundwater flow and heat transport model was developed to reproduce complex high-resolution data obtained from local monitoring specifically designed to control the aquifer respond to geothermal exploitation. The model aims to reproduce the groundwater flow and heat transport processes in a shallow alluvial aquifer exploited by 27 groundwater heat pumps and influenced by a river-aquifer relationship dominated by flood events mainly occurring in winter when the surface temperature is between 3 and 10 ºC. The results from the simulations have quantified the time-space thermal interference between exploitation systems and the consequences of river-aquifer thermal exchange. The results obtained showed the complexity of thermal management of the aquifer due to the transient activity of exploitations over space and time. With the actual exploitation regime of shallow geothermal resources in the investigated area the model predicts a temperature rising tendency in the production wells until 2019 which can compromise the coefficient

  19. Watershed Scale Analysis of Groundwater Surface Water Interactions and Its Application to Conjunctive Management under Climatic and Anthropogenic Stresses over the US Sunbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung Beom

    , changes in error due to GCMs primarily account for the unexplained changes in mean and variability of seasonal streamflow. On the other hand, the changes in error due to temporal disaggregation and hydrologic model account for the inability to explain the observed changes in mean and variability of seasonal extremes. Thus, the proposed metrics provide insights on how the error in explaining the observed changes being propagated through the model under different hydroclimatic regimes. To understand interaction between surface water and groundwater resources, transient pumping impacts on streamflow and groundwater level were analyzed by imposing shortterm pumping scenarios under historic drought conditions. Since surface water and groundwater systems are fully coupled and integrated systems, increased groundwater withdrawal during drought may reduce baseflow into the stream and prolong both systems' recovery from drought. Towards this, we proposed an uncertainty framework to understand the resiliency of groundwater and surface water systems using a fully-coupled hydrologic model under transient pumping. Using this framework, we quantified the restoration time of surface water and groundwater systems and also estimated the changes in the state variables after pumping. Groundwater pumping impacts over the watershed were also analyzed under different pumping volumes and different potential climate scenarios. Our analyses show that groundwater restoration time is more sensitive to changes in pumping volumes as opposed to changes in climate. After the cessation of pumping, streamflow recovers quickly in comparison to groundwater. Pumping impacts on other state variables are also discussed. Given that surface water and groundwater are inter-connected, optimal management of the both resources should be considered to improve the watershed resiliency under drought. Subsequently, conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater has been considered as an effective approach to mitigate

  20. Optimization and resilience in natural resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the putative tradeoff between optimization and resilience in the management of natural resources, using a framework that incorporates different sources of uncertainty that are common in natural resources management. We address one-time decisions, and then expand the decision context to the more complex problem of iterative decision making. For both cases we focus on two key sources of uncertainty: partial observability of system state and uncertainty as to system dynamics. Optimal management strategies will vary considerably depending on the timeframe being considered and the amount and quality of information that is available to characterize system features and project the consequences of potential decisions. But in all cases an optimal decision making framework, if properly identified and focused, can be useful in recognizing sound decisions. We argue that under the conditions of deep uncertainty that characterize many resource systems, an optimal decision process that focuses on robustness does not automatically induce a loss of resilience.

  1. Resource management in mobile computing environments

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromoustakis, Constandinos X; Mastorakis, George

    2014-01-01

    This book reports the latest advances on the design and development of mobile computing systems, describing their applications in the context of modeling, analysis and efficient resource management. It explores the challenges on mobile computing and resource management paradigms, including research efforts and approaches recently carried out in response to them to address future open-ended issues. The book includes 26 rigorously refereed chapters written by leading international researchers, providing the readers with technical and scientific information about various aspects of mobile computing, from basic concepts to advanced findings, reporting the state-of-the-art on resource management in such environments. It is mainly intended as a reference guide for researchers and practitioners involved in the design, development and applications of mobile computing systems, seeking solutions to related issues. It also represents a useful textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses, addressing special t...

  2. From waste treatment to integrated resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsenach, J A; Maurer, M; Larsen, T A; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater treatment was primarily implemented to enhance urban hygiene. Treatment methods were improved to ensure environmental protection by nutrient removal processes. In this way, energy is consumed and resources like potentially useful minerals and drinking water are disposed of. An integrated management of assets, including drinking water, surface water, energy and nutrients would be required to make wastewater management more sustainable. Exergy analysis provides a good method to quantify different resources, e.g. utilisable energy and nutrients. Dilution is never a solution for pollution. Waste streams should best be managed to prevent dilution of resources. Wastewater and sanitation are not intrinsically linked. Source separation technology seems to be the most promising concept to realise a major breakthrough in wastewater treatment. Research on unit processes, such as struvite recovery and treatment of ammonium rich streams, also shows promising results. In many cases, nutrient removal and recovery can be combined, with possibilities for a gradual change from one system to another.

  3. Characterization of groundwater resources in the Trinity and Woodbine aquifers in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sriroop; Ale, Srinivasulu

    2013-05-01

    A vast region in north-central Texas, centering on Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, suffers from intense groundwater drawdown and water quality degradation, which led to inclusion of 18 counties of this region into Priority Groundwater Management Areas. We combined aquifer-based and county-based hydrologic analyses to (1) assess spatio-temporal changes in groundwater level and quality between 1960 and 2010 in the Trinity and Woodbine aquifers underlying the study region, (2) delve into major hydrochemical facies with reference to aquifer hydrostratigraphy, and (3) identify county-based spatial zones to aid in future groundwater management initiatives. Water-level and quality data was obtained from the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) and analyzed on a decadal scale. Progressive water-level decline was the major concern in the Trinity aquifer with >50% of observations occurring at depths >100 m since the 1980s, an observation becoming apparent only in the 2000s in the Woodbine aquifer. Water quality degradation was the major issue in the Woodbine aquifer with substantially higher percentage of observations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL; a non-enforceable threshold set by the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)) and/or maximum contaminant level (MCL, a legally enforceable drinking water standard set by the USEPA) for sulfate (SO4(2-)), chloride (Cl(-)), and fluoride (F(-)) in each decade. In both aquifers, however, >70% of observations exceeded the SMCL for total dissolved solids indicating high groundwater salinization. Water-level changes in Trinity aquifer also had significant negative impact on water quality. Hydrochemical facies in this region sequentially evolved from Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3 in the fluvial sediments of the west to Na-SO4-Cl in the deltaic sediments to the east. Sequentially evolving hydrogeochemical facies and increasing salinization closely resembled regional groundwater flow pattern. Distinct spatial

  4. Managing service quality: Human resource management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Govender

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of an empirical evaluation of a conceptual service encounter management model (Govender, 1999. The various hypotheses proposed to show a relationship between formal and informal socialisation strategies, and the bank employees' perception of the organisational climate and their role are empirically evaluated. Furthermore, the mediated effects of these socialization tactics on the bank customers perception of the service quality was also ascertained by matching a random sample of 210 bank employees with 1050 customers. Opsomming Hierdie artikel rapporteer die resultate van n empiriese evaluering van n konseptuele dienservaringsbestuursmodel (Govender, 1999. Verskeie hipoteses word voorgehou om n verband tussen formele en informele sosialise- ringstrategiee aan te toon, en die bankwerkers se persepsie van die organisatoriese klimaat en hulle rolle word empirics geevalueer.Verder word die modererende effek van hierdie sosialiseringstrategie op die bankkliente se persepsie van dienskwaliteit bepaal deur 'n ewekansige steekproefvan 210 bankwerkers met 1050 kliente af te paar.

  5. Management of groundwater in farmed pond area using risk-based regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun-Ying; Liao, Chiao-Miao; Lin, Kao-Hung; Lee, Cheng-Haw

    2014-09-01

    Blackfoot disease (BFD) had occurred seriously in the Yichu, Hsuehchia, Putai, and Peimen townships of Chia-Nan District of Taiwan in the early days. These four townships are the districts of fishpond cultivation domestically in Taiwan. Groundwater becomes the main water supply because of short income in surface water. The problems of over pumping in groundwater may not only result in land subsidence and seawater intrusion but also be harmful to the health of human giving rise to the bioaccumulation via food chain in groundwater with arsenic (As). This research uses sequential indicator simulation (SIS) to characterize the spatial arsenic distribution in groundwater in the four townships. Risk assessment is applied to explore the dilution ratio (DR) of groundwater utilization, which is defined as the ratio showing the volume of groundwater utilization compared to pond water, for fish farming in the range of target cancer risk (TR) especially on the magnitude of 10(-4)~10(-6). Our study results reveal that the 50th percentile of groundwater DRs served as a regulation standard can be used to perform fish farm groundwater management for a TR of 10(-6). For a TR of 5 × 10(-6), we suggest using the 75th percentile of DR for groundwater management. For a TR of 10(-5), we suggest using the 95th percentile of the DR standard for performing groundwater management in fish farm areas. For the TR of exceeding 5 × 10(-5), we do not suggest establishing groundwater management standards under these risk standards. Based on the research results, we suggest that establishing a TR at 10(-5) and using the 95th percentile of DR are best for groundwater management in fish farm areas.

  6. AOIPS water resources data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. S.; Shotwell, R. L.; Place, M. C.; Belknap, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A geocoded data management system applicable for hydrological applications was designed to demonstrate the utility of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) for hydrological applications. Within that context, the geocoded hydrology data management system was designed to take advantage of the interactive capability of the AOIPS hardware. Portions of the Water Resource Data Management System which best demonstrate the interactive nature of the hydrology data management system were implemented on the AOIPS. A hydrological case study was prepared using all data supplied for the Bear River watershed located in northwest Utah, southeast Idaho, and western Wyoming.

  7. Efficient Resource Management in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushikesh Shingade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing, one of the widely used technology to provide cloud services for users who are charged for receiving services. In the aspect of a maximum number of resources, evaluating the performance of Cloud resource management policies are difficult to optimize efficiently. There are different simulation toolkits available for simulation and modelling the Cloud computing environment like GridSim CloudAnalyst, CloudSim, GreenCloud, CloudAuction etc. In proposed Efficient Resource Management in Cloud Computing (EFRE model, CloudSim is used as a simulation toolkit that allows simulation of DataCenter in Cloud computing system. The CloudSim toolkit also supports the creation of multiple virtual machines (VMs on a node of a DataCenter where cloudlets (user requests are assigned to virtual machines by scheduling policies. This paper represents, allocation policies, Time-Shared and Space-Shared are used for scheduling the cloudlets and compared with the constraints (metrics like total execution time, a number of resources and resource allocation algorithm. CloudSim has been used for simulations and the result of simulation demonstrate that Resource Management is effective.

  8. Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming to Support Water Resources Management in the Ziya River Basin, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Liu, Suxia;

    2015-01-01

    of stochastic dynamic programming, to optimize water resources management in the Ziya River basin. Natural runoff from the upper basin was estimated with a rainfall-runoff model autocalibrated using in situ measured discharge. The runoff serial correlation was described by a Markov chain and used as input...... for the optimization model. This model was used to assess the economic impacts of ecosystem minimum flow constraints, limited groundwater pumping, and the middle route of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). A regional climate shift has exacerbated water scarcity and increased water values, resulting...... in stricter water management. The results show that the SNWTP reduces the impacts of water scarcity and impacts optimal water management in the basin. The presented modeling framework provides an objective basis for the development of tools to avoid overpumping groundwater resources at minimum costs....

  9. Management Can Reduce Mobility of Escherichia coli compared to traditional groundwater tracers within karst terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of fundamental processes controlling pathogen movement is necessary to protect water resources across the globe. Limited filtration and turbulent flow make karst aquifers susceptible to microbial contamination. Groundwater tracers typically used in karst terrains include fluorescent...

  10. Groundwater management; La gestion de las aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahuquillo, A.; Custodio, E.; Llamas, M. R.

    2009-07-01

    The Water Framework Directive is set to make a big improvement in the management and protection of aquifers in Spain by laying down the need to carry out studies to monitor extractions, pollution and quality through piezo metric networks and their relationship with the environment. the use of groundwater is cheaper and more efficient than surface water from reservoirs and canals (in spite of the lather's being heavy subsidised). In Spain it is employed in watering 30% of the irrigated surface area (about 3.5 million hectares) and its use has grown spectacularly in the last 30 years, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. it account for 20% of the water used.

  11. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, lead, antimony, I,I-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 57 (49%) of the 116 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 21 (18%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations Sixty-one downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained constituents that exceeded the PDWS during first quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and HSB 85A, BC, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Upgradient well BGO 2D contained elevated tritium.

  12. Technology adoption in nonrenewable resource management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha-e-Sa, Maria A.; Balcao Reis, Ana [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia, Campus de Campolide, PT-1099-032, Lisboa (Portugal); Roseta-Palma, Catarina [Departamento de Economia, ISCTE, Avenida das Forcas Armadas, PT-1649-026, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-03-15

    Technological change has played an important role in models of nonrenewable resource management, since its presence mitigates the depletion effect on extraction costs over time. We formalize the problem of a competitive nonrenewable resource extracting firm faced with the possibility of technology adoption. Based on a quadratic extraction cost function, our results show that the expected net benefits from adoption increase both with the size of the resource stock and with prices. A boundary that separates the region where expected net benefits are positive from the one where they are negative is derived. (author)

  13. Resource management in utility and cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Han

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief reviews the existing market-oriented strategies for economically managing resource allocation in distributed systems. It describes three new schemes that address cost-efficiency, user incentives, and allocation fairness with regard to different scheduling contexts. The first scheme, taking the Amazon EC2? market as a case of study, investigates the optimal resource rental planning models based on linear integer programming and stochastic optimization techniques. This model is useful to explore the interaction between the cloud infrastructure provider and the cloud resource c

  14. Food security and sustainable resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Dennis; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    The projected growth in global food demand until mid-century will challenge our ability to continue recent increases in crop yield and will have a significant impact on natural resources. The water and land requirements of current agriculture are significantly less than global reserves but local shortages are common and have serious impacts on food security. Recent increases in global trade have mitigated some of the effects of spatial and temporal variability. However, trade has a limited impact on low-income populations who remain dependent on subsistence agriculture and local resources. Potential adverse environmental impacts of increased agricultural production include unsustainable depletion of water and soil resources, major changes in the global nitrogen and phosphorous cycles, human health problems related to excessive nutrient and pesticide use, and loss of habitats that contribute to agricultural productivity. Some typical case studies from China illustrate the connections between the need for increased food production and environmental stress. Sustainable options for decreasing food demand and for increasing production include reduction of food losses on both the producer and consumer ends, elimination of unsustainable practices such as prolonged groundwater overdraft, closing of yield gaps with controlled expansions of fertilizer application, increases in crop yield and pest resistance through advances in biotechnology, and moderate expansion of rain fed and irrigated cropland. Calculations based on reasonable assumptions suggest that such measures could meet the food needs of an increasing global population while protecting the environment.