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Sample records for groundwater pressure increased

  1. Increased intracranial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patient's bedside in an emergency room or hospital. Primary care doctors may sometimes spot early symptoms of increased intracranial pressure such as headache, seizures, or other nervous system problems. An MRI ...

  2. Increasing Inflationary Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's CPI rose to 8.7 percent in February after hitting 7.1 percent in January,creating a 12-year high,the National Bureau of Statistics said.The figure exceeded market expectations,as the Bank of China,the country's secondlargest lender,had predicted a rise of only 8.3 percent.The Consumer Price Index (CPI)is the main gauge of inflation,andthe high CPI over the last two months has put pressure on the government to take action to curb the price increases,and added even more diffculty to the task of reining in this year's inflation rate.

  3. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  4. Mechanisms for pressurized groundwater outflow channels, implications for Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Wouter; Kleinhans, Maarten; Hauber, E.; McLelland, Stuart J.; Murphy, Brendan J.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Conway, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Various valleys on Mars show evidence for extensive fluvial activity in the past. The largest valleys on Mars are several tens to hundreds of kilometers wide and are thought to have originated from outflow of pressurized groundwater. However, exact mechanisms of these processes are lacking, which ha

  5. Explaining nitrate pollution pressure on the groundwater resource in Kinshasa using a multivariate statistical modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfumu Kihumba, Antoine; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2013-04-01

    Drinking water in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, is provided by extracting groundwater from the local aquifer, particularly in peripheral areas. The exploited groundwater body is mainly unconfined and located within a continuous detrital aquifer, primarily composed of sedimentary formations. However, the aquifer is subjected to an increasing threat of anthropogenic pollution pressure. Understanding the detailed origin of this pollution pressure is important for sustainable drinking water management in Kinshasa. The present study aims to explain the observed nitrate pollution problem, nitrate being considered as a good tracer for other pollution threats. The analysis is made in terms of physical attributes that are readily available using a statistical modelling approach. For the nitrate data, use was made of a historical groundwater quality assessment study, for which the data were re-analysed. The physical attributes are related to the topography, land use, geology and hydrogeology of the region. Prior to the statistical modelling, intrinsic and specific vulnerability for nitrate pollution was assessed. This vulnerability assessment showed that the alluvium area in the northern part of the region is the most vulnerable area. This area consists of urban land use with poor sanitation. Re-analysis of the nitrate pollution data demonstrated that the spatial variability of nitrate concentrations in the groundwater body is high, and coherent with the fragmented land use of the region and the intrinsic and specific vulnerability maps. For the statistical modeling use was made of multiple regression and regression tree analysis. The results demonstrated the significant impact of land use variables on the Kinshasa groundwater nitrate pollution and the need for a detailed delineation of groundwater capture zones around the monitoring stations. Key words: Groundwater , Isotopic, Kinshasa, Modelling, Pollution, Physico-chemical.

  6. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Global assessments of submarine groundwater discharge and groundwater resources under the pressures of humanity and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.; Burnett, W. C.; Aureli, A.

    2006-12-01

    We report here the global-scale assessment of both fresh and saline groundwater discharges based solely on observational data. Prior estimates have been limited to various water balance and hydrodynamic modeling calculations and range over orders of magnitude. Our observations suggest the global volumes of fresh groundwater discharge and recirculated seawater per unit shoreline length depending on the distance from the shoreline, precipitation, and seawater depth. On a world-wide scale, these flows are compared with the global river discharge. We show via automated measurements that precipitation and wave pumping are important controls of terrestrial (fresh) and marine-induced (recirculated seawater) subterranean flows, respectively. The Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Changes (GRAPHIC) Project, an initiative of UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (IHP), seeks to improve the understanding and management of groundwater as a vital contributor to the global water cycle, ecosystems and communities, under changing climatic and anthropomorphic regimes. GRAPHIC focuses on variations of the flows, stocks, and quality of groundwater recharge, discharge and storage and on groundwater-related management and policy (http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/USE/GRAPHIC/GRAPHIC.htm). This GRAPHIC project will deal with groundwater resources assessment and future forecasting under the various pressures of humanity and climate changes. The structure of the GRAPHIC project has been divided into; (A) Subjects; thematic, cross-region issues, (B) Methods; methodological approaches (1:Database and Monitoring, 2:Satelite GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), 3:Modeling and Simulation, 4:Paleohydrology), and (C) Regions; representative geographical areas, where pilot studies will be made.

  8. Arterial pressure suffices to increase liver stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecha, Felix; Peccerella, Teresa; Bruckner, Tom; Seitz, Helmut-Karl; Rausch, Vanessa; Mueller, Sebastian

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive measurement of liver stiffness (LS) has been established to screen for liver fibrosis. Since LS is also elevated in response to pressure-related conditions such as liver congestion, this study was undertaken to learn more about the role of arterial pressure on LS. LS was measured by transient elastography (μFibroscan platform, Echosens, Paris, France) during single intravenous injections of catecholamines in anesthetized rats with and without thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis. The effect of vasodilating glycerol trinitrate (GTN) on LS was also studied. Pressures in the abdominal aorta and caval and portal veins were measured in real time with the PowerLab device (AD Instruments, Dunedin, New Zealand). Baseline LS values in all rats (3.8 ± 0.5 kPa, n = 25) did not significantly differ from those in humans. Epinephrine and norepinephrine drastically increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 82 to 173 and 156 mmHg. Concomitantly, LS almost doubled from 4 to 8 kPa, while central venous pressure remained unchanged. Likewise, portal pressure only showed a slight and delayed increase. In the TAA-induced fibrosis model, LS increased from 9.5 ± 1.0 to 25.6 ± 14.7 kPa upon epinephrine injection and could efficiently be decreased by GTN. We finally show a direct association in humans in a physiological setting of elevated cardiac output and MAP. During continuous spinning at 200 W, MAP increased from 84 ± 8 to 99 ± 11 mmHg while LS significantly increased from 4.4 ± 1.8 to 6.7 ± 2.1 kPa. In conclusion, our data show that arterial pressure suffices to increase LS. Moreover, lowering MAP efficiently decreases LS in fibrotic livers that are predominantly supplied by arterial blood. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Two-dimensional vertical moisture-pressure dynamics above groundwater waves: Sand flume experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoushtari, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Jazayeri; Cartwright, Nick; Perrochet, Pierre; Nielsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new laboratory dataset on the moisture-pressure relationship above a dispersive groundwater wave in a two-dimensional vertical unconfined sand flume aquifer driven by simple harmonic forcing. A total of five experiments were conducted in which all experimental parameters were kept constant except for the oscillation period, which ranged from 268 s to 2449 s between tests. Moisture content and suction head sensor pairings were co-located at two locations in the unsaturated zone both approximately 0.2 m above the mean watertable elevation and respectively 0.3 m and 0.75 m from the driving head boundary. For all oscillation periods except for the shortest (T = 268s), the formation of a hysteretic moisture-pressure scanning loop was observed. Consistent with the decay of the saturated zone groundwater wave, the size of the observed moisture-pressure scanning loops decayed with increasing distance landward and the decay rate is larger for the shorter oscillation periods. At the shortest period (T = 268s), the observed moisture-pressure relationship was observed to be non-hysteretic but with a capillary capacity that differs from that of the static equilibrium wetting and drying curves. This finding is consistent with observations from existing one-dimensional vertical sand column experiments. The relative damping of the moisture content with distance landward is higher than that for the suction head consistent with the fact that transmission of pressure through a porous medium occurs more readily than mass transfer. This is further supported by the fact that observed phase lags for the unsaturated zone variables (i.e. suction head and moisture content) relative to the driving head are greater than the saturated zone variables (i.e. piezometric head). Harmonic analysis of the data reveals no observable generation of higher harmonics in either moisture or pressure despite the strongly non-linear relationship between the two. In addition, a phase lag

  10. Internal jugular pressure increases during parabolic flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David S; Lee, Stuart M C; Matz, Timothy P; Westby, Christian M; Scott, Jessica M; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2016-12-01

    One hypothesized contributor to vision changes experienced by >75% of International Space Station astronauts is elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). While no definitive data yet exist, elevated ICP might be secondary to the microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift, resulting in venous congestion (overfilling and distension) and inhibition of cerebrospinal and lymphatic fluid drainage from the skull. The objective of this study was to measure internal jugular venous pressure (IJVP) during normo- and hypo-gravity as an index of venous congestion. IJVP was measured noninvasively using compression sonography at rest during end-expiration in 11 normal, healthy subjects (3 M, 8 F) during normal gravity (1G; supine) and weightlessness (0G; seated) produced by parabolic flight. IJVP also was measured in two subjects during parabolas approximating Lunar (1/6G) and Martian gravity (1/3G). Finally, IJVP was measured during increased intrathoracic pressure produced using controlled Valsalva maneuvers. IJVP was higher in 0G than 1G (23.9 ± 5.6 vs. 9.9 ± 5.1 mmHg, mean ± SD P < 0.001) in all subjects, and IJVP increased as gravity levels decreased in two subjects. Finally, IJVP was greater in 0G than 1G at all expiration pressures (P < 0.01). Taken together, these data suggest that IJVP is elevated during acute exposure to reduced gravity and may be elevated further by conditions that increase intrathoracic pressure, a strong modulator of central venous pressure and IJVP However, whether elevated IJVP, and perhaps consequent venous congestion, observed during acute microgravity exposure contribute to vision changes during long-duration spaceflight is yet to be determined. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  11. Pore Pressure Response to Groundwater Fluctuations in Saturated Double-Layered Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solutions are developed for one-dimensional consolidation of double-layered saturated soil subjected to groundwater fluctuations. The solutions are derived by an explicit mathematical procedure using Duhamel’s theorem in conjunction with a Fourier series, when groundwater fluctuation is described by a general time-dependent function and assumed to be the pore water pressure variations at the upper boundary. Taking as an example the harmonic groundwater fluctuation, the relevant response of the excess pore water pressure is discussed in detail, and the main influencing factors of the excess pore pressure distribution are analyzed. A dimensionless parameter θ has been introduced because it significantly affects the phase and the amplitude of excess pore pressures. The influences of the coefficients of permeability and compressibility of soil on the excess pore pressure distribution are different and cannot be incorporated into the coefficient of consolidation in double-layered soil. The relative permeability ratio of two clayey soils also plays an important role on the curves of the distributions of the excess pore pressures. The effects of the thickness of the soil layer on the excess pore pressure distribution should be considered together with the dimensionless parameter θ and the permeability and compressibility of the double-layered soil system.

  12. Pore water pressure variations in Subpermafrost groundwater : Numerical modeling compared with experimental modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Agnès.; Goncalves, Julio; Jost, Anne; Font, Marianne

    2010-05-01

    Development and degradation of permafrost directly affect numerous hydrogeological processes such as thermal regime, exchange between river and groundwater, groundwater flows patterns and groundwater recharge (Michel, 1994). Groundwater in permafrost area is subdivided into two zones: suprapermafrost and subpermafrost which are separated by permafrost. As a result of the volumetric expansion of water upon freezing and assuming ice lenses and frost heave do not form freezing in a saturated aquifer, the progressive formation of permafrost leads to the pressurization of the subpermafrost groundwater (Wang, 2006). Therefore disappearance or aggradation of permafrost modifies the confined or unconfined state of subpermafrost groundwater. Our study focuses on modifications of pore water pressure of subpermafrost groundwater which could appear during thawing and freezing of soil. Numerical simulation allows elucidation of some of these processes. Our numerical model accounts for phase changes for coupled heat transport and variably saturated flow involving cycles of freezing and thawing. The flow model is a combination of a one-dimensional channel flow model which uses Manning-Strickler equation and a two-dimensional vertically groundwater flow model using Richards equation. Numerical simulation of heat transport consisted in a two dimensional model accounting for the effects of latent heat of phase change of water associated with melting/freezing cycles which incorporated the advection-diffusion equation describing heat-transfer in porous media. The change of hydraulic conductivity and thermal conductivity are considered by our numerical model. The model was evaluated by comparing predictions with data from laboratory freezing experiments. Experimental design was undertaken at the Laboratory M2C (Univesité de Caen-Basse Normandie, CNRS, France). The device consisted of a Plexiglas box insulated on all sides except on the top. Precipitation and ambient temperature are

  13. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...

  14. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset was used to create graphics associated with manuscript: Garcia et al., Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a...

  15. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  16. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  17. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on groundwater using stable OH isotopes: perspectives and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, Philippe; Ollivier, Patrick; Flehoc, Christine; Hube, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Large developments of isotope hydrogeology were done and well-established techniques mainly applying stable isotopes of the water molecule (hydrogen and oxygen) are now used largely to trace water provenance but also recharge processes. New methods allow the use of non-traditional isotopes (metals, compound specific stable isotope analysis CSIA...) to trace anthropogenic pressures in surface- and groundwater. Groundwater contamination in large industrial sites may come from several origins such as leakage from tanks during the production process of chemical products, liquid storage tanks, solid end product or past accumulated product in soil which is released over the time. The understanding of the origin and the further evolution of the chemical contamination in groundwater in an industrial site issued from past or current industrial activities is essential for the industrial companies regarding their environmental policies. The objective of this study was to use with an innovative way the stable isotopes of the water molecule as a low cost tool to trace pollutant plumes in groundwater and help to a better management of contaminated industrial sites. We present data on stable isotopes O and H in an European region where electrochemistry plants occur. For confidentiality purposes, the sites remain anonymous. Present day industrial activities have a direct impact on the groundwater over the site and migration of the contaminant(s) plume out of the site is supposed. We first characterize the natural groundwater background through the O-H characterization of surface water, lakes, thermal waters and regional shallow aquifers. High and low altitude recharge can be demonstrated in the area. Secondly, we used the stable isotope of the water molecule to trace over the site the impact of the Cl-rich liquor manufacturing process. Large deuterium enrichment was evidenced in the groundwater and the high values can be related to a direct contamination of the groundwater through

  18. Estimation of the pore pressure distribution from three dimensional groundwater flow model at mine sites in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangsoo; Jang, Myounghwan; Kim, Gyoungman; Kim, Donghui; Kim, Daehoon; Baek, Hwanjo

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities continually change the groundwater flow and associated pore pressure distributions within the rockmass around the mine openings or the open-pit bench during the operational periods. As the pore pressure distributions may substantially affect the mechanical behaviour or stability of the rockmass, it is important to monitor the variation of pore pressure incurred by mining operation. The pore pressure distributions within the rockmass can be derived using a two- or three-dimensional finite element groundwater flow model, adopted to simulate the groundwater flow. While the groundwater inflow at mines has generally been dealt with respect to the working environment, detailed case studies on the distribution of pore water pressure related to the stability analysis of mine openings have been relatively rare in Korea. Recently, however, as the health and safety problems are emerged for sustainable mining practice, these issues are of the major concerns for the mining industries. This study aims to establish a three dimensional groundwater flow model to estimate the pore pressure distributions in order to employ as an input parameter for numerical codes such as the FLAC 3D. Also, the groundwater flow simulated can be used for de-watering design at a mine site. The MINEDW code, a groundwater flow model code specifically developed to simulate the complicated hydro-geologic conditions related to mining, has mainly been used in this study. Based on the data collected from field surveys and literature reviews, a conceptual model was established and sensitivity analysis was performed.

  19. [Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  20. Increased intrathoracic pressure affects cerebral oxygenation following cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars M; Nielsen, Jonas; Østergaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral oximetry reflects circulatory stability during surgery. We evaluated whether frontal lobe oxygenation is influenced by a transient increase in intrathoracic pressure as induced by a lung recruitment manoeuvre.......Cerebral oximetry reflects circulatory stability during surgery. We evaluated whether frontal lobe oxygenation is influenced by a transient increase in intrathoracic pressure as induced by a lung recruitment manoeuvre....

  1. Variation in calcium and magnesium ratio with increasing electrical conductivity of groundwater from shallow basaltic aquifers of Maharashtra (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Arun N; Nawale, Vijay P; Tambe, Jivesh A; Satyakumar, Y

    2010-10-01

    The hydrochemical investigations of 523 groundwater samples from shallow basaltic aquifers of Maharashtra (India) have shown that the Ca/Mg ratio decreases gradually in the groundwater with increasing EC. The ratio was found high for the groundwater having EC less than 500 microS/cm representing a typical water from the basaltic aquifer having more Ca than Mg. The ratio decreases beyond EC of 500 microS/cm showing an increase in concentration of Mg as compared to Ca. The Mg concentration reaches maximum in the groundwater having EC greater than 2000 microS/cm. This decrease in Ca/Mg ratio with increase in mineralisation is possibly due to the percolation of domestic sewage and animal waste to groundwater.

  2. Simulated effects of increased groundwater withdrawals in the Cave Springs area, Hixson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, Connor J.

    2014-01-01

    Concern for future water supplies in Tennessee has grown in recent years as a result of increased awareness of competing needs, the impact of droughts, and the need for more water to support growing populations. The U.S. Geological Survey conducts investigations to improve the knowledge about interactions of geology, climate, humans, and ecosystems with the water cycle, which is critical to understanding and optimizing water availability. The Hixson Utility District in Hamilton County, Tennessee, uses groundwater resources in the Cave Springs area as a water supply, withdrawing water from two well fields located at Cave Springs and Walkers Corner. Historically, Hixson Utility District has withdrawn about 5 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) at the Cave Springs well field and between 2 and 3 Mgal/d at the Walkers Corner well field. To assess the capacity of the groundwater resources in the Cave Springs area to meet future demands, four different scenarios of increased groundwater withdrawals were analyzed using computer model simulations.

  3. Inhibition of natriuretic factors increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2009-08-01

    Renal dopamine and nitric oxide contribute to natriuresis during high-salt intake which maintains sodium and blood pressure homeostasis. We wanted to determine whether concurrent inhibition of these natriuretic factors increases blood pressure during high-sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 1) vehicle (V)-tap water, 2) NaCl-1% NaCl drinking water, 3) 30 mM l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an oxidant, 4) BSO plus NaCl, and 5) BSO plus NaCl with 1 mM tempol (antioxidant). Compared with V, NaCl intake for 10 days doubled sodium intake and increased urinary dopamine level but reduced urinary nitric oxide content. NaCl intake also reduced basal renal proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity with no effect on blood pressure. However, NaCl intake in BSO-treated rats failed to reduce basal Na-K-ATPase activity despite higher urinary dopamine levels. Also, dopamine failed to inhibit proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity and these rats exhibited reduced urinary nitric oxide levels and high blood pressure. Tempol supplementation in NaCl plus BSO-treated rats reduced blood pressure. BSO treatment alone did not affect the urinary nitric oxide and dopamine levels or blood pressure. However, dopamine failed to inhibit proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity in BSO-treated rats. BSO treatment also increased basal protein kinase C activity, D1 receptor serine phosphorylation, and oxidative markers like malondialdehyde and 8-isoprostane. We suggest that NaCl-mediated reduction in nitric oxide does not increase blood pressure due to activation of D1 receptor signaling. Conversely, oxidative stress-provoked inhibition of D1 receptor signaling fails to elevate blood pressure due to presence of normal nitric oxide. However, simultaneously decreasing nitric oxide levels with NaCl and inhibiting D1 receptor signaling with BSO elevated blood pressure.

  4. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Cone

    Full Text Available What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy. Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect.

  5. Clitoral blood flow increases following vaginal pressure stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoisier, P; Aloui, R; Schmidt, M H; Watrelot, A

    1995-02-01

    The vascular responses of clitoral arteries to vaginal pressure stimulation in 10 volunteer women were evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Pressure stimulations (20-160 mm Hg) along the lower third of the vagina increased blood velocity and flow into clitoral arteries in 9 of the 10 women. The latency and duration of the Doppler responses ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 sec and from 3.2 to 9.5 sec, respectively, and the response was associated with a blood flow increase of 4 to 11 times the baseline prestimulation level. This response parallels that recorded in the cavernous arteries in men when a similar range of pressure stimulations are applied to the glans penis. Similar responses evoked in the male and female suggest a sexual synergy that may occur during intercourse in that such physiological responses and reflexes may be reciprocally reinforced.

  6. Vasodilation increases pulse pressure variation, mimicking hypovolemic status in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco A Westphal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that pulse pressure respiratory variation (PPV amplification, observed in hypovolemia, can also be observed during sodium nitroprusside (SNP-induced vasodilation. INTRODUCTION: PPV is largely used for early identification of cardiac responsiveness, especially when hypovolemia is suspected. PPV results from respiratory variation in transpulmonary blood flow and reflects the left ventricular preload variations during respiratory cycles. Any factor that decreases left ventricular preload can be associated with PPV amplification, as seen in hypovolemia. METHODS: Ten anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits underwent progressive hypotension by either controlled hemorrhage (Group 1 or intravenous SNP infusion (Group 2. Animals in Group 1 (n = 5 had graded hemorrhage induced at 10% steps until 50% of the total volume was bled. Mean arterial pressure (MAP steps were registered and assumed as pressure targets to be reached in Group 2. Group 2 (n = 5 was subjected to a progressive SNP infusion to reach similar pressure targets as those defined in Group 1. Heart rate (HR, systolic pressure variation (SPV and PPV were measured at each MAP step, and the values were compared between the groups. RESULTS: SPV and PPV were similar between the experimental models in all steps (p > 0.16. SPV increased earlier in Group 2. CONCLUSION: Both pharmacologic vasodilation and graded hemorrhage induced PPV amplification similar to that observed in hypovolemia, reinforcing the idea that amplified arterial pressure variation does not necessarily represent hypovolemic status but rather potential cardiovascular responsiveness to fluid infusion.

  7. RELATIONSHIP AMONG EVAPORATION FLUX OF GROUNDWATER, DEPTH OF WATER TABLE AND NEGATIVE PRESSURE HEAD IN BARE SOIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Evaporation of ground water is a part of moisture circulation in the field.And it is a main natural form in which water transmits from the ground water to the soil water and atmosphere water.According to the simulated experiments, we study the relationship among the evaporation, depth of groundwater table and negative pressure.By theoretical analysis of the experimental results, the main conclusions are drawn as follows.There are two abrupt points in every Q-H curve.The locations of the abrupt points are separately in step with the height of top of the capillary fringe and the height of maximal capillary rise in the soil section.When the depth of ground water table H is small, the evaporation flux of ground water is large.While the depth of water table exceeds the maximal capillary rise of media in vadose zone, the capillary rise breaks up and evaporation flux of groundwater is small.The water content ratio in ground surface tends to be zero and the surface of soil tends to be drought.These conclusions show that the maximal capillary rise of media in vadose zone is an important value in regulating rational depth of ground water to reduce the evaporation of ground water and to increase effective quantity of water resources.In the meantime, these conclusions are of important theoretical and practical significance to reduce the evaporation of ground water, to prevent and cure the salinization of soil, and to make full use of and protect water resources in the northern plains in China.

  8. Inhibition of natriuretic factors increases blood pressure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F.

    2009-01-01

    Renal dopamine and nitric oxide contribute to natriuresis during high-salt intake which maintains sodium and blood pressure homeostasis. We wanted to determine whether concurrent inhibition of these natriuretic factors increases blood pressure during high-sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 1) vehicle (V)-tap water, 2) NaCl-1% NaCl drinking water, 3) 30 mM l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an oxidant, 4) BSO plus NaCl, and 5) BSO plus NaCl with 1 mM t...

  9. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  10. Pressure Mapping in Elderly Care: A Tool to Increase Pressure Injury Knowledge and Awareness Among Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Lisa; Olsson, Estrid; Carli, Cheryl; Gunningberg, Lena

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a pressure mapping system with real-time feedback of pressure points in elderly care, with specific focus on pressure injury (PI) knowledge/attitudes (staff), interface pressure, and PI prevention activities (residents). Descriptive, 1-group pretest/posttest study. A convenience sample of 40 assistant nurses and aides participated in the study; staff members were recruited at daytime, and 1 nighttime meeting was held at the facility. A convenience sample of 12 residents with risk for PI were recruited, 4 from each ward. Inclusion criteria were participants older than 65 years, Modified Norton Scale score 20 or less, and in need of help with turning in order to prevent PI. The study setting was a care facility for the elderly in Uppsala, Sweden. A descriptive, comparative pretest/posttest study design was used. The intervention consisted of the use of a pressure mapping system, combined with theoretical and practical teaching. Theoretical and practical information related to PI prevention and the pressure mapping system was presented to the staff. The staff (n = 40) completed the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge and Assessment Tool (PUKAT) and Attitudes towards Pressure Ulcer (APuP) before and following study intervention. Residents' beds were equipped with a pressure mapping system during 7 consecutive days. Peak pressures and preventive interventions were registered 3 times a day by trained study nurses, assistant nurses, and aides. Staff members' PUKAT scores increased significantly (P = .002), while their attitude scores, which were high pretest, remained unchanged. Peak interface pressures were significantly reduced (P = .016), and more preventive interventions (n = 0.012) were implemented when the staff repositioned residents after feedback from the pressure mapping system. A limited educational intervention, combined with the use of a pressure mapping system, was successful as it improved staff members' knowledge

  11. Visual Impairment/Increased Intracranial Pressure (VIIP): Layman's Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    To date NASA has documented that seven long duration astronauts have experienced in-flight and post-flight changes in vision and eye anatomy including degraded distant vision, swelling of the back of the eye, and changes in the shape of the globe. We have also documented in a few of these astronauts post-flight, increases in the pressure of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. This is referred to as increased intracranial pressure (ICP). The functional and anatomical changes have varied in severity and duration. In the post-flight time period, some individuals have experienced a return to a pre-flight level of visual function while others have experienced changes that remain significantly altered compared to pre-flight. In addition, the increased ICP also persists in the post-flight time period. Currently, the underlying cause or causes of these changes is/are unknown but the spaceflight community at NASA suspects that the shift of blood toward the head and the changes in physiology that accompany it, such as increased intracranial pressure, play a significant role.

  12. Cytomegalovirus infection causes an increase of arterial blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Cheng

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is a common infection in adults (seropositive 60-99% globally, and is associated with cardiovascular diseases, in line with risk factors such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Several viral infections are linked to hypertension, including human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8 and HIV-1. The mechanisms of how viral infection contributes to hypertension or increased blood pressure are not defined. In this report, the role of CMV infection as a cause of increased blood pressure and in forming aortic atherosclerotic plaques is examined. Using in vivo mouse model and in vitro molecular biology analyses, we find that CMV infection alone caused a significant increase in arterial blood pressure (ABp (p<0.01 approximately 0.05, measured by microtip catheter technique. This increase in blood pressure by mouse CMV (MCMV was independent of atherosclerotic plaque formation in the aorta, defined by histological analyses. MCMV DNA was detected in blood vessel samples of viral infected mice but not in the control mice by nested PCR assay. MCMV significantly increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha, and MCP-1 in mouse serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Using quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR (Q-RT-PCR and Western blot, we find that CMV stimulated expression of renin in mouse and human cells in an infectious dose-dependent manner. Co-staining and immunofluorescent microscopy analyses showed that MCMV infection stimulated renin expression at a single cell level. Further examination of angiotensin-II (Ang II in mouse serum and arterial tissues with ELISA showed an increased expression of Ang II by MCMV infection. Consistent with the findings of the mouse trial, human CMV (HCMV infection of blood vessel endothelial cells (EC induced renin expression in a non-lytic infection manner. Viral replication kinetics and plaque formation assay showed that an active, CMV persistent infection in

  13. An Electrical Muscle Stimulation Suit for Increasing Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    being painful . The arterial blood pressure increases from baseline were reg- istered with noninvasive Portapres® equipment (FMS, Amsterdam, The...thighs and over the gluteal and abdominal muscles to create a positive and negative pole over the muscle areas. For better electrical contact... pain . Each subject was instructed to have the investigator lower the intensity or stop the stimulation if muscle contraction pain was experienced

  14. Long-Run Impact of Increased Wage Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thustrup

    1999-01-01

    An unanticipated permanent increase in wage pressure is analyzed in a dynamic general-equilibrium model combining standard theory of capital accumulation and monopolistic wage setting. The long-run (steady-state) implications are identical percentage reduction in employment, consumption, and capi......, and capital stock whereas wages and the real interest rate are unchanged. The reduction in employment on impact is larger than the steady-state reduction whereas wages rise and the real interest rate declines on impact...

  15. Increased Intra-Abdominal Pressure Causes Bacterial Translocation in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Yagci

    2005-04-01

    Conclusion: We propose that an intravesical pressure (IVP of 15 mmHg is the critical point for BT in patients with increased IAP. In this experimental study, BT occurred when IVP reached 20 mmHg. We suggest that IVP monitoring is desirable in the management of patients with ACS, and that decompressive laparotomy should be performed in patients with IVP > 20 mmHg.

  16. Correlation of the intraocular pressure with increased intracranial pressure in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandari H

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Although measurement of intracranial pressure by noninvasive methods has been suggested, but mainly invasive methods are used for this purpose-Increase in episcleral venous pressure can be expected to result in a linear increase in intraocular pressure. Congested oculat veins with capillary leakage and hemorrhage are seen when the ICP is increased, thus theoretically measurement of intraocular pressure can be a procedure for estimation of the ICP. This study was performed to find whether there is andy relationship between intraocular pressure and ICP, so we used 12 albino rabbits in two divided groups. Our study was not designed to elucidate the mechanism of change but merely to record any changes observed. All measures except an increase in ICP were applied on the test group as well as on the control group. After general anesthesia with the combination of ketamin, rampune, and pentobarbital a burr hole was made in the lambda region of the skull and a cannula was placed in the subdural space. The ICP in the test group increased up to 15 mmHg and was constant throughout the experiment. Intraocular pressure was measured by Schiotz tonometers afte general anesthesia, after cannulation of the skull, and immediately after increasing the ICP which was repated in 15 minutes interval for 4 hours. There was no statistical difference between the two groups (P:0.997 . results show that neither cannulation nor general anesthesia for 4 hours produce alteration in IOP in the control group nor increasing of the ICP to level of 15 mmHg produces any alteration in IOP on the test group.

  17. Pressurized groundwater outflow experiments and numerical modeling for outflow channels on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Hauber, Ernst; McLelland, Stuart J.; Murphy, Brendan J.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Conway, Susan J.; Roda, Manuel; Govers, Rob; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of Mars shows incised channels that often appear abruptly in the landscape, suggesting a groundwater source. However, groundwater outflow processes are unable to explain the reconstructed peak discharges of the largest outflow channels based on their morphology. Therefore, there is a d

  18. Increasing pulse wave velocity in a realistic cardiovascular model does not increase pulse pressure with age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad W.; Rihani, Ryan J.; Laine, Glen A.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (Ctot) and increases in total peripheral resistance (Rtot) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (cph) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systolic pressure. It has recently been shown, however, that increases in cph do not have a commensurate effect on the timing of the reflected wave. We therefore used a validated, large-scale, human arterial system model that includes realistic pulse wave transmission to determine whether increases in cph cause increased PP with age. First, we made the realistic arterial system model age dependent by altering cardiac output (CO), Rtot, Ctot, and cph to mimic the reported changes in these parameters from age 30 to 70. Then, cph was theoretically maintained constant, while Ctot, Rtot, and CO were altered. The predicted increase in PP with age was similar to the observed increase in PP. In a complementary approach, Ctot, Rtot, and CO were theoretically maintained constant, and cph was increased. The predicted increase in PP was negligible. We found that increases in cph have a limited effect on the timing of the reflected wave but cause the system to degenerate into a windkessel. Changes in PP can therefore be attributed to a decrease in Ctot. PMID:22561301

  19. Groundwater Depletion and the Sharp Increase of Seismicity in the Southern States, How GRACE Data Could Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Z.; Hasan, E.; Hong, Y.; Xia, B.; Zhong, H.

    2016-12-01

    This study is a contribution to how NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data may be used to track anthropogenic related change in the groundwater in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) as well recently increased seismicity in the southern states. The SGP contains one of the most important groundwater aquifers in the United States, the Ogallala groundwater aquifer, which has been exploited since 1900. Meanwhile, the recent activities of oil and gas extraction from the unconventional shall reservoir systems has led to significantly increased groundwater withdrawal and injection of wastewater. Consequently, numerous induced fracture related earthquakes have been recorded in Oklahoma and Texas between 2002 and 2016 The current paper investigates the utility of GRACE data along with the Land Water Content (LWC) information from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to monitor and track the groundwater changes in three southern states of SGP (Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico). Additionally, the paper investigates links between active seismicity and the injection of the wastewater due to the oil and gas production. Using GRACE data yields unprecedented information about the inter-annual changes in the Total Water Storage (TWS) from 2002 to 2016 over SGP. The LWC data set sums the soil moisture records with the the total canopy water storage to reveal the total land surface water content. The arithmetic difference between the TWS and LWC is the Groundwater Anomaly (GWA) for any particular region. In the current study, the GWA analysis reveals the following: (1) statistically significant drop of the GWA of about - 27 mm from 2002 to 2007 due to natural and anthropogenic causes; (2) the increased precipitation records from 2008 to 2011 over SGP leads to significant recovery in TWS and an increase in the groundwater content of about 40 mm; (3) the period from 2012 to 2015 experienced increased GWA of about - 6 mm for the period. Using the available

  20. Hydraulic pressure variations of groundwater in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory during Amatrice earthquake of August 24th, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano De Luca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since May 2015, hydraulic pressure, temperature and electrical conductivity of groundwater are in continuos recording near the deep underground laboratories of Gran Sasso of INFN. We used the S13 borehole that have pressure varying in the range of 24-28 bar during the year; these values mean that we have at least 300 m of water table above. The sampling of these parameters was brought until to 50 Hz using a 3 channels 24-bit ADC. During the period May 2015 – September 2016 (17 months we detected hydraulic pressure signals from 12 earthquakes at different surface distances (from 12.000 to 30 km and different magnitudes (from 8.3 to 4.3 Mw. For the Amatrice mainshock, we present, as first results, the hydroseismograph recorded at the S13 hydraulic pressure device compared to the time history recorded at GIGS station located both in the deep core of the Gran Sasso chain.

  1. groundwater contribution to crop water requirement groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Groundwater, water table, capillary rise, soil type, waterleaf, ... GROUNDWATER CONTRIBUTION TO WATERLEAF (TALINUM TRIANGULARE) IN OXISOLS, I. J. ... Nutritionally, ... information to facilitate increased crop production,.

  2. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Yanosky, T.M.; Siegel, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The wood of tuliptrees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  3. Leptin Mediates the Increase in Blood Pressure Associated with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Stephanie E.; Pryor, Jack T.; Ravussin, Eric; Greenway, Frank L.; Dileone, Ralph; Allen, Andrew M.; Bassi, Jaspreet; Elmquist, Joel K.; Keogh, Julia M.; Henning, Elana; Myers, Martin G.; Licinio, Julio; Brown, Russell D.; Enriori, Pablo J.; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Sternson, Scott M.; Grove, Kevin L.; Spanswick, David C.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Cowley, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Obesity is associated with increased blood pressure (BP), which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We found that the increase in leptin levels seen in diet-induced obesity (DIO) drives an increase in BP in rodents, an effect that was not seen in animals deficient in leptin or leptin receptors (LepR). Furthermore, humans with loss-of-function mutations in leptin and the LepR have low BP despite severe obesity. Leptin’s effects on BP are mediated by neuronal circuits in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), as blocking leptin with a specific antibody, antagonist, or inhibition of the activity of LepR-expressing neurons in the DMH caused a rapid reduction of BP in DIO mice, independent of changes in weight. Re-expression of LepRs in the DMH of DIO LepR-deficient mice caused an increase in BP. These studies demonstrate that leptin couples changes in weight to changes in BP in mammalian species. PMID:25480301

  4. The Intracranial Volume Pressure Response in Increased Intracranial Pressure Patients: Clinical Significance of the Volume Pressure Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background For patients suffering from primary brain injury, monitoring intracranial pressure alone is not enough to reflect the dynamic intracranial condition. In our previous study, a segment of the pressure-volume curve can be expressed by the parabolic regression model with single indicator “a”. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the indicator “a” can reflect intracranial conditions. Methods Patients with traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, and/or hydrocephalus who had external ventricular drainage from January 2009 to February 2010 were included. The successive volume pressure response values were obtained by successive drainage of cerebral spinal fluid from intracranial pressure 20–25 mm Hg to 10 mm Hg. The relationship between withdrawn cerebral spinal fluid volume and intracranial pressure was analyzed by the parabolic regression model with single parameter “a”. Results The overall mean for indicator “a” was 0.422 ± 0.046. The mean of “a” in hydrocephalus was 0.173 ± 0.024 and in severe intracranial mass with slender ventricle, it was 0.663 ± 0.062. The two extreme intracranial conditions had a statistical significant difference (phydrocephalus. Brain computed tomography should be performed early if a rapid elevation of indicator “a” is detected, as it can reveal some ongoing intracranial pathology prior to clinical deterioration. Increased intracranial pressure was frequently observed in patients with intracranial pathology. The progression can be differentiated using the pattern of the volume pressure indicator. PMID:27723794

  5. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Hirata, R.; Pauwels, H.; Cary, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Chatton, E.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Martins, V.; Montenegro, S.; Batista, J.; Aurouet, A.; Santos, J.; Bertolo, R.; Picot, G.; Franzen, M.; Hochreutener, R.; Braibant, G.

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30 m and up to 70 m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ11B, δ18O-SO4, δ34S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000 μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ11B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70 mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65 mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91 mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  6. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G; Hirata, R; Pauwels, H; Cary, L; Petelet-Giraud, E; Chatton, E; Aquilina, L; Labasque, T; Martins, V; Montenegro, S; Batista, J; Aurouet, A; Santos, J; Bertolo, R; Picot, G; Franzen, M; Hochreutener, R; Braibant, G

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30m and up to 70m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ(11)B, δ(18)O-SO4, δ(34)S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ(11)B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  7. A mysterious blood pressure increase in a drilling Naval reservist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettach, George E; Falvey, Shelley G

    2002-06-01

    This is a case report of a reservist who presented for a physical examination with hypertension. It was discovered that the reservist was unknowingly taking large doses of Ephedra sinica, or ma huang, a Chinese herbal supplement, for body-building. One of the ingredients in ma huang is ephedrine, an active alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulant that produces increases in heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output. Ma huang has been reported to cause hypertension, hepatitis, nephrolithiasis, and sudden death in healthy, normotensive people. Ma huang will produce a positive urinary drug screen for stimulants and can be a drug of abuse. A recommendation is made to screen for dangerous supplement use before physical readiness training and to stop the supplement for 1 month before beginning any exercise program.

  8. YaAn earthquake increases blood pressure among hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanwei; Luo, Xiaoli; Zhang, Wen; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Hongyong; Zeng, Chunyu

    YaAn, a city in Sichuan province, China, was struck by a major earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale on April 20, 2013. This study sought to investigate the impact of YaAn earthquake on the blood pressure (BP) among hospitalized patients in the department of cardiology. We enrolled 52 hospitalized patients who were admitted to our hospital at least three days before the day of earthquake in 2013 (disaster group) as compared with 52 patients during April 20, 2014 (nondisaster group). BP was measured three times per day and the prescription of antihypertensive medicine was recorded. The earthquake induced a 3.3 mm Hg significant increase in the mean postdisaster systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the disaster group as compared with the nondisaster group. SBP at admission was positively associated with the elevated SBP in the logistic regression model (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.016-1.168, p = 0.015), but not other potential influencing factors, including antihypertensive medicine, sex, age, and body weight, excluding β-blockers. Patients with β-blockers prescription at the time of earthquake showed a blunt response to earthquake-induced SBP elevation than those who were taking other antihypertensive drugs (OR = 0.128, 95% CI: 0.019-0.876, p = 0.036). The YaAn earthquake induced significant increase in SBP even at a distance from the epicenter among hospitalized patients. The findings demonstrate that pure psychological components seem to be a cause of the pressor response and β-blockers might be better in controlling disaster-induced hypertension.

  9. Increase in groundwater vulnerability due to land subsidence and earth fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, J.; Expósito, J. L.; Esteller, M. V.; Cervantes, M.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    The vulnerability of an aquifer can be modified by structural phenomena such as cracks, which often occur in some aquifers linked to processes of intensive exploitation. These cracks may, under certain circumstances, permit the direct flow of pollutants into groundwater, even in areas of low vulnerability previously scheduled. Faced with this problem, this research aims to assess the vulnerability of the Toluca Valley aquifer, taking into account the cracks that have formed and include their characteristics as a factor that modifies some of the parameters for assessing the vulnerability. The vulnerability was determined using the method SINTACS, a GIS tool was used to develop appropriate mapping. In addition, fieldwork was carried out to characterize the existing cracks in the aquifer, which included infiltration rate tests. The characteristics of the cracking allowed defining changes in the scores of the parameters N (self-cleansing effect of the unsaturated zone) and T (soil type) so that these scores were increased after SINTACS map generated, in by doing so, we obtain a modified map SINTACS ,which considers cracking. In the final map we were able to see the vulnerability of the area where these cracks are located and changed from Medium to High-index; if one considers the entire surface of the aquifer, it can be seen in the map SINTACS, 23% of surface High-grade was moved to 26% on the map SINTACS modified. It should be noted that the increase in the area of high vulnerability corresponds to the urban sprawl of the city of Toluca, a factor that may affect the risk of contamination.

  10. Increased Intracranial Pressure Following Removal of Intracranial Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramamurthi

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased intracramal tension may 0 ise some days or ''leeks the problem may ari 1 of lrelUova "nt r a cra nial tumours or . lfter operation. , ""n" . " such increased tensicn raises the pOSS1- In the immed.',iate postoperat1ve perlOd" " f eopenino- Unrelieved tentorial -" d f c the dec1s10n or r O' lility of a clot rormattcn an ore ~ "e"ln .or the so called third day post " f thrombus Into a ma](Ir v .' , herniation. extenslOn 0 a f h raised intracranial pressure,. th common causes 0 sue operative oede~a. are e dematous blockage of ventricular system may When the ventnclc' has been opened. oe have to be tackled by repeated ventricular puncture. the fear of this postoperative oedema is the reason In posterior fossa surgery. '. - ' h many neurosuTgeons leave the dura open. w y " ommoner in posterior fossa " " tracranial presurc1 1S c Late onset of mcreased in f ttbromae or after excision of " b-total removal 0 neuro . operations spec1ally after su ti t the site of surgery or adheslOns block- " cyst forma ion a tubercnlomas. The cause :s Following air studies. a shunt procedure or a ing the cerebrospinal flUld "pa~hWay. tentorial incision would be md1cated.

  11. An electrical muscle stimulation suit for increasing blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balldin, Ulf; Annicelli, Lance; Gibbons, John; Kisner, James

    2008-09-01

    Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) is used to strengthen muscles in rehabilitation of patients and for training of athletes. Voluntary muscle straining and an inflated anti-G suit increase the arterial blood pressure (BP) and give a pilot G protection during increased +Gz. This study's aim was to measure whether BP also increases with EMS of lower body muscles. A suit with new cloth electrodes sewn into the garment was developed. There were 12 subjects who were tested in sitting position during 3 conditions with 10 consecutive periods of EMS, inflated anti-G suit (GS), or lower body muscle anti-G straining maneuvers (AGSM). BP was continuously measured noninvasively. The means of the baseline systolic BP, before each of the test conditions, were 127 +/- 16, 128 +/- 1, and 145 +/- 14 mmHg for GS, AGSM, and EMS, respectively. During inflation of the GS, execution of the AGSM, and EMS, mean systolic BP during the first 10 s was 143 +/- 15, 146 +/- 13, and 150 +/- 13 mmHg, respectively, with no statistical difference between the conditions. The corresponding mean resting heart rate before each test was 57-63 bpm for all conditions. During the test periods with GS, AGSM, and EMS, heart rate was 59 +/- 11, 79 +/- 16, and 61 +/- 15 bpm, respectively, with statistical differences (P < 0.001) between AGSM and the other two conditions. EMS created similar BP as GS and AGSM at 1 G and also had higher pre- and post-control values. Further studies are required to evaluate if this principle may be used for G protection of pilots.

  12. 46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. 52.01-55... POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-55 Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an increase in the pressure...

  13. Liquid pressure amplifier increases refrigeration efficiency at Canada Safeway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Canada Safeway Limited is a food retail store that operates some 80 stores in British Columbia. The company was interested in improving the energy efficiency and performance of their refrigeration systems. The store`s largest electrical load is refrigeration for produce, meat, deli, dairy and frozen foods. Safeway installed a liquid pressure amplifier (LPA) at one of their stores. LPA is a small magnetically-coupled pump which is installed in the liquid refrigerant line between the condenser outlet and the expansion valve. The LPA reduces the compressor`s work load. The technology works best with systems that use fluorinated hydrocarbon-based refrigerants and not ammonia-based systems. Total cost of the retrofit was estimated to be $7,000. The modification reduced the load on the compressor and increased the refrigeration capacity, resulting in reduced energy consumption. Annual energy savings were estimated to be $2,000 per year. Other potential applications for LPA technology, including air conditioning systems, thermal energy cold storage systems, skating rinks, and refrigerated warehouses, were also mentioned briefly. 1 fig.

  14. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Youngsteadt

    Full Text Available Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus, the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.

  15. Increasing the success rate of groundwater exploration in developing nation using geophysical methods: Case of a small community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiorho, S. A.; Omole, D.; Aizebeokhai, A.

    2016-12-01

    About 35 percent of Nigeria's population of the more than 180 M relies on groundwater. Due to the lack of an adequate water supply system within Ogun State, many homes result to drilling their own private wells. Most groundwater is sourced from shallow wells (less than 30 m) and is often of poor water quality. The number of borehole failures is also alarming. Several entrepreneurs have seized on the lack of adequate water supply to drill for groundwater. Several of these wells have either failed or are not adequate for the purposed use of the water. There also appears to be no proper coordination of the citing of these wells. To increase the success rates of the boreholes, the use of geophysical methods amongst others is recommended. This study examines the exploration for groundwater and water quality in Ogun State in Nigeria, using Ota as an example. Ogun State has both significant surface and groundwater resources. However, due to the indiscriminate and lack of proper waste disposal, the vast majority of the surface waters and shallow well waters are impaired making them unsuitable for many users. To access a deeper groundwater source, a geophysical survey was performed to assist in finding a possible location for a borehole. A geophysical survey using the vertical electric sounding (VES) with Schlumberger configuration was carried out. The data shows that there are five layers within the proposed borehole site. Based on the data, it was suggested that a well be placed at a depth between 65-75 m (213-246 ft.). The borehole was drilled to 67m. This depth, from the literature, corresponds to the Abeokuta formation. A pump was installed at 66 m (217 ft.) depth and the first 50 feet of the borehole was grouted to prevent surface water from getting into the hole. A pumping test was performed for about two hours. While this was noteworthy, the data is not made available to any centralized body. No water chemistry was undertaken and more still needs to be done with

  16. Hydrogeological approach to investigation in karst for possible modification of groundwater regime and increase of recoverable reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatina, Miomir

    1990-09-01

    An artificial contribution to groundwater reserves in the areas of interest for water supply is a principal methodological target in modern hydrogeology. Investigations directed to this goal are of increasing significance all over the world to meet the growing demand for good water, which groundwater generally can be. Progress has been made in the sphere of practical development in permeable rocks of intergranular porosity, which cannot be said of discontinuous karst media, although it seems to offer greater opportunities. The ingrained notion and fear, even among specialists, of the inherent risk and uncertainty were invariably present wherever a resource was discovered in karst of a geosynclinal area; consequently progress has been limited. The reasons, however, for such a cautious approach are diminishing, because much knowledge has been gained about these aquiferous rocks, especially through investigations in the regions of surface storage reservoirs. Better knowledge of karst features and the results achieved in construction and consolidation of surface reservoirs have indicated that large amounts of groundwater can be recovered. The conventional water investigation and recovery methods have made available only small safe yields equal to the lowest natural discharge on the order of 100 I/sec). A reasonable use of a karst water resource and its better management cannot be considered without artificial control of the groundwater regime, i.e., without adjusting the regime to human demands. Groundwater flow balance in karst is becoming one of the principal problems, and future activities should be directed to the search for a bolder solution. A multidisciplinary team of geologists, geomorphologists, hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers, etc., is required. In this paper a variety of solutions for water resource utilization in naked geosynclinal karst is suggested and far greater activity in this field is encouraged.

  17. Trabeculectomy for traumatic hyphema with increased intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graul, T A; Ruttum, M S; Lloyd, M A; Radius, R L; Hyndiuk, R A

    1994-02-15

    We reviewed the medical records of 11 consecutive patients who underwent trabeculectomy with anterior chamber washout and peripheral iridectomy as the primary surgical treatment for traumatic hyphema that was unresponsive to medical management. The mean intraocular pressure before surgery was 48 mm Hg. In ten of the patients the intraocular pressure was lowered to 21 mm Hg or lower after surgery and remained below that level up to the most recent follow-up visit, which ranged from eight to 97 months. One patient required a topical beta-blocker and oral acetazolamide to lower pressure to this level after surgery. Eight patients had visual acuity of 20/60 or better at last follow-up. Corneal blood staining occurred in eight patients. Compared with other techniques for surgical management of traumatic hyphema, trabeculectomy provides a means to keep intraocular pressure lowered while the remaining blood is clearing from the anterior chamber. Trabeculectomy with anterior chamber washout and peripheral iridectomy appears to be a safe and reliable procedure in the management of traumatic hyphemas in which medical management fails to control intraocular pressure.

  18. Underground structures increasing the intrinsic vulnerability of urban groundwater: Sensitivity analysis and development of an empirical law based on a groundwater age modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    In a previous paper published in Journal of Hydrology, it was shown that underground structures are responsible for a mixing process between shallow and deep groundwater that can favour the spreading of urban contamination. In this paper, the impact of underground structures on the intrinsic vulnerability of urban aquifers was investigated. A sensitivity analysis was performed using a 2D deterministic modelling approach based on the reservoir theory generalized to hydrodispersive systems to better understand this mixing phenomenon and the mixing affected zone (MAZ) caused by underground structures. It was shown that the maximal extent of the MAZ caused by an underground structure is reached approximately 20 years after construction. Consequently, underground structures represent a long-term threat for deep aquifer reservoirs. Regarding the construction process, draining operations have a major impact and favour large-scale mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. Consequently, dewatering should be reduced and enclosed as much as possible. The role played by underground structures' dimensions was assessed. The obstruction of the first aquifer layer caused by construction has the greatest influence on the MAZ. The cumulative impact of several underground structures was assessed. It was shown that the total MAZ area increases linearly with underground structures' density. The role played by materials' properties and hydraulic gradient were assessed. Hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy and porosity have the strongest influence on the development of MAZ. Finally, an empirical law was derived to estimate the MAZ caused by an underground structure in a bi-layered aquifer under unconfined conditions. This empirical law, based on the results of the sensitivity analysis developed in this paper, allows for the estimation of MAZ dimensions under known material properties and underground structure dimensions. This empirical law can help urban planners assess the area of

  19. Recharge heterogeneity and high intensity rainfall events increase contamination risk for Mediterranean groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Jasechko, Scott; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Andreo, Bartolomé; Barberá, Juan Antonio; Brielmann, Heike; Charlier, Jean-Baptiste; Darling, George; Filippini, Maria; Garvelmann, Jakob; Goldscheider, Nico; Kralik, Martin; Kunstmann, Harald; Ladouche, Bernard; Lange, Jens; Mudarra, Matías; Francisco Martín, José; Rimmer, Alon; Sanchez, Damián; Stumpp, Christine; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Karst develops through the dissolution of carbonate rock and results in pronounced spatiotemporal heterogeneity of hydrological processes. Karst groundwater in Europe is a major source of fresh water contributing up to half of the total drinking water supply in some countries like Austria or Slovenia. Previous work showed that karstic recharge processes enhance and alter the sensitivity of recharge to climate variability. The enhanced preferential flow from the surface to the aquifer may be followed by enhanced risk of groundwater contamination. In this study we assess the contamination risk of karst aquifers over Europe and the Mediterranean using simulated transit time distributions. Using a new type of semi-distributed model that considers the spatial heterogeneity of karst hydraulic properties, we were able to simulate karstic groundwater recharge including its heterogeneous spatiotemporal dynamics. The model is driven by gridded daily climate data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Transit time distributions are calculated using virtual tracer experiments. We evaluated our simulations by independent information on transit times derived from observed time series of water isotopes of >70 karst springs over Europe. The simulations indicate that, compared to humid, mountain and desert regions, the Mediterranean region shows a stronger risk of contamination in Europe because preferential flow processes are most pronounced given thin soil layers and the seasonal abundance of high intensity rainfall events in autumn and winter. Our modelling approach includes strong simplifications and its results cannot easily be generalized but it still highlights that the combined effects of variable climate and heterogeneous catchment properties constitute a strong risk on water quality.

  20. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  1. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H. B.; Bement, M. Hoeger; Madsen, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    : On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized......BACKGROUND: Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. METHODS...... and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. RESULTS: Cuff pressure pain tolerance...

  2. Blind source separation for groundwater pressure analysis based on nonnegative matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Boian S.; Vesselinov, Velimir V.

    2014-09-01

    The identification of the physical sources causing spatial and temporal fluctuations of aquifer water levels is a challenging, yet a very important hydrogeological task. The fluctuations can be caused by variations in natural and anthropogenic sources such as pumping, recharge, barometric pressures, etc. The source identification can be crucial for conceptualization of the hydrogeological conditions and characterization of aquifer properties. We propose a new computational framework for model-free inverse analysis of pressure transients based on Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) method for Blind Source Separation (BSS) coupled with k-means clustering algorithm, which we call NMFk. NMFk is capable of identifying a set of unique sources from a set of experimentally measured mixed signals, without any information about the sources, their transients, and the physical mechanisms and properties controlling the signal propagation through the subsurface flow medium. Our analysis only requires information about pressure transients at a number of observation points, m, where m≥r, and r is the number of unknown unique sources causing the observed fluctuations. We apply this new analysis on a data set from the Los Alamos National Laboratory site. We demonstrate that the sources identified by NMFk have real physical origins: barometric pressure and water-supply pumping effects. We also estimate the barometric pressure efficiency of the monitoring wells. The possible applications of the NMFk algorithm are not limited to hydrogeology problems; NMFk can be applied to any problem where temporal system behavior is observed at multiple locations and an unknown number of physical sources are causing these fluctuations.

  3. Drought Increases Consumer Pressure on Oyster Reefs in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Hanna G; Kimbro, David L

    2015-01-01

    Coastal economies and ecosystems have historically depended on oyster reefs, but this habitat has declined globally by 85% because of anthropogenic activities. In a Florida estuary, we investigated the cause of newly reported losses of oysters. We found that the oyster reefs have deteriorated from north to south and that this deterioration was positively correlated with the abundance of carnivorous conchs and water salinity. In experiments across these gradients, oysters survived regardless of salinity if conchs were excluded. After determining that conchs were the proximal cause of oyster loss, we tested whether elevated water salinity was linked to conch abundance either by increasing conch growth and survivorship or by decreasing the abundance of a predator of conchs. In field experiments across a salinity gradient, we failed to detect spatial variation in predation on conchs or in conch growth and survivorship. A laboratory experiment, however, demonstrated the role of salinity by showing that conch larvae failed to survive at low salinities. Because this estuary's salinity increased in 2006 in response to reduced inputs of freshwater, we concluded that the ultimate cause of oyster decline was an increase in salinity. According to records from 2002 to 2012, oyster harvests have remained steady in the northernmost estuaries of this ecoregion (characterized by high reef biomass, low salinity, and low conch abundance) but have declined in the southernmost estuaries (characterized by lower reef biomass, increases in salinity, and increases in conch abundance). Oyster conservation in this ecoregion, which is probably one of the few that still support viable oyster populations, may be undermined by drought-induced increases in salinity causing an increased abundance of carnivorous conchs.

  4. Temporal variation in groundwater quality in the Permian Basin of Texas, a region of increasing unconventional oil and gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Kadjo, Akinde F; Clark, Adelaide; Usenko, Sascha; Hamilton, Jason S; Mach, Phillip M; Verbeck, Guido F; Hudak, Paul; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-08-15

    The recent expansion of natural gas and oil extraction using unconventional oil and gas development (UD) practices such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has raised questions about the potential for environmental impacts. Prior research has focused on evaluations of air and water quality in particular regions without explicitly considering temporal variation; thus, little is known about the potential effects of UD activity on the environment over longer periods of time. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in an area of increasing UD activity over a period of 13months. We analyzed samples from 42 private water wells located in three contiguous counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Permian Basin in Texas. This area has experienced a rise in UD activity in the last few years, and we analyzed samples in four separate time points to assess variation in groundwater quality over time as UD activities increased. We monitored general water quality parameters as well as several compounds used in UD activities. We found that some constituents remained stable over time, but others experienced significant variation over the period of study. Notable findings include significant changes in total organic carbon and pH along with ephemeral detections of ethanol, bromide, and dichloromethane after the initial sampling phase. These data provide insight into the potentially transient nature of compounds associated with groundwater contamination in areas experiencing UD activity.

  5. Pressure-controlled injection of guar gum stabilized microscale zerovalent iron for groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, M; Gastone, F; Tosco, T; Sethi, R; Velimirovic, M; Gemoets, J; Muyshondt, R; Sapion, H; Klaas, N; Bastiaens, L

    2015-10-01

    The paper reports a pilot injection test of microsized zerovalent iron (mZVI) dispersed in a guar gum shear thinning solution. The test was performed in the framework of the EU research project AQUAREHAB in a site in Belgium contaminated by chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). The field application was aimed to overcome those critical aspects which hinder mZVI field injection, mainly due to the colloidal instability of ZVI-based suspensions. The iron slurry properties (iron particles size and concentration, polymeric stabilizer type and concentration, slurry viscosity) were designed in the laboratory based on several tests (reactivity tests towards contaminants, sedimentation tests and rheological measurements). The particles were delivered into the aquifer through an injection well specifically designed for controlled-pressure delivery (approximately 10 bars). The well characteristics and the critical pressure of the aquifer (i.e. the injection pressure above which fracturing occurs) were assessed via two innovative injection step rate tests, one performed with water and the other one with guar gum. Based on laboratory and field preliminary tests, a flow regime at the threshold between permeation and preferential flow was selected for mZVI delivery, as a compromise between the desired homogeneous distribution of the mZVI around the injection point (ensured by permeation flow) and the fast and effective injection of the slurry (guaranteed by high discharge rates and injection pressure, resulting in the generation of preferential flow paths). A monitoring setup was designed and installed for the real-time monitoring of relevant parameters during injection, and for a fast determination of the spatial mZVI distribution after injection via non-invasive magnetic susceptibility measurements.

  6. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H. B.; Bement, M. Hoeger; Madsen, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. METHODS: On th...

  7. Increased blood pressure can reduce fatigue of thenar muscles paralyzed after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, JE; Ribot-Ciscar, E; Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increases in blood pressure, and presumably muscle perfusion pressure, improve the endurance of thenar muscles paralyzed chronically by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was low in all eight subjects (64 +/- 2 mmHg).

  8. Selectivity and Mass Transfer Limitations in Pressure-Retarded Osmosis at High Concentrations and Increased Operating Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Anthony P; Osuji, Chinedum O; Cath, Tzahi Y; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-10-20

    Pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising source of renewable energy when hypersaline brines and other high concentration solutions are used. However, membrane performance under conditions suitable for these solutions is poorly understood. In this work, we use a new method to characterize membranes under a variety of pressures and concentrations, including hydraulic pressures up to 48.3 bar and concentrations of up to 3 M NaCl. We find membrane selectivity decreases as the draw solution concentration is increased, with the salt permeability coefficient increasing by a factor of 2 when the draw concentration is changed from 0.6 to 3 M NaCl, even when the applied hydraulic pressure is maintained constant. Additionally, we find that significant pumping energy is required to overcome frictional pressure losses in the spacer-filled feed channel and achieve suitable mass transfer on the feed side of the membrane, especially at high operating pressures. For a meter-long module operating at 41 bar, we estimate feedwater will have to be pumped in at a pressure of at least 3 bar. Both the reduced selectivity and increased pumping energy requirements we observe in PRO will significantly diminish the obtainable net energy, highlighting important new challenges for development of systems utilizing hypersaline draw solutions.

  9. Response of transonic diffuser flows to abrupt increases of back pressure: Wall pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogar, T. J.; Sajben, M.

    1986-10-01

    The propagation of compression pulses in a supercritically operated transonic diffuser was investigated by use of pressure measurements along the top wall of the model. The pulses were generated at the downstream end of the diffuser by the abrupt injection of a secondary flow of air. Two types of waves were observed: (1) an upstream-traveling acoustic wave and (2) a downstream-traveling convective wave which resulted from the impingement of the acoustic wave on the shock. Wave speeds were determined for a range of diffuser pressure ratios including separated, strong-shock flows and fully attached, weak-shock flows. Streamwise distributions of initial and reflected pulse amplitudes were determined for one weak and one strong-shock case over a 3-to-1 range of initial pulse strengths.

  10. Groundwater contamination in relation with the increasing urbanization rate in Africa. Case of Cotonou and Porto Novo (Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Boukari, Moussa; Alassane, Abdelkarim; Garel, Emilie; Lavastre, Véronique; Bertrand, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    More than one billion people in the world still have no access to sufficient resources in drinking water (United Nation, 2014). In particular, large cities in Africa have to face several problems: 1) population growth associated with the strongest urbanization rate increase (5% per year) of the world leading to a dramatic increase in good-quality water needs, 2) low levels of solid waste management and sanitation services, 3) insufficient or disconnected water supply services, 4) low knowledge of water resources availabilities. The situation in Benin is a relevant illustration of the problems that Africa has to face to. As many other coastal urban areas in Africa (Showers, 2002; Re et al., 2011), Cotonou and Porto Novo cities have seen a rapid increase of their population as these towns constitute a corridor of transit for the imports and the exports in the nearby countries. Hence, they are very attractive for job hunters, and constitute the administrative centers for the whole country. This rapid population growth amplifies the problem of water supply and may generate serious impacts on groundwater resources: depletion due to overexploitation, salinization due to seawater intrusion and pollution linked to human activities. In order to insure a safe water supply in the context of increasing urbanization and population in the coastal area of Cotonou and Porto Novo, the identification of the main sources of pollution is essential for the implementation of long-term water management procedures. Based on two field campaigns carried out in January-2012 (dry season) and August-2012 (rainy season), hydrochemical analysis have been realized on groundwater sampled from boreholes drilled in the CTA (Continental Terminal Aquifer) and wells dug in the QCA (Quaternary Coastal Aquifer) in order to investigate the origin of salinization and the present time extension of the nitrate contamination. Historical data have also been collected from previous studies in order to

  11. Formation and Control of Self-Sealing High Permeability Groundwater Mounds in Impermeable Sediment: Implications for SUDS and Sustainable Pressure Mound Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. J. Antia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A groundwater mound (or pressure mound is defined as a volume of fluid dominated by viscous flow contained within a sediment volume where the dominant fluid flow is by Knudsen Diffusion. High permeability self-sealing groundwater mounds can be created as part of a sustainable urban drainage scheme (SUDS using infiltration devices. This study considers how they form, and models their expansion and growth as a function of infiltration device recharge. The mounds grow through lateral macropore propagation within a Dupuit envelope. Excess pressure relief is through propagating vertical surge shafts. These surge shafts can, when they intersect the ground surface result, in high volume overland flow. The study considers that the creation of self-sealing groundwater mounds in matrix supported (clayey sediments (intrinsic permeability = 10–8 to 10–30 m3 m–2 s–1 Pa–1 is a low cost, sustainable method which can be used to dispose of large volumes of storm runoff (<20→2,000 m3/24 hr storm/infiltration device and raise groundwater levels. However, the inappropriate location of pressure mounds can result in repeated seepage and ephemeral spring formation associated with substantial volumes of uncontrolled overland flow. The flow rate and flood volume associated with each overland flow event may be substantially larger than the associated recharge to the pressure mound. In some instances, the volume discharged as overland flow in a few hours may exceed the total storm water recharge to the groundwater mound over the previous three weeks. Macropore modeling is used within the context of a pressure mound poro-elastic fluid expulsion model in order to analyze this phenomena and determine (i how this phenomena can be used to extract large volumes of stored filtered storm water (at high flow rates from within a self-sealing high permeability pressure mound and (ii how self-sealing pressure mounds (created using storm water infiltration can be used to

  12. An acoustical pump capable of significantly increasing pressure ratio of thermoacoustic heat engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pressure ratio is one of the important parameters for evaluating a thermoacoustic heat engine. A so-called acoustical pump, which is capable of significantly increasing pressure ratio of a thermoacoustic heat engine, is proposed. Its operating principle is given. Also, a verification experiment is done with nitrogen gas in the energy-focused thermoacoustic heat engine, showing that the pressure ratio increased from 1.25 to 1.47.

  13. Carvedilol inhibits pressure-induced increase in oxidative stress in coronary smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Maeda, Kensaku; Nakamura, Munehiro; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2002-05-01

    The cellular mechanisms by which hypertension enhances atherosclerosis are still not known in detail. Recently, evidence has been obtained that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of pressure-induced atherosclerosis. We examined the effects of pressure on oxidative stress in cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Application of increased pressure (+100 mmHg) with He gas for 48 h increased oxidative stress of measured by flow cytometry by 71% and F2-isopretane by 77%. Increased pressure also increased the activities of phospholipase D (PLD), and particulate protein kinase C (PKC). The PLD inhibitor suramin 100 micromol/l, 1-butanol 40 mmol/l, and the PKC inhibitors chelerythrine 1 micromol/l and calphostin C 100 nmol/l and completely blocked the increase in oxidative stress induced by pressure. Carvedilol 1 micromol/l but not propranolol 1 micromol/l blocked pressure-induced increases in oxidative stress in cultured SMCs. These findings suggest that pressure increases oxidative stress and that carvedilol significantly inhibits pressure-induced increase in oxidative stress in cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells.

  14. Sleep deprivation increases blood pressure in healthy normotensive elderly and attenuates the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Lanfranchi, Paola A; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    To determine how aging affects the impact of sleep deprivation on blood pressure at rest and under orthostatic challenge. Subjects underwent a night of sleep and 24.5 h of sleep deprivation in a crossover counterbalanced design. Sleep laboratory. Sixteen healthy normotensive men and women: 8 young adults (mean 24 years [SD 3.1], range 20-28 years) and 8 elderly adults (mean 64.1 years [SD 3.4], range 60-69 years). Sleep deprivation. Brachial cuff arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in semi-recumbent and upright positions. These measurements were compared across homeostatic sleep pressure conditions and age groups. Sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly but not young adults. Moreover, sleep deprivation attenuated the systolic blood pressure orthostatic response in both age groups. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation alters the regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure and might increase the risk of hypertension in healthy normotensive elderly.

  15. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure increases significantly during anterior cervical fusion with the Caspar instrumentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, R J; Johnson, J O; Apfelbaum, R I

    1993-06-01

    To determine whether endotracheal tube cuff pressure increases significantly with surgical retraction and cervical spine distraction during anterior cervical spine surgery with Caspar instrumentation, we prospectively studied 10 patients undergoing this procedure. The tracheas of all patients were intubated with a Mallinckrodt Hi-Lo endotracheal tube. Tracheal tube cuff pressures measured with a transducer system were 42.4 mm Hg +/- 7.0 mm Hg (SEM) after intubation and cuff inflation. Air was removed from the endotracheal tube cuff until the trachea was just barely sealed at a cuff pressure of 15.2 mm Hg +/- 1.6 mm Hg. The endotracheal tube cuff pressure was readjusted to "just-seal" pressure before the surgeons introduced the Caspar instrumentation. The cuff pressure with traction and distraction was 43.2 mm Hg +/- 5.0 mm Hg. This pressure was significantly increased from the "just-seal" pressure, and from the cuff pressure after instrumentation was discontinued (9.8 mm Hg +/- 2.3 mm Hg). We conclude that anterior cervical spine surgery with Caspar instrumentation is associated with a significant increase in endotracheal tube cuff pressure.

  16. Has blood pressure increased in children in response to the obesity epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolero, Arnaud; Bovet, Pascal; Paradis, Gilles; Paccaud, Fred

    2007-03-01

    The associations between elevated blood pressure and overweight, on one hand, and the increasing prevalence over time of pediatric overweight, on the other hand, suggest that the prevalence of elevated blood pressure could have increased in children over the last few decades. In this article we review the epidemiologic evidence available on the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in children and trends over time. On the basis of the few large population-based surveys available, the prevalence of elevated blood pressure is fairly high in several populations, whereas there is little direct evidence that blood pressure has increased during the past few decades despite the concomitant epidemic of pediatric overweight. However, a definite conclusion cannot be drawn yet because of the paucity of epidemiologic studies that have assessed blood pressure trends in the same populations and the lack of standardized methods used for the measurement of blood pressure and the definition of elevated blood pressure in children. Additional studies should examine if favorable secular trends in other determinants of blood pressure (eg, dietary factors, birth weight, etc) may have attenuated the apparently limited impact of the epidemic of overweight on blood pressure in children.

  17. Hydrologic conditions in urban Miami-Dade County, Florida, and the effect of groundwater pumpage and increased sea level on canal leakage and regional groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; White, Jeremy T.

    2014-01-01

    The extensive and highly managed surface-water system in southeastern Florida constructed during the 20th Century has allowed for the westward expansion of urban and agricultural activities in Miami-Dade County. In urban areas of the county, the surface-water system is used to (1) control urban flooding, (2) supply recharge to production well fields, and (3) control seawater intrusion. Previous studies in Miami-Dade County have determined that on a local scale, leakage from canals adjacent to well fields can supply a large percentage (46 to 78 percent) of the total groundwater pumpage from production well fields. Canals in the urban areas also receive seepage from the Biscayne aquifer that is derived from a combination of local rainfall and groundwater flow from Water Conservation Area 3 and Everglades National Park, which are west of urban areas of Miami-Dade County.

  18. Growth and β-galactosidase activity in cultures of Kluyveromyces marxianus under increased air pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effect of total air pressure raise on cell growth and intracellular β-galactosidase activity in batch cultures of Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 7894. Methods and Results: A pressurized bioreactor was used for K. marxianus batch cultivation under increased air pressure from 1.2 to 6 bar. Under these conditions no inhibition of cell growth was observed. Moreover, the improvement of the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) from the gas to the culture medium by pressuriza...

  19. Increased blood pressure in adult offspring of families with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Rossitza B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have linked smaller kidney dimensions to increased blood pressure. However, patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN, whose kidneys shrink during the course of the disease, do not manifest increased blood pressure. The authors evaluated the relationship between kidney cortex width, kidney length, and blood pressure in the offspring of BEN patients and controls. Methods 102 offspring of BEN patients and 99 control offspring of non-BEN hospital patients in the Vratza District, Bulgaria, were enrolled in a prospective study and examined twice (2003/04 and 2004/05. Kidney dimensions were determined using ultrasound, blood pressure was measured, and medical information was collected. The parental disease of BEN was categorized into three groups: mother, father, or both parents. Repeated measurements were analyzed with mixed regression models. Results In all participants, a decrease in minimal kidney cortex width of 1 mm was related to an increase in systolic blood pressure of 1.4 mm Hg (p = 0.005. There was no association between kidney length and blood pressure. A maternal history of BEN was associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure of 6.7 mm Hg (p = 0.03; paternal BEN, +3.2 mm Hg (p = 0.35; or both parents affected, +9.9 mm Hg (p = 0.002. There was a similar relation of kidney cortex width and parental history of BEN with pulse pressure; however, no association with diastolic blood pressure was found. Conclusion In BEN and control offspring, a smaller kidney cortex width predisposed to higher blood pressure. Unexpectedly, a maternal history of BEN was associated with average increased systolic blood pressure in offspring.

  20. Irrigation with isoproterenol diminishes increases in pelvic pressure without side-effects during ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, H U; Jakobsen, J S; Mortensen, J

    2007-01-01

    , bladder and blood pressure and heart rate were registered continuously. Results. Mean baseline pelvic pressure was identical in both groups: 12+/-2.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 14+/-3.6 mmHg in Group 2 (p=0.26). During ureterorenoscopy, mean pelvic pressure increased to 26+/-2.3 mmHg in Group 1 and to 38......+/-3.1 mmHg in Group 2. Hence ISO reduced the pressure increase due to ureterorenoscopy by 42% (pheart rate showed no significant differences between the two...... groups: p=0.425 and p=0.166, respectively. Conclusions. ISO (0.1 microg/ml) added to irrigation fluid significantly reduces the increase in pelvic pressure during ureterorenoscopy in pigs, without concomitant side-effects....

  1. Novel Approach for Ensuring Increased Validity in Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    This paper proposes a novel technique to increase the validity of home blood pressure monitoring by using various sensor technologies as part of an intelligent environment platform in the home of the user. A range of recommendations exists on how to obtain a valid blood pressure...

  2. Groundwater Quality and Quantity in a Coastal Aquifer Under High Human Pressure: Understand the Aquifer Functioning and the Social Perception of Water Use for a Better Water Management. Example of Recife (PE, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelet-Giraud, E.; Cary, L.; Bertrand, G.; Alves, L. M.; Cary, P.; Giglio-Jacquemot, A.; Aquilina, L.; Hirata, R.; Montenegro, S.; Aurouet, A.; Franzen, M.; Chatton, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region is a typical "hot spot" illustrating the problems of southern countries on water issues inducing high pressures on water resources both on quantity and quality in the context of global social and environmental changes. This study is based on an interdisciplinary approach, coupling "hard" geosciences together with "soft" social sciences with the aim to study the human impact on coastal aquifers in a context of overexploitation to improve the existing water management tools. By revisiting the geological and hydrogeological conceptual models, field campaigns of groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis, and of interviews of different actors on the theme of water supply and management in Recife Metropolitan Region, the main results can be summarized as follows: (1) The recharge of the deep strategic confined aquifers is very limited resulting in water level decrease (up to -90m in 25y) due to overexploitation. (2) Groundwater residence time in these deep aquifers is over 10,000 years. (3) The natural upward flux of these confined aquifers is observed inland, but is reversed in the heavily populated areas along the coast leading to mixing with modern groundwater coming from the shallow aquifers. (4) Groundwater salinization is inherited from the Pleistocene marine transgression, only partly diluted by the recharge through the mangroves during the subsequent regression phase. Today, leakage from surficial aquifers induces local salinization. (5) Local climatic scenarios predict a reduction of rainfall volume of 20% together with an increase of sea level (18-59cm by 2100). (5) The Public authorities tend to deny the difficulties that people, especially those in precarious situation, are confronted with regarding water, especially in times of drought. The COQUEIRAL research project is financially supported by ANR (ANR-11-CEPL-012); FACEPE (APQ-0077-3.07/11); FAPESP (2011/50553-0

  3. Acute lead exposure increases arterial pressure: role of the renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylla Ronacher Simões

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic lead exposure causes hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of acute exposure to lead on arterial pressure and elucidate the early mechanisms involved in the development of lead-induced hypertension. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wistar rats were treated with lead acetate (i.v. bolus dose of 320 µg/Kg, and systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured during 120 min. An increase in arterial pressure was found, and potential roles of the renin-angiotensin system, Na(+,K(+-ATPase and the autonomic reflexes in this change in the increase of arterial pressure found were evaluated. In anesthetized rats, lead exposure: 1 produced blood lead levels of 37±1.7 µg/dL, which is below the reference blood concentration (60 µg/dL; 2 increased systolic arterial pressure (Ct: 109±3 mmHg vs Pb: 120±4 mmHg; 3 increased ACE activity (27% compared to Ct and Na(+,K(+-ATPase activity (125% compared to Ct; and 4 did not change the protein expression of the α1-subunit of Na(+,K(+-ATPase, AT(1 and AT(2. Pre-treatment with an AT(1 receptor blocker (losartan, 10 mg/Kg or an ACE inhibitor (enalapril, 5 mg/Kg blocked the lead-induced increase of arterial pressure. However, a ganglionic blockade (hexamethonium, 20 mg/Kg did not prevent lead's hypertensive effect. CONCLUSION: Acute exposure to lead below the reference blood concentration increases systolic arterial pressure by increasing angiotensin II levels due to ACE activation. These findings offer further evidence that acute exposure to lead can trigger early mechanisms of hypertension development and might be an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  4. The vulnerability of a groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystem to chemical and quantitative anthropogenic pressures: case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Anna J.; Wachniew, Przemyslaw; Witczak, Stanislaw

    2016-04-01

    The protected Wielkie Bloto fen in southern Poland is a Groundwater Depended Terrestrial Ecosystem (GDTE). The vulnerability of this GDTE was assessed in the contexts of both quality and quantity of groundwater supporting the fen. The qualitative aspect of vulnerability was assessed with an approach based on evaluation of timescales of pollution transport in the aquifer supporting the ecosystem with groundwater. Assessment of the quantitative aspect was based on the conceptualization of the relations of the Wielkie Bloto fen to the underlying groundwater system. The fen relies on groundwater from a shallow Quaternary aquifer and from the deeper Neogene aquifer. Upward leakage from the Neogene to the Quaternary aquifer and to the fen was confirmed by multidisciplinary research (Zurek et al. 2015). In July 2009 a cluster of new pumping wells abstracting water from the Neogene aquifer was commissioned 1 km north of the edge of Wielkie Bloto fen. Consequently, lowering of water levels occurred in this aquifer. However, it remains unclear whether the fen ecosystem will be affected by the pumping. The objective of the study was to assess the dependence of the fen on groundwater. The spatial distribution of physico-chemical parameters of water (pH, conductivity, Na/Cl ratio) in the fen area suggests that the degree of dependence on groundwater is strongly heterogeneous spatially and the recharge rate from the deeper aquifer varies considerably. Groundwater contributions to the fen, which can be used as an indicator of GDTE vulnerability, were quantified and mapped. Acknowledgements. The work was carried out as part of the statutory funds of the AGH University of Science and Technology (project No.11.11.140.026 and 11.11.220.01). References: Zurek A.J., Witczak S., Dulinski M., Wachniew P., Rozanski K., Kania J., Postawa A., Karczewski J., and Moscicki W.J.: 2015. Quantification of anthropogenic impact on groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystem using geochemical and

  5. Daily liquorice consumption for two weeks increases augmentation index and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia H Leskinen

    Full Text Available Liquorice ingestion often elevates blood pressure, but the detailed haemodynamic alterations are unknown. We studied haemodynamic changes induced by liquorice consumption in 20 subjects versus 30 controls with average blood pressures of 120/68 and 116/64 mmHg, respectively.Haemodynamic variables were measured in supine position before and after two weeks of liquorice consumption (daily glycyrrhizin dose 290-370 mg with tonometric recording of radial blood pressure, pulse wave analysis, and whole-body impedance cardiography. Thirty age-matched healthy subjects maintaining their normal diet were studied as controls.Two weeks of liquorice ingestion elevated peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (by 7/4 and 8/4 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2-11/1-8 and 3-13/1-8, respectively, P<0.05, and increased extracellular volume by 0.5 litres (P<0.05 versus controls. Also augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 7% to 11%, 95% CI for change 0.3-7.5, P<0.05 and aortic pulse pressure (by 4 mmHg, 95% CI 1-7, P<0.05 were elevated indicating increased wave reflection from the periphery. In contrast, peripheral (-3/-0.3 mmHg and central blood pressure (-2/-0.5 mmHg, aortic pulse pressure (-1 mmHg, and augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 9% to 7% decreased numerically but not statistically significantly without changes in extracellular volume in the control group. Heart rate, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and pulse wave velocity did not differ between the groups.Two weeks of daily liquorice consumption increased extracellular volume, amplified pressure wave reflection from the periphery, and elevated central systolic and diastolic blood pressure.EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2006-002065-39 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742702.

  6. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Phypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined.

  7. Novel Approach for Ensuring Increased Validity in Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    This paper proposes a novel technique to increase the validity of home blood pressure monitoring by using various sensor technologies as part of an intelligent environment platform in the home of the user. A range of recommendations exists on how to obtain a valid blood pressure but with the devi......This paper proposes a novel technique to increase the validity of home blood pressure monitoring by using various sensor technologies as part of an intelligent environment platform in the home of the user. A range of recommendations exists on how to obtain a valid blood pressure...... but with the devices currently available it cannot be verified whether a user is actually following the recommendations or not. An initial prototype is presented implementing part of the proposed solution including a limited pilot study as a status on the work in progress. Results indicate that the solution...

  8. The close interrelationship between increased vascular retinal permeability and blood pressure level. Evidence from retinal fluorangiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpelli, P T; Brancato, R; Menchini, U; Santoro, P; Lamanna, S

    1977-01-01

    A long-term study was done by means of interative fluorangiography on microvascular retinal permeability versus the blood pressure control carried out in 11 patients with a diastolic blood pressure of greater than or equal to 130 mm Hg and with retinal exudates, haemorrhages and oedema. No matter what the original disease was (i.e., essential, renovascular, endocrine hypertension or chronic nephropathy with terminal renal failure) the increased permeability appeared to be critically connected with the blood pressure level. Our results confirm that hypertension per se might be the cause of vascular permeability changes.

  9. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS ON HYDRAULIC TRANSIENT RESULTED BY SUDDEN INCREASE OF INLET PRESSURE FOR LAMINAR PIPELINE FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓松圣; 周绍骑; 廖振方; 邱正阳; 曾顺鹏

    2004-01-01

    Hydraulic transient,which is resulted from sudden increase of inlet pressure for laminar pipeline flow,is studied.The partial differential equation,initial and boundary conditions for transient pressure were constructed,and the theoretical solution was obtained by variable-separation method.The partial differential equation,initial and boundary conditions for flow rate were obtained in accordance with the constraint correlation between flow rate and pressure while the transient flow rate distribution was also solved by variable-separation method.The theoretical solution conforms to numerical solution obtained by method of characteristics(MOC)very well.

  10. Dynamic Increase Factors for High Performance Concrete in Compression using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Benjamin; Ngo, Tuan; Mendis, Priyan

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides dynamic increase factors (DIF) in compression for two different High Performance Concretes (HPC), 100 MPa and 160 MPa, respectively. In the experimental investigation 2 different Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars are used in order to test over a wide range of strain rates, 100 sec1...... to 700 sec-1. The results are compared with the CEB Model Code and the Spilt Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique is briefly de-scribed....

  11. The minor symptoms of increased intracranial pressure: 101 patients with benign intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, R; Keane, J R

    1988-09-01

    Of 101 patients with benign intracranial hypertension not related to vasculitis, neck stiffness occurred in 31, tinnitus in 27, distal extremity paresthesias in 22, joint pains in 13, low back pain in 5, and gait "ataxia" in 4. Symptoms resolved promptly upon lowering the intracranial pressure by lumbar puncture, and were probably directly caused by intracranial hypertension. Awareness of these "minor" symptoms of increased intracranial pressure can facilitate diagnosis and management.

  12. Exchange between a river and groundwater, assessed with hydrochemical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hoehn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the chemical composition of groundwater from an alluvial granular aquifer in a valley fill flood plain (River Thur Valley. The river flows along this valley and is mostly downwelling on its way, indirectly through an unsaturated zone in the upstream part, and directly through the water-saturated bed in the downstream part. River Thur has been channelized with barriers for more than a century. In 1992, the authorities started to restore a section of River Thur with riverbed enlargements. The land use in the flood plain and the seasonal and climatic conditions (e.g., hot dry summer 2003 result in alterations of the natural geochemical composition of the river water. This groundwater is partly to mainly recharged by bank filtration. Several wells exist near the river that draw groundwater for drinking. In some of these wells, the groundwater has a very short residence time in the subsurface of days to weeks. Bed enlargements and other operations for an enhancement of the exchange of water between the river and groundwater increase the contamination risk of the nearby wells. During bank filtration, the groundwater changes gradually its composition, with increasing distance from the river and with depth in the aquifer. From today's changes of the water quality during riverbank filtration, we tried to extrapolate to the groundwater quality that may arise from future river restorations. Today the groundwater body consists of a mixture of groundwater from the seepage of precipitation and from riverbank filtration. The main difference between river water and groundwater results from the microbial activity in riverbed and bank materials. This activity leads to a consumption of O2 and to a higher partial pressure of CO2 in the groundwater. Criteria for the distinction of different groundwater compositions are the distance of a well from the river and the subsurface residence time of the groundwater to reach this well.

  13. Technology and application of pressure relief and permeability increase by jointly drilling and slotting coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Baiquan; Zhang Jianguo; Shen Chunming; Zhang Qizhi; Sun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties with soft coal seams having a high gas content and high stress levels can be addressed by a technology of pressure relief and permeability increase.Slotting the seam by auxiliary drilling with a water jet that breaks the coal and slots the coal seam during the process of retreat drilling achieves pressure relief and permeability increase.Improved efficiency of gas extraction from a field test,high gas coal seam was observed.Investigating the theory of pressure relief and permeability increase required analyzing the characteristics of the double power slotting process and the effects of coal pressure relief and permeability increase.The influence of confining pressure on coal physical properties was examined by using FLAC3D software code to simulate changes of coal stress within the tool destruction area.The double power joint drilling method was modeled.Field experiments were performed and the effects are analyzed.This research shows that there is an "islanding effect" in front of the joint double power drill and slotting equipment.The failure strength of the coal seam is substantially reduced within the tool destruction area.Drilling depths are increased by 72% and the diameter of the borehole is increased by 30%.The amount of powdered coal extracted from the drill head increases by 17 times when using the new method.A 30 day total flow measurement from the double power drilled and slotted bores showed that gas extraction increased by 1.3 times compared to the standard drilled bores.Gas concentrations increased from 30% to 60% and were more stable so the overall extraction efficiency increased by a factor of two times.

  14. Evaluation of CANDU NPP containment structure subjected to aging and internal pressure increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Kwon, Oh-Sung, E-mail: os.kwon@utoronto.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Bentz, Evan [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Tcherner, Julia [Candu Energy Inc. a member of SNC-Lavalin Group, Mississauga L5K 1B1 (Canada)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The aging effects on the performance of a nuclear containment structure is evaluated. • A numerical model of the structure is subjected to increasing internal pressure. • No through-thickness cracks are predicted under the design level internal pressure. • The structure is predicted to be ductile up to large internal pressure levels. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the long-term performance of a typical CANDU® containment structure. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model was built to realistically evaluate the performance of the structure under service load as well as a hypothetical beyond-design level internal pressure. Consideration is given to the time-dependent effects, such as shrinkage, creep, and relaxation of prestressing tendons, over a 60-year timeframe. In addition, the sensitivity of the response of the containment structure against support condition, internal temperature profile and temporary construction openings was also investigated. The accuracy of the numerical model was validated against structural measurements made during a routine leak rate test. The analysis results show that the containment structure would develop a ductile mechanism if the internal pressure significantly exceeded the design pressure. The pressure-deformation relationship of the structure is sensitive to the considered time-dependent parameters.

  15. Science, society, and the coastal groundwater squeeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Holly A.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Wilson, Alicia M.; Werner, Adrian D.

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zones encompass the complex interface between land and sea. Understanding how water and solutes move within and across this interface is essential for managing resources for society. The increasingly dense human occupation of coastal zones disrupts natural groundwater flow patterns and degrades freshwater resources by both overuse and pollution. This pressure results in a "coastal groundwater squeeze," where the thin veneers of potable freshwater are threatened by contaminant sources at the land surface and saline groundwater at depth. Scientific advances in the field of coastal hydrogeology have enabled responsible management of water resources and protection of important ecosystems. To address the problems of the future, we must continue to make scientific advances, and groundwater hydrology needs to be firmly embedded in integrated coastal zone management. This will require interdisciplinary scientific collaboration, open communication between scientists and the public, and strong partnerships with policymakers.

  16. Hydrostatic Pressure Affects In Vitro Maturation of Oocytes and Follicles and Increases Granulosa Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines the effects of hydrostatic pressure on in vitro maturation (IVM of oocytes derived from in vitro grown follicles.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, preantral follicles were isolated from 12-day-old female NMRI mice. Each follicle was cultured individually in Alpha Minimal Essential Medium (α-MEM under mineral oil for 12 days. Then, follicles were induced for IVM and divided into two groups, control and experiment. In the experiment group follicles were subjected to 20 mmHg pressure for 30 minutes and cultured for 24-48 hours. We assessed for viability and IVM of the oocytes. The percentage of apoptosis in cumulus cells was determined by the TUNEL assay. A comparison between groups was made using the student’s t test.Results: The percentage of metaphase II oocytes (MII increased in hydrostatic pressure-treated follicles compared to controls (p<0.05. Cumulus cell viability reduced in hydrostatic pressure-treated follicles compared to controls (p<0.05. Exposure of follicles to pressure increased apoptosis in cumulus cells compared to controls (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hydrostatic pressure, by inducing apoptosis in cumulus cells, participates in the cumulus oocyte coupled relationship with oocyte maturation.

  17. The blood pressure-induced diameter response of retinal arterioles decreases with increasing diabetic maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Jeppesen, Peter; Knudsen, Søren Tang;

    2006-01-01

    were measured using the Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA, Imedos, Germany) before, during, and after an increase in the blood pressure induced by isometric exercise. Additionally, the retinal thickness was measured using optical coherence tomography scanning. RESULTS: The arterioles contracted during......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the diameter response of retinal arterioles and retinal thickness in patients with different stages of diabetic maculopathy during an increase in the arterial blood pressure. METHODS: Four groups each consisting of 19 individuals were studied. Group...

  18. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  19. Low temperature-pressure batch experiments and field push-pull tests: Assessing potential effects of an unintended CO2 release from CCUS projects on groundwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickler, P. J.; Yang, C.; Lu, J.; Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage projects (CCUS), where CO2 is captured at point sources such as power stations and compressed into a supercritical liquid for underground storage, has been proposed to reduce atmospheric CO2 and mitigate global climate change. Problems may arise from CO2 releases along discreet pathways such as abandoned wells and faults, upwards and into near surface groundwater. Migrating CO2 may inversely impact fresh water resources by increasing mineral solubility and dissolution rates and mobilizing harmful trace elements including As and Pb. This study addresses the impacts on fresh water resources through a combination of laboratory batch experiments, where aquifer sediment are reacted in their corresponding groundwater in 100% CO2 environments, and field push-pull tests where groundwater is equilibrated with 100% CO2, reacted in-situ in the groundwater system, and pulled out for analyses. Batch experiments were performed on aquifer material from carbonate dominated, mixed carbonate/silicalstic, and siliclastic dominated systems. A mixed silicalstic/carbonate system was chosen for the field based push-pull test. Batch experiment results suggest carbonate dissolution increased the concentration of Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, U and HCO3- in groundwater. In systems with significant carbonate content, dissolution continued until carbonate saturation was achieved at approximately 1000 hr. Silicate dissolution increased the conc. of Si, K Ni and Co, but at much lower rates than carbonate dissolution. The elements As, Mo, V, Zn, Se and Cd generally show similar behavior where concentrations initially increase but soon drop to levels at or below the background concentrations (~48 hours). A Push-Pull test on one aquifer system produced similar geochemical behavior but observed reaction rates are higher in batch experiments relative to push-pull tests. Release of CO2 from CCUS sites into overlying aquifer systems may adversely impact groundwater quality

  20. Heat stress attenuates the increase in arterial blood pressure during the cold pressor test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    The mechanisms by which heat stress impairs the control of blood pressure leading to compromised orthostatic tolerance are not thoroughly understood. A possible mechanism may be an attenuated blood pressure response to a given increase in sympathetic activity. This study tested the hypothesis that whole body heating attenuates the blood pressure response to a non-baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitatory stimulus. Ten healthy subjects were instrumented for the measurement of integrated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, sweat rate, and forearm skin blood flow. Subjects were exposed to a cold pressor test (CPT) by immersing a hand in an ice water slurry for 3 min while otherwise normothermic and while heat stressed (i.e., increase core temperature ~0.7°C via water-perfused suit). Mean responses from the final minute of the CPT were evaluated. In both thermal conditions CPT induced significant increases in MSNA and MAP without altering heart rate. Although the increase in MSNA to the CPT was similar between thermal conditions (normothermia: Δ14.0 ± 2.6; heat stress: Δ19.1 ± 2.6 bursts/min; P = 0.09), the accompanying increase in MAP was attenuated when subjects were heat stressed (normothermia: Δ25.6 ± 2.3, heat stress: Δ13.4 ± 3.0 mmHg; P < 0.001). The results demonstrate that heat stress can attenuate the pressor response to a sympathoexcitatory stimulus.

  1. Exposure to bisphenol A from drinking canned beverages increases blood pressure: randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in plastic bottles and inner coating of beverage cans, and its exposure is almost ubiquitous. BPA has been associated with hypertension and decreased heart rate variability in the previous studies. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased BPA exposure from consumption of canned beverage actually affects blood pressure and heart rate variability. We conducted a randomized crossover trial with noninstitutionalized adults, who were aged ≥60 years and recruited from a local community center. A total of 60 participants visited the study site 3 times, and they were provided the same beverage in 2 glass bottles, 2 cans, or 1 can and 1 glass bottle at a time. The sequence of the beverage was randomized. We then measured urinary BPA concentration, blood pressure, and heart rate variability 2 hours after the consumption of each beverage. The paired t test and mixed model were used to compare the differences. The urinary BPA concentration increased after consuming canned beverages by >1600% compared with that after consuming glass bottled beverages. Systolic blood pressure adjusted for daily variance increased by ≈4.5 mm Hg after consuming 2 canned beverages compared with that after consuming 2 glass bottled beverages, and the difference was statistically significant. The parameters of the heart rate variability did not show statistically significant differences.The present study demonstrated that consuming canned beverage and consequent increase of BPA exposure increase blood pressure acutely.

  2. Increased serum urea to creatinine ratio and its negative correlation with arterial pressure in canine babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga

    2014-09-01

    The increase of the serum urea to creatinine ratio (UCR) was observed in dogs infected with Babesia canis. Previous studies have suggested that decrease of blood pressure can be one of the reasons for this phenomenon. In this work statistically significant increase of the UCR was observed in dogs with babesiosis. Comparison of the UCR between 23 azotaemic dogs and 25 non-azotaemic dogs infected with Babesia canis showed statistically significantly higher mean of the UCR in azotaemic dogs. Correlations between UCR and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP) in 48 dogs infected with B. canis were negative (UCR and SAP: r = -0.3909; UCR and DAP: r = -0.3182; UCR and MAP: r = -0.3682) and statistically significant (p babesiosis. However, the correlations were not high, and there was no statistically significant correlation between UCR and arterial pressures in azotaemic dogs. Thus, it seems that decrease of blood pressure in dogs with babesiosis explains only partially the cause of increased UCR in infected dogs. The other authors suggested hyperureagenesis and myocardial injury as a potential reason for the increased UCR in canine babesiosis. Thus, further studies are needed to determine causes of increased UCR in dogs with babesiosis, especially on the connection between UCR changes and the concentrations of plasma cardiac troponins and ammonia, and the occurrence of occult blood on fecal examination.

  3. Retrocalcaneal bursitis but not Achilles tendinopathy is characterized by increased pressure in the retrocalcaneal bursa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja

    2014-03-01

    We questioned whether different forms of Achilles tendon overuse injuries can be differentiated by retrocalcaneal bursa pressure measurement. Retrocalcaneal bursa pressure was determined by using invasive pressure measurement in patients suffering from retrocalcaneal bursitis (n=13) or Achilles tendinopathy (n=15), respectively. Standardized measurements were taken with the subject lying prone. Initially, the foot and ankle was in a spontaneous, unsupported position. Then passive dorsiflexion was induced by an increasing pressure which was applied in five defined steps against the plantar forefoot. Mean pressures found in unloaded position were 30.5 (SD 28.9) mmHg in retrocalcaneal bursitis and -9.9 (SD 17.2) mmHg in Achilles tendinopathy (pbursitis and 32.5 (SD 48.9) mmHg for Achilles tendinopathy (p=0,051). Higher retrocalcaneal bursa pressure values were found in patients suffering from chronic retrocalcaneal bursitis. This result supports the hypothesis that retrocalcaneal bursa hypertension leads to an impingement lesion of the corresponding anterior Achilles tendon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Post-Weaning Protein Malnutrition Increases Blood Pressure and Induces Endothelial Dysfunctions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman, Fabiana D. M.; Silveira, Edna A.; Meira, Eduardo F.; da Costa, Carlos P.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Padilha, Alessandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery) and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery) from control (fed with Labina®) and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10−10–3.10−4 M) was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10−4 M) incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM) reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001–300 µg) and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10−10–10−3 M) were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model. PMID:22529948

  5. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces endothelial dysfunctions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belchior, Aucelia C S; Angeli, Jhuli K; Faria, Thaís de O; Siman, Fabiana D M; Silveira, Edna A; Meira, Eduardo F; da Costa, Carlos P; Vassallo, Dalton V; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery) and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery) from control (fed with Labina®) and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10(-10)-3.10(-4) M) was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10(-4) M) incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM) reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001-300 µg) and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10(-10)-10(-3) M) were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model.

  6. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces endothelial dysfunctions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aucelia C S de Belchior

    Full Text Available Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery from control (fed with Labina® and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10(-10-3.10(-4 M was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10(-4 M incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001-300 µg and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10(-10-10(-3 M were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model.

  7. Transient pool boiling heat transfer due to increasing heat inputs in subcooled water at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, K. [Kobe Univ. of Mercantile Marine (Japan); Shiotsu, M.; Sakurai, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Understanding of transient boiling phenomenon caused by increasing heat inputs in subcooled water at high pressures is necessary to predict correctly a severe accident due to a power burst in a water-cooled nuclear reactor. Transient maximum heat fluxes, q{sub max}, on a 1.2 mm diameter horizontal cylinder in a pool of saturated and subcooled water for exponential heat inputs, q{sub o}e{sup t/T}, with periods, {tau}, ranging from about 2 ms to 20 s at pressures from atmospheric up to 2063 kPa for water subcoolings from 0 to about 80 K were measured to obtain the extended data base to investigate the effect of high subcoolings on steady-state and transient maximum heat fluxes, q{sub max}. Two main mechanisms of q{sub max} exist depending on the exponential periods at low subcoolings. One is due to the time lag of the hydrodynamic instability which starts at steady-state maximum heat flux on fully developed nucleate boiling (FDNB), and the other is due to the heterogenous spontaneous nucleations (HSN) in flooded cavities which coexist with vapor bubbles growing up from active cavities. The shortest period corresponding to the maximum q{sub max} for long period range belonging to the former mechanism becomes longer and the q{sub max}mechanism for long period range shifts to that due the HSN on FDNB with the increase of subcooling and pressure. The longest period corresponding to the minimum q{sub max} for the short period range belonging to the latter mechanism becomes shorter with the increase in saturated pressure. On the contrary, the longest period becomes longer with the increase in subcooling at high pressures. Correlations for steady-state and transient maximum heat fluxes were presented for a wide range of pressure and subcooling.

  8. Ecosystem and human health impacts from increased corn production: vulnerability assessment of exposure to high nitrate concentrations in groundwater and blue baby syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires oil refiners to reach a target of 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by 2022. However, there are concerns that the broad-scale use of corn as a source of ethanol may lead to unintended economic and environmental consequences. This study applies the geophysical relationships captured with linked meteorological, air quality and agriculture models to examine the impact of corn production before enactment of the RFS in 2002 and at the height of the RFS targets in 2022. In particular, we investigate the probability of high-levels of nitrate in groundwater resulting from increased corn production and then relate this vulnerability to the potential for infants to acquire Methemoglobinemia, or 'Blue Baby Syndrome'. Blue Baby Syndrome (BBS) is a potentially fatal condition that occurs when the hemoglobin (Fe2+) in an infant's red blood cells is oxidized to methemoglobin (Fe3+), preventing the uptake of oxygen from the baby's blood. Exposure to high levels of nitrate in groundwater occur near the intersection of areas where surface water can more readily leach into shallow aquifers, wells are the main source of drinking water, and high nitrogen inputs exist. We use a coupled meteorological, agricultural and air quality model to identify areas vulnerable to increased nitrate contamination and associated risk to acquiring BBS. We first verify the relationship between predictive variables (e.g., nitrogen deposition and fertilization rates, landcover, soils and aquifer type) and nitrate groundwater levels by applying a regression model to over 800 nitrate measurements taken from wells located throughout the US (Figure 1). We then apply the regression coefficients to the coupled model output to identify areas that are at an increased risk for high nitrate groundwater levels in 2022. Finally, we examine the potential change in risk for acquiring BBS resulting from increased corn production by applying an Oral Reference Dose (Rf

  9. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ling WEI; Xiao-hui LI; Jian-zhi ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to lipopolysacchadde (LPS) on blood pressure and body weight of offspring in rats. Methods: Sixteen healthy,pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) on the d 8, d 10, and d 12 of gestation. Those in the control group were only treated with normal saline. After delivery, all offspring were weighed and blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method once every 2 weeks from the 6th to the 24th week. In the 15th week,their food intake was weighed every day. At the end of the 24th week, the rats were killed by decapitation. Abdominal adipose tissues were weighed, and the serum level of leptin was detected by radioimmunoassay. Results: The offspring with prenatal LPS exposure showed increased systemic arterial pressure, heavier body weight, elevated food intake, increased adipose tissue weight, and increased circulating leptin compared with the controls. Conclusion: Prenatal exposure to LPS leads to increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats.

  10. Maternal endotoxemia results in increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan-ling; LI Xiao-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on blood pressure and body weight of offspring in rats. Methods Sixteen healthy pregnant rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0.79 mg·kg-1) at the 8th, 10th, 12th day of gestation. Those in the control group were only treated with NS. After delivery, all offspring were weighed and blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method once every two weeks from the 6th to 24th week. In the 15th week, their food intakes were weighed every day. At the end of the 24th week, the rats were put to death by decapitation. Abdominal adipose tissues were taken to weigh, and serum level of leptin was detected by RIA. Results The offspring with prenatal LPS exposure showed increased systemic arterial pressure, heavier body weight, elevated food intake, increased adipose tissue weight and increased circulating leptin compared with controls. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to LPS leads to increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats.

  11. Repeating a Monologue under Increasing Time Pressure: Effects on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chau; Boers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that learners' task performance improves when they have the opportunity to repeat the task. Conditions for task repetition vary, however. In the 4/3/2 activity, learners repeat a monologue under increasing time pressure. The purpose is to foster fluency, but it has been suggested in the literature that it also benefits other…

  12. Increasing arterial blood pressure with norepinephrine does not improve microcirculatory blood flow: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dubin; M.O. Pozo; C.A. Casabella; F.,Jr Pálizas; G. Murias; M.C. Moseinco; V.S. Kanoore Edul; F. Pálizas; E. Estenssoro; C. Ince

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to assess the effects of titration of a norepinephrine infusion to increasing levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) on sublingual microcirculation. Methods Twenty septic shock patients were prospectively studied in two teaching intensive care units. The patients were mecha

  13. URAPIDIL IN THE TREATMENT OF MEDICAL EMERGENCIES CAUSED BY BLOOD PRESSURE INCREASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Gaponova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental and clinical studies devoted to urapidil combining central antihypertensive effect with peripheral vasodilatation are discussed. Scope of urapidil application is described; its good tolerability and safety are highlighted. Urapidil mode of application in different clinical situations accompanying by acute increase in blood pressure is specified.

  14. Repeating a Monologue under Increasing Time Pressure: Effects on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chau; Boers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that learners' task performance improves when they have the opportunity to repeat the task. Conditions for task repetition vary, however. In the 4/3/2 activity, learners repeat a monologue under increasing time pressure. The purpose is to foster fluency, but it has been suggested in the literature that it also benefits other…

  15. Increasing preservation efficiency and product quality through control of temperature distributions in high pressure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, de W.; Schepdael, van L.; Berg, van den R.; Bartels, P.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of HP sterilisation is a function of both temperature and pressure. As during pressurisation the product temperature increases, heat transfer to the colder HPP vessel wall occurs and the product fraction near the vessel wall will be colder than the product in the middle of the vess

  16. URAPIDIL IN THE TREATMENT OF MEDICAL EMERGENCIES CAUSED BY BLOOD PRESSURE INCREASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Gaponova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental and clinical studies devoted to urapidil combining central antihypertensive effect with peripheral vasodilatation are discussed. Scope of urapidil application is described; its good tolerability and safety are highlighted. Urapidil mode of application in different clinical situations accompanying by acute increase in blood pressure is specified.

  17. Circadian Misalignment Increases C-Reactive Protein and Blood Pressure in Chronic Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Mistretta, Joseph; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2017-03-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classical risk factors. Shift workers' behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers, independent of differences in work stress, food quality, and other factors that are likely to differ between night and day shifts. Thus, our objectives were to determine the independent effect of circadian misalignment on 24-h high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; a marker of systemic inflammation) and blood pressure levels-cardiovascular disease risk factors-in chronic shift workers. Chronic shift workers undertook two 3-day laboratory protocols that simulated night work, comprising 12-hour inverted behavioral and environmental cycles (circadian misalignment) or simulated day work (circadian alignment), using a randomized, crossover design. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h hs-CRP by 11% ( p Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 1.4 mmHg and 0.8 mmHg, respectively (both p ≤ 0.038). The misalignment-mediated increase in 24-h SBP was primarily explained by an increase in SBP during the wake period (+1.7 mmHg; p = 0.017), whereas the misalignment-mediated increase in 24-h DBP was primarily explained by an increase in DBP during the sleep opportunity (+1.8 mmHg; p = 0.005). Circadian misalignment per se increases hs-CRP and blood pressure in shift workers. This may help explain the increased inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers.

  18. Insulin resistance, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and increased exercise blood pressure: contribution of abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Maxime; Arsenault, Benoit J; Gaudreault, Valérie; Poirier, Paul; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rhéaume, Caroline

    2011-12-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance and low cardiorespiratory fitness are frequently found to have an increased waist circumference and high exercise blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that the relationships among insulin resistance, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and increased exercise blood pressure may be mediated by an elevated waist circumference. This study included 317 apparently healthy men and women (mean age: 34.8±12.8 years; mean body mass index: 26.1±5.2 kg/m(2)). Exercise blood pressure values were measured using a submaximal ergometer test evaluating physical working capacity. Plasma insulin and glucose levels were measured during a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Multivariate regression analyses showed that waist circumference accounted for 32.8% (Pexercise systolic blood pressure in men and women, respectively. Participants were classified into tertiles according to either insulin response, measured during the oral glucose tolerance test, or fitness levels and then further subdivided into 2 subgroups using sex-specific waist circumference thresholds. Individuals with an increased waist circumference (≥94 cm and ≥80 cm for men and women, respectively) had higher exercise systolic blood pressure compared with individuals with low waist circumference, irrespective of their level of insulin resistance (10.6 versus 6.8, 12.2 versus 7.7, and 13.2 versus 8.7 mm Hg/metabolic equivalent, respectively, for the low, intermediate, and high tertiles; Pfitness levels (13.1 versus 8.2, 12.0 versus 7.9, and 10.6 versus 7.1 mm Hg/metabolic equivalent, respectively, for the low, intermediate, and high tertiles; Pexercise systolic blood pressure, regardless of their insulin sensitivity or level of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  19. MODFLOW-NWT model used to evaluate the potential effect of groundwater pumpage and increased sea level on canal leakage and regional groundwater flow in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A three-dimensional, surface-water/groundwater model (MODFLOW-NWT with the Surface-Water Routing Process) was developed to the predict the effects of groundwater...

  20. Altered ATP-sensitive potassium channels may underscore obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hong FAN; Hong-yan TIAN; Ai-qun MA; Zhi HU; Jian-hua HUO; Yong-xiao CAO

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To determine whether ATP-sensitive potassium channels are altered in VSMC from arotas and mesenteric arteries of obese rat,and their association with obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure.Methods:Obesity was induced by 24 weeks of high-fat diet feeding in male Sprague-Dawley rats.Control rats were fed with standard laboratory rat chow.Blood pressure and body weight of these rats were measured every 4 weeks.At the end of 24 weeks,KATP channel-mediated relaxation responses in the aortas and mesenteric arteries,KATP channel current,and gene expression were examined,respectively.Results:Blood pres-sure and body weight were increased in rats fed with high-fat diet.KATP channel-mediated relaxation responses,currents,and KATP expression in VSMC of both aortas and mesenteric arteries were inhibited in these rats.Conclusion:Altered ATP-sensitive potassium channels in obese rats may underscore obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure.

  1. Will the Increasing of Anthropogenic Pressures Reduce the Biopotential Value of Sponges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Indra Januar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of bioactive compounds from marine benthic organisms is suggested to relate ecologically with environment. However, anthropogenic pressures cause a considerable damage to coral reefs environment. This research aimed to define the pattern sponges biopotential values at the increasing of anthropogenic pressures to coral reef environment. Three representative sponges were selected (Theonella sp., Hyrtios sp., and Niphates sp. and study had been conducted in Hoga Island, Indonesia, to define the relationship between seawater variables (DO, pH, phosphate, and ammonia ions, sponges spatial competition, and their bioactivity level (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. The study showed anthropogenic pressures affect the reef environment, as abiotic cover was increased and eutrophication was detected at the site closer to the run-off domesticated area. Statistical multivariate analyses revealed sponges spatial competition was significantly different (P<0.05 between groups of high, moderate, and low bioactivity level. Abiotic cover was detected as the major factor (36.19% contributed to the differences and also the most discriminant factor distinguishing sponges spatial competition in the groups of bioactivity level (93.91%. These results showed the increasing anthropogenic pressures may result in a higher abiotic area and may directly be a consequence to the lower production of bioactive compounds in sponges.

  2. Increased inspiratory esophagogastric junction pressure in systemic sclerosis: An add-on to antireflux barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre e Souza, Miguel Ângelo; Bezerra, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Rivianny Arrais; Holanda, Esther Studart da Fonseca; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate crural diaphragm (CD) function in systemic sclerosis (SSc) using high-resolution manometry and standardized inspiratory maneuvers. METHODS: Eight SSc volunteers (average age, 40.1 years; one male) and 13 controls (average age, 32.2 years; six males) participated in the study. A high-resolution manometry/impedance system measured the esophagus and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) pressure profile during swallows and two respiratory maneuvers: sinus arrhythmia maneuver (SAM; the average of six EGJ peak pressures during 5-s deep inhalations) and threshold maneuver (TM; the EGJ peak pressures during forced inhalation under 12 and 24 cmH2O loads). Inspiratory diaphragm lowering (IDL) was taken as the displacement of the EGJ high-pressure zone during the SAM. RESULTS: SSc patients had lower mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure than controls during normal breathing (19.7 ± 2.8 mmHg vs 32.2 ± 2.7 mmHg, P = 0.007). Sinus arrhythmia maneuver pressure was higher in SSc patients than in controls (142.6 ± 9.4 mmHg vs 104.6 ± 13.8 mmHg, P = 0.019). Sinus arrhythmia maneuver pressure normalized to IDL was also higher in SSc patients than in controls (83.8 ± 13.4 mmHg vs 37.5 ± 6.9 mmHg, P = 0.005). Threshold maneuver pressures normalized to IDL were also greater in SSc patients than in controls (TM 12 cmH2O: 85.1 ± 16.4 mmHg vs 43.9 ± 6.3 mmHg, P = 0.039; TM 24 cmH2O: 85.2 ± 16.4 mmHg vs 46.2 ± 6.6 mmHg, P = 0.065). Inspiratory diaphragm lowering in SSc patients was less than in controls (2.1 ± 0.3 cm vs 3 ± 0.2 cm, P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: SSc patients had increased inspiratory EGJ pressure. This is an add-on to EGJ pressure and indicates that the antireflux barrier can be trained. PMID:25717239

  3. Relative effects of submersion and increased pressure on respiratory mechanics, work, and energy cost of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Heather E; Pendergast, David R

    2013-03-01

    Submersion and increased pressure (depth) characterize the diving environment and may independently increase demand on the respiratory system. To quantify changes in respiratory mechanics, this study employed a unique protocol and techniques to measure, in a hyperbaric chamber, inspiratory and expiratory alveolar pressures (interrupter technique), inspiratory and expiratory resistance in the airways (RawI and RawE, esophageal balloon technique), nitric oxide elimination (thought to correlate with Raw), inspiratory and expiratory mechanical power of breathing, and the total energy cost of ventilation. Eight healthy adult men underwent experiments at 1, 2.7, and 4.6 atmospheres absolute (ATA) in dry and fully submersed conditions. Subjects rested, cycled on an ergometer at 100 W, and rested while voluntarily matching their ventilation to their own exercise hyperpnea (isocapnic simulated exercise ventilation). During isocapnic simulated exercise ventilation, increased O2 uptake (above rest values) resulted from increased expired ventilation. RawI decreased with submersion (mean 43% during rest and 20% during exercise) but increased from 1 to 4.6 ATA (19% during rest and 75% during exercise), as did RawE (53% decrease with submersion during rest and 10% during exercise; 9% increase from 1 to 4.6 ATA during rest and 66% during exercise). Nitric oxide elimination did not correlate with Raw. Depth increased inspiratory mechanical power of breathing during rest (40%) and exercise (20%). Expiratory mechanical power of breathing was largely unchanged. These results suggest that the diving environment affects ventilatory mechanics primarily by increasing Raw, secondary to increased gas density. This necessitates increased alveolar pressure and increases the work and energy cost of breathing as the diver descends. These findings can inform physician assessment of diver fitness and the pulmonary risks of hyperbaric O2 therapy.

  4. Paradoxical presentation of orthostatic headache associated with increased intracranial pressure in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung B Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is the most common symptom of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT; however, the detailed underlying mechanisms and characteristics of headache in CVT have not been well described. Here, we report two cases of CVT whose primary and lasting presentation was orthostatic headache, suggestive of decreased intracranial pressure. Contrary to our expectations, the headaches were associated with elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography showed characteristic voiding defects consistent with CVT. We suggest that orthostatic headache can be developed in a condition of decreased intracranial CSF volume in both intracranial hypotensive and intracranial hypertensive states. In these cases, orthostatic headache in CVT might be caused by decreased intracranial CSF volume that leads to the inferior displacement of the brain and traction on pain-sensitive intracranial vessels, despite increased CSF pressure on measurement. CVT should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a patient complains of orthostatic headache.

  5. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, PHeart Association, Inc.

  6. The pulmonary vasculature in a neonatal porcine model with increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Elisabeth Vidstid; Steinbruchel, Daniel Andreas; Thomsen, Anne Bloch

    2001-01-01

    models which reflect the disease process. Material and Results: We randomly allocated 45 newborn pigs, at the age of 48 hrs, to groups in which there was either construction of a 3 mm central aorto-pulmonary shunt, undertaken in 9, or ligation of the left pulmonary artery, achieved in 13. Controls...... included sham operations in 13, or no operations in 10 pigs. Follow-up was continued for three months. The interventions were compatible with survival in most pigs. The shunts resulted in an acute 85% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, and a more than twofold increase in pulmonary blood flow....... By three months of age, nearly all shunts had closed spontaneously, and haemodynamics were normal. Ligation of the left pulmonary artery resulted in a normal total pulmonary blood flow, despite only the right lung being perfused, and a 33% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure...

  7. Cluster observations of sudden impulses in the magnetotail caused by interplanetary shocks and pressure increases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. J. Huttunen

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudden impulses (SI in the tail lobe magnetic field associated with solar wind pressure enhancements are investigated using measurements from Cluster. The magnetic field components during the SIs change in a manner consistent with the assumption that an antisunward moving lateral pressure enhancement compresses the magnetotail axisymmetrically. We found that the maximum variance SI unit vectors were nearly aligned with the associated interplanetary shock normals. For two of the tail lobe SI events during which Cluster was located close to the tail boundary, Cluster observed the inward moving magnetopause. During both events, the spacecraft location changed from the lobe to the magnetospheric boundary layer. During the event on 6 November 2001 the magnetopause was compressed past Cluster. We applied the 2-D Cartesian model developed by collier98 in which a vacuum uniform tail lobe magnetic field is compressed by a step-like pressure increase. The model underestimates the compression of the magnetic field, but it fits the magnetic field maximum variance component well. For events for which we could determine the shock normal orientation, the differences between the observed and calculated shock propagation times from the location of WIND/Geotail to the location of Cluster were small. The propagation speeds of the SIs between the Cluster spacecraft were comparable to the solar wind speed. Our results suggest that the observed tail lobe SIs are due to lateral increases in solar wind dynamic pressure outside the magnetotail boundary.

  8. Identifying the effects of human pressure on groundwater quality to support water management strategies in coastal regions: a multi-tracer and statistical approach (Bou-Areg region, Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, V; Sacchi, E; Mas-Pla, J; Menció, A; El Amrani, N

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution from anthropogenic sources is a serious concern affecting several coastal aquifers worldwide. Increasing groundwater exploitation, coupled with point and non-point pollution sources, are the main anthropogenic impacts on coastal environments and are responsible for severe health and food security issues. Adequate management strategies to protect groundwater from contamination and overexploitation are of paramount importance, especially in arid prone regions, where coastal aquifers often represent the main freshwater resource to sustain human needs. The Bou-Areg Aquifer (Morocco) is a perfect example of a coastal aquifer constantly exposed to all the negative externalities associated with groundwater use for agricultural purposes, which lead to a general increase in aquifer salinization. In this study data on 61 water samples, collected in June and November 2010, were used to: (i) track groundwater composition changes related to the use of irrigation water from different sources, (ii) highlight seasonal variations to assess aquifer vulnerability, and (iii) present a reproducible example of multi-tracer approach for groundwater management in rural coastal areas. Hydrogeochemical results show that Bou-Areg groundwater is characterized by - high salinity, associated with a remarkable increase in bicarbonate content in the crop growing season, due to more intense biological activity in irrigated soils. The coupled multi-tracer and statistical analysis confirms the strong dependency on irrigation activities as well as a clear identification of the processes governing the aquifer's hydrochemistry in the different seasons. Water Rock Interaction (WRI) dominates the composition of most of groundwater samples in the Low Irrigation season (L-IR) and Agricultural Return Flow (ARF) mainly affects groundwater salinization in the High Irrigation season (H-IR) in the same areas naturally affected by WRI. In the central part of the plain River Recharge (RR

  9. Effects of a solar wind dynamic pressure increase in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Juusola

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available On 17 July 2005, an earthward bound north-south oriented magnetic cloud and its sheath were observed by the ACE, SoHO, and Wind solar wind monitors. A steplike increase of the solar wind dynamic pressure during northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions was related to the leading edge of the sheath. A timing analysis between the three spacecraft revealed that this front was not aligned with the GSE y-axis, but had a normal (−0.58,0.82,0. Hence, the first contact with the magnetosphere occurred on the dawnside rather than at the subsolar point. Fortunately, Cluster, Double Star 1, and Geotail happened to be distributed close to the magnetopause in this region, which made it possible to closely monitor the motion of the magnetopause. After the pressure front had impacted the magnetosphere, the magnetopause was perceived first to move inward and then immediately to correct the overshoot by slightly expanding again such that it ended up between the Cluster constellation with Double Star 1 inside the magnetosphere and Geotail in the magnetosheath. Coinciding with the inward and subsequent outward motion, the ground-based magnetic field at low latitudes was observed to first strengthen and then weaken. As the magnetopause position stabilised, so did the ground-based magnetic field intensity, settling at a level slightly higher than before the pressure increase. Altogether the magnetopause was moving for about 15 min after its first contact with the front. The high latitude ionospheric signature consisted of two parts: a shorter (few minutes and less intense preliminary part comprised a decrease of AL and a negative variation of PC. A longer (about ten minutes and more intense main part of the signature comprised an increase of AU and a positive variation of PC. Measurements from several ground-based magnetometer networks (210 MM CPMN, CANMOS, CARISMA, GIMA, IMAGE, MACCS, SuperMAG, THEMIS, TGO were used to obtain information on the

  10. Hyperoxia increases arterial oxygen pressure during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Robert; Mankowski, Robert T; van Loon, Luc J C; Langendonk, Janneke G; Sijbrands, Eric J G; van den Meiracker, Anton H; Stam, Henk J; Praet, Stephan F E

    2016-01-08

    The study investigated the feasibility and potential outcome measures during acute hyperoxia in type 2 diabetes patients (DM2). Eleven DM2 patients (7 men and 4 women) were included in the study. The patients cycled (30 min at 20% Wmax) whilst breathing three different supplemental oxygen flows (SOF, 5, 10, 15 L min(-1)). During hyperoxic exercise, arterial blood gases and intra-arterial blood pressure measurements were obtained. Arterial pO2 levels increased significantly (ANOVA, p Heart rate (HR) and pH increased significantly after terminating administration of hyperoxic air. An SOF of 15 L min(-1) appears to be more effective than 5 or 10 L min(-1). Moreover, HR, blood pressure, blood lactate and pH are not recommended as primary outcome measures.

  11. Post-Weaning Protein Malnutrition Increases Blood Pressure and Induces Endothelial Dysfunctions in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aucelia C S de Belchior; Angeli, Jhuli K.; Thaís de O Faria; Siman, Fabiana D. M.; Edna A Silveira; Eduardo F Meira; da Costa, Carlos P.; Dalton V Vassallo; Alessandra S Padilha

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery) and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery) from control (fed with Labina®) and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet...

  12. Limits to global groundwater consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I.; Van Beek, L. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is the largest accessible freshwater resource worldwide and is of critical importance for irrigation, and so for global food security. For many regions of the world where groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge, persistent groundwater depletion occurs. A direct consequence of depletion is falling groundwater levels, reducing baseflows to rivers, harming ecosystems. Also, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence can occur. Water demands are expected to increase further due to growing population, economic development and climate change, posing the urgent question how sustainable current water abstractions are worldwide and where and when these abstractions approach conceivable limits with all the associated problems. Here, we estimated past and future trends (1960-2050) in groundwater levels resulting from changes in abstractions and climate and predicted when limits of groundwater consumption are reached. We explored these limits by predicting where and when groundwater levels drop that low that groundwater becomes unattainable for abstractions and how river flows are affected. Water availabilities, abstractions, and lateral groundwater flows are simulated (5 arcmin. resolution) using a coupled version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and a groundwater model based on MODFLOW. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of the worlds confined and unconfined aquifer systems, needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Results show that, next to the existing regions experiencing groundwater depletion (like India, Pakistan, Central Valley) new regions will develop, e.g. Southern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Using a limit that reflects present-day feasibility of groundwater abstraction, we estimate that in 2050 groundwater becomes unattainable for 20% of the global population, mainly in the developing countries and pumping cost will increase significantly. Largest impacts are found

  13. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Nowadays, driving is an unseparated part of our new modern lifestyle; and we are exposed to this environment all the days for several hours whether as drivers or as riders. Many reports indicated that Iran is on the top rank of automobile-related morbidity and mortality among developed and even many developing countries that can be due to dangerous driving habits in Iran. We designed this study to find out if environment of driving have clinically important effects on blood pressure (BP and how strong is the effect. We also examined if there were any predictors for the BP rises in driving time.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 31 healthy male taxi drivers were included through a multistage proportional sampling method in winter and spring 2007. They were referred to the clinic of hypertension in Shafa Hospital, Kerman. A trained nurse measured the BPs. She also did set up the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM on the drivers’ left arms for BP recording every 30 minutes during the day. Based on the diurnal recorded BPs, the subjects were allocated into normotensive and hypertensive (systolic BP > 135 or diastolic BP > 85mmHg groups. The difference among the clinic BPs and the driving BPs was examined by t-test in Stata version 8, followed by a multivariate analysis for exploring the main predictors for BP rises in driving time.
    • RESULTS: Both mean systolic and mean diastolic BPs were significantly increased from 116.85 (SE 2.28 and 74.44 (SE 2.22 mmHg in clinic to 138.64 (SE 2.77 and 95.70 (SE 2.55 mmHg during driving, respectively (P = 0.0001. Pulse pressure remained constant (P = 0.87. The difference between clinic's and driving time measurements was higher in hypertensive group. Those with higher systolic blood pressures in clinic had more frequent and higher BP rises in driving time (P = 0.02.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Driving

    • The frequency of dental abscesses increases in periods of low barometric pressure.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Seemann, Rudolf; Svabik, Otto; Orlik, Alexander; Figl, Michael; Fischer, Michael B; Schicho, Kurt; Wutzl, Arno; Forster, Johannes; Jesch, Philip; Perisanidis, Christos; Undt, Gerhard; Millesi, Werner

      2015-11-01

      Bioclimatic conditions are thought to have an impact on the frequency of dental abscesses but previous studies have suffered from small patient cohorts, methodological obstacles, and restriction to a single site resulting in limited geographic and meteorological variability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of environmental temperature and barometric pressure on the frequency of dental abscesses. Three maxillofacial and two dental clinics in Vienna retrospectively provided a total of 19,218 patients with dentoalveolar abscesses who were treated by intraoral incision between 1998 and 2011. Daily records from six local meteorological stations were consulted to assess daily meteorological parameters. Univariate and multivariate hurdle count regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of daily average barometric pressure and temperature on registered abscess frequencies. Temporal confounders causing variance of the observed abscess frequencies - such as weekday, business day, and month - were taken into consideration. On days of low barometric pressure a significant rise in dental abscess frequency was observed, even when adjusting for confounders. Environmental temperature, in contrast, did not show any effect. In conclusion, bioclimatic conditions affect health as low barometric pressure increases the number of patients with dental abscesses.

    • Association between long-term air pollution and increased blood pressure and hypertension in China.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Xaverius, Pamela K; Trevathan, Edwin; Maalouf, Salwa; Parker, Jamaal; Yang, Laiji; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Ma, Wenjun; Wang, Jing; Zelicoff, Alan; Fu, Qiang; Simckes, Maayan

      2013-03-01

      Several studies have investigated the short-term effects of ambient air pollutants in the development of high blood pressure and hypertension. However, little information exists regarding the health effects of long-term exposure. To investigate the association between residential long-term exposure to air pollution and blood pressure and hypertension, we studied 24 845 Chinese adults in 11 districts of 3 northeastern cities from 2009 to 2010. Three-year average concentration of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxides (NO(2)), and ozone (O(3)) were calculated from monitoring stations in the 11 districts. We used generalized additive models and 2-level logistic regressions models to examine the health effects. The results showed that the odds ratio for hypertension increased by 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.16) per 19 μg/m(3) increase in PM(10), 1.11 (95% CI, 1.04-1.18) per 20 μg/m(3) increase in SO(2), and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.06-1.20) per 22 μg/m(3) increase in O(3). The estimated increases in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 0.87 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.48-1.27) and 0.32 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.08-0.56) per 19 μg/m(3) interquartile increase in PM(10), 0.80 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.46-1.14) and 0.31 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.10-0.51) per 20 μg/m(3) interquartile increase in SO(2), and 0.73 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.35-1.11) and 0.37 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.14-0.61) per 22 μg/m(3) interquartile increase in O(3). These associations were only statistically significant in men. In conclusion, long-term exposure to PM(10), SO(2), and O(3) was associated with increased arterial blood pressure and hypertension in the study population.

    • Increase in vagal activity during hypotensive lower-body negative pressure in humans

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Sander-Jensen, K; Mehlsen, J; Stadeager, C

      1988-01-01

      volunteers before and after atropine administration. LBNP of 55 mmHg initially resulted in an increase in HR from 55 +/- 4 to 90 +/- 5 beats/min and decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 94 +/- 4 to 81 +/- 5 mmHg, in central venous pressure from 7 +/- 1 to -3 +/- 1 mmHg, and in cardiac output from 6.......1 +/- 0.5 to 3.7 +/- 0.11/min. Concomitantly, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels increased. After 8.2 +/- 2.3 min of LBNP, the MAP had decreased to 41 +/- 7 mmHg and HR had decreased to 57 +/- 3 beats/min. Vasopressin increased from 1.2 +/- 0.3 to 137 +/- 45 pg/ml and renin activity increased from 1.......45 +/- 4.0 to 3.80 +/- 1.0 ng.ml-1.h-1 with no further changes in epinephrine, norepinephrine, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. A tardy rise in pancreatic polypeptide indicated increased vagal activity. After atropine. LBNP also caused an initial increase in HR, which, however, remained elevated...

    • Perfusion of veins at arterial pressure increases the expression of KLF5 and cell cycle genes in smooth muscle cells

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Amirak, Emre [Section of Molecular Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zakkar, Mustafa; Evans, Paul C. [Cardiovascular Sciences, Bywaters Center for Vascular Inflammation, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 ONN (United Kingdom); Kemp, Paul R., E-mail: p.kemp@imperial.ac.uk [Section of Molecular Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

      2010-01-01

      Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation remains a major cause of veno-arterial graft failure. We hypothesised that exposure of venous SMCs to arterial pressure would increase KLF5 expression and that of cell cycle genes. Porcine jugular veins were perfused at arterial or venous pressure in the absence of growth factors. The KLF5, c-myc, cyclin-D and cyclin-E expression were elevated within 24 h of perfusion at arterial pressure but not at venous pressure. Arterial pressure also reduced the decline in SM-myosin heavy chain expression. These data suggest a role for KLF5 in initiating venous SMCs proliferation in response to arterial pressure.

    • Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

      Science.gov (United States)

      Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

      2015-12-01

      In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

    • Adult Neuroblastoma Complicated by Increased Intracranial Pressure: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Patrick L. Stevens

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is the third most commonly occurring malignancy of the pediatric population, although it is extremely rare in the adult population. In adults, neuroblastoma is often metastatic and portends an extremely poor overall survival. Our case report documents metastatic neuroblastoma occurring in a healthy 29-year-old woman whose course was complicated by an unusual presentation of elevated intracranial pressures. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy, I131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG radiotherapy, and autologous stem cell transplant (SCT. Unfortunately the patient’s response to therapy was limited and she subsequently died. We aim to review neuroblastoma in the context of increased intracranial pressure and the limited data of neuroblastoma occurring in the adult population, along with proposed treatment options.

    • Rilmenidine prevents blood pressure increase in rats with compromised nitric oxide production

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Mária GEROV(A); Jozef T(O)R(O)K; Ol'ga PECH(A)(O)OV(A); Jana MATU(S)KOV(A)

      2004-01-01

      AIM: To search tools of high blood pressure in the model of nitric oxide (NO)-defective hypertension, and the study focused on the effect of rilmenidine, agonist of imidazoline receptors, which was suggested to modulate central sympathetic outflow. METHODS: Three experimental groups, each consisting of 7 rats, were used: (Ⅰ) rats with inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 40 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 4 weeks in drinking water, (Ⅱ) rats with inhibited NOS as in group Ⅰ, plus agonist of imidazoline receptors rilmenidine 3mg.kg-1·d-1 for 4 weeks by gavage, and (Ⅲ) control rats. Systolic blood pressure was measured weekly noninvasively.At the end of experiment aortic ring isometric tension was followed, NOS expression (aorta, left ventricle), and NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) were determined. RESULTS: In the group Ⅰ systolic blood pressure increased significantly, aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine was significantly attenuated. Rilmenidine administered simultaneously with L-NAME (group Ⅱ) prevented the increase of blood pressure which did not differ significantly from control values; aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine did not differ from control. No change in NOS expression (aorta and left ventricle) was found in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Significant decline in NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) was found in groups Ⅰ and ⅡⅡ. CONCLUSION: Rilmenidine has a remarkable role in NO-defective hypertension,possibly by inhibiting central sympathetic outflow and by affecting receptors in vascular smooth muscle also. The prime cause of hypertension in this experimental model - the compromised production of NO due to inhibition of NOS - was not affected by rilmenidine.

  1. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  2. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma on polyethylene for increased prosthesis adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vrekhem, S., E-mail: stijn.vanvrekhem@ugent.be [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cools, P. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Declercq, H. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185 6B3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Tongel, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185 13K12, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vercruysse, C.; Cornelissen, M. [Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185 6B3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Geyter, N.; Morent, R. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-12-01

    Biopolymers are often subjected to surface modification in order to improve their surface characteristics. The goal of this study is to show the use of plasma technology to enhance the adhesion of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) shoulder prostheses. Two different plasma techniques (low pressure plasma activation and atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization) are performed on UHMWPE to increase the adhesion between (1) the polymer and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and (2) the polymer and osteoblast cells. Both techniques are performed using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A previous paper showed that low pressure plasma activation of UHMWPE results in the incorporation of oxygen-containing functional groups, which leads to an increased surface wettability. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA) on UHMWPE results in a PMMA-like coating, which could be deposited with a high degree of control of chemical composition and layer thickness. The thin film also proved to be relatively stable upon incubation in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). This paper discusses the next stage of the study, which includes testing the adhesion of the plasma-activated and plasma-polymerized samples to bone cement through pull-out tests and testing the cell adhesion and proliferation on the samples. In order to perform the pull-out tests, all samples were cut to standard dimensions and fixed in bone cement in a reproducible way with a sample holder specially designed for this purpose. The cell adhesion and proliferation were tested by means of an MTS assay and live/dead staining after culturing MC3T3 osteoblast cells on UHMWPE samples. The results show that both plasma activation and plasma polymerization significantly improve the adhesion to bone cement and enhance cell adhesion and proliferation. In conclusion, it can be stated that the use of plasma technology can lead to an implant with improved quality and a subsequent

  3. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought and depletion in north-western Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Syed Md. Touhidul; Abdollahi, Khodayar; Verbeiren, Boud; Huysmans, Marijke

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of hydrological drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of different climatic and anthropogenic factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of (ground) water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in north-western Bangladesh, to understand the forcing mechanisms. A multi-step methodology is proposed to achieve this objective. The standardised precipitation index (SPI) and reconnaissance drought index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere, i.e. meteorological drought. The influence of land-cover patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land cover. Groundwater drought is defined by a threshold method. The results show that the evapotranspiration and rainfall deficits are determining meteorological drought, which shows a direct relation with groundwater recharge deficits. Land-cover change has a small effect on groundwater recharge but does not seem to be the main cause of groundwater-level decline (depletion) in the study area. The groundwater depth and groundwater-level deficit (drought) is continuously increasing with little correlation to meteorological drought or recharge anomalies. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation seems to be the main cause of groundwater-level decline in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management.

  4. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought and depletion in north-western Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Syed Md. Touhidul; Abdollahi, Khodayar; Verbeiren, Boud; Huysmans, Marijke

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of hydrological drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of different climatic and anthropogenic factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of (ground) water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in north-western Bangladesh, to understand the forcing mechanisms. A multi-step methodology is proposed to achieve this objective. The standardised precipitation index (SPI) and reconnaissance drought index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere, i.e. meteorological drought. The influence of land-cover patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land cover. Groundwater drought is defined by a threshold method. The results show that the evapotranspiration and rainfall deficits are determining meteorological drought, which shows a direct relation with groundwater recharge deficits. Land-cover change has a small effect on groundwater recharge but does not seem to be the main cause of groundwater-level decline (depletion) in the study area. The groundwater depth and groundwater-level deficit (drought) is continuously increasing with little correlation to meteorological drought or recharge anomalies. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation seems to be the main cause of groundwater-level decline in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management.

  5. Influence of increased heart rate and aortic pressure on resting indices of functional coronary stenosis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadonte, Lorena; Verhoeff, Bart-Jan; Piek, Jan J; VanBavel, Ed; Spaan, Jos A E; Siebes, Maria

    2017-09-13

    Baseline assessment of functional stenosis severity has been proposed as a practical alternative to hyperemic indices. However, intact autoregulation mechanisms may affect intracoronary hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in aortic pressure (Pa) and heart rate (HR) on baseline coronary hemodynamics and functional stenosis assessment. In 15 patients (55 ± 3% diameter stenosis) Pa, intracoronary pressure (Pd) and flow velocity were obtained at control, and during atrial pacing at 120 bpm, increased Pa (+30 mmHg) with intravenous phenylephrine (PE), and elevated Pa while pacing at sinus heart rate (PE + sHR). We derived rate pressure product (RPP = systolic Pa × HR), baseline microvascular resistance (BMR = Pd/velocity), and stenosis resistance [BSR = (Pa - Pd)/velocity] as well as whole-cycle Pd/Pa. Tachycardia (120 ± 1 bpm) raised RPP by 74% vs. Accordingly, BMR decreased by 27% (p stenosis severity, causing Pd/Pa and BSR of borderline lesions to cross the diagnostic threshold. In conclusion, coronary microvascular adaptation to physiological conditions affecting metabolic demand at rest influences intracoronary hemodynamics, which may lead to altered basal stenosis indices used for clinical decision-making.

  6. Biooxidation of n-butane to 1-butanol by engineered P450 monooxygenase under increased pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Bernd A; Scheps, Daniel; Honda Malca, Sumire; Nestl, Bettina M; Breuer, Michael; Wagner, Hans-Günter; Breitscheidel, Boris; Kratz, Detlef; Hauer, Bernhard

    2014-12-10

    In addition to the traditional 1-butanol production by hydroformylation of gaseous propene and by fermentation of biomass, the cytochrome P450-catalyzed direct terminal oxidation of n-butane into the primary alcohol 1-butanol constitutes an alternative route to provide the high demand of this basic chemical. Moreover the use of n-butane offers an unexploited ubiquitous feed stock available in large quantities. Based on protein engineering of CYP153A from Polaromonas sp. JS666 and the improvement of the native redox system, a highly ω-regioselective (>96%) fusion protein variant (CYP153AP.sp.(G254A)-CPRBM3) for the conversion of n-butane into 1-butanol was developed. Maximum yield of 3.12g/L butanol, of which 2.99g/L comprise for 1-butanol, has been obtained after 20h reaction time. Due to the poor solubility of n-butane in an aqueous system, a high pressure reaction assembly was applied to increase the conversion. After optimization a maximum product content of 4.35g/L 1-butanol from a total amount of 4.53g/L butanol catalyzed by the self-sufficient fusion monooxygenase has been obtained at 15bar pressure. In comparison to the CYP153A wild type the 1-butanol concentration was enhanced fivefold using the engineered monooxygenase whole cell system by using the high-pressure reaction assembly.

  7. Elucidating the mechanical effects of pore water pressure increase on the stability of unsaturated soil slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscarnera, G.

    2012-12-01

    The increase of the pore water pressure due to rain infiltration can be a dominant component in the activation of slope failures. This paper shows an application of the theory of material stability to the triggering analysis of this important class of natural hazards. The goal is to identify the mechanisms through which the process of suction removal promotes the initiation of mechanical instabilities. The interplay between increase in pore water pressure, and failure mechanisms is investigated at material point level. In order to account for multiple failure mechanisms, the second-order work criterion is used and different stability indices are devised. The paper shows that the theory of material stability can assess the risk of shear failure and static liquefaction in both saturated and unsaturated contexts. It is shown that the combined use of an enhanced definition of second-order work for unsaturated porous media and a hydro-mechanical constitutive framework enables to retrieve bifurcation conditions for water-infiltration processes in unsaturated deposits. This finding discloses the importance of the coupling terms that incorporate the interaction between the solid skeleton and the pore fluids. As a consequence, these theoretical results suggest that some material properties that are not directly associated with the shearing resistance (e.g., the potential for wetting compaction) can play an important role in the initiation of slope failures. According to the proposed interpretation, the process of pore pressure increase can be understood as a trigger of uncontrolled strains, which at material point level are reflected by the onset of bifurcation conditions.

  8. Dynamics of carbon sources supporting burial in seagrass sediments under increasing anthropogenic pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Inés

    2017-03-15

    Seagrass meadows are strong coastal carbon sinks of autochthonous and allochthonous carbon. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of coastal anthropogenic pressure on the variability of carbon sources in seagrass carbon sinks during the last 150 yr. We did so by examining the composition of the sediment organic carbon (Corg) stocks by measuring the δ13Corg signature and C : N ratio in 210Pb dated sediments of 11 Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows around the Balearic Islands (Spain, Western Mediterranean) under different levels of human pressure. On average, the top meter sediment carbon deposits were mainly (59% ± 12%) composed by P. oceanica derived carbon whereas seston contribution was generally lower (41% ± 8%). The contribution of P. oceanica to the total sediment carbon stock was the highest (∼ 80%) in the most pristine sites whereas the sestonic contribution was the highest (∼ 40–80%) in the meadows located in areas under moderate to very high human pressure. Furthermore, an increase in the contribution of sestonic carbon and a decrease in that of seagrass derived carbon toward present was observed in most of the meadows examined, coincident with the onset of the tourism industry development and coastal urbanization in the region. Our results demonstrate a general increase of total carbon accumulation rate in P. oceanica sediments during the last century, mainly driven by the increase in sestonic Corg carbon burial, which may have important implications in the long-term carbon sink capacity of the seagrass meadows in the region examined.

  9. Deleterious Effects of Increased Intra-Abdominal Pressure on Kidney Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Armaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP occurs in many clinical settings, including sepsis, severe acute pancreatitis, acute decompensated heart failure, hepatorenal syndrome, resuscitation with large volume, mechanical ventilation with high intrathoracic pressure, major burns, and acidosis. Although increased IAP affects several vital organs, the kidney is very susceptible to the adverse effects of elevated IAP. Kidney dysfunction is among the earliest physiological consequences of increased IAP. In the last two decades, laparoscopic surgery is rapidly replacing the open approach in many areas of surgery. Although it is superior at many aspects, laparoscopic surgery involves elevation of IAP, due to abdominal insufflation with carbonic dioxide (pneumoperitoneum. The latter has been shown to cause several deleterious effects where the most recognized one is impairment of kidney function as expressed by oliguria and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal blood flow (RBF. Despite much research in this field, the systemic physiologic consequences of elevated IAP of various etiologies and the mechanisms underlying its adverse effects on kidney excretory function and renal hemodynamics are not fully understood. The current review summarizes the reported adverse renal effects of increased IAP in edematous clinical settings and during laparoscopic surgery. In addition, it provides new insights into potential mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and therapeutic approaches to encounter renal complications of elevated IAP.

  10. Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Ultrasound and the Diagnosis of Increased Intracranial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylkema, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound has been used for almost 30 years in a wide variety of clinical applications and environments. From the austerity of battlefields to the labor and delivery ward, ultrasound has the ability to give clinicians real-time, noninvasive diagnostic imaging. Ultrasound by emergency physicians (and all nonradiologists) has become more prevalent and has been used for examinations such as the transcranial Doppler to evaluate for stroke, cardiac function, FAST and EFAST examinations for trauma, and now increased intracranial pressure (ICP) via Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Ultrasound (ONSD). The ONSD is a valid and reliable indicator of ICP.

  11. Lowering of blood pressure by increasing hematocrit with non nitric oxide scavenging red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Vázquez, Beatriz Y; Cabrales, Pedro; Tsai, Amy G; Johnson, Paul C; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    Isovolemic exchange transfusion of 40% of the blood volume in awake hamsters was used to replace native red blood cells (RBCs) with RBCs whose hemoglobin (Hb) was oxidized to methemoglobin (MetHb), MetRBCs. The exchange maintained constant blood volume and produced different final hematocrits (Hcts), varying from 48 to 62% Hct. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) did not change after exchange transfusion, in which 40% of the native RBCs were replaced with MetRBCs, without increasing Hct. Increasing Hct with MetRBCs lowered MAP by 12 mm Hg when Hct was increased 12% above baseline. Further increases of Hct with MetRBCs progressively returned MAP to baseline, which occurred at 62% Hct, a 30% increase in Hct from baseline. These observations show a parabolic "U" shaped distribution of MAP against the change in Hct. Cardiac index, cardiac output divided by body weight, increased between 2 and 17% above baseline for the range of Hcts tested. Peripheral vascular resistance (VR) was decreased 18% from baseline when Hct was increased 12% from baseline. VR and MAP were above baseline for increases in Hct higher than 30%. However, vascular hindrance, VR normalized by blood viscosity (which reflects the contribution of vascular geometry), was lower than baseline for all the increases in Hct tested with MetRBC, indicating prevalence of vasodilation. These suggest that acute increases in Hct with MetRBCs increase endothelium shear stress and stimulate the production of vasoactive factors (e.g., nitric oxide [NO]). When MetRBCs were compared with functional RBCs, vasodilation was augmented for MetRBCs probably due to the lower NO scavenging of MetHb. Consequently, MetRBCs increased the viscosity related hypotension range compared with functional RBCs as NO shear stress vasodilation mediated responses are greater.

  12. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account.

  13. Vitamin D induces increased systolic arterial pressure via vascular reactivity and mechanical properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Portugal Dos Santos

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether supplementation of high doses of cholecalciferol for two months in normotensive rats results in increased systolic arterial pressure and which are the mechanisms involved. Specifically, this study assesses the potential effect on cardiac output as well as the changes in aortic structure and functional properties.Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 1 Control group (C, n = 20, with no supplementation of vitamin D, 2 VD3 (n = 19, supplemented with 3,000 IU vitamin D/kg of chow; 3 VD10 (n = 21, supplemented with 10,000 IU vitamin D/kg of chow. After two months, echocardiographic analyses, measurements of systolic arterial pressure (SAP, vascular reactivity, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, mechanical properties, histological analysis and metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activity were performed.SAP was higher in VD3 and VD10 than in C rats (p = 0.001. Echocardiographic variables were not different among groups. Responses to phenylephrine in endothelium-denuded aortas was higher in VD3 compared to the C group (p = 0.041. Vascular relaxation induced by acetylcholine (p = 0.023 and sodium nitroprusside (p = 0.005 was impaired in both supplemented groups compared to the C group and apocynin treatment reversed impaired vasodilation. Collagen volume fraction (<0.001 and MMP-2 activity (p = 0.025 was higher in VD10 group compared to the VD3 group. Elastin volume fraction was lower in VD10 than in C and yield point was lower in VD3 than in C.Our findings support the view that vitamin D supplementation increases arterial pressure in normotensive rats and this is associated with structural and functional vascular changes, modulated by NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide, and extracellular matrix components.

  14. Groundwater and climate change: mitigating the global groundwater crisis and adapting to climate change model

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the effects of climate change on global groundwater resources, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Hydrological Programme (IHP) initiated the GRAPHIC (Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Cl...

  15. At what age group blood pressure discontinue to increase? An assessment using change-point analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To study at what age group blood pressure ceases to increase for women and men.Methods Applying change-point technique, we used our existing database - mega base-line cross-sectional Hulu Langat Health Study that was initiated in 2000 - to locate the most appropriate age limit in planning promotive, preventive and controlling strategies against systolic hypertension.Results Systolic hypertension was found to be constantly increasing for both gender right from the early age until the middle age group. However, women achieved the systolic peak 15 years earlier (at 41-45 years old than men (at 56-60 years old. Systolic blood pressure was steadily declined after the peak.Conclusions Hypertension intervention, we recommend age before 40 (women and 55 (men be the most appropriate period to apply various public health intervention, after that, the action must be exclusively curative. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:136-41Keywords: change-point analysis, public health intervention, systolic hypertension

  16. Serum proatrial natriuretic peptide does not increase with higher systolic blood pressure in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Andersen, Ulrik B; Linneberg, Allan;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obese persons have low circulating natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. It has been proposed that this 'natriuretic handicap' could play a role in obesity-related hypertension. The normal physiological response of the NP system to an increase in blood pressure (BP) is an increase...... vs 149.0±7.7 mm Hg in fourth quartile, pnegatively associated with systolic ABP (ß=-0.32, p=0.004) and with diastolic ABP (ß=-0.45, p...: Contrary to known physiological BP responses, MR-proANP was negatively associated with ABP in our study. This suggests that a low amount of circulating NPs could play a role in the early stage of obesity-related hypertension....

  17. Selective pressure to increase charge in immunodominant epitopes of the H3 hemagglutinin influenza protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao; Long, Jinxue; Sun, Haoxin; Tobin, Gregory J; Nara, Peter L; Deem, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary speed and the consequent immune escape of H3N2 influenza A virus make it an interesting evolutionary system. Charged amino acid residues are often significant contributors to the free energy of binding for protein-protein interactions, including antibody-antigen binding and ligand-receptor binding. We used Markov chain theory and maximum likelihood estimation to model the evolution of the number of charged amino acids on the dominant epitope in the hemagglutinin protein of circulating H3N2 virus strains. The number of charged amino acids increased in the dominant epitope B of the H3N2 virus since introduction in humans in 1968. When epitope A became dominant in 1989, the number of charged amino acids increased in epitope A and decreased in epitope B. Interestingly, the number of charged residues in the dominant epitope of the dominant circulating strain is never fewer than that in the vaccine strain. We propose these results indicate selective pressure for charged amino acids that increase the affinity of the virus epitope for water and decrease the affinity for host antibodies. The standard PAM model of generic protein evolution is unable to capture these trends. The reduced alphabet Markov model (RAMM) model we introduce captures the increased selective pressure for charged amino acids in the dominant epitope of hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza (R (2) > 0.98 between 1968 and 1988). The RAMM model calibrated to historical H3N2 influenza virus evolution in humans fit well to the H3N2/Wyoming virus evolution data from Guinea pig animal model studies.

  18. The impact of increasing body mass on peak and mean plantar pressure in asymptomatic adult subjects during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jones

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implication of high peak plantar pressure on foot pathology in individuals both with and without diabetes has been recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate and clarify the relationship between increasing body mass and peak and mean plantar pressure in an asymptomatic adult population during walking. Methods: Thirty adults without any relevant medical history, structural foot deformities or foot posture assessed as highly pronated or supinated, and within a normal body mass index range were included in the study. An experimental, same subjects, repeated measures design was used. Peak and mean plantar pressure were evaluated with the F-Scan in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system under four different loading conditions (0, 5, 10, and 15 kg simulated with a weighted vest. Pressure data were gathered from three stances utilizing the mid-gait protocol. Results: There were statistically significant increases in peak pressure between the 10 and 15 kg load conditions compared to the control (0 kg within the heel and second to fifth metatarsal regions. The first metatarsal and hallux regions only displayed statistically significant increases in peak pressure between 15 kg and the control (0 kg. The midfoot and lesser digits regions did not display any statistically significant differences in peak pressure between any load conditions compared to the control (0 kg. The second to fifth metatarsal region displayed statistically significant increases in mean pressure in the 5, 10 and 15 kg groups compared to the control (0 kg. A statistically significant increase in peak pressure between the 15 kg and control (0 kg group was evident in all other regions. Conclusion: The relationship between increasing body mass and peak and mean plantar pressure was dependent upon the plantar region. This study provides more detail outlining the response of peak and mean pressure to different loading conditions than previously reported in the

  19. Identifying the effects of human pressure on groundwater quality to support water management strategies in coastal regions: A multi-tracer and statistical approach (Bou-Areg region, Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, V., E-mail: re@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Calle Larga Santa Marta 2137, Dorsoduro, 40123 Venice (Italy); National Engineering School of Sfax (ENIS) - Laboratory of Radio-Analysis and Environment (LRAE) Sfax (Tunisia); Sacchi, E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Mas-Pla, J. [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAIA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambientals (GEOCAMB), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), 17003 Girona (Spain); Menció, A. [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAIA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambientals (GEOCAMB), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); El Amrani, N. [Faculty of Sciences and techniques, University Hassan 1er, Settat (Morocco)

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution from anthropogenic sources is a serious concern affecting several coastal aquifers worldwide. Increasing groundwater exploitation, coupled with point and non-point pollution sources, are the main anthropogenic impacts on coastal environments and are responsible for severe health and food security issues. Adequate management strategies to protect groundwater from contamination and overexploitation are of paramount importance, especially in arid prone regions, where coastal aquifers often represent the main freshwater resource to sustain human needs. The Bou-Areg Aquifer (Morocco) is a perfect example of a coastal aquifer constantly exposed to all the negative externalities associated with groundwater use for agricultural purposes, which lead to a general increase in aquifer salinization. In this study data on 61 water samples, collected in June and November 2010, were used to: (i) track groundwater composition changes related to the use of irrigation water from different sources, (ii) highlight seasonal variations to assess aquifer vulnerability, and (iii) present a reproducible example of multi-tracer approach for groundwater management in rural coastal areas. Hydrogeochemical results show that Bou-Areg groundwater is characterized by – high salinity, associated with a remarkable increase in bicarbonate content in the crop growing season, due to more intense biological activity in irrigated soils. The coupled multi-tracer and statistical analysis confirms the strong dependency on irrigation activities as well as a clear identification of the processes governing the aquifer’s hydrochemistry in the different seasons. Water Rock Interaction (WRI) dominates the composition of most of groundwater samples in the Low Irrigation season (L-IR) and Agricultural Return Flow (ARF) mainly affects groundwater salinization in the High Irrigation season (H-IR) in the same areas naturally affected by WRI. In the central part of the plain River Recharge (RR

  20. Exam anxiety induces significant blood pressure and heart rate increase in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Hai; Peng, Qiang; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the anxiety and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) increase in peri-exam period. Sixty-four college students(20.0 ± 0.1 year old) were included in this study. The BP and HR were measured in the morning and in the evening for 3 days during the prereview (ba), review, and exam periods. The BP and HR increase amplitudes (HRIA) of review and exam periods were from the difference of corresponding values and basic values, and the BPIA/baBP and HRIA/baHR were calculated. All of the students completed the Self-Rating Anxiety score (SAS) questionnaire the first day of the exam period. Scores over 50 points were used as the standard for anxiety. From the prereview to exam periods, the BP and HR increased gradually. The exam SBPIA (4.3 ± 1.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5 mmHg, P family hypertension group had higher anxiety score; meanwhile, their exam BPIAs and HRIAs were significantly higher than their corresponding group. The BP and HR increase in the review and exam period, anxiety is an important factor of BP and HR increase.

  1. Chronic cardiac pressure overload induces adrenal medulla hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johanna; Lother, Achim; Hein, Lutz; Gilsbach, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    Increased activity of the sympathetic system is an important feature contributing to the pathogenesis and progression of chronic heart failure. While the mechanisms and consequences of enhanced norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves have been intensely studied, the role of the adrenal gland in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and progression of heart failure is less well known. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of chronic cardiac pressure overload in mice on adrenal medulla structure and function. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in wild-type mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 8 weeks. After TAC, the degree of cardiac hypertrophy correlated significantly with adrenal weight and adrenal catecholamine storage. In the medulla, TAC caused an increase in chromaffin cell size but did not result in chromaffin cell proliferation. Ablation of chromaffin α(2C)-adrenoceptors did not affect adrenal weight or epinephrine synthesis. However, unilateral denervation of the adrenal gland completely prevented adrenal hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis. Transcriptome analysis of microdissected adrenal medulla identified 483 up- and 231 downregulated, well-annotated genes after TAC. Among these genes, G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 (Grk2) and 6 and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pnmt) were significantly upregulated by TAC. In vitro, acetylcholine-induced Pnmt and Grk2 expression as well as enhanced epinephrine content was prevented by inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent signaling. Thus, activation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves innervating the adrenal medulla plays an essential role in inducing adrenal hypertrophy, enhanced catecholamine synthesis and induction of Grk2 expression after cardiac pressure overload.

  2. Heme oxygenase-1 gene expression modulates angiotensin II-induced increase in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Quan, Shuo; Nasjletti, Alberto; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G

    2004-06-01

    The heme-heme oxygenase (HO) system has been implicated in the regulation of vascular reactivity and blood pressure. This study examines the notion that overexpression of HO decreases pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II (Ang II). Five-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats received an intraleft ventricular injection of approximately 5x10(9) cfu/mL of retroviruses containing human HO-1 sense (LSN-HHO-1), rat HO-1 antisense (LSN-RHO-1-AS), or control retrovirus (LXSN). Three months later, rats were instrumented with femoral arterial and venous catheters for mean arterial pressure (MAP) determination and Ang II administration, respectively. Rats injected with LSN-HHO-1, but not with LXSN, expressed human HO-1 mRNA and protein in several tissues. BP increased with administration of Ang II in rats expressing and not expressing human HO-1. However, the Ang II-induced pressor response (mm Hg) in LSN-HHO-1 rats (16+/-3, 27+/-3, and 38+/-3 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng) was surpassed (PHHO-1 rats with the HO inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) enhanced (P<0.05) the Ang II-induced pressor response to a level not different from that observed in LXSN rats. Rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS showed a decrease in renal HO-1 protein expression and HO activity relative to control LXSN rats. Administration of Ang II (0.1 to 2 ng) caused small (4 to 5 mm Hg) but significant increases in MAP in rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS (P<0.05) compared with rats injected with LXSN. These data demonstrate that overexpression of HO-1 brings about a reduction in pressor responsiveness to Ang II, which is most likely due to increased generation of an HO-1 product, presumably CO, with the ability to inhibit vascular reactivity to constrictor stimuli.

  3. Low blood pressure predicts increased mortality in very old age even without heart failure: the Leiden 85-plus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E; Blom, Jeanet W; de Craen, Anton J M; Mooijaart, Simon P; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Assendelft, Willem J J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Ruijter, Wouter

    2013-05-01

    To investigate whether low systolic blood pressure is predictive for increased mortality risk in 90-year-old subjects without heart failure, defined by low levels of NT-proBNP, as well as in 90-year-old subjects with high levels of NT-proBNP. This study was embedded in the Leiden 85-plus Study, an observational population-based prospective study. All 90-year-old participants (n = 267) were included between 2002 and 2004 and followed up for mortality for at least 5 years. Differences in mortality risks were compared between participants with low systolic blood pressure (≤150 mmHg) and high systolic blood pressure (>150 mmHg) within strata of low NT-proBNP (low NT-proBNP, low systolic blood pressure gave a two-fold increased risk (hazard ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.4) compared with participants with high systolic blood pressure. For participants with high NT-proBNP, low systolic blood pressure provided a 1.7 increased mortality risk (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.3) compared with high systolic blood pressure. Low systolic blood pressure is predictive for increased mortality risk in 90-year-old subjects, irrespective of the NT-proBNP level. Therefore, the absence or presence of heart failure as determined by NT-proBNP does not influence the prognostic value of low systolic blood pressure with regard to mortality in the oldest old.

  4. Metformin increases pressure pain threshold in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiałka M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marta Kiałka,1 Tomasz Milewicz,1 Krystyna Sztefko,2 Iwona Rogatko,2 Renata Majewska3 1Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 3Department of Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland Background: Despite the strong preclinical rationale, there are only very few data considering the utility of metformin as a potential pain therapeutic in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the association between metformin therapy and pressure pain threshold (PPT in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. We hypothesized that metformin therapy in lean PCOS women increases PPT. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven lean PCOS women with free androgen index phenotype >5 and 18 lean healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Fifteen of the PCOS women were randomly assigned to be treated with metformin 1,500 mg daily for 6 months. PPT and plasma β-endorphin levels were measured in all women at the beginning of the study and after 6 months of observation. Results: We observed an increase in PPT values measured on deltoid and trapezius muscle in the PCOS with metformin group after 6 months of metformin administration (4.81±0.88 kg/cm², P<0.001 on deltoid muscle, and 5.71±1.16 kg/cm² on trapezius muscle. We did not observe any significant changes in PPT values in the PCOS without treatment group and in controls. We did not observe any significant changes in serum β-endorphin levels in any studied groups during the 6-month observation. Conclusion: We conclude that metformin therapy increases PPT in lean PCOS women, without affecting plasma β-endorphin concentration. Our results may suggest the potential role of metformin in pain therapy. We propose that larger, randomized studies on metformin impact on pain

  5. RGS4 causes increased mortality and reduced cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J H; Tamirisa, P; Kovacs, A; Weinheimer, C; Courtois, M; Blumer, K J; Kelly, D P; Muslin, A J

    1999-09-01

    RGS family members are GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for heterotrimeric G proteins. There is evidence that altered RGS gene expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. We investigated the ability of RGS4 to modulate cardiac physiology using a transgenic mouse model. Overexpression of RGS4 in postnatal ventricular tissue did not affect cardiac morphology or basal cardiac function, but markedly compromised the ability of the heart to adapt to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In contrast to wild-type mice, the transgenic animals developed significantly reduced ventricular hypertrophy in response to pressure overload and also did not exhibit induction of the cardiac "fetal" gene program. TAC of the transgenic mice caused a rapid decompensation in most animals characterized by left ventricular dilatation, depressed systolic function, and increased postoperative mortality when compared with nontransgenic littermates. These results implicate RGS proteins as a crucial component of the signaling pathway involved in both the cardiac response to acute ventricular pressure overload and the cardiac hypertrophic program.

  6. Dynamic response of large increased pressure wind tunnel rotor-gear coupling system with parallel misalignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Guo-qing; CUI Ya-hui; WANG Zhong-ren; LIU Zhan-sheng; SHEN Ji-quan

    2008-01-01

    To study the misalignment of gear coupling, this paper analyzed the distortion of the tooth of gear coupling on the base of gear coupling's motion under parallel misalignment, and derived the specific expression of additive radial force, which produced by the rotor' torque. The motion differential equations of the large in-creased pressure wind tunnel rotor-gear coupling system were derived by the finite element method. Newmark integral method was applied to calculate the dynamic response of the system with parallel misalignment. The nu-merical results show that: under the effect of additive radial force, the static misalignment can arouse 2X fre-quency component lateral vibration; the dynamic misalignment can arouse2X,4X,6X multiple frequency compo-nents lateral vibration. The 2X frequency component is obvious. The additive radial force of the gear coupling can arouse lateral vibration with even multiple frequency components.

  7. Increased pressure from rising bubbles as a mechanism for remotely triggered seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, A.T.; Sacks, I.S.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Hill, D.P.; Bilham, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Aftershocks of large earthquakes tend to occur close to the main rupture zone, and can be used to constrain its dimensions. But following the 1992 Landers earthquake (magnitude M(w) = 7.3) in southern California, many aftershocks were reported in areas remote from the mainshock. Intriguingly, this remote seismicity occurred in small clusters near active volcanic and geothermal systems. For one of these clusters (Long Valley, about 400 km from the Landers earthquake), crustal deformation associated with the seismic activity was also monitored. Here we argue that advective overpressure provides a viable mechanism for remote seismicity triggered by the Landers earthquake. Both the deformation and seismicity data are consistent with pressure increases owing to gas bubbles rising slowly within a volume of magma. These bubbles may have been shaken loose during the passage of seismic waves generated by the mainshock.

  8. Increased intracranial pressure in mini-pigs exposed to simulated solar particle event radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzari, JK; Muehlmatt, A; Savage, A; Lin, L; Kennedy, AR

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) during space flight have stimulated an area of research in space medicine. It is widely speculated that elevations in ICP contribute to structural and functional ocular changes, including deterioration in vision, which is also observed during space flight. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in OP occurring as a result of ionizing radiation exposure (at doses and dose-rates relevant to solar particle event radiation). We used a large animal model, the Yucatan mini-pig, and were able to obtain measurements over a 90 day period. This is the first investigation to show long term recordings of ICP in a large animal model without an invasive craniotomy procedure. Further, this is the first investigation reporting increased ICP after radiation exposure. PMID:25242832

  9. Groundwater Eruption in China Triggered By the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z.; Wang, D.; Manga, M.; Wang, C. Y.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Mw9.3 Sumatra earthquake initiated a large, sustained groundwater eruption in Guangdong, China, 3200 km away from the epicenter. The erupted water column reached a height of ~60 m above the ground surface when it was first sighted and the eruption lasted about 10 days. Estimated seismic energy density at the eruption site is only 0.046 J.m-3; thus it is surprising that the earthquake caused such an intense response. A field survey showed that a large amount of gaseous CO2 was released from groundwater during the eruption and suggested that the eruption was caused by the exsolution of CO2 from groundwater. In this study, we use numerical simulation to explore the mechanism of the well eruption. We apply tidal analysis to water level data from 2003 to 2006 to estimate the aquifer parameters before and after the earthquake; the hydraulic diffusivity inferred this way is 0.423 m2/s and 1.371 m2/s before and after the earthquake, respectively. Based on these parameters, we use TOUGH2, a widely used numerical program for simulating two-phase hydrothermal processes, to simulate the evolution of CO2 saturation, the velocity of erupted groundwater and pressure in the well-aquifer system after Sumatra earthquake. The simulations show that the earthquake may have triggered bubbles to nucleate from the CO2-rich groundwater and enhanced the aquifer permeability, leading to increased groundwater discharge to the well. Decreased pore-pressure in the aquifer caused greater exsolution of CO2 and greater discharge, leading to groundwater eruption. Exsolution of CO2 extends radially away from the wellbore as a function of time and the continued exsolution of CO2 sustained the eruption until pressure in the aquifer drops below hydrostatic, which is marked by a ~9 m drop in groundwater level from that before the earthquake. That earthquake trigger eruption and CO2 exsolution has implications for CO2 sequestration.

  10. Field site investigation: Effect of mine seismicity on groundwater hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofoegbu, G.I.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Philip, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The results of a field investigation on the groundwater-hydrologic effect of mining-induced earthquakes are presented in this report. The investigation was conducted at the Lucky Friday Mine, a silver-lead-zinc mine in the Coeur d`Alene Mining District of Idaho. The groundwater pressure in sections of three fracture zones beneath the water table was monitored over a 24-mo period. The fracture zones were accessed through a 360-m-long inclined borehole, drilled from the 5,700 level station of the mine. The magnitude, source location, and associated ground motions of mining-induced seismic events were also monitored during the same period, using an existing seismic instrumentation network for the mine, augmented with additional instruments installed specifically for the project by the center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). More than 50 seismic events of Richter magnitude 1.0 or larger occurred during the monitoring period. Several of these events caused the groundwater pressure to increase, whereas a few caused it to decrease. Generally, the groundwater pressure increased as the magnitude of seismic event increased; for an event of a given magnitude, the groundwater pressure increased by a smaller amount as the distance of the observation point from the source of the event increased. The data was examined using regression analysis. Based on these results, it is suggested that the effect of earthquakes on groundwater flow may be better understood through mechanistic modeling. The mechanical processes and material behavior that would need to be incorporated in such a model are examined. They include a description of the effect of stress change on the permeability and water storage capacity of a fracture rock mass; transient fluid flow; and the generation and transmission of seismic waves through the rock mass.

  11. Increased Intracranial Pressure during Hemodialysis in a Patient with Anoxic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Lund

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS is a serious neurological complication of hemodialysis, and patients with acute brain injury are at increased risk. We report a case of DDS leading to intracranial hypertension in a patient with anoxic brain injury and discuss the subsequent dialysis strategy. A 13-year-old girl was admitted after prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Computed tomography (CT revealed an inferior vena cava aneurysm and multiple pulmonary emboli as the likely cause. An intracranial pressure (ICP monitor was inserted, and, on day 3, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT was initiated due to acute kidney injury, during which the patient developed severe intracranial hypertension. CT of the brain showed diffuse cerebral edema. CRRT was discontinued, sedation was increased, and hypertonic saline was administered, upon which ICP normalized. Due to persistent hyperkalemia and overhydration, ultrafiltration and intermittent hemodialysis were performed separately on day 4 with a small dialyzer, low blood and dialysate flow, and high dialysate sodium content. During subsequent treatments, isolated ultrafiltration was well tolerated, whereas hemodialysis was associated with increased ICP necessitating frequent pauses or early cessation of dialysis. In patients at risk of DDS, hemodialysis should be performed with utmost care and continuous monitoring of ICP should be considered.

  12. Potential negative effects of groundwater dynamics on dry season convection in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lo, Min-Hui; Chou, Chia

    2016-02-01

    Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation. The additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focuses on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. Additionally, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation that results from downwelling transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, with implications for precipitation changes during the dry season, observed in most current climate models.

  13. Potential Negative Effects of Groundwater Dynamics on Dry Season Convection in the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. H.; Lo, M. H.; Chou, C.

    2014-12-01

    Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation because the additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focused on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River Basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. In addition, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation resulting from downward transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, which have implications for precipitation changes during the dry season observed in most current climate models.

  14. Does greater adiposity increase blood pressure and hypertension risk?: Mendelian randomization using the FTO/MC4R genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timpson, Nicholas J; Harbord, Roger; Davey Smith, George;

    2009-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure increases the risk of experiencing cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction and stroke. Current observational data suggest that body mass index may have a causal role in the etiology of hypertension, but this may be influenced by confounding and reverse causation...... between body mass index and blood pressure. In analyses including those taking antihypertensive drugs, but for whom appropriate adjustment had been made, systolic blood pressure was seen to increase by 3.85 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.88 to 5.83 mm Hg) for each 10% increase in body mass index (P=0...

  15. Contribution of backward and forward wave pressures to age-related increases in aortic pressure in a community sample not receiving antihypertensive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Bryan; Norton, Gavin R; Ballim, Imraan; Sareli, Pinhas; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2017-08-24

    Reports on the contribution of aortic forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) wave pressures to age-related increases in central aortic pulse pressure (PPc) have been confounded by the use of participants receiving antihypertensive therapy. We assessed the relative contribution of Pf and Pb to age-related increases in PPc (radial applanation tonometry and SphygmoCor software using an assumed triangular wave for wave separation analysis) in 892 community participants not receiving antihypertensive therapy. We validated our results using aortic flow waves (echocardiography) for wave separation analysis in 254 of these participants. In multivariate regression models in those aged 50 years, adjustments for Pf (β-coefficient: 0.25 ± 0.06 vs. 0.74 ± 0.08; P pressure, Pb (P related increases in PPc. In contrast, in those participants aged ≥50 years, independent of several confounders and mean arterial pressure, Pb (P related increases in PPc, and Pb effects were markedly diminished by adjustments for Pf (0.26 ± 0.002 vs. 0.52 ± 0.003 mm Hg per year, P related increases in aortic PPc across the adult lifespan, but at an older age, this effect may be attributed in part to the impact of forward on backward wave pressures. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased Blood Pressure Variability Prior to Chronic Kidney Disease Exacerbates Renal Dysfunction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Felipe Costa Tebas Freitas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased blood pressure variability (BPV, which can be experimentally induced by sinoaortic denervation (SAD, has emerged as a new marker of the prognosis of cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Considering that increased BPV can lead to organ-damage, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SAD on renal function in an experimental model of chronic kidney disease (CKD. SAD was performed in male Wistar rats 2 weeks before 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were evaluated 4 weeks after the induction of CKD. Our data demonstrated that BPV was increased in SAD and CKD animals and that the combination of both conditions (SAD+CKD exacerbated BPV. The baroreflex sensitivity index was diminished in the SAD and CKD groups; this reduction was more pronounced when SAD and CKD were performed together. 5/6 nephrectomy led to hypertension, which was higher in SAD+CKD animals. Regarding renal function, the combination of SAD and CKD resulted in reduced renal plasma and blood flow, increased renal vascular resistance and augmented uraemia when compared to CKD animals. Glomerular filtration rate and BPV were negatively correlated in SAD, CKD and SAD+CKD animals. Moreover, SAD+CKD animals presented a higher level of glomerulosclerosis when compared to all other groups. Cardiac and renal hypertrophy, as well as oxidative stress, was also further increased when SAD and CKD were combined. These results show that SAD prior to 5/6 nephrectomy exacerbates renal dysfunction, suggesting that previous augmented BPV should be considered as an important factor to the progression of renal diseases.

  17. Increased Blood Pressure Variability Prior to Chronic Kidney Disease Exacerbates Renal Dysfunction in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Frederico F. C. T.; Araujo, Gilberto; Porto, Marcella L.; Freitas, Flavia P. S.; Graceli, Jones B.; Balarini, Camille M.; Vasquez, Elisardo C.; Meyrelles, Silvana S.; Gava, Agata L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased blood pressure variability (BPV), which can be experimentally induced by sinoaortic denervation (SAD), has emerged as a new marker of the prognosis of cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Considering that increased BPV can lead to organ-damage, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SAD on renal function in an experimental model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). SAD was performed in male Wistar rats 2 weeks before 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were evaluated 4 weeks after the induction of CKD. Our data demonstrated that BPV was increased in SAD and CKD animals and that the combination of both conditions (SAD+CKD) exacerbated BPV. The baroreflex sensitivity index was diminished in the SAD and CKD groups; this reduction was more pronounced when SAD and CKD were performed together. 5/6 nephrectomy led to hypertension, which was higher in SAD+CKD animals. Regarding renal function, the combination of SAD and CKD resulted in reduced renal plasma and blood flow, increased renal vascular resistance and augmented uraemia when compared to CKD animals. Glomerular filtration rate and BPV were negatively correlated in SAD, CKD, and SAD+CKD animals. Moreover, SAD+CKD animals presented a higher level of glomerulosclerosis when compared to all other groups. Cardiac and renal hypertrophy, as well as oxidative stress, was also further increased when SAD and CKD were combined. These results show that SAD prior to 5/6 nephrectomy exacerbates renal dysfunction, suggesting that previous augmented BPV should be considered as an important factor to the progression of renal diseases. PMID:27721797

  18. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  19. Desflurane increases intracranial pressure more and sevoflurane less than isoflurane in pigs subjected to intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Anders; Akeson, J

    2004-04-01

    Desflurane and sevoflurane may have advantages over isoflurane in neuroanesthesia, but this is still under debate. A porcine model with experimental intracranial hypertension was used for paired comparison of desflurane, sevoflurane, and isoflurane with respect to the effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular resistance (CVR), and intracranial pressure (ICP). The agents, given in sequence to each of six pigs, were compared at 0.5 and 1.0 minimal alveolar concentrations (MAC) and three mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) levels (50, 70, and 90 mm Hg) at normocapnia and one MAP level (70 mm Hg) at hypocapnia. MAC for each agent had been previously determined in a standardized manner for comparison reliability. CBF was measured with Xe. MAP was lowered by inflation of a balloon catheter in the inferior caval vein and raised by inflation of a balloon catheter in the descending aorta. ICP was measured intraparenchymally. Two Fogarty catheters positioned extradurally were inflated to a baseline ICP of 20 to 22 mm Hg at 0.2 MAC of each agent. CBF and ICP with the three agents at normocapnia and MAP 70 and 90 mm Hg at both 0.5 and 1.0 MAC were as follows (P isoflurane > sevoflurane. None of the agents abolished CO2 reactivity. High-dose desflurane resulted in a higher CBF at hypocapnia than corresponding doses of sevoflurane or isoflurane, but there were no significant differences between the agents in ICP at hypocapnia. The present study showed that desflurane increased ICP more and sevoflurane less than isoflurane during normoventilation, but the differences disappeared with hyperventilation.

  20. Increased reliability of mean travel time predictions of river-groundwater exchange fluxes using optimal design techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhling, Thomas; Gosses, Moritz; Osenbrück, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we follow up on previous work at the Steinlach test site (Osenbrück et al, 2013) near Tübingen, Germany, to investigate hyporheic exchange fluxes in a shallow riparian aquifer. A steady-state MODFLOW model has been developed for the site and calibrated using an existing network of 14 observation wells. Due to a relatively steep hydraulic gradient (0.012 m/m) between the upstream and downstream flow stages of the river bend, water infiltrates from the river into the shallow aquifer along the upstream section of the river and is forced to re-enter the river at the downstream end. The passage through the aquifer potentially allows for mitigation and transformation of river water-bound pollutants. One important factor to estimate attenuation potentials are travel (and exposure) times through (parts of) the aquifer. In our approach we used forward particle tracking (MODPATH) and a flux-weighting scheme to estimate travel time distributions for the river-groundwater exchange fluxes in the study domain. Travel times vary significantly within the domain, however, estimates of mean travel times derived from deconvolution of EC and δ18O-H2O data at selected wells exhibit a consistent pattern with modelled travel times. The flux-weighted mean travel time of all river water that passed the riparian aquifer was calculated to 26.1 days. The uncertainty of the flux-weighted mean travel time was calculated using the prediction error variance approach by Moore and Doherty (2005) which resulted in a post-calibration uncertainty of ±93.5 d (1σ), i.e. about 350% of the actual prediction. We further analysed the worth of potential new observations to reduce the large uncertainty of this model prediction. In our optimization framework, we extend the method by Moore and Doherty (2005) to simultaneously optimize multiple observations using a modified Genetic Algorithm (GA) that can also sample from past states for higher efficiency. The observations considered are

  1. Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases the spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Giele, J.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting the distribution of sensory blockade after epidural injection of local anesthetics remain incompletely clarified. To evaluate if increasing intrathoracic pressure affects the spread of thoracic epidural anesthesia, we randomized 20 patients who received an epidural catheter at the

  2. Influence of an increased intracranial pressure on cerebral and systemic haemodynamics during endoscopic neurosurgery : an animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, A. F.; De Ley, G.; Van Den Broecke, C.; Van Aken, J.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Praet, M. M.; Mortier, E. P.

    2009-01-01

    During endoscopic neurosurgery, direct mechanical stimulation of the brain by the endoscope and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) caused by the continuous rinsing can induce potentially lethal haemodynamic reflexes, brain ischaemia, and excessive fluid resorption. In a newly presented rat model

  3. Influence of an increased intracranial pressure on cerebral and systemic haemodynamics during endoscopic neurosurgery : an animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, A. F.; De Ley, G.; Van Den Broecke, C.; Van Aken, J.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Praet, M. M.; Mortier, E. P.

    2009-01-01

    During endoscopic neurosurgery, direct mechanical stimulation of the brain by the endoscope and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) caused by the continuous rinsing can induce potentially lethal haemodynamic reflexes, brain ischaemia, and excessive fluid resorption. In a newly presented rat model

  4. Increased γ-secretase activity in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients with β-amyloid pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Laiterä

    Full Text Available The potential similarity between the brain pathology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH and Alzheimer disease (AD is intriguing and thus further studies focusing on the underlying molecular mechanisms may offer valuable information for differential diagnostics and the development of treatments for iNPH. Here, we investigated β- and γ-secretase activities in relation to amyloid-β (Aβ pathology in the brain tissue samples collected from iNPH and AD patients. β- and γ-secretase activities were measured from the frontal cortical biopsies of 26 patients with suspected iNPH as well as post-mortem tissue samples from the inferior temporal cortex of 74 AD patients and eight subjects without neurofibrillary pathology. In iNPH samples with detectable Aβ plaques, γ-secretase activity was significantly increased (∼ 1.6-fold when compared to iNPH samples without Aβ plaques (p = 0.009. In the AD samples, statistically significant differences in the γ-secretase activity were not observed with respect to disease severity (mild, moderate and severe AD according to neurofibrillary pathology. Conversely, β-secretase activity was unaltered in iNPH samples with or without Aβ plaques, while it was significantly increased in relation to disease severity in the AD patients. These results show for the first time increased γ-secretase but not β-secretase activity in the biopsy samples from the frontal cortex of iNPH patients with AD-like Aβ pathology. Conversely, the opposite was observed in these secretase activities in AD patients with respect to neurofibrillary pathology. Despite the resemblances in the Aβ pathology, iNPH and AD patients appear to have marked differences in the cellular mechanisms responsible for the production of Aβ.

  5. Cardiovascular responses to lead are biphasic, while methylmercury, but not inorganic mercury, monotonically increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major cause of death worldwide. It is well known that a high number of environmental and physiological risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although risk factors are additive, increased blood pressure (hypertension) is the greatest risk factor. Over the last two decades, a growing number of epidemiological studies associate environmental exposure to lead or mercury species with hypertension. However, cardiovascular effects beyond blood pressure are rarely studied and thresholds for effect are not yet clear. To explore effects of lead or mercury species on the cardiovascular system, normal male Wistar rats were exposed to a range of doses of lead, inorganic mercury or methylmercury through the drinking water for four weeks. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure heart and vascular function (carotid artery blood flow) at baseline and at the end of the exposure, while blood pressure was measured directly in the femoral artery at the end of the 4-week exposure. After 4 weeks, blood pressure responses to lead were biphasic. Low lead levels decreased blood pressure, dilated the carotid artery and increased cardiac output. At higher lead doses, rats had increased blood pressure. In contrast, methylmercury-exposed rats had increased blood pressure at all doses despite dilated carotid arteries. Inorganic mercury did not show any significant cardiovascular effects. Based on the current study, the benchmark dose level 10% (BMDL10s) for systolic blood pressure for lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury are 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively. However, similar total mercury blood levels attributed to inorganic mercury or methylmercury produced strikingly different results with inorganic mercury having no observable effect on the cardiovascular system but methylmercury increasing systolic and pulse pressures. Therefore, adverse cardiovascular effects cannot be

  6. Groundwater data network interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, Boyan; Booth, Nathaniel; Boisvert, Eric; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Water data networks are increasingly being integrated to answer complex scientific questions that often span large geographical areas and cross political borders. Data heterogeneity is a major obstacle that impedes interoperability within and between such networks. It is resolved here for groundwater data at five levels of interoperability, within a Spatial Data Infrastructure architecture. The result is a pair of distinct national groundwater data networks for the United States and Canada, and a combined data network in which they are interoperable. This combined data network enables, for the first time, transparent public access to harmonized groundwater data from both sides of the shared international border.

  7. N-cadherin and integrin blockade inhibit arteriolar myogenic reactivity but not pressure-induced increases in intracellular Ca2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Y. Jackson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The vascular myogenic response is characterized by arterial constriction in response to an increase in intraluminal pressure and dilatation to a decrease in pressure. This mechanism is important for the regulation of blood flow, capillary pressure and arterial pressure. The identity of the mechanosensory mechanism(s for this response is incompletely understood but has been shown to include the integrins as cell-extracellular matrix receptors. The possibility that a cell-cell adhesion receptor is involved has not been studied. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that N-cadherin, a cell-cell adhesion molecule in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, was important for myogenic responsiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate:
    1. whether cadherin inhibition blocks myogenic responses to increases in intraluminal pressure and 2. the effect of the cadherin or integrin blockade on pressure-induced changes in [Ca2+]i. Cadherin blockade was tested in isolated rat cremaster arterioles on myogenic responses to acute pressure steps from 60 – 100 mmHg and changes in VSMC Ca2+ were measured using fura-2. In the presence of a synthetic cadherin inhibitory peptide or a function blocking antibody, myogenic responses were inhibited. In contrast, during N-cadherin blockade, pressure-induced changes in [Ca2+]i were not altered. Similarly, vessels treated with function-blocking β1- or β3-integrin antibodies maintained pressure-induced [Ca2+]i responses despite inhibition of myogenic constriction. Collectively, these data suggest that both cadherins and integrins play a fundamental role in mediating myogenic constriction but argue against their direct involvement in mediating pressure-induced [Ca2+]i increases.

  8. The effect of increased intracranial pressure on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in superior canal dehiscence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janky, Kristen L; Zuniga, M Geraldine; Schubert, Michael C; Carey, John P

    2015-04-01

    To determine if vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses change during inversion in patients with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) compared to controls. Sixteen subjects with SCDS (mean: 43, range 30-57 years) and 15 age-matched, healthy subjects (mean: 41, range 22-57 years) completed cervical VEMP (cVEMP) in response to air conduction click stimuli and ocular VEMP (oVEMP) in response to air conduction 500 Hz tone burst stimuli and midline tap stimulation. All VEMP testing was completed in semi-recumbent and inverted conditions. SCDS ears demonstrated significantly larger oVEMP peak-to-peak amplitudes in comparison to normal ears in semi-recumbency. While corrected cVEMP peak-to-peak amplitudes were larger in SCDS ears; this did not reach significance in our sample. Overall, there was not a differential change in o- or cVEMP amplitude with inversion between SCDS and normal subjects. Postural-induced changes in o- and cVEMP responses were measured in the steady state regardless of whether the labyrinth was intact or dehiscent. VEMP responses are blunted during inversion. Although steady-state measurements of VEMPs during inversion do not increase diagnostic accuracy for SCDS, the findings suggest that inversion may provide more general insights into the equilibration of pressures between intracranial and intralabyrinthine fluids. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intensive blood pressure lowering increases cerebral blood flow in older subjects with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryambake, Dinesh; He, Jiabao; Firbank, Michael J; O'Brien, John T; Blamire, Andrew M; Ford, Gary A

    2013-06-01

    Hypertension is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). Intensive (blood pressure (BP) lowering in older people might give greater reduction in cardiovascular risk, but there are concerns that this might produce hypoperfusion which may precipitate falls and possibly stroke. We determined the effect of intensive compared with usual BP lowering on CBF in hypertensive older subjects. Individuals aged >70 years with a history of systolic hypertension on 1 or no BP lowering drugs were recruited from primary care (n=37; age, 75±4 years; systolic BP, >150 mm Hg) and randomized to receive intensive (target BP, treatment. Baseline BP (ambulatory or in clinic) and baseline gray matter CBF were not significantly different between the groups. After treatment, BP was reduced significantly in both groups but fell more in the intensive group (26/17 versus 15/5 mm Hg; Phypertension increases CBF, compared with BP lowering to usual target. These findings suggest hypertension in older people shifts the autoregulatory CBF curve rightward and downward and is reversible with BP lowering.

  10. Low-dose plasmid DNA treatment increases plasma vasopressin and regulates blood pressure in experimental endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malardo Thiago

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although plasmid DNA encoding an antigen from pathogens or tumor cells has been widely studied as vaccine, the use of plasmid vector (without insert as therapeutic agent requires further investigation. Results Here, we showed that plasmid DNA (pcDNA3 at low doses inhibits the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophage cell line J774. These findings led us to evaluate whether plasmid DNA could act as an anti-inflammatory agent in a Wistar rat endotoxemia model. Rats injected simultaneously with 1.5 mg/kg of LPS and 10 or 20 μg of plasmid DNA had a remarkable attenuation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP drop at 2 hours after treatment when compared with rats injected with LPS only. The beneficial effect of the plasmid DNA on MAP was associated with decreased expression of IL-6 in liver and increased concentration of plasma vasopressin (AVP, a known vasoconstrictor that has been investigated in hemorrhagic shock management. No difference was observed in relation to nitric oxide (NO production. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that plasmid DNA vector at low doses presents anti-inflammatory property and constitutes a novel approach with therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases.

  11. Multidecadal increases in the Yukon River Basin of chemical fluxes as indicators of changing flowpaths, groundwater, and permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, R. C.; Herman-Mercer, N. M.; Schuster, P. F.; Mutter, E. A.; Koch, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Yukon River Basin, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, has experienced a warming climate over the last century that has altered air temperature, precipitation, and permafrost. We investigated a water chemistry database from 1982 to 2014 for the Yukon River and its major tributary, the Tanana River. Significant increases of Ca, Mg, and Na annual flux were found in both rivers. Additionally, SO4 and P annual flux increased in the Yukon River. No annual trends were observed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from 2001 to 2014. In the Yukon River, Mg and SO4 flux increased throughout the year, while some of the most positive trends for Ca, Mg, Na, SO4, and P flux occurred during the fall and winter months. Both rivers exhibited positive monthly DOC flux trends for summer (Yukon River) and winter (Tanana River). These trends suggest increased active layer expansion, weathering, and sulfide oxidation due to permafrost degradation throughout the Yukon River Basin.

  12. Biomechanical study of plantar pressures during walking in male soccer players with increased vs. normal hip alpha angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Marco; Abraham, Christoph; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Lahner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is accompanied by increased hip alpha angles, in particular in athletes with high impact sports. The aim of our study was to investigate the dynamic function of the foot during walking in male soccer players with increased versus normal alpha angles. Plantar pressures of 20 injury-free male soccer players were recorded during barefoot walking at 1.6 m/s. Ten subjects had bilaterally increased (>55°) (IA) and ten subjects normal (pressure-time-integrals (-29%; prelative loads (prelative loads are increased under the lateral midfoot (ppressure which indicates a compensatory mechanism of the foot during walking.

  13. Pressure promotes angiotensin II--mediated migration of human coronary smooth muscle cells through increase in oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Maeda, Kensaku; Nakamura, Munehiro; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2002-02-01

    Angiotensin II--mediated oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. We examined the effects of pressure on the angiotensin II--mediated increase in oxidative stress and migration of cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Increased pressure (100 mm Hg) by helium gas for 48 hours increased angiotensin II--mediated oxidative stress as evaluated by flow cytometry and SMC migration (from 15.9 +/- 2.2 to 32.0 +/- 2.4 cells per 4 high-power fields, P<0.05; n=8). The pressure-induced increases in oxidative stress observed appear to involve phospholipase D (PLD) and protein kinase C (PKC), inasmuch as the indirect PLD inhibitor suramin, at 100 micromol/L, and the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine, at 1 micromol/L, completely blocked the increase in angiotensin II--mediated oxidative stress induced by pressure. Pressure-induced increase in angiotensin II--mediated oxidative stress was inhibited by diphenylene iodonium chloride, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, by 79% (P<0.05, n=8). Losartan (1 micromol/L), its active metabolite E3174 (1 micromol/L), and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (100 mmol/L) but not PD123319 (1 micromol/L) also blocked pressure-induced increases in angiotensin II--mediated oxidative stress and SMC migration (P<0.05, n=8). These findings suggest a novel cellular mechanism whereby pressure regulates the angiotensin II--mediated migration of SMCs, possibly via angiotensin II type 1 receptors, and which involves PLD-mediated, PKC-mediated, and NADPH oxidase--mediated increases in oxidative stress.

  14. Vascular calcification is not associated with increased ambulatory central aortic systolic pressure in prevalent dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freercks, Robert J; Swanepoel, Charles R; Turest-Swartz, Kristy L; Rayner, Brian L; Carrara, Henri RO; Moosa, Sulaiman EI; Lachman, Anthony S

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction Central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) strongly predicts cardiovascular outcomes. We undertook to measure ambulatory CASP in 74 prevalent dialysis patients using the BPro (HealthStats, Singapore) device. We also determined whether coronary or abdominal aortic calcification was associated with changes in CASP and whether interdialytic CASP predicted ambulatory measurement. Methods All patients underwent computed tomography for coronary calcium score, lateral abdominal radiography for aortic calcium score, echocardiography for left ventricular mass index and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using BPro calibrated to brachial blood pressure. HealthStats was able to convert standard BPro SOFT® data into ambulatory CASP. Results Ambulatory CASP was not different in those without and with coronary (137.6 vs 141.8 mmHg, respectively, p = 0.6) or aortic (136.6 vs 145.6 mmHg, respectively, p = 0.2) calcification. Furthermore, when expressed as a percentage of brachial systolic blood pressure to control for peripheral blood pressure, any difference in CASP was abolished: CASP: brachial systolic blood pressure ratio = 0.9 across all categories regardless of the presence of coronary or aortic calcification (p = 0.2 and 0.4, respectively). Supporting this finding, left ventricular mass index was also not different in those with or without vascular calcification (p = 0.7 and 0.8 for coronary and aortic calcification). Inter-dialytic office blood pressure and CASP correlated excellently with ambulatory measurements (r = 0.9 for both). Conclusion Vascular calcification was not associated with changes in ambulatory central aortic systolic pressure in this cohort of prevalent dialysis patients. Inter-dialytic blood pressure and CASP correlated very well with ambulatory measurement. PMID:24626513

  15. Biofilm resilience to desiccation in groundwater aquifers: a laboratory and field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, L; Webber, J B; Hickson, A C; Abraham, P M; Close, M E

    2015-05-01

    Groundwater is used as a precious resource for drinking water worldwide. Increasing anthropogenic activity is putting increasing pressure on groundwater resources. One impact of increased groundwater abstraction coupled with increasing dry weather events is the lowering of groundwater levels within aquifers. Biofilms within groundwater aquifers offer protection to the groundwater by removing contaminants entering the aquifer systems from land use activities. The study presented investigated the impact of desiccation events on the biofilms present in groundwater aquifers using field and laboratory experiments. In both field and laboratory experiments a reduction in enzyme activity (glucosidase, esterase and phosphatase) was seen during desiccation compared to wet controls. However, comparing all the data together no significant differences were seen between either wet or desiccated samples or between the start and end of the experiments. In both field and laboratory experiments enzyme activity recovered to start levels after return to wet conditions. The study shows that biofilms within groundwater systems are resilient and can withstand periods of desiccation (4 months).

  16. Simulation of Utilisation of Pressure Propagation for Increased Efficiency of Secondary Controlled Discrete Displacement Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2012-01-01

    in multiple cylinder chambers using on/off valves, the energy efficiency of the performed shifts is essential for the total system efficiency. However, pressure shifting on a volume, where the dynamics of pressure propagation in the pipelines is negligible have been proved to have an unavoidable minimum loss...... due to the compressibility of the fluid. This paper performs a simulation study, showing that an improved energy efficient shift may be implemented by utilising the pressure propagation in the line between valve and cylinder chamber....

  17. Time is tight: how higher economic value of time increases feelings of time pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Sanford E; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    2011-07-01

    The common heuristic association between scarcity and value implies that more valuable things appear scarcer (King, Hicks, & Abdelkhalik, 2009), an effect we show applies to time as well. In a series of studies, we found that both income and wealth, which affect the economic value of time, influence perceived time pressure. Study 1 found that changes in income were associated with changes in perceived time pressure. Studies 2-4 showed that experimentally manipulating time's perceived economic value caused greater feelings of time pressure and less patient behavior. Finally, Study 5 demonstrated that the relationship between income and time pressure was strengthened when participants were randomly assigned to think about the precise economic value of their time.

  18. Prediction of the dynamic oscillation threshold in a clarinet model with a linearly increasing blowing pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeot, Baptiste; Vergez, Christophe; Gazengel, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Reed instruments are modeled as self-sustained oscillators driven by the pressure inside the mouth of the musician. A set of nonlinear equations connects the control parameters (mouth pressure, lip force) to the system output, hereby considered as the mouthpiece pressure. Clarinets can then be studied as dynamical systems, their steady behavior being dictated uniquely by the values of the control parameters. Considering the resonator as a lossless straight cylinder is a dramatic yet common simplification that allows for simulations using nonlinear iterative maps. In this paper, we investigate analytically the effect of a time-varying blowing pressure on the behavior of this simplified clarinet model. When the control parameter varies, results from the so-called dynamic bifurcation theory are required to properly analyze the system. This study highlights the phenomenon of bifurcation delay and defines a new quantity, the dynamic oscillation threshold. A theoretical estimation of the dynamic oscillation thresho...

  19. Increase globe artichoke cropping sustainability using sub-surface drip-irrigation systems in a Mediterranean coastal area for reducing groundwater withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantino, Alberto; Marchina, Chiara; Bonari, Enrico; Fabbrizzi, Alessandro; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades in coastal areas of the Mediterranean basin, human growth posed severe stresses on freshwater resources due to increasing demand by agricultural, industrial and civil activities, in particular on groundwater. This in turn led to worsening of water quality, loss/reduction of wetlands, up to soil salinization and abandonment of agricultural areas. Within the EU LIFE REWAT project a number of demonstration measures will take place in the lower Cornia valley (Livorno, Italy), both structural (pilot) and non-structural (education, dissemination and capacity building), aiming at achieving sustainable and participated water management. In particular, the five demonstration actions are related to: (1) set up of a managed aquifer recharge facility, (2) restoration of a Cornia river reach, (3) water saving in the civil water supply sector, (4) water saving in agriculture, (5) reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation purposes. Thus, the REWAT project general objective is to develop a new model of governance for sustainable development of the lower Cornia valley based on the water asset at its core. As per water use in agriculture, the lower Cornia valley is well known for the horticultural production. In this regard, globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. (Fiori)) crops, a perennial cool-season vegetable, cover a surface of about 600 ha. In order to increase stability and productivity of the crop, about 2000 - 4000 m3 ha-1 yr-1 of irrigation water is required. Recent studies demonstrated that yield of different crops increases using Sub-surface Drip-Irrigation (SDI) system under high frequency irrigation management enhancing water use efficiency. In the SDI systems, the irrigation water is delivered to the plant root zone, below the soil surface by buried plastic tubes containing embedded emitters located at regular spacing. Within the LIFE REWAT, the specific objectives of the pilot on irrigation efficiency is to (i) demonstrate the

  20. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Does Accountability Pressure Increase Student Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Nichols

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement across 25 states. Standardized portfolios were created for each study state. Each portfolio contained a range of documents that told the “story” of accountability implementation and impact in that state. Using the “law of comparative judgments,” over 300 graduate-level education students reviewed one pair of portfolios and made independent evaluations as to which of the two states’ portfolios reflected a greater degree of accountability pressure. Participants’ judgments yielded a matrix that was converted into a single rating system that arranged all 25 states on a continuum of accountability “pressure” from high to low. Using this accountability pressure rating we conducted a series of regression and correlation analyses. We found no relationship between earlier pressure and later cohort achievement for math at the fourth- and eighth-grade levels on the National Assessment of Educational Progress tests. Further, no relationship was found between testing pressure and reading achievement on the National Assessment of Education Progress tests at any grade level or for any ethnic student subgroup. Data do suggest, however, that a case could be made for a causal relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and subsequent achievement on the national assessment tests—but only for fourth grade, non-cohort achievement and for some ethnic subgroups. Implications and directions for future studies are discussed.

  1. Comparison between effects of intravenous lidocaine and sublingual nifedipine on preventing blood pressure increase in laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mohseni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gholamreza Mohseni1, Azam Kolyaei2, Morteza Farshchian3, Mansour Rezaei4, Negin Ghadami51Anesthesiologist, assistant professor, 2Anesthetist, 3Orthopedist, assistant professor, 4Biostatistician, assistant professor, 5General practitioner, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IranIntroduction: Arrhythmia during surgery most frequently occurs during laryngoscopy and intratracheal intubation. Many surgical procedures require intratracheal intubation, which results in hemodynamic changes. These changes in ill patients and patients with limited coronary flow reserve are associated with serious events.Materials and methods: A randomized clinical trial was performed on 124 healthy patients who were elective surgery candidates at Taleghani hospital in Kermanshah. Patients were allocated randomly to each equal group of 62 patients with 95% significance and 90% power of test-retest for sample size. The patients had no history of disease or use of special medications. Drugs commonly used for laryngoscopy and intubation to prevent hemodynamic complications, intravenous lidocaine and sublingual nifedipine, were compared with independent and paired t-tests.Results: This comparison suggested that while the mean age, weight, and sex distribution in our two groups were the same, mean changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increases in the lidocaine group were 12.6%, 7.5%, and 16.5%, and in the nifedipine group, 17.7%, 11.0%, and 23.5% (P value = 0.0052, 0.189, and 0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, intravenous lidocaine is more effective than sublingual nifedipine for preventing hemodynamic changes while performing laryngoscopy or intratracheal intubation.Keywords: hemodynamic changes, laryngoscopy

  2. High Dose Astaxanthin Lowers Blood Pressure and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Rats: Are These Effects Interdependent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry G. Preuss, Bobby Echard, Eiji Yamashita, Nicholas V. Perricone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation in Sprague-Dawley rats (SD was designed to examine effects of astaxanthin (Asta at different doses on elevated blood pressure (BP and glucose-insulin perturbations produced by heavy sucrose ingestion. We also examined effects of Asta on BP during restraint stress. SD were divided into six groups each containing eight rats. All SD ate a basic diet of ground regular rat chow with sucrose added at 30% w/w. The Control group received only the basic diet containing added sucrose, while the other five groups each received the same diet with added test material: captopril, (30 mg/Kg, pioglitazone (15.0 mg/Kg, low Asta (25 mg/Kg, medium Asta (50 mg/kg or high Asta (100 mg/Kg. Many tests were carried out to examine the mechanisms behind the effects of Asta on BP (serum ACE activity, losartan challenge, and LNAME challenge and the glucose-insulin system (glucose tolerance, HOMA measurement, and insulin challenge. In SD, a relatively low dose of Asta decreased SBP, but produced no major changes in the glucose-insulin system simulating results from a previous study using Zucker Fatty Rats. Increasing the dose of Asta resulted in both a lowering of elevated systolic BP and enhanced insulin sensitivity determined by many different estimations. BP lowering was consistent with changes in the renin-angiotensin (RAS and nitric oxide (NO systems. At the examined doses of each, captopril lowered BP in SD without influencing glucose-insulin metabolism, whereas pioglitazone favorably affected glucose-insulin metabolism while showing essentially no effects on BP. Accordingly, Asta beneficially affects both sucrose-induced elevations of BP and insulin resistance at relatively high doses in SD. Also, Asta at higher doses lessens restraint stress, whereas, captopril and pioglitazone did not at the doses examined, even though they influenced the BP and glucose-insulin systems respectively.

  3. Isometric handgrip training lowers blood pressure and increases heart rate complexity in medicated hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, P J; Levy, A S; McGowan, C L; McCartney, N; MacDonald, M J

    2013-10-01

    Hypertension is characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP) and autonomic dysfunction, both thought to be improved with exercise training. Isometric handgrip (IHG) training may represent a beneficial, time-effective exercise therapy. We investigated the effects of IHG training on BP and traditional and nonlinear measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Pre- and post-measurements of BP and HRV were determined in 23 medicated hypertensive participants (mean ± SEM, 66 ± 2 years) following either 8 weeks of IHG training (n = 13) or control (n = 10). IHG exercise consisted of four unilateral 2-min isometric contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, each separated by 4 min of rest. IHG training was performed 3 days/week for 8 weeks. IHG training decreased systolic BP (125 ± 3 mmHg to 120 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05) and mean BP (90 ± 2 mmHg to 87 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05), while sample entropy was increased (1.07 ± 0.1 to 1.35 ± 0.1, P < 0.05) and the fractal scaling distance score was decreased (0.34 ± 0.1 to 0.19 ± 0.1, P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in traditional spectral or time-domain measures of HRV or control participants. IHG training improves nonlinear HRV, but not traditional HRV, while reducing systolic and mean BP. These results may highlight the benefits of IHG training for patients with primary hypertension.

  4. Fat content increases the lethality of ultra-high-pressure homogenization on Listeria monocytogenes in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig-Sagués, A X; Velázquez, R M; Montealegre-Agramont, P; López-Pedemonte, T J; Briñez-Zambrano, W J; Guamis-López, B; Hernandez-Herrero, M M

    2009-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes CCUG 15526 was inoculated at a concentration of approximately 7.0 log(10) cfu/mL in milk samples with 0.3, 3.6, 10, and 15% fat contents. Milk samples with 0.3 and 3.6% fat content were also inoculated with a lower load of approximately 3.0 log(10) cfu/mL. Inoculated milk samples were subjected to a single cycle of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) treatment at 200, 300, and 400 MPa. Microbiological analyses were performed 2 h after the UHPH treatments and after 5, 8, and 15 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Maximum lethality values were observed in samples treated at 400 MPa with 15 and 10% fat (7.95 and 7.46 log(10) cfu/mL), respectively. However, in skimmed and 3.6% fat milk samples, complete inactivation was not achieved and, during the subsequent 15 d of storage at 4 degrees C, L. monocytogenes was able to recover and replicate until achieving initial counts. In milk samples with 10 and 15% fat, L. monocytogenes recovered to the level of initial counts only in the milk samples treated at 200 MPa but not in the milk samples treated at 300 and 400 MPa. When the load of L. monocytogenes was approximately 3.0 log(10) cfu/mL in milk samples with 0.3 and 3.6% fat, complete inactivation was not achieved and L. monocytogenes was able to recover and grow during the subsequent cold storage. Fat content increased the maximum temperature reached during UHPH treatment; this could have contributed to the lethal effect achieved, but the amount of fat of the milk had a stronger effect than the temperature on obtaining a higher death rate of L. monocytogenes.

  5. Endohedral nitrogen storage in carbon fullerene structures: Physisorption to chemisorption transition with increasing gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Barraza, R. E.; Guirado-López, R. A.

    2009-06-01

    We present extensive pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to analyze the structural properties and chemical reactivity of nitrogen molecules confined in spheroidal (C82) and tubelike (C110) carbon fullerene structures. For a small number of encapsulated nitrogens, the N2 species exist in a nonbonded state within the cavities and form well defined molecular conformations such as linear chains, zigzag arrays, as well as both spheroidal and tubular configurations. However, with increasing the number of stored molecules, the interaction among the confined nitrogens as well as between the N2 species and the fullerene wall is not always mainly repulsive. Actually, at high densities of the encapsulated gas, we found both adsorption of N2 to the inner carbon surface together with the formation of (N2)m molecular clusters. Total energy DFT calculations reveal that the shape of the interaction potential of a test molecule moving within the carbon cavities strongly varies with the number and proximity of the coadsorbed N2 from being purely repulsive to having short-range attractive contributions close to the inner wall. In particular, the latter are always found when a group of closely spaced nitrogens is located near the carbon cage (a fact that will naturally occur at high densities of the encapsulated gas), inducing the formation of covalent bonds between the N2 and the fullerene network. Interestingly, in some cases, the previous nitrogen adsorption to the inner surface is reversible by reducing the gas pressure. The calculated average density of states of our considered carbon compounds reveals the appearance of well defined features that clearly reflect the occurring structural changes and modifications in the adsorption properties in the systems. Our results clearly underline the crucial role played by confinement effects on the reactivity of our endohedral compounds, define this kind of materials as nonideal nanocontainers for high

  6. Increasing inspiratory time exacerbates ventilator-induced lung injury during high-pressure/high-volume mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetti, Alfredo V; Bartlett, Robert H; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2002-10-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury may be caused by overdistension of alveoli during high-pressure ventilation. In this study, we examined the effects of increasing inspiratory time on ventilator-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four different groups with ten animals per group. Each group was then ventilated for 30 mins with one of four ventilator strategies. All groups were ventilated with an Fio2 of 1.0 and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 0 cm H2O. Group LoP was the negative control group and was ventilated with low pressures (peak inspiratory pressure = 12 cm H2O, rate = 30, and inspiratory time = 0.5 secs). Groups iT = 0.5, iT = 1.0, and iT = 1.5 were the experimental groups and were ventilated with high pressures (peak inspiratory pressure = 45 cm H2O, rate = 10, and inspiratory times = 0.5 secs, iT = 1.0 sec, and iT = 1.5 secs, respectively). Outcome measures included lung compliance, Pao /Fio ratio, wet/dry lung weight, and dry lung/body weight. Final static lung compliance (p =.0002) and Pao2/Fio2 (p =.001) decreased as inspiratory time increased. Wet/dry lung weights (p <.0001) and dry lung/body weights (p <.0001) increased as inspiratory time increased. Light microscopy revealed evidence of intra-alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the iT = 1.0 and iT = 1.5 animals but not the LoP and iT = 0.5 animals. Increasing inspiratory time during high-pressure/high-volume mechanical ventilation is associated with an increase in variables of lung injury.

  7. High-circulating leptin levels are associated with increased blood pressure in uncontrolled resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro Moraes, C; Figueiredo, V N; de Faria, A P C; Barbaro, N R; Sabbatini, A R; Quinaglia, T; Ferreira-Melo, S E; Martins, L C; Demacq, C; Júnior, H M

    2013-04-01

    Leptin and aldosterone have been associated with the pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension. However, despite studies showing the association of leptin with intima-media thickness, arterial distensibility and sympathetic nerve activation, the relationship between leptin and blood pressure (BP) in resistant hypertension (RHTN) is unknown. We aimed to assess the correlation of plasma leptin and aldosterone levels with BP in uncontrolled controlled RHTN (UCRHTN) and CRHTN patients. Plasma leptin and aldosterone levels, office BP, ambulatory BP monitoring and heart rate were measured in 41 UCRHTN, 39 CRHTN and 31 well-controlled HTN patients. No differences were observed between the three groups regarding gender, body mass index and age. The UCRHTN group had increased leptin when compared with CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (38.2±21.4, 19.6±8.7 and 20.94±13.9 ng ml(-1), respectively; P<0.05). Aldosterone levels values were also statistically different when comparing RHTN, CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (9.6±3.8, 8.1±5.0 and 8.0±4.7 ng dl(-1), respectively; P<0.05). As expected, UCRHTN patients had higher heart rate values compared with CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (86.2±7.2, 83.5±6.7 and 83.4±8.5, respectively; P<0.05). Plasma leptin positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), and aldosterone (r=0.43, 0.35 and 0.47, respectively; all P<0.05) in UCRHTN, but neither in the CRHTN nor in the HTN group. Simple linear regression showed that SBP, DBP and aldosterone may be predicted by leptin (r(2)=0.16, 0.15 and 0.19, respectively; all P<0.05) only in the UCRHTN subgroup. In conclusion, UCRHTN patients have higher circulating leptin levels associated with increased plasma aldosterone and BP levels when compared with CRHTN and HTN subjects.

  8. Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases cranial spread of sensory blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection of lidocaine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.; Eerd, M.J. van; Seventer, R. van; Gielen, M.J.M.; Giele, J.L.P.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) increases the caudad spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine. We hypothesized that CPAP would increase cephalad spread of blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection. METHODS: Twenty patients with an e

  9. Preventive and therapeutic effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on morphine-induced increased bladder pressure, urinary bladder sphincter pressure and histological damage in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-dong; WANG Wei-wei; CUI Xiao-guang; PAN Peng; ZHANG Bing; LI Wen-zhi

    2012-01-01

    .Conclusions This study demonstrated that intravenous morphine significantly increased bladder pressure and urinary bladder sphincter pressure and induced histological damage in the bladder and urinary bladder sphincter.Importantly,preliminary data showed that PHC could decrease the extent of these changes.

  10. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  11. Increased systolic ambulatory blood pressure and microalbuminuria in treated and non-treated hypertensive smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Kristensen, Kjeld S; Bang, Lia E

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of smoking status on both clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) by using 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in treated and non-treated hypertensive smokers and non-smokers. A secondary aim was to evaluate the inter......The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of smoking status on both clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) by using 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in treated and non-treated hypertensive smokers and non-smokers. A secondary aim was to evaluate...

  12. Cilnidipine lowered psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure in a hypertensive man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji Sadatoshi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some hypertensive patients, psychological stress makes blood pressure difficult to control and causes physical symptoms such as headache or dizziness. We report the case of a hypertensive man whose psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure was attenuated by cilnidipine. Case Presentation The patient (a 72-year-old man had hypertension and was on antihypertensive therapy. When mentally concentrating, he experienced occipital headaches and dizziness, and despite thorough testing, no abnormality was found. He was subsequently referred to our department. The mirror drawing test (MDT, a psychological stress test, increased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg, and the patient described occipital headache. Plasma noradrenaline level also increased from 212 to 548 pg/ml. We therefore switched the patient from nifedipine, an L-type calcium (Ca channel blocker, to cilnidipine, an L-type/N-type Ca channel blocker with suppressive effects on sympathetic activity. Cilnipidine attenuated MDT-induced an increase in blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline level and prevented the development of headache during testing. Conclusion These findings suggest that cilnidipine is a useful antihypertensive agent for hypertensive patients in whom psychological stress causes marked fluctuations in blood pressure.

  13. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and temperature increase on Escherichia coli spp. and pectin methyl esterase inactivation in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E F; González-M, G; Klotz, B; Rodrigo, D

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment combined with moderate processing temperatures (25 ℃-50 ℃) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157: H7 (ATCC 700728), E. coli K12 (ATCC 23716), and pectin methyl esterase in orange juice, using pressures of 250 to 500 MPa with times ranging between 1 and 30 min. Loss of viability of E. coli O157:H7 increased significantly as pressure and treatment time increased, achieving a 6.5 log cycle reduction at 400 MPa for 3 min at 25 ℃ of treatment. With regard to the inactivation of pectin methyl esterase, the greatest reduction obtained was 90.05 ± 0.01% at 50 ℃ and 500 MPa of pressure for 15 min; therefore, the pectin methyl esterase enzyme was highly resistant to the treatments by high hydrostatic pressure. The results obtained in this study showed a synergistic effect between the high pressure and moderate temperatures in inactivating E. coli cells.

  14. Prospective of groundwater overexploitation through participatory approaches: Saiss Plain in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameur, Fatah; Lejars, Caroline; Dionnet, Mathieu; Quarouch, Hassan; Kuper, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    In the Saiss plain, groundwater overexploitation is often explained by two phenomena. The first one is a natural phenomenon (droughts), which seems therefore uncontrollable; the other one is human as groundwater is largely used by the agricultural sector. The main issue of groundwater governance is to find an acceptable balance in the use of the water resource without compromising the socio-economic development generated by this resource. Our study aims to contribute to understanding the differential contribution of different categories of groundwater users and the socio-economic and agrarian dynamics impacted by the overuse of groundwater. We adopted a participatory approach to explore with the different actors involved in the management and use of groundwater to identify the different viewpoints on the issue of overexploitation and to engage prospective and collective thinking of present situation of groundwater overexploitation. We organized multi-stakeholder workshops and designed a role-playing game to identify and qualify the existing links between the water resource, and the economic and social dynamics in order to better understand the human behavior to economic and environmental crises and the adaptive strategies of farmers confronted with an increasingly scarce groundwater resource. Our results showed considerable differences in the viewpoints of different categories of farmers regarding overexploitation. Agricultural investors who arrived over the past 5 years in the area practicing arboriculture consider themselves modern farmers using precise and water-saving irrigation technologies (drip irrigation, especially) who cannot be blamed for overexploitation of groundwater resources. Lessees practicing horticulture put considerable pressure on water resources, but were not interested in debates on overexploitation and the sustainability of groundwater resources. In fact, they did not turn up for the workshops. Finally, the local small-scale farmers who have

  15. Captopril avoids hypertension, the increase in plasma angiotensin II but increases angiotensin 1-7 and angiotensin II-induced perfusion pressure in isolated kidney in SHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Moreno, P; Pardo, J P; Hernández-Muñoz, R; López-Guerrero, J J; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; Pastelín-Hernández, G; Ibarra-Barajas, M; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2012-10-01

    We investigated captopril effects, an ACE inhibitor, on hypertension development, on Ang II and Ang-(1-7) plasma concentrations, on Ang II-induced contraction in isolated kidneys, and on kidney AT1R from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Five weeks-old SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with captopril at 30 mg/kg/day, in drinking water for 2 or 14 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured, and isolated kidneys were tested for perfusion pressure and AT1R expression; while Ang II and Ang-(1-7) concentrations were determined in plasma. Captopril did not modify SBP in WKY rats and avoided its increase as SHR aged. Plasma Ang-II concentration was ∼4-5 folds higher in SHR rats, and captopril reduced it (Pcaptopril increased Ang-(1-7) by ∼2 fold in all rat groups. Captopril increased Ang II-induced pressor response in kidneys of WKY and SHR rats, phenomenon not observed in kidneys stimulated with phenylephrine, a α₁-adrenoceptor agonist. Captopril did not modify AT1R in kidney cortex and medulla among rat strains and ages. Data indicate that captopril increased Ang II-induced kidney perfusion pressure but not AT₁R density in kidney of WKY and SHR rats, due to blockade of angiotensin II synthesis; however, ACE inhibitors may have other actions like activating signaling processes that could contribute to their diverse effects. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Simulation of Utilisation of Pressure Propagation for Increased Efficiency of Secondary Controlled Discrete Displacement Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2012-01-01

    A key component of upcoming secondary controlled fluid-power systems for e.g. wave energy is the implementation of discrete force control of cylinders by discrete variation of the cylinder displacement. However, as the discrete control is implemented by shifting between fixed system pressures in ...

  17. Sterilization by high hydrostatic pressure : increasing efficiency and product quality by improved temperature control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, de W.B.C.; Schepdael, van L.J.M.M.; Moezelaar, R.; Berg, van den R.W.

    2003-01-01

    A product being pressurized will heat up due to compressive heating. Due to heat transfer, products close to the vessel wall will cool down, a process which may result in a non-homogeneous product temperature profile in radial direction. If the proper technological features are implemented these hea

  18. Cystic fibrosis airway secretions exhibit mucin hyperconcentration and increased osmotic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ashley G.; Ehre, Camille; Button, Brian; Abdullah, Lubna H.; Cai, Li-Heng; Leigh, Margaret W.; DeMaria, Genevieve C.; Matsui, Hiro; Donaldson, Scott H.; Davis, C. William; Sheehan, John K.; Boucher, Richard C.; Kesimer, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of mucoinfective lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients likely involves poor mucus clearance. A recent model of mucus clearance predicts that mucus flow depends on the relative mucin concentration of the mucus layer compared with that of the periciliary layer; however, mucin concentrations have been difficult to measure in CF secretions. Here, we have shown that the concentration of mucin in CF sputum is low when measured by immunologically based techniques, and mass spectrometric analyses of CF mucins revealed mucin cleavage at antibody recognition sites. Using physical size exclusion chromatography/differential refractometry (SEC/dRI) techniques, we determined that mucin concentrations in CF secretions were higher than those in normal secretions. Measurements of partial osmotic pressures revealed that the partial osmotic pressure of CF sputum and the retained mucus in excised CF lungs were substantially greater than the partial osmotic pressure of normal secretions. Our data reveal that mucin concentration cannot be accurately measured immunologically in proteolytically active CF secretions; mucins are hyperconcentrated in CF secretions; and CF secretion osmotic pressures predict mucus layer–dependent osmotic compression of the periciliary liquid layer in CF lungs. Consequently, mucin hypersecretion likely produces mucus stasis, which contributes to key infectious and inflammatory components of CF lung disease. PMID:24892808

  19. Depression Is Associated With Decreased Blood Pressure, but Antidepressant Use Increases the Risk for Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; Zitman, Frans G.; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study compared blood pressure levels between subjects with clinical anxiety and depressive disorders with healthy controls. Cross-sectional data were obtained in a large cohort study, the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (N=2981). Participants were classified as controls (N=59

  20. Pressure-enhanced superconductivity in A15-type Nb3 Ge via increased Fermi surface nesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ryan; Jeffries, Jason; McCall, Scott; Jenei, Zsolt; Weir, Sam; Vohra, Yogesh

    The A15-type superconductors are the most widely used superconductors in industrial applications yet the physics behind maximizing the superconducting transition temperature is still not completely understood. The highest transition temperatures found to date have recently been reported for high-pressure hydride materials and it is believed that they too are BCS-type phonon-mediated superconductors, just like the A15-type superconductors. Understanding the electron-phonon coupling has therefore been brought front stage in the search to understand the mechanisms for optimizing high-temperature superconductors. Using a multi-faceted suite of high-pressure techniques we found that Nb3Ge has an isostructural phase transition at high pressure that correlates directly with a bandstructure change seen in high-pressure magnetotransport measurements. Our results suggest that A15-type superconductivity is not only phonon-mediated but that the degree of Fermi surface nesting is a controlling parameter for maximizing the superconducting transition temperature. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Depression Is Associated With Decreased Blood Pressure, but Antidepressant Use Increases the Risk for Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; Zitman, Frans G.; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study compared blood pressure levels between subjects with clinical anxiety and depressive disorders with healthy controls. Cross-sectional data were obtained in a large cohort study, the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (N=2981). Participants were classified as controls (N=59

  2. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in presence of low perfusion pressure increases infarct size in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Nedergaard, Majken; Schroeder, T;

    1988-01-01

    A model was set up in order to evaluate the importance of hemispheric perfusion pressure when the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is occluded in anaesthetized rats. In 6 animals the internal carotid artery (ICA) was occluded prior to ipsilateral MCA occlusion; in 17 animals the MCA only was occluded...

  3. Depression Is Associated With Decreased Blood Pressure, but Antidepressant Use Increases the Risk for Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; Zitman, Frans G.; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    The present study compared blood pressure levels between subjects with clinical anxiety and depressive disorders with healthy controls. Cross-sectional data were obtained in a large cohort study, the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (N=2981). Participants were classified as controls

  4. Evaluation of hydrostatic pressure tests with 'increased' test pressure at waste-fueled power stations; Bewertung von Druckpruefungen mit 'erhoehtem' Pruefdruck bei Muellheizkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Olaf; Schirmer, Ulrich [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany); Herter, Karl-Heinz; Schuler, Xaver [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2010-07-01

    The essential safety requirements according to the pressure equipment directive (PED) also state specific quantitative requirements in terms of pressure testing (hydrostatic test) for the manufacturer to carry out within the scope of final assessment. In comparison to the pressure tests carried out up to now, aspects related to material-mechanical and safety-relevant points of view have to be considered if 'increased' pressure of the pressure test according to PED will be applied to recurrent pressure tests. Consequences resulting from ''increased'' pressure tests are demonstrated by taking waste incinerators as an example. (orig.)

  5. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN SHALLOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development of human societies. In Okrika Island ... abstraction of groundwater due to population increase in Port ... 298. Nwankwoala and Walter: Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Shallow Coastal Aquifers ..... and Tai-Eleme areas.

  6. Parental vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with increased blood pressure in offspring via Panx1 hypermethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meems, Laura M G; Mahmud, Hasan; Buikema, Hendrik; Tost, Jörg; Michel, Sven; Takens, Janny; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst N; Vreeswijk-Baudoin, Inge; Mateo-Leach, Irene V; van der Harst, Pim; Plösch, Torsten; de Boer, Rudolf A

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to hypertension in offspring, but the reasons for this remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if parental vitamin D deficiency leads to altered DNA methylation in offspring that may relate to hypertension. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard or vitamin D-depleted diet. After 10 wk, nonsibling rats were mated. The conceived pups received standard chow. We observed an increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the offspring from depleted parents (F1-depl). Genome-wide methylation analyses in offspring identified hypermethylation of the promoter region of the Pannexin-1 (Panx1) gene in F1-depl rats. Panx1 encodes a hemichannel known to be involved in endothelial-dependent relaxation, and we demonstrated that in F1-depl rats the increase in blood pressure was associated with impaired endothelial relaxation of the large vessels, suggesting an underlying biological mechanism of increased blood pressure in children from parents with vitamin deficiency. Parental vitamin D deficiency is associated with epigenetic changes and increased blood pressure levels in offspring. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Aspirin is associated with an increased risk of subdural hematoma in normal-pressure hydrocephalus patients following shunt implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Peter; Lauritsen, Jens; Poulsen, Frantz Rom

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT: In this paper the authors investigate whether shunt-treated patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus receiving aspirin therapy are at increased risk of developing subdural hematoma (SDH). METHODS: Records from 80 consecutive patients who had undergone implantation of a cerebrospinal...... fluid shunt for the treatment of normal-pressure hydrocephalus were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Eleven cases of symptomatic SDH occurred, all among patients receiving aspirin or clopidogrel. The 5-year survival estimate was 0.3 (p ...% CI 3.1-53). CONCLUSIONS: Patients on an aspirin therapy regimen have a markedly increased risk of SDH after a shunt has been implanted for the treatment of normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Users of clopidogrel may have an even greater risk....

  8. [Changes in blood pressure and heart rate by an increase in serum estradiol in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczy, Rita; Paluch, Katarzyna; Gałuszka-Bednarczyk, Anna; Milewicz, Tomasz; Janeczko, Jarosław; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in blood pressure and heart rate in women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) in preparation for assisted reproduction techniques. Material and method: The comparison of blood pressure and heart rate measurements obtained from 5 women (age 35.3 +/- 9.4 years) was performed. The data were collected during the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) using Holcard sphygmomanometer CR-07 Aspel S.A. at the beginning and in the last day of short protocol of COH with the use of triptorelin (Decapeptyl 0.1 mg/day--Ferring GmbH) and the total supply of Gonalu F 225 U/day--Merck Serono) and Menotropiny 75j FSH + LH 75 U/day (Merional Imed/lBSA). During COH the increase in the serum estradiol level was detected (54.03 +/- 9.4 pg/ml at baseline vs. 1128.7 +/- 208.6 pg/ml after COH, p heart rate (HR) was measured (in overall ABPM statistics: baseline HR 68.5 +/- 12.8/min vs. 73.6 +/- 13.7/ min after COH, pheart rate and reduction in mean arterial pressure measured by oscillometric method. However, short-term increase in serum estradiol during COH is not associated with significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women preparing for the in vitro procedure.

  9. Low blood pressure predicts increased mortality in very old age even without heart failure: the Leiden 85-plus Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, R.K.; Blom, J.W.; Craen, A.J. de; Mooijaart, S.P.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Gussekloo, J.; Ruijter, W. de

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether low systolic blood pressure is predictive for increased mortality risk in 90-year-old subjects without heart failure, defined by low levels of NT-proBNP, as well as in 90-year-old subjects with high levels of NT-proBNP. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was embedded in the

  10. Increased pressure-induced tone in rat parenchymal arterioles vs. middle cerebral arteries: role of ion channels and calcium sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Marilyn J; Sweet, Julie; Chan, Siu-Lung; Tavares, Matthew J; Gokina, Natalia; Brayden, Joseph E

    2014-07-01

    Brain parenchymal arterioles (PAs) are high-resistance vessels that branch off pial arteries and perfuse the brain parenchyma. PAs are the target of cerebral small vessel disease and have been shown to have greater pressure-induced tone at lower pressures than pial arteries. We investigated mechanisms by which brain PAs have increased myogenic tone compared with middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), focusing on differences in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) calcium and ion channel function. The amount of myogenic tone and VSM calcium was measured using Fura 2 in isolated and pressurized PAs and MCAs. Increases in intraluminal pressure caused larger increases in tone and cytosolic calcium in PAs compared with MCAs. At 50 mmHg, myogenic tone was 37 ± 5% for PAs vs. 6.5 ± 4% for MCAs (P channel (VDCC) inhibitor nifedipine than MCAs (EC50 for PAs was 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. 82.1 ± 2.1 nmol/l for MCAs;P channel inhibitor iberiotoxin, whereas MCAs constricted ∼15%. Thus increased myogenic tone in PAs appears related to differences in ion channel activity that promotes VSM membrane depolarization but not to a direct sensitization of the contractile apparatus to calcium.

  11. Low blood pressure predicts increased mortality in very old age even without heart failure: the Leiden 85-plus Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, R.K.; Blom, J.W.; Craen, A.J. de; Mooijaart, S.P.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Gussekloo, J.; Ruijter, W. de

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether low systolic blood pressure is predictive for increased mortality risk in 90-year-old subjects without heart failure, defined by low levels of NT-proBNP, as well as in 90-year-old subjects with high levels of NT-proBNP. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was embedded in the

  12. Increasing land pressure in East Africa: The changing role of cassava and consequences for sustainability of farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing land pressure during the past three to four decades has transformed farming systems in the mid-altitude zone of East Africa. Traditional millet-, cotton-, sugarcane- and/or banana-based farming systems with an important fallow and/or grazing component have evolved into continuously cultiv

  13. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    .001) compared to control in intention-to-treat-analyses (n=823). Waist circumference and BMI increased 0.5 cm (0.3;0.7) (P... and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  14. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...... measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...... children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) was funded by the Nordea Foundation....

  15. Increasing gas output by an active water-pressure regime interaction in a massive deposit at the Korobsk field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubaev, V.L.; Shandrygin, A.N.

    1983-02-01

    Controlled water flooding and pressurization were used to increase the gas output at the Korobsk field (USSR). The mechanics of gas accumulation under flooding conditions depend on the macroheterogeneity of the collector; optimizing the gas output involves selective flooding and pressurizing the water to prevent gas pocket formation in the zones bypassed by the flooded front. Strata mapping of the Korobsk field, combined with theoretical and laboratory studies of the geological characteristics of the deposit, has made it possible to estimate the location and distribution of the various types of residual gas pockets.

  16. School burnout: increased sympathetic vasomotor tone and attenuated ambulatory diurnal blood pressure variability in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined autonomic and cardiovascular functioning that may link school burnout to cardiovascular risk factors in young healthy adult females. Study 1 (N = 136) investigated whether school burnout was related to resting values of blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure variability (BPV) through laboratory beat-to-beat BP assessment. Study 2 (N = 94) examined the link between school burnout and diurnal BPV through ambulatory BP monitoring. Controlling for anxiety and depressive symptomatology, school burnout demonstrated strong positive relationships with indices of cardiac sympathovagal tone, sympathetic vasomotor tone, inefficient myocardial oxygen consumption, increased 24-h ambulatory heart rate and BP, blunted BP diurnal variability, and increased arterial stiffness. These studies establish cardiovascular biomarkers of school burnout and suggest that even in a seemingly healthy sample school burnout may predispose females to increased cardiovascular risk. Several future lines of research are outlined.

  17. [P wave dispersion increased in childhood depending on blood pressure, weight, height, and cardiac structure and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-González, Elibet; González-Rodríguez, Emilio; Llanes-Camacho, María Del Carmen; Garí-Llanes, Merlin; García-Nóbrega, Yosvany; García-Sáez, Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Increased P wave dispersion are identified as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. There are associations between hypertension, P wave dispersion, constitutional and echocardiographic variables. These relationships have been scarcely studied in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion, blood pressure, echocardiographic and constitutional variables, and determine the most influential variables on P wave dispersion increases in pediatrics. In the frame of the PROCDEC II project, children from 8 to 11 years old, without known heart conditions were studied. Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram were done as well. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive (25.91±5.96g/m(2.7)) and hypertensive (30.34±8.48g/m(2.7)) showed significant differences P=.000. When we add prehypertensive and hypertensive there are 50.38% with normal left ventricular mass index and P wave dispersion was increased versus 13.36% of normotensive. Multiple regression demonstrated that the mean blood pressure, duration of A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height have a value of r=0.88 as related to P wave dispersion. P wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive. There are pre- and hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular mass index and increased P wave dispersion. Mean arterial pressure, duration of the A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height are the variables with the highest influence on increased P wave dispersion. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased intracranial pressure in myelomeningocele (MMC) patients never shunted: results of a prospective preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra, J; Pagès, E; Cuxart, A; Poca, A; Sahuquillo, J

    2000-08-01

    In some young adults non-shunted myelomeningocele (MMC) patients without symptoms or with unspecific clinical findings, moderate or severe stabilised ventriculomegaly are observed in control CT scans. Physicians are then faced with the so-called 'Arrested Hydrocephalus' (AH) syndrome. The present study is part of a prospective protocol in which patients with hydrocephalus associated with MMC and long-term clinical diagnosis of AH were included. To evaluate myelomeningocele patients never shunted with clinical and/or CT scan criteria compatible with AH. Multidisciplinary Spina Bifida Unit in a tertiary university hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Fourteen MMC patients were selected, in all of them, continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring was performed. Analysis of the ICP records was done using the method described by Borgesen in mmHg. All patients were also studied by intelligence quotient (IQ) testing before and after shunting. The CT in all the study cases showed an Evans ratio Seguridad Social (FISS).

  19. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided...... of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10...

  20. Neurobehavioral deficits and increased blood pressure in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. OBJECTIVES: In northern Ecuador, where floriculture...... is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children's neurobehavioral functions at 6-8 years of age. METHODS: We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information...... on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children's current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. RESULTS: Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed...

  1. Detection and Remediation of Groundwater Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is an important part of the water cycle and is also widely used as sources of drinking water. With the increasing de?velopment of groundwater exploitation, the pollution is becoming more and more serious. This paper talks about the main research direc?tions of groundwater pollution, the detection, the remediation and some conclusions.

  2. Positive Peer-Pressured Productivity (P-QUAD): Novel Use of Increased Transparency and a Weighted Lottery to Increase a Division's Academic Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael B; Furnival, Ronald A; Zhang, Lei; Weber-Main, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Jacob, Abraham K

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate a dual incentive model combining positive peer pressure through increased transparency of peers' academic work with a weighted lottery where entries are earned based on degree of productivity. We developed a dual-incentive peer mentoring model, Positive Peer-Pressured Productivity (P-QUAD), for faculty in the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Division at the University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital. This model provided relative value-based incentives, with points assigned to different scholarly activities (eg. 1 point for abstract submission, 2 points for poster presentation, 3 points for oral presentation, etc.). These points translated into to lottery tickets for a semi-annual drawing for monetary prizes. Productivity was compared among faculty for P-QUAD year to the preintervention year. Fifteen (83%) of 18 eligible faculty members participated. Overall annual productivity per faculty member as measured by total P-QUAD score increased from a median of 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 0-14) in the preintervention year to 4 (IQR 0-27) in the P-QUAD year (P = .051). Submissions and acceptances increased in all categories except posters which were unchanged. Annual abstract submissions per faculty member significantly increased from a median of 1 (IQR 0-2) to 2 (IQR 0-2; P = .047). Seventy-three percent (8 of 11) of post-survey respondents indicated that the financial incentive motivated them to submit academic work; 100% indicated that increased awareness of their peers' work was a motivator. The combination of increased awareness of peers' academic productivity and a weighted lottery financial incentive appears to be a useful model for stimulating academic productivity in early-career faculty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  4. A stress-related explanation to the increased blood pressure and its course following ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvistad CE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Elnan Kvistad, Halvor Oygarden, Nicola Logallo, Lars Thomassen, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen, Gunnar Moen, Halvor Naess Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway Background: A hypertensive response after ischemic stroke is frequent, yet its pathophysiology is unknown. Mechanisms related to local ischemic damage, major vascular occlusion, and psychological stress due to acute illness have been proposed. We assessed the natural course of blood pressure (BP within the first 24 h in groups of ischemic stroke patients with different characteristics. We hypothesized that a consistent BP reduction, regardless of stroke location, time window from debut to admission and presence of persistent vascular occlusion, would favor a stress-related mechanism as an important cause of the hypertensive response after ischemic stroke. Methods: Ischemic stroke patients (n=1067 were prospectively registered, and BP was measured on admission and <3 h, 3–6 h, 6–12 h and 12–24 h after admission. Patients were categorized according to the location of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI lesions (cortical, large subcortical, mixed cortico-subcortical, lacunar, cerebellar, brain stem or multiple, time window (admitted within or after 6 h of symptom onset and presence of persistent proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion versus normal findings on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA at 24 h. Results: A reduction in systolic BP and diastolic BP from baseline to 12–24 h was found across all DWI locations except for diastolic BP in cerebellar (P=0.072 lesions. Apart from diastolic BP in patients with normal MRA findings at 24 h (P=0.060, a significant fall in systolic BP and diastolic BP at 12–24 h was registered, irrespective of whether patients were admitted within 6 h or after 6 h of stroke onset or had persistent MCA occlusion versus normal MRA findings. Conclusion: We found a relatively consistent decline in

  5. A stress-related explanation to the increased blood pressure and its course following ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvistad, Christopher Elnan; Oygarden, Halvor; Logallo, Nicola; Thomassen, Lars; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Moen, Gunnar; Naess, Halvor

    2016-01-01

    A hypertensive response after ischemic stroke is frequent, yet its pathophysiology is unknown. Mechanisms related to local ischemic damage, major vascular occlusion, and psychological stress due to acute illness have been proposed. We assessed the natural course of blood pressure (BP) within the first 24 h in groups of ischemic stroke patients with different characteristics. We hypothesized that a consistent BP reduction, regardless of stroke location, time window from debut to admission and presence of persistent vascular occlusion, would favor a stress-related mechanism as an important cause of the hypertensive response after ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke patients (n=1067) were prospectively registered, and BP was measured on admission and stroke onset or had persistent MCA occlusion versus normal MRA findings. We found a relatively consistent decline in BP within 24 h after admission across different stroke locations in patients admitted within or after 6 h of stroke onset and in patients with persistent MCA occlusion. Our findings suggest that a systemic factor such as psychological stress may be an important contributor to the frequently elevated BP on admission in patients with ischemic stroke.

  6. Increased Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Is Associated With Altered Gut Microbiota Composition and Butyrate Production in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Morrison, Mark; Dekker Nitert, Marloes

    2016-10-01

    The risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia is higher in obese pregnant women. In obesity, the composition of the gut microbiota is altered. Obesity is also associated with low-grade inflammation. Metabolites from the gut microbiota may contribute to both hypertension and inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese pregnant women is associated with blood pressure and levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The composition of the gut microbiota was determined with 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing in 205 women at 16 weeks gestation from the SPRING study (the Study of Probiotics in Gestational Diabetes). Expression of butyrate-producing genes in the gut microbiota was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were measured in fasting serum of a subset of 70 women. Blood pressure was slightly but significantly higher in obese compared with overweight women. The abundance of the butyrate-producing genus Odoribacter was inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Butyrate production capacity was decreased, but plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations increased in obese pregnant women. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were inversely correlated with expression of butyrate kinase and Odoribacter abundance. This study shows that in overweight and obese pregnant women at 16 weeks gestation, the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate production in the gut microbiota is significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Increasing butyrate-producing capacity may contribute to maintenance of normal blood pressure in obese pregnant women.

  7. Pressure pain thresholds increase after preconditioning 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Tonya M; Witney, Alice G

    2014-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) is an effective target of non-invasive cortical stimulation (NICS) for pain threshold modulation. It has been suggested that the initial level of cortical excitability of M1 plays a key role in the plastic effects of NICS. Here we investigate whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) primed 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds and if this is related to observed alterations in cortical excitability. 15 healthy, male participants received 10 min 1 mA anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS to the left M1 before 15 min 1 Hz rTMS in separate sessions over a period of 3 weeks. Motor cortical excitability was recorded at baseline, post-tDCS priming and post-rTMS through recording motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from right FDI muscle. Pressure pain thresholds were determined by quantitative sensory testing (QST) through a computerized algometer, on the palmar thenar of the right hand pre- and post-stimulation. Cathodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS was found to reverse the expected suppressive effect of 1 Hz rTMS on cortical excitability; leading to an overall increase in activity (p<0.001) with a parallel increase in pressure pain thresholds (p<0.01). In contrast, anodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS resulted in a corresponding decrease in cortical excitability (p<0.05), with no significant effect on pressure pain. This study demonstrates that priming the M1 before stimulation of 1 Hz-rTMS modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds in a safe and controlled manner, producing a form of analgesia.

  8. The short-term effects of increasing plasma colloid osmotic pressure in patients with noncardiac pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibbald, W.J.; Driedger, A.A.; Wells, G.A.; Myers, M.L.; Lefcoe, M.

    1983-05-01

    We infused hyperoncotic albumin (25 or 50 gm of a 50% solution) into patients with noncardiac pulmonary edema (adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)) to evaluate its effect on the transmicrovascular flux from blood to pulmonary edema fluid of two radiotracers--/sup 111/In-DTPA (mol wt 504) and /sup 125/I-human serum albumin (HSA) (mol wt 69,000). Two groups of patients were studied--one with a modest increase in permeability of the pulmonary alveolocapillary membrane to /sup 125/I-HSA (group 1) and another with a large increase in permeability to /sup 125/I-HSA (group 2). We used furosemide, when necessary, to minimize the effect of albumin infusion to increase the pulmonary microvascular hydrostatic pressure (Pmv), measured clinically as the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Therapy significantly increased the mean colloid osmotic pressure (COP) in both groups, but not the mean PCWP or calculated Pmv. Albumin had no significant effect on the mean pulmonary transmicrovascular flux of the radiotracers in either group, despite the increase in COP. In individual patients, a change in the Pmv in response to albumin infusion was directly correlated with the change in flux of /sup 111/In-DTPA (group 1: delta In-DTPA (%) . 8.66 + 1.4 delta Pmv (%) r . 0.51, P less than 0.02; group 2: delta In-DTPA (%) . -3.43 + 1.6 delta Pmv (%) r . 0.67, P less than 0.01). A change in the transmicrovascular flux of I-HSA also correlated with a change in the intravascular Starling forces in both groups. We conclude that albumin infusion in patients with ARDS will not augment the pulmonary transmicrovascular flux of low or high molecular-weight solutes when the effect of albumin to increase the Pmv is minimized; nor, however, does an increase in plasma COP significantly reduce the flux of such solutes.

  9. Elucidating hydraulic fracturing impacts on groundwater quality using a regional geospatial statistical modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Taylour G., E-mail: tgburton@uh.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Houston, W455 Engineering Bldg. 2, Houston, TX 77204-4003 (United States); Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Houston, N138 Engineering Bldg. 1, Houston, TX 77204-4003 (United States); Hildenbrand, Zacariah L., E-mail: zac@informenv.com [Inform Environmental, LLC, Dallas, TX 75206 (United States); Collaborative Laboratories for Environmental Analysis and Remediation, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Carlton, Doug D., E-mail: doug.carlton@mavs.uta.edu [Collaborative Laboratories for Environmental Analysis and Remediation, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Fontenot, Brian E., E-mail: brian.fonteno@mavs.uta.edu [Collaborative Laboratories for Environmental Analysis and Remediation, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Schug, Kevin A., E-mail: kschug@uta.edu [Collaborative Laboratories for Environmental Analysis and Remediation, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing operations have been viewed as the cause of certain environmental issues including groundwater contamination. The potential for hydraulic fracturing to induce contaminant pathways in groundwater is not well understood since gas wells are completed while isolating the water table and the gas-bearing reservoirs lay thousands of feet below the water table. Recent studies have attributed ground water contamination to poor well construction and leaks in the wellbore annulus due to ruptured wellbore casings. In this paper, a geospatial model of the Barnett Shale region was created using ArcGIS. The model was used for spatial analysis of groundwater quality data in order to determine if regional variations in groundwater quality, as indicated by various groundwater constituent concentrations, may be associated with the presence of hydraulically fractured gas wells in the region. The Barnett Shale reservoir pressure, completions data, and fracture treatment data were evaluated as predictors of groundwater quality change. Results indicated that elevated concentrations of certain groundwater constituents are likely related to natural gas production in the study area and that beryllium, in this formation, could be used as an indicator variable for evaluating fracturing impacts on regional groundwater quality. Results also indicated that gas well density and formation pressures correlate to change in regional water quality whereas proximity to gas wells, by itself, does not. The results also provided indirect evidence supporting the possibility that micro annular fissures serve as a pathway transporting fluids and chemicals from the fractured wellbore to the overlying groundwater aquifers. - Graphical abstract: A relative increase in beryllium concentrations in groundwater for the Barnett Shale region from 2001 to 2011 was visually correlated with the locations of gas wells in the region that have been hydraulically fractured over the same time period

  10. Increased yield pressure in the anal canal during sacral nerve stimulation: a pilot study with the functional lumen imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, S; Liao, D; Gregersen, H; Lundby, L; Laurberg, S; Krogh, K

    2017-02-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is a well-established treatment for fecal incontinence but its mode of action remains obscure. Anal sphincter function is usually evaluated with manometry but resistance to distension may be a more appropriate parameter than luminal pressure. The functional lumen imaging probe allows detailed description of distension properties of the anal canal. Our objective in this study was to characterize the impact of SNS on distension properties of the anal canal in patients with idiopathic fecal incontinence. We studied 10 women (median age 64 [44-79] years) with idiopathic fecal incontinence at baseline and during SNS. The luminal geometry of the anal canal was examined with the FLIP at rest and during squeeze and the distensibility of the anal canal was investigated during filling of the bag. All patients were successfully treated with SNS and the mean Wexner Incontinence Score was reduced from 14.9 ± 4 to 7.1 ± 4.8 (Panal canal during distension (yield pressure) increased from 14.5 ± 12.2 mmHg at baseline to 20.5 ± 13.3 mmHg during SNS (Panal canal. The yield pressure and the resistance to distension increased in response to SNS for idiopathic fecal incontinence. This will inevitably increase the resistance to flow through the anal canal, which may contribute to the benefits of sacral nerve stimulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. (−)-Epicatechin Prevents Blood Pressure Increase and Reduces Locomotor Hyperactivity in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenyiova, A.; Drobna, M.; Lukac, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of subchronic (−)-epicatechin (Epi) treatment on locomotor activity and hypertension development in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Epi was administered in drinking water (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Epi significantly prevented the development of hypertension (138 ± 2 versus 169 ± 5 mmHg, p < 0.001) and reduced total distance traveled in the open-field test (22 ± 2 versus 35 ± 4 m, p < 0.01). In blood, Epi significantly enhanced erythrocyte deformability, increased total antioxidant capacity, and decreased nitrotyrosine concentration. In the aorta, Epi significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) activity and elevated the NO-dependent vasorelaxation. In the left heart ventricle, Epi increased NOS activity without altering gene expressions of nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS. Moreover, Epi reduced superoxide production in the left heart ventricle and the aorta. In the brain, Epi increased nNOS gene expression (in the brainstem and cerebellum) and eNOS expression (in the cerebellum) but had no effect on overall NOS activity. In conclusion, Epi prevented the development of hypertension and reduced locomotor hyperactivity in young SHR. These effects resulted from improved cardiovascular NO bioavailability concurrently with increased erythrocyte deformability, without changes in NO production in the brain. PMID:27885334

  12. ARHGEF12 influences the risk of glaucoma by increasing intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Iglesias, Adriana I; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Amin, Najaf; Burdon, Kathryn P; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Gharahkhani, Puya; Mishra, Aniket; van der Lee, Sven J; Hewitt, Alex W; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wolfs, Roger C W; Martin, Nicholas G; Ramdas, Wishal D; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M; Pennell, Craig E; Vingerling, Johannes R; Mountain, Jenny E; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Mitchell, Paul; Lemij, Hans G; Wang, Jie Jin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Mackey, David A; Craig, Jamie E; van Duijn, Cornelia M; MacGregor, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a blinding disease. Two important risk factors for this disease are a positive family history and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which is also highly heritable. Genes found to date associated with IOP and POAG are ABCA1, CAV1/CAV2, GAS7 and TMCO1. However, these genes explain only a small part of the heritability of IOP and POAG. We performed a genome-wide association study of IOP in the population-based Rotterdam Study I and Rotterdam Study II using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) imputed to 1000 Genomes. In this discovery cohort (n = 8105), we identified a new locus associated with IOP. The most significantly associated SNP was rs58073046 (β = 0.44, P-value = 1.87 × 10(-8), minor allele frequency = 0.12), within the gene ARHGEF12. Independent replication in five population-based studies (n = 7471) resulted in an effect size in the same direction that was significantly associated (β = 0.16, P-value = 0.04). The SNP was also significantly associated with POAG in two independent case-control studies [n = 1225 cases and n = 4117 controls; odds ratio (OR) = 1.53, P-value = 1.99 × 10(-8)], especially with high-tension glaucoma (OR = 1.66, P-value = 2.81 × 10(-9); for normal-tension glaucoma OR = 1.29, P-value = 4.23 × 10(-2)). ARHGEF12 plays an important role in the RhoA/RhoA kinase pathway, which has been implicated in IOP regulation. Furthermore, it binds to ABCA1 and links the ABCA1, CAV1/CAV2 and GAS7 pathway to Mendelian POAG genes (MYOC, OPTN, WDR36). In conclusion, this study identified a novel association between IOP and ARHGEF12.

  13. Uric Acid Excretion Predicts Increased Blood Pressure Among American Adolescents of African Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal; Morris, Anjana Madan; Reynolds, Nina; Patel, Anita; Hill, Danielle C; Feig, Daniel I

    2017-04-01

    Hyperuricemia predicts the incidence of hypertension in adults and its treatment has blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in adolescents. To date, no studies have examined the predictive usage of hyperuricemia or urinary uric acid excretion on BP changes in adolescents. Mechanistic models suggest that uric acid impairs both endothelial function and vascular compliance, which would potentially exacerbate a myriad of hypertensive mechanisms, yet little is known about interaction of uric acid and other hypertension risk factors. The primary study was aimed at the effects of stress on BP in adolescents. A community sample of 84 low-income, urban adolescents (50% male, 95% African American, mean age = 13.36 ± 1 years) was recruited from public schools. Youth completed a 12-hour (overnight) urine collection at home and their BP was measured during rest and in response to acute psychosocial stress. Seventy-six of the adolescents participated in a follow-up visit at 1.5 years when their resting BP was reassessed. In this substudy, we assessed the relationship of renal urate excretion and BP reactivity. After adjusting for resting BP levels at baseline and other covariates, higher levels of uric acid excretion predicted greater BP reactivity to acute psychosocial stress and higher resting BP at 18 months. Urinary excretion of uric acid can serve as an alternative, noninvasive measure of serum uric acid levels that are predictive of BP changes. As hyperuricemia-associated hypertension is treatable, urban adolescents may benefit from routine screening for hyperuricemia or high uric acid excretion. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Quantitative Groundwater Resource Management under Uncertainty Using a Retrospective Optimization Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislar E. Kifanyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resources are a major concern for any socio-economic development. As the quality of many surface fresh water sources increasingly deteriorate, more pressure is being imparted into groundwater aquifers. Since groundwater and the aquifers that host it are inherently vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts, there is a need for sustainable pumping strategies. However, groundwater resource management is challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of aquifer systems. Aquifer hydrogeology is highly uncertain, and thus it is imperative that this uncertainty is accounted for when managing groundwater resource pumping. This, therefore, underscores the need for an efficient optimization tool which can sustainably manage the resource under uncertainty conditions. In this paper, we apply a procedure which is new within the context of groundwater resource management—the Retrospective Optimization Approximation (ROA method. This method is capable of designing sustainable groundwater pumping strategies for aquifers which are characterized by uncertainty arising due to scarcity of input data. ROA framework solves and evaluates a sequence of optimization sub-problems in an increasing number of realizations. We used k-means clustering sampling technique for the realizations selection. The methodology is demonstrated through application to an hypothetical example. The optimization problem was solved and analyzed using “Active Set” algorithm implemented under MATLAB environment. The results indicate that the ROA sampling based method is a promising approach for optimizing groundwater pumping rates under conditions of hydrogeological uncertainty.

  15. Effect of Cues to Increase Sound Pressure Level on Respiratory Kinematic Patterns during Connected Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the response of the respiratory system to 3 cues used to elicit increased vocal loudness to determine whether the effects of cueing, shown previously in sentence tasks, were present in connected speech tasks and to describe differences among tasks. Method: Fifteen young men and 15 young women produced a 2-paragraph…

  16. Renal Inhibition of Heme Oxygenase-1 Increases Blood Pressure in Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Csongradi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal medullary heme oxygenase (HO acts as a buffer against Ang-II dependent hypertension. To test this hypothesis, renal medullary HO activity was blocked using QC-13, an imidazole-dioxolane HO-1 inhibitor, or SnMP, a classical porphyrin based HO inhibitor. HO inhibitors were infused via IRMI catheters throughout the study starting 3 days prior to implantation of an osmotic minipump which delivered Ang II or saline vehicle. MAP was increased by Ang II infusion and further increased by IRMI infusion of QC-13 or SnMP. MAP averaged 113±3, 120±7, 141±2, 153±2, and 154±3 mmHg in vehicle, vehicle + IRMI QC-13, Ang II, Ang II + IRMI QC-13, and Ang II + IRMI SnMP treated mice, respectively (n=6. Inhibition of renal medullary HO activity with QC-13 in Ang II infused mice was also associated with a significant increase in superoxide production as well as significant decreases in antioxidant enzymes catalase and MnSOD. These results demonstrate that renal inhibition of HO exacerbates Ang II dependent hypertension through a mechanism which is associated with increases in superoxide production and decreases in antioxidant enzymes.

  17. Effect of Cues to Increase Sound Pressure Level on Respiratory Kinematic Patterns during Connected Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the response of the respiratory system to 3 cues used to elicit increased vocal loudness to determine whether the effects of cueing, shown previously in sentence tasks, were present in connected speech tasks and to describe differences among tasks. Method: Fifteen young men and 15 young women produced a 2-paragraph…

  18. A haplotype of human angiotensinogen gene containing -217A increases blood pressure in transgenic mice compared with -217G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sudhir; Vinukonda, Govindaiah; Fiering, Steven N; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-12-01

    The human angiotensinogen (hAGT) gene contains an A/G polymorphism at -217, and frequency of -217A allele is increased in African-American hypertensive patients. The hAGT gene has seven polymorphic sites in the 1.2-kb region of its promoter, and variant -217A almost always occurs with -532T, -793A, and -1074T, whereas variant -217G almost always occurs with -532C, -793G, and -1074G. Since allele -6A is the predominant allele in African-Americans, the AGT gene can be subdivided into two main haplotypes, -6A:-217A (AA) and -6A:-217G (AG). To understand the role of these haplotypes on hAGT gene expression and on blood pressure regulation in an in vivo situation, we have generated double transgenic mice containing human renin gene and either AA or AG haplotype of the hAGT gene using knock-in strategy at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase locus. We show here that 1) hAGT mRNA level is increased in the liver by 60% and in the kidney by 40%; and 2) plasma AGT level is increased by approximately 40%, and plasma angiotensin II level is increased by approximately 50% in male double transgenic mice containing AA haplotype of the hAGT gene compared with the AG haplotype. In addition, systolic blood pressure is increased by 8 mmHg in transgenic mice containing the AA haplotype compared with the AG haplotype. This is the first report to show the effect of polymorphisms in the promoter of a human gene on its transcription in an in vivo situation that ultimately leads to an increase in blood pressure.

  19. Transgenic mice with -6A haplotype of the human angiotensinogen gene have increased blood pressure compared with -6G haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sudhir; Tillinger, Andrej; Mopidevi, Brahmaraju; Pandey, Varunkumar G; Chauhan, Chetankumar K; Fiering, Steven N; Warming, Soren; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-12-24

    Hypertension is a serious risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene locus is associated with human essential hypertension. The human AGT (hAGT) gene has an A/G polymorphism at -6, and the -6A allele is associated with increased blood pressure. However, transgenic mice containing 1.2 kb of the promoter with -6A of the hAGT gene show neither increased plasma AGT level nor increased blood pressure compared with -6G. We have found that the hAGT gene has three additional SNPs (A/G at -1670, C/G at -1562, and T/G at -1561). Variants -1670A, -1562C, and -1561T almost always occur with -6A, and variants -1670G, -1562G, and -1561G almost always occur with -6G. Therefore, the hAGT gene may be subdivided into either -6A or -6G haplotypes. We show that these polymorphisms affect the binding of HNF-1α and glucocorticoid receptor to the promoter, and a reporter construct containing a 1.8-kb hAGT gene promoter with -6A haplotype has 4-fold increased glucocorticoid-induced promoter activity as compared with -6G haplotype. In order to understand the physiological significance of these haplotypes in an in vivo situation, we have generated double transgenic mice containing either the -6A or -6G haplotype of the hAGT gene and the human renin gene. Our ChIP assay shows that HNF-1α and glucocorticoid receptor have stronger affinity for the chromatin obtained from the liver of transgenic mice containing -6A haplotype. Our studies also show that transgenic mice containing -6A haplotype have increased plasma AGT level and increased blood pressure as compared with -6G haplotype. Our studies explain the molecular mechanism involved in association of the -6A allele of the hAGT gene with hypertension.

  20. Global Groundwater related Risk Indicators: quantifying groundwater stress and groundwater table decline (1990-2010) at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faneca Sanchez, Marta; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Kuijper, Marijn; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is an invisible but indispensable resource for the economic development of many countries. Due to the need for this resource, in many cases it is exploited under severe pressure and the exploitation can become not sustainable. The non-sustainable exploitation of water is a well-known problem on both regional and global scales. However, most currently-available assessments on water stress still mostly focus on surface water and on water balances. In this work, we presented two global maps of groundwater risk indicators: an updated version of the groundwater stress (Gleeson et al., 2011, DOI: 10.1038/nature11295) and an indicator on groundwater table decline for the period 1990-2010. To calculate both indicators, we used the updated PCR-GLOBWB model output at 5 arcmin resolution (about 10 km at the equator), that is extended with an offline coupling to a global groundwater MODFLOW model. PCR-GLOBWB simulates daily river discharge and groundwater recharge, as well as surface water and groundwater abstraction rates. The latter are estimated internally within the model based on the simulation of their availabilities and water demands for irrigation and other sectors. The daily output of PCR-GLOBWB would then be aggregated to the monthly resolution and used to force the MODFLOW groundwater model resolving spatio-temporal groundwater table dynamics, incorporating the simulated groundwater abstraction of PCR-GLOBWB. Using the PCR-GLOBWB and MODFLOW simulation results from the period 1990-2010, we then quantified groundwater stress and assessed the groundwater table decline. Results are presented on four different spatial scales: 5 arcmin pixel, drainage/sub-catchment unit, state level, and major aquifer unit. The maps clearly show where groundwater is under stress, where there is a trend in the drop of the groundwater table, the slope of the drop and the significance of it.

  1. Increased Intracranial Pressure and Visual Impairment Associated with Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Bowman, Karina

    2011-01-01

    Although humans have been flying in space since the 1960s, more recent missions have revealed a new suite of physiological adaptations and consequences of space flight. Notably, 60% of long-duration crewmembers (ISS/MIR) and >25% of short-duration (Shuttle) crewmembers have reported subjective degradation in vision (based on debrief comments) (Gibson 2011). Decreased near-visual acuity was demonstrated in 46% of ISS/Mir and 21% of Shuttle crewmembers, resulting in a shift of up to 1-2 diopters in their refractive correction. It is likely that the recently revealed ophthalmic changes have been present since the first days of human space flight, but have been overlooked or attributed to other causations. The reported changes in vision have occurred at various time points throughout missions, with ranging degrees of visual degradation. Although some cases resolved upon return to Earth, several astronauts have not regained preflight visual acuity, indicating that the damage may be permanent. While observing these changes over the years, without other overt symptomology and with the given age range of the flying population, this has largely been attributed to an expected hyperopic shift due to aging. However, the availability of onboard analysis techniques, including visual acuity assessments, retinal imagery, and ultrasounds of the eye and optic nerve tracts, along with more detailed post-flight techniques, has led to the recent recognition of a wider syndrome. Along with vision changes, findings include flattening of the globe, swelling of the optic disc (papilledema), choroidal folds in the retina, swelling of the optic nerve sheath, and visual field defects. It is widely hypothesized that this constellation of findings may be explained by an elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). Out of the 60% of long-duration astronauts that have reported a subjective degradation in vision, a subset (currently 10 astronauts) have developed this syndrome. The National

  2. Multiphase groundwater flow near cooling plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayba, D.O.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate groundwater flow near cooling plutons with a computer program that can model multiphase flow, temperatures up to 1200??C, thermal pressurization, and temperature-dependent rock properties. A series of experiments examines the effects of host-rock permeability, size and depth of pluton emplacement, single versus multiple intrusions, the influence of a caprock, and the impact of topographically driven groundwater flow. We also reproduce and evaluate some of the pioneering numerical experiments on flow around plutons. Host-rock permeability is the principal factor influencing fluid circulation and heat transfer in hydrothermal systems. The hottest and most steam-rich systems develop where permeability is of the order of 10-15 m2. Temperatures and life spans of systems decrease with increasing permeability. Conduction-dominated systems, in which permeabilities are ???10-16m2, persist longer but exhibit relatively modest increases in near-surface temperatures relative to ambient conditions. Pluton size, emplacement depth, and initial thermal conditions have less influence on hydrothermal circulation patterns but affect the extent of boiling and duration of hydrothermal systems. Topographically driven groundwater flow can significantly alter hydrothermal circulation; however, a low-permeability caprock effectively decouples the topographically and density-driven systems and stabilizes the mixing interface between them thereby defining a likely ore-forming environment.

  3. Groundwater Level Status Report for 2005 Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Allen; R.J. Koch

    2006-05-15

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2005 is provided in this report. The Groundwater Level Monitoring Project was instituted in 2005 to provide a framework for the collection and processing of quality controlled groundwater level data. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 137 monitoring wells, including 41 regional aquifer wells, 22 intermediate wells, and 74 alluvial wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 118 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well.

  4. Mental stress-induced increase in blood pressure is not related to baroreflex sensitivity in middle-aged healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, J P; Cerutti, C; Quelin, P; Laville, M; Gustin, M P; Paultre, C Z; Ducher, M

    2000-04-01

    The baroreflex that acts to blunt blood pressure (BP) variations through opposite variations in heart rate should limit the BP increase produced by an emotional challenge. However, relations between baroreflex sensitivity and BP reactivity induced by a psychological stress in a large group of adults have never been firmly established. In 280 healthy men, rest (10 minutes) and stress (5 minutes) BP and heart rate were recorded beat to beat by a blood pressure monitor. The mental stress was elicited by a well-standardized computerized version of a word color conflict stress test (Stroop Color Test). Rest and stress baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by the cross-spectral analysis of BP and heart rate and by the sequence method. The stress-induced increase in systolic BP (22.4+/-0.1 mm Hg) was not correlated with resting baroreflex sensitivity but was slightly correlated (r=0.2, P<0.001) with BP variability assessed either by standard deviation or by mid-frequency band spectral power. Our results suggested that a centrally mediated sympathetic stimulation overcame cardiac autonomic regulation and emphasized the role of the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the pressure response at the onset of the stressing stimulation. During the sustained sympathoexcitatory phase, the cardiac baroreflex blunts BP variations but at a lower sensitivity.

  5. Ocean acidification alters zooplankton communities and increases top-down pressure of a cubozoan predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammill, Edd; Johnson, Ellery; Atwood, Trisha B; Harianto, Januar; Hinchliffe, Charles; Calosi, Piero; Byrne, Maria

    2017-08-29

    The composition of local ecological communities is determined by the members of the regional community that are able to survive the abiotic and biotic conditions of a local ecosystem. Anthropogenic activities since the industrial revolution have increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations, which have in turn decreased ocean pH and altered carbonate ion concentrations: so called ocean acidification (OA). Single-species experiments have shown how OA can dramatically affect zooplankton development, physiology and skeletal mineralization status, potentially reducing their defensive function and altering their predatory and antipredatory behaviors. This means that increased OA may indirectly alter the biotic conditions by modifying trophic interactions. We investigated how OA affects the impact of a cubozoan predator on their zooplankton prey, predominantly Copepoda, Pleocyemata, Dendrobranchiata, and Amphipoda. Experimental conditions were set at either current (pCO2 370 μatm) or end-of-the-century OA (pCO2 1,100 μatm) scenarios, crossed in an orthogonal experimental design with the presence/absence of the cubozoan predator Carybdea rastoni. The combined effects of exposure to OA and predation by C. rastoni caused greater shifts in community structure, and greater reductions in the abundance of key taxa than would be predicted from combining the effect of each stressor in isolation. Specifically, we show that in the combined presence of OA and a cubozoan predator, populations of the most abundant member of the zooplankton community (calanoid copepods) were reduced 27% more than it would be predicted based on the effects of these stressors in isolation, suggesting that OA increases the susceptibility of plankton to predation. Our results indicate that the ecological consequences of OA may be greater than predicted from single-species experiments, and highlight the need to understand future marine global change from a community perspective. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  6. Pavlovian conditioning of corticotropin-releasing factor-induced increase of blood pressure and corticosterone secretion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, M; Hellhammer, D; Murison, R; Vetter, H; Krause, U; Lehnert, H

    1992-05-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is clearly involved in the central regulation of the pituitary-adrenal axis and, moreover, of autonomic nervous system functions. Enhanced sympathetic activity with subsequent increases in blood pressure and heart rate and attenuation of the baroreceptor reflex results from the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CRF. Additionally, the peptide has a variety of potent effects on behavioural responses in animals similar to those observed after an experimentally evoked stress. It was therefore of obvious interest to examine whether CRF is a possible mediator of the learning processes associated with physiological stress reaction patterns. This report clearly demonstrates a classical conditioning of the endocrine (i.e. corticosterone secretion) and haemodynamic (i.e. blood pressure) sequelae following central CRF application and thus indicates that this mechanism is of physiological significance for learned stress responses.

  7. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardini, Tonino; Sicari, Rosa; Bianchini, Elisabetta; Picano, Eugenio

    2011-11-21

    The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP). We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years) referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1); 14 patients (Group 2) showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  8. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP. Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1; 14 patients (Group 2 showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  9. Both high and low plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D increase blood pressure in a normal rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Naghmeh Z; Knaus, Steven J; Bohaychuk, Kaylee; Singh, Jaswant; Vatanparast, Hassan A; Weber, Lynn P

    2016-12-01

    The lower threshold plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level for optimal cardiovascular health is unclear, whereas the toxicity threshold is less clear. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiovascular-vitamin D dose-response curve in a normal rat model. Doses of cholecalciferol ranged from deficiency to toxic levels (equivalent to human doses of 0, 0·015, 0·25 and 3·75mg/d) for 4 weeks, and then cardiovascular health was examined using blood pressure telemetry and high-resolution ultrasound in normal male rats (n 16/group, 64 rats total). After 1 month, only the 0·25mg/d group had plasma 25(OH)D that was within current recommended range (100-125 nmol/l), and all groups failed to change plasma Ca or phosphate. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly (10-15 mmHg) in the rat groups with plasma 25(OH)D levels at both 30 and 561 nmol/l (groups fed 0 and 3·75mg/d) compared with the group fed the equivalent to 0·015mg/d (43 nmol/l 25(OH)D). Although not significant, the group fed the equivalent to 0·25mg/d (108 nmol/l 25(OH)D) also showed a 10 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure. Carotid artery diameter was significantly smaller and wall thickness was larger, leading to higher peak carotid systolic blood velocity in these two groups. Despite these vascular changes, cardiac function did not differ among treatment groups. The key finding in this study is that arterial stiffness and systolic blood pressure both showed a U-shaped dose-response for vitamin D, with lowest values (best cardiovascular health) observed when plasma 25(OH)D levels were 43 nmol/l in normal male rats.

  10. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  11. Simulation for the development of the continuous groundwater flow measurement technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kumagai, Koki; Fujima, Ritsuko; Chikahisa, Hiroshi

    The flow of groundwater varies with time due to rainfall, atmospheric pressure change, tidal change, melting of snow during seasonal change, underground construction works etc. Therefore, to increase the precision of assessing in-situ groundwater flow characteristics, it is important to measure continuously the direction and velocity of the flow, in addition to obtaining accurate data for the afore mentioned environmental changes. The first part of this paper describes the development of a new device for measuring the direction and velocity of groundwater flow. The device was composed of a unique floating sensor with a hinge end at the bottom, which enabled continuous measurement of groundwater flow based on image data processing technique. In the second part, discussion is focused on clarifying the optimum cross-section shape and the behavior of the float sensor in saltwater and freshwater using numerical analysis.

  12. Biofilm increases permeate quality by organic carbon degradation in low pressure ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiak, A; Traber, J; Morgenroth, E; Derlon, N

    2015-11-15

    + membrane" composite retained a larger amount of biodegradable foulant than the membrane alone, due to the activity of the biofilm. However, this resulted in an increased biofilm accumulation and reduced flux. In presence of the biofilm, the highest fluxes were observed for control (no foulant) and for small non-biodegradable foulants (PSS 1 kDa). Low fluxes were observed for the accumulating on membrane surface or degradable foulants (exp. B). But, the lowest fluxes were observed in absence of the biofilm (exp. C) due to physical accumulation of the foulants (PSS 80 kDa and Dextran 2000 kDa). Overall our study demonstrates that the presence of biofilms on membrane surfaces has some benefits: (i) biofilm helps to increase the permeate quality and (ii) biofilms protect the membrane from further fouling. Permeate flux stabilizes in the case of biofilm-membrane composite, while it continuously declines in the case of the membrane only.

  13. Increased production of recombinant prourokinase with porous microcarrier cell culture by periodic pressure oscillation in a stirred tank reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xianwen; Gao Lihua; Li Zuohu; Xiao Chengzu; Xu Zhaoping

    2006-01-01

    An rCHO cell line expressing recombinant human prourokinase (pro-UK at the level of 5μg/106cells/d was cultivated on Cytopore cellulose porous microcarriers in a 7.5L Biostat CT stirred tank reactor. A periodic pressure oscillation of 0.04 MPa and 0.04 Hz was adopted to introduce a physical stimulus on the rCHO cells and to improve mass transfer characteristic between cells and medium in the process of porous microcarrier CHO cell culture. Compared to constant pressure culture, the oscillation culture didn't influence specific cell growth rate significantly, but could enhance the pro-UK specific production by 10%~40%, and reduce production of lactate by 10%~30%. In the perfusion culture of recombinant CHO cell with serum-free medium for 67 days, cell density could reach 2.64×107/ml, the maximal prourokinase concentration in harvested supernatant was about 118mg/L, a total of 21.1 grams of prourokinase was produced in 313 liters of supernatant. In conclusion, the perfusion cell culture with periodic pressure oscillation can enhance the production of recombinant protein and increase the reactor specific productivity.

  14. Increased wall tension in response to vasoconstrictors in isolated mesenteric arterial rings from patients with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Anna; Taurio, Jyrki; Mäki-Jouppi, Jenni; Kööbi, Peeter; Mustonen, Jukka; Kähönen, Mika; Sand, Juhani; Nordback, Isto; Pörsti, Ilkka

    2006-12-01

    Essential hypertension is associated with several alterations in arterial function. A wealth of information from animal models is available concerning hypertensive changes in the mesenteric circulation, while only few studies have examined human mesenteric arterial function. The tone of isolated mesenteric arterial segments (outer diameter 0.7-0.9 mm) was examined from individuals with high (n=17) or normal (n=22) blood pressure, grouped using the current definition of elevated blood pressure (140/90 mmHg). Since the majority of them were operated because of malignancies, we evaluated whether functional vascular properties provided information about patient prognosis. Wall tension development (mN/mm) in response to vasoconstrictors (noradrenaline, 5-hydroxy tryptamine, potassium chloride) was higher in mesenteric arterial rings from patients with high than normal blood pressure. There was no difference in vasoconstrictor sensitivity, or endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. Arterial segment weight was higher in hypertensive subjects, suggesting vascular wall hypertrophy. The 10-year follow-up showed no differences in the control of arterial tone between the surviving (n=14) or deceased (n=25) patients. In conclusion, isolated mesenteric arterial segments from hypertensive patients showed increased wall tension in response to vasoconstrictors. Since the mesenteric circulation is an important regulator of peripheral arterial resistance, possible functional alterations in this vascular bed should be further investigated in hypertensive patients.

  15. Response of selenium concentrations in groundwater to seasonal canal leakage, lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, J.I.; McMahon, P.B.; Arnold, L.R.; Thomas, J.C.

    2016-05-23

    Selenium is a water-quality concern in the lower Gunnison River Basin because irrigation water interacting with seleniferous soils derived from the Mancos Shale Formation has mobilized selenium and increased its concentrations in surface water. Understanding the occurrence of elevated selenium concentrations in groundwater is necessary because groundwater discharge is an important source of selenium in surface water in the basin. In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began a study to understand how changes in groundwater levels attributed to canal leakage affected the concentrations and speciation of dissolved selenium in groundwater. The purpose of this report is to characterize the groundwater adjacent to an unlined leaky canal. Two locations, near the East Canal (W-N1 and W-N2) and farther from the East Canal (W-M1 and W-M2), were selected for nested monitoring well installations. The pressure exerted by changes in canal stage was more readily transferred to the deep groundwater measured in the W-N1 near the canal than the shallow groundwater at the W-N2 well. No definitive relation could be made between canal water-level elevation and water-level elevations in monitoring wells farther from the canal (W-M1 and W-M2). 

  16. Adipocyte (Pro)Renin-Receptor Deficiency Induces Lipodystrophy, Liver Steatosis and Increases Blood Pressure in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Hua; Mohammadmoradi, Shayan; Thompson, Joel; Su, Wen; Gong, Ming; Nguyen, Genevieve; Yiannikouris, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction related to obesity is overwhelmingly associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In the setting of obesity, (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is increased in adipose tissue of mice. We sought to determine the physiological consequences of adipocyte-PRR deficiency using adiponectin-Cre mice. We report a unique model of adipocyte-PRR-deficient mice (PRR(Adi/Y)) with almost no detectable white adipose tissues. As a consequence, the livers of PRR(Adi/Y) mice were enlarged and demonstrated a marked accumulation of lipids. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of PRR increased systolic blood pressure and the concentration of soluble PRR in plasma. To determine whether adipocyte-PRR was involved in the development of obesity-induced hypertension, mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Adipocyte-PRR-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Both high-fat- and low-fat-fed PRR(Adi/Y) mice had elevated insulin levels. Interestingly, adipocyte-PRR deficiency improved glucose tolerance in high-fat-fed PRR(Adi/Y) mice. In response to feeding either low-fat or high-fat diets, systolic blood pressure was greater in PRR(Adi/Y) mice than in control mice. High-fat feeding elevated soluble PRR concentration in control and PRR(Adi/Y) mice. In vitro knockdown of PRR by siRNA significantly decreased mRNA abundance of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma), suggesting an important role for PRR in adipogenesis. Our data indicate that adipocyte-PRR is involved in lipid homeostasis and glucose and insulin homeostasis, and that soluble PRR may be a predictor of metabolic disturbances and play a role in systolic blood pressure regulation.

  17. Increased technetium uptake is not equivalent to muscle necrosis: scintigraphic, morphological and intramuscular pressure analyses of sore muscles after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, A. G.; Friden, J.; Hargens, A. R.; Lang, G. H.; Thornell, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    A scintigraphic technique employing technetium pyrophosphate uptake was used to identify the area of skeletal muscle damage in the lower leg of four runners 24 h after an ultramarathon footrace (160 km). Most of the race had been run downhill which incorporated an extensive amount of eccentric work. Soreness was diffuse throughout the posterior region of the lower leg. In order to interpret what increased technetium uptake reflects and to express extreme endurance related damages, a biopsy was taken from the 3-D position of abnormal uptake. In addition, intramuscular pressures were determined in the deep posterior compartment. Scintigraphs revealed increased technetium pyrophosphate uptake in the medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle. For 3698 fibres analysed, 33 fibres (1%) were necrotic, while a few other fibres were either atrophic or irregular shaped. A cluster of necrotic fibres occurred at the fascicular periphery for one subject and fibre type grouping occurred for another. Ultrastructural analysis revealed Z-line streaming near many capillaries and variously altered subsarcolemmal mitochondria including some with paracrystalline inclusions. The majority of the capillaries included thickened and irregular shaped endothelial cells. Intramuscular pressures of the deep posterior compartment were slightly elevated (12-15 mmHg) for three of the four subjects. Increased technetium uptake following extreme endurance running does not just reflect muscle necrosis but also subtle fibre abnormalities. Collectively, these pathological findings are attributed to relative ischaemia occurring during the race and during pre-race training, whereas, intramuscular pressure elevations associated with muscle soreness are attributed to mechanical stress caused by extensive eccentric work during the race.

  18. Does aerobic exercise increase 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure among workers with high occupational physical activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA.......9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits...... of aerobic exercise, especially among workers with high OPA and a demanding aerobic workload. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN86682076. Unique identifier ISRCTN86682076. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION Trial Number ISRCTN86682076....

  19. Groundwater nitrate concentration evolution under climate change and agricultural adaptation scenarios: Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Daniel; Vigneault, Harold; Lefebvre, René; Savard, Martine M.; Ballard, Jean-Marc; Qian, Budong

    2016-03-01

    Nitrate (N-NO3) concentration in groundwater, the sole source of potable water in Prince Edward Island (PEI, Canada), currently exceeds the 10 mg L-1 (N-NO3) health threshold for drinking water in 6 % of domestic wells. Increasing climatic and socio-economic pressures on PEI agriculture may further deteriorate groundwater quality. This study assesses how groundwater nitrate concentration could evolve due to the forecasted climate change and its related potential changes in agricultural practices. For this purpose, a tridimensional numerical groundwater flow and mass transport model was developed for the aquifer system of the entire Island (5660 km2). A number of different groundwater flow and mass transport simulations were made to evaluate the potential impact of the projected climate change and agricultural adaptation. According to the simulations for year 2050, N-NO3 concentration would increase due to two main causes: (1) the progressive attainment of steady-state conditions related to present-day nitrogen loadings, and (2) the increase in nitrogen loadings due to changes in agricultural practices provoked by future climatic conditions. The combined effects of equilibration with loadings, climate and agricultural adaptation would lead to a 25 to 32 % increase in N-NO3 concentration over the Island aquifer system. The change in groundwater recharge regime induced by climate change (with current agricultural practices) would only contribute 0 to 6 % of that increase for the various climate scenarios. Moreover, simulated trends in groundwater N-NO3 concentration suggest that an increased number of domestic wells (more than doubling) would exceed the nitrate drinking water criteria. This study underlines the need to develop and apply better agricultural management practices to ensure sustainability of long-term groundwater resources. The simulations also show that observable benefits from positive changes in agricultural practices would be delayed in time due to

  20. DMPP-evoked increases in postganglionic sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure occurs by two mechanisms in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J R

    1997-08-01

    1. Intravenous administration of the ganglionic nicotinic receptor agonist DMPP (1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide) into urethane-anaesthetized rats evoked dose-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). 2. The ganglionic nicotinic receptor antagonists pentolinium and hexamethonium either alone or combined did not inhibit the increase in RSNA and MAP evoked by 50 to 200 micrograms kg-1 doses of DMPP. The increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity evoked by DMPP occurred as a brief burst in firing. 3. The increase in MAP, but not RSNA, evoked by DMPP in the presence of pentolinium was inhibited by the selective alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin. 4. The non-selective alpha-adrenoceptor and NPY receptor antagonist benextramine also inhibited the increase in MAP without inhibiting the increase in RSNA. Surprisingly, the combination of benextramine and pentolinium, or benextramine and hexamethonium, completely blocked the DMPP-evoked increase in RSNA and thus the increase in MAP. 5. The uptake1 antagonist desipramine combined with pentolinium did not affect the DMPP-evoked increases in MAP or RSNA when compared to the responses evoked in the presence of pentolinium alone. 6. Adding the selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist telenzepine to pentolinium and prazosin did not inhibit the increase in RSNA evoked by a 100 micrograms kg-1 dose of DMPP. 7. While the DMPP-evoked increase in MAP in the presence of ganglionic nicotinic receptor antagonists is primarily dependent upon activation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors, the increase in RSNA occurs via activation of ganglionic nicotinic receptors and activation of a mechanism susceptible to blockade by benextramine.

  1. Infrastructure design integration to optimize structures and minimize groundwater impacts. Case of a bottom slab and groundwater by-pass integration in La Sagrera railway station, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Juan, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñè, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao; Velasco, Violeta; Criollo, Rotman; Jurado, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Underground constructions search the most efficient solutions to increase safety, reduce impacts in both underground construction (such as bottom slab water pressures) and groundwater (such as groundwater barrier effect), reduce future maintenance processes and ensure that everything is implemented by the minimum cost. Even being all the previous solutions directly related to groundwater, independent solutions are usually designed to independently deal with each problem. This paper shows how with a groundwater by-pass design that enables the groundwater flow through the structure it is possible to provide an homogeneous distribution of the water pressures under the bottom slab and reduce the barrier effect produced by the structure. The new integrated design has been applied to the largest infrastructure of Barcelona: La Sagrera railway station. Through a hydrogeological model has been possible to test the project and the integrated designs in three different scenarios. This new solution resolves the barrier effect produced by the structure and optimizes the bottom slab, reducing considerably the costs and increasing safety during the construction phase.

  2. Preliminary study of abnormal increase of postexercise systolic blood pressure in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宗良; 杨向军; 王国强; 高美雯; 李勋; 惠杰; 蒋廷波; 宋建平; 刘志华; 蒋文平

    2003-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of abnormal increase of postexercise systolic blood pressure (SBP) for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with or without hypertension. Methods Treadmill exercise testing (TET) was conducted in 88 patients (40 CAD patients, 48 control subjects)with or without hypertension, each of whom underwent selective coronary angiography (CAG). The abnormal increase of postexercise SBP was defined as 10mmHg higher than earlier periods during the recovery phase (6 minutes)of exercise testing. Results The abnormal increase of postexercise SBP had higher sensitivity, specificity,and accuracy for detecting CAD than those of ST - segment depression in patients with or without hypertension. Its accuracy increased with the severity of CAD while decreased in patients with hypertension, and the increase value of SBP had a positive correlation with the extent of coronary artery lesion. The combination of ST - segment depression and abnormal increase of postexercise SBP diagnosed CAD most accurately in patients with hypertension. Conclusions Abnormal increase of postexercise SBP may be a useful index for diagnosing CAD.

  3. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G.; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D.

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  4. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B; Gerlak, Andrea K; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  5. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.S. Castro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP. Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group or kept sedentary (F group, and a control group (C was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT. Arterial pressure (AP was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP induced by fructose overload (FT vs F. The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg2, was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg2. Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01 and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003. Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01 and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005. ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement.

  6. Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in the mouse alters cardiac growth patterns and increases pulse pressure in aged male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lee; Cuffe, James S M; Paravicini, Tamara M; Campbell, Sally; Dickinson, Hayley; Singh, Reetu R; Gezmish, Oksan; Black, M Jane; Moritz, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during development can result in later cardiovascular and renal disease in sheep and rats. Although prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with impaired renal development, less is known about effects on the developing heart. This study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term exposure to dexamethasone (60 hours from embryonic day 12.5) on the developing mouse heart, and cardiovascular function in adult male offspring. Dexamethasone (DEX) exposed fetuses were growth restricted compared to saline treated controls (SAL) at E14.5, but there was no difference between groups at E17.5. Heart weights of the DEX fetuses also tended to be smaller at E14.5, but not different at E17.5. Cardiac AT1aR, Bax, and IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by DEX compared to SAL at E17.5. In 12-month-old offspring DEX exposure caused an increase in basal blood pressure of ~3 mmHg. In addition, DEX exposed mice had a widened pulse pressure compared to SAL. DEX exposed males at 12 months had an approximate 25% reduction in nephron number compared to SAL, but no difference in cardiomyocyte number. Exposure to DEX in utero appears to adversely impact on nephrogenesis and heart growth but is not associated with a cardiomyocyte deficit in male mice in adulthood, possibly due to compensatory growth of the myocardium following the initial insult. However, the widened pulse pressure may be indicative of altered vascular compliance.

  7. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, E.F.S. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, C.T. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, MA (Brazil); Rodrigues, B. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moraes-Silva, I.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Feriani, D.J. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg{sup 2}), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg{sup 2}). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement.

  8. Combined oral contraceptive containing drospirenone does not modify 24-h ambulatory blood pressure but increases heart rate in healthy young women: prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnacci, Angelo; Ferrari, Serena; Napolitano, Antonella; Piacenti, Ilaria; Arangino, Serenella; Volpe, Annibale

    2013-09-01

    Hypertension is a primary cardiovascular risk factor. Oral contraceptives (OCs) may increase blood pressure and cardiovascular events. We evaluated whether an OC containing ethynylestradiol (EE) in association with the spironolactone-derived progestin drospirenone (DRSP) influences 24-h ambulatory blood pressure of normotensive women. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured every 30 min by an ambulatory blood pressure device in 18 normotensive healthy women prior to and after 6 months of use of an OC containing 30 mcg EE and 3 mg DRSP. OC induced no modification in 24-h, nighttime and daytime blood pressure. Heart rate increased about 4 beats/min in the 24-h (pblood pressure, and significantly increases 24-h and daytime heart rate. These data suggest a neutral effect on hypertension-associated cardiovascular risk and point out an unreported effect on heart rate of which cause and effect require further evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution of pH, diprotonated phosphate and potassium for the reflex increase in blood pressure during handgrip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Madsen, P; Nielsen, H B

    1998-01-01

    The relative importance of pH, diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4-) and potassium (K+) for the reflex increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during exercise was evaluated in seven subjects during rhythmic handgrip at 15 and 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), followed by post-exercise muscle...... ischaemia (PEMI). During 15% MVC, MAP rose from 92 +/- 1 to 103 +/- 2 mmHg, [K+] from 4.1 +/- 0.1 to 5.1 +/- 0.1 mmol L-1, while the intracellular (7.00 +/- 0.01 to 6.80 +/- 0.06) and venous pH fell (7.39 +/- 0.01 to 7.30 +/- 0.01) (P increased 8.4 +/- 2 mmol kg-1...

  10. Blunted sleep-time relative blood pressure decline increases cardiovascular risk independent of blood pressure level--the "normotensive non-dipper" paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies have consistently shown an association between blunted sleep-time relative blood pressure (BP) decline (non-dipping) and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in hypertension. Normotensive persons with a non-dipper BP profile also have increased target organ damage, namely, increased left ventricular mass and relative wall thickness, reduced myocardial diastolic function, increased urinary albumin excretion, increased prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, and impaired glucose tolerance. It remains a point of contention, however, whether the non-dipper BP pattern or just elevated BP, alone, is the most important predictor of advanced target organ damage and future CVD events. Accordingly, we investigated the role of dipping status and ambulatory BP level as contributing factors for CVD morbidity and mortality in the MAPEC (Monitorización Ambulatoria para Predicción de Eventos Cardiovasculares, i.e., Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Prediction of Cardiovascular Events) study. We prospectively studied 3344 individuals (1718 men/1626 women), 52.6 ± 14.5 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, during a median follow-up of 5.6 yrs. BP was measured by ambulatory monitoring (ABPM) for 48 h at baseline, and again annually or more frequently (quarterly) if treatment adjustment was required in treated hypertensive patients. At baseline, those with ABPM-substantiated hypertension were randomized to one of two treatment-time regimen groups: (i) ingestion of all prescribed hypertension medications upon awakening or (ii) ingestion of the entire dose of ≥1 of them at bedtime. Those found to be normotensive at baseline were untreated but followed and evaluated by repeated ABPM like the hypertensive patients. Participants were divided into four investigated categories on the basis of dipping status and ambulatory BP: (i) dipper vs. non-dipper, and (ii) normal ambulatory BP if the awake systolic (SBP)/diastolic (DBP) BP means were <135/85 mm Hg and the

  11. High intensity interior aircraft noise increases the risk of high diastolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the effects of aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, and other factors on the risk of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP in Indonesian Air Force pilots.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using data extracted from annual medical check-ups indoctrination aerophysiologic training records at the Saryanto Aviation and Aerospace Health Institute (LAKESPRA in Jakarta from January 2003 – September 2008. For analysis of DBP: the case group with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg were compared with contral group with DBP < 79 mmHG. One case matched to 12 controls.Results: Out of 567 pilots, 544 (95.9% had complete medical records. For this analysis there were 40 cases of high DBP and 480 controls for DBP. Pilots exposed to aircraft noise 90-95 dB rather than 70-80 dB had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 2.70; 95% confi dence interval (CI = 1.05-6.97]. Pilots with resting pulse rates of ≥ 81/minute rather than ≤ 80/minute had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.26-5.61. In terms of total fl ight hours, pilots who had 1401-11125 hours rather than 147-1400 hours had a 3.2-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.01-10.03.Conclusion: High interior aircraft noise, high total flight hours,  and high resting pulse rate, increased risk for high DBP. Self assessment of resting pulse rate can be used to control the risk of high DBP. (Med J Indones 2009; 276: 276-82Keywords: diastolic blood pressure, aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, military pilots

  12. Pressure overload-induced mild cardiac hypertrophy reduces leftventricular transmural differences in mitochondrial respiratory chainactivity and increases oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eKINDO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increased mechanical stress and contractility characterizes normal left ventricular subendocardium (Endo but whether Endo mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities is reduced as compared to subepicardium (Epi and whether pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH might modulate transmural gradients through increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production is unknown. Methods: LVH was induced by 6 weeks abdominal aortic banding and cardiac structure and function were determined with echocardiography and catheterization in sham-operated and LVH rats (n=10 for each group. Mitochondrial respiration rates, coupling, content and ROS production were measured in LV Endo and Epi, using saponin-permeabilised fibres, Amplex Red fluorescence and citrate synthase activity.Results: In sham, a transmural respiratory gradient was observed with decreases in endo maximal oxidative capacity (-36.7%, P<0.01 and complex IV activity (-57.4%, P<0.05. Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production was similar in both LV layers.Aortic banding induced mild LVH (+31.7% LV mass, associated with normal LV fractional shortening and end diastolic pressure. LVH reduced maximal oxidative capacity (-23.6 and -33.3%, increased mitochondrial H2O2 production (+86.9 and +73.1%, free radical leak (+27.2% and +36.3% and citrate synthase activity (+27.2% and +36.3% in Endo and Epi, respectively.Transmural mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV activity was reduced in LVH (-57.4 vs –12.2%; P=0.02. Conclusions: Endo mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activities are reduced compared to LV Epi. Mild LVH impairs mitochondrial oxidative capacity, increases oxidative stress and reduces transmural complex IV activity. Further studies will be helpful to determine whether reduced LV transmural gradient in mitochondrial respiration might be a new marker of a transition from uncomplicated toward complicated LVH.

  13. Enhanced superconductivity of SmFeAsO co-doped by Scandium and Fluorine to increase chemical inner pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haijie; Zheng, Ming; Fang, Aihua; Yang, Jianhua [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Huang, Fuqiang, E-mail: huangfq@mail.sic.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Sm{sub 1-x/3}Sc{sub x/3}FeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (x=0.09-0.27) were synthesized by the mechanical alloying and subsequent low temperature rapid sintering (2 h at 950 Degree-Sign C). The superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) increased with the doping level of x. The optimal doping achieved a T{sub c} up to 53.5 K in Sm{sub 0.93}Sc{sub 0.07}FeAsO{sub 0.79}F{sub 0.21}. The higher T{sub c} value was attributed to the increased chemical inner pressure from local lattice distortion induced by smaller-size dopants, which was further confirmed by Sm{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}FeAsO{sub 0.88}F{sub 0.12} (x=0.04, 0.08, 0.12). Accordingly, larger lattice distortion can enhance the superconductivity below the doping limit. Similar phenomenon was also observed in the La{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}FeAsO{sub 0.8}F{sub 0.2} (x=0.4, 0.5, 0.6). - Graphical abstract: The introduction of Sc{sup 3+} and F{sup -} in SmFeAsO leads to higher chemical inner pressure generated by larger lattice distortion, which is the reason of the improved T{sub c}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superconducting properties of Sm{sub 1-x/3}Sc{sub x/3}FeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The co-doping of Sc{sup 3+} and F{sup -} in SmFeAsO leads to higher chemical inner pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher chemical inner pressure is beneficial to the superconductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The co-doped samples of La{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}FeAsO{sub 0.8}F{sub 0.2} further demonstrate the assumption.

  14. Groundwater and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, K.I.; Kukurić, N.; Gupta, J.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Bhaduri, A.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans abstract two hundred times more groundwater than oil, annually. Ironically, the role of groundwater in water management and supply is underappreciated, partially due to its invisibility. By conducting a literature survey and investigating groundwater information databases, this chapter answer

  15. Groundwater Pollution and Vulnerability Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations. In this review paper, various studies have been included that documented instances of groundwater pollution and vulnerability to emerging contaminants of concern, pesticides, heavy metals, and leaching potential of various organic and inorganic contaminants from poorly managed residual waste products (biosolids, landfills, latrines, and septic tanks etc.). Understanding vulnerability of groundwater to pollution is critical to maintain the integrity of groundwater. A section on managed artificial recharge studies is included to highlight the sustainable approaches to groundwater conservation, replenishment and sustainability. This review paper is the synthesis of studies published in last one year that either documented the pollution problems or evaluated the vulnerability of groundwater pollution.

  16. Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Reager, John T.; Voss, Katalyn; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is an increasingly important water supply source globally. Understanding the amount of groundwater used versus the volume available is crucial to evaluate future water availability. We present a groundwater stress assessment to quantify the relationship between groundwater use and availability in the world's 37 largest aquifer systems. We quantify stress according to a ratio of groundwater use to availability, which we call the Renewable Groundwater Stress ratio. The impact of quantifying groundwater use based on nationally reported groundwater withdrawal statistics is compared to a novel approach to quantify use based on remote sensing observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Four characteristic stress regimes are defined: Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human‐dominated Stress, and Unstressed. The regimes are a function of the sign of use (positive or negative) and the sign of groundwater availability, defined as mean annual recharge. The ability to mitigate and adapt to stressed conditions, where use exceeds sustainable water availability, is a function of economic capacity and land use patterns. Therefore, we qualitatively explore the relationship between stress and anthropogenic biomes. We find that estimates of groundwater stress based on withdrawal statistics are unable to capture the range of characteristic stress regimes, especially in regions dominated by sparsely populated biome types with limited cropland. GRACE‐based estimates of use and stress can holistically quantify the impact of groundwater use on stress, resulting in both greater magnitudes of stress and more variability of stress between regions. PMID:26900185

  17. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  18. Thermal management of an urban groundwater body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Epting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a management concept for the sustainable thermal use of an urban groundwater body. The concept is designed to be applied for shallow thermal groundwater use and is based on (1 a characterization of the present thermal state of the investigated urban groundwater body; (2 the definition of development goals for specific aquifer regions, including future aquifer use and urbanization; and (3 an evaluation of the thermal use potential for these regions.

    The investigations conducted in the city of Basel (Switzerland focus on thermal processes down-gradient of thermal groundwater use, effects of heated buildings in the aquifer as well as the thermal influence of river-groundwater interaction. Investigation methods include: (1 short- and long-term data analysis; (2 high-resolution multilevel groundwater temperature monitoring; as well as (3 3-D numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport modeling and scenario development. The combination of these methods allows quantifying the thermal influence on the investigated urban groundwater body, including the influences of thermal groundwater use and additional heat from urbanization. Subsequently, management strategies for minimizing further groundwater temperature increase, targeting "potential natural" groundwater temperatures for specific aquifer regions and exploiting the thermal use potential are discussed.

  19. Low-level lead exposure increases systolic arterial pressure and endothelium-derived vasodilator factors in rat aortas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonaina Fiorim

    Full Text Available Chronic lead exposure induces hypertension and alters endothelial function. However, treatment with low lead concentrations was not yet explored. We analyzed the effects of 7 day exposure to low lead concentrations on endothelium-dependent responses. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 µg/100 g, subsequent dose 0.05 µg/100 g, i.m. to cover daily loss or vehicle; blood levels attained at the end of treatment were 9.98 µg/dL. Lead treatment had the following effects: increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP; reduction of contractile response to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 µM of aortic rings; unaffected relaxation induced by acetylcholine (0.1 nM-300 µM or sodium nitroprusside (0.01 nM-0.3 µM. Endothelium removal, N(G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 µM and tetraethylammonium (2 mM increased the response to phenylephrine in treated rats more than in untreated rats. Aminoguanidine (50 µM increased but losartan (10 µM and enalapril (10 µM reduced the response to phenylephrine in treated rats. Lead treatment also increased aortic Na(+/K(+-ATPase functional activity, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE activity, protein expression of the Na(+/K(+-ATPase alpha-1 subunit, phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Our results suggest that on initial stages of lead exposure, increased SBP is caused by the increase in plasma ACE activity. This effect is accompanied by increased p-eNOS, iNOS protein expression and Na(+/K(+-ATPase functional activity. These factors might be a compensatory mechanism to the increase in SBP.

  20. Low-Level Lead Exposure Increases Systolic Arterial Pressure and Endothelium-Derived Vasodilator Factors in Rat Aortas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério F.; Silveira, Edna A.; Padilha, Alessandra S.; Vescovi, Marcos Vinícius A.; de Jesus, Honério C.; Stefanon, Ivanita; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton V.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic lead exposure induces hypertension and alters endothelial function. However, treatment with low lead concentrations was not yet explored. We analyzed the effects of 7 day exposure to low lead concentrations on endothelium-dependent responses. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 µg/100 g, subsequent dose 0.05 µg/100 g, i.m. to cover daily loss) or vehicle; blood levels attained at the end of treatment were 9.98 µg/dL. Lead treatment had the following effects: increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP); reduction of contractile response to phenylephrine (1 nM–100 µM) of aortic rings; unaffected relaxation induced by acetylcholine (0.1 nM–300 µM) or sodium nitroprusside (0.01 nM–0.3 µM). Endothelium removal, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 µM) and tetraethylammonium (2 mM) increased the response to phenylephrine in treated rats more than in untreated rats. Aminoguanidine (50 µM) increased but losartan (10 µM) and enalapril (10 µM) reduced the response to phenylephrine in treated rats. Lead treatment also increased aortic Na+/K+-ATPase functional activity, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, protein expression of the Na+/K+-ATPase alpha-1 subunit, phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Our results suggest that on initial stages of lead exposure, increased SBP is caused by the increase in plasma ACE activity. This effect is accompanied by increased p-eNOS, iNOS protein expression and Na+/K+-ATPase functional activity. These factors might be a compensatory mechanism to the increase in SBP. PMID:21364929

  1. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    surface water-groundwater model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009; Spanoudaki, 2010) has been modified in order to simulate surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone. IRENE, in its original form, couples the 3D, non-steady state Navier-Stokes equations, after Reynolds averaging and with the assumption of hydrostatic pressure distribution, to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection-diffusion equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants introduced in a 3D turbulent flow field to the partial differential equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants in 3D transient groundwater flow systems. The model has been further developed to include the effects of density variations on surface water and groundwater flow, while the already built-in solute transport capabilities are used to simulate salinity interactions. Initial results show that IRENE can accurately predict surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in coastal areas. Important research issues that can be investigated using IRENE include: (a) sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and the configuration of the saltwater wedge, (b) the effects of surface water-groundwater interaction on salinity increase of coastal wetlands and (c) the estimation of the location and magnitude of groundwater discharge to coasts. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the protection of surface water and groundwater in the coastal zone', (2013 - 2015). References

  2. Timing and duration of sleep and meals in obese and normal weight women. Association with increase blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbalán-Tutau, M D; Madrid, J A; Garaulet, M

    2012-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the efficiency and duration of sleep and meals in normal-weight and obese women and the impact of these factors on metabolic syndrome (MetS) variables. The study was conducted in 70 women, normal-weight women (n=20) and obese women (n=50). Anthropometric variables, plasma glucose, lipids and ghrelin concentrations were determined. Blood pressure measurement was performed before lunch and before dinner for a week on alternate days. Subjects were instructed to keep a sleep and feeding diary. In general, obese women displayed longer and a significantly higher number of awakenings per week than normal-weight women and a higher duration of naps. Sleep efficiency was significantly lower in obese women. The higher intake in energy in the obese women was due to snacking differences. Moreover, higher sleep efficiency was correlated with a decrease in the diastolic blood pressure evening/morning ratio. Interestingly, among normal-weight women, visceral fat increased with the number of awakenings while plasma ghrelin was inversely correlated with meal duration (P=0.027). In conclusion, obese women had lower sleep efficiency, ate more quickly and spent more time eating and sleeping during the daytime hours than normal-weight women. Of note, sleep efficiency was associated with MetS features. Further interventions in obesity could include educating patients in food timing and in healthier sleep-hygiene practices, helping them to modify bad sleep habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing the efficiency of the axial low pressure compressor in three operation modes by optimizing the shape of its blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, G. M.; Baturin, O. V.; Goriachkin, E. S.; Novikova, Yu D.; Kolmakova, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a method for multicriteria optimization of the low pressure compressor working process. The optimization was conducted in three engine modes, corresponding to the temperature of the air at engine inlet --15, +15, +45 °C. Parameters of the compressor were calculated in operational and stall points. The LPC modernization was performed with usage of optimization methods that implemented in the software package IOSO. To perform optimization, the LPC numerical model was created using the NUMECA FineTurbo software. Numerical models of the LPC workflow were created based on the design documentation. The coordinates of three points of a spline in a circumferential direction and a stagger angle were changed for the rotor blades. The coordinates of a mid-point and a point of the trailing edge, stagger angles, and also the position of sections in circumferential and axial directions were changed for the guide vanes. To prevent a shift of the LPC characteristics, we set restrictions for the LPC specific massflow, a minimal pressure raise and astall margin. As a result of this work, a variant of the compressor, ensuring the increase in its efficiency by 1.1% (abs.) and stall margins by 7.5% (abs.) in the primary operation mode has been found.

  4. Steady Increase In Prices For Oral Anticancer Drugs After Market Launch Suggests A Lack Of Competitive Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennette, Caroline S; Richards, Catherine; Sullivan, Sean D; Ramsey, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    The cost of treating cancer has risen to unprecedented heights, putting tremendous financial pressure on patients, payers, and society. Previous studies have documented the rising prices of cancer drugs at launch, but less critical attention has been paid to the cost of these drugs after launch. We used pharmacy claims for commercially insured individuals to examine trends in postlaunch prices over time for orally administered anticancer drugs recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the period 2007-13, inflation-adjusted per patient monthly drug prices increased 5 percent each year. Certain market changes also played a role, with prices rising an additional 10 percent with each supplemental indication approved by the FDA and declining 2 percent with the FDA's approval of a competitor drug. Our findings suggest that there is currently little competitive pressure in the oral anticancer drug market. Policy makers who wish to reduce the costs of anticancer drugs should consider implementing policies that affect prices not only at launch but also later.

  5. Low fruit consumption and omission of daily meals as risk factors for increased blood pressure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Talita Barbosa; Pereira, Avany Fernandes; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Salles-Costa, Rosana

    2016-08-01

    A population-based cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling design and with inverse sampling was conducted in 2010, in a sample of 1590 adults (19-60 years old) exposed to a high prevalence of food insecurity, in the municipality of Duque de Caxias, metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association of socio-demographic factors, the consumption of fruits and vegetables and the number of meals with increased blood pressure (BP). A hierarchical model that considered variables related to the basic, intermediate and immediate determinants of increased BP was adopted. By using Poisson's regression, univariate models were tested to obtain the prevalence ratio (PR) and its respective 95 % CI. After fitting the model, age (age group 50-59 years) (PR 1·62; 95 % CI 1·09, 2·41), low consumption of fruits in a week (PR 1·37; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·74), fewer meals per day (PR 1·72; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·43) and overweight (PR 1·78; 95 % CI 1·31, 2·20) remained significantly associated with increased BP. Therefore, the results found here reinforce the importance of encouraging and developing strategies that ensure access to healthy foods to minimise increased BP in similar populations.

  6. Does Aerobic Exercise Increase 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Among Workers With High Occupational Physical Activity?-A RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA. Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences in 4-month ABP changes were evaluated by intention-to-treat analysis using a repeated-measure 2 × 2 multiadjusted mixed-models design. Relative to REF, 24-hour ABP significantly increased in AE: systolic 3.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.7) and diastolic 2.3 mm Hg (95% CI 0.9-3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4-9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3-6.4). Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits of aerobic exercise, especially among workers with high OPA and a demanding aerobic workload. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN86682076. Unique identifier ISRCTN86682076. Trial Number ISRCTN86682076.

  7. Female spontaneously hypertensive rats have a compensatory increase in renal regulatory T cells in response to elevations in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Ashlee J; Baban, Babak; Sullivan, Jennifer C

    2014-09-01

    Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have more regulatory T cells (Tregs) in their kidneys than males. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of blood pressure (BP) on the renal immune profile. We hypothesize that increases in BP promote a proinflammatory renal T cell and cytokine profile in SHR, although females will have greater hormone-dependent increases in Tregs and males will have greater increases in Th17 cells. Renal T cell and cytokine profiles were assessed in male and female Wistar-Kyoto rats and male and female SHR treated with vehicle or hydrochlorothiazide and reserpine (HCTZ) from 6 to 12 (6-HCTZ) or 11 to 13 weeks of age (2-HCTZ). Regardless of sex, SHR had a more proinflammatory renal immune profile than Wistar-Kyoto rats. 6-HCTZ attenuated age-related increases in BP and 2-HCTZ reversed hypertension compared with vehicle-treated SHR. Neither 6-HCTZ nor 2-HCTZ altered CD3(+), CD4(+), or CD8(+) T cells in either sex. Both treatments decreased Tregs only in female SHR abolishing sex differences in Tregs. 6-HCTZ has no impact on Th17 cells in either sex and 2-HCTZ had a minimal impact on renal Th17 cells. To further assess mechanisms mediating sex differences in the renal immune profile, male and female SHR were gonadectomized to determine the impact of sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased proinflammatory markers in both sexes, suggesting that both male and female sex hormones are anti-inflammatory. In conclusion, BP contributes to sex differences in the renal T-cell profile of SHR; female SHR increase renal Tregs in response to increases in BP. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. The spatial geochemical characteristics of groundwater and surface in the Tuul River basin, Ulaanbatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batdelger, Odsuren; Tsujimura, Maki; Zorigt, Byambasuren; Togtokh, Enkhjargal

    2017-04-01

    The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is located along the Tuul River and its water supply totally dependent on the groundwater, which comes from the aquifer of the Tuul River. Due to the rapid growth of the population and the increasing human pressures in this basin, water quality has been deteriorating and has become a crucial issue for sustainable environmental and socio-economic development. Hydro-chemical and stable isotope tracing approaches were applied into the groundwater and surface water in order to study geochemical characteristics and groundwater and surface water interaction. The Tuul River water was mostly characterized by the Ca-HCO3 type, spatially variable and it changed into Ca-Na-HCO3 type in the downstream of the city after wastewater (WW) meets the river. Also, electrical conductivity (EC) values of Tuul River are increasing gradually with distance and it increased more than 2 times after WW meets the stream, therefore anthropogenic activities influence to the downstream of the river. The dominant hydro-chemical facies of groundwater were the Ca-HCO3 type, which represents 83% of the total analyzed samples, while Ca- HCO3-Cl-NO3, Na-HCO3, Ca-HCO3-SO4 each represent 4%, and Ca-mixed and Ca-Mg-HCO3 each represent 2% of the total samples. This suggests that groundwater chemistry is controlled by rock-water interaction and anthropogenic pollution. The floodplain groundwater chemical characteristics were similar to Tuul River water and showing lowest EC values. Groundwater far from floodplain showed higher EC (mean value of 498 μs/cm) values than river waters and floodplain groundwater. Also, different kinds of hydro-chemical facies were observed. The stable isotopic compositions revealed less evaporation effect on the groundwater and surface water, as well as an altitude effect in the river water. The similarity of stable isotopes and chemical characteristics of floodplain groundwater and river water suggests that alluvial groundwater is recharged by

  9. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Kapil K; Gosain, A K

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11,600 km(2) with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO3) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO3 transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash-Sutcliffe and R(2) correlations greater than +0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO3 removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO3 concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the century. Water yield estimates under

  10. Subsidence due to Excessive Groundwater Withdrawal in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, F.; Harter, T.; Sneed, M.

    2011-12-01

    Francis Corbett1, Thomas Harter1 and Michelle Sneed2 1Department of Land Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis. 2U.S. Geological Survey Western Remote Sensing and Visualization Center, Sacramento. Abstract: Groundwater development within the Central Valley of California began approximately a century ago. Water was needed to supplement limited surface water supplies for the burgeoning population and agricultural industries, especially within the arid but fertile San Joaquin Valley. Groundwater levels have recovered only partially during wet years from drought-induced lows creating long-term groundwater storage overdraft. Surface water deliveries from Federal and State sources led to a partial alleviation of these pressure head declines from the late 1960s. However, in recent decades, surface water deliveries have declined owing to increasing environmental pressures, whilst water demands have remained steady. Today, a large portion of the San Joaquin Valley population, and especially agriculture, rely upon groundwater. Groundwater levels are again rapidly declining except in wet years. There is significant concern that subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal, first observed at a large scale in the middle 20th century, will resume as groundwater resources continue to be depleted. Previous subsidence has led to problems such as infrastructure damage and flooding. To provide a support tool for groundwater management on a naval air station in the southern San Joaquin Valley (Tulare Lake Basin), a one-dimensional MODFLOW subsidence model covering the period 1925 to 2010 was developed incorporating extensive reconstruction of historical subsidence and water level data from various sources. The stratigraphy used for model input was interpreted from geophysical logs and well completion reports. Gaining good quality data proved problematic, and often values needed to be estimated. In part, this was due to the historical lack of awareness/understanding of

  11. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia in response to atonal music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects’ heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time. A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents was received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching. Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces’ emotional characteristics was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic, possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the aesthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one.

  12. Artificial reproduction of magnetic fields produced by a natural geomagnetic storm increases systolic blood pressure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bretón, J. L.; Mendoza, B.; Miranda-Anaya, M.; Durán, P.; Flores-Chávez, P. L.

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of geomagnetic storms may be associated with changes in circulatory physiology. The way in which the natural variations of the geomagnetic field due to solar activity affects the blood pressure are poorly understood and require further study in controlled experimental designs in animal models. In the present study, we tested whether the systolic arterial pressure (AP) in adult rats is affected by simulated magnetic fields resembling the natural changes of a geomagnetic storm. We exposed adult rats to a linear magnetic profile that simulates the average changes associated to some well-known geomagnetic storm phases: the sudden commencement and principal phase. Magnetic stimulus was provided by a coil inductor and regulated by a microcontroller. The experiments were conducted in the electromagnetically isolated environment of a semi-anechoic chamber. After exposure, AP was determined with a non-invasive method through the pulse on the rat's tail. Animals were used as their own control. Our results indicate that there was no statistically significant effect in AP when the artificial profile was applied, neither in the sudden commencement nor in the principal phases. However, during the experimental period, a natural geomagnetic storm occurred, and we did observe statistically significant AP increase during the sudden commencement phase. Furthermore, when this storm phase was artificially replicated with a non-linear profile, we noticed a 7 to 9 % increase of the rats' AP in relation to a reference value. We suggested that the changes in the geomagnetic field associated with a geomagnetic storm in its first day could produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response in AP.

  13. Artificial reproduction of magnetic fields produced by a natural geomagnetic storm increases systolic blood pressure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bretón, J. L.; Mendoza, B.; Miranda-Anaya, M.; Durán, P.; Flores-Chávez, P. L.

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of geomagnetic storms may be associated with changes in circulatory physiology. The way in which the natural variations of the geomagnetic field due to solar activity affects the blood pressure are poorly understood and require further study in controlled experimental designs in animal models. In the present study, we tested whether the systolic arterial pressure (AP) in adult rats is affected by simulated magnetic fields resembling the natural changes of a geomagnetic storm. We exposed adult rats to a linear magnetic profile that simulates the average changes associated to some well-known geomagnetic storm phases: the sudden commencement and principal phase. Magnetic stimulus was provided by a coil inductor and regulated by a microcontroller. The experiments were conducted in the electromagnetically isolated environment of a semi-anechoic chamber. After exposure, AP was determined with a non-invasive method through the pulse on the rat's tail. Animals were used as their own control. Our results indicate that there was no statistically significant effect in AP when the artificial profile was applied, neither in the sudden commencement nor in the principal phases. However, during the experimental period, a natural geomagnetic storm occurred, and we did observe statistically significant AP increase during the sudden commencement phase. Furthermore, when this storm phase was artificially replicated with a non-linear profile, we noticed a 7 to 9 % increase of the rats' AP in relation to a reference value. We suggested that the changes in the geomagnetic field associated with a geomagnetic storm in its first day could produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response in AP.

  14. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice M; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects' heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces' emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one.

  15. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A.; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects’ heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces’ emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one. PMID:26579029

  16. Estimating Groundwater Development area in Jianan Plain using Standardized Groundwater Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Hsiang; Haw, Lee Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan has been facing severe water crises in recent years owing to the effects of extreme weather conditions. Changes in precipitation patterns have also made the drought phenomenon increasingly prominent, which has indirectly affected groundwater recharge. Hence, in the present study, long-term monitoring data were collected from the study area of the Jianan plain. The standardized groundwater index (SGI) and was then used to analyse the region's drought characteristics. To analyse the groundwater level by using SGI, making SGI180 groundwater level be the medium water crises, and SGI360 groundwater level be the extreme water crises. Through the different water crises signal in SGI180 and SGI360, we divide groundwater in Jianan plain into two sections. Thereby the water crises indicators establishing groundwater level standard line in Jianan Plain, then using the groundwater level standard line to find the study area where could be groundwater development area in Jianan plain. Taking into account relatively more water scarcity in dry season, so the study screen out another emergency backup groundwater development area, but the long-term groundwater development area is still as a priority development area. After finding suitable locations, groundwater modeling systems(GMS) software is used to simulate our sites to evaluate development volume. Finally, the result of study will help the government to grasp the water shortage situation immediately and solve the problem of water resources deployment.

  17. Groundwater level status report for 2010, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Richard J.; Schmeer, Sarah

    2011-03-01

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2010 is provided in this report. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 194 monitoring wells, including 63 regional aquifer wells (including 10 regional/intermediate wells), 34 intermediate wells, 97 alluvial wells, and 12 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 162 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well. The report also summarizes the groundwater temperatures recorded in intermediate and regional aquifer monitoring wells and seasonal responses to snowmelt runoff observed in intermediate wells.

  18. Groundwater level status report for 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Richard J.; Schmeer, Sarah

    2009-03-01

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2008 is provided in this report. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 179 monitoring wells, including 45 regional aquifer wells, 28 intermediate wells, 8 regional/intermediate wells, 106 alluvial wells, and 12 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 166 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well. The report also summarizes the groundwater temperatures recorded in intermediate and regional aquifer monitoring wells.

  19. Groundwater level status report for 2009, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Richard J.; Schmeer, Sarah

    2010-03-01

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2009 is provided in this report. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 179 monitoring wells, including 55 regional aquifer wells (including 11 regional/intermediate wells), 26 intermediate wells, 98 alluvial wells, and 12 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 161 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well. The report also summarizes the groundwater temperatures recorded in intermediate and regional aquifer monitoring wells.

  20. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.

  1. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Measures Associated With Increased Risk of Covert Brain Infarction and Worsening Leukoaraiosis in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lester Y; Bartz, Traci M; Rice, Kenneth; Floyd, James; Psaty, Bruce; Gutierrez, Jose; Longstreth, W T; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2017-08-01

    In people without previous stroke, covert findings on serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of incident brain infarcts and worsening leukoaraiosis are associated with increased risk for ischemic stroke and dementia. We evaluated whether various measures of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate are associated with these MRI findings. In the CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study), a longitudinal cohort study of older adults, we used relative risk regression to assess the associations of mean, variability, and trend in systolic BP, diastolic BP, and heart rate measured at 4 annual clinic visits between 2 brain MRIs with incident covert brain infarction and worsening white matter grade (using a 10-point scale to characterize leukoaraiosis). We included participants who had both brain MRIs, no stroke before the follow-up MRI, and no change in antihypertensive medication status during follow-up. Among 878 eligible participants, incident covert brain infarction occurred in 15% and worsening white matter grade in 27%. Mean systolic BP was associated with increased risk for incident covert brain infarction (relative risk per 10 mm Hg, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.47), and mean diastolic BP was associated with increased risk for worsening white matter grade (relative risk per 10 mm Hg, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.69). These findings persisted in secondary and sensitivity analyses. Elevated mean systolic BP is associated with increased risk for covert brain infarction, and elevated mean diastolic BP is associated with increased risk for worsening leukoaraiosis. These findings reinforce the importance of hypertension in the development of silent cerebrovascular diseases, but the pathophysiologic relationships to BP for each may differ. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Increased renal alpha-ENaC and NCC abundance and elevated blood pressure are independent of hyperaldosteronism in vasopressin escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Swasti; Packer, Randall K; Hu, Xinqun; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Verbalis, Joseph G; Ecelbarger, Carolyn A

    2006-07-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that rats undergoing vasopressin escape had increased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), plasma and urine aldosterone, and increased renal protein abundance of the alpha-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), and the 70-kDa band of gamma-ENaC (Song J, Hu X, Khan O, Tian Y, Verbalis JG, and Ecelbarger CA. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 287: F1076-F1083, 2004; Ecelbarger CA, Knepper MA, and Verbalis JG. J Am Soc Nephrol 12: 207-217, 2001). Here, we determine whether changes in these renal proteins and MAP require elevated aldosterone levels. We performed adrenalectomies (ADX) or sham surgeries on male Sprague-Dawley rats. Corticosterone and aldosterone were replaced to clamp these hormone levels. MAP was monitored by radiotelemetry. Rats were infused with 1-deamino-[8-D-arginine]-vasopressin (dDAVP) via osmotic minipumps (5 ng/h). At day 3 of dDAVP infusion, seven rats in each group were offered a liquid diet [water load (WL)] or continued on a solid diet (SD). Plasma aldosterone and corticosterone and urine aldosterone were increased by WL in sham rats. ADX-WL rats escaped, as assessed by early natriuresis followed by diuresis; however, urine volume and natriuresis were somewhat blunted. WL did not reduce the abundance or activity of 11-beta-hydroxsteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Furthermore, the previously observed increase in renal aldosterone-sensitive proteins and escape-associated increased MAP persisted in clamped rats. The densitometry of immunoblots for NCC, alpha- and gamma-70 kDa ENaC, respectively, were (% sham-SD): sham-WL, 159, 278, 233; ADX-SD, 69, 212, 171; ADX-WL, 116, 302, 161. However, clamping corticosteroids blunted the rise at least for NCC and gamma-ENaC (70 kDa). Overall, the increase in aldosterone observed in vasopressin escape is not necessary for the increased expression of NCC, alpha- or gamma-ENaC or increased MAP associated with "escape."

  3. Effect of acute, slightly increased intra-abdominal pressure on intestinal permeability and oxidative stress in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Leng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH is known as a common, serious complication in critically ill patients. Bacterial translocation and permeability changes are considered the pathophysiological bases for IAH-induced enterogenic endotoxemia and subsequent multiorgan failure. Nevertheless, the effects of slightly elevated intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs on the intestinal mucosa and the associated mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: To investigate the acute effects of different nitrogen pneumoperitoneum grades on colonic mucosa, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups with different IAPs (0 [control], 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mmHg, n = 6/group. During 90 min of exposure, we dynamically monitored the heart rate and noninvasive hemodynamic parameters. After gradual decompression, arterial blood gas analyses were conducted. Thereafter, structural injuries to the colonic mucosa were identified using light microscopy. Colon permeability was determined using the expression of tight junction proteins, combined with fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD-4 absorption. The pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance was determined based on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidant enzymes. RESULTS: IAH significantly affected the histological scores of the colonic mucosa, tight junction protein expression, mucosal permeability, and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance. Interestingly, elevations of IAP that were lower than the threshold for IAH also showed a similar, undesirable effect. In the 8 mmHg group, mild hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypoxemia occurred, accompanied by reduced blood and abdominal perfusion pressures. Mild microscopic inflammatory infiltration and increased MDA levels were also detected. Moreover, an 8-mm Hg IAP markedly inhibited the expression of tight junction proteins, although no significant differences in FD-4 permeability were observed between the 0- and 8-mmHg groups. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exposure to slightly

  4. Excessive zinc intake increases systemic blood pressure and reduces renal blood flow via kidney angiotensin II in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Miyoko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of excess zinc intake on the mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow (RBF), inulin clearance (IC), serum zinc level, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, and kidney angiotensin II (AT II) levels in rats. Experiments were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained for 4 weeks on a diet containing either 5 mg/100 g (control group), 50 mg/100 g (Zn50 group), or 200 mg/100 g (Zn200 group) zinc carbonate. Serum zinc levels significantly increased to 126.5 % in the Zn50 group and 198.1 % in the Zn200 group compared with controls. MAP significantly increased to 107.8 % in the Zn50 group and 114.5 % in the Zn200 group again compared with controls. Although the difference in serum ACE activity was independent of the serum zinc levels, the kidney AT II levels increased significantly to 137.2 % in the Zn50 group and 174.4 % in the Zn200 group compared with the controls. RBF was decreased significantly to 74.4 % in the Zn50 group and 69.7 % in the Zn200 group compared with the controls. IC values were significantly decreased to 69.6 % in the Zn50 group and 52.7 % in the Zn200 group as compared with control levels. Combined together, these results show that excessive Zn intake reduced IC and RBF and increased MAP and kidney AT II levels, suggesting that excessive Zn intake reduces renal function.

  5. Hyperoxia increases the uptake of 5-fluorouracil in mammary tumors independently of changes in interstitial fluid pressure and tumor stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvesen Gerd S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia is associated with increased resistance to chemo- and radiation-therapy. Hyperoxic treatment (hyperbaric oxygen has previously been shown to potentiate the effect of some forms of chemotherapy, and this has been ascribed to enhanced cytotoxicity or neovascularisation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether hyperoxia also enhances any actual uptake of 5FU (5-fluorouracil into the tumor tissue and if this can be explained by changes in the interstitium and extracellular matrix. Methods One group of tumor bearing rats was exposed to repeated hyperbaric oxygen (HBO treatment (2 bar, pO2 = 2 bar, 4 exposures à 90 min, whereas one group was exposed to one single identical HBO treatment. Animals housed under normal atmosphere (1 bar, pO2 = 0.2 bar served as controls. Three doses of 5FU were tested for dose response. Uptake of [3H]-5FU in the tumor was assessed, with special reference to factors that might have contributed, such as interstitial fluid pressure (Pif, collagen content, oxygen stress (measured as malondialdehyd levels, lymphatics and transcapillary transport in the tumors. Results The uptake of the cytostatic agent increases immediately after a single HBO treatment (more than 50%, but not 24 hours after the last repeated HBO treatment. Thus, the uptake is most likely related to the transient increase in oxygenation in the tumor tissue. Factors like tumor Pif and collagen content, which decreased significantly in the tumor interstitium after repeated HBO treatment, was without effect on the drug uptake. Conclusion We showed that hyperoxia increases the uptake of [3H]-5FU in DMBA-induced mammary tumors per se, independently of changes in Pif, oxygen stress, collagen fibril density, or transendothelial transport alone. The mechanism by which such an uptake occur is still not elucidated, but it is clearly stimulated by elevated pO2.

  6. Diminished Lipid Raft SNAP23 Increases Blood Pressure by Inhibiting the Membrane Fluidity of Vascular Smooth-Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mi So; Won, Kyung-Jong; Kim, Do-Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Jung, Seung Hyo; Lee, Kang Pa; Jung, Dongju; Choi, Wahn Soo; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) is involved in microvesicle trafficking and exocytosis in various cell types, but its functional role in blood pressure (BP) regulation has not yet been defined. Here, we found that lipid raft SNAP23 expression was much lower in vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in those from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. This led us to investigate the hypothesis that this lower expression may be linked to the spontaneous hypertension found in SHR. The expression level of lipid raft SNAP23 and the fluidity in the plasma membrane of VSMCs were lower in SHR than in WKY rats. Cholesterol content in the VSMC membrane was higher, but the secreted cholesterols found in VSMC-conditioned medium and in the blood serum were lower in SHR than in WKY rats. SNAP23 knockdown in WKY rat VSMCs reduced the membrane fluidity and increased the membrane cholesterol level. Systemic overexpression of SNAP23 in SHR resulted in an increase of cholesterol content in their serum, a decrease in cholesterol in their aorta and the reduction of their BP. Our findings suggest that the low expression of the lipid raft SNAP23 in VSMCs might be a potential cause for the characteristic hypertension of SHR.

  7. Enhanced superconductivity of SmFeAsO co-doped by Scandium and Fluorine to increase chemical inner pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijie; Zheng, Ming; Fang, Aihua; Yang, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2012-10-01

    Sm1-x/3Scx/3FeAsO1-xFx (x=0.09-0.27) were synthesized by the mechanical alloying and subsequent low temperature rapid sintering (2 h at 950 °C). The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) increased with the doping level of x. The optimal doping achieved a Tc up to 53.5 K in Sm0.93Sc0.07FeAsO0.79F0.21. The higher Tc value was attributed to the increased chemical inner pressure from local lattice distortion induced by smaller-size dopants, which was further confirmed by Sm1-xScxFeAsO0.88F0.12 (x=0.04, 0.08, 0.12). Accordingly, larger lattice distortion can enhance the superconductivity below the doping limit. Similar phenomenon was also observed in the La1-xYxFeAsO0.8F0.2 (x=0.4, 0.5, 0.6).

  8. Increasing mean arterial pressure in cardiogenic shock secondary to myocardial infarction: effects on hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pierre; Kimmoun, Antoine; Blime, Vincent; Levy, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    There are very few data regarding the effects of norepinephrine uptitration on global and regional hemodynamics in cardiogenic shock. We studied 25 patients with shock secondary to myocardial infarction successfully treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Before the inclusion, 16 of 25 patients presented a cardiac arrest in the presence of medical staff. Norepinephrine was titrated to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 65 to 85 mmHg during 1 h. Swan-Ganz variables, arterial and mixed venous blood gases, lactate, and thenar near-infrared spectroscopy variables (muscle tissue oxygen saturation [StO2] and its changes during a vascular occlusion test) were measured before, 1 h after norepinephrine uptitration, and 1 h after norepinephrine downtitration. To obtain a MAP at 85 mmHg, norepinephrine was increased from 0.6 (0.28-1.2) to 1.53 µg · kg · min (0.76-2.6 µg · kg · min) (P cardiogenic shock complicated by postreperfusion disease is associated with better cardiac performance and improved microcirculatory variables.

  9. Effect of yoga on arterial stiffness in elderly subjects with increased pulse pressure: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Satish Gurunathrao; Aithala, Manjunatha R; Das, Kusal Kanti

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of yoga on arterial function in elderly with increased pulse pressure (PP). Randomized controlled study with two parallel groups. Elderly subjects with PP≥60 mmHg (n=60). Yoga group (n=30) was assigned for yoga training and brisk-walking (BW) group (n=30) for brisk-walk with stretching exercise for 1h in the morning for 6 days in a week for 12 weeks. Arterial stiffness measures: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV), aortic augmentation index (AIx@75), arterial stiffness index at brachial (bASI) and tibial arteries (aASI). Total serum nitric oxide concentration (NOx) as an index of endothelial function. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures: Low frequency and high frequency in normalized units (LFnu, HFnu) and LF/HF ratio. The mean between-group change (with 95% CI) in arterial stiffness: c-f PWV(m/s) [1.25(0.59-1.89); pyoga group in vascular function, BP and autonomic function, while no significant change within-BW group was observed. Our findings suggest that yoga program offered was more effective than brisk-walk in reducing arterial stiffness along with BP in elderly individuals with increased PP. Yoga can also significantly reduce sympathetic activity and improve endothelial function with enhancement in bioavailability of NO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vulnerability to diffuse pollution of European soils and groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi CR; Beusen AHW; Bollen MJS; Klepper O; LBG; CWM

    1994-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, European soils and groundwater are threatened by diffuse pollution derived from various chemicals used in modern agriculture and by increased atmospheric deposition of pollutants. The investigated vulnerability of soils (including groundwater) to

  11. Comparing exercise interventions to increase persistence with physical exercise and sporting activity among people with hypertension or high normal blood pressure: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; de Lusignan, Simon; Wainwright, Joe; Sprake, Hannah; Laver, Suzannah; Heald, Victoria; Orton, Julian; Prescott, Matt; Carr, Helen; O'Neill, Mark

    2014-01-01

    .... Four-arm randomised controlled trial. The study tests two types of intervention that are intended to increase physical activity among currently inactive 18- to 74-year-old people with hypertension or high-normal blood pressure...

  12. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  13. Impacts of Climate Changes on the Future Groundwater Storage in the High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M. H.; Wu, W. Y.; Wada, Y.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yeh, P. J. F.; Ducharne, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contributes approximately 40% of global freshwater use, and it is critical for water supply and associated food production in arid or semi-arid areas during dry seasons. The increasing demand for water and finite water sources have led to long-term groundwater depletion, creating an obstacle to sustainability in several regions of the world under the pressures of population growth and climate change. The High Plains Aquifer System has an area of 450,000 km2, and is the most pumped aquifer and one of the most important agricultural areas in the United States. In this study, we use coupled climate-hydrological model simulations from the NCAR Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project to investigate the groundwater storage changes in the High Plains Aquifer under future climate changes and also to explore how such groundwater storage changes might in turn affect the climate through land-atmosphere coupling. Preliminary results indicate that not only the amount of groundwater recharge declines, but the seasonal variations of groundwater recharge also become smaller, resulting in widespread water table decline in a future warmer climate. We will explore how such variations associate to projected changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration, and feedback to the climate.

  14. Assessing Groundwater Depletion and Dynamics Using GRACE and InSAR: Potential and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Martel, Richard; Galloway, Devin L; Longuevergne, Laurent; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-11-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing of the temporal variation of ground level and gravity has improved our understanding of groundwater dynamics and storage. Mass changes are measured by GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites, whereas ground deformation is measured by processing synthetic aperture radar satellites data using the InSAR (Interferometry of Synthetic Aperture Radar) techniques. Both methods are complementary and offer different sensitivities to aquifer system processes. GRACE is sensitive to mass changes over large spatial scales (more than 100,000 km(2) ). As such, it fails in providing groundwater storage change estimates at local or regional scales relevant to most aquifer systems, and at which most groundwater management schemes are applied. However, InSAR measures ground displacement due to aquifer response to fluid-pressure changes. InSAR applications to groundwater depletion assessments are limited to aquifer systems susceptible to measurable deformation. Furthermore, the inversion of InSAR-derived displacement maps into volume of depleted groundwater storage (both reversible and largely irreversible) is confounded by vertical and horizontal variability of sediment compressibility. During the last decade, both techniques have shown increasing interest in the scientific community to complement available in situ observations where they are insufficient. In this review, we present the theoretical and conceptual bases of each method, and present idealized scenarios to highlight the potential benefits and challenges of combining these techniques to remotely assess groundwater storage changes and other aspects of the dynamics of aquifer systems.

  15. Assessing groundwater depletion and dynamics using GRACE and InSAR: Potential and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Martel, Richard; Galloway, Devin L.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing of the temporal variation of ground level and gravity has improved our understanding of groundwater dynamics and storage. Mass changes are measured by GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites, whereas ground deformation is measured by processing synthetic aperture radar satellites data using the InSAR (Interferometry of Synthetic Aperture Radar) techniques. Both methods are complementary and offer different sensitivities to aquifer system processes. GRACE is sensitive to mass changes over large spatial scales (more than 100,000 km2). As such, it fails in providing groundwater storage change estimates at local or regional scales relevant to most aquifer systems, and at which most groundwater management schemes are applied. However, InSAR measures ground displacement due to aquifer response to fluid-pressure changes. InSAR applications to groundwater depletion assessments are limited to aquifer systems susceptible to measurable deformation. Furthermore, the inversion of InSAR-derived displacement maps into volume of depleted groundwater storage (both reversible and largely irreversible) is confounded by vertical and horizontal variability of sediment compressibility. During the last decade, both techniques have shown increasing interest in the scientific community to complement available in situ observations where they are insufficient. In this review, we present the theoretical and conceptual bases of each method, and present idealized scenarios to highlight the potential benefits and challenges of combining these techniques to remotely assess groundwater storage changes and other aspects of the dynamics of aquifer systems.

  16. Pressure Physiology: Studies of Acute and Chronic Exposures to Increased Pressures of Oxygen and Inert Gases in Diving, Decompression and Therapy of Decompression and Isobaric Gas Lesion Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    Oxygen Exposures. Completion of Design for Human Studies of CNS, Pulmon - ary, and Cardiac Oxygen Tolerance Extension at 2.5 and 3.0 ATA. (Based on prior...intoxication at that pressure. Of all pulmon - ary function-indices that are known to be affected by oxygen to date, repeated post-exposure measurements of

  17. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  18. Aerobic training abolishes ambulatory blood pressure increase induced by estrogen therapy: a double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Crivaldo Gomes; Rosas, Fabrício Collares; Oneda, Bruna; Labes, Eliana; Tinucci, Taís; Abrahão, Sandra Balieiro; da Fonseca, Angela Maggio; Mion, Decio; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes

    2011-06-01

    Emerging data reveal that oral estrogen therapy can increase clinic blood pressure (BP) in post-menopausal women; however, it is important to establish its effects on ambulatory BP, which is a better predictor for target-organ damage. Besides estrogen therapy, aerobic training is widely recommended for post-menopausal women, and it can decrease ambulatory BP levels. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of aerobic training and estrogen therapy on the ambulatory BP of post-menopausal women. Forty seven healthy hysterectomized women were randomly divided (in a double-blind manner) into 4 groups: placebo-control (PLA-CO=12), estrogen therapy-control (ET-CO=14), placebo-aerobic training (PLA-AT=12), and estrogen therapy-aerobic training (ET-AT=09). The ET groups received estradiol valerate (1 mg/day) and the AT groups performed cycle ergometer, 3×/week at moderate intensity. Hormonal status (blood analysis), maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (VO(2) peak) and ambulatory BP (24-h, daytime and nighttime) was evaluated before and 6 months after interventions. A significant increase in VO(2) peak was observed only in women who participated in aerobic training groups (+4.6±1.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P=0.00). Follicle-stimulating hormone was a significant decreased in the ET groups (-18.65±5.19 pg/ml, P=0.00), and it was accompanied by an increase in circulating estrogen (56.1±6.6 pg/ml). A significant increase was observed in the ET groups for daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime systolic BP (P=0.01), as well as nighttime diastolic BP (P=0.02). However, daytime diastolic BP was increased only in the ET-CO group (+3.4±1.2 mmHg, P=0.04), and did not change in any other groups. No significant effect was found in ambulatory heart rate. In conclusion, aerobic training abolished the increase of daytime ambulatory BP induced by estrogen therapy in hysterectomized, healthy, normotensive and postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A regional groundwater-flow model for sustainable groundwater-resource management in the south Asian megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Bayzidul; Firoz, A. B. M.; Foglia, Laura; Marandi, Andres; Khan, Abidur Rahman; Schüth, Christoph; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The water resources that supply most of the megacities in the world are under increased pressure because of land transformation, population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate-change impacts. Dhaka, in Bangladesh, is one of the largest of 22 growing megacities in the world, and it depends on mainly groundwater for all kinds of water needs. The regional groundwater-flow model MODFLOW-2005 was used to simulate the interaction between aquifers and rivers in steady-state and transient conditions during the period 1981-2013, to assess the impact of development and climate change on the regional groundwater resources. Detailed hydro-stratigraphic units are described according to 150 lithology logs, and a three-dimensional model of the upper 400 m of the Greater Dhaka area was constructed. The results explain how the total abstraction (2.9 million m3/d) in the Dhaka megacity, which has caused regional cones of depression, is balanced by recharge and induced river leakage. The simulated outcome shows the general trend of groundwater flow in the sedimentary Holocene aquifers under a variety of hydrogeological conditions, which will assist in the future development of a rational and sustainable management approach.

  20. A regional groundwater-flow model for sustainable groundwater-resource management in the south Asian megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Bayzidul; Firoz, A. B. M.; Foglia, Laura; Marandi, Andres; Khan, Abidur Rahman; Schüth, Christoph; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-05-01

    The water resources that supply most of the megacities in the world are under increased pressure because of land transformation, population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate-change impacts. Dhaka, in Bangladesh, is one of the largest of 22 growing megacities in the world, and it depends on mainly groundwater for all kinds of water needs. The regional groundwater-flow model MODFLOW-2005 was used to simulate the interaction between aquifers and rivers in steady-state and transient conditions during the period 1981-2013, to assess the impact of development and climate change on the regional groundwater resources. Detailed hydro-stratigraphic units are described according to 150 lithology logs, and a three-dimensional model of the upper 400 m of the Greater Dhaka area was constructed. The results explain how the total abstraction (2.9 million m3/d) in the Dhaka megacity, which has caused regional cones of depression, is balanced by recharge and induced river leakage. The simulated outcome shows the general trend of groundwater flow in the sedimentary Holocene aquifers under a variety of hydrogeological conditions, which will assist in the future development of a rational and sustainable management approach.

  1. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are

  2. Integrating geospatial and ground geophysical information as guidelines for groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrains of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mehnaz; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-08-01

    The increasing demand of water has brought tremendous pressure on groundwater resources in the regions were groundwater is prime source of water. The objective of this study was to explore groundwater potential zones in Maheshwaram watershed of Andhra Pradesh, India with semi-arid climatic condition and hard rock granitic terrain. GIS-based modelling was used to integrate remote sensing and geophysical data to delineate groundwater potential zones. In the present study, Indian Remote Sensing RESOURCESAT-1, Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-4) digital data, ASTER digital elevation model and vertical electrical sounding data along with other data sets were analysed to generate various thematic maps, viz., geomorphology, land use/land cover, geology, lineament density, soil, drainage density, slope, aquifer resistivity and aquifer thickness. Based on this integrated approach, the groundwater availability in the watershed was classified into four categories, viz. very good, good, moderate and poor. The results reveal that the modelling assessment method proposed in this study is an effective tool for deciphering groundwater potential zones for proper planning and management of groundwater resources in diverse hydrogeological terrains.

  3. Very preterm birth is a risk factor for increased systolic blood pressure at a young adult age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Keijzer-Veen (Mandy); A. Dülger (Arzu); F.W. Dekker (Friedo); J. Nauta (Jeroen); A.J. van der Heijden (Bert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChildren born very prematurely who show intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are suggested to be at risk of developing high blood pressure as adults. Renal function may already be impaired by young adult age. To study whether very preterm birth affects blood pressure in young adults, w

  4. Exhaled and arterial levels of endothelin-1 are increased and correlate with pulmonary systolic pressure in COPD with pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragonieri Silvano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1 and Nitric Oxide (NO are crucial mediators for establishing pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH. We tested the hypothesis that their imbalance might also occur in COPD patients with PAH. Methods The aims of the study were to measure exhaled breath condensate (EBC and circulating levels of ET-1, as well as exhaled NO (FENO levels by, respectively, a specific enzyme immunoassay kit, and by chemiluminescence analysis in 3 groups of subjects: COPD with PAH (12, COPD only (36, and healthy individuals (15. In order to evaluate pulmonary-artery systolic pressure (PaPs, all COPD patients underwent Echo-Doppler assessment. Results Significantly increased exhaled and circulating levels of ET-1 were found in COPD with PAH compared to both COPD (p 1%, (r = -0.59, p = 0.043, and PaPs negatively correlated to PaO2 (r = -0.618; p = 0.032. Significantly reduced levels of FENO were found in COPD associated with PAH, compared to COPD only (22.92 ± 11.38 vs.35.07 ± 17.53 ppb; p = 0.03. Thus, we observed an imbalanced output in the breath between ET-1 and NO, as expression of pulmonary endothelium and epithelium impairment, in COPD with PAH compared to COPD only. Whether this imbalance is an early cause or result of PAH due to COPD is still unknown and deserves further investigations.

  5. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  6. ~(15)N Isotope Used for Study of Groundwater Nitrogen Pollution in Shijiazhuang City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Shijiazhuang City is the capital of Hebei province, China. Groundwater is the major water supply source for living and industry need of the city. Due to a rapid increase of population and development of industry and agriculture, a series of groundwater environmental problems are created. In the paper, the situation of groundwater pollution in Shijiazhuang city is reported. Based on the groundwater chemical data and ~(15)N measurement results both on groundwater and soils, the reason of groundwater nitra...

  7. Gradual Rewarming with Gradual Increase in Pressure during Machine Perfusion after Cold Static Preservation Reduces Kidney Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paria Mahboub

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated whether gradual rewarming after the period of cold ischemia would improve organ quality in an Isolated Perfused Kidney Model. Left rat kidneys were statically cold stored in University of Wisconsin solution for 24 hours at 4°C. After cold storage kidneys were rewarmed in one of three ways: perfusion at body temperature (38°C, or rewarmed gradually from 10°C to 38°C with stabilization at 10°C for 30 min and rewarmed gradually from 10°C to 38°C with stabilization at 25°C for 30 min. In the gradual rewarming groups the pressure was increased stepwise to 40 mmHg at 10°C and 70 mmHg at 25°C to counteract for vasodilatation leading to low perfusate flows. Renal function parameters and injury biomarkers were measured in perfusate and urine samples. Increases in injury biomarkers such as aspartate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase in the perfusate were lower in the gradual rewarming groups versus the control group. Sodium re-absorption was improved in the gradual rewarming groups and reached significance in the 25°C group after ninety minutes of perfusion. HSP-70, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 mRNA expressions were decreased in the 10°C and 25°C groups. Based on the data kidneys that underwent gradual rewarming suffered less renal parenchymal, tubular injury and showed better endothelial preservation. Renal function improved in the gradual rewarming groups versus the control group.

  8. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaev, D. V.; Malykhin, E. M.; Zyryanov, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature TV was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O(3P), O2, O2(1Δg) and O3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O3 and O(3P) density profiles and TV calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter—ozone production probability (\\gamma_{O_{3}}) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O(3P) and O2. The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse \\gamma_{O_{3}} data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models—the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model—was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up the

  9. Rapid resolution of an acute subdural hematoma by increasing the shunt valve pressure in a 63-year-old man with normal-pressure hydrocephalus with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Jackson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Symptomatic subdural hematoma development is a constant concern for patients who have undergone cerebrospinal fluid shunting procedures to relieve symptoms related to normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Acute subdural hematomas are of particular concern in these patients as even minor head trauma may result in subdural hematoma formation. The presence of a ventricular shunt facilitates further expansion of the subdural hematoma and often necessitates surgical treatment, including subdural hematoma evacuation and shunt ligation. Case presentation We present the case of a 63-year-old North American Caucasian man with normal-pressure hydrocephalus with an adjustable valve ventriculoperitoneal shunt who developed an acute subdural hematoma after sustaining head trauma. Conservative treatment was favored over operative evacuation because our patient was neurologically intact, but simple observation was considered to be too high risk in the setting of a low-pressure ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Thus, the valve setting on the ventriculoperitoneal shunt was increased to its maximum pressure setting in order to reduce flow through the shunt and to mildly increase intracranial pressure in an attempt to tamponade any active bleeding and limit hematoma expansion. A repeat computed tomography scan of the head six days after the valve adjustment revealed complete resolution of the acute subdural hematoma. At this time, the valve pressure was reduced to its original setting to treat symptoms of normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Conclusions Programmable shunt valves afford the option for non-operative management of acute subdural hematoma in patients with ventricular shunts for normal-pressure hydrocephalus. As illustrated in this case report, increasing the shunt valve pressure may result in rapid resolution of the acute subdural hematoma in some patients.

  10. Arginase 1 mediates increased blood pressure and contributes to vascular endothelial dysfunction in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo A. Toque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced arginase (ARG activity has been identified as a factor that reduces nitric oxide (NO production and impairs endothelial function in vascular pathologies. Using a gene deletion model, we investigated involvement of arginase isoforms (1 and 2 in hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in a mineralocorticoid-salt mouse model. Hypertension was induced in wild type (WT, partial ARG1+/- knockout (KO and complete ARG2-/- KO mice by uninephrectomy and DOCA-salt treatment for 6-weeks. (Control uninephrectomized mice drank tap water. After 2 wks of DOCA-salt treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP was increased by ~15 mmHg in all mouse genotypes. SBP continued to rise in DOCA-salt WT and ARG2-/- mice to ~130 mmHg at 5-6 wks, whereas in ARG1+/- mice SBP waned toward control levels by 6 wks (109±4 vs 101±3 mmHg, respectively. DOCA-salt treatment in WT mice increased vascular ARG activity (aorta by 1.5-fold; mesenteric artery (MA by 2.6-fold and protein levels of ARG1 (aorta: 1.49-fold and MA: 1.73-fold versus WT Sham tissues. ARG2 protein increased in WT DOCA MA (by 2.15-fold but not in aorta compared to those of WT Sham tissues. Maximum endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in DOCA-salt WT mice and largely or partially maintained in DOCA ARG1+/- and ARG2-/- mice vs their Sham controls. DOCA-salt augmented contractile responses to phenylephrine in aorta of all mouse genotypes. Additionally, treatment of aorta or MA from WT DOCA mice with arginase inhibitor ABH (100 µM improved endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation. DOCA-salt induced coronary perivascular fibrosis (increased by 2.1-fold in WT was prevented in ARG1+/- and reduced in ARG2-/- mice. In summary, arginase is involved in murine DOCA-salt induced impairment of vascular function and hypertension and may represent a novel target for antihypertensive therapy.

  11. Monitoring subsidence with InSAR and inference of groundwater change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater use is increasing in many parts of the world due to population pressure and reduced availability of surface water and rainfall. California's Central Valley and southern Arizona in particular have experienced subsidence in many groundwater basins in recent years due to groundwater overdraft. In order to make informed decisions for adaptation, water resource managers need to know the extent of groundwater depletion, both spatially and volumetrically, and to be able to monitor it over long periods. Water wells provide one solution, but owing to remoteness, funding limitations, a lack of wells, and the difficulty of mandating government monitoring of private wells, less direct methods are necessary. Mapping and monitoring subsidence and rebound from orbit with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) may provide important indicators of groundwater state and dynamics for water resource managers as well as warnings of potential damage to infrastructure. We are working with water resource managers at the California Department of Water Resources to produce and update maps of subsidence 'hot-spots' where subsidence threatens to cause irreversible aquifer compaction and loss of groundwater storage capacity. In the future, Germany's TerraSAR-X, Italy's Cosmo SkyMed, Japan's PALSAR-2, Europe's Sentinels, and NASA's NISAR offer the promise of extending the time series of observations and expanding this capability to regions of the world with no effective means to monitor the state of their groundwater. This would provide societal benefits to large segments of the global population dependent on groundwater to bridge gaps in surface and rain water supply. As Earth's climate changes, monitoring of this critical resource will help reduce conflicts over water. * Work performed under contract to NASA

  12. Integrated sampling and analytical approach for common groundwater dissolved gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Kimberley; Ryan, M Cathryn; Chu, Angus

    2007-12-15

    A novel passive gas diffusion sampler (PGDS) combines sampling, storage and direct injection into a single gas chromatograph (GC). The sampler has a 4.5 mL internal volume when deployed, is easy to operate, and eliminates sample-partitioning. The associated GC method analyzes for a large, dynamic sampling range from a single, small volume injection. Dissolved gases were separated on parallel Rt-Molsieve 5A and Rt-Q-PLOT columns and eluted solutes were quantified using a pulse discharge helium ionization detector (PD-HID). The combined sampling and analytical method appears to be less prone to systematic bias than conventional sampling and headspace partitioning and analysis. Total dissolved gas pressure used in tandem with the PGDS improved the accuracy of dissolved gas concentrations. The incorporation of routine measurements of dissolved biogeochemical and permanent gases into groundwater investigations will provide increased insight into chemical and biological processes in groundwater and improve chemical mass balance accuracy.

  13. Uncertainty in global groundwater storage estimates in a Total Groundwater Stress framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is a finite resource under continuous external pressures. Current unsustainable groundwater use threatens the resilience of aquifer systems and their ability to provide a long‐term water source. Groundwater storage is considered to be a factor of groundwater resilience, although the extent to which resilience can be maintained has yet to be explored in depth. In this study, we assess the limit of groundwater resilience in the world's largest groundwater systems with remote sensing observations. The Total Groundwater Stress (TGS) ratio, defined as the ratio of total storage to the groundwater depletion rate, is used to explore the timescales to depletion in the world's largest aquifer systems and associated groundwater buffer capacity. We find that the current state of knowledge of large‐scale groundwater storage has uncertainty ranges across orders of magnitude that severely limit the characterization of resilience in the study aquifers. Additionally, we show that groundwater availability, traditionally defined as recharge and redefined in this study as total storage, can alter the systems that are considered to be stressed versus unstressed. We find that remote sensing observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment can assist in providing such information at the scale of a whole aquifer. For example, we demonstrate that a groundwater depletion rate in the Northwest Sahara Aquifer System of 2.69 ± 0.8 km3/yr would result in the aquifer being depleted to 90% of its total storage in as few as 50 years given an initial storage estimate of 70 km3. PMID:26900184

  14. Does a single cup of caffeinated drink significantly increase blood pressure in young adults?: A randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teng, Cheong Lieng; Lim, Wee Yang; Chua, Chen Zhi; Teo, Richard Soon Kiat; Lin, Kenny Tze Hoe; Yeoh, Jie Cong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that the blood pressure elevating effect of acute caffeine consumption was variable because of the heterogeneity of study participants, dosage of caffeine and study designs. Objective...

  15. Groundwater Level Prediction using M5 Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalarajan, Nitha Ayinippully; Mohandas, C.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource, readily available and having high economic value and social benefit. Recently, it had been considered a dependable source of uncontaminated water. During the past two decades, increased rate of extraction and other greedy human actions have resulted in the groundwater crisis, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Under prevailing circumstances, the availability of predicted groundwater levels increase the importance of this valuable resource, as an aid in the planning of groundwater resources. For this purpose, data-driven prediction models are widely used in the present day world. M5 model tree (MT) is a popular soft computing method emerging as a promising method for numeric prediction, producing understandable models. The present study discusses the groundwater level predictions using MT employing only the historical groundwater levels from a groundwater monitoring well. The results showed that MT can be successively used for forecasting groundwater levels.

  16. Perceived stress, sex and occupational status interact to increase the risk of future high blood pressure: the IPC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernik, Emmanuel; Nabi, Hermann; Pannier, Bruno; Czernichow, Sébastien; Hanon, Olivier; Simon, Tabassome; Simon, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Frédérique; Ducolombier, Cyril; Danchin, Nicolas; Limosin, Frédéric; Consoli, Silla M; Lemogne, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    Contrary to lay beliefs, current perceived stress is not consistently associated with the incidence of high blood pressure (BP) in prospective studies, possibly because of moderating factors. The present prospective study examined this association and explored the potential moderating effects of sex or occupational status. The 4-item Perceived Stress Scale was filled at baseline by 19 766 normotensive adults (13 652 men, mean age ± SD: 46.8 ± 9.3 years), without history of cardiovascular and renal disease, and not on either psychotropic or antihypertensive drugs. After a mean follow-up of 5.8 ± 2.1 years, 3774 participants (19.1%) had high BP, defined as having a SBP at least 140 mmHg or a DBP at least 90 mmHg, or using antihypertensive drugs. There was a significant interaction between baseline-perceived stress and sex (P = 0.02) in relation to high BP at follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, baseline perceived stress was associated with high BP at follow-up in women [odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.38, P = 0.016). In addition, the interaction between perceived stress and occupational status was significant among women (P = 0.02). Baseline-perceived stress was positively associated with high BP at follow-up among women of medium or low occupational status, with odds ratio suggesting a linear increase of the risk (P = 0.005). Perceived stress may be considered as a risk factor for hypertension in women of lower occupational status. Research addressing the relationships between stress and high BP should systematically look for possible interactions with sex and occupational status.

  17. Heterozygous disruption of activin receptor-like kinase 1 is associated with increased arterial pressure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María González-Núñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1 is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-β1, because increased TGF-β1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP and TGF-β expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1+/−. We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1+/− than in Alk1+/+ mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography were similar in both groups. Alk1+/− mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1+/+ mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1+/− mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1+/− and not in Alk1+/+ mice. Alk1+/− mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the β-adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1+/+ mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1+/− mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1+/− mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons.

  18. Early Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Patients With Neuropsychological Impairment Are Associated With Increased Fractional Anisotropy in the Anterior Thalamic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chieh; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Liou, Michelle; Kuo, Duen-Pang; Kao, Hung-Wen; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Ma, Hsin I; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Wu, Yu-Te; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the reactive changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived diffusion metrics of the anterior thalamic nucleus (AN), a relaying center for the Papez circuit, in early idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients with memory impairment, as well as its correlation with the patients' neuropsychological performances. In total, 28 probable iNPH patients with symptom onset within 1 year and 17 control subjects were prospectively recruited between 2010 and 2013 for this institutional review board-approved study. Imaging studies including DTI and a neuropsychological assessment battery were performed in all subjects. Diffusion metrics were measured from the region of the AN using tract-deterministic seeding method by reconstructing the mammillo-thalamo-cingulate connections within the Papez circuit. Differences in diffusion metrics and memory assessment scores between the patient and control group were examined via the Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman correlation analyses were performed to examine associations between diffusion metrics of AN and neuropsychological tests within the patient group. We discovered that early iNPH patients exhibited marked elevations in fractional anisotropy, pure diffusion anisotropy, and axial diffusivity (all P memory (all P metrics and neuropsychological test scores in the patient group, whereas ranked scatter plots clearly demonstrated a dichotic sample distribution between patient and control samples. In summary, our study highlighted the potential compensatory role of the AN by increasing thalamocortical connectivity within the Papez circuit because memory function declines in early iNPH when early shunt treatment may potentially reverse the memory deficits.

  19. Elevation in systolic blood pressure during heart failure hospitalization is associated with increased short and long-term mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Omer; Segal, Gad; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Goldenberg, Ilan; Grossman, Ehud; Klempfner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP) change during hospitalization of patients with heart failure (HF) and clinical outcomes has never been thoroughly investigated. A total of 3393 patients hospitalized with HF, from 25 hospitals in Israel, were enrolled. The SBP change was calculated by subtracting the discharge SBP values from the admission values and then divided into quartiles of SBP change. We compared the group with upper quartile SBP change to the lower 3 quartiles of change. Both groups had largely similar demographics and clinical characteristics. All-cause mortality rate was 24% at 1-year and 82.6% at 10-years, whereas patients in the upper SBP change group had significantly higher cumulative mortality probability at 1-year (30% vs 22%; log-rank P <0.001), and at 10-years (86% vs 82%; log-rank P <0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for comorbidities demonstrated that patients in the upper SBP change quartile have an independent 17% higher mortality risk at 10-years [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.28]. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that mortality risk was more pronounced in patients with preserved ejection fraction and in the subgroup with admission SBP ≥140 mm Hg. SBP change is significantly associated with 1- and 10-year all-cause mortality, as an increased SBP change is associated with worse prognosis. We believe that this readily available marker might facilitate risk stratification of patients and possibly improve care. PMID:28151864

  20. Model-based evaluation of subsurface monitoring networks for improved efficiency and predictive certainty of regional groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosses, M. J.; Wöhling, Th.; Moore, C. R.; Dann, R.; Scott, D. M.; Close, M.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater resources worldwide are increasingly under pressure. Demands from different local stakeholders add to the challenge of managing this resource. In response, groundwater models have become popular to make predictions about the impact of different management strategies and to estimate possible impacts of changes in climatic conditions. These models can assist to find optimal management strategies that comply with the various stakeholder needs. Observations of the states of the groundwater system are essential for the calibration and evaluation of groundwater flow models, particularly when they are used to guide the decision making process. On the other hand, installation and maintenance of observation networks are costly. Therefore it is important to design monitoring networks carefully and cost-efficiently. In this study, we analyse the Central Plains groundwater aquifer (~ 4000 km2) between the Rakaia and Waimakariri rivers on the Eastern side of the Southern Alps in New Zealand. The large sedimentary groundwater aquifer is fed by the two alpine rivers and by recharge from the land surface. The area is mainly under agricultural land use and large areas of the land are irrigated. The other major water use is the drinking water supply for the city of Christchurch. The local authority in the region, Environment Canterbury, maintains an extensive groundwater quantity and quality monitoring programme to monitor the effects of land use and discharges on groundwater quality, and the suitability of the groundwater for various uses, especially drinking-water supply. Current and projected irrigation water demand has raised concerns about possible impacts on groundwater-dependent lowland streams. We use predictive uncertainty analysis and the Central Plains steady-state groundwater flow model to evaluate the worth of pressure head observations in the existing groundwater well monitoring network. The data worth of particular observations is dependent on the problem

  1. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge is the basis for accurate estimation of groundwater resources, for determining the modes of water allocation and groundwater resource susceptibility to climate change. Accurate estimations of groundwater recharge with models...

  2. Orexins depolarize rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons and increase arterial pressure and heart rate in rats mainly via orexin 2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shang-Cheng; Dai, Yu-Wen E; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Chiou, Lih-Chu; Hwang, Ling-Ling

    2010-08-01

    An injection of orexin A or B into the cisterna magna or the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where bulbospinal vasomotor neurons are located, elevated arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR). We examined how orexins affected RVLM neurons to regulate cardiovascular functions by using in vitro recordings of neuronal activity of the RVLM and in vivo measurement of cardiovascular functions in rats. Orexin A and B concentration-dependently depolarized RVLM neurons. At 100 nM, both peptides excited 42% of RVLM neurons. Tetrodotoxin failed to block orexin-induced depolarization. In the presence of N-(2-methyl-6-benzoxazolyl)-N'-1, 5-naphthyridin-4-yl urea (SB-334867), an orexin 1 receptor (OX(1)R) antagonist, orexin A depolarized 42% of RVLM neurons with a smaller, but not significantly different, amplitude (4.9 +/- 0.8 versus 7.2 +/- 1.1 mV). In the presence of (2S)-1- (3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2(1H)-isoquinolinyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-[(4-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-1-butanone hydrochloride (TCS OX2 29), an orexin 2 receptor (OX(2)R) antagonist, orexin A depolarized 25% of RVLM neurons with a significantly smaller amplitude (1.7 +/- 0.5 mV). Coapplication of both antagonists completely eliminated orexin A-induced depolarization. An OX(2)R agonist, [Ala(11),D-Leu(15)]-orexin B, concentration-dependently depolarized RVLM neurons. Regarding neuronal phenotypes, orexins depolarized 88% of adrenergic, 43% of nonadrenergic, and 36 to 41% of rhythmically firing RVLM neurons. Intracisternal TCS OX2 29 (3 and 10 nmol) suppressed intracisternal orexin A-induced increases of AP and HR, whereas intracisternal SB-334867 (3 and 10 nmol) had no effect on the orexin A-induced increase of HR but suppressed the orexin A-induced pressor response at 10 nmol. We concluded that orexins directly excite RVLM neurons, which include bulbospinal vasomotor neurons, and regulate cardiovascular function mainly via the OX(2)R, with a smaller contribution from the OX(1)R.

  3. Deletion of Cyclooxygenase-2 in the mouse increases arterial blood pressure with no impairment in renal NO production in response to chronic high salt intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Mette; Hansen, Pernille B L; Madsen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that COX-2 activity attenuates the blood pressure increase during high NaCl intake by stimulation of eNOS-mediated NO synthesis in the kidney medulla. COX-2(-/-) (C57BL6) and (+/+) mice were fed a diet with 0.004% (LS) or 4% (HS) NaCl for 18 days....... Arterial blood pressure was recorded continuously using indwelling catheters. Food and water intake and diuresis were measured in metabolic cages. Urine osmolality and excretion of electrolytes, cGMP, cAMP and NOx were determined, as well as plasma NOx and cGMP. There was a significant dependence of blood...... pressure on salt intake and genotype: COX-2(-/-) exhibited higher blood pressure than COX-2(+/+) both on HS and LS intake. COX-2(+/+) littermates displayed an increase in blood pressure on HS vs. LS (102.3±1.1 mmHg vs. 91.9±0.9 mmHg) day and night. The mice exhibited significant blood pressure increases...

  4. Groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  5. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  6. Groundwater Recharge Rates and Surface Runoff Response to Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Semi-arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuor, Steven; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Guzha, Alphonce; Rufino, Mariana; Pelster, David; Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Conclusive evidence and understanding of the effects of land use and land cover (LULC) on both groundwater recharge and surface runoff is critical for effective management of water resources in semi-arid region as those heavily depend on groundwater resources. However, there is limited quantitative evidence on how changes to LULC in semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions affect the subsurface components of the hydrologic cycle, particularly groundwater recharge. In this study, we reviewed a total of 27 studies (2 modelling and 25 experimental), which reported on pre- and post-land use change groundwater recharge or surface runoff magnitude, and thus allowed to quantify the response of groundwater recharge rates and runoff to LULC. Restoration of bare land induces a decrease in groundwater recharge from 42 % of precipitation to between 6 and 12 % depending on the final LULC. If forests are cleared for rangelands, groundwater recharge increases by 7.8 ± 12.6 %, while conversion to cropland or grassland results in increases of 3.4 ± 2.5 and 4.4 ± 3.3 %, respectively. Rehabilitation of bare land to cropland results in surface runoff reductions of between 5.2 and 7.3 %. The conversion of forest vegetation to managed LULC shows an increase in surface runoff from 1 to 14.1 % depending on the final LULC. Surface runoff is reduced from 2.5 to 1.1 % when grassland is converted to forest vegetation. While there is general consistency in the results from the selected case studies, we conclude that there are few experimental studies that have been conducted in tropical and subtropical semi-arid regions, despite that many people rely heavily on groundwater for their livelihoods. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase the body of quantitative evidence given the pressure of growing human population and climate change on water resources in the region.

  7. Risk for intracranial pressure increase related to enclosed air in post-craniotomy patients during air ambulance transport: a retrospective cohort study with simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändström, Helge; Sundelin, Anna; Hoseason, Daniela; Sundström, Nina; Birgander, Richard; Johansson, Göran; Winsö, Ola; Koskinen, Lars-Owe; Haney, Michael

    2017-05-12

    Post-craniotomy intracranial air can be present in patients scheduled for air ambulance transport to their home hospital. We aimed to assess risk for in-flight intracranial pressure (ICP) increases related to observed intracranial air volumes, hypothetical sea level pre-transport ICP, and different potential flight levels and cabin pressures. A cohort of consecutive subdural hematoma evacuation patients from one University Medical Centre was assessed with post-operative intracranial air volume measurements by computed tomography. Intracranial pressure changes related to estimated intracranial air volume effects of changing atmospheric pressure (simulating flight and cabin pressure changes up to 8000 ft) were simulated using an established model for intracranial pressure and volume relations. Approximately one third of the cohort had post-operative intracranial air. Of these, approximately one third had intracranial air volumes less than 11 ml. The simulation estimated that the expected changes in intracranial pressure during 'flight' would not result in intracranial hypertension. For intracranial air volumes above 11 ml, the simulation suggested that it was possible that intracranial hypertension could develop 'inflight' related to cabin pressure drop. Depending on the pre-flight intracranial pressure and air volume, this could occur quite early during the assent phase in the flight profile. DISCUSSION: These findings support the idea that there should be radiographic verification of the presence or absence of intracranial air after craniotomy for patients planned for long distance air transport. Very small amounts of air are clinically inconsequential. Otherwise, air transport with maintained ground-level cabin pressure should be a priority for these patients.

  8. Increase of lower esophageal sphincter pressure after osteopathic intervention on the diaphragm in patients with gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, R C V; de Sá, C C; Pascual-Vaca, Á O; de Souza Fontes, L H; Herbella Fernandes, F A M; Dib, R A; Blanco, C R; Queiroz, R A; Navarro-Rodriguez, T

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease may be clinical or surgical. The clinical consists basically of the use of drugs; however, there are new techniques to complement this treatment, osteopathic intervention in the diaphragmatic muscle is one these. The objective of the study is to compare pressure values in the examination of esophageal manometry of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) before and immediately after osteopathic intervention in the diaphragm muscle. Thirty-eight patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease - 16 submitted to sham technique and 22 submitted osteopathic technique - were randomly selected. The average respiratory pressure (ARP) and the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) of the LES were measured by manometry before and after osteopathic technique at the point of highest pressure. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney, and magnitude of the technique proposed was measured using the Cohen's index. Statistically significant difference in the osteopathic technique was found in three out of four in relation to the group of patients who performed the sham technique for the following measures of LES pressure: ARP with P= 0.027. The MEP had no statistical difference (P= 0.146). The values of Cohen d for the same measures were: ARP with d= 0.80 and MEP d= 0.52. Osteopathic manipulative technique produces a positive increment in the LES region soon after its performance.

  9. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  10. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  11. Groundwater-abstraction induced land subsidence and groundwater regulation in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H.; Wang, L.; Cheng, G.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence can be induced when various factors such as geological, and hydrogeological conditions and intensive groundwater abstraction combine. The development and utilization of groundwater in the North China Plain (NCP) bring great benefits, and at the same time have led to a series of environmental and geological problems accompanying groundwater-level declines and land subsidence. Subsidence occurs commonly in the NCP and analyses show that multi-layer aquifer systems with deep confined aquifers and thick compressible clay layers are the key geological and hydrogeological conditions responsible for its development in this region. Groundwater overdraft results in aquifer-system compaction, resulting in subsidence. A calibrated, transient groundwater-flow numerical model of the Beijing plain portion of the NCP was developed using MODFLOW. According to available water supply and demand in Beijing plain, several groundwater regulation scenarios were designed. These different regulation scenarios were simulated with the groundwater model, and assessed using a multi-criteria fuzzy pattern recognition model. This approach is proven to be very useful for scientific analysis of sustainable development and utilization of groundwater resources. The evaluation results show that sustainable development of groundwater resources may be achieved in Beijing plain when various measures such as control of groundwater abstraction and increase of artificial recharge combine favourably.

  12. Increasing silver leaching rate from leaching-resistant zinc residues by thiourea leaching method with pressurized preoxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天觉; 曾光明; 黄国和; 袁兴中; 李建兵

    2003-01-01

    As for the leaching-resistant zinc residues, the silver leaching rate can be over 98% through the processof pressurized preoxidation and thiourea leaching. Compared with the method of extracting the silver directly fromthe leaching-resistant zinc residues, the silver leaching rate is greatly improved. The optimum preoxidation condi-tions are: particle size range 40 - 60 μm, oxygen partial pressure 106 Pa, temperature 80 - 90 ℃, pH= 1.0, andleaching time 5 h. After pretreatment, the time of thiourea leaching silver is shortened to 1.5 h, and the thioureaconsumption is reduced greatly. The oxidation mechanism and the thiourea leaching kinetics were also explored.

  13. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  14. Evapotranspiration Dynamics and Effects on Groundwater Recharge and Discharge at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management is evaluating groundwater flow and contaminant transport at a former uranium mill site near Tuba City, Arizona. We estimated effects of temporal and spatial variability in evapotranspiration (ET) on recharge and discharge within a groundwater model domain (GMD) as part of this evaluation. We used remote sensing algorithms and precipitation (PPT) data to estimate ET and the ET/PPT ratios within the 3531 hectare GMD. For the period from 2000 to 2012, ET and PPT were nearly balanced (129 millimeters per year [mm yr-1] and 130 mm yr-1, respectively; ET/PPT = 0.99). However, seasonal and annual variability in ET and PPT were out of phase, and spatial variability in vegetation differentiated discharge and recharge areas within the GMD. Half of ET occurred during spring and early summer when PPT was low, and about 70% of PPT arriving in fall and winter was discharged as plant transpiration in the spring and summer period. Vegetation type and health had a significant effect on the site water balance. Plant cover and ET were significantly higher (1) during years of lighter compared to years of heavier grazing pressure, and (2) on rangeland protected from grazing compared to rangeland grazed by livestock. Heavy grazing increased groundwater recharge (PPT > ET over the 13-year period). Groundwater discharge (ET > PPT over the 13-year period) was highest in riparian phreatophyte communities but insignificant in desert phreatophyte communities impacted by heavy grazing. Grazing management in desert upland and phreatophyte communities may result in reduced groundwater recharge, increased groundwater discharge, and could be used to influence local groundwater flow.

  15. Evolution of critical pressure with increasing Fe substitution in the heavy-fermion system URu2-xFexSi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowiec, C. T.; Kanchanavatee, N.; Huang, K.; Ran, S.; Maple, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    Measurements of electrical resistivity, ρ (T ) , were performed under quasihydrostatic pressure up to P ˜2.2 GPa to determine the pressure dependence of the so-called hidden order (HO) and large-moment antiferromagnetic (LMAFM) phases for the URu2 -xFexSi2 system with x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20. As the Fe concentration (x ) is increased, we observed that a smaller amount of external pressure, Pc, is required to induce the HO → LMAFM phase transition. A critical pressure of Pc˜1.2 GPa at x =0.025 reduces to Pc˜0 at x =0.15 , suggesting the URu2 -xFexSi2 system is fully expressed in the LMAFM phase for x ≥xc*=0.15 , where xc* denotes the ambient pressure critical concentration of Fe. Using a bulk modulus calculation to convert x to chemical pressure, Pch(x ) , we consistently found that the induced HO → LMAFM phase transition occurred at various combinations of xc and Pc such that Pch(xc) +Pc≈1.5 GPa, where xc denotes those critical concentrations of Fe that induce the HO → LMAFM phase transition for the URu2 -xFexSi2 compounds under pressure. We performed exponential fits of ρ (T ) in the HO and LMAFM phases in order to determine the pressure dependence of the energy gap, Δ , that opens over part of the Fermi surface in the transition from the paramagnetic (PM) phase to the HO/LMAFM phase at the transition temperature, T0. The change in the pressure variation of Δ (P ) at the HO → LMAFM phase transition is consistent with the values of Pc determined from the T0(P ) phase lines at the PM → HO/LMAFM transition.

  16. The duration of fibre-optic intubation is increased by cricoid pressure. A randomised double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenkiel, Bjørn; Smitt, M; Olsen, K S

    2013-01-01

    In some categories of patients, a rapid sequence induction using a fibre-optic method may be indicated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of cricoid pressure (CP) on the duration of fibre-optic intubation. The hypothesis was that CP would prolong the intubation time....

  17. Increased susceptibility of ß-glucosidase from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus to thermal inactivation at higher pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M.E.; Meersman, F.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Heremans, K.; Boom, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    The stability of ß-glucosidase from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was studied as a function of pressure, temperature and pH. The conformational stability was monitored using FTIR spectroscopy, and the functional enzyme stability was monitored by inactivation studies. The enzyme proved to

  18. Application of pressure relief and permeability increased by slotting a coal seam with a rotary type cutter working across rock layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Chunming; Lin Baiquan; Meng Fanwei; Zhang Qizhi; Zhai Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Pressure relief to increase permeability significantly improves gas extraction efficiency from coal seams.In this paper we report results from simulations using FLAC3D code to analyze changes in coal displacement and stress after special drill slots were formed.We investigated the mechanism of pressure relief and permeability increase in a high-gas and low-permeability coal seam through the modeling of gas flow.This allows the development of the technology.Slotting across rock layers in the coal seam with a rotary type cutter was then applied in the field.The results show that pressure relief and permeability increases from slotting the coal seam can increase the transport and the fracture of the coal.This expands the range of pressure relief from the drilling and increases the exposed area of the seam.The total quantity of gas extracted from slotted bore holes was three times that seen with ordinary drilling.The concentration of gas extracted from the slotted drills was from two to three times that seen using ordinary drills.The gas flow was stable at 80%.Improved permeability and more efficient gas extraction are the result of the slotting.The roadway development rate is increased by 30-50% after gas drainage.This technology diminishes the lag between longwall production and roadway development and effectively prevents coal and gas outburst,which offers the prospect of broad application.

  19. Groundwater Level Status Report for Fiscal Year 2007 - Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon P. Allen, Richard J. Koch

    2008-03-17

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2007 is provided in this report. The Groundwater Level Monitoring Project was instituted in 2005 to provide a framework for the collection and processing of quality controlled groundwater level data. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 166 monitoring wells, including 45 regional aquifer wells, 25 intermediate wells, and 96 alluvial wells, and 11 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 133 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well.

  20. Groundwater Level Status Report for Fiscal Year 2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon P. Allen, Richard J. Koch

    2007-03-30

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2006 is provided in this report. The Groundwater Level Monitoring Project was instituted in 2005 for providing a framework for the collection and processing of quality controlled groundwater level data. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 158 monitoring wells, including 43 regional aquifer wells, 23 intermediate wells, and 92 alluvial wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 132 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well.

  1. Estimated aortic blood pressure based on radial artery tonometry underestimates directly measured aortic blood pressure in patients with advancing chronic kidney disease staging and increasing arterial stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Rasmus K; Peters, Christian D; Khatir, Dinah S;

    2016-01-01

    we compared invasive aortic systolic BP (SBP) with estimated central SBP obtained by radial artery tonometry and examined the influence of renal function and arterial stiffness on this relationship. We evaluated 83 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30 ml......% confidence interval -14.9 to -11.4) mm Hg. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and was significantly increased in CKD patients compared with (versus) control patients (mean 10.7 vs. 9.3 m/s). The difference in BP significantly increased 1.0 mm Hg for every 10 ml....../min decrease in eGFR and by 1.6 mm Hg per 1 m/s increase in cfPWV. Using multivariate regression analysis including both eGFR and cfPWV, the difference between estimated central and invasive aortic SBP was significantly increased by 0.7 mm Hg. For the entire cohort brachial SBP significantly better reflected...

  2. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of groundwater in aguanaval and chupaderos aquifers (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate regional groundwater assessment studies are essential for the correct groundwater management by policy/decision makers; increased use of groundwater resources and drought have led to concern about the future availability of groundwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environ...

  3. On the increase in the limiting current of an atmospheric-pressure glow discharge in an argon flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldanov, B. B.; Ranzhurov, Ts. V.

    2014-04-01

    The initiation of an atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) is studied in the multitip cathode-planar anode electrode system through which an argon flow passes. It is shown that sectioning of the cathode and ballast resistances present at corona tips make it possible to substantially expand the current region of the discharge and considerably raise the limiting current of the APGD. The shape of the coronafree electrode is found to influence the limiting discharge current.

  4. Importance of increased intraosseous pressure in the development of osteonecrosis of the femoral head: implications for treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungerford, D.S.; Lennox, D.W.

    1985-10-01

    Early diagnosis of osteonecrosis by radiograph, bone scan, CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraosseous pressure measurement, or intraosseous venogram can lead to early successful treatment. For early (Ficat stages I and II) osteonecrosis of the hip, core decompression can provide diagnostic confirmation and pain relief and may prevent progression of disease. For more advanced disease (Ficat stages II and IV), osteotomy, endoprosthetic or bipolar prosthetic replacement, total hip arthroplasty, and arthrodesis are surgical options.86 references.

  5. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects’ heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces we...

  6. Factor weighting in DRASTIC modelling for assessing the groundwater vulnerability in Salatiga groundwater basin, Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesuma, D. A.; Purwanto, P.; Putranto, T. T.; Rahmani, T. P. D.

    2017-06-01

    The increase in human population as well as area development in Salatiga Groundwater Basin, Central Java Province, will increase the potency of groundwater contamination in that area. Groundwater quality, especially the shallow groundwater, is very vulnerable to the contamination from industrial waste, fertilizer/agricultural waste, and domestic waste. The first step in the conservation of groundwater quality is by conducting the mapping of the groundwater vulnerability zonation against the contamination. The result of this research was groundwater vulnerability map which showed the areas vulnerable to the groundwater contamination. In this study, groundwater vulnerability map was assessed based on the DRASTIC Method and was processed spatially using Geographic Information System. The DRASTIC method is used to assess the level of groundwater vulnerability based on weighting on seven parameters, which are: depth to the water table (D), recharge (R), aquifer material (A), soil media (S), topography (T), impact of vadose zone (I), and hydraulic conductivity (C). The higher the DRASTIC Index will result in the higher vulnerability level of groundwater contamination in that area. The DRASTIC Indexes in the researched area were 85 - 100 (low vulnerability level), 101 -120 (low to moderate vulnerability level), 121 - 140 (moderate vulnerability level), 141 - 150, (moderate to high vulnerability level), and 151 - 159 (high vulnerability level). The output of this study can be used by local authority as a tool for consideration to arrange the policy for sustainable area development, especially the development in an area affecting the quality of Salatiga Groundwater Basin.

  7. Mean Transit Time as a Predictor of Groundwater Discharge Response in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, J. E.; Heilweil, V. M.; Stolp, B. J.; Susong, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries support 40 million municipal water users and 5.5 million acres of agriculture in the south western United States (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 2012). Recent estimates by Rumsey et al. (2015) suggest that a significant portion (about 50 percent) of surface water flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) is sustained by groundwater discharge to streams. Predicted climate variation (Cook et al., 2015) and increased water demand (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 2012) within the UCRB suggest future decreases in groundwater discharge, however transient groundwater responses are not well understood. In this study we calculate groundwater mean transit time (MTT) and transit time distribution (TTD) as predictors of the pattern and timing of groundwater response to hydraulic stress. Samples from nineteen large springs within the UCRB were analyzed for environmental tracers to determine MTT and TTD. The predictive value of the MTT is examined by a statistical analysis of MTT, historical spring discharge records, and the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index. MTTs of the 19 springs range from 10 to 15,000 years with a flow-weighted average of 1,650 years. The composite TTD of the 19 springs suggest that flowpaths representing 45 percent of their combined discharge have transit times greater than 100 years. However, spring discharge records indicate that flow responds to drought on much shorter (0.5 - 6 year) time scales, indicative of a hydraulic pressure response. Springs with shorter MTTs ( 100) also show a hydraulic pressure response. While not fully representative of the UCRB, results from the 19 springs indicate that groundwater discharge responds to climate variation and water-demand imbalances over a relatively short time period of years.

  8. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl(-) concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM(ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl(-) concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl(-) concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM(ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015-2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl(-) concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175mg/l and 200mg/l. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Excessive negative venous line pressures and increased arterial air bubble counts during miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass: an experimental study comparing miniaturized with conventional perfusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Anas; Liebing, Kai; Börgermann, Jochen; Ensminger, Stephan; Zittermann, Armin; Renner, Andre; Hakim-Meibodi, Kavous; Gummert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass (MCPB) is increasingly used in cardiac surgery, because it can lower clinically significant complications such as systemic inflammatory response, haemolysis and high transfusion requirements. A limitation of MCPB is the risk of excessive negative pressure in the venous line during volume depletion, probably leading to gaseous microembolism. In an experimental study with 24 pigs, we compared conventional open cardiopulmonary bypass (CCPB group, n = 11) with MCPB (n = 13). The same pump and identical tubing materials were used in both groups. Primary endpoints were pressure values in the venous line and the right atrium as well as the amount of air bubbles >500 µm. Secondary endpoints were biochemical parameters of systemic inflammatory response, ischaemia, haemodilution and haemolysis. Nearly 20% of venous pressure values were below -150 mmHg and approximately 10% of the right atrial pressure values were below -100 mmHg in the MCPB group, during the experiment. No such low values were observed in the CCPB group. In addition, the number of large arterial air bubbles was higher in the MCPB group compared with the CCPB group (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 13 444 ± 5709 vs 0.9 ± 0.6, respectively; P systemic inflammatory response and haemolysis, this technique is associated with excessive negative venous line pressures and a significant increase in the number and volume of arterial air bubbles compared with CCPB. Mini-perfusion systems and the management of MCPB require further refinements to avoid such adverse effects.

  10. Growth hormone receptor deficiency in mice results in reduced systolic blood pressure and plasma renin, increased aortic eNOS expression, and altered cardiovascular structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egecioglu, E; Andersson, I J; Bollano, E

    2007-01-01

    .05) and increased aortic endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression (146%, P pressure (BP, 110 +/- 4 vs. 147 +/- 3 mmHg, P ....05) in GHR KO. Relative left ventricular weight was 14% lower in GHR KO mice (P ... to acetylcholine (P causes functional and morphological changes in both heart and vasculature that are beyond the observed alterations in body size...

  11. Age-related effects of increased ambient pressure on discrimination reaction time: A study in 105 professional divers at 6.0 atm abs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkinen, Janne; Siimes, Martti A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated 105 professional divers using a computerized visual discrimination trial (Cognitrone) to measure the effects of ambient pressure on reaction times. The possible improvement in performance due to practice was anticipated, and the trials were carried out four times prior to pressurization in a hyperbaric chamber. The effect of increased ambient pressure was measured at 6.0 and 1.9 atm abs, and the potential for residual effects was tested after decompression. The results of our study indicate that repeated testing had a systematic influence on the measured time values. The effects of learning, which were independent of diver age, may have independently influenced response times. Exposure to 6.0 atm abs modified the systematic pattern of learning and was associated with increased reaction times. There were also age-related differences in response times associated with exposure to increased ambient pressures. Younger divers were more susceptible to elevated ambient pressure, evidenced by increased response times at 6 atm abs relative to their older colleagues. One out of every four of the younger divers could be considered susceptible to inert gas narcosis (ION) when an increase of one standard deviation/1SD (> 19%) or more in discrimination reaction time is used as an indicator. ION susceptibility appears independent of body composition and physical fitness. The slowed response speed experienced at 6.0 atm abs was of short duration and returned to baseline immediately with decompression. Our results suggest that IGN is demonstrated by an impaired learning process and decreased response speed and that some younger divers appear more susceptible.

  12. High Central Aortic Rather than Brachial Blood Pressure is Associated with Carotid Wall Remodeling and Increased Arterial Stiffness in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Gonzalo; García-Espinosa, Victoria; Curcio, Santiago; Marota, Marco; Castro, Juan; Chiesa, Pedro; Giachetto, Gustavo; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina

    2017-03-01

    In adults, central blood pressure (cBP) is reported to associate target organ damages (TODs) rather than peripheral blood pressure (pBP). However, data regarding the association of pre-clinical TODs with cBP and pBP in pediatric populations are scarce. To evaluate in children and adolescents the importance of cBP and pBP levels, in terms of their association with hemodynamic and vascular changes. 315 subjects [age (mean/range) 12/8-18 years] were included. pBP (oscillometry, Omron-HEM433INT and Mobil-O-Graph), cBP levels and waveforms (oscillometry, Mobil-O-Graph; applanation tonometry, SphygmoCor), aortic wave reflection-related parameters, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid (elastic modulus, stiffness-index) and aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, PWV). Four groups were defined considering pBP and cBP percentiles (th): cBP ≥90th, cBP blood pressure (cBP or pBP). Subgroups were matched for anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors (propensity matching-score). Subjects with high cBP showed a worse cardiovascular risk profile in addition to worse peripheral hemodynamic conditions. The CIMT, carotid and aortic stiffness levels were also higher in those subjects. CIMT and carotid stiffness remained statistically higher when subjects were matched for pBP and other cardiovascular risk factors. There were no differences in arterial properties when subjects were analyzed (compared) considering similar pBP levels, during normal and high cBP conditions. Compared with pBP, the cBP levels show a greater association with vascular alterations (high CIMT and arterial stiffness), in children and adolescents.

  13. IMF By effects on ground magnetometer response to increased solar wind dynamic pressure derived from global MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Dogacan Su; Zou, Shasha; Slavin, James A.

    2017-05-01

    During sudden solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements, the magnetosphere undergoes rapid compression resulting in a reconfiguration of the global current systems, most notably the field-aligned currents (FACs). Ground-based magnetometers are traditionally used to study such compression events. However, factors affecting the polarity and magnitude of the ground-based magnetic perturbations are still not well understood. In particular, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By is known to create significant asymmetries in the FAC patterns. We use the University of Michigan Block Adaptive Tree Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS'R'US) magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the effects of IMF By on the global variations of ground magnetic perturbations during solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements. Using virtual magnetometers in three idealized simulations with varying IMF By, we find asymmetries in the peak amplitude and magnetic local time of the ground magnetic perturbations during the preliminary impulse (PI) and the main impulse (MI) phases. These asymmetries are especially evident at high-latitude ground magnetometer responses where the peak amplitudes differ by 50 nT at different locations. We show that the FACs related with the PI are due to magnetopause deformation, and the FACs related with the MI are generated by vortical flows within the magnetosphere, consistent with other simulation results. The perturbation FACs due to pressure enhancements and their magnetospheric sources do not differ much under different IMF By polarities. However, the conductance profile affected by the superposition of the preexisting FACs and the perturbation FACs including their closure currents is responsible for the magnitude and location asymmetries in the ground magnetic perturbations.

  14. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  15. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucs, Sz S; Valladares Linares, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-15

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC). Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  16. Increased natriuretic peptide receptor A and C gene expression in rats with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Tue E.H.; Aplin, Mark; Strom, Claes C.

    2006-01-01

    Both atrial (ANP) and brain (BNP) natriuretic peptide affect development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis via binding to natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A in the heart. A putative clearance receptor, NPR-C, is believed to regulate cardiac levels of ANP and BNP. The renin-angiotensin system...... also affects cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. In this study we examined the expression of genes for the NPRs in rats with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. The ANG II type 1 receptor was blocked with losartan (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) to investigate a possible role of the renin-angiotensin system...

  17. Increased natriuretic peptide receptor A and C gene expression in rats with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Tue E.H.; Aplin, Mark; Strom, Claes C.

    2006-01-01

    Both atrial (ANP) and brain (BNP) natriuretic peptide affect development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis via binding to natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A in the heart. A putative clearance receptor, NPR-C, is believed to regulate cardiac levels of ANP and BNP. The renin-angiotensin system...... also affects cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. In this study we examined the expression of genes for the NPRs in rats with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. The ANG II type 1 receptor was blocked with losartan (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) to investigate a possible role of the renin-angiotensin system...

  18. Assessment of Groundwater Resources in the Context of Climate Change and Population Growth: Case of the Klela Basin in Southern Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Toure

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater in the Klela basin in Mali, a subbasin of the Bani basin (one of the main tributaries of the Niger River, is required for domestic use, irrigation and livestock. Furthermore, water supply of the city of Sikasso directly depends on the groundwater resources, which are under pressure caused by increased water demand as well as climate variability and climate change. As a consequence, freshwater availability is being threatened which can have a direct negative impact on irrigation agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate future behavior of groundwater resources in the context of climate change and population growth using socio-economic and population growth scenarios for water demand and the Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 data for calculating groundwater recharge using the Thornthwaite model. The WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning system model was applied to balance water availability and demand and to compute changes in groundwater storage up to 2050. The overall results show that groundwater recharge as well as storage is decreasing over time, especially in the 2030s which can lead to severe agricultural droughts in this period. Recharge declined by approximatively 49% and stored groundwater by 24% over the study period.

  19. Groundwater level responses to precipitation variability in Mediterranean insular aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Garcia, Celso; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the largest and most important sources of fresh water on many regions under Mediterranean climate conditions, which are exposed to large precipitation variability that includes frequent meteorological drought episodes, and present high evapotranspiration rates and water demand during the dry season. The dependence on groundwater increases in those areas with predominant permeable lithologies, contributing to aquifer recharge and the abundance of ephemeral streams. The increasing pressure of tourism on water resources in many Mediterranean coastal areas, and uncertainty related to future precipitation and water availability, make it urgent to understand the spatio-temporal response of groundwater bodies to precipitation variability, if sustainable use of the resource is to be achieved. We present an assessment of the response of aquifers to precipitation variability based on correlations between the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at various time scales and the Standardized Groundwater Index (SGI) across a Mediterranean island. We detected three main responses of aquifers to accumulated precipitation anomalies: (i) at short time scales of the SPI (24 months). The differing responses were mainly explained by differences in lithology and the percentage of highly permeable rock strata in the aquifer recharge areas. We also identified differences in the months and seasons when aquifer storages are more dependent on precipitation; these were related to climate seasonality and the degree of aquifer exploitation or underground water extraction. The recharge of some aquifers, especially in mountainous areas, is related to precipitation variability within a limited spatial extent, whereas for aquifers located in the plains, precipitation variability influence much larger areas; the topography and geological structure of the island explain these differences. Results indicate large spatial variability in the response of aquifers to precipitation in

  20. Intraindividual Increase of Homeostatic Sleep Pressure Across Acute and Chronic Sleep Loss: A High-Density EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Angelina; Lustenberger, Caroline; Werth, Esther; Baumann, Christian R; Poryazova, Rositsa; Huber, Reto

    2017-09-01

    To compare intraindividually the effects of acute sleep deprivation (ASD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR) on the homeostatic increase in slow wave activity (SWA) and to relate it to impairments in basic cognitive functioning, that is, vigilance. The increase in SWA after ASD (40 hours of wakefulness) and after CSR (seven nights with time in bed restricted to 5 hours per night) relative to baseline sleep was assessed in nine healthy, male participants (age = 18-26 years) by high-density electroencephalography. The SWA increase during the initial part of sleep was compared between the two conditions of sleep loss. The increase in SWA was related to the increase in lapses of vigilance in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) during the preceding days. While ASD induced a stronger increase in initial SWA than CSR, the increase was globally correlated across the two conditions in most electrodes. The increase in initial SWA was positively associated with the increase in PVT lapses. The individual homeostatic response in SWA is globally preserved across acute and chronic sleep loss, that is, individuals showing a larger increase after ASD also do so after CSR and vice versa. Furthermore, the increase in SWA is globally correlated to vigilance impairments after sleep loss over both conditions. Thus, the increase in SWA might therefore provide a physiological marker for individual differences in performance impairments after sleep loss.

  1. Groundwater dating for understanding nitrogen in groundwater systems - Time lag, fate, and detailed flow path ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Hadfield, John; Stenger, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is a problem world-wide. Nitrate from land use activities can leach out of the root zone of the crop into the deeper part of the unsaturated zone and ultimately contaminate the underlying groundwater resources. Nitrate travels with the groundwater and then discharges into surface water causing eutrophication of surface water bodies. To understand the source, fate, and future nitrogen loads to ground and surface water bodies, detailed knowledge of the groundwater flow dynamics is essential. Groundwater sampled at monitoring wells or discharges may not yet be in equilibrium with current land use intensity due to the time lag between leaching out of the root zone and arrival at the sampling location. Anoxic groundwater zones can act as nitrate sinks through microbial denitrification. However, the effect of denitrification on overall nitrate fluxes depends on the fraction of the groundwater flowing through such zones. We will show results from volcanic aquifers in the central North Island of New Zealand where age tracers clearly indicate that the groundwater discharges into large sensitive lakes like Lake Taupo and Lake Rotorua are not yet fully realising current land use intensity. The majority of the water discharging into these lakes is decades and up to over hundred years old. Therefore, increases in dairy farming over the last decades are not yet reflected in these old water discharges, but over time these increased nitrate inputs will eventually work their way through the large groundwater systems and increasing N loads to the lakes are to be expected. Anoxic zones are present in some of these aquifers, indicating some denitrification potential, however, age tracer results from nested piezo wells show young groundwater in oxic zones indicating active flow in these zones, while anoxic zones tend to have older water indicating poorer hydraulic conductivity in these zones. Consequently, to evaluate the effect of denitrification

  2. Increased diuresis, renal vascular reactivity, and blood pressure levels in young rats fed high sodium, moderately high fructose, or their association: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Rita de Cássia Vilhena A F; de Souza, Priscila; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    Excessive intakes of sodium or fructose have been described as risk factors for hypertension. We hypothesized that even a moderately high fructose diet (6% fructose), either alone or in combination with high sodium (4% NaCl), may impair diuresis and renal and systemic vascular reactivity, contributing to the onset of high blood pressure in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed chow containing 4% NaCl (HS), 6% fructose (MHF), or both 4% NaCl and 6% fructose (HSMHF) for 6 weeks and had their diuresis, plasma creatinine, vascular reactivity of perfused kidneys and systemic arterial pressure evaluated. We found no differences in augmented diuresis among animals given HS, MHF, or HSMHF diets. After 6 weeks both the HS and HSMHF groups had increased weight in their left kidneys, but only the HSMHF group showed augmented plasma creatinine. The effects of phenylephrine on renal vascular perfusion pressure were similarly enhanced in kidneys from the HS, MHF, and HSMHF groups, but not on the systemic arterial pressure. Although when evaluated in anesthetized rats, only the HSMHF group presented augmented blood pressure, evaluation in conscious animals revealed that both the MHF and HSMHF diets, but not the HS alone, were able to induce tachycardia and hypertension. In conclusion, a MHF diet containing 6% fructose was enough to render the renal vascular bed hyperreactive to phenylephrine and to induce both hypertension and tachycardia. The combination of 6% fructose with 4% NaCl led to plasma accumulation of creatinine and accelerated the development of tachycardia.

  3. The shadow price of fossil groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Reinhard, Stijn; de Bruijn, Jens A.; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    The expansion of irrigated agriculture into areas with limited precipitation and surface water during the growing season has greatly increased the use of fossil groundwater (Wada et al., 2012). As a result, the depletion rate of fossil groundwater resources has shown an increasing rate during the last decades (Wada et al, 2010; Konikow, 2011; Wada et al., 2012; De Graaf et al. 2015; Ritchy et al., 2015). Although water pricing has been used extensively to stimulate efficient application of water to create maximum value (e.g. Medellín-Azuara et al., 2012; Rinaudo et al., 2012; Dinar et al., 2015), it does not preclude the use of non-renewable water resources. Here, we use a global hydrological model and historical crop production and price data to assess the shadow price of non-renewable or fossil groundwater applied to major crops in countries that use large quantities of fossil groundwater. Our results show that shadow prices for many crops are very low, indicating economically inefficient or even wasteful use of fossil groundwater resources. Using India as an example, we show that small changes in the crop mix could lead to large reductions in fossil groundwater use or alternatively, create additional financial means to invest in water saving technologies. Our study thus provides a hydro-economic basis to further the sustainable use of finite groundwater resources.

  4. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  5. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  6. Influence of increased pressure on the biocenose of activated sludge; Einfluss von erhoehtem Betriebsdruck auf die Biozoenose des Belebtschlammes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, K.F.; Wedekind, I.; Wedekind, P.

    1998-03-01

    In semi-technical experiments with pressure biology and membrane filtration for the separation of the liquid/solid system microscopic evaluations of the available biocenose were carried out. For these experiments over a period of one year, exclusively local effluent from the pre-settling tank of the teaching and research water treatment plant of the Institut fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft of the Universitaet Stuttgart have been used. (orig.) [Deutsch] In halbtechnischen Versuchen mit Druckbiologie und Membranfiltration zur Trennung des Systems fluessig/fest wurden mikroskopische Beurteilungen der vorhandenen Biozoenose durchgefuehrt. Bei diesen Versuchen ueber einen Zeitraum von einem Jahr wurde ausschliesslich kommunales Abwasser aus dem Vorklaerbecken des Lehr- und Forschungsklaerwerks des Instituts fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft der Universitaet Stuttgart verwendet. (orig.)

  7. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  8. Influence of groundwater level to slope displacement by geodetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarviana, Vera; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Santoso, Djoko; Kahar, Joenil; Achmad R., T.

    2016-05-01

    In the rainy season, Indonesia often experience landslide disasters. Rainwater flows on the surface of the ground and partially into the ground, and changing the groundwater level (GWL) which can cause pressure on surrounding material. Water becomes the main factor that triggered landslides because water causes pressure force on the slopes that are prone to move. With the geometric approach, slope material displacement vectors can be known, including the origin of the material pressure using dynamic mathematical model that considers GWL. The data was used 5 campaigns of GPS observations. The results are obtained the correlation coefficients between coefficient changes in groundwater levels to the vector position as a representative of correlation between the physical and geometric parameters. There is relatively strong because of the value of the average correlation coefficient is 0.91997. Further, curves between changes in groundwater levels and the displacement position shows that the greater the groundwater levels, the greater the material position shift occurs.

  9. Explaining the increase in family financial pressures from medical bills between 2003 and 2007: do affordability thresholds change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    This study examines whether affordability thresholds for medical care as defined by families change over time. The results from two nationally representative surveys show that while financial stress from medical bills--defined as the percent with problems paying medical bills--increased between 2003 and 2007, greater out-of-pocket spending accounted for this increase only for higher-income persons with employer-sponsored insurance coverage. Increased spending did not account for an increase in medical bill problems among lower-income persons. Moreover, the increase in medical bill problems among low-income persons occurred at relatively low levels of out-of-pocket spending rather than at higher levels. The results suggest that "affordability thresholds" for medical care as defined by individuals and families are not stable over time, especially for lower-income persons, which has implications for setting affordability standards in health reform.

  10. Transfer of European Approach to Groundwater Monitoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.

    2007-12-01

    in 3 pilot areas have been conducted to build research capacities of the central and provincial groundwater information centers in providing groundwater information services to decision makers and public. Groundwater regime zoning and pollution risk maps were used to lay-out groundwater quantity and quality monitoring networks, respectively. Automatic groundwater recorders were installed in selected observation wells. ArcGIS based regional groundwater information systems were constructed and used to create groundwater regime zoning and pollution risk maps. Steady state groundwater models have been constructed and calibrated. Transient groundwater models are under calibration. Groundwater resources development scenarios were formulated. The model will be used to predict what will be consequences in next 20 years if current situation continues as business as usual. Possibilities of reducing groundwater abstraction and opportunities of artificially enhanced groundwater recharge will be analyzed. Combination of decreasing abstraction and increasing recharge may lead to a sustainable plan of future groundwater resources development.

  11. Groundwater salinity at Olkiluoto and its effects on a spent fuel repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-06-01

    significantly decrease the swelling pressure and increase the hydraulic conductivity of such a backfill. The most promising alternative backfill options are natural mixed-layer clay (Friedland clay) and crushed rock backfill combined with special sealing structures. It is recommended that for a repository to be constructed at the depth of about 500 metres at Olkiluoto, all engineered barriers should be designed to perform properly at groundwater salinities ranging from fresh water to 35 g/l. Geochemistry and salinity of groundwater will be a key area in the further characterisation of Olkiluoto, in supporting research, as well as in performance assessment. Posiva will participate in studies and large-scale experiments on the performance of bentonite-based as well as alternative backfill and buffer materials in the projects to be launched within the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission and in the Prototype Repository in the Hard Rock Laboratory at Aespoe. (orig.)

  12. NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome gene polymorphism rs7512998 (C>T) predicts aging-related increase of blood pressure, the TAMRISK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnas, Tarja; Määttä, Kirsi; Nikkari, Seppo T

    2015-01-01

    The activation of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome by cellular stress leads to activation of the inflammasome, and NLRP3 gene polymorphisms have been associated with autoinflammatory diseases. Inflammasomes have also been implicated in the initiation or progression of metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and obesity. The association of NLRP3 genetic variant rs7512998 with blood pressure and hypertension was studied in a 50-year-old Finnish cohort with a subpopulation who had available data on blood pressure measurements also at the age of 45 years. NLRP3 gene polymorphism rs7512998 C-allele was associated with higher systolic (p = 0.006) and diastolic (p = 0.011) blood pressure compared to the TT-genotype carriers in 50-year-old subjects. In addition, by analysis of variance for repeated measures between ages of 45- and 50 years there was a significant time by genotype interaction; blood pressure increased more in subjects with the C-allele both in systolic (p = 0.035) and diastolic (p = 0.012) values. However, no association with diagnosed hypertension was found. We report for the first time that NLRP3 gene polymorphism rs7512998 was associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 50-year-old subjects. In addition, an effect of this variation upon blood pressure was seen in these same subjects in a 5-year follow-up from a 45-year-old cohort to 50 years of age.

  13. The source of groundwater and solutes to Many Devils Wash at a former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Austin, Stephen A.; Lawlis, Bryan R.

    2016-04-21

    The Shiprock Disposal Site is the location of the former Navajo Mill (Mill), a uranium ore-processing facility, located on a terrace overlooking the San Juan River in the town of Shiprock, New Mexico. Following the closure of the Mill, all tailings and associated materials were encapsulated in a disposal cell built on top of the former Mill and tailings piles. The milling operations, conducted at the site from 1954 to 1968, created radioactive tailings and process-related wastes that are now found in the groundwater. Elevated concentrations of constituents of concern—ammonium, manganese, nitrate, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and uranium—have also been measured in groundwater seeps in the nearby Many Devils Wash arroyo, leading to the inference that these constituents originated from the Mill. These constituents have also been reported in groundwater that is associated with Mancos Shale, the bedrock that underlies the site. The objective of this report is to increase understanding of the source of water and solutes to the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash and to establish the background concentrations for groundwater that is in contact with the Mancos Shale at the site. This report presents evidence on three working hypotheses: (1) the water and solutes in Many Devils Wash originated from the operations at the former Mill, (2) groundwater in deep aquifers is upwelling under artesian pressure to recharge the shallow groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash, and (3) the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash originates as precipitation that infiltrates into the shallow aquifer system and discharges to Many Devils Wash in a series of springs on the east side of the wash. The solute concentrations in the shallow groundwater of Many Devils Wash would result from the interaction of the water and the Mancos Shale if the source of water was upwelling from deep aquifers or precipitation.In order to compare the groundwater from various wells to groundwater that has been

  14. Felipressina aumenta pressão arterial durante procedimento odontológico em pacientes hipertensos Felypressin increases blood pressure during dental procedures in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Aparecida Bronzo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A felipressina foi adicionada ao anestésico local para aumentar a duração do efeito anestésico e reduzir a toxicidade nos procedimentos dentários. No entanto, o efeito sobre a pressão arterial é incerta, e isso pode ser altamente relevante no tratamento dentário de pacientes hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da felipressina sobre a pressão arterial em pacientes hipertensos com pressão arterial controlada. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 71 indivíduos com essas características e com necessidade de tratamento periodontal. Após 10 minutos de repouso, a anestesia local (prilocaína foi infiltrada com e sem adição de felipressina. Em seguida, uma raspagem subgengival profunda foi realizada. A pressão arterial foi medida por um equipamento oscilométrico automático (DIXTAL DX2010. Dez minutos após a administração do anestésico, o pico de ação anestésica foi gravado. O Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado (IDATE foi utilizado para avaliar o traço de ansiedade nos pacientes. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial sistólica aumentou após a anestesia, independentemente da associação com felipressina, durante todo o procedimento dentário (p BACKGROUND: Felypressin has been added to local anesthetic to increase the length of the anesthetic effect and reduce toxicity during dental procedures. However, the effect on blood pressure remains uncertain, and this may be highly relevant in the dental treatment of hypertensive patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of felypressin on blood pressure in hypertensive patients with controlled BP. METHODS: 71 subjects with these characteristics and in need of periodontal treatment were studied. After 10 minutes of rest, local anesthesia (prilocaine was infiltrated with and without addition of felypressin. Then, a deep subgingival scaling was performed. Blood pressure was measured by an automated oscillometric device (DIXTAL DX2010. Ten minutes after the administration of the

  15. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  16. Pulsatile ex vivo perfusion of human saphenous vein grafts under controlled pressure conditions increases MMP-2 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Rüdiger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of human saphenous vein grafts (HSVGs as a bypass conduit is a standard procedure in the treatment of coronary artery disease while their early occlusion remains a major problem. Methods We have developed an ex vivo perfusion system, which uses standardized and strictly controlled hemodynamic parameters for the pulsatile and non-static perfusion of HSVGs to guarantee a reliable analysis of molecular parameters under different pressure conditions. Cell viability of HSVGs (n = 12 was determined by the metabolic conversion of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT into a purple formazan dye. Results Under physiological flow rates (10 mmHg HSVGs remained viable for two weeks. Their exposure to arterial conditions (100 mmHg was possible for one week without important reduction in viability. Baseline expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 after venous perfusion (2.2 ± 0.5, n = 5 was strongly up-regulated after exposure to arterial conditions for three days (19.8 ± 4.3 or five days (23.9 ± 6.1, p Conclusion Therefore, our system might be helpful to more precisely understand the molecular mechanisms leading to an early failure of HSVGs.

  17. Groundwater in geologic processes, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the role of Groundwater in Geologic Processes has increased steadily over the past few decades. Hydrogeologists and geologists are now actively exploring the role of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in such fundamental geologic processes as crustal heat transfer, ore deposition, hydrocarbon migration, earthquakes, tectonic deformation, diagenesis, and metamorphism.Groundwater in Geologic Processes is the first comprehensive treatment of this body of inquiry. Chapters 1 to 4 develop the basic theories of groundwater motion, hydromechanics, solute transport, and heat transport. Chapter 5 applies these theories to regional groundwater flow systems in a generic sense, and Chapters 6 to 13 focus on particular geologic processes and environments. Relative to the first edition of Groundwater in Geologic Processes , this second edition includes a much more comprehensive treatment of hydromechanics (the coupling of groundwater flow and deformation). It also includes new chapters on "compaction and diagenesis," "metamorphism," and "subsea hydrogeology." Finally, it takes advantage of the substantial body of published research that has appeared since the first edition in 1998. The systematic presentation of theory and application, and the problem sets that conclude each chapter, make this book ideal for undergraduate- and graduate-level geology courses (assuming that the students have some background in calculus and introductory chemistry). It also serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and other professionals in the field

  18. High Blood Pressure and Obesity Increase the Risk of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Young Adult African Americans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huan, Yonghong; DeLoach, Stephanie; Keith, Scott W; Pequignot, Edward C; Falkner, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is an interaction between hypertension and obesity that significantly increases the expression of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease...

  19. Evaluation of Groundwater Renewability in the Henan Plains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Shi, X.

    2011-12-01

    The sustainability of groundwater resources in the Henan Plains, located in the eastern portion of central China, has been threatened by both increasing industrial and agricultural pumping and periods of drought occurring since the 1990s. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve water resources management in the Henan Plains. However, the recharge and annual renewal rate are very difficult to calculate when based only on traditional hydrogeological methods because of inadequate hydrometeorologic data. In this study, tritium concentrations in groundwater and reconstructed 3H concentration time series from 1953~2009 in precipitation were used to determine the annual groundwater renewal rate. The 3H concentrations mostly range from 2.91 to 40.30 TU in the shallow groundwater with a mean 3H concentration of 19.13TU, which suggests that the shallow groundwater is recharged from modern precipitation after 1953 in the study area. Three exceptionally low 3H concentration(less than 1TU) wells were sampled in Xinxiang, Puyang and Zhengyang which indicates that those wells contain deep old groundwater recharge before 1953 as a result of over-pumping. High renewal rates (more than 4%/a) of groundwater are located mainly in the recharge area such as along the Yellow River and in the pediments of Taihang Mountain, Songqi Mountain, Funiu Mountain, Dabie Mountain, where the groundwater extraction volume could be increased. Moderate renewal rates (2%/a~3%/a) of groundwater are mainly in the runoff area where the groundwater extraction volume can be kept at current levels. Low renewal rates (1%/a~2%/a) of groundwater are located mainly in the discharge areas in the eastern regions of Nanle, Puyang, Shangqiu, Luyi where the groundwater extraction volume should be reduced. The lowest renewal rates of (less than 1%/a) groundwater are in Puyang, Xinxiang, Zhengyang and Xixian, where the groundwater extraction volume should be restricted.

  20. Dynamic evaluation of groundwater resources in Zhangye Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiNa Mi; HongLang Xiao; ZhengLiang Yin; ShengChun Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater resource is vital to the sustainable development of socio-economics in arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. An estimation of the groundwater resources variation in Zhangye Basin was made during 1985–2013 based on long-term groundwater observation data and geostatistical method. The results show that from 1985 to 2013, groundwater storage exhibited tremendous dissimilarity on temporal and spatial scale for the whole Zhangye Basin, especially before and after implementation of the water diversion policy. Trend of groundwater storage varied from quick to slow decline or increase. The accumulative groundwater storage decreased nearly 47.52×108 m3, and annual average depletion rate reached 1.64×108 m3/a. Among which, the accumulative groundwater storage of the river and well water mixed irrigation district decreased by 37.48×108 m3, accounting for about 78.87% of the total groundwater depletion of the Zhangye Basin. Accumulative depletion of groundwater storage varied in respective irrigation districts. Though groundwater resources depletion rate slowed down from 2005, the overall storage in the whole basin and re-spective districts during 1985–2013 was still in a severe deficit such that, the groundwater resource was in a rather negative balance, which could threaten the local aquifer. This is the joint effect of climate change and human activities, however human activities, such as water diversion policy and groundwater exploitation, became increasingly intense. Our research results could provide a reasonable estimation for the groundwater balance in Zhangye Basin, providing a scientific basis for water resources unified planning and, this method can provide a relatively reliable way of estimation for large scale groundwater resources.

  1. Thermal management of an unconsolidated shallow urban groundwater body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Epting

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development of tools for the sustainable thermal management of a shallow unconsolidated urban groundwater body in the city of Basel (Switzerland. The concept of the investigations is based on (1 a characterization of the present thermal state of the urban groundwater body, and (2 the evaluation of potential mitigation measures for the future thermal management of specific regions within the groundwater body. The investigations focus on thermal processes down-gradient of thermal groundwater use, effects of heated buildings in the subsurface as well as the thermal influence of river–groundwater interaction. Investigation methods include (1 short- and long-term data analysis, (2 high-resolution multilevel groundwater temperature monitoring, as well as (3 3-D numerical groundwater flow and heat transport modeling and scenario development. The combination of these methods allows for the quantifying of the thermal influences on the investigated urban groundwater body, including the influences of thermal groundwater use and heated subsurface constructions. Subsequently, first implications for management strategies are discussed, including minimizing further groundwater temperature increase, targeting "potential natural" groundwater temperatures for specific aquifer regions and exploiting the thermal potential.

  2. Approach to increasing the quality of pressure-relieved gas drained from protected coal seam using surface borehole and its industrial application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingke Liu; Fubao Zhou; Jianlong Wang; Jun Liu

    2015-01-01

    During mining of lower protective coal seam, a surface borehole can efficiently extract not only the pressure-relieved gas from the protected layer, but also the gas from the mining layer gob. If the distance between the borehole and gob is too large, the quantity of gas drained from the protected layer decreases substantially. To solve this problem, a mathematical model for extracting pressure-relieved gas from a protected coal seam using a surface borehole was established, based on the radial gas flow theory and law of conservation of energy. The key factors influencing the quantity of gas and the drainage flow network using a surface borehole were presented. The results show that the quantity of pressure-relieved gas drained from the protected layer can be significantly increased by increasing the flow resistance of the borehole bottom. Application of this method in the Wulan Coal Mine of the Shenhua Group significantly increased the flow of pure gas and the gas concentration (by factors of 1.8 and 2.0, respectively), thus demonstrating the remarkable effects of this method.

  3. “Spontaneous” CSF Fistula due to Transtegmental Brain Herniation in Combination with Signs of Increased Intracranial Pressure and Petrous Bone Hyperpneumatization: An Illustrative Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diones; Fermin-Delgado, Rafael; Stoeter, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance Transtegmental brain herniation into the petrous bone is a rare cause of rhinoliquorrhea. Our case presents a combination of several typical clinical and imaging findings illustrating the ongoing etiologic discussion of such cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas. Clinical Presentation A 53-year-old man presented with nasal discharge after a strong effort to suppress coughing. Imaging revealed a transtegmental herniation of parts of the inferior temporal gyrus into the petrous bone and in addition a combination of signs of chronically increased intracranial pressure and a hyperpneumatization of the petrous bone. The fistula was closed by a middle cranial fossa approach. Conclusion The case illustrates the two main predisposing factors for development of petrous bone CSF fistulas: increased intracranial pressure and thinning of the tegmental roof due to extensive development of air cells. Because the CSF leakage repair does not change the underlying cause, patients have to be informed about the possibility of developing increased intracranial pressure and recurrences of brain herniations at other sites. PMID:25485224

  4. Impact of oil on groundwater chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakorenko, N. N.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the paper is to characterize the chemical composition of groundwater samples from the monitoring wells drilled in the petrol station areas within the vicinity of Tomsk. The level of contamination has increased since many macro - and microcomponent concentrations (such as petroleum products, chlorine, sulphates, carbon dioxide and lead, etc.) in groundwater samples of the present study is higher than that in previous period samples.

  5. Evolution of Unsteady Groundwater Flow Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xing; Jin, Menggui; Niu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Natural groundwater flow is usually transient, especially in long time scale. A theoretical approach on unsteady groundwater flow systems was adopted to highlight some of the knowledge gaps in the evolution of groundwater flow systems. The specific consideration was focused on evolution of groundwater flow systems from unsteady to steady under natural and mining conditions. Two analytical solutions were developed, using segregation variable method to calculate the hydraulic head under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The impact of anisotropy ratio, hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific yield (μs) on the flow patterns were analyzed. The results showed that the area of the equal velocity region increased and the penetrating depth of the flow system decreased while the anisotropy ratio (ɛ = °Kx-/Kz--) increased. Stagnant zones were found in the flow field where the directions of streamlines were opposite. These stagnant zones moved up when the horizontal hydraulic conductivity increased. The results of the study on transient flow indicated a positive impact on hydraulic head with an increase of hydraulic conductivity, while a negative effect on hydraulic head was observed when the specific yield was enhanced. An unsteady numerical model of groundwater flow systems with annual periodic recharge was developed using MODFLOW. It was observed that the transient groundwater flow patterns were different from that developed in the steady flow under the same recharge intensity. The water table fluctuated when the recharge intensity altered. The monitoring of hydraulic head and concentration migration revealed that the unsteady recharge affected the shallow local flow system more than the deep regional flow system. The groundwater flow systems fluctuated with the action of one or more pumping wells. The comparison of steady and unsteady groundwater flow observation indicated that the unsteady flow patterns cannot be simulated by the steady model when the condition

  6. Estimating Groundwater Quality Changes Using Remotely Sensed Groundwater Storage and Multivariate Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, A.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Global groundwater dependence is likely to increase with continued population growth and climate-driven freshwater redistribution. Recent groundwater quantity studies have estimated large-scale aquifer depletion rates using monthly water storage variations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. These innovative approaches currently fail to evaluate groundwater quality, integral to assess the availability of potable groundwater resources. We present multivariate relationships to predict total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations as a function of GRACE-derived variations in water table depth, dominant land use, and other physical parameters in two important aquifer systems in the United States: the High Plains aquifer and the Central Valley aquifer. Model evaluations were performed using goodness of fit procedures and cross validation to identify general model forms. Results of this work demonstrate the potential to characterize global groundwater potability using remote sensing.

  7. Professional service is obligatory. Maintenance: Insurance companies increase the pressure; Professioneller Service ist Pflicht - Instandhaltung: Versicherer machen Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, J.

    2003-07-28

    Maintenance is an essential cost factors in wind power plants. Insurance companies react to increasing damage incidence by taking drastic measures. [German] Einer der wichtigsten Kostentreiber bei Betrieb einer Windenergieanlage ist die Instandhaltung. Auf die zunehmenden Schaeden reagieren die Versicherungen immer haeufiger mit drastischen Massnahmen. (orig.)

  8. Increased intracranial pressure in a case of spinal cervical glioblastoma multiforme: analysis of these two rare conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. de Castro-Costa

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a rare case of increased intracranial hypertension consequent to a spinal cervical glioblastoma multiforme in a young patient. They analyse the physiopathology of intracranial hypertension in spinal tumors and the rarity of such kind of tumor in this location, and its clinico-pathological aspects.

  9. Parental vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with increased blood pressure in offspring via Panx1 hypermethylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meems, Laura M. G.; Mahmud, Hasan; Buikema, Hendrik; Tost, Jorg; Michel, Sven; Takens, Janny; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst N; Vreeswijk-Baudoin, Inge; Mateo-Leach, Irene V.; van der Harst, Pim; Plosch, Torsten; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to hypertension in offspring, but the reasons for this remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if parental vitamin D deficiency

  10. Parental vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with increased blood pressure in offspring via Panx1 hypermethylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meems, Laura M. G.; Mahmud, Hasan; Buikema, Hendrik; Tost, Jorg; Michel, Sven; Takens, Janny; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst N; Vreeswijk-Baudoin, Inge; Mateo-Leach, Irene V.; van der Harst, Pim; Plosch, Torsten; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to hypertension in offspring, but the reasons for this remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if parental vitamin D deficiency

  11. A haplotype of human angiotensinogen gene containing −217A increases blood pressure in transgenic mice compared with −217G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sudhir; Vinukonda, Govindaiah; Fiering, Steven N.; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    The human angiotensinogen (hAGT) gene contains an A/G polymorphism at −217, and frequency of −217A allele is increased in African-American hypertensive patients. The hAGT gene has seven polymorphic sites in the 1.2-kb region of its promoter, and variant −217A almost always occurs with −532T, −793A, and −1074T, whereas variant −217G almost always occurs with −532C, −793G, and −1074G. Since allele −6A is the predominant allele in African-Americans, the AGT gene can be subdivided into two main haplotypes, −6A:−217A (AA) and −6A:−217G (AG). To understand the role of these haplotypes on hAGT gene expression and on blood pressure regulation in an in vivo situation, we have generated double transgenic mice containing human renin gene and either AA or AG haplotype of the hAGT gene using knock-in strategy at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase locus. We show here that 1) hAGT mRNA level is increased in the liver by 60% and in the kidney by 40%; and 2) plasma AGT level is increased by ∼40%, and plasma angiotensin II level is increased by ∼50% in male double transgenic mice containing AA haplotype of the hAGT gene compared with the AG haplotype. In addition, systolic blood pressure is increased by 8 mmHg in transgenic mice containing the AA haplotype compared with the AG haplotype. This is the first report to show the effect of polymorphisms in the promoter of a human gene on its transcription in an in vivo situation that ultimately leads to an increase in blood pressure. PMID:18945948

  12. Vertical groundwater storage properties and changes in confinement determined using hydraulic head response to atmospheric tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acworth, R. Ian; Rau, Gabriel C.; Halloran, Landon J. S.; Timms, Wendy A.

    2017-04-01

    Accurate determination of groundwater state of confinement and compressible storage properties at vertical resolution over depth is notoriously difficult. We use the hydraulic head response to atmospheric tides at 2 cpd frequency as a tracer to quantify barometric efficiency (BE) and specific storage (Ss) over depth. Records of synthesized Earth tides, atmospheric pressure, and hydraulic heads measured in nine piezometers completed at depths between 5 and 55 m into unconsolidated smectitic clay and silt, sand and gravel were examined in the frequency domain. The barometric efficiency increased over depth from ˜0.05 in silty clay to ˜0.15 in sands and gravels. BE for silty clay was confirmed by calculating the loading efficiency as 0.95 using rainfall at the surface. Specific storage was calculated using effective rather than total moisture. The differences in phase between atmospheric pressure and hydraulic heads at 2 cpd were ˜180° below 10 m indicating confined conditions despite the low BE. Heads in the sediment above a fine sand and silt layer at 12 m exhibited a time variable phase difference between 0° and 180° indicating varying confinement. Our results illustrate that the atmospheric tide at 2 cpd is a powerful natural tracer for quantifying groundwater state of confinement and compressible storage properties in layered formations from hydraulic heads and atmospheric pressure records without the need for externally induced hydraulic stress. This approach could significantly improve the development of conceptual hydrogeological model used for groundwater resource development and management.

  13. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Kapil K., E-mail: kkn2104@columbia.edu [Columbia Water Center (India Office), Columbia University, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Gosain, A.K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11 600 km{sup 2} with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO{sub 3}) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO{sub 3} transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash–Sutcliffe and R{sup 2} correlations greater than + 0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO{sub 3} removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO{sub 3} concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the

  14. The effect of NaCl on the level of reduced sulfur compounds in rat liver. Implications for blood pressure increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Iciek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is commonly known that excessive salt intake is a risk factor of hypertension. Currently, there is an increasing interest in reduced reactive sulfur species (RSS, mainly H2S and sulfane sulfur (SS as new gasotransmitters showing vasorelaxant properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of repeated administration of low sodium chloride dose included in physiological saline on blood pressure, on the level of RSS and activity of enzymes involved in their biosynthesis in the rat.Methods: Two separate experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats: one with intravenous injections of saline and the second one with intraperitoneal saline injections. Blood pressure was measured during the experiment. The level of RSS and other biochemical assays were conducted in the rat liver, because of an intense cysteine metabolism to RSS in this organ.Results: Intravenous administration of saline induced a significant increase in systolic blood pressure while intraperitoneal injections showed only a tendency towards increasing blood pressure. The RSS (H2S and SS level as well as the activity of the main enzyme responsible for their production in the liver of animals after iv saline injections were decreased. Animals injected with physiological saline by ip route did not reveal any statistically significant differences in SS, H2S, and activities of sulfurtransferases, although a tendency to decrease in the RSS was observed.Conclusions: The repeated iv saline injection induced a slight hypertension accompanied by disturbances in anaerobic cysteine metabolism in the rat liver.

  15. Biomethanation Of Syngas Using Anaerobic Sludge: Shift In The Catabolic Routes With The CO Partial Pressure Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sancho-Navarro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Syngas generated by thermal gasification of biomass or coal can be steam reformed and purified into methane, which could be used locally for energy needs, or re-injected in the natural gas grid. As an alternative to chemical catalysis, the main components of the syngas (CO, CO2, and H2 can be used as substrates by a wide range of microorganisms, to be converted into gas biofuels, including methane. This study evaluates the carboxydotrophic (CO-consuming methanogenic potential present in an anaerobic sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB reactor treating waste water, and elucidates the CO conversion routes to methane at 35±3˚C. Kinetic activity tests under CO at partial pressures (pCO varying from 0.1 to 1.5 atm (0.09-1.31 mmol/L in the liquid phase showed a significant carboxydotrophic activity potential for growing conditions on CO alone. A maximum methanogenic activity of 1 mmol CH4 per g of volatile suspended solid and per day was achieved at 0.2 atm of CO (0.17 mmol/L, and then the rate decreased with the amount of CO supplied. The intermediary metabolites such as acetate, H2 and propionate started to accumulate at higher CO concentrations. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES, fluoroacetate, and vancomycin showed that in a mixed culture CO was converted mainly to acetate by acetogenic bacteria, which was further transformed to methane by acetoclastic methanogens, while direct methanogenic CO conversion was negligible. Methanogenesis was totally blocked at high pCO in the bottles (≥ 1 atm. However it was possible to achieve higher methanogenic potential under a 100% CO atmosphere after acclimation of the sludge to CO. This adaptation to high CO concentrations led to a shift in the archaeal population, then dominated by hydrogen-utilizing methanogens, which were able to take over acetoclastic methanogens, while syntrophic acetate oxidizing (SAO bacteria oxidized acetate into CO2 and H2. The disaggregation

  16. Biomethanation of Syngas Using Anaerobic Sludge: Shift in the Catabolic Routes with the CO Partial Pressure Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho Navarro, Silvia; Cimpoia, Ruxandra; Bruant, Guillaume; Guiot, Serge R.

    2016-01-01

    Syngas generated by thermal gasification of biomass or coal can be steam reformed and purified into methane, which could be used locally for energy needs, or re-injected in the natural gas grid. As an alternative to chemical catalysis, the main components of the syngas (CO, CO2, and H2) can be used as substrates by a wide range of microorganisms, to be converted into gas biofuels, including methane. This study evaluates the carboxydotrophic (CO-consuming) methanogenic potential present in an anaerobic sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating waste water, and elucidates the CO conversion routes to methane at 35 ± 3°C. Kinetic activity tests under CO at partial pressures (pCO) varying from 0.1 to 1.5 atm (0.09–1.31 mmol/L in the liquid phase) showed a significant carboxydotrophic activity potential for growing conditions on CO alone. A maximum methanogenic activity of 1 mmol CH4 per g of volatile suspended solid and per day was achieved at 0.2 atm of CO (0.17 mmol/L), and then the rate decreased with the amount of CO supplied. The intermediary metabolites such as acetate, H2, and propionate started to accumulate at higher CO concentrations. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES), fluoroacetate, and vancomycin showed that in a mixed culture CO was converted mainly to acetate by acetogenic bacteria, which was further transformed to methane by acetoclastic methanogens, while direct methanogenic CO conversion was negligible. Methanogenesis was totally blocked at high pCO in the bottles (≥1 atm). However it was possible to achieve higher methanogenic potential under a 100% CO atmosphere after acclimation of the sludge to CO. This adaptation to high CO concentrations led to a shift in the archaeal population, then dominated by hydrogen-utilizing methanogens, which were able to take over acetoclastic methanogens, while syntrophic acetate oxidizing (SAO) bacteria oxidized acetate into CO2 and H2. The disaggregation of the

  17. Biomethanation of Syngas Using Anaerobic Sludge: Shift in the Catabolic Routes with the CO Partial Pressure Increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho Navarro, Silvia; Cimpoia, Ruxandra; Bruant, Guillaume; Guiot, Serge R

    2016-01-01

    Syngas generated by thermal gasification of biomass or coal can be steam reformed and purified into methane, which could be used locally for energy needs, or re-injected in the natural gas grid. As an alternative to chemical catalysis, the main components of the syngas (CO, CO2, and H2) can be used as substrates by a wide range of microorganisms, to be converted into gas biofuels, including methane. This study evaluates the carboxydotrophic (CO-consuming) methanogenic potential present in an anaerobic sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating waste water, and elucidates the CO conversion routes to methane at 35 ± 3°C. Kinetic activity tests under CO at partial pressures (pCO) varying from 0.1 to 1.5 atm (0.09-1.31 mmol/L in the liquid phase) showed a significant carboxydotrophic activity potential for growing conditions on CO alone. A maximum methanogenic activity of 1 mmol CH4 per g of volatile suspended solid and per day was achieved at 0.2 atm of CO (0.17 mmol/L), and then the rate decreased with the amount of CO supplied. The intermediary metabolites such as acetate, H2, and propionate started to accumulate at higher CO concentrations. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES), fluoroacetate, and vancomycin showed that in a mixed culture CO was converted mainly to acetate by acetogenic bacteria, which was further transformed to methane by acetoclastic methanogens, while direct methanogenic CO conversion was negligible. Methanogenesis was totally blocked at high pCO in the bottles (≥1 atm). However it was possible to achieve higher methanogenic potential under a 100% CO atmosphere after acclimation of the sludge to CO. This adaptation to high CO concentrations led to a shift in the archaeal population, then dominated by hydrogen-utilizing methanogens, which were able to take over acetoclastic methanogens, while syntrophic acetate oxidizing (SAO) bacteria oxidized acetate into CO2 and H2. The disaggregation of the

  18. n-3 PUFA status in school children is associated with beneficial lipid profile, reduced physical activity and increased blood pressure in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Stark, Ken D; Hjorth, Mads F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-10-01

    Dietary n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) improve dyslipidaemia and hypertension and may affect insulin resistance and adiposity. Increasing numbers of children show signs of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but few studies have investigated the association with n-3 LC-PUFA status. We examined the relationship between fasting whole-blood EPA or DHA (w/w% of the total fatty acids, FA%) and markers of the MetS (anthropometry, blood pressure, plasma lipids and glucose homeostasis) cross-sectionally in seventy-three 8-11-year-old Danish children from the OPUS School Meal Pilot Study (OPUS is an acronym of the project 'Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet' and is supported by a grant from the Nordea Foundation). Also, we explored the potential mediating effects of physical activity and energy intake. Girls had higher body fat percentage (BF%), diastolic blood pressure, heart rate,plasma TAG, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and glycosylated Hb than boys. Sexes did not differ in fish or macro nutrient intake or whole-blood fatty acids. After adjustment for sex, age and total whole-blood fatty acid concentration, BF% and HDL:TAG increased with whole-blood EPA (beta > 0·25, P<0·05), and HDL increased 0·35 (SEM 0·13) mmol/l per FA% EPA increase (beta = 0·30, P=0·008). Unexpectedly, DHA was positively associated with mean arterial pressure in boys (6·3 (SEM 1·7) mmHg/FA% DHA increase,b ¼ 0·62, P=0·001) and reduced physical activity in both sexes (244 (SEM 19) counts/min per FA%, beta = -0·22, P=0.24). The associations with blood pressure and HDL remained after adjustment for physical activity, BF% and energy intake. The present study confirmed the beneficial association between n-3 LC-PUFA status and lipid profile seen in adults, but showed unexpected relationships with physical activity, BF% and blood pressure. This is the third time we have observed such tendencies in Danish children.

  19. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  20. Groundwater and Distribution Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, John E.

    Presented is a student manual designed for the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical and Adult Education Groundwater and Distribution Training Course. This program introduces waterworks operators-in-training to basic skills and knowledge required for the operation of a groundwater distribution waterworks facility. Arranged according to the general order…

  1. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage decreases lower esophageal sphincter pressure and increases frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Akash; Meshram, Megha; Gopan, Amrit; Ganjewar, Vaibhav; Kumar, Praveen; Bhatia, Shobna J

    2012-06-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (tLESR) and decreased basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure are postulated mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). There is conflicting evidence on the effect of carbonated drinks on lower esophageal sphincter function. This study was conducted to assess the effect of a carbonated beverage on tLESR and LES pressure. High resolution manometry tracings (16 channel water-perfused, Trace 1.2, Hebbard, Australia) were obtained in 18 healthy volunteers (6 men) for 30 min each at baseline, and after 200 mL of chilled potable water and 200 mL of chilled carbonated cola drink (Pepsi [Pepsico India Ltd]). The sequence of administration of the drinks was determined by random number method generated by a computer. The analysis of tracings was done using TRACE 1.2 software by a physician who was unaware of the sequence of administration of fluids. The mean (SD) age of the participant was 37.3 (12.9) years. The median (range) frequency of tLESr was higher after the carbonated beverage (10.5 [0-26]) as compared to baseline (0 [0-3], p = 0.005) as well as after water (1 [0-14], p = 0.010). The LES pressure decreased after ingestion of the carbonated beverage (18.5 [11-37] mmHg) compared to baseline (40.5 [25-66] mmHg, p = 0.0001) and after water (34 [15-67] mmHg, p = 0.003). Gastric pressure was not different in the three groups. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage increases tLESr and lowers LES pressure in healthy subjects.

  2. Using 14C and 3H to delineate a recharge 'window' into the Perth Basin aquifers, North Gnangara groundwater system, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Karina; Cendón, Dioni I; Pigois, Jon-Philippe; Hollins, Suzanne; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The Gnangara Mound and the underlying Perth Basin aquifers are the largest source of groundwater for the southwest of Australia, supplying between 35 and 50% of Perth's potable water (2009-2010). However, declining health of wetlands on the Mound coupled with the reduction in groundwater levels from increased irrigation demands and drier climatic conditions means this resource is experiencing increased pressures. The northern Gnangara is an area where the Yarragadee aquifer occurs at shallow depths (~50 m) and is in direct contact with the superficial aquifer, suggesting the possibility of direct recharge into a generally confined aquifer. Environmental isotopes ((14)C and (3)H) and hydrochemical modelling were used to assess the presence of a recharge 'window' as well as understand the groundwater residence time within different aquifers. Forty-nine groundwater samples were collected from depths ranging from 11 to 311 m below ground surface. The isotopic variation observed in the superficial aquifer was found to be controlled by the different lithologies present, i.e. quartz-rich Bassendean Sand and carbonate-rich sediments of the Ascot Formation. Rainfall recharge into the Bassendean Sand inherits its dissolved inorganic carbon from the soil CO(2). Organic matter throughout the soil profile is degraded by oxidation leading to anoxic/acidic groundwater, which if in contact with the Ascot Formation leads to enhanced dissolution of carbonates. Hydrochemical mass balance modelling showed that carbonate dissolution could contribute 1-2 mmol kg(-1) of carbon to groundwaters recharged through the Ascot Formation. The corrected groundwater residence times of the Yarragadee aquifer in the northern part of the study area ranged from 23 to 35 ka, while waters in the southeastern corner ranged from sub-modern to 2 ka. Groundwater ages increase with distance radiating from the recharge 'window'. This study delineates a recharge 'window' into the commonly presumed confined

  3. Rye and Wheat Bran Extracts Isolated with Pressurized Solvents Increase Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Potential of Beef Meat Hamburgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-02-01

    Rye and wheat bran extracts containing phenolic compounds and demonstrating high DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(•+) (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacities (ORAC) were tested in beef hamburgers as possible functional ingredients. Bran extracts significantly increased the indicators of antioxidant potential of meat products and their global antioxidant response (GAR) during physiological in vitro digestion. The extracts also inhibited the formation of oxidation products, hexanal and malondialdehyde, of hamburgers during their storage; however, they did not have significant effect on the growth of microorganisms. Hamburgers with 0.8% wheat bran extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant potential. Some effects of bran extracts on other quality characteristics such as pH, color, formation of metmyoglobin were also observed, however, these effects did not have negative influence on the overall sensory evaluation score of hamburgers. Consequently, the use of bran extracts in meat products may be considered as promising means of increasing oxidative product stability and enriching with functional ingredients which might possess health benefits.

  4. Increased concentration of serum TNF alpha and its correlations with arterial blood pressure and indices of renal damage in dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Bąska, Piotr; Długosz, Ewa

    2014-04-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by parasites of the genus Babesia. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that plays a role in the pathogenesis of canine babesiosis. In this study, the authors determined the concentration of serum TNF-α in 11 dogs infected with Babesia canis and calculated Spearman's rank correlations between the concentration of TNF-α and blood pressure, and between TNF-α and indices of renal damage such as: fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na(+))), urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio (UCr/SCr), renal failure index (RFI), urine specific gravity (USG) and urinary protein to urinary creatinine ratio (UPC). The results demonstrated statistically significant strong negative correlations between TNF-α and systolic arterial pressure (r = -0.7246), diastolic arterial pressure (r = -0.6642) and mean arterial pressure (r = -0.7151). Serum TNF-α concentration was also statistically significantly correlated with FE(Na(+)) (r = 0.7056), UCr/SCr (r = -0.8199), USG (r = -0.8075) and duration of the disease (r = 0.6767). The results of this study show there is an increase of serum TNF-α concentration during canine babesiosis, and the increased TNF-α concentration has an influence on the development of hypotension and renal failure in canine babesiosis. This probably results from the fact that TNF-α is involved in the production of nitric oxide and induction of vasodilation and hypotension, which may cause renal ischaemia and hypoxia, and finally acute tubular necrosis and renal failure.

  5. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  6. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  7. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  8. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2016-12-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  9. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  10. Radiation-pressure-dominant acceleration: Polarization and radiation reaction effects and energy increase in three-dimensional simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, M; Liseykina, T V; Pegoraro, F; Macchi, A

    2012-01-01

    Polarization and radiation reaction (RR) effects in the interaction of a superintense laser pulse (I>10(23) W cm-2) with a thin plasma foil are investigated with three dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. For a linearly polarized laser pulse, strong anisotropies such as the formation of two high-energy clumps in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction and significant radiation reactions effects are observed. On the contrary, neither anisotropies nor significant radiation reaction effects are observed using circularly polarized laser pulses, for which the maximum ion energy exceeds the value obtained in simulations of lower dimensionality. The dynamical bending of the initially flat plasma foil leads to the self-formation of a quasiparabolic shell that focuses the impinging laser pulse strongly increasing its energy and momentum densities.

  11. Prediction of the dynamic oscillation threshold in a clarinet model with a linearly increasing blowing pressure : Influence of noise

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeot, Baptiste; Vergez, Christophe; Gazengel, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of noise and precision on a simplified model of the clarinet driven by a variable control parameter. In a previous work [5], the dynamic oscillation threshold of a simplified model of a clarinet is obtained analytically. In the present article, the sensitivity of the dynamic threshold on precision is analyzed as a stochastic variable introduced in the model. A new theoretical expression is given for the dynamic thresholds in presence of the stochastic variable, providing a fair prediction of the thresholds found in finite-precision simulations. The dynamic thresholds are found to depend on increase rate and are independent on the initial value of the parameter, both in simulations and in theory.

  12. Groundwater sustainability in Asian Mega city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Population increased in many Asian coastal cities, and increased demand of groundwater as water resources caused many subsurface environments. Subsurface environmental problems such as land subsidence due to excessive pumping, groundwater contamination and subsurface thermal anomaly, have occurred repeatedly in Asian mega cities with a time lag depending on the development stage of urbanization. This study focus on four subjects; urban, water, heat, and material in subsurface environment, and intensive field observations and data collections had been made in the basins including Tokyo, Osaka, Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Seoul, and Taipei. The new methods for evaluating the changes in groundwater storage by gravimeter measurements in situ and Satellite GRACE, and residence time evaluation by 85Kr and CFCs, have been developed in this study. The combined effects of heat island and global warming from subsurface temperature in Asian mega cities evaluated the magnitude and timing of the urbanization which were preserved in subsurface thermal environment. The effects of law/institution on change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water, have been also investigated. The groundwater is “private water”, on the other hand, the surface water is “public water”. Regulation of groundwater pumping due to serious land subsidence did not work without alternative water resources, and the price of water is another major factor for the change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water. Land use/cover changes at three ages (1940’s, 1970’s and 2000’s) have been analyzed based on GIS with 0.5 km grid at seven targeted cities. The development of integrated indicators based on GIS for understanding the relationship between human activities and subsurface environment have been made in this study. Finally, we address the sustainable use of groundwater and subsurface environments for better future development and human well-being.

  13. Analysis of groundwater flow beneath ice sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, G. S.; Zatsepin, S.; Maillot, B. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2001-03-01

    The large-scale pattern of subglacial groundwater flow beneath European ice sheets was analysed in a previous report. It was based on a two-dimensional flowline model. In this report, the analysis is extended to three dimensions by exploring the interactions between groundwater and tunnel flow. A theory is developed which suggests that the large-scale geometry of the hydraulic system beneath an ice sheet is a coupled, self-organising system. In this system the pressure distribution along tunnels is a function of discharge derived from basal meltwater delivered to tunnels by groundwater flow, and the pressure along tunnels itself sets the base pressure which determines the geometry of catchments and flow towards the tunnel. The large-scale geometry of tunnel distribution is a product of the pattern of basal meltwater production and the transmissive properties of the bed. The tunnel discharge from the ice margin of the glacier, its seasonal fluctuation and the sedimentary characteristics of eskers are largely determined by the discharge of surface meltwater which penetrates to the bed in the terminal zone. The theory explains many of the characteristics of esker systems and can account for tunnel valleys. It is concluded that the large-scale hydraulic regime beneath ice sheets is largely a consequence of groundwater/tunnel flow interactions and that it is essential similar to non-glacial hydraulic regimes. Experimental data from an Icelandic glacier, which demonstrates measured relationships between subglacial tunnel flow and groundwater flow during the transition from summer to winter seasons for a modern glacier, and which support the general conclusions of the theory is summarised in an appendix.

  14. Hydrogeochemical modeling of groundwater chemical environmental evolution in Hebei Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永海; 沈照理; 钟佐燊

    1997-01-01

    Using the hydrogeochemical modeling method, the groundwater chemical environmental problems of the Hebei Plain which involve increasing of hardness and total dissolved solids in piedmont area and mixing of saline water with fresh water in middle-eastern area are studied. The water-rock interactions and mass transfer along a ground-water flow path and in mixing processes are calculated. Thus the evolution mechanisms of the groundwater chemical environment are brought to light.

  15. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we provid

  16. Isosymmetric pressure-induced bonding increase changes compression behavior of clinopyroxenes across jadeite-aegirine solid solution in subduction zones: ISOSYMMETRIC PHASE TRANSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jingui [Key Laboratory of High Temperature and High Pressure Study of the Earth' s Interior, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang China; Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawaii USA; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Zhang, Dongzhou [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawaii USA; Fan, Dawei [Key Laboratory of High Temperature and High Pressure Study of the Earth' s Interior, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang China; Downs, Robert T. [Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson Arizona USA; Hu, Yi [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawaii USA; Dera, Przemyslaw K. [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawaii USA

    2017-01-01

    Pyroxenes are among the most important minerals of Earth's crust and upper mantle and play significant role in controlling subduction at convergent margins. In this study, synchrotron-based single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments were carried out on a natural aegirine [NaFe3+Si2O6] sample at ambient temperature and high pressures to 60 GPa, simulating conditions within the coldest part of a subduction zone consisting of old lithosphere. The diffraction data reveal no obvious sign of structural phase transition in aegirine within this pressure range; however, several relevant structural parameter trends change noticeably at approximately 24 GPa, indicating the presence of the previously predicted isosymmetric bonding change, related to increase of coordination number of Na+ at M2 site. The pressure-volume data, fit with third-order Birch-Murnaghan (BM3) equation of state over the whole pressure range, yields KT0 = 126(2) GPa and K'T0 = 3.3(1), while separate BM3 fits performed for the 0–24.0 GPa and 29.9–60.4 GPa pressure ranges give KT0 = 118(3) GPa, K'T0 = 4.2(3) and KT0 = 133(2) GPa, K'T0 = 3.0(1), suggesting that the structure stiffens as a result of the new bond formation. Aegirine exhibits strong anisotropic compression with unit strain axial ratios ε1:ε2:ε3 = 1.00:2.44:1.64. Structural refinements reveal that NaO8 polyhedron is the most compressible and SiO4 tetrahedron has the lowest compressibility. The consequence of bonding transition is that the compressional behavior of aegirine below ~24 GPa and above that pressure