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  1. STRATEGIC ISSUES GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION MANAGEMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Golovina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is a key component of our environment; it is a renewable, limited and vulnerable natural resource, which provides economic, social, and environmental well-being of the population. The most promising source of drinking water supply is groundwater usage. Drinking and industrial groundwater is one of the most important components of the groundwater mineral resource base in the Russian Federation. Modern system of groundwater extraction management and state regulation is currently imperfect and has definite disadvantages, among them - lack of control over natural resources by the state, an old system of tax rates for the use of groundwater, commercialization stage of licensing, the budget deficit, which is passed on other spheres of the national economy. This article provides general information about the state of groundwater production and supply in Russia, negative trends of groundwater usage, some actions for the improvement in the system of groundwater’s fund management are suggested. The most important amendments of the law “About mineral resources” are overviewed, effects of these changes are revealed and recommendations for future groundwater extraction regulation are given.

  2. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  3. Algeria: Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    exports and a concomitant drop in revenues. An International Monetary Fund (IMF) evaluation in December 2010 concluded that the government’s expansionary ... Policy , coordinated by John Rollins. President Bouteflika’s tenure has produced an energized foreign policy . Strains in ties with neighboring Morocco...Issues for U.S. Policy ............................................................................................................3 Background

  4. Current Issues in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)

    2007-02-07

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference

  5. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  6. Current issues with research support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    It would be difficult to condense current issues in nuclear reactor regulation to just a few minutes. So, let me start off by saying that I have not tried to give a comprehensive listing of issues that are currently facing the reactor program, but rather to select those that I thought were relevant as they relate to research activities. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in regulatory decisions; materials aging issues concerning steam generators and reactor vessels; high burnup fuels; accident management; and digital instrumentation and control, are just a sampling of the important issues that I want to talk about.

  7. Current Issues in Maritime Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2008-01-01

     In the early part of 2008, Maria Anne Wagtmann had the opportunity to interview the former president of the International Maritime Health Association, Dr. Tim Carter, in London about a number of current maritime health issues. In this interview, Dr. Tim Carter, who is cur­rently employed...

  8. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  9. Current bioethical issues in parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E

    2008-09-01

    Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  10. Current issues in peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Twenty million people in the United States are estimated to have peripheral neuropathy. However, many patients are not aware of their diagnosis, are not given the diagnosis or being treated, or the diagnosis is delayed. Currently, the only treatments available for neuropathy are aimed at treating the underlying medical conditions that cause the neuropathy or treating symptoms such as pain. Neither treats the actual nerve fiber dysfunction or fiber loss, or helps nerve fibers regenerate. Idiopathic neuropathy, that is neuropathy for which a cause is not identified, is common, accounting in referral series for 25% in all neuropathy patients and 50% or more of patients with small fiber neuropathy. Currently, there is only one FDA-approved medication for a specific neuropathy (chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy) while there are two FDA approved medications for diabetic neuropathy pain and four that are approved for post-herpetic neuralgia pain. For many patients with painful neuropathy, these medications are ineffective or not tolerated. Continued research into the underlying mechanisms of neuropathy and an increased understanding of nerve regeneration and neuropathic pain are needed to address this unmet medical need among patients with neuropathy.

  11. [Current issues in medical liability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatsch, H J

    1987-01-01

    Currently, liability discussions are being dominated by AIDS and the legal problems associated with birth and death. The introduction of routine AIDS tests without the knowledge of those concerned is disputed heatedly and, in fact, may well constitute bodily assault and render those responsible liable to prosecution. In AIDS cases, the apparent breach of the Hippocratic oath of secrecy by Physicians can be justified on the grounds of both the extraordinary circumstances prevailing and conflicting duties. The transmission of AIDS could give rise to prosecution for causing bodily injury or manslaughter. The drawing up of a law to protect embryos is designed to establish legal constraints in the fields of reproduction and gene technology. In reframing section 168 StGB, which provides protection to the dead embryo, legislators assume that the head of a medical clinic is the lawful custodian of the corpse of a person who has died in his institution. This should help to resolve many of the problems arising from post-mortem examinations. The questions of euthanasia and medical assistance in cases of suicide were raised at the 1986 Conference of German Lawyers. Whereas medical treatment that could be considered as interference with the natural process of dying may be withdrawn in the case of irreversible terminal suffering, active euthanasia, i.e. the deliberate killing of a terminal patient, was rejected. With regard to noninterference in a suicide attempt by a third party, the free decision of the person wishing to commit suicide should be respected. In general, however, the maxim in dubio pro vita should be respected and where any doubt exists, an attempt should be made to save the person's life.

  12. Uniqueness, scale, and resolution issues in groundwater model parameter identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-chyi J. Yeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper first visits uniqueness, scale, and resolution issues in groundwater flow forward modeling problems. It then makes the point that non-unique solutions to groundwater flow inverse problems arise from a lack of information necessary to make the problems well defined. Subsequently, it presents the necessary conditions for a well-defined inverse problem. They are full specifications of (1 flux boundaries and sources/sinks, and (2 heads everywhere in the domain at at least three times (one of which is t = 0, with head change everywhere at those times must being nonzero for transient flow. Numerical experiments are presented to corroborate the fact that, once the necessary conditions are met, the inverse problem has a unique solution. We also demonstrate that measurement noise, instability, and sensitivity are issues related to solution techniques rather than the inverse problems themselves. In addition, we show that a mathematically well-defined inverse problem, based on an equivalent homogeneous or a layered conceptual model, may yield physically incorrect and scenario-dependent parameter values. These issues are attributed to inconsistency between the scale of the head observed and that implied by these models. Such issues can be reduced only if a sufficiently large number of observation wells are used in the equivalent homogeneous domain or each layer. With a large number of wells, we then show that increase in parameterization can lead to a higher-resolution depiction of heterogeneity if an appropriate inverse methodology is used. Furthermore, we illustrate that, using the same number of wells, a highly parameterized model in conjunction with hydraulic tomography can yield better characterization of the aquifer and minimize the scale and scenario-dependent problems. Lastly, benefits of the highly parameterized model and hydraulic tomography are tested according to their ability to improve predictions of aquifer responses induced by

  13. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on groundwater using stable OH isotopes: perspectives and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, Philippe; Ollivier, Patrick; Flehoc, Christine; Hube, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Large developments of isotope hydrogeology were done and well-established techniques mainly applying stable isotopes of the water molecule (hydrogen and oxygen) are now used largely to trace water provenance but also recharge processes. New methods allow the use of non-traditional isotopes (metals, compound specific stable isotope analysis CSIA...) to trace anthropogenic pressures in surface- and groundwater. Groundwater contamination in large industrial sites may come from several origins such as leakage from tanks during the production process of chemical products, liquid storage tanks, solid end product or past accumulated product in soil which is released over the time. The understanding of the origin and the further evolution of the chemical contamination in groundwater in an industrial site issued from past or current industrial activities is essential for the industrial companies regarding their environmental policies. The objective of this study was to use with an innovative way the stable isotopes of the water molecule as a low cost tool to trace pollutant plumes in groundwater and help to a better management of contaminated industrial sites. We present data on stable isotopes O and H in an European region where electrochemistry plants occur. For confidentiality purposes, the sites remain anonymous. Present day industrial activities have a direct impact on the groundwater over the site and migration of the contaminant(s) plume out of the site is supposed. We first characterize the natural groundwater background through the O-H characterization of surface water, lakes, thermal waters and regional shallow aquifers. High and low altitude recharge can be demonstrated in the area. Secondly, we used the stable isotope of the water molecule to trace over the site the impact of the Cl-rich liquor manufacturing process. Large deuterium enrichment was evidenced in the groundwater and the high values can be related to a direct contamination of the groundwater through

  14. Electromigration Issues in High Current Horn

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wu; Hseuh, Brigitte; Sandberg, Jon; Simos, Nikolaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Weng, Wu-Tsung

    2005-01-01

    The secondary particle focusing horn for the AGS neutrino experiment proposal is a high current and high current density device. The peak current of horn is 300 kA. At the smallest area of horn, the current density is near 8 kA/mm2. At very high current density, a few kA/mm2, the electromigration phenomena will occur. Momentum transfer between electrons and metal atoms at high current density causes electromigration. The reliability and lifetime of focusing horn can be severely reduced by electromigration. In this paper, we discuss issues such as device reliability model, incubation time of electromigration, and lifetime of horn.

  15. Issues of Sustainability of Coastal Groundwater Resources: Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Mullen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The largest city in Benin, West Africa (Cotonou, is reliant upon groundwater for its public water supply. This groundwater is derived from the Godomey well field which is located approximately 5 Km north of the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and in close proximity to Lake Nokoue—a shallow lake containing water with elevated concentration of chloride and other elements. Historical data indicate increased chloride concentration in a number of wells nearest to the lake, with unknown contribution from groundwater encroachment from the coastal area. Hence, there is substantial interest in better characterizing this groundwater system for the purpose of determining appropriate management practices and degree of sustainability. Among the efforts attempted to date are a series of numerical models ranging from assessment of flow to a recent effort to include density-dependent transport from the lake. In addition, substantial field characterization has been pursued including assessment of shallow water chemistry along the region of the coastal lagoon and border of the lake, characterization of hydraulic response to pumpage in the aquifer system, estimation of the distribution of electrical resistivity with depth along the coastal lagoons, and installation of multi-level piezometers at seven locations in the lake. When integrated across methods, these numerical and field results indicate that the lake remains a primary concern in terms of a source of salinity in the aquifer. Further, the coastal region appears to be more complex than previously suggested and may represent a future source of salt-water encroachment as suggested by current presence of saline waters at relatively shallow depths along the coast. Finally, hydraulic testing suggests that both natural and pumping-based fluctuations in water levels are present in this system. Substantial additional characterization and modeling efforts may provide a significantly greater understanding of the

  16. Canada - gas supply, demand and current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, K.W. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    This paper examines the trends in natural gas supply and demand during the decade since deregulation, and provides an assessment of the degree to which the goals of the deregulation agreement have been met. The author then turns to a discussion of current issues in the natural gas industry as seen from a regulator`s perspective. The issues discussed include: excess deliverability and price; pipeline integrity; the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act; new pipeline certification; pipeline jurisdiction; export licensing; financial regulation; and electronic information exchange. (Author)

  17. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Hong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risktaking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues.

  18. Reforming health care in Canada: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Enis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government's clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among stake-holders. They recommend decentralized governance and restructuring for better management and more citizen participation. Although Canada's health care system remains committed to safeguarding its guiding principles, the balance of power may be shifting from providers to citizens and "technocrats". Also, all provinces are likely to increase their pressure on physicians by means of salary caps, by exploring payment methods such as capitation, limiting access to costly technology, and by demanding practice changes based on evidence of cost-effectiveness.

  19. Module Technology: Current Practice and Issues (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2010-10-05

    PV modules must provide mechanical support for the cells, protect the world from the voltages inside, protect the cells, diodes and interconnects from the weather outside, couple as much light as possible into the PV cells and minimize the temperature increase of the cells. The package must continue to serve these functions for at least 25 years as that is the typical module warranty period today. Furthermore the package must do all this for as low a cost as possible since the key to large scale PV growth is a reduction in cost while retaining excellent module reliability and durability. This paper will review current module construction practices for both crystalline silicon and thin film PV with emphasis on explaining why the present designs and materials have been selected. Possible long term issues with today's designs and materials will be discussed. Several proposed solutions to these issues will be presented, highlighting the research efforts that will be necessary in order to verify that they can cost effectively solve the identified issues.

  20. Current ethical issues in animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul B

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reviews the current status of opinion and debate regarding ethical issues in three broad categories of relevance to animal biotechnology. The first is scientific integrity, where the focus has been on scientific fraud and the integrity of the research process. The second concerns possible harms or risks to parties affected either directly by research (including animals themselves) or through the eventual commercialisation or development of products from animal biotechnology. The final category concerns a responsibility to serve as a guardian of the public interest with respect to application and development of technologies derived from new genetic sciences. It is plausible to see the scientific community as a whole having such a fiduciary obligation to the broader public in virtue of the technical complexity of the issues and owing to the public funding and institutional support for scientific research. The overall conclusion is that in the latter two categories especially, there is an urgent need for new participation in deliberative consideration of ethical issues by working scientists.

  1. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  2. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Optimal Management Strategy for Groundwater Protection and Restoration Along with Discussions on Related Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.

    2003-12-01

    Contamination of groundwater systems is an increasingly critical problem. The limited available resources or budget for groundwater protection and restoration and sustainable development in a country or region require a corresponding strategy for groundwater protection and restoration to maximize resource or budget utilization and minimize an adverse impact on the sustainable development. An innovative strategy for groundwater protection and restoration has been established based on the optimization principles and considerations of both risk assessments of groundwater contamination and difficulties or costs of groundwater remediation and protection measures. Site investigations and groundwater modeling are two critical components to implement this strategy. Cost for groundwater protection and restoration can be categorized as Existing Contaminated Site Investigation Cost (ECSIC), Existing Contaminated Site Remediation Cost (ECSRC), Projected Contamination Site Investigation Cost (PCSIC), Projected Contamination Site Protection Cost (PCSPC), and Projected Contamination Site Remediation Cost (PCSRC). The objective function for optimization analyses consists of risk reduction components with variables of the above different costs from all individual site remediation and protection measures. The optimal distribution of the limited available resources is determined by such proper selections of those variables that the objective function reaches its maximum. Several important issues related to implementations of the strategy for groundwater protection and restoration are discussed. Those issues include uncertainty from aquifer heterogeneity, modeling for fractured geologic media, irreversible sorption, and implementations of natural attenuation. Specifically, Monte Carlo simulations through a numerical flow and transport model can be performed to develop a heterogeneity dispersivity matrix to account for the effects of different attributes of aquifer heterogeneity. In

  4. MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

    2000-01-19

    The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

  5. Current safety issues of CANDU licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); Natalizio, A. [ENSAC Associates, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-01-15

    As requested by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), the status of five generic licensing issues has been examined and their potential impact on a new plant that would be constructed in Canada has been evaluated. The results and conclusions of this evaluation are summarized as follows: steam explosion in calandria, hydrogen explosion in containment, use of PSA in reactor licensing, human factors, safety critical software.

  6. Urban air quality management - current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplin, N. [Sheffield City Council, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Environment and Regulatory Services; Virtanen, T. [Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council, Helsinki (Finland); Mladonicky, P. [National Centre of Health Promotion, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2002-07-01

    In 1996 the EC adopted the Ambient Air Quality and Assessment Directive, which is designed to provide a comprehensive strategy for the management of air quality in Member States, linking controls on emissions with the attainment of air quality objectives. The subsequent Daughter Directives provide limit values, based on health effects, for specified pollutants. In essence Member States have to monitor and assess air quality and where necessary draw up air pollution minimisation plans. This paper explores the practical issues facing three European cities, Sheffield, Helsinki and Bratislava as they face the challenge of implementing action necessary to bring about improvements in air quality by 2010. There are very different problems to resolve due to each City's particular characteristics, although they all share the same cause of the problem - road traffic. Although the technical solutions appear to be relatively straight forward each city faces the problems of trying to educate its citizens, to bring about changes in individual behaviour so that everyone can benefit from better air quality. Sheffield now faces an added level of complexity as its economic performance is below the European average and it has attained Objective 1 status which will introduce a huge investment to kick start the economy and make sure it continues to thrive. (orig.)

  7. Sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy: current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillidis, John K; Merikas, Emmanuel; Nikolakis, Dimitrios; Papalois, Apostolos E

    2013-01-28

    Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can successfully be performed by applying moderate (conscious) sedation. Moderate sedation, using midazolam and an opioid, is the standard method of sedation, although propofol is increasingly being used in many countries because the satisfaction of endoscopists with propofol sedation is greater compared with their satisfaction with conventional sedation. Moreover, the use of propofol is currently preferred for the endoscopic sedation of patients with advanced liver disease due to its short biologic half-life and, consequently, its low risk of inducing hepatic encephalopathy. In the future, propofol could become the preferred sedation agent, especially for routine colonoscopy. Midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. Among opioids, pethidine and fentanyl are the most popular. A number of other substances have been tested in several clinical trials with promising results. Among them, newer opioids, such as remifentanil, enable a faster recovery. The controversy regarding the administration of sedation by an endoscopist or an experienced nurse, as well as the optimal staffing of endoscopy units, continues to be a matter of discussion. Safe sedation in special clinical circumstances, such as in the cases of obese, pregnant, and elderly individuals, as well as patients with chronic lung, renal or liver disease, requires modification of the dose of the drugs used for sedation. In the great majority of patients, sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist remains the standard practice worldwide. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge concerning sedation during digestive endoscopy will be provided based on the data in the current literature.

  8. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  9. Cooperatives in Serbia: Evolution and current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chroneos-Krasavac Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperatives in Serbia have long history, evolving from big traditional families to the contemporary social networked organizations and even private companies acting like coops. Current legal framework, on one side, enables many possibilities, but on the other side prevents further development of cooperatives. An interview of key players in the coop sector was one of the research methods. Other methods include historical method, comparative analysis method and case study method. In conclusion, the major obstacle for the further coops development in Serbia is legal status of ownership. Other obstacles are: the level of state interference, the loyalty of primary producers and participants, the average land size per households, etc. The paper includes three parts: historical evolution, successful case study and framework for future development.

  10. Hidden Curriculum as One of Current Issue of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2015-01-01

    There are several issues in the education system, especially in the curriculum field that affect education. Hidden curriculum is one of current controversial curriculum issues. Many hidden curricular issues are the result of assumptions and expectations that are not formally communicated, established, or conveyed within the learning environment.…

  11. Saline water pollution in groundwater: issues and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Purnama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, saline water pollution has been gaining its importance as the major issue around the world, especially in the urban coastal area. Saline water pollution has major impact on human life and livelihood. It´s mainly a result from static fossil water and the dynamics of sea water intrusion.. The problem of saline water pollution caused by seawater intrusion has been increasing since the beginning of urban population. The problem of sea water intrusion in the urban coastal area must be anticipated as soon as possible especially in the urban areas developed in coastal zones,. This review article aims to; (i analyze the distribution of saline water pollution on urban coastal area in Indonesia and (ii analyze some methods in controlling saline water pollution, especially due to seawater intrusion in urban coastal area. The strength and weakness of each method have been compared, including (a applying different pumping patterns, (b artificial recharge, (c extraction barrier, (d injection barrier and (e subsurface barrier. The best method has been selected considering its possible development in coastal areas of developing countries. The review is based considering the location of Semarang coastal area, Indonesia. The results have shown that artificial recharge and extraction barrier are the most suitable methods to be applied in the area.

  12. Current Water Issues Faced with Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘柳

    2009-01-01

    Tianjin is the third biggest city in China,but currently facing a severe water shortage.Historically,due to Tianjin's geographic location it is a water rich city,but over the past 50 decades has become a water poor area.Over all both quality and quantity of Tianjin's water resource are declining.Recommendations arc made to resolve this water problem in different aspects.%天津作为中国的直辖市之一,目前面临着严重水资源短缺的问题.在历史上,因为它的地理位置,天津是水资源丰富的城市.然而近几十年来天津已经成为水资源极度匮乏地区.天津水资源的数量和质量都在急刷下降.在这篇文章中提出了一些建议来帮助解决这些水问题.

  13. Measuring Groundwater and Contaminant Flux: Passive Flux Meter Field Applications and Issues with Alcohol Degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bondehagen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The passive flux meter (PFM developed at the University of Florida is an innovative device that is inserted into a well in order to measure groundwater and contaminant flux. The in-situ device consists of an activated carbon matrix impregnated with known amounts of alcohols that are desorbed at rates proportional to the groundwater flux through the device. After exposure the sorbent is extracted to quantify the contaminant mass intercepted and the resident alcohol mass remaining. Since the alcohols employed in bioactive sites are degradable, studies were conducted to investigate biodegradation issues and microbial acclimation times in field application. Also, silver-impregnated activated carbon was compared to unamended activated carbon in batch and column studies to determine silver ion effects on degradation. The studies confirm degradation and microbial acclimation occurrence, and demonstrate that silver impregnated activated carbon does inhibit degradation. Issues remain with biofilm/biofouling observed in the field as well as column studies.

  14. Groundwater Challenges of the Lower Rio Grande: A Case Study of Legal Issues in Texas and New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wheat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1938, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado signed the Rio Grande Compact, establishing terms of apportionment for some of the water from the Rio Grande for the three states. Following congressional approval in 1939, this compact governs water allocation in a region with a variable climate and frequent drought conditions and established the Rio Grande Compact Commission, comprised of a commissioner from each state and one from the federal government, to enforce the compact. With an increasing population and declining surface water supply, the Compact has been tested among the parties and within the states themselves. In a case currently before the U.S. Supreme Court, Texas v. New Mexico and Colorado (2013, Texas claims New Mexico is violating the Compact and Rio Grande Project Act by using water in excess of its apportionment through its allowance of diversions of surface and groundwater. The issue is further compounded by disputes within Texas over separate legal regimes for groundwater and surface water. Combined with growing scarcity issues, the allocation of water in the Lower Rio Grande presents a timely natural resource challenge. This review explores legal issues involved in the case as well as growing challenges of population growth, agricultural development needs, and water shortages.

  15. Field Scale Groundwater Nitrate Loading Model for the Central Valley, California, 1945-Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley aquifer system, California, is widespread, with over 40% of domestic wells in some counties exceeding drinking water standards. Sources of groundwater nitrate include leaky municipal wastewater systems, municipal wastewater recharge, onsite wastewater treatment (septic) systems, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, animal farming, application of organic waste materials (sludge, biosolids, animal manure) to agricultural lands, and synthetic fertilizer. At the site or field scale, nitrogen inputs to the landscape are balanced by plant nitrogen uptake and harvest, atmospheric nitrogen losses, surface runoff of nitrogen, soil nitrogen storage changes, and leaching to groundwater. Irrigated agriculture is a dominant player in the Central Valley nitrogen cycle: The largest nitrogen fluxes are synthetic fertilizer and animal manure applications to cropland, crop nitrogen uptake, and groundwater nitrogen losses. We construct a historic field/parcel scale groundwater nitrogen loading model distinguishing urban and residential areas, individual animal farming areas, leaky wastewater lagoons, and approximately 50 different categories of agricultural crops. For non-agricultural landuses, groundwater nitrate loading is based on reported leaching values, animal population, and human population. For cropland, groundwater nitrate loading is computed from mass balance, taking into account diverse and historically changing management practices between different crops. Groundwater nitrate loading is estimated for 1945 to current. Significant increases in groundwater nitrate loading are associated with the expansion of synthetic fertilizer use in the 1950s to 1970s. Nitrate loading from synthetic fertilizer use has stagnated over the past 20 years due to improvements in nutrient use efficiency. However, an unbroken 60 year exponential increase in dairy production until the late 2000s has significantly impacted the

  16. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  17. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  18. Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report - December 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report (CCM/CME Report) has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia Corporation (Sandia) to meet requirements under the Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico (SNL/NM) Compliance Order on Consent (the Consent Order). The Consent Order, entered into by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), DOE, and Sandia, became effective on April 29, 2004. The Consent Order identified the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater (TAG) Area of Concern (AOC) as an area of groundwater contamination requiring further characterization and corrective action. This report presents an updated Conceptual Site Model (CSM) of the TAG AOC that describes the contaminant release sites, the geological and hydrogeological setting, and the distribution and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The dataset used for this report includes the analytical results from groundwater samples collected through December 2015.

  19. Current knowledge on groundwater microbial pathogens and their control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Merkle, Jon C.

    Those who drink groundwater that has not been disinfected are at increased risk of infection and disease from pathogenic microorganisms. Recent studies have shown that up to half of all US drinking-water wells tested had evidence of fecal contamination. A significant fraction of all waterborne disease outbreaks is associated with groundwater. An estimated 750,000 to 5.9million illnesses per year result from contaminated groundwaters in the US. Mortality from these illnesses may be 1400-9400 deaths per year. Control of these pathogens starts with source-water protection activities to prevent fecal contamination of aquifers and wells. These include assessment of wellhead vulnerability to fecal contamination and correction of identified deficiencies. Correction may include control of sources or rehabilitation of the well itself. Disinfection can serve as a useful barrier and is recommended as a prudent public-health policy for all groundwater systems. Ceux qui boivent une eau souterraine non désinfectée présentent un risque accru d'infection et de maladie par des germes pathogènes. De récentes études ont montré que près de la moitié de tous les puits américains testés, captés pour l'eau potable, sont soumis à une contamination fécale. Une fraction significative de l'ensemble des premières manifestations de maladies liées à l'eau est associée aux eaux souterraines. On estime qu'entre 750 000 et 5,9millions de personnes sont malades chaque année aux États-Unis à cause d'eaux souterraines polluées. La mortalité parmi ces malades doit ètre de l'ordre de 1400 à 9400 décès par an. La protection contre ces germes pathogènes commence avec des mesures prises au niveau du captage pour empècher la pollution des aquifères et des puits. Celles-ci comprennent une évaluation de la vulnérabilité des tètes de puits à la pollution fécale et une correction des insuffisances mises en évidence. Cette correction peut comprendre une maîtrise des sources

  20. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  1. Lubbock Gin Lab - Current Research and Leaf Grade Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation was given to a group of cotton gin managers and allied industry reps. Approximately 100 attendees were in the audience. A discussion of the current research conducted at the USDA ARS CPPRU Ginning Laboratory in Lubbock, TX was given along with a discussion of leaf grade issues and ...

  2. Exploring Current Issues through the Hot Topics Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbett, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a research paper and poster assignment used in an undergraduate leisure and human behavior course. The intent of this learning activity is to increase student knowledge of current issues within the industry as well as to enhance students' professional communication skills. A description of the assignment is shared along with…

  3. Current Issues for Higher Education Information Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Current issues that are important for the future of information resources management in higher education are presented. They include: integrating planning for information resources within institution-wide strategic planning; reengineering fundamental services; change management; distributed computing support; networking; the changing communication…

  4. Internet governance origins, current issues, and future possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Balleste, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Internet Governance: Origins, Current Issues, and Future Possibilities provides an introductory, multidisciplinary account of the forces at work in the evolving concept of internet governance and includes computer history, Internet beginnings, institutions and stakeholders, proposed models of governance, and human rights.

  5. 31 CFR 317.4 - Issuing agents currently qualified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuing agents currently qualified. 317.4 Section 317.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING AGENCIES...

  6. In-well degassing issues for measurements of dissolved gases in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, J W; Ryan, M C

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of dissolved gases in groundwater is becoming increasingly common and important. Many of these measurements involve monitoring or sampling within wells or from water pumped from wells. We used total dissolved gas pressure (TDGP) sensors placed in the screened section of various wells (4 to 72 m deep) to assess the dissolved gas conditions for open wells compared to the conditions when sealed (i.e., isolated from the atmosphere) with a hydraulic packer (one well) or when pumped. When the packer was installed (non-pumping conditions), TDGP rose from 3.1 atm (314 kPa), with declines noted when the packer was removed or deflated. While pumping, TDGP measured in many of the wells rose to substantially higher levels, up to 4.0 atm (408 kPa) in one case. Thus, when groundwater is gas charged, the background aquifer TDGP, and likewise the dissolved gas concentrations, may be substantially higher than initially measured in open wells, indicating significant in-well degassing. This raises concerns about past and current methods of measuring the dissolved gases in groundwater. Additional procedures that may be required to obtain representative measurements from wells include (1) installing in-well hydraulic packers to seal the well, or (2) pumping to bring in fresh groundwater. However, observed transient decreased TDGPs during pumping, believed to result from gas bubble formation induced by drawdown in the well below a critical pressure (relative to TDGP), may disrupt the measurements made during or after pumping. Thus, monitoring TDGP while pumping gas-charged wells is recommended. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  7. Current issues in the analysis of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    The Total Food Quality Model is used as a framework for highlighting a number of issues of current concern in understanding consumer food choice, and where promising avenues for research are seen. Consumer food choice is seen as a process where consumers form expectations about product quality be...... a stronger role. In addition, everyday routines in information processing and decision-making may change under situations of crisis.......The Total Food Quality Model is used as a framework for highlighting a number of issues of current concern in understanding consumer food choice, and where promising avenues for research are seen. Consumer food choice is seen as a process where consumers form expectations about product quality...... before or during purchase, and then have a quality experience after the purchase. However, an increasing role of credence characteristics in food choice assigns communication a stronger role in understanding food choice, and consumer concern for food production technologies gives prior attitudes...

  8. Current Issues in the Classification of Psychotic Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jennifer; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Maj, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide. There are a number of depression subtypes, and there has been much debate about how to most accurately capture and organize the features and subtypes of major depression. We review the current state of categorizing unipolar major depression with psychotic features (psychotic major depression, PMD), including clinical, biological, and treatment aspects of the disorder. We then propose some improvements to the current unipolar major depression categorization system. Finally, we identify important issues in need of further research to help elucidate the subtype of unipolar PMD. PMID:17548842

  9. Current Issues of Engineering Education under Globalized Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Sun

    A global world has recently expedited the international collaboration and network among engineering education societies including their scholars. The current issues of engineering education societies have been raised and discussed and those are various topics such as accreditation issues, current trends in engineering and technology education, government policies, innovations, program and project based learning, social sciences in engineering and technology education, university-industry joint programs, human resource development and engineering education, university linkage with K-12, role of engineering education in sustainable development, and the others. Among the variety of issues and topics, the hottest topic is relating to “innovations” of engineering education system. The innovative direction of engineering education in Korea has been reported along with that of USA, whose role has been one of major parts in innovation for the global engineering education system. The recent survey by IFEES (International Federation of Engineering Education Societies) has also been analyzed to consider the current three biggest challenges of global engineering education societies.

  10. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  11. Food and Health Some Current Issues and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with some of the many current issues and future trends in the area of food, diet and health in Europe. A complete coverage would be impossible in a short article in view of the extent and complexity of the food system and its major interaction with health. It is also important to stress at the outset that food/diet is only one component of health and other factors such as environment, overall lifestyle and genetics also play a major role. The genetic dimension is of particula...

  12. Current issues in the analysis of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    The Total Food Quality Model is used as a framework for highlighting a number of issues of current concern in understanding consumer food choice, and where promising avenues for research are seen. Consumer food choice is seen as a process where consumers form expectations about product quality...... before or during purchase, and then have a quality experience after the purchase. However, an increasing role of credence characteristics in food choice assigns communication a stronger role in understanding food choice, and consumer concern for food production technologies gives prior attitudes...

  13. Electronic Health Record (EHR and Cloud Security: The Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kusi Achampong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the cloud computing and its associated challenges, building a secured electronic health record (EHR in a cloud computing environment has attracted a lot of attention in both healthcare industry and academic community. Cloud computing concept is becoming a popular information technology (IT infrastructure for facilitating EHR sharing and integration. In this study we discuss security concepts related to EHR sharing and integration in healthcare clouds and analyse the arising security and privacy issues in access and management of EHRs. This paper focus on the current challenges that comes with the use of the cloud computing for EHR purposes.

  14. Current issues and future directions in pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2005-02-01

    Biomass is a diverse grouping of low energy content, low density and high moisture heterogenous materials. An overview of pyrolysis processes and procedures was presented with a list of potential applications for industrial processes and power generation. The chemical energy content of various fuels was presented and with the advantages of pyrolysis with reference to improved transport, handling and storage. Details of technical requirements were outlined along with some of the undesirable characteristics of biofuel including the highly corrosive nature of the fuel, pungency, high solids content, immiscibility with hydrocarbon fuels and the fact that over time, chemical composition shifts, resulting in increased viscosity and decreased volatility. Various issues concerning pyrolysis regarding current technologies, composition and standards, applications and biorefinery feedstock were summarized. A flow chart presenting the conversion of biomass to biofuel was provided. Various reactor types were also overviewed and included such as fluidized beds, transport, heated augers, vacuum pyrolysis and ablative and rotating cones. Details of pilot plants in Erie and Renfrew, Ontario were provided along with details of a plant in Alabama operating entirely on chicken litter. Various specifications for pyrolysis oils were presented. A chart of biofuel composition in mass fractions was provided, with an accompanying list of commonly quoted pyrolysis oil properties. A series of biofuel combustion tests conducted at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) in Ottawa were described. Photographs of the pre-test refractory were exhibited. Details of current research on drying kiln applications were outlined. The suitability of pyrolytic biofuel for producing microemulsion fuels was discussed. A biorefinery model was included. Challenges to biomass pyrolysis include feed preparation, scale-up issues, heat transfer to reactor rates, char separation, liquid collection, liquid quality

  15. [Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  16. Groundwater and climate change research scoping study

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C. R.; Cheetham, M.; Guha, P

    2006-01-01

    This scoping study has reviewed much of the published literature in the field of climate change and groundwater research. Whilst it is not exhaustive with regard to groundwater quality issues, most of the published literature relating to climate change and groundwater resources, particularly in the UK, is covered. Further work is required to identify current research needs relating to the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. The study of the effects of climate chan...

  17. Current Issues in Kaon Photoelectro-Production off the Nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic kaon production amplitudes associated to Lambda/Sigma hyperons can be described by phenomenological models, most notably by isobar approaches. Experimental data on kaon production have been collected at ELSA, SPring8, GRAAL, LNS Tohoku, and Jefferson Lab in the past, the measurements at Jefferson Lab providing the largest kinematic coverage and statistical significance. However, ambiguities inherent in the models, some data inconsistency in the cross-sections taken at different laboratories, and the problem of missing acceptance in forward direction of the experimental set-ups hinders a reliable extraction of resonance parameters. Predictions for the hypernuclear photo-production cross-section rely on a consistent and comprehensive description of the elementary process at forward kaon angles, where the current strong variation of the models is very unsatisfactory. A number of new experiments are now addressing these issues, among them the charged kaon electro-production programme with the ...

  18. A Review of Current Issues Underlying Colon Cleansing before Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C Hookey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines four current issues related to the efficacy, patient tolerance and safety of the following bowel cleansing agents: oral sodium phosphate (NaP, polyethylene glycol (PEG and magnesium citrate (Pico-Salax, Ferring Pharmaceuticals Inc, Canada, an agent recently made available in Canada. MedLine and PubMed databases were systematically searched to identify studies related to the efficacy of altered PEG solutions combined with adjunct treatments; the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Pico-Salax; the association between nephrocalcinosis, and chronic renal failure and oral NaP use; and the role of diet. Although lower volume PEG solutions combined with adjuvant agents were generally associated with better patient tolerance, their efficacy was varied and interpretation of this end point is complicated by study design issues. There are very few reported studies of Pico-Salax, and as a result, there are insufficient data to draw conclusions about the efficacy of this agent. The available data suggest that Pico-Salax may be better tolerated by patients, than oral NaP and PEG solutions. There is a paucity of hemodynamic monitoring data pre- and postadministration, but the available data suggests that this small-volume osmotic agent could cause subclinical contraction of the intravascular space. Recent case reports suggest an association between nephrocalcinosis and oral NaP ingestion, but to date, these reports have been confined to a single centre. Preliminary studies suggest that this is not a widespread problem, but more studies are needed. There are only a few studies examining diet and patient tolerability, but they do suggest that diet may be liberalized with some cleansing regimens to enhance tolerability without decreasing efficacy. The present review highlights current controversies and advances in colon cleansing before colonoscopy, and also identifies areas for further study.

  19. Assessing local planning to control groundwater depletion: California as a microcosm of global issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater pumping has caused excessive groundwater depletion around the world, yet regulating pumping remains a profound challenge. California uses more groundwater than any other U.S. state, and serves as a microcosm of the adverse effects of pumping felt worldwide—land subsidence, impaired water quality, and damaged ecosystems, all against the looming threat of climate change. The state largely entrusts the control of depletion to the local level. This study uses internationally accepted water resources planning theories systematically to investigate three key aspects of controlling groundwater depletion in California, with an emphasis on local-level action: (a) making decisions and engaging stakeholders; (b) monitoring groundwater; and (c) using mandatory, fee-based and voluntary approaches to control groundwater depletion (e.g., pumping restrictions, pumping fees, and education about water conservation, respectively). The methodology used is the social science-derived technique of content analysis, which involves using a coding scheme to record these three elements in local rules and plans, and State legislation, then analyzing patterns and trends. The study finds that Californian local groundwater managers rarely use, or plan to use, mandatory and fee-based measures to control groundwater depletion. Most use only voluntary approaches or infrastructure to attempt to reduce depletion, regardless of whether they have more severe groundwater problems, or problems which are more likely to have irreversible adverse effects. The study suggests legal reforms to the local groundwater planning system, drawing upon its empirical findings. Considering the content of these recommendations may also benefit other jurisdictions that use a local groundwater management planning paradigm.

  20. Starting Over: Current Issues in Online Catalog User Interface Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Walt

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of online catalogs focuses on issues in interface design. Issues addressed include understanding the user base; common user access (CUA) with personal computers; common command language (CCL); hyperlinks; screen design issues; differences from card catalogs; indexes; graphic user interfaces (GUIs); color; online help; and remote users.…

  1. State of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children: current research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Scheiner, Diane; Westerveld, Michael; Baron, Ida Sue

    2008-09-01

    Scientific attention to cultural considerations in child neuropsychological assessment has not developed parallel to the focus these issues have received in adult and elderly neuropsychological assessment. There are limited data on the presence, magnitude, etiology, and implications of culture-related differences in cognitive test performance among children. This preliminary report reviews the available empirical literature on the current state of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children. The review identified articles by searching PubMed and PsycINFO databases, and the tables of contents of Developmental Neuropsychology and Child Neuropsychology from 2003-2008. Of the 1,834 abstracts reviewed, ten papers met inclusion criteria for the review. Five studies were completed in America; four of these compared performance between ethnic groups while the fifth examined neighborhood level poverty indicators exclusively within African-American children. Of the five international studies, all established local normative data and/or were exploratory investigations of neuropsychological functions in specific cultural groups, including Taiwanese infants, South African youth, and bilingual British children. Taken together, the results yield important clinical and research data that begin to inform many of the complex and fascinating mechanisms by which ethnic identity and culture impact cognitive development and the neuropsychological assessment of children. A critique of the existing literature and directions for future research are provided.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in youth: current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Terry T-K; Ball, Geoff D C; Franks, Paul W

    2007-02-01

    The current paper reviews the important issues and challenges facing children and adolescents with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies suggest that the MetS and its risk components may be on the rise in children along with rising rates of obesity; however, further study remains warranted. The topics reviewed encompass the definition of the syndrome, its prevalence, clustering and tracking of metabolic risk factors, the role of physical activity and diet in the development of the MetS, criticisms and utility of the MetS definition, and special considerations needed in the pediatric population. Physical activity and diet may play important roles in the MetS; however, research with precise measurements of activity, diet, and metabolic outcomes is needed. The paper concludes by emphasizing that regardless of one's position in the ongoing debate about the MetS, the long-term risks attributable to each individual risk component are real. The abnormality of one component should automatically prompt the screening of other components. Among children and adolescents, lifestyle modification should always serve as the frontline strategy. Prevention during childhood is key to the largest possible impact on adult health at the population level.

  3. Keeping It Current: Using Technology to Teach about Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    In thinking about teaching nonfiction, the authors acknowledge that many contemporary and important nonfiction texts that students should be encouraged to read take up social issues that are not easy to talk about or even to think about. They discovered that combining well-chosen nonfiction on social issues with specialized digital games and other…

  4. Automatic object recognition: critical issues and current approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1991-08-01

    Automatic object recognition, with its diverse applications in numerous fields of science and technology, is permeating many aspects of military and civilian industries. This paper gives an overview of the issues confronting the automatic object recognition field and the approaches being used to address these issues.

  5. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issue in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirement for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration Botanical Guidance. The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical can...

  6. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanica...

  7. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  8. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  9. Current issues in libraries, information science and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Woodsworth, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This volume is unusual in that the theme is quite broad in scope yet focused on a specific topic; innovations and boundary-pushing studies in areas not usually found in library literature. It examines the periphery of the field surveyed in previous volumes. The chapters are grouped in two categories: professional issues and transforming services.

  10. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  11. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  12. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  13. Dialysis facility joint ventures--current structures and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James B; Pristave, Robert

    2005-07-01

    With the ongoing consolidation of the health care industry, including renal care, providers and physicians alike are using joint ventures as a means to partner on business transactions. This article discusses the expanding use of joint ventures in health care, including the dialysis industry, and looks at the types of structures being utilized and key legal concerns relating to such structures and issues.

  14. Current issues of space law before the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1974-01-01

    The United Nations' activities in the area of space law and the accomplishments of the Outer Space Committee are discussed. Two draft conventions, the draft treaty on the moon and the draft treaty on the registration of space objects are considered. Other issues covered include the direct broadcast by satellite, the boundary between air space and outer space, and remote sensing from space.

  15. Family Counseling in Malaysia: Current Issues and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    The study is carried out to explore the issues and practices in family counselling among the family counsellors at few counseling centres in Malaysia. Qualitative approach of single case embedded units was used for the study. Data collection was done using in-depth interview, observation and document analysis with 12 family counsellors. The data…

  16. Review: Current and emerging methods for catchment-scale modelling of recharge and evapotranspiration from shallow groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca C.; Crosbie, Russell S.

    2016-09-01

    A review is provided of the current and emerging methods for modelling catchment-scale recharge and evapotranspiration (ET) in shallow groundwater systems. With increasing availability of data, such as remotely sensed reflectance and land-surface temperature data, it is now possible to model groundwater recharge and ET with more physically realistic complexity and greater levels of confidence. The conceptual representation of recharge and ET in groundwater models is critical in areas with shallow groundwater. The depth dependence of recharge and vegetation water-use feedback requires additional calibration to fluxes as well as heads. Explicit definition of gross recharge vs. net recharge, and groundwater ET vs. unsaturated zone ET, in preparing model inputs and reporting model results is necessary to avoid double accounting in the water balance. Methods for modelling recharge and ET include (1) use of simple surface boundary conditions for groundwater flow models, (2) coupling saturated groundwater models with one-dimensional unsaturated-zone models, and (3) more complex fully-coupled surface-unsaturated-saturated conceptualisations. Model emulation provides a means for including complex model behaviours with lower computational effort. A precise ET surface input is essential for accurate model outputs, and the model conceptualisation depends on the spatial and temporal scales under investigation. Using remote sensing information for recharge and ET inputs in model calibration or in model-data fusion is an area for future research development. Improved use of uncertainty analysis to provide probability bounds for groundwater model outputs, understanding model sensitivity and parameter dependence, and guidance for further field-data acquisition are also areas for future research.

  17. Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada: Current Trends and Issues. Purich's Aboriginal Issues Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, John H., Ed.

    This book contains 13 chapters analyzing important practical issues that must be addressed as Aboriginal self-government becomes fully operational in Canada. These issues are related to social problems and policies, criminal justice, community services, education, employment and job training, finance, the land base of government, women's rights…

  18. Joint Custody: Current Issues and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Carol A.; Goldenberg, Irene

    1985-01-01

    Describes what joint physical custody involves, the kinds of families who currently have this type of custody arrangement, and the effects on parents and children. Current research supporting two perspectives on joint custody, one emphasizing the continuity of psychological care from one parent, the other emphasizing the importance of the father's…

  19. Access to Government-Generated Information: Current Issues and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Linda E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews both historical and current policies for access to government information, and discusses such current trends in government information as paperwork reduction, commercialization, privatization, and electronic publishing. The possible impact of these trends on the library's ability to provide access to information is briefly considered. (CLB)

  20. Homosexuals and the U.S. Military: Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-22

    David F., “An Overview of the Debate on Homosexuals in the U.S. Military,” in Gays and Lesbians in the Military, Issues, Concerns, and Contrasts...policy not to accept gay or lesbian students into its programs and to require avowed homosexuals to disenroll and pay back their scholarship funds...a lesbian ” at a January 1993 rally. Her attorneys argued that she was not broadcasting her intentions to practice homosexuality but merely

  1. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-26

    overwhelming majority of Ukrainians grew disgusted with the Ukrainian political class, according to opinion polls. What little remained of the ideals of...Maidan on December 10, Secretary of State John Kerry issued a statement expressing the United States’ “ disgust ” with the Ukrainian government’s...assistance to organizations in Ukraine engaged in repression . The resolution says the Department of State should “immediately consider” sanctions

  2. Physical punishment, culture, and rights: current issues for professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Joan E

    2008-02-01

    Once considered a legitimate parenting tool, physical punishment is increasingly being redefined as a developmental risk factor by health professionals. Three forces that have contributed to this significant social change are the evolution of pediatric psychology, increasing understanding of the dynamics of parental violence, and growing recognition of children as rights bearers. However, despite the consistency of research findings demonstrating the risks of physical punishment, some practitioners still struggle with the question of whether physical punishment is an appropriate practice among some cultural or ethnic groups. This issue is explored through an analysis of studies examining cultural differences and similarities in physical punishment's effects, as well as legal decisions made throughout the world. Despite practitioners' awareness of the prevalence and impact of parental violence, some still struggle with deciding where to "draw the line" in advising parents about spanking. This issue is addressed through an examination of the role that physical punishment plays in child maltreatment. Finally, the human rights perspective on physical punishment is offered as a new lens through which practitioners may view physical punishment to clarify the fuzzy issues of cultural relativity and the punishment-abuse dichotomy.

  3. A Review of Groundwater Quality Issue in Jharkhand Due to Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Kumari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is elixir of life. Water resources are categorized as surface sources and Groundwater sources. The groundwater have certain dissolved ions , among which presence of fluoride has got significance as it is required by the human body for mineralization of bones and formation of enamel. As per the WHO standard prescribe maximum level for fluoride in drinking water, is 1.5 mg/l, and IS : 10500 specifies required desirable limit of fluoride concentration in drinking water as 0.6-1.0 mg/L, maximum limit is extended to 1.5 mg/l. In the study area, Jharkhand, Palamu, Garhwa, Giridih, Bokaro, Gumla, Godda, Ranchi are the districts where fluoride pollution in water is prevalent. The Daltonganj block in Palamu district is severely affected by this problem. The fluoride problem in the area is mainly geogenic. Other factors like pH, climatic conditions also play a major role.

  4. Groundwater Quantity and Quality Issues in a Water-Rich Region: Examples from Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant.

  5. Sustainable Management of Groundwater Resources on a Tropical Island: Issues and Dillemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, Ron; Gossling, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    Many developing countries have focused on tourism to generate additional income sources and to diversify the economy. The development of the necessary infrastructure in combination with the presence of a large number of tourists can have detrimental effects for the resource base on which local communities depend. In this article, the situation is described for the East Coast of Zanzibar, Tanzania. Causes and consequences of groundwater withdrawal are investigated, analyzed and put into contex...

  6. Current issues in nursing Perle Slavik Cowen and Sue Moorhead Eighth edition Current issues in nursing Elsevier £40.99 859pp 9780323065719 0323065716 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    THIS MUCH-LOVED book has, for the past 30 years, attempted to describe and discuss current issues facing nurses. new topics have been added for this, the eighth edition, with 85 chapters written by 129 different authors.

  7. Lactose crystallization: current issues and promising Engineering solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rjabova, A.; Kirsanov, V.; Strizhko, M.; Bredikhin, A.; Semipyatnyi, V.; Chervetsov, V.; Galstyan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Current technological aspects of lactose crystallization are considered. A promising lactose crystallization method involving simulation seed crystals is reported. Advanced engineering solutions for continuous crystallization using spraying in vacuo and scraped-surface heat exchangers are presented.

  8. Cloud portability and interoperability issues and current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Di Martino, Beniamino; Esposito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a quick, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the most important methodologies, technologies, APIs and standards related to the portability and interoperability of cloud applications and services, illustrated by a number of use cases representing a variety of interoperability and portability scenarios. The lack of portability and interoperability between cloud platforms at different service levels is the main issue affecting cloud-based services today. The brokering, negotiation, management, monitoring and reconfiguration of cloud resources are challenging tasks

  9. Current Situation and Issue of Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Rhie, Jeongbae; Yoon, Jo-Duk; Kim, Jinsoo

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI) has a history of about 50 yr, and is the oldest social insurance system in Korea. After more than 20 times of revision improvements in benefits, its contents and claim systems have been upgraded. It became the protector of injured workers and their families, and at the same time became the system which could cope with both financial burden of employers and their responsibilities. However, there are some issues to be reformed to upgrade the IACI: 1) the problems in the approval system of occupational diseases, 2) quality improvement of workers' compensation medical care, 3) vocational rehabilitation and return to work, 4) workers' compensation premiums and out-of-pocket money of injured workers, 5) issues in application of IACI. Growth of IACI cannot be achieved by an effort of an individual. Efforts by workers, owners, and government, in addition to physicians and welfare professionals toward the same goal are required for the next level improvement of IACI. PMID:22661871

  10. Dietary copper and human health: Current evidence and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Muriel; Houdart, Sabine; Oberli, Marion; Kalonji, Esther; Huneau, Jean-François; Margaritis, Irène

    2016-05-01

    Although copper (Cu) is recognized as an essential trace element, uncertainties remain regarding Cu reference values for humans, as illustrated by discrepancies between recommendations issued by different national authorities. This review examines human studies published since 1990 on relationships between Cu intake, Cu balance, biomarkers of Cu status, and health. It points out several gaps and unresolved issues which make it difficult to assess Cu requirements. Results from balance studies suggest that daily intakes below 0.8 mg/day lead to net Cu losses, while net gains are consistently observed above 2.4 mg/day. However, because of an incomplete collection of losses in all studies, a precise estimation of Cu requirements cannot be derived from available data. Data regarding the relationship between Cu intake and potential biomarkers are either too preliminary or inconclusive because of low specificity or low sensitivity to change in dietary Cu over a wide range of intakes. Results from observation and intervention studies do not support a link between Cu and a risk of cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, arthritis or cancer for intakes ranging from 0.6 to 3mg/day, and limited evidence exists for impaired immune function in healthy subjects with a very low (0.38 mg/day) Cu intake. However, data from observation studies should be regarded with caution because of uncertainties regarding Cu concentration in various foods and water. Further studies that accurately evaluate Cu exposure based on reliable biomarkers of Cu status are needed.

  11. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  12. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  13. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  14. Cost-utility analysis: Current methodological issues and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J C Nuijten

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of cost-effectiveness as final criterion in the reimbursement process for listing of new pharmaceuticals can be questioned from a scientific and policy point of view. There is a lack of consensus on main methodological issues and consequently we may question the appropriateness of the use of cost-effectiveness data in health care decision-making. Another concern is the appropriateness of the selection and use of an incremental cost-effectiveness threshold (Cost/QALY. In this review, we focus mainly on only some key methodological concerns relating to discounting, the utility concept, cost assessment and modelling methodologies. Finally we will consider the relevance of some other important decision criteria, like social values and equity.

  15. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography.

  16. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition.

  17. Introduction: Current educational issues: some profiles and settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Teruel Melero

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado (REIFOP offers a range of articles focused on the profiles and settings of education today. It also includes the full text of the Pedagogical Manifesto “It is not true”, promoted by RedIres (School updating and research network, to which the journal adheres, taking it as its own. Finally, REIFOP makes available to all its readers a wide database of over 1,700 resources on Education and Psychology, retrievable online through the Internet.The authors of the articles are university lecturers and professors in the field of Education who carry out their academic research at ten Spanish universities: Barcelona, Extremadura, Granada, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Murcia, Oviedo, Santiago de Compostela, Sevilla, Valladolid and Zaragoza. We believe that this is a further way of reaching the whole university community.

  18. Provision of genetic services in Europe: current practices and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Béatrice; Kääriäinen, Helena; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Coviello, Domenico; Aymé, Ségolène

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the professional and scientific views on the social, ethical and legal issues that impact on the provision of genetic services in Europe. Many aspects have been considered, such as the definition and the aims of genetic services, their organization, the quality assessment, public education, as well as the partnership with patients support groups and the multicultural aspects. The methods was primarily the analysis of professional guidelines, legal frameworks and other documents related to the organization of genetic services, mainly from Europe, but also from USA and international organizations. Then, the method was to examine the background data emerging from an updated report produced by the Concerted Action on Genetic Services in Europe, as well as the issues debated by 43 experts from 17 European countries invited to an international workshop organized by the European Society of Human Genetics Public and Professional Policy Committee in Helsinki, Finland, 8 and 9 September 2000. Some conclusions were identified from the ESHG workshop to arrive at outlines for optimal genetic services. Participants were concerned about equal accessibility and effectiveness of clinical genetic services, quality assessment of services, professional education, multidisciplinarity and division of tasks as well as networking. Within European countries, adherence to the organizational principles of prioritization, regionalization and integration into related health services would maximize equal accessibility and effectiveness of genetic actions. There is a need for harmonization of the rules involved in financial coverage of DNA tests in order to make these available to all Europeans. Clear guidelines for the best practice will ensure that the provision of genetic services develops in a way that is beneficial to its customers, be they health professionals or the public, especially since the coordination of clinical, laboratory and research perspectives within a

  19. The Economic Component of National Security – Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to underline the main current approaches regarding the economic component of national security, with conclusions focused on the globalization effects on the national economies and the national security of the states. The dynamics of the unfolding political and economic events determines the need for the analysis – further developed in the paper - of the relevant variables and of the way these are involved in the intricate equations describing the current political, economic and social environment. One of the main results of the analysis is that national security represents a goal for any country wishing to provide sustainable welfare for its citizens, and this sustainable welfare cannot be achieved without sustainable economic security and development

  20. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Terry E.; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation (‘wanting’) for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive s...

  1. Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of Bangladesh: Perspectives on Geochemical, Microbial and Anthropogenic Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi M. Tareq

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A groundwater, sediment and soil chemistry and mineralogical study has been performed to investigate the sources and mobilization process of Arsenic (As in shallow aquifers of Bangladesh. The groundwater from the shallow aquifers is characterized by high concentrations of Arsenic (47.5–216.8 µg/L, iron (0.85–5.83 mg/L, and phosphate, along with high electrical conductivity (EC. The groundwater has both very low oxidation-reduction potential (Eh and dissolved oxygen (DO values indicating reducing conditions. By contrast, the deep aquifers and surface waters (pond, canal have very low concentrations of Arsenic ( < 6 µg/L, iron (0.12–0.39 mg/L, and phosphate along with a relatively low EC. Furthermore, the values of Eh and DO are high, indicating oxic to suboxic conditions. Arsenic is inversely correlated with Eh values in the upper aquifer, whereas no relationship in the deeper aquifer is observed. These results suggest that As mobilization is clearly linked to the development of reducing conditions. The clayey silt, enriched in Fe, Mn, Al oxides and organic matter, and deposited in the middle unit of shallow aquifers, contains moderately high concentrations of As, whereas the sediments of deep aquifers and silty mud surface soils from paddy fields and ponds contain a low content of As (Daudkandi area. Arsenic is strongly correlated with the concentrations of Fe, Mn and Al oxides in the core samples from the Daudkandi and Marua areas. Arsenic is present in the oxide phase of Fe and Mn, phyllosilicate minerals and in organic matter in sediments. This study suggests that adsorption or precipitation of As-rich Fe oxyhydroxide on the surface or inner sites of biotite might be responsible for As concentrations found in altered biotite minerals by Seddique et al. Microbially or geochemically mediated reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides is the main mechanism for As release. The reducing conditions are caused by respiratory decomposition of

  2. Urban groundwater quality in sub-Saharan Africa: current status and implications for water security and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, D. J.; Nkhuwa, D. C. W.; Okotto-Okotto, J.; Pedley, S.; Stuart, M. E.; Tijani, M. N.; Wright, J.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater resources are important sources of drinking water in Africa, and they are hugely important in sustaining urban livelihoods and supporting a diverse range of commercial and agricultural activities. Groundwater has an important role in improving health in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). An estimated 250 million people (40% of the total) live in urban centres across SSA. SSA has experienced a rapid expansion in urban populations since the 1950s, with increased population densities as well as expanding geographical coverage. Estimates suggest that the urban population in SSA will double between 2000 and 2030. The quality status of shallow urban groundwater resources is often very poor due to inadequate waste management and source protection, and poses a significant health risk to users, while deeper borehole sources often provide an important source of good quality drinking water. Given the growth in future demand from this finite resource, as well as potential changes in future climate in this region, a detailed understanding of both water quantity and quality is required to use this resource sustainably. This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the water quality status, both microbial and chemical, of urban groundwater in SSA across a range of hydrogeological terrains and different groundwater point types. Lower storage basement terrains, which underlie a significant proportion of urban centres in SSA, are particularly vulnerable to contamination. The relationship between mean nitrate concentration and intrinsic aquifer pollution risk is assessed for urban centres across SSA. Current knowledge gaps are identified and future research needs highlighted.

  3. Urban groundwater quality in sub-Saharan Africa: current status and implications for water security and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, D. J.; Nkhuwa, D. C. W.; Okotto-Okotto, J.; Pedley, S.; Stuart, M. E.; Tijani, M. N.; Wright, J.

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater resources are important sources of drinking water in Africa, and they are hugely important in sustaining urban livelihoods and supporting a diverse range of commercial and agricultural activities. Groundwater has an important role in improving health in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). An estimated 250 million people (40% of the total) live in urban centres across SSA. SSA has experienced a rapid expansion in urban populations since the 1950s, with increased population densities as well as expanding geographical coverage. Estimates suggest that the urban population in SSA will double between 2000 and 2030. The quality status of shallow urban groundwater resources is often very poor due to inadequate waste management and source protection, and poses a significant health risk to users, while deeper borehole sources often provide an important source of good quality drinking water. Given the growth in future demand from this finite resource, as well as potential changes in future climate in this region, a detailed understanding of both water quantity and quality is required to use this resource sustainably. This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the water quality status, both microbial and chemical, of urban groundwater in SSA across a range of hydrogeological terrains and different groundwater point types. Lower storage basement terrains, which underlie a significant proportion of urban centres in SSA, are particularly vulnerable to contamination. The relationship between mean nitrate concentration and intrinsic aquifer pollution risk is assessed for urban centres across SSA. Current knowledge gaps are identified and future research needs highlighted.

  4. Oxidative stress and life histories: unresolved issues and current needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Blount, Jonathan D; Bronikowski, Anne M; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Isaksson, Caroline; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Monaghan, Pat; Ozanne, Susan E; Beaulieu, Michaël; Briga, Michael; Carr, Sarah K; Christensen, Louise L; Cochemé, Helena M; Cram, Dominic L; Dantzer, Ben; Harper, Jim M; Jurk, Diana; King, Annette; Noguera, Jose C; Salin, Karine; Sild, Elin; Simons, Mirre J P; Smith, Shona; Stier, Antoine; Tobler, Michael; Vitikainen, Emma; Peaker, Malcolm; Selman, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Life-history theory concerns the trade-offs that mold the patterns of investment by animals between reproduction, growth, and survival. It is widely recognized that physiology plays a role in the mediation of life-history trade-offs, but the details remain obscure. As life-history theory concerns aspects of investment in the soma that influence survival, understanding the physiological basis of life histories is related, but not identical, to understanding the process of aging. One idea from the field of aging that has gained considerable traction in the area of life histories is that life-history trade-offs may be mediated by free radical production and oxidative stress. We outline here developments in this field and summarize a number of important unresolved issues that may guide future research efforts. The issues are as follows. First, different tissues and macromolecular targets of oxidative stress respond differently during reproduction. The functional significance of these changes, however, remains uncertain. Consequently there is a need for studies that link oxidative stress measurements to functional outcomes, such as survival. Second, measurements of oxidative stress are often highly invasive or terminal. Terminal studies of oxidative stress in wild animals, where detailed life-history information is available, cannot generally be performed without compromising the aims of the studies that generated the life-history data. There is a need therefore for novel non-invasive measurements of multi-tissue oxidative stress. Third, laboratory studies provide unrivaled opportunities for experimental manipulation but may fail to expose the physiology underpinning life-history effects, because of the benign laboratory environment. Fourth, the idea that oxidative stress might underlie life-history trade-offs does not make specific enough predictions that are amenable to testing. Moreover, there is a paucity of good alternative theoretical models on which contrasting

  5. PALLIATIVE CARE IN GERIATRICS: CURRENT ISSUES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Рonomareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the main problems and prospects of development of palliative care in geriatrics at the present stage. Method of research was to analyze the printed and electronic databases that meet the stated issues. The results of the study highlight the problems of the development of palliative care in geriatric practice: the lack of a developed procedure of rendering palliative care and adequate elderly patient selection criteria, the lack of trained professional staff. The main prospects-association of palliative practices and concepts of modern geriatrics required specialized geriatric assessment and the provision of clinical, medical, social and socio-psychological geriatric syndromes. While promising option for the development of palliative care geriatrics is the integration into the existing health care system, acceptance of the fact that it is a part of the specialized geriatric care. This requires the involvement and training of not only specialists with medical education, but also persons without medical training from among social workers and volunteers working in palliative care. Therefore, the obtained data allowed to conclude that topical is the development of palliative care in geriatrics, taking into account not only clinical but medico-social, socio-psychological features.

  6. Transdisciplinarity: A Review of Its Origins, Development, and Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Hillel Bernstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinarity originated in a critique of the standard configuration of knowledge in disciplines in the curriculum, including moral and ethical concerns. Pronouncements about it were first voiced between the climax of government-supported science and higher education and the long retrenchment that began in the 1970s. Early work focused on questions of epistemology and the planning of future universities and educational programs. After a lull, transdisciplinarity re-emerged in the 1990s as an urgent issue relating to the solution of new, highly complex, global concerns, beginning with climate change and sustainability and extending into many areas concerning science, technology, social problems and policy, education, and the arts. Transdisciplinarity today is characterized by its focus on “wicked problems” that need creative solutions, its reliance on stakeholder involvement, and engaged, socially responsible science. In simultaneously studying multiple levels of, and angles on, reality, transdisciplinary work provides an intriguing potential to invigorate scholarly and scientific inquiry both in and outside the academy.

  7. Biology of cancer: current issues and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J

    1992-02-01

    The future of cancer treatment is limited only by the rate of progress made in understanding the biology of cancer. The future will present a considerable challenge to health care professionals to learn new theories, understand new terms, and expect different toxicities. The explosion of information and technology is exciting, yet frightening. The willingness of scientists, health care professionals, and consumers to deal with the ethical, financial, and political issues generated by this progress is gratifying. Because science has created such advances, the effort to deal with the outcomes is worthwhile but still difficult. The challenge to rapidly facilitate the sharing of the scientific and clinical advances has been recognized by the nation. A legislative mandate to create a way to store and analyze the vast data related to molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics resulted in the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The development of automated systems to analyze genetic, environmental, biological, and chemistry information can only enhance future progress in the management of cancer.

  8. Raptor electrocution on power lines: Current issues and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Electrocution on power lines is one of many human-caused mortality factors that affect raptors. Cost-effective and relatively simple raptor-safe standards for power line modification and construction have been available for over 25 years. During the 1970s and early 1980s, electric industry efforts to reduce raptor electrocutions were very coordinated and proactive, but predictions about resolving the problem were overly optimistic. Today, raptors continue to be electrocuted, possibly in large numbers. The electrocution problem has not been resolved, partly because of the sheer number of potentially lethal power poles in use and partly because electrocution risks may be more pervasive and sometimes less conspicuous than once believed. Also, responses to the problem by individual utilities have not been uniform, and deregulation of the electric industry during the 1990s may have deflected attention from electrocution issues. To control raptor electrocutions in the future, the industry must increase information sharing and technology transfer, increase efforts to retrofit lethal power poles, and above all ensure that every new and replacement line constructed incorporates raptor-safe standards at all phases of development. Finally, responsibility for the electrocution problem must be shared. Federal, state, and local governments, academic institutions, the conservation community, and the consumer all can play critical roles in an effort that will, by necessity, extend well into the new century.

  9. Reprocessing semicritical items: Current issues and new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    Semicritical medical devices are defined as items that come into contact with mucous membranes or nonintact skin (eg, gastrointestinal endoscopes, endocavitary probes). Such medical devices minimally require high-level disinfection. Because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods are usually used rather than steam sterilization. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because more outbreaks have been linked to inadequately cleaned or disinfected endoscopes and other semicritical items undergoing high-level disinfection than any other reusable medical device.

  10. PATHOGENETIC THERAPY FOR ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN: CURRENT ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Smirnova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture presents current opinions on the problem of topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in children discussing different topical antiainflamatory drugs with and without corticosteroids. pimecrolimus 1% cream (elidel, novartis pharma, Germany is specially emphasized among the latter. Pimecrolimus is shown to provide symptom relief and control in mild and moderate cases of atopic dermatitis, so it could become essential in preventing exacerbations and elongation of remission periods of the disease.Key words: atopic dermatitis, topical treatment, pimecrolimus 1% cream.

  11. [Management of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa: current issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoukonou, T A; Vallat, J-M; Joubert, J; Macian, F; Kabore, R; Magy, L; Houinato, D; Preux, P-M

    2010-11-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, stroke is likely to present an increasingly important public health problem with a larger relative share of overall morbidity and mortality. Overall, sub-Saharan Health Care is characterized by a lack of human resources, lack of facilities for special investigations, and especially an absence of specific programs addressing the prevention of cardiovascular conditions. Current data on the epidemiology of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa, although sparse and fragmentary, indicate a comparatively high incidence of cerebral hemorrhage associated with high blood pressure, while ischemic stroke in black Africans still appears to be related primarily to small artery disease, HIV infection, and sickle cell disease. With urbanization, the role of large-vessel atherosclerosis is increasing. It is thus essential to coordinate government funding, health care professionals and development agencies to address this rising health problem. Access to health care needs to be better structured, and screening programs should be developed in order to identify and treat vascular risk factors. Improved training of health care professionals is also required in the areas of prevention, diagnosis and management of stroke. Implementation of best-practice recommendations for the management of stroke adapted to the specificities and resources of African countries would help rationalize the scarce resources currently available. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. STR allele sequence variation: Current knowledge and future issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, Katherine Butler; Aponte, Rachel A; Vallone, Peter M; Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews what is currently known about short tandem repeat (STR) allelic sequence variation in and around the twenty-four loci most commonly used throughout the world to perform forensic DNA investigations. These STR loci include D1S1656, TPOX, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, FGA, CSF1PO, D5S818, SE33, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, D10S1248, TH01, vWA, D12S391, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, Penta D, and D22S1045. All known reported variant alleles are compiled along with genomic information available from GenBank, dbSNP, and the 1000 Genomes Project. Supplementary files are included which provide annotated reference sequences for each STR locus, characterize genomic variation around the STR repeat region, and compare alleles present in currently available STR kit allelic ladders. Looking to the future, STR allele nomenclature options are discussed as they relate to next generation sequencing efforts underway.

  13. Data Analysis and Data Mining: Current Issues in Biomedical Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Diomidous, Marianna; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko; Ziegler, Andreas; McCray, Alexa T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Medicine and biomedical sciences have become data-intensive fields, which, at the same time, enable the application of data-driven approaches and require sophisticated data analysis and data mining methods. Biomedical informatics provides a proper interdisciplinary context to integrate data and knowledge when processing available information, with the aim of giving effective decision-making support in clinics and translational research. Objectives To reflect on different perspectives related to the role of data analysis and data mining in biomedical informatics. Methods On the occasion of the 50th year of Methods of Information in Medicine a symposium was organized, that reflected on opportunities, challenges and priorities of organizing, representing and analysing data, information and knowledge in biomedicine and health care. The contributions of experts with a variety of backgrounds in the area of biomedical data analysis have been collected as one outcome of this symposium, in order to provide a broad, though coherent, overview of some of the most interesting aspects of the field. Results The paper presents sections on data accumulation and data-driven approaches in medical informatics, data and knowledge integration, statistical issues for the evaluation of data mining models, translational bioinformatics and bioinformatics aspects of genetic epidemiology. Conclusions Biomedical informatics represents a natural framework to properly and effectively apply data analysis and data mining methods in a decision-making context. In the future, it will be necessary to preserve the inclusive nature of the field and to foster an increasing sharing of data and methods between researchers. PMID:22146916

  14. Current issues in child psychiatry: a dialogue with John Bowlby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warme, G E; Bowlby, J; Crowcroft, A; Rae-Grant, Q

    1980-08-01

    A condensed account of Bowlby's work, particularly his advocacy of an ethological approach and of attachment theory, is followed by comments by three child psychiatrists. His work is critically discussed and ranges from questions concerning the theoretical status of Bowlby's work, to concerns about the de-emphasis of constitutional and temperamental factors, and to concerns that current realities render impractical (and perhaps unnecessary) the traditional models of child rearing. Dr. Bowlby responds to each discussant. In this three days at Lake Couchiching, John Bowlby was the most available and charming of guests. He welcomed discussion with delegates in his every free moment, including mealtimes. It was a privilege to have him in dialogue with us.

  15. Groundwater science in water-utility operations: global reflections on current status and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Sage, Rob

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of groundwater science to water-utility operations is analysed from a broad international perspective, identifying key concerns and specific opportunities for the future. The strategic importance worldwide of water utilities assuming the role of lead stakeholders for integrated groundwater resource management, recognizing their often considerable technical know-how and highly significant data holdings, is emphasized. Concurrently, the utilities themselves will need an ever-closer appreciation of groundwater-system behaviour if they are to manage efficiently their water-supply and wastewater operations.

  16. Current Issues in Histology, Biology and Prognosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Goran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High risk Hodgkin lymphoma patients may occasionally have borderline characteristics similar to gray zone lymphomas and T-cell/histiocyte rich B cell lymphomas. These entities require different and more aggressive treatment modalities. Aggressive behavior is often associated with disturbances caused by Epstein Barr virus, or immune evasion caused by overexpression of check point inhibitors PDL-1 and PDL-2 coupled with the lack of expression of Class I and II MHC molecules. Galectin-1, TARC, sCD163 and other surrogate markers of immunosuppression in Hodgkin lymphoma may be useful for the assessment of treatment response. The improvements in lymphoma management diminished the importance of prognostic factors unified in the International Prognostic Scoring system, reducing them from 7 to 3 factors that remained relevant. Interim PET analysis is the only method able to identify resistant patients while chemotherapy is ongoing, thus enabling adjustment of treatment according to the treatment response. Efforts for stratification of patients according to disease histology, biology, microenvironment, clinical scoring systems and PET scan are ongoing. Current breakthroughs have set strong background for novel therapies with monoclonal antibodies and check point inhibitors that will result in improvement of management of high risk patients.

  17. Sleep disturbance due to noise: Current issues and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hume

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies

  18. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  19. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  20. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  1. Experiences and issues with the implementation of microscreen multilevel groundwater samplers in glaciofluvial aquifers in Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, Oliver; Dagestad, Atle

    2013-04-01

    The investigation of hydrochemical heterogeneities in groundwater systems is an indispensible tool to obtain information about chemical stratifications within an aquifer, and to gain a better understanding of natural weathering processes, hydrochemical evolution paths, and contaminant transport. Furthermore, it is highly topical since a detailed knowledge about the three-dimensional distribution of chemical groundwater composition is supposed to provide an important means for investigating the effects of a changing environment (climate change, changes in land use, population growth, and the effects of increasing human activities). However, an everlasting issue in hydrogeological studies lies in the limited vertical representativeness of groundwater samples obtained from production wells or conventional observation wells. Samples obtained from longer screened intervals can unwontedly blur the actual hydrochemical zoning and heterogeneity within an aquifer. In order to obtain more reliable information on the vertical distribution of solute concentrations and groundwater quality parameters, the use of an appropriate multilevel sampling technique can be the optimal choice. The investigation of point water samples collected at one to two meters distances rather than samples from longer screened intervals enables for the acquisition of detailed vertical profiles of groundwater chemistry. However, the benefits of obtaining this advanced level of detailedness are contingent on the minimization of vertical cross contaminations between the different samples, and the effectiveness of a multilevel sampling installation is thus based on the premise of only negligible vertical flow contributions. Many different multi level water sampling systems have been proposed in hydrogelogical sciences. However, the suitability of a specific multilevel sampler design is strongly dependent upon the intended application and local requirements. Example given, in formerly glaciated regions like

  2. Historic, Current, and Future Availability of Surface Water for Agricultural Groundwater Banking in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocis, T. N.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater banking, the intentional recharge of groundwater from surface water for storage and recovery, is an important conjunctive use strategy for water management in California. A largely unexplored approach to groundwater banking, agricultural groundwater banking (ag-GB), utilizes flood flows and agricultural lands for recharging groundwater. Understanding the availability of excess streamflow (e.g., the magnitude, frequency, timing, and duration of winter flood flows) is fundamental to assessing the feasibility of local-scale implementation of ag-GB. In this study, we estimate the current availability and forecast the future availability of winter (Nov to Apr) flood flows based on current and historic daily streamflow records for 200 stream gauges on tributaries to and streams within the Central Valley, California. For each gauge, we consider flows above a stationary 90th percentile as ideal for ag-GB because reservoir operations mitigate flood risk by releasing early winter flood flows. Results based on 70 years of data show that for 25% of the gauges there are significantly decreasing flow volumes above the 90th percentile and a decreasing number of days with flows above the 90th percentile. These flows, on average, make up 20% of the total annual winter flows. The majority of gauges further show, over the past 70 years, a decrease in total annual streamflow magnitude, a decrease in the magnitude of extreme flood events, and an increase in the frequency of flood events. Variations in winter flood flows due to climate change and climate variability are a challenge to water management in California. To aid the long-term forecast of streamflow conditions in California, we present a new water year type index for the Central Valley, which considers the variation in flow percentiles over time. Together, our results suggest that flexible, coordinated efforts for the local diversion of flood flows are needed to better utilize the increasingly rare winter flood

  3. Groundwater resources of the Devils Postpile National Monument—Current conditions and future vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, Deborah

    2017-06-15

    This study presents an extensive database on groundwater conditions in and around Devils Postpile National Monument. The database contains chemical analyses of springs and the monument water-supply well, including major-ion chemistry, trace element chemistry, and the first information on a list of organic compounds known as emerging contaminants. Diurnal, seasonal, and annual variations in groundwater discharge and chemistry are evaluated from data collected at five main monitoring sites, where streams carry the aggregate flow from entire groups of springs. These springs drain the Mammoth Mountain area and, during the fall months, contribute a significant fraction of the San Joaquin River flow within the monument. The period of this study, from fall 2012 to fall 2015, includes some of the driest years on record, though the seasonal variability observed in 2013 might have been near normal. The spring-fed streams generally flowed at rates well below those observed during a sequence of wet years in the late 1990s. However, persistence of flow and reasonably stable water chemistry through the recent dry years are indicative of a sizeable groundwater system that should provide a reliable resource during similar droughts in the future. Only a few emerging contaminants were detected at trace levels below 1 microgram per liter (μg/L), suggesting that local human visitation is not degrading groundwater quality. No indication of salt from the ski area on the north side of Mammoth Mountain could be found in any of the groundwaters. Chemical data instead show that natural mineral water, such as that discharged from local soda springs, is the main source of anomalous chloride in the monument supply well and in the San Joaquin River. The results of the study are used to develop a set of recommendations for future monitoring to enable detection of deleterious impacts to groundwater quality and quantity

  4. Special issue on exercise immunology: Current perspectives on aging, health and extreme performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, R.J.; Bosch, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this special issue is to highlight outstanding exemplars of empirical research and review papers that reflect the breadth of current developments in exercise immunology. The contributions to this issue are categorized according to four major themes: (1) exercise and immune-aging; (2) the

  5. Addressing Current Challenges on Groundwater Model Structure through Effective Use of Geophysical Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Foged, Nikolaj;

    We wish to present a method for effective generation of structural models for groundwater flow simulations. The methodology is presented for two cases. A regional scale test, where geophysical data and borehole data is used for generating the regional scale hydrostratigraphy, and a local detailed...

  6. Current issues of international law on offshore abandonment, with special reference to the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiguo [Univ. of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    This article attempts to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent developments of international law on offshore abandonment. It scrutinizes the current issues and debates on the subject at both international and national levels, with special reference to the legislation and practice in the United Kingdom. Through a study of the current issues and trends in international law and policy developments, the articles undertakes to provide, where possible, practical considerations as to the possible resolution of some of the prominent problems faced by the international community in general, and some member states in particular. The future direction of international abandonment law also is briefly outlined.

  7. Assessment of BSBA Students' Conversancy in Current Business Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Maskulka, Therese A.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the College of Business at Kutztown University developed a set of five learning goals for its BSBA program. In fall, 2011, the college's Assurance of Learning Committee began to pursue the assessment of the last of these goals: "BSBA graduates will be conversant in current business issues, including ethics, social…

  8. Implementation issues on the design of current loops based on resonant regulators for isolated microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz;

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current in voltage source inverters (VSI) operating in stand-alone microgrids. A decoupling technique is proposed as an effective measure to enhance the dynamics. Further implementation issues ...

  9. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  10. Understandings of Current Environmental Issues: Turkish Case Study in Six Teacher Education Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Mustafa; Irez, Serhat; Dogan, Ozgur Kivilcan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to profile future science teachers' understandings of current environmental issues in the context of an education reform in Turkey. Knowledge base and understandings of elementary and secondary prospective science teachers about biodiversity, carbon cycle, global warming and ozone layer depletion were targeted in the…

  11. Interpersonal Relationships, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement: Yields for Theory, Current Issues, and Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…

  12. Wolves in the Wild: Using Current Issues to Make Science Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jennie; Sadler, Troy D.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, one of our most important responsibilities is to help students develop dynamic and useful views of science. Using current issues to create learning experiences can help generate student interest in science and help students appreciate its significance in both personal and societal contexts. This article presents a lesson based on news…

  13. Current Issues in the Teaching of English: Report on a Questionnaire Study; English Curricula in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The first two papers in this volume discusses the results of questionnaires intended for primary and secondary teachers to elicit information on current issues in the teaching of English in Australia. It was learned that secondary teachers reached consensus only on the very broadest levels. They all agreed that literature, communication, and…

  14. Interpersonal Relationships, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement: Yields for Theory, Current Issues, and Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…

  15. Quality assurance and control issues for HF radar wave and current measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lucy

    2015-04-01

    HF radars are now widely used to provide surface current measurements over wide areas of the coastal ocean for scientific and operational applications. In general data quality is acceptable for these applications but there remain issues that impact on the quantity and quality of the data. These include problems with calibration and interference which impact on both phased array (e.g. WERA, Pisces) and direction-finding (e.g. SeaSonde) radars. These same issues and others (e.g. signal-to-noise, in-cell current variability, antenna sidelobes) also impact on the quality and quantity of wave data that can be obtained. These issues will be discussed in this paper, illustrated with examples from deployments of WERA, Pisces and SeaSonde radars in the UK, Europe, USA and Australia. These issues involve both quality assurance (making sure the radars perform to spec and the software is fully operational) and in quality control (identifying problems with the data due to radar hardware or software performance issues and flagging these in the provided data streams). Recommendations for the former, and current practice (of the author and within the Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network, ACORN*) for the latter, will be discussed. The quality control processes for wave measurement are not yet as well developed as those for currents and data from some deployments can be rather noisy. Some new methods, currently under development by SeaView Sensing Ltd and being tested with ACORN data, will be described and results presented. *ACORN is a facility of the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System, IMOS. IMOS is a national collaborative research infrastructure, supported by Australian Government. It is led by University of Tasmania in partnership with the Australian marine and climate science community.

  16. California Groundwater Management During Drought: Existing and Future Regulatory Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, E.; Boland-Brien, S.; Vanderburgh, B.; Landau, K.; Bean, J.; Peltier, T.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater has served as an effective buffer to California's crippling drought of 2012-2015, allowing continued agricultural production in many areas where surface water deliveries have been curtailed. However, over-reliance on groundwater has caused plummeting groundwater levels in much of the state's heavily agricultural regions, with annual groundwater overdraft state-wide estimated in the millions of acre-feet per year. Prior to 2015, California water law did not allow for the effective monitoring or assessment of groundwater use; passage of new state regulations will require development of locally-managed plans that, for the first time, require comprehensive groundwater management and groundwater basin sustainability. Because these plans are not required to be implemented for another 25 years, groundwater levels will likely continue to decrease. Some communities that are 100-percent reliant on groundwater as a source of municipal supply may face shortages and supply issues, which may exacerbate known water quality concerns. Examination of community water systems that are reliant on groundwater, their existing water quality issues, and their response to the current drought (through existing mandatory conservation requirements imposed by California state regulators) can identify areas that are particularly susceptible to continued groundwater overdraft.

  17. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current......The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person...... Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee...

  18. Current issues around the pharmacotherapy of ADHD in children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, W.M.; Faber, A.; Ban, van den, A.W.; Tobi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background New drugs and new formulations enter the growing market for ADHD medication. The growing awareness of possible persistence of ADHD impairment beyond childhood and adolescence resulting in increased pharmacotherapy of ADHD in adults, is also a good reason for making an inventory of the what is generally known about pharmacotherapy in ADHD. Aim To discuss current issues in the possible pharmacotherapy treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults with respect to the position ...

  19. A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-21

    A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals Matthew C. Weed Specialist in Foreign...Policy Legislation February 21, 2017 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43760 A New Authorization for Use of Military Force...Against the Islamic State Congressional Research Service Summary Since the United States embarked on a strategy to counter the Islamic State (also

  20. Current State and Issues of Logistics Cost Accounting and Management in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zakariah, Sahidah; Pyeman, Jaafar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Logistics cost is an important factor affecting the competitiveness on both macro (national) and micro level (firms). Logistics cost indicates the performance of logistics industry, efficiency level and its competitiveness. Research Problem: Despite of its significance, current state of logistics cost accounting and management in Malaysia has not properly addressed and the issues surround logistics cost measurement remains incoherent. Aim of research: The purpose o...

  1. A Review of Current Issues in State-of-Art of Wind Farm Overvoltage Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Goić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on several important outstanding issues in the state-of-art of overvoltage protection selection for modern wind farms. The lack of experience with this still-new technology, together with the inherent complexity of wind farm electrical systems, entails several unresolved issues pertinent to the topic of overvoltage protection, particularly in relation to lightning-initiated surges. Firstly, several aspects of the wind turbine lightning incidence, along with the issues related to the selection of lightning current parameters (pertinent to the wind farm overvoltage protection, are addressed in this paper. Secondly, several issues in the state-of-art models of the wind farm electrical systems—for the lightning surge analysis—are addressed and discussed. Here, a well-known ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP software package is often employed, with all of its benefits and some limitations. Thirdly, the metal-oxide surge arrester energy capability and the issues related to the selection of the surge arrester rated energy—in relation to the direct lightning strikes to wind turbines—is addressed. Finally, some general considerations concerning the overvoltage protection selection for wind farm projects, particularly regarding the installation of the metal-oxide surge arresters, are provided as well.

  2. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment.

  3. Predicting the behavioural impact of transcranial direct current stimulation: issues and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archy Otto De Berker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The transcranial application of weak currents to the human brain has enjoyed a decade of success, providing a simple and powerful tool for non-invasively altering human brain function. However, our understanding of current delivery and its impact upon neural circuitry leaves much to be desired. We argue that the credibility of conclusions drawn with tDCS is contingent upon realistic explanations of how tDCS works, and that our present understanding of tDCS limits the technique’s use to localize function in the human brain. We outline two central issues where progress is required: the localization of currents, and predicting their functional consequence. We encourage experimenters to eschew simplistic explanations of mechanisms of transcranial current stimulation. We suggest the use of individualized current modelling, together with computational neurostimulation to inform mechanistic frameworks in which to interpret the physiological impact of tDCS. We hope that through mechanistically richer descriptions of current flow and action, insight into the biological processes by which transcranial currents influence behaviour can be gained, leading to more effective stimulation protocols and empowering conclusions drawn with tDCS.

  4. Research of Current Issues and Preliminary Sensitivity Analysis of Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, So Eun; Lee, Yong Suk [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Thus, in this study, key current issues came from research on previous studies related to L3 PSA. L3 PSA has been carried out by using MACCS code in Korea on a trial basis. The technique of assessing an off-site radiation effect quantitatively is required because the interest in off-site consequence analysis has been increased after the Fukushima accident. Therefore, in order to use Level 3 PSA(L3 PSA) in Korea, methods of calculating MACCS(MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) code to be adequate for domestic circumstances in Korea were investigated. If L3 PSA is performed in Korea, it will be possible to raise many issues. Since MACCS code is based on the U.S., input parameters and the scope of analysis were set by considering circumstances of the U.S. For this reason, by focusing on solutions to current issues, the method for reflecting circumstances of Korea in L3 PSA was investigated. It is also required to find out methods for decreasing uncertainty of L3 PSA in Korea.

  5. The treatment of Parkinson’s disease with deep brain stimulation:current issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexia-Sabine Moldovan; Stefan Jun Groiss; Saskia Elben; Martin Südmeyer; Alfons Schnitzler; Lars Wojtecki

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation has become a well-established symptomatic treatment for Parkinson’s disease during the last 25 years. Besides improving motor symptoms and long-term motor com-plications, positive effects on patients’ mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being and health-related quality of life have been recognized. Apart from that, numerous clinical trials analyzed effects on non-motor symptoms and side effects of deep brain stimulation. Several technical issues and stimulation paradigms have been and are still being developed to optimize the therapeutic effects, minimize the side effects and facilitate handling. This review summarizes current therapeutic issues,i.e., patient and target selection, surgical procedure and programming paradigms. In addition it focuses on neuropsychological effects and side effects of deep brain stimulation.

  6. Current issues in the treatment of specific phobia: recommendations for innovative applications of hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Sharon B

    2014-04-01

    Specific phobia is the most common and treatable of the anxiety disorders. Exposure-based therapies are the treatment of choice and empirically validated protocols are available that promise rapid and effective results. In many cases, however, patients are reluctant to comply with demanding schedules of exposure, increasing the risk of treatment failure. Furthermore, in clinical practice, patients often present with multiple phobias and other Axis I and Axis II disorders that can further complicate therapy. This article covers four important issues that have been addressed in the literature: (a) managing resistance to treatment, (b) reducing length of treatment, (c) clarifying the optimal application of relaxation training, and (d) applying advances in cognitive neuroscience. These issues are reviewed and recommendations proposed for ways in which to modify current treatments. Specific suggestions are provided for implementing these recommendations including examples of innovative applications of standard hypnotic techniques.

  7. The NRC's SPAR Models: Current Status, Future Development, and Modeling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Buell

    2008-09-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) play an increasingly important role in the regulatory framework of the U.S. nuclear power industry. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) relies on a set of plant-specific Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models to provide critical risk-based input to the regulatory process. The Significance Determination Process (SDP), Management Directive 8.3 - NRC Incident Investigation Program, Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) and Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) programs are among the regulatory initiatives that receive significant input from the SPAR models. Other uses of the SPAR models include: Screening & Resolution of Generic Safety Issues, License Amendment reviews and Notice of Enforcement Discretion (NOEDs). This paper presents the current status of SPAR model development activities, future development objectives, and issues related to the development, verification and maintenance of the SPAR models.

  8. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-08-16

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  9. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  10. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-03-21

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  11. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-11-22

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  12. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-02-24

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included.

  13. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM SECTOR - CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE BULGARIAN TOURIST BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadin Valkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thе analysis presented in current article deepens and summarizes the results of an economic study focused on the management of human resources in the sector "Tourism". The expected changes in organizational and technological terms are taken into account. The law on tourism in the Republic of Bulgaria and the types of taxes that directly and indirectly affect those employed in tourism are considered. Leading accents are the current trends and issues that arise from the lack of skilled workers in this sector and their deficit caused by the seasonal nature of employment. Growing gray economy is concerned as a major obstacle to development of the tourism industry and its future.

  14. Issues in current User Equilibrium models and introduction of the Restricted Stochastic User Equilibrium conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Watling, David P.; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    -off is strictly enforced: in a time-only model, if the current equilibrium travel time is 15.3 minutes, then adding a route with travel time of 15.4 minutes will have no impact on routing behaviour, whereas in practice (because of uncertainty, variability and unobserved attributes) the new route is likely....... This issue is further complicated by the fact that typically only a sub-set of possible routes will be identified in numerical algorithms solving for SUE. In the current study, we present new alternative forms of SUE conditions that permit unused alternatives, accommodate behaviour on used alternatives...... algorithms to the behaviourally sound SUE and the efficiency of solution algorithms to the DUE, we introduce a transformation of the cost function. This transformation function opens up a larger array of possible solution algorithms to the SUE, as it allows us to apply any path-based DUE solution algorithm...

  15. Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride

    2009-04-01

    This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.

  16. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  17. Measuring child exposure to violence and mental health reactions in epidemiological studies: challenges and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiane Seixas; Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos; Green, Genevieve Rachel; Hoven, Christina W

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines challenges and current issues involved in measuring exposure to different types of violence which are associated mental health problems in children and adolescents. Standardized measures suitable for epidemiological studies, selected based on their relevance in the current literature, are briefly described and commented. The assessment of child's exposure to violence may focus on a specific event (e.g., kidnapping), a specific context (e.g., war) or even of a certain type of exposure (e.g., intrafamilial physical violence). The assessment of child mental health after exposure to violence has traditionally focused on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - most frequently measured through non-diagnostic scales. However, other mental health reactions may be present and screening as well as diagnostic instruments which may be used to assess these reactions are also described. Two issues of emerging importance - the assessment of impairment and of traumatic grief in children - are also presented. Availability of culturally appropriate instruments is a crucial step towards proper identification of child mental health problems after exposure to violence.

  18. A study of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater of Malwa Region of Punjab, India: Current Status, Pollution and its Potential Health Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in India. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In this present study, the AAS method is used to determine the various heavy metal concentrations for 240 samples of Groundwater distributed in eight districts in Malwa Region of Punjab. The concentration values were compared with Standard Values given by BIS. The results showed that the maximum percentage of groundwater samples of Malwa region is beyond the permissible limits and that’s why not fit for drinking purposes and other domestic activities due to the presence of various heavy metals . The overall groundwater quality of Punjab for Arsenic, lead, Iron, Cobalt, Chromium, zinc and Mercury can also be detected and compared with BIS standards. The aim of this particular study was to investigate the distribution of Heavy metals in groundwater of Malwa Region of Punjab and its greater risks to public health. The results were compared with the recommended standards for drinking water of BIS to know the existing status and trend. Overall, water quality was found as unsatisfactory for drinking purposes in all the samples

  19. Cancer screening in the United States, 2016: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Andrews, Kimberly; Brooks, Durado; DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines, including the update of the breast cancer screening guideline, discuss quality issues in colorectal cancer screening and new developments in lung cancer screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey.

  20. Current Issues with Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramics and Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental barrier coating (EBC) for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 ceramics is an emerging field as the application of silicon-based ceramics in the gas turbine engine hot section is on the horizon, both for aero and industrial gas turbines. EBC is an enabling technology for silicon-based ceramics because these materials without an EBC cannot be used in combustion environments due to rapid surface recession. Significant progress in EBC development has been made during the last decade through various government-sponsored programs. Current EBCs are based on silicon, mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and BSAS (barium strontium aluminum silicate with celsian structure). Volatility of BSAS, BSAS-silica chemical reaction, and low melting point of silicon limit temperature capability of current EBCs to about 1350 C for long-term applications. There is a need for higher temperature EBCs as the temperature capability of silicon-based ceramics continue to increase. Therefore, research is underway to develop EBCs with improved temperature capability compared to current EBCs. The current status and issues with the advanced EBC development efforts will be discussed.

  1. Current Issues with Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramics and Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental barrier coating (EBC) for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 ceramics is an emerging field as the application of silicon-based ceramics in the gas turbine engine hot section is on the horizon, both for aero and industrial gas turbines. EBC is an enabling technology for silicon-based ceramics because these materials without an EBC cannot be used in combustion environments due to rapid surface recession. Significant progress in EBC development has been made during the last decade through various government-sponsored programs. Current EBCs are based on silicon, mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and BSAS (barium strontium aluminum silicate with celsian structure). Volatility of BSAS, BSAS-silica chemical reaction, and low melting point of silicon limit temperature capability of current EBCs to about 1350 C for long-term applications. There is a need for higher temperature EBCs as the temperature capability of silicon-based ceramics continue to increase. Therefore, research is underway to develop EBCs with improved temperature capability compared to current EBCs. The current status and issues with the advanced EBC development efforts will be discussed.

  2. Implications of Current Ecological Thinking for Biodiversity Conservation: a Review of the Salient Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Hobbs

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Given escalating concern worldwide about the loss of biodiversity, and given biodiversity's centrality to quality of life, it is imperative that current ecological knowledge fully informs societal decision making. Over the past two decades, ecological science has undergone many significant shifts in emphasis and perspective, which have important implications for how we manage ecosystems and species. In particular, a shift has occurred from the equilibrium paradigm to one that recognizes the dynamic, non-equilibrium nature of ecosystems. Revised thinking about the spatial and temporal dynamics of ecological systems has important implications for management. Thus, it is of growing concern to ecologists and others that these recent developments have not been translated into information useful to managers and policy makers. Many conservation policies and plans are still based on equilibrium assumptions. A fundamental difficulty with integrating current ecological thinking into biodiversity policy and management planning is that field observations have yet to provide compelling evidence for many of the relationships suggested by non-equilibrium ecology. Yet despite this scientific uncertainty, management and policy decisions must still be made. This paper was motivated by the need for considered scientific debate on the significance of current ideas in theoretical ecology for biodiversity conservation. This paper aims to provide a platform for such discussion by presenting a critical synthesis of recent ecological literature that (1 identifies core issues in ecological theory, and (2 explores the implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation.

  3. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  4. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  5. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Five Important Issues We Aren’t Discussing (But Probably Should Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Cooney Horvath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulatory device often publicized for its ability to enhance cognitive and behavioral performance. These enhancement claims, however, are predicated upon electrophysiological evidence and descriptions which are far from conclusive. In fact, a review of the literature reveals a number of important experimental and technical issues inherent with this device that are simply not being discussed in any meaningful manner. In this paper, we will consider five of these topics. The first, inter-subject variability, explores the extensive between- and within-group differences found within the tDCS literature and highlights the need to properly examine stimulatory response at the individual level. The second, intra-subject reliability, reviews the lack of data concerning tDCS response reliability over time and emphasizes the importance of this knowledge for appropriate stimulatory application. The third, sham stimulation and blinding, draws attention to the importance (yet relative lack of proper control and blinding practices in the tDCS literature. The fourth, motor and cognitive interference, highlights the often overlooked body of research that suggests typical behaviors and cognitions undertaken during or following tDCS can impair or abolish the effects of stimulation. Finally, the fifth, electric current influences, underscores several largely ignored variables (such as hair thickness and electrode attachments methods influential to tDCS electric current density and flow.Through this paper, we hope to increase awareness and start an ongoing dialogue of these important issues which speak to the efficacy, reliability, and mechanistic foundations of tDCS.

  6. Data Package for Past and Current Groundwater Flow and Contamination beneath Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Duane G.

    2007-03-16

    This appendix summarizes historic and recent groundwater data collected from the uppermost aquifer beneath the 200 East and 200 West Areas. Although the area of interest is the Hanford Site Central Plateau, most of the information discussed in this appendix is at the scale of individual single-shell tank waste management areas. This is because the geologic, and thus the hydraulic, properties and the geochemical properties (i.e., groundwater composition) are different in different parts of the Central Plateau.

  7. Current Warm-Up Practices and Contemporary Issues Faced by Elite Swimming Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Courtney J; Pyne, David B; Raglin, John S; Thompson, Kevin G; Rattray, Ben

    2016-12-01

    McGowan, CJ, Pyne, DB, Raglin, JS, Thompson, KG, and Rattray, B. Current warm-up practices and contemporary issues faced by elite swimming coaches. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3471-3480, 2016-A better understanding of current swimming warm-up strategies is needed to improve their effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to describe current precompetition warm-up practices and identify contemporary issues faced by elite swimming coaches during competition. Forty-six state-international level swimming coaches provided information through a questionnaire on their prescription of volume, intensity, and recovery within their pool and dryland-based competition warm-ups, and challenges faced during the final stages of event preparation. Coaches identified four key objectives of the precompetition warm-up: physiological (elevate body temperature and increase muscle activation), kinesthetic (tactile preparation, increase "feel" of the water), tactical (race-pace rehearsal), and mental (improve focus, reduce anxiety). Pool warm-up volume ranged from ∼1300 to 2100 m, beginning with 400-1000 m of continuous, low-intensity (∼50-70% of perceived maximal exertion) swimming, followed by 200-600 m of stroke drills and 1-2 sets (100-400 m in length) of increasing intensity (∼60-90%) swimming, concluding with 3-4 race or near race-pace efforts (25-100 m; ∼90-100%) and 100-400 m easy swimming. Dryland-based warm-up exercises, involving stretch cords and skipping, were also commonly prescribed. Coaches preferred swimmers complete their warm-up 20-30 minutes before race start. Lengthy marshalling periods (15-20+ minutes) and the time required to don racing suits (>10 minutes) were identified as complicating issues. Coaches believed that the pool warm-up affords athletes the opportunity to gain a tactile feel for the water and surrounding pool environment. The combination of dryland-based activation exercises followed by pool-based warm-up routines seems to be the preferred

  8. Hydrology of and Current Monitoring Issues for the Chicago Area Waterway System, Northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Johnson, Kevin K.

    2015-10-28

    The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) consists of a combination of natural and manmade channels that form an interconnected navigable waterway of approximately 90-plus miles in the metropolitan Chicago area of northeastern Illinois. The CAWS serves the area as the primary drainage feature, a waterway transportation corridor, and recreational waterbody. The CAWS was constructed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC). Completion of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (initial portion of the CAWS) in 1900 breached a low drainage divide and resulted in a diversion of water from the Lake Michigan Basin. A U.S. Supreme Court decree (Consent Decree 388 U.S. 426 [1967] Modified 449 U.S. 48 [1980]) limits the annual diversion from Lake Michigan. While the State of Illinois is responsible for the diversion, the MWRDGC regulates and maintains water level and water quality within the CAWS by using several waterway control structures. The operation and control of water levels in the CAWS results in a very complex hydraulic setting characterized by highly unsteady flows. The complexity leads to unique gaging requirements and monitoring issues. This report provides a general discussion of the complex hydraulic setting within the CAWS and quantifies this information with examples of data collected at a range of flow conditions from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gaging stations and other locations within the CAWS. Monitoring to address longstanding issues of waterway operation, as well as current (2014) emerging issues such as wastewater disinfection and the threat from aquatic invasive species, is included in the discussion.

  9. The current state of knowledge about shatter cones: Introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratoux, David; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Shatter cones are a fracture phenomenon that is exclusively associated with shock metamorphism and has also been produced in the laboratory in several shock experiments. The occurrence of shatter cones is the only accepted meso- to macroscopic recognition criterion for impact structures. Shatter cones exhibit a number of geometric characteristics (orientation, apical angles, striation angles, sizes) that can be best described as varied, from case to case. Possible links between geometric properties with impact or crater parameters have remained controversial and the lack of understanding of the mechanism of formation of shatter cones does not offer a physical framework to discuss or understand them. A database of shatter cone occurrences has been produced for this introduction paper to the special issue of Meteoritics and Planetary Science on shatter cones. Distribution of shatter cones with respect to crater size and lithology suggests that shatter cones do not occur in impact craters less than a few kilometers in diameter, with a few, currently questionable exceptions. All pertinent hypotheses of formation are presented and discussed. Several may be discarded in light of the most recent observations. The branching fracture mechanism and the interference models proposed, respectively, by Sagy et al. (2002) and Baratoux and Melosh (2003) require further evaluation. New observations, experiments, or theoretical considerations presented in this special issue promise an important step forward, based on a renewed effort to resolve the enigmatic origin of these important features.

  10. Attachment among older adults: current issues and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J M; Cafferty, T P

    2001-09-01

    Although John Bowlby conceptualized attachment theory as applicable across the life span, researchers have been relatively slow to examine attachment phenomena specifically among older adults. The present article reviews the extant research applying attachment theory to older populations; preliminary findings suggest that attachment issues hold particular relevance for older adults, given the increased potential for separation, loss and vulnerability associated with aging. Although many of the studies reviewed are somewhat limited methodologically, the overall pattern of results suggests that attachment patterns are associated with a variety of outcomes in later life (such as adaptation to chronic illness and caregiver burden among family members, reactions to the death of a loved one, and general well-being) in a theoretically consistent manner. The implications of and questions raised by current findings are reviewed, and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. [Domestic violence: a current issue to take into account in diagnostic imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Corraliza, E; Larrañaga Hernando, G; Neve Lete, I; Sánchez García, A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence is currently an issue of great political and social importance. The real incidence of domestic violence is difficult to determine due to the environment where it takes place and the reluctance of victims to report abuse. On the other hand, all types of violence represent an important public health problem. We report the case of a young woman who presented with thromboembolic phenomena at different sites due to domestic violence. We emphasize that it is necessary for radiologists and other healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of domestic violence when establishing the diagnosis. This can be important for determining the incidence of abuse, diminishing its sequela, and help increase its reporting. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Road safety in a globalised and more sustainable world: current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stijn; Risser, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Although many countries have had considerable success in reducing traffic injuries over recent decades, there are still some fundamental problems in this area. At the same time, there is increasing focus on road safety research and policy development in the context of globalisation, sustainability, liveability and health. This special section presents a selection of papers that were presented at the annual ICTCT workshop held on the 8th and 9th of November 2012 in Hasselt, Belgium, and accepted for publication in Accident Analysis and Prevention following the journal's reviewing procedure. The aim of the ICTCT workshop was to analyse road safety facts, data and visions for the future in the wider context of current issues and future challenges in road safety.

  13. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Poulton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS competency framework. Method: A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. Results:  The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Conclusions: Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  14. Medical Big Data for Research Use: Current Status and Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Koichi Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Advances in the computerization of information and development of technology have mitigated restrictions on handling of a large amount of information. This has resulted in growth of expectations for the use of large-scale databases, or so-called "big data." This is also the case in the field of healthcare. Projects that involve building of the national receipt database (NDB) of medical fee bill (receipt) information and special health check-up information based on the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for Elderly People and the development of medical information databases have been pursued by the national government, and considerable attention has also been focused on researches conducted through the secondary uses of publicly collected data. Aside from these trends, there are numerous projects which collect diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data to build large-scale databases for research purposes. Following to the ethics guidelines for epidemiologic studies, they collect and analyze anonymized DPC data from cooperating institutions. This communication concentrates on the use of DPC data, and outlines the scale of data currently available for research use. Examples on the use of DPC data will be shown for analysis on the current status of clinical practice from the microscopic perspective and macroscopic analysis of community medical care provision. Additionally, potential for extending studies to long-term outcomes research, limitations and issues related to the use of medical big data will also be discussed.

  15. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  16. Work Plan for a Limited CCC/USDA Investigation of the Current Carbon Tetrachloride Contamination in Groundwater at Navarre, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-05-01

    During private well testing in 1990-1991, carbon tetrachloride was identified in the groundwater at several locations in the town of Navarre, Kansas, at levels exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 level and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 μg/L. Several subsequent investigations through 2006 evaluated the concentrations and distribution of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater. This work included the identification of the contaminant sources (Argonne 2007). The history of activities to address the contamination in soil and groundwater is summarized in Table 1.1. The most recent studies, conducted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), include a brownfields investigation initiated in 2013 (Phase I) and continuing in early 2014 (Phase II), as well as private well testing.

  17. Age-distribution estimation for karst groundwater: Issues of parameterization and complexity in inverse modeling by convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A.J.; Putnam, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    Convolution modeling is useful for investigating the temporal distribution of groundwater age based on environmental tracers. The framework of a quasi-transient convolution model that is applicable to two-domain flow in karst aquifers is presented. The model was designed to provide an acceptable level of statistical confidence in parameter estimates when only chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium (3H) data are available. We show how inverse modeling and uncertainty assessment can be used to constrain model parameterization to a level warranted by available data while allowing major aspects of the flow system to be examined. As an example, the model was applied to water from a pumped well open to the Madison aquifer in central USA with input functions of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and 3H, and was calibrated to several samples collected during a 16-year period. A bimodal age distribution was modeled to represent quick and slow flow less than 50 years old. The effects of pumping and hydraulic head on the relative volumetric fractions of these domains were found to be influential factors for transient flow. Quick flow and slow flow were estimated to be distributed mainly within the age ranges of 0-2 and 26-41 years, respectively. The fraction of long-term flow (>50 years) was estimated but was not dateable. The different tracers had different degrees of influence on parameter estimation and uncertainty assessments, where 3H was the most critical, and CFC-113 was least influential.

  18. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  19. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  20. Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brooks, Durado; Doroshenk, Mary; Fedewa, Stacey; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection along with a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines. The latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) also is described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Affordable Care Act, including the expansion of the Medicaid program.

  1. [Current status and issues in development of occupational physicians in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Training systems for occupational physicians (OPs) have existed since the Industrial Safety and Health Act was enacted in 1972. However, it is necessary to enhance them because of changes in the business environment of Japanese corporations and working patterns have brought about new needs of occupational health (OH) activities. In this paper, OPs were classified into three categories; doctors who spend a part of working time on OH activities, i.e. "non-specialist OPs", doctors who engage in OH activities full-time, i.e. "specialists OPs", and doctors who manage corporate-wide occupational health programs or lead programs at OH service institutes, i.e. "lead OPs", and the status and the issues were reviewed. The major concern identified for each of the three categories in training were found to be quality management for non-specialist OPs, short supply for specialists OPs, and development of competencies such as leadership and management skills for lead OPs, respectively. Current efforts and ideas to improve the training systems were discussed.

  2. Overcoming the current issues surrounding device leads: reducing the complications during extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Segreti, Luca; Di Cori, Andrea; Zucchelli, Giulio; Paperini, Luca; Viani, Stefano; Soldati, Ezio

    2017-06-01

    The implantation rate of cardiac implantable electronic devices has consistently increased in the last 20 years, as have the related complication rates. The most relevant issue is the removal of pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads, which a few months after implantation tend to develop intravascular fibrosis, often making extraction a challenging and risky procedure. Areas covered: The transvenous lead extraction (TLE) scenario is constantly evolving. TLE is a key procedure in lead management strategies. Many efforts have been made to develop new TLE approaches and techniques allowing a safe and effective procedure for patients. The increasing rate of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantations and of CIED related complications highlight the importance of TLE. Lead related- and patient-related factors may change the future of extractions. We review the current status of TLE, focusing on the strategies available to perform the optimal procedure in the right patient and reducing procedure related complications. Expert commentary: Understanding the importance of an accurate TLE risk stratification is mandatory to optimize the procedural risk-to-benefits ratio. The use of adequate tools, techniques and approaches, and appropriate training are cornerstones for the achievement of safer procedures.

  3. Current and Future Issues in the Development of Spinal Agents for the Management of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaksh, Tony L; Fisher, Casey J; Hockman, Tyler M; Wiese, Ashley J

    2017-01-01

    Targeting analgesic drugs for spinal delivery reflects the fact that while the conscious experience of pain is mediated supraspinally, input initiated by high intensity stimuli, tissue injury and/or nerve injury is encoded at the level of the spinal dorsal horn and this output informs the brain as to the peripheral environment. This encoding process is subject to strong upregulation resulting in hyperesthetic states and downregulation reducing the ongoing processing of nociceptive stimuli reversing the hyperesthesia and pain processing. The present review addresses the biology of spinal nociceptive processing as relevant to the effects of intrathecally-delivered drugs in altering pain processing following acute stimulation, tissue inflammation/injury and nerve injury. The review covers i) the major classes of spinal agents currently employed as intrathecal analgesics (opioid agonists, alpha 2 agonists; sodium channel blockers; calcium channel blockers; NMDA blockers; GABA A/B agonists; COX inhibitors; ii) ongoing developments in the pharmacology of spinal therapeutics focusing on less studied agents/targets (cholinesterase inhibition; Adenosine agonists; iii) novel intrathecal targeting methodologies including gene-based approaches (viral vectors, plasmids, interfering RNAs); antisense, and toxins (botulinum toxins; resniferatoxin, substance P Saporin); and iv) issues relevant to intrathecal drug delivery (neuraxial drug distribution), infusate delivery profile, drug dosing, formulation and principals involved in the preclinical evaluation of intrathecal drug safety.

  4. The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hallquist

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and varied, and, despite considerable progress in recent years, a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation does not exist and therefore represents a major research challenge in atmospheric science. This review begins with a description of the current state of knowledge on the global SOA budget and the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors. The topic of gas-particle partitioning theory is followed by an account of the analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA. A survey of recent laboratory, field and modeling studies is also presented. The following topical and emerging issues are highlighted and discussed in detail; molecular characterization of biogenic SOA constituents, condensed phase reactions and oligomerization, the interaction of atmospheric organic components with sulfuric acid, the chemical and photochemical processing of organics in the atmospheric aqueous phase, aerosol formation from real plant emissions, interaction of atmospheric organic components with water, thermodynamics and mixtures in atmospheric models. Finally, the major challenges ahead in laboratory, field and modeling studies of SOA are discussed and recommendations for future research directions are proposed.

  5. The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wildt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and varied, and, despite considerable progress in recent years, a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation does not exist and therefore represents a major research challenge in atmospheric science. This review begins with an update on the current state of knowledge on the global SOA budget and is followed by an overview of the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors, gas-particle partitioning theory and the analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA. A survey of recent laboratory, field and modeling studies is also presented. The following topical and emerging issues are highlighted and discussed in detail: molecular characterization of biogenic SOA constituents, condensed phase reactions and oligomerization, the interaction of atmospheric organic components with sulfuric acid, the chemical and photochemical processing of organics in the atmospheric aqueous phase, aerosol formation from real plant emissions, interaction of atmospheric organic components with water, thermodynamics and mixtures in atmospheric models. Finally, the major challenges ahead in laboratory, field and modeling studies of SOA are discussed and recommendations for future research directions are proposed.

  6. [Security Management in Clinical Laboratory Departments and Facilities: Current Status and Issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Haku; Nakamura, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Koike, Masaru; Inoue, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey regarding the current activities for protecting patients' privacy and the security of information systems (IS) related to the clinical laboratory departments of university hospitals, certified training facilities for clinical laboratories, and general hospitals in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The response rate was 47% from 215 medical institutions, including three commercial clinical laboratory centers. The results showed that there were some differences in management activities among facilities with respect to continuing education, the documentation or regulation of operational management for paper records, electronic information, remaining samples, genetic testing, and laboratory information for secondary use. They were suggested to be caused by differences in functions between university and general hospitals, differences in the scale of hospitals, or whether or not hospitals have received accreditation or ISO 15189. Regarding the IS, although the majority of facilities had sufficiently employed the access control to IS, there was some room for improvement in the management of special cases such as VIPs and patients with HIV infection. Furthermore, there were issues regarding the login method for computers shared by multiple staff, the showing of the names of personnel in charge of reports, and the risks associated with direct connections to systems and the Internet and the use of portable media such as USB memory sticks. These results indicated that further efforts are necessary for each facility to continue self-assessment and make improvements.

  7. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one discusses some principal mite pests in agroecosystems and urban horticulturein European countries, Serbia and its neighbouring countries focusing primarily on issueswith regard to plant production, novel methods and approaches in applied acaralogy. Parttwo displays some major properties of acaricides inhibiting respiration, growth and developmentand other synthetic substances with acaricide action on the market in the last decadeof the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. Also some products of naturalorigin (azadirachtin, oils, micoacaricides are said to be gaining in importance. Issues withregard to the fact that mites can readily develop resistance to acardicides are discussed anda survey on the results of biochemical, physiological and genetical causes of resistance areanalyzed. Some basic principles of biological control of phytophagous mites and modernadvances and approaches are discussed as well as current knowledge on host plant resistanceto mites. Eventually, the possibility of using a combination of selective acaricides andbiological control agents is discussed but also the inclusion of other modes of control (agriculturalpractices and physical measures expected to contribute to an integrated managementof pest populations.

  8. MIGRATION, A CURRENT ISSUE: THE CRISIS OF TODAY, THE CHALLENGE OF TOMORROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu PĂTRAŞCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to portray a clear perspective of the problem of immigrants, who are arriving in Europe from the Middle East conflict zones (particularly Syria and Iraq and from North Africa (mainly Libya. The causes that conducted to the development of such a phenomenon represent the motivation for choosing this theme, as well as its effects on the functionality of the EU at an institutional level and finally yet importantly the “trenchant” visions of the European public opinion, amplified by the mass media: the pros and cons of accepting the wave of refugees. The author's approach aims to put in balance both the positive effects of the phenomenon on the European continent, as well as the negative ones. Positive effects might consist in obtaining additional work force, as Europe is currently facing a demographic aging phenomenon. Furthermore, from the perspective of EU citizens, who believe in the cohesion of the European institutions, the acceptance of refugees represents a basic value for unity and further on stands for the formation of a homogenous European Union, therefore emphasising the importance of each individual. On the other hand, analysing the matter in the most realistic possible way, the risk of potential terrorist penetration in Europe is quite high and unmanageable. As a research method, we will use document analysis, referring to media articles and official documents. This phenomenon is particularly complex and the crisis result will depend on the effectiveness of the manner in which each national authority as well as the European ones will handle the issue.

  9. Integration of woodland caribou habitat management and forest management in northern Ontario - current status and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted (E.R Armstrong

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou {Rangifer tarandus caribou range across northern Ontario, occurring in both the Hudson Bay Lowlands and the Boreal Forest. Woodland caribou extend south well into the merchantable forest, occurring in licensed and/or actively managed Forest Management Units (FMU's across the province. Caribou range has gradually but continuously receded northward over the past century. Since the early 1990's, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR has been developing and implementing a woodland caribou habitat management strategy in northwestern Ontario. The purpose of the caribou habitat strategy is to maintain woodland caribou occupancy of currently occupied range in northwestern Ontario. Long-term caribou habitat needs and predator-prey dynamics form the basis of this strategy, which requires the development of a landscape-level caribou habitat mosaic across the region within caribou range. This represents a significant change from traditional forest management approaches, which were based partially upon moose (Alces alces habitat management principles. A number of issues and concerns regarding implications of caribou management to the forest industry are being addressed, including short-term and long-term reductions in wood supply and wood quality, and increased access costs. Other related concerns include the ability to regenerate forests to pre-harvest stand conditions, remote tourism concerns, implications for moose populations, and required information on caribou biology and habitat. The forest industry and other stakeholders have been actively involved with the OMNR in attempting to address these concerns, so that caribou habitat requirements are met while ensuring the maintenance of a viable timber industry, other forest uses and the forest ecosystem.

  10. Non-medical prescribing by physiotherapists: issues reported in the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joanne H; Grimmer, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Physiotherapists should be proactive in preparing themselves to participate in innovative models of health care, which are emerging from the healthcare workforce reforms in Australia. One challenging outcome of workforce change is physiotherapy (non-medical) prescribing (NMP), which is part of the extension of scope of physiotherapy practice. This paper summarises the current evidence base for Australian physiotherapists seeking to obtain prescribing rights. A targeted literature review was undertaken through EBSCO Host, Cochrane, Medline, SportsDiscus, Cinahl, Healthsource and Google.com using broad search terms to identify peer-reviewed and grey literature pertaining to NMP by physiotherapists, nationally and internationally. No critical appraisal was undertaken however literature was structured into the NHMRC hierarchy of evidence. Themes raised in the included literature were reported descriptively. There were six relevant peer-reviewed articles, of hierarchy levels III_3 and IV. There was however, comprehensive and recent grey literature to inform Australian physiotherapy NMP initiatives. Themes included the need for standard National action in relation to legislative and regulatory/registration issues, appropriate education, credentialing and supervisory requirements for physiotherapy prescribing. Many lessons can be learnt from the literature, including the importance of planned, uniform National action (rather than piecemeal state-by-state initiatives). Essential elements include appropriate training and skills-based recognition within the discipline and the broader health team, and the need to overtly demonstrate effectiveness and safety. Regularly-evaluated service-delivery models which support NMP by physiotherapists are further required, to demonstrate efficiency, timeliness, patient centredness and equity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  12. Current Issues Related to Associate Degree Nursing: Their Impact on Directors, Faculty, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenar, Mary G.

    Perceptions of students, faculty members, and associate degree nursing (ADN) program directors/coordinators concerning seven issues affecting ADN programs were obtained in 1982. The issues, which were identified through a review of the literature, were: entry into practice, professional and technical nurses, developing competency statements,…

  13. Special Education for Children with Attention Deficit Disorder: Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper examines issues concerning the eligibility of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) for special education and related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). A policy memorandum was issued by the Department of Education in September 1991, identifying those circumstances under which such children…

  14. Occurrence of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

    2017-03-01

    More than 25 % of Tanzanian depends on groundwater as the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial activities. The current trend of land use may lead to groundwater contamination and thus increasing risks associated with the usage of contaminated water. Nitrate is one of the contaminants resulting largely from anthropogenic activities that may find its way to the aquifers and thus threatening the quality of groundwater. Elevated levels of nitrate in groundwater may lead to human health and environmental problems. The current trend of land use in Tanzania associated with high population growth, poor sanitation facilities and fertilizer usage may lead to nitrate contamination of groundwater. This paper therefore aimed at providing an overview of to what extent human activities have altered the concentration of nitrate in groundwater aquifers in Tanzania. The concentration of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater is variable with highest values observable in Dar es Salaam (up to 477.6 mg/l), Dodoma (up to 441.1 mg/l), Tanga (above 100 mg/l) and Manyara (180 mg/l). Such high values can be attributed to various human activities including onsite sanitation in urban centres and agricultural activities in rural areas. Furthermore, there are some signs of increasing concentration of nitrate in groundwater with time in some areas in response to increased human activities. However, reports on levels and trends of nitrate in groundwater in many regions of the country are lacking. For Tanzania to appropriately address the issue of groundwater contamination, a deliberate move to determine nitrate concentration in groundwater is required, as well as protection of recharge basins and improvement of onsite sanitation systems.

  15. Occurrence of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

    2015-03-01

    More than 25 % of Tanzanian depends on groundwater as the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial activities. The current trend of land use may lead to groundwater contamination and thus increasing risks associated with the usage of contaminated water. Nitrate is one of the contaminants resulting largely from anthropogenic activities that may find its way to the aquifers and thus threatening the quality of groundwater. Elevated levels of nitrate in groundwater may lead to human health and environmental problems. The current trend of land use in Tanzania associated with high population growth, poor sanitation facilities and fertilizer usage may lead to nitrate contamination of groundwater. This paper therefore aimed at providing an overview of to what extent human activities have altered the concentration of nitrate in groundwater aquifers in Tanzania. The concentration of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater is variable with highest values observable in Dar es Salaam (up to 477.6 mg/l), Dodoma (up to 441.1 mg/l), Tanga (above 100 mg/l) and Manyara (180 mg/l). Such high values can be attributed to various human activities including onsite sanitation in urban centres and agricultural activities in rural areas. Furthermore, there are some signs of increasing concentration of nitrate in groundwater with time in some areas in response to increased human activities. However, reports on levels and trends of nitrate in groundwater in many regions of the country are lacking. For Tanzania to appropriately address the issue of groundwater contamination, a deliberate move to determine nitrate concentration in groundwater is required, as well as protection of recharge basins and improvement of onsite sanitation systems.

  16. Data Security, Privacy, Availability and Integrity in Cloud Computing: Issues and Current Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Aldossary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing changed the world around us. Now people are moving their data to the cloud since data is getting bigger and needs to be accessible from many devices. Therefore, storing the data on the cloud becomes a norm. However, there are many issues that counter data stored in the cloud starting from virtual machine which is the mean to share resources in cloud and ending on cloud storage itself issues. In this paper, we present those issues that are preventing people from adopting the cloud and give a survey on solutions that have been done to minimize risks of these issues. For example, the data stored in the cloud needs to be confidential, preserving integrity and available. Moreover, sharing the data stored in the cloud among many users is still an issue since the cloud service provider is untrustworthy to manage authentication and authorization. In this paper, we list issues related to data stored in cloud storage and solutions to those issues which differ from other papers which focus on cloud as general.

  17. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  18. Current issues in dental practice management. Part 1. The importance of shared values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Philip R H

    2003-04-01

    There can be few who would argue with the notion that the nature of dental practice in the United Kingdom has changed dramatically over the last couple of decades. A variety of factors, including new clinical techniques, growing consumerism, a much greater awareness of health-related and well-being issues in the public at large, as well as a marked deregulation within the dental profession, the development of vocational training and recently mandatory lifelong learning, the growing number of females working in the profession, and an increasing reluctance of young dentists to finance dental practices have all combined to create an environment which has enabled and encouraged a move away from traditional forms of dental care delivery. Instead, there has been considerable growth in independently-funded practice and a commensurate growth in the number of practices operating under a corporate body umbrella of one form or another. Currently there are 27 corporate bodies registered with the General Dental Council (GDC) with the likelihood of more in the future given the proposed GDC review. This will no doubt take into consideration European law, under which the restriction within the Dentist's Act on the number of corporate bodies is likely to be untenable. Although they still have only a small share of the dental market--with 4% of all dentists in the UK in 1999--they have expanded rapidly from a small base. The data available at the time the paper was written indicate that the global total of fees earned from dentistry in the UK in the financial year 2001/2002 was almost 3 billion Pounds, of which 1.9 billion Pounds (64%) came from NHS fees and 1.1 billion Pounds (36%) from private fees. Of this 1.9 billion Pounds received in NHS fees in 2001/2002, 0.55 billion Pounds were paid by patients who were not exempt from charges, bringing the total amount actually paid out of patients' pockets for dental treatment to 1.65 billion Pounds. Compare these figures with 1996

  19. Focus Issue: Organic light-emitting diodes-status quo and current developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Emil J W; Koch, Norbert

    2011-11-01

    The guest editors introduce the Optics Express Energy Express supplement Focus Issue, "Organic Light-Emitting Diodes," which includes six invited articles addressing the challenges of light outcoupling and light management in OLEDs.

  20. What's up prof? Current issues in the visual effects & post-production industry

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We interviewed creative professionals at a number of London visual effects and post-production houses. We report on the key issues raised in those interviews: desirable new technologies, infrastructure challenges, personnel and process management.

  1. Conference communication. Managing change in tourism destinations: Key issues and current trends.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, M.M.; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Longhi, C.; Vitouladiti, O.

    2013-01-01

    This conference communication illustrates the major outcomes emerging from the EIASM Conference on Tourism Management and Tourism Related Issues held in Nice (France), September 20-21, 2012. While a number of managerial issues pertaining to the tourism field were dealt with, this communication covers three specific areas of interest for destination management and marketing: (1) the increasing competition among tourism destinations and the rise and consolidation of BRIC countries as outbound t...

  2. Conference communication. Managing change in tourism destinations: Key issues and current trends.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This conference communication illustrates the major outcomes emerging from the EIASM Conference on Tourism Management and Tourism Related Issues held in Nice (France), September 20-21, 2012. While a number of managerial issues pertaining to the tourism field were dealt with, this communication covers three specific areas of interest for destination management and marketing: (1) the increasing competition among tourism destinations and the rise and consolidation of BRIC countries as outbound t...

  3. A Study of Current Trends and Issues for Graphics Education: Results from a Five-Year Follow-Up Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales, Alice Y.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1998-1999 academic year, a survey was conducted to look at current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education (Clark & Scales, 1999). The survey solicited information from the membership of the Engineering Design Graphics Division of the American Society for Engineering Education related to their view of future areas of…

  4. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  5. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  6. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  7. Issues Affecting Crime Victims: Background, Current Status, and Implications for Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains summaries of issues concerning provisions of law affecting victims and their involvement in the criminal justice system. The packet opens by stating that unless victims and witnesses come forward and report criminal activity to law enforcement authorities and are subsequently willing to testify and endure cross-examination in…

  8. Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario. Background Papers on Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, Willowdale.

    Background information is provided on a number of conditions affecting Ontario's community colleges. The first section, dealing with financial issues, considers the college environment in the 1980s; examines the provincial government's perspective on priorities, the allocation process, government funding, and budgetary expenditures and trends; and…

  9. The American Trial Jury: Current Issues and Controversies. Looking at the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the controversial issues involved in the jury systems, such as jury selection, jury service, civic participation, and the role of the mass media. Stresses the importance of maintaining the public courtroom as a means for encouraging fair trials and not allowing closed courtrooms. Provides an accompanying article, "The Citizen's Jury," by…

  10. Classroom Currents: Interrupting the Single Story: LGBT Issues in the Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill; Ryan, Caitlin L.

    2013-01-01

    Two literacy leaders acknowledge the challenges of teaching LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) issues in the classroom. While children come from a variety of family structures, it is necessary to acknowledge that a gay individual was once a child sitting in a classroom. An argument against marginalization and an advocacy for inclusion of…

  11. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2010: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 111th Congress, by Michael F. Martin. 18 Peru and Australia are the other two countries...plan emphasized lighter industries such as foodstuffs, textiles , and electronics. According to some sources, many if not most of Vietnam’s SOEs are

  12. Current concepts and issues in the management of regurgitation of infants : A reappraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Y; Belli, D; Benhamou, PH; Cadranel, S; Cezard, JP; Cucchiara, S; Dupont, C; Faure, C; Gottrand, F; Hassall, E; Heymans, HSA; Kneepkens, CMF; Sandhu, BK

    1996-01-01

    Regurgitation in infants is a common problem. Recent issues, such as the increased risk of sudden infant death in the prone sleeping position, the finding of persisting occult gastro-oesophageal reflux with feed thickeners, and the increasing awareness of the cost-benefit ratio of medications may ch

  13. Current legal and institutional issues in the commercialization of phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmons, J. T.; Sheehy, K. D.; Singer, J. R.; Gardner, T. C.

    1982-01-01

    Legal and institutional factors affecting the development and commercial diffusion of phosphoric acid fuel cells are assessed. Issues for future research and action are suggested. Perceived barriers and potential opportunities for fuel cells in central and dispersed utility operations and on-site applications are reviewed, as well as the general concept of commercialization as applied to emerging energy technologies.

  14. Classroom Currents: Interrupting the Single Story: LGBT Issues in the Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill; Ryan, Caitlin L.

    2013-01-01

    Two literacy leaders acknowledge the challenges of teaching LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) issues in the classroom. While children come from a variety of family structures, it is necessary to acknowledge that a gay individual was once a child sitting in a classroom. An argument against marginalization and an advocacy for inclusion of…

  15. Ben Johnson and Social Studies Teaching--Classroom Use of Current Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Suggests steps for approaching discussion of controversial issues in the classroom, using the scandal of Canadian Olympian sprinter Ben Johnson as an example. Recommends the reflective inquiry approach, which necessitates framing the problem in relationship to student age, and with attention to the information available about the problem. (LS)

  16. An assessment of the current and potential future natural and anthropogenic issues facing migratory shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutherland, W.J.; Alves, J.A.; Chang, C.H.; Davidson, D.C.; Finlayson, C.M.; Gill, J.A.; Gill, R.E.; González, P.M.; Gunnarsson, T.G.; Kleijn, D.; Spray, C.J.; Szekely, T.; Thompson, D.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    We review the conservation issues facing migratory shorebird populations that breed in temperate regions and use wetlands in the non-breeding season. Shorebirds are excellent model organisms for understanding ecological, behavioural and evolutionary processes and are often used as indicators of wetl

  17. Introduction to the Issue on Current Trends in Terahertz Photonics and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    on research and recent developments on THz photonics and applications. This issue contains 28 papers including 12 invited and 16 contributed papers authored by both well-established research groups and emerging stars pioneering in the THz field all over the world. While the invited papers include extended...

  18. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Rena M; Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined.

  19. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined. PMID:20694031

  20. Limits to global groundwater consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I.; Van Beek, L. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is the largest accessible freshwater resource worldwide and is of critical importance for irrigation, and so for global food security. For many regions of the world where groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge, persistent groundwater depletion occurs. A direct consequence of depletion is falling groundwater levels, reducing baseflows to rivers, harming ecosystems. Also, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence can occur. Water demands are expected to increase further due to growing population, economic development and climate change, posing the urgent question how sustainable current water abstractions are worldwide and where and when these abstractions approach conceivable limits with all the associated problems. Here, we estimated past and future trends (1960-2050) in groundwater levels resulting from changes in abstractions and climate and predicted when limits of groundwater consumption are reached. We explored these limits by predicting where and when groundwater levels drop that low that groundwater becomes unattainable for abstractions and how river flows are affected. Water availabilities, abstractions, and lateral groundwater flows are simulated (5 arcmin. resolution) using a coupled version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and a groundwater model based on MODFLOW. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of the worlds confined and unconfined aquifer systems, needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Results show that, next to the existing regions experiencing groundwater depletion (like India, Pakistan, Central Valley) new regions will develop, e.g. Southern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Using a limit that reflects present-day feasibility of groundwater abstraction, we estimate that in 2050 groundwater becomes unattainable for 20% of the global population, mainly in the developing countries and pumping cost will increase significantly. Largest impacts are found

  1. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, and Taiwan. Throughout 2009...territorial disputes. Roughly one and a half times the size of the Mediterranean Sea, it is ringed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia , Indonesia, Brunei...government to monitor data processed by these companies and/or more susceptible to government pressure on issues such as censorship .36 Many of the

  2. International human rights law aspects of forced migrations, evictions and displacement: current issues and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is an analysis of the categories of evictions, forced migrations and internal displacement in the context of international human rights law. Forced migrations and selected categories of internal displacement are important issues of international human rights law and international humanitarian law for more than forty years. The UDHR, adopted in 1948, does not contain any provisions related to forced human mobility and internal displacement. Despite this fact ...

  3. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-17

    part of multilateral meetings. The visit to China of Japan’s new Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe , on October 8, 2006, signaled a thaw in Sino-Japanese...diplomatic achievements. China routinely protested former Japanese Prime Minister Koizumi’s annual visits to the Yasukuni Shrine , where war criminals are...also enshrined. After Koizumi first visited the shrine in 2001, China used the issue to justify its refusal to engage in bilateral summitry, except as

  4. Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A

    1996-01-01

    The authors comment on recent reviews of cardiovascular job strain research by P. L. Schnall and P. A. Landsbergis (1994), and by T. S. Kristensen (1995), which conclude that job strain as defined by the demand-control model (the combination of contributions of low job decision latitudes and high psychological job demands) is confirmed as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in a large majority of studies. Lack of social support at work appears to further increase risk. Several still-unresolved research questions are examined in light of recent studies: (a) methodological issues related to use of occupational aggregate estimations and occupational career aggregate assessments, use of standard scales for job analysis and recall bias issues in self-reporting; (b) confounding factors and differential strengths of association by subgroups in job strain-cardiovascular disease analyses with respect to social class, gender, and working hours; and (c) review of results of monitoring job strain-blood pressure associations and associated methodological issues.

  5. Controversies in the Hydrosphere: an iBook exploring current global water issues for middle school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoe, A.; Guertin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    This project looks to help teachers utilize iPad technology in their classrooms as an instructional tool for Earth system science and connections to the Big Ideas in Earth Science. The project is part of Penn State University's National Science Foundation (NSF) Targeted Math Science Partnership grant, with one goal of the grant to help current middle school teachers across Pennsylvania engage students with significant and complex questions of Earth science. The free Apple software iBooks Author was used to create an electronic book for the iPad, focusing on a variety of controversial issues impacting the hydrosphere. The iBook includes image slideshows, embedded videos, interactive images and quizzes, and critical thinking questions along Bloom's Taxonomic Scale of Learning Objectives. Outlined in the introductory iBook chapters are the Big Ideas of Earth System Science and an overview of Earth's spheres. Since the book targets the hydrosphere, each subsequent chapter focuses on specific water issues, including glacial melts, aquifer depletion, coastal oil pollution, marine debris, and fresh-water chemical contamination. Each chapter is presented in a case study format that highlights the history of the issue, the development and current status of the issue, and some solutions that have been generated. The next section includes critical thinking questions in an open-ended discussion format that focus on the Big Ideas, proposing solutions for rectifying the situation, and/or assignments specifically targeting an idea presented in the case study chapter. Short, comprehensive multiple-choice quizzes are also in each chapter. Throughout the iBook, students are free to watch videos, explore the content and form their own opinions. As a result, this iBook fulfills the grant objective by engaging teachers and students with an innovative technological presentation that incorporates Earth system science with current case studies regarding global water issues.

  6. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  7. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  8. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  9. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea's medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols.

  10. A Conflict-Resolution Model for the Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater Resources that Considers Water-Quality Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan-Lari, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Mansoori, Abbas

    2009-03-01

    The conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources is one alternative for optimal use of available water resources in arid and semiarid regions. The optimization models proposed for conjunctive water allocation are often complicated, nonlinear, and computationally intensive, especially when different stakeholders are involved that have conflicting interests. In this article, a new conflict-resolution methodology developed for the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources using Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) and Young Conflict-Resolution Theory (YCRT) is presented. The proposed model is applied to the Tehran aquifer in the Tehran metropolitan area of Iran. Stakeholders in the study area have conflicting interests related to water supply with acceptable quality, pumping costs, groundwater quality, and groundwater table fluctuations. In the proposed methodology, MODFLOW and MT3D groundwater quantity and quality simulation models are linked with the NSGA-II optimization model to develop Pareto fronts among the objectives. The best solutions on the Pareto fronts are then selected using YCRT. The results of the proposed model show the significance of applying an integrated conflict-resolution approach to conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources in the study area.

  11. Cancer screening in the United States, 2017: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Andrews, Kimberly S; Brooks, Durado; Fedewa, Stacey A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Each year, the American Cancer Society publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, the authors summarize current American Cancer Society cancer screening guidelines, describe an update of their guideline for using human papillomavirus vaccination for cancer prevention, describe updates in US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for breast and colorectal cancer screening, discuss interim findings from the UK Collaborative Trial on Ovarian Cancer Screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:100-121. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    OpenAIRE

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013), Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  13. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013, Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  14. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    OpenAIRE

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013), Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  15. [Masculinity and Meat Consumption--Historical Approchaes to a Current Health Issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ole

    2015-01-01

    In current health debates meat is often discussed as a health risk. Statistically, men consume more meat than women. Therefore they often appear as an especially vulnerable risk group. Based on current discussions about an increased health risk for men because of an above-average consumption of meat, this paper outlines aspects of the historical development of the relationship between masculinity and meat consumption from the 19th to the 21st century and emphasizes the importance of cultural constructed gender expectations for the eating habits of many men.

  16. Current issues in late Middle Palaeolithic chronology : New assessments from Northern Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroto, Julia; Vaquero, Manuel; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro; Baena, Javier; Baquedano, Enrique; Jorda, Jesus; Julia, Ramon; Montes, Ramon; Van Der Plicht, Johannes; Rasines, Pedro; Wood, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The Iberian Peninsula plays a central role in the current debates on the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition and the Neanderthal extinction. This is largely due to the chronological data which some authors have suggested show a clear divide between Northern Iberia, where the Upper Palaeolithic appe

  17. Library and Information Science Education in Greece: Institutional Changes and Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniarou-Papaconstantinou, Valentini; Tsatsaroni, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the historical development of Library and Information Science (LIS) Education in Greece, in order to understand its current position within the field of higher education, and to assess its future prospects. In particular, in tracing changes that LIS Education as an institution has undergone, it argues that institutional…

  18. Ten-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein supergravity, its currents, and the issue of its auxiliary fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Roo, M. de; Wit, B. de

    1982-01-01

    The d = 10, N = 1 Yang-Mills system is coupled to d = 10, N = 1 supergravity in a locally scale-invariant way. An analysis of the currents agrees with the Noether coupling results and reveals the existence of two ordinary axial and more low-dimension auxiliary fields. The coupling of the photon Aµ

  19. Mindfulness for Children in Public Schools: Current Research and Developmental Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jeanne; Gelbar, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have increased in popularity over the past decade and interest continues to increase in the potential to use mindfulness-based interventions in schools. The current research concerning school-based mindfulness-based interventions is reviewed in this article. This research base is fragmented, as most of the studies…

  20. Current Technology Trends and Issues among Health and Physical Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jennifer M.; Franks, Hillary; Lynch, Brandy

    2017-01-01

    Health and physical education professionals who implement technology appropriately can contribute to helping students become physically educated individuals (NASPE, 2009). It is imperative that professionals be knowledgeable and resourceful in how to integrate technology effectively, but it is unclear what current challenges professionals face in…

  1. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Further Issues in Current Evidence and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. Mark G.; Russell, Ian; Russell, Daphne

    2008-01-01

    The authors respond to the article by H. F. Coelho, P. H. Canter, and E. Ernst (2007), which reviewed the current status of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). First, they clarify the randomization procedures in the 2 main MBCT trials. Second, they report posttreatment and follow-up data to show that trial participants allocated to…

  2. A Synthesis of Language Learning Strategies: Current Issues, Problems and Claims Made in Learner Strategy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…

  3. LMFBR safety. 6. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1977)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1978-07-13

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development. Selected bibliographic information on LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the year 1977. The bibliography consists of approximately 198 abstracts covering research and development, operating experience, and design practices. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  4. Current issues in the design of academic health sciences libraries: findings from three recent facility projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Patricia P

    2003-07-01

    Planning a new health sciences library at the beginning of the twenty-first century is a tremendous challenge. Technology has radically changed the way libraries function in an academic environment and the services they provide. Some individuals question whether the library as place will continue to exist as information becomes increasingly available electronically. To understand how libraries resolve programming and building design issues, visits were made to three academic health sciences libraries that have had significant renovation or completed new construction. The information gathered will be valuable for planning a new library for the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and may assist other health sciences librarians as they plan future library buildings.

  5. Theological education, considered from South Africa: Current issues for cross-contextual comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Lombaard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into review the newly published series of substantial multi-authored volumes on ecumenical theological education internationally, this article identifies, from the author’s own experience in ecumenical theological education and from his publications in this field, the central issue of specificity, locality and context in theological education. This takes place within two broadly developing new and relevant trends: post-secularism and inclusive liberalism, briefly described and then related to theological education. In the light of these trends, some questions are asked on theological education, and a plea for greater interdisciplinarity is made. The article thus contains a considerable part of self-reflective material, based on substantial professional experience in theological education, which enables engagement with the new publications and newly developing international contextual features that will shape theological education for the foreseeable future.

  6. Noninvasive Prenatal Genetic Testing: Current and Emerging Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, Mollie A; Alessi, Stephanie; Allyse, Megan; Michie, Marsha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) for chromosomal aneuploidy involving the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA became commercially available in 2011. The low false-positive rate of NIPT, which reduces unnecessary prenatal invasive diagnostic procedures, has led to broad clinician and patient adoption. We discuss the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by rapid and global dissemination of NIPT. The number of women using NIPT is anticipated to expand, and the number of conditions being tested for will continue to increase as well, raising concerns about the routinization of testing and negative impacts on informed decision making. Ensuring that accurate and balanced information is available to all pregnant women and that access to NIPT is equitable will require policy guidance from regulators, professional societies, and payers. Empirical evidence about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences will continue to be essential in guiding policy development so that advances in NIPT can be used effectively and appropriately to improve prenatal care.

  7. Current ethical issues in synthetic biology: where should we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Ainsley J

    2011-05-01

    Synthetic biology (SynBio) is an emerging scientific field which has quickly established momentum and visibility. Although no single definition of SynBio prevails, the field broadly encompasses the application of engineering principles to biology, redesigning biological materials and using them as new substrates to create products and entities not otherwise found in nature. This article first reviews SynBio, highlighting the novel aspects of this technology. It then synthesizes ethical issues highlighted in the literature to date and makes some initial claims that research on the ethical aspects of SynBio should: avoid creating a new subtype of bioethics, concentrate on novel concepts and problems, and be situated within a context of cooperative interdisciplinary investigation.

  8. PHARMACOTHERAPY OF THE DIGESTIVE DISEASES AMONG TEENAGERS. CURRENT STATE OF THE ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of the children's health, especially as long as they study in school is one of the key issues today. The article highlights the results of the «Healthy school» program implementation, which was developed by the «Quality of life» charity fund involving Solvay Pharma. Much attention was paid to the pharmacoepidemiological study of the digestive diseases among teenagers — conformance evaluation of the given nosology pharmacotherapy at the outpatient stage to the existing standards of the evidence based medicine. The researcher described in detail nonconformances to the generally accepted recommendations identified during the study — nonprescription and/or unjustified application of the medications. They also provided the structure of the enzymatic drugs application.Key words: pharmacoepidemiology, gastrointestinal disturbances, pharmacotherapy, children.

  9. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  10. Return of the "intimate outsider": current trends and issues in family nursing research revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments.

  11. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  12. Key science issues after MESSENGER and current observation plans of BepiColombo MMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Go; Hayakawa, Hajime; Fujimoto, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Little had been known about the Hermean magnetosphere until MESSENGER explored the region. The region is formed as the weak planetary magnetic field stands against the intense solar wind in the close proximity of the Sun. Various prediction had been given by noting the difference in the parameters from the well-studied terrestiral magnetosphere of a similar setting and scaling the well-knowns to the Hermean environment. MESSENGER results, however, show a wide varieity of phenomena that are out of the scope of what one could have reasonably argued. The micro-magnetosphere of Mercury is much more dynamic than one had predicted. BepiColombo MMO, the JAXA spacecraft of the BepiColombo Mercury exploration mission which will be launched in 2018 and will arrive at Mercury in 2025, is equipped to study the space environment of the planet Mercury. BepiColombo MMO is mainly designed for plasma observations and is expected to extract essential elements of space plasma physics that become visible in the Hermean environment. MMO has large constraints on science operations, such as thermal issue and limited telemetry rate. Due to the thermal issue each science instrument cannot always be turned on. In addition, due to the low telemetry rate in average, only a part ( 20-30%) of science mission data with high resolution can be downlinked. Therefore, in order to maximize the scientific results and outcomes to be achieved by MMO, we are now working to optimize the science observation and downlink plans in detail. Here we review MESSENGER results and how MMO will contribute to deepen our understanding of space plasmas by addressing the puzzles raised by MESSEGNER.

  13. Fundamental Issues in Manufacturing Photovoltaic Modules Beyond the Current Generation of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Alapatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many methods to improve the solar cell’s efficiency beyond current generation of bulk and thin film of photovoltaic (PV devices have been reported during the last five decades. Concepts such as multiple exciton generations (MEG, carrier multiplication (CM, hot carrier extraction, and intermediate band solar cells have fundamental flaws, and there is no experimental evidence of fabricating practical higher efficiency solar cells based on the proposed concepts. To take advantages of quantum features of nanostructures for higher performance PV devices, self-assembly-based bottom-up processing techniques are not suitable for manufacturing due to inherent problems of variability, defects, reliability, and yield. For processing nanostructures, new techniques need to be invented with the features of critical dimensional control, structural homogeneity, and lower cost of ownership as compared to the processing tools used in current generations of bulk and thin-film solar cells.

  14. Current Situation and Issues in Career Support for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    石井, 正博; 篠田, 晴男

    2014-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the current problems in career support for students with developmental disorders. Specifically, wefocused on studies concerning autism spectrum disorder because of the difficulty students with these disorders often face in finding jobs. The majority of studies suggested that the acquisition of basic life skills is essential for a successful transition from the educational setting to the workplace. We also discussed carrier decision-making as it relates to the accuracyof th...

  15. Issues Regarding the Current and Future Use of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    that currently rely on DoD for a large share of their business if those carriers could not recoup that loss by serving more commercial customers ...Reports. 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ASTAR Air Cargo/ DHL Atlas Air/Polar Air Evergreen International...CRAF Carriers’ Revenues from Commercial Customers (Percentage of revenues) Source: Congressional Budget Office based on 2007 data from the United

  16. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  17. Asbestos: current issues related to cancer and to uses in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Algranti

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos is one of the main occupational carcinogens recognized and studied in the literature. Its uses have undergone major changes in recent decades, with severe restrictions on commercial amphiboles according to different patterns: in developed countries asbestos is strictly controlled or banned, except in Japan, while in developing countries consumption has leveled off or increased. As an example, Brazil is one the seven world leaders in asbestos production and consumption. Although there is a clear excess of mesotheliomas linked to amphibole exposure, mainly to crocidolite, there is no evidences that chrysotile is harmless to the pleura. Also, the relationship between fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis is not sufficiently understood to defend the concept that there are protective exposure limits to both diseases. "Controlled use" policy may be effective at the occupational level in a select group of companies, representing only a fraction of the exposed population. In developing countries subject to economic pressures, these issues merit proper discussion to avoid unnecessary disease and death.

  18. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014.

  19. Crime Prevention and Criminological Theories: Three Issues for the Current Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Jorge Ayos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Any crime prevention strategy implies, explicitly or implicitly, the question about what crime is, the causes of it and how to avert it. In this paper we will focus on set, thru criminological theories, the “concepts” that have been renewal to build different answers to such questions, particularly on crime prevention’s policies in contemporary Argentina. We suggest three axes: first, the criminal positivist sociology of Enrico Ferri, particularly his idea of “ penalties equivalent,”; second, the discussion about crime prevention in the “Chicago School”, specially on Thrasher Frederich’s work; and finally, “multi-agency intervention” idea of the left realist criminology, especially Jock Young, Roger Matthews and John Lea. Such productions have in common the fact that the three have specifically discussed the issue of “crime prevention” on their work. The selection criteria and comparison axis emerges from a broader investigation, which aimed to analyze the modes of way that the association between crime and living conditions is addressed on the social crime prevention policies in Argentina, during the first decade of the new century. Three comparatives dimensions were analyzed: the way social policies appears on crime prevention strategies; the ways the target populations are delimited; and last, the ways the intervention territories are defined, building an specific idea of territory.

  20. Current issues in developing safety culture while establishing wind energy power plants in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, M.C.M.; Repaka, B.; Gowda, P. [MSRIT Research Centre, Bangalore (India); Chandrashekar, R. [SaIT, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    Safety is important to every one working in the various organizations. They want to be safe when coming to work, at the time of work and going back to home. The ultimate aim of every worker is to work for the needs/money and or satisfaction where these would get prioritized according to the individuals. People don't want accidents to happen. People don't want to get themselves injured nor their colleagues. People would like and love to work in a company which cares for them and keeps them safe. Having said this then what makes them meet with or see an accident in the wind farm? Yes it is the unsafe act and unsafe condition which causes an accident in the wind farm. The present study put forward the factors /issues that influence people behaviors as part of weakening the safety culture to perform an unsafe act or to ignore and work in an unsafe condition. (Author)

  1. Current issues relating to the transfusion of stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimrin, A B; Hess, J R

    2009-02-01

    The development of blood storage systems allowed donation and transfusion to be separated in time and space. This separation has permitted the regionalization of donor services with subsequent economies of scale and improvements in the quality and availability of blood products. However, the availability of storage raises the question of how long blood products can and should be stored and how long they are safe and effective. The efficacy of red blood cells was originally measured as the increment in haematocrit and safety began with typing and the effort to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. Appreciation of a growing list of storage lesions of red blood cells has developed with our increasing understanding of red blood cell physiology and our experience with red blood cell transfusion. However, other than frank haemolysis, rare episodes of bacterial contamination and overgrowth, the reduction of oxygen-carrying capacity associated with the failure of some transfused cells to circulate, and the toxicity of lysophospholipids released from membrane breakdown, storage-induced lesions have not had obvious correlations with safety or efficacy. The safety of red blood cell storage has also been approached in retrospective epidemiologic studies of transfused patients, but the results are frequently biased by the fact that sicker patients are transfused more often and blood banks do not issue blood products in a random order. Several large prospective studies of the safety of stored red blood cells are planned.

  2. Birds of the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel: their current status and key environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, N H K; Musgrove, A J; Rehfisch, M M; Clark, N A

    2010-01-01

    The Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel encompass a number of designated sites supporting populations of waterbirds and seabirds that are of national or international importance, including the Severn Estuary and Burry Inlet Special Protection Areas (SPAs)/Ramsar Sites and Carmarthen Bay, the UK's first marine SPA. Here, we provide an overview of the present numbers and trends of the waterbirds and seabirds using these sites, updating previous reviews undertaken prior to these designations. We further provide a summary of the main issues that have affected the status of the area's bird populations. Declines in the numbers of waders on the Severn Estuary and the southwest over the last two decades have been linked to climate change. The Sea Empress oil-spill impacted both breeding seabirds and the wintering Common Scoters in Carmarthen Bay, though numbers of the latter recovered 3years after the spill. At the Burry Inlet, Oystercatcher numbers have fallen over the last 25years and considerable research has been undertaken into the conflict with cockle and mussel fisheries. A long-term study at Cardiff Bay, at the mouth of the Severn, revealed a significant impact on the survival of Redshanks following its impoundment and has helped to further understanding of responses of waterbirds to estuarine habitat loss. The potential impacts of the construction of a tidal power scheme on the Severn Estuary are also discussed. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CURRENT CRIMINAL-LEGAL ISSUES OF QUALIFICATION OF A CHILD SUBSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishchenko E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the chosen topic is caused by existence of disputable issues in qualification of the crime established in article 153 of the Criminal code of Russian Federation. Objective and subjective elements of corpus delicti of substitution of a child are analyzed in the article. The special attention is paid to the object of the crime, and also consideration of the concept «victim». In this article «mercenary and low motives» as a constructive feature of the subjective element of substitution of a child are considered, the most significant gaps in norms of the criminal legislation are analyzed and ways of their elimination are offered. Having investigated normative legal acts, court practice, foreign legislation and the existing theoretical developments, authors give their interpretation of article 153 of the Criminal code of Russian Federation. The authors express opinion about strengthening of the punishment for this crime. We consider important inclusion in corpus delicti of this crime such aggravating features as the act: «against two or more persons», «a group of persons by previous agreement or organized group», «a person using his official position», «a person who has a previous conviction for crime against a family and minors»

  4. Disinfection and Sterilization in Health Care Facilities: An Overview and Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-09-01

    When properly used, disinfection and sterilization can ensure the safe use of invasive and noninvasive medical devices. The method of disinfection and sterilization depends on the intended use of the medical device: critical items (contact sterile tissue) must be sterilized before use; semicritical items (contact mucous membranes or nonintact skin) must be high-level disinfected; and noncritical items (contact intact skin) should receive low-level disinfection. Cleaning should always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Current disinfection and sterilization guidelines must be strictly followed.

  5. Fiscal Reform in the People's Republic of China: Current Issues and Future Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Kanamori, Toshiki

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, economists and policymakers have given much greater attention to fiscal reform in the PRC. This reflects the fact that after the Asian financial crisis the fiscal balance of the PRC government rapidly worsened. Second, the PRC economy as a whole has been moving in a more market-oriented direction since its accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The current agenda for fiscal reform includes the low level of fiscal revenue relative to GDP, the tax-sharing scheme betwe...

  6. Current issues in dietary acrylamide:formation,mitigation and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Salome Mariotti, M.; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is known as a neurotoxin in humans and it is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. AA is produced as by-product of the Maillard reaction in starchy foods processed at high temperatures (>120 °C). This review includes...... of the final product. Sugars in potatoes may be reduced by blanching. Levels of AA in different foods show large variations and no general upper limit is easily applicable, since some formation will always occur. Current policy is that practical measures should be taken voluntarily to reduce AA formation...

  7. An overview of current issues in the uptake of atmospheric trace gases by aerosols and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Kolb

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change – a European Network Joint Research Programme on "Aerosols" and the Programme on "Access to Laboratory Data". The aim of the workshop was to hold "Gordon Conference" type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review.

    In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  8. An overview of current issues in the uptake of atmospheric trace gases by aerosols and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Kolb

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change – a European Network Joint Research Programme on "Aerosols" and the Programme on "Access to Laboratory Data". The aim of the workshop was to hold "Gordon Conference" type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review.

    In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  9. An overview of current issues in the uptake of atmospheric trace gases by aerosols and clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.; Cox, R. A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Ammann, M.; Davis, E. J.; Donaldson, D. J.; Garrett, B. C.; George, C.; Griffiths, P. T.; Hanson, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; McFiggans, G.; Pöschl, U.; Riipinen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Rudich, Y.; Wagner, P. E.; Winkler, P. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2010-11-01

    A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change - a European Network) Joint Research Programme on "Aerosols" and the Programme on "Access to Laboratory Data". The aim of the workshop was to hold "Gordon Conference" type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review. In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  10. Current trends, innovations and issues in nursing education to cater for the bottom billion nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pek-Hong Lim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nurse education is undergoing a processof transition. Nurses worldwide are working towardsachievement of higher levels of education and trainingthrough an improved education system. Current trendsand innovations in nursing education are emerging toprepare more nurses and to deliver education to studentsacross geographical boundaries while taking intoconsideration their work and family responsibilities. Thecurrent trends and innovations in nursing educationrange from full time face-to-face interactions to distanceeducation programmes. Teaching approaches such asblended learning, online or e-Learning have providednurses with an avenue for continuing education fordevelopment and progression in their career pathways.Every nurse aspires to reach her highest potential. Whilethe current trends and innovations in nursing educationprovides the flexibility for nurses to continue learningand upgrade their professional qualifications, there areissues to be considered in catering to the needs of thebottom billion nurses. An exploration of related issueswill include views from different perspectives, such asthat of the institution/provider, instructor/facilitatorand student/learner involved in the development andimplementation of the related education programmes.

  11. Sustainable groundwater management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven P.; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Faunt, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses data collection, modeling tools, and scientific analysis to help water managers plan for, and assess, hydrologic issues that can cause “undesirable results” associated with groundwater use. This information helps managers understand trends and investigate and predict effects of different groundwater-management strategies.

  12. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  13. The issues of current rainfall estimation techniques in mountain natural multi-hazard investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei; Chen, Ningsheng; Wang, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Mountain hazards (e.g., landslides, debris flows, and floods) induced by rainfall are complex phenomena that require good knowledge of rainfall representation at different spatiotemporal scales. This study reveals rainfall estimation from gauges is rather unrepresentative over a large spatial area in mountain regions. As a result, the conventional practice of adopting the triggering threshold for hazard early warning purposes is insufficient. The main reason is because of the huge orographic influence on rainfall distribution. Modern rainfall estimation methods such as numerical weather prediction modelling and remote sensing utilising radar from the space or on land are able to provide spatially more representative rainfall information in mountain areas. But unlike rain gauges, they only indirectly provide rainfall measurements. Remote sensing suffers from many sources of errors such as weather conditions, attenuation and sampling methods, while numerical weather prediction models suffer from spatiotemporal and amplitude errors depending on the model physics, dynamics, and model configuration. A case study based on Sichuan, China is used to illustrate the significant difference among the three aforementioned rainfall estimation methods. We argue none of those methods can be relied on individually, and the challenge is on how to make the full utilisation of the three methods conjunctively because each of them only provides partial information. We propose that a data fusion approach should be adopted based on the Bayesian inference method. However such an approach requires the uncertainty information from all those estimation techniques which still need extensive research. We hope this study will raise the awareness of this important issue and highlight the knowledge gap that should be filled in so that such a challenging problem could be tackled collectively by the community.

  14. Non-inferiority clinical trials: Practical issues and current regulatory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-inferiority clinical trials are being performed with an increasing frequency now-a-days, because it helps in finding a new treatment that have approximately the same efficacy, but may offer other benefits such as better safety profile. Non-inferiority clinical trials aim to demonstrate that the test product is no worse than the comparator by more than a pre-specified small amount. There are several fundamental differences between non-inferiority and superiority trials. Some practical issues concerning the non-inferiority trials are assay sensitivity, choice of the non-inferiority margin, sample size estimation, choice of active-control, and analysis of non-inferiority clinical trials. For serious infections such as hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA has recently recommended that it is possible to define a reliable and consistent estimate of the efficacy of active treatment relative to placebo from available data, which can serve as the basis for defining a new inferiority margin for an active-controlled, non-inferiority trial. But for some indications with a high rate of resolution without antibacterial drug therapy such as acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB, and acute bacterial otitis media (ABOM, the US FDA has recommended that the available data will not support the use of a non-inferiority design and other trial designs (i.e., superiority designs should be used to provide the evidence of effectiveness in these three indications.

  15. European Cities Dealing with Climate Issues: Ideas and Tools for a Better Framing of Current Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary cities have to deal with numerous challenges, from the growth and aging of urban populations to the scarcity of resources; from environmental degradation to climate change. The latter, also due to the increasing severity of climate-related impacts on urban areas, is widely considered one of the most urgent challenges for urban development in the near future: cities are the main contributors to energy consumption and GHG emissions, paying, at the same time, the highest price for the climate impacts. Thus, climate issues have gained increasing importance in the last decades, both in terms of the metaphors coined by scholars relative to urban future (low-carbon cities, transition cities, smart cities, resilient cities, etc. and in terms of the initiatives undertaken on different institutional levels. Unfortunately, mitigation and adaptation are generally regarded as two different approaches, neglecting the potential synergies and trade-offs between the related strategies. Hence, based on the growing awareness of the need for mainstreaming mitigation and adaptation policies at city level, this study will provide an overview of the state of the art of the mitigation and adaptation initiatives in Italian metropolitan cities. Then, focusing on the concepts of the “smart” and the “resilient” city – recognized as key concepts for reducing CO2 emissions and improving the ability of cities to respond to climate impacts – and with reference to a conceptual framework for building up a smart and resilient urban system carried out in previous research works (Papa et al., 2015, the study will examine case studies of the cities of Rotterdam and Barcelona, highlighting how this framework may improve our understanding and, above all, contribute to better integration of the fragmented on-going strategies and initiatives.

  16. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Current Status, Issues, and Suggestions for Further Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, S. P.

    2013-03-01

    Mechanisms and kinetics of metal-induced embrittlement, hydrogen-embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking are discussed, and long-standing controversies are addressed by reviewing critical observations. Recommendations are also made regarding further work (including repetition of previous work using more advanced measurement and characterisation techniques) that should be carried out in order to resolve some of the contentious issues. The evidence to date suggests that adsorption-based mechanisms, involving weakening of substrate interatomic bonds so that dislocation emission or decohesion is facilitated, accounts for embrittlement in many systems. Embrittling adsorbed species include some metal atoms, hydrogen, and complex ions produced by de-alloying. Other viable mechanisms of embrittlement include those based on (1) dissolution of anodic grain-boundary regions, and (2) decohesion at grain boundaries owing to segregated hydrogen and impurities. The hydrogen-enhanced localised-plasticity mechanism, based on solute hydrogen facilitating dislocation activity in the plastic zone ahead of cracks, makes a contribution in some cases, but is relatively unimportant compared with these other mechanisms for most fracture modes. The film-induced cleavage mechanism, proposed especially for stress-corrosion cracking in systems involving de-alloying at crack tips, is questionable on numerous grounds, and is probably not viable. Rate-controlling processes for environmentally assisted cracking are not well established, except for solid-metal induced embrittlement where surface self-diffusion of embrittling atoms to crack tips controls cracking kinetics. In some systems, adsorption kinetics are probably rate-controlling for liquid-metal embrittlement, hydrogen-environment embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking. In other cases, rate-controlling processes could include the rate of anodic or cathodic reactions at and behind crack tips (responsible for producing embrittling

  17. Phreatophytic vegetation and groundwater fluctuations: a review of current research and application of ecosystem response modeling with an emphasis on great basin vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumburg, Elke; Mata-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Hunter, Rachael G; McLendon, Terry; Martin, David W

    2005-06-01

    Although changes in depth to groundwater occur naturally, anthropogenic alterations may exacerbate these fluctuations and, thus, affect vegetation reliant on groundwater. These effects include changes in physiology, structure, and community dynamics, particularly in arid regions where groundwater can be an important water source for many plants. To properly manage ecosystems subject to changes in depth to groundwater, plant responses to both rising and falling groundwater tables must be understood. However, most research has focused exclusively on riparian ecosystems, ignoring regions where groundwater is available to a wider range of species. Here, we review responses of riparian and other species to changes in groundwater levels in arid environments. Although decreasing water tables often result in plant water stress and reduced live biomass, the converse is not necessarily true for rising water tables. Initially, rising water tables kill flooded roots because most species cannot tolerate the associated low oxygen levels. Thus, flooded plants can also experience water stress. Ultimately, individual species responses to either scenario depend on drought and flooding tolerance and the change in root system size and water uptake capacity. However, additional environmental and biological factors can play important roles in the severity of vegetation response to altered groundwater tables. Using the reviewed information, we created two conceptual models to highlight vegetation dynamics in areas with groundwater fluctuations. These models use flow charts to identify key vegetation and ecosystem properties and their responses to changes in groundwater tables to predict community responses. We then incorporated key concepts from these models into EDYS, a comprehensive ecosystem model, to highlight the potential complexity of predicting community change under different fluctuating groundwater scenarios. Such models provide a valuable tool for managing vegetation and

  18. Current issues in GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Blonde, Lawrence; Garber, Alan J; Wysham, Carol H

    2012-01-01

    The clinical management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is guided not only by published treatment algorithms, but also by consideration of recent evidence and through consultation with colleagues and experts. Recent studies have dramatically increased the amount of information regarding the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs). Topics that may be of particular interest to clinicians who treat T2DM patients include relative glycemic control efficacy of GLP-1 RAs, use of GLP-1 RAs across T2DM progression and in combination with insulin, recent data regarding GLP-1 RA safety, nonglycemic actions of GLP-1 RAs, including weight effects, and impact of GLP-1 RAs on patient quality of life and treatment satisfaction. The following review includes expert consideration of these topics with emphasis on recent, relevant reports to illustrate current perspectives.

  19. Hepatitis C virus whole genome sequencing: Current methods/issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeaux, Pauline; Caporossi, Alban; Thélu, Marie-Ange; Blum, Michael; Leroy, Vincent; Morand, Patrice; Larrat, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    Therapy for hepatitis C is currently undergoing a revolution. The arrival of new antiviral agents targeting viral proteins reinforces the need for a better knowledge of the viral strains infecting each patient. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) whole genome sequencing provides essential information for precise typing, study of the viral natural history or identification of resistance-associated variants. First performed with Sanger sequencing, the arrival of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has simplified the technical process and provided more detailed data on the nature and evolution of viral quasi-species. We will review the different techniques used for HCV complete genome sequencing and their applications, both before and after the apparition of NGS. The progress brought by new and future technologies will also be discussed, as well as the remaining difficulties, largely due to the genomic variability.

  20. Internet use, misuse, and addiction in adolescents: current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E; Greydanus, Megan M

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has revolutionized education and social communication in the 21st century. This article reviews the growing literature identifying a number of adolescents and young adults with a pathologically excessive Internet use leading to many potential consequences. Current research dilemmas in this area include that Internet addiction is a broad topic with no standard definition and no standard measurement tools. Management of youth with identified problematic Internet use or misuse centers on behavioral therapy and treatment of comorbidities. Pharmacologic approaches are limited at this time but are undergoing research, such as use of opioid antagonists and antidepressants in adults with pathological gambling. Efforts should be expanded on not only the education of all adolescents regarding the benefits but also the potential negative consequences of Internet use. It is vital that we do this for Generation Z, whereas Generation ALPHA will soon benefit or suffer from our efforts in this regard today.

  1. Current Status of Mobile Internet Protocol version 4 and its Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S Henry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many consumers have moved from stationary personal computers to cellular mobile devices. These mobile devices permit change of location while staying connected to the network. To sustain stable communication with the receiver, Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP was developed. Mobile IP is intended to afford absolutely automated and non interactive reconfiguration at any point. Mobile IP is considered to be a routing protocol thus solving the primary problem of routing IP packets to mobile nodes, which is a first step in providing mobility on the internet. Mobile IP is a secure, robust, and medium-independent protocol whose scaling properties make it applicable throughout the entire Internet. Mobile IP has two versions, Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6.This paper analysis the current status of Mobile IPv4 which is on the verge of exhaustion and announces the urgent need to upgrade IP layer to Mobile IPv6.

  2. The Social Lives of Global Policies against Malaria: Conceptual Considerations, Past Experiences, and Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckl, Julian

    2017-07-01

    While a casual observer might easily get the impression that global policies against malaria have unanimous support, there are strongly divergent perspectives on malaria control. Analyzing ethnographic and historical material through a political science lens, I foreground the social negotiation of malaria both as an illness experience of affected populations and as a disease problem defined by experts. Taking the interrelationship between problems, solutions, and solution providers as a point of departure, I reconstruct recurrent tensions and social mechanisms that can account for the tendency to downplay conflicts and to produce technical-biomedical solutions that seem to be irresistible. This helps to overcome the perception that current policies have no alternatives and that aiming directly for malaria eradication is the only form of sustainability in times of resistances when "saving the established technical-biomedical solutions" has become a key concern.

  3. Multimodal neuroimaging as a window into the pathological physiology of schizophrenia: Current trends and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Masanori; Miyata, Jun; Hazama, Masaaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing the detailed brain anatomy of individuals with schizophrenia has been made possible by recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although structural MRI cannot be currently used to diagnose schizophrenia, multimodal MRI can reveal insightful information on key clinical aspects of the pathological physiology of schizophrenia. However, in this regard, the number of multimodal MRI studies is still limited and definitely required. In this review, we discuss how classical and popular theories on the pathological physiology of schizophrenia can be re-examined using neuroimaging studies, and also discuss how multimodal MRI studies may provide additional findings. The pathological hypotheses examined include the "progressive brain disease hypothesis" and "disconnection hypothesis". This article is discussed mainly based on recent findings published by our research group.

  4. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  5. Current issues in retailing: Relationships and emerging opportunities: Introduction to the special issue from the American Collegiate Retailing Association 2005 and 2006 conferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaufman-Scarborough, Carol; Forsythe, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    .... The papers appearing in this special issue, consisting of the best papers from the Spring and Winter conferences of the American Collegiate Retailing Association held in 2005 and 2006, capture these cutting-edge issues...

  6. Pharmacological Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Current Approaches, Unsolved Issues, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kreuter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating condition with a 5-year survival of approximately 20%. The disease primarily occurs in elderly patients. IPF is a highly heterogeneous disorder with a clinical course that varies from prolonged periods of stability to episodes of rapid deterioration. In the last decade, improved understanding of disease mechanisms along with a more precise disease definition has allowed the design and completion of a number of high-quality clinical trials. Yet, until recently, IPF was essentially an untreatable disease. Finally, pirfenidone and nintedanib, two compounds with antifibrotic properties, have consistently proven effective in reducing functional decline and disease progression in IPF. This is a major breakthrough for patients and physicians alike, but there is still a long way to go. In fact, neither pirfenidone nor nintedanib is a cure for IPF, and most patients continue to progress despite treatment. As such, comprehensive care of patients with IPF, including management of comorbidities/complications and physical debility and timely referral for palliative care or, in a small number of highly selected patients, lung transplantation, remains essential. Several agents with high potential are currently being tested and many more are ready to be evaluated in clinical trials.

  7. Currents issues in cardiorespiratory care of patients with post-polio syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Orsini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Post-polio syndrome (PPS is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus. Most often, polio survivors experience a gradual new weakening in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection. The actual incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in individuals suffering from PPS is not known. However, there is a reason to suspect that individuals with PPS might be at increased risk. Method A search for papers was made in the databases Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed with the following keywords: post polio syndrome, cardiorespiratory and rehabilitation in English, French and Spanish languages. Although we targeted only seek current studies on the topic in question, only the relevant (double-blind, randomized-controlled and consensus articles were considered. Results and Discussion Certain features of PPS such as generalized fatigue, generalized and specific muscle weakness, joint and/or muscle pain may result in physical inactivity deconditioning obesity and dyslipidemia. Respiratory difficulties are common and may result in hypoxemia. Conclusion Only when evaluated and treated promptly, somE patients can obtain the full benefits of the use of respiratory muscles aids as far as quality of life is concerned.

  8. Iron status of the Pakistani population-current issues and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Ali, Zulfiqar; Riaz, Muhammad; Ismail, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The present review aims to highlight the magnitude of iron status of Pakistani population and possible remedies to address iron deficiency among vulnerable groups. A computer-based search was carried out on "PubMed", "Google Search" and "Sciencedirect.com" to retrieve relevant scientific literature published in the last two decades. The search yielded 193 articles, of which 64 were culled and further screening was performed based on the type of vulnerable population groups, age, sex and pregnancy. A thorough review of current literature reveals that iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) widely persist in Pakistan and necessitate immediate remedial actions. Females of reproductive age and children under 5 years have been shown to be the most IDA affected population segment. Fortification of wheat flour has been suggested as the most viable approach aptly matching Pakistan's needs for combating IDA. The present review further stresses the need for global involvement to scale up efforts for mitigating ID and IDA to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that are fundamentally based upon improving nutritional wellbeing of populations in developing economies by 2015.

  9. Lymph node-positive prostate cancer: current issues, emerging technology and impact on clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julia; Cheng, Liang

    2011-09-01

    Lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer indicates a poorer prognosis compared with patients without lymph node metastasis; however, some patients with node-positive disease have long-term survival. Many studies have attempted to discern what characteristics of lymph node metastasis are prognostically significant. These characteristics include nodal tumor volume, number of positive lymph nodes, lymph node density, extranodal extension, lymphovascular invasion and tumor dedifferentiation. Favorable characteristics of regional lymph node involvement included a smaller tumor size and smaller tumor volume. However, the current staging system for prostate cancer does not provide different subclassifications for patients with node-positive prostate cancer. In recent years numerous advanced technologies for the detection of lymph node metastasis have been developed, including molecular imaging techniques and the CellSearch Circulating Tumor Cell System. With the increased detection of patients with prostate cancer, emergence of new technology to identify lymph node metastasis and the number of radical prostatectomies being performed on the rise, subclassifying patients with lymph node-positive disease is imperative. Subclassification would provide a better picture of patient prognosis and allow for a better understanding of targeted therapies to treat patients with lymph node metastasis.

  10. Current Issues in Finite-T Density-Functional Theory and Warm-Correlated Matter †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. C. Dharma-wardana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Finite-temperature density functional theory (DFT has become of topical interest, partly due to the increasing ability to create novel states of warm-correlated matter (WCM.Warm-dense matter (WDM, ultra-fast matter (UFM, and high-energy density matter (HEDM may all be regarded as subclasses of WCM. Strong electron-electron, ion-ion and electron-ion correlation effects and partial degeneracies are found in these systems where the electron temperature Te is comparable to the electron Fermi energy EF. Thus, many electrons are in continuum states which are partially occupied. The ion subsystem may be solid, liquid or plasma, with many states of ionization with ionic charge Zj. Quasi-equilibria with the ion temperature Ti ≠ Te are common. The ion subsystem in WCM can no longer be treated as a passive “external potential”, as is customary in T = 0 DFT dominated by solid-state theory or quantum chemistry. Many basic questions arise in trying to implement DFT for WCM. Hohenberg-Kohn-Mermin theory can be adapted for treating these systems if suitable finite-T exchange-correlation (XC functionals can be constructed. They are functionals of both the one-body electron density ne and the one-body ion densities ρj. Here, j counts many species of nuclei or charge states. A method of approximately but accurately mapping the quantum electrons to a classical Coulomb gas enables one to treat electron-ion systems entirely classically at any temperature and arbitrary spin polarization, using exchange-correlation effects calculated in situ, directly from the pair-distribution functions. This eliminates the need for any XC-functionals. This classical map has been used to calculate the equation of state of WDM systems, and construct a finite-T XC functional that is found to be in close agreement with recent quantum path-integral simulation data. In this review, current developments and concerns in finite-T DFT, especially in the context of non-relativistic warm

  11. CURRENT ISSUES ON JOB STRESS IN JAPAN AND WORKSITE MENTAL HEALTH APPLICATION AMONG JAPANESE COMPANY A Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Purnawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Issues about job stress is more popular in the world currently. Not just for Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but also an important issue in EU countries, especially the UK and Finland Increase of awareness about job stress effects on work performance, productivity and mental health is as onereason of the phenomenon.Objective: The present study aimed to explore the issue of job stress in Japan for the reference of good practices to Indonesia.Methods: This study, based on observationalstudies in the period of September-December in year 2010 in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Kitakyushu Japan. Observations on Japanese Company and discussions with experts, such as: occupational physician of Riken Company, experts from: Tokyo University and Tokyo University’s occupational physician, Department of ergonomics, the Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences UOEH (University ofOccupational and Environmental Health, Institute for Science of Labor, and researcher of Japan NIOSH. Two stress management training and occupational mental health’ application program were observed in the period of October-December.Result: The trend of current occupational mental health research in Japan has being moved from job stress to more advanced issues of work engagement andwork-life balance. There are three approaches to prevention of job stress. Considering the three approach could improve of worker productivity and well-being. The training for Tokyo University’s staffs was as one session of individual-oriented stress prevention approach. It was conducted in very interactive class lecture. During 2 hours session, the participants learned some knowledge about job stress and its risk factors, exercised to construct better cognitive for stress prevention and productivity, practiced of progressive muscle relaxation technique, group work, did some home works and filled an evaluation sheet after the session was finish. We also observed the occupational mental

  12. Groundwater systems of the Indian Sub-Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Sub-Continent is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, hosting ∼23% of the global population within only ∼3% of the world's land area. It encompasses some of the world's largest fluvial systems in the world (River Brahmaputra, Ganges and Indus Basins, which hosts some of the highest yielding aquifers in the world. The distribution of usable groundwater in the region varies considerably and the continued availability of safe water from many of these aquifers (e.g. Bengal Basin is constrained by the presence of natural contaminants. Further, the trans-boundary nature of the aquifers in the Indian Sub-Continent makes groundwater resource a potentially politically sensitive issue, particularly since this region is the largest user of groundwater resources in the world. Indeed, there is considerable concern regarding dwindling well yield and declining groundwater levels, even for the highly productive aquifers. Though irrigation already accounts for >85% of the total ground water extraction of the region, there is a mounting pressure on aquifers for food security of the region. Highly variable precipitation, hydrogeological conditions and predicted, impending climate change effects provide substantial challenges to groundwater management. The observed presence of natural groundwater contaminants together with the growing demand for irrigated food production and predicted climate change further complicate the development of strategies for using groundwater resources sustainably. We provide an introduction and overview of 11 articles, collated in this special issue, which describe the current condition of vulnerable groundwater resources across the Indian Sub-Continent.

  13. Investigations of Beam Dynamics Issues at Current and Future Hadron Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lau, Stephen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heinemann, Klaus [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bizzozero, David [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-12

    Final Report Abstract for DE-FG02-99ER4110, May 15, 2011- October 15, 2014 There is a synergy between the fields of Beam Dynamics (BD) in modern particle accelerators and Applied Mathematics (AMa). We have formulated significant problems in BD and have developed and applied tools within the contexts of dynamical systems, topological methods, numerical analysis and scientific computing, probability and stochastic processes, and mathematical statistics. We summarize the three main areas of our AMa work since 2011. First, we continued our study of Vlasov-Maxwell systems. Previously, we developed a state of the art algorithm and code (VM3@A) to calculate coherent synchrotron radiation in single pass systems. In this cycle we carefully analyzed the major expense, namely the integral-over-history (IOH), and developed two approaches to speed up integration. The first strategy uses a representation of the Bessel function J0 in terms of exponentials. The second relies on “local sequences” developed recently for radiation boundary conditions, which are used to reduce computational domains. Although motivated by practicality, both strategies involve interesting and rather deep analysis and approximation theory. As an alternative to VM3@A, we are integrating Maxwell’s equations by a time-stepping method, bypass- ing the IOH, using a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. DG is a generalization of Finite Element and Finite Volume methods. It is spectrally convergent, unlike the commonly used Finite Difference methods, and can handle complicated vacuum chamber geometries. We have applied this in several contexts and have obtained very nice results including an explanation of an experiment at the Canadian Light Source, where the geometry is quite complex. Second, we continued our study of spin dynamics in storage rings. There is much current and proposed activity where spin polarized beams are being used in testing the Standard Model and its modifications. Our work has focused

  14. Investigations of Beam Dynamics Issues at Current and Future Hadron Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lau, Stephen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heinemann, Klaus [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bizzozero, David [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-12

    Final Report Abstract for DE-FG02-99ER4110, May 15, 2011- October 15, 2014 There is a synergy between the fields of Beam Dynamics (BD) in modern particle accelerators and Applied Mathematics (AMa). We have formulated significant problems in BD and have developed and applied tools within the contexts of dynamical systems, topological methods, numerical analysis and scientific computing, probability and stochastic processes, and mathematical statistics. We summarize the three main areas of our AMa work since 2011. First, we continued our study of Vlasov-Maxwell systems. Previously, we developed a state of the art algorithm and code (VM3@A) to calculate coherent synchrotron radiation in single pass systems. In this cycle we carefully analyzed the major expense, namely the integral-over-history (IOH), and developed two approaches to speed up integration. The first strategy uses a representation of the Bessel function J0 in terms of exponentials. The second relies on “local sequences” developed recently for radiation boundary conditions, which are used to reduce computational domains. Although motivated by practicality, both strategies involve interesting and rather deep analysis and approximation theory. As an alternative to VM3@A, we are integrating Maxwell’s equations by a time-stepping method, bypass- ing the IOH, using a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. DG is a generalization of Finite Element and Finite Volume methods. It is spectrally convergent, unlike the commonly used Finite Difference methods, and can handle complicated vacuum chamber geometries. We have applied this in several contexts and have obtained very nice results including an explanation of an experiment at the Canadian Light Source, where the geometry is quite complex. Second, we continued our study of spin dynamics in storage rings. There is much current and proposed activity where spin polarized beams are being used in testing the Standard Model and its modifications. Our work has focused

  15. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  16. Thermal use of groundwater: International legislation and ecological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnlein, S.; Griebler, C.; Blum, P.; Bayer, P.

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater fulfills various functions for nature, animals and humans. Certainly, groundwater has highest relevance as freshwater resource. Another increasingly important issue - especially considering rising oil and gas prices - is the use of aquifers as renewable energy reservoirs. In view of these two somehow conflictive uses it seems important to define legal regulations and management strategies where exploitation and protection of aquifers is balanced. Thermal use of groundwater with e.g. ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems results in temperature anomalies (cold or heat plumes) in the subsurface. The extension of these temperture plumes has to be known in order to interpret their influence on adjacent geothermal installations. Beside this technological constraint, there exists an ecological one: man made thermal anomalies may have undesirable effects on the groundwater ecosystem. To promote geothermal energy as an economically attractive, sustainable and environmentally friendly energy source, such constraints have to be integrated in regulations, planning and maintenance (Hähnlein et al. 2008a,b). The objective of this study is to review the current legal status of the thermal use of groundwater and to present first results how the ecosystem is influenced. • Legal viewpoint: The international legal situation on thermal groundwater use is very heterogeneous. Nationally and internationally there is no consistent legal situation. Minimum distances between GSHP and temperature limits for heating and cooling the groundwater vary strongly. Until now there are no scientifically based thresholds. And it is also legally unexplained which temperature changes are detrimental. This is due to the fact that there are no ecological and economical parameters established for sustainable groundwater use. • Ecological viewpoint: First results show that temperature changes that arise with the thermal use of groundwater can noticeably influence the composition of

  17. Characterizing groundwater contribution to lowland streams using Travel Time Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus Kaandorp, Vincentius; Gerardus Bernardus de Louw, Petrus; Kuijper, Martina Johanna Maria; Broers, Hans Peter

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that European freshwaters will fail to meet the ecological guidelines set for 2015 by the Water Framework Directive. 55 % of European surface water bodies have been reported to have a less than good ecological status, while the goal for 2015 is to have a good status for all water bodies. The deterioration of freshwater aquatic ecosystems is a problem worldwide. The current study, part of the EU FP7 project Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress (MARS), addresses this issue by focusing on the effect of multiple stressors. Freshwater ecosystems are directly linked to the characteristics of catchments and streams they are located in as this determines the habitats present. One of these characteristics, the groundwater contribution to streams, is important for aquatic ecosystems as it influences (1) river discharge, (2) water quality and (3) temperature and (4) the riparian zone. Groundwater provides streams with sufficient base flow, good quality water and a stable temperature. Compared to hilly slope catchments, the lowland catchments of The Netherlands lack much topography and surface runoff, and as such, virtually all stream water originates from groundwater. Current approaches do not sufficiently address the contribution of groundwater to stream flow in lowland catchments, as existing hydrograph separation methods provide little informative value about the groundwater contribution itself. The amount and quality of groundwater input to streams depends on its flow path and travel time. Especially in lowland catchments the groundwater input in streams is composed of a wide range of travel times which vary in time and space and have different quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Thus in order to successfully manage lowland streams, it is critical to specify the input of groundwater in more detail and take in account the temporal and spatial variability in travel times. We will present an

  18. Quality of groundwater resources in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Ehsanullah; Baba, Alper

    2017-07-01

    Water is the main source of energy production and economy in Afghanistan where agriculture accounts for more than 50% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Access to safe drinking water is still a problem in the country, which has caused different health issues and even child mortality especially in rural areas. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the country. However, little knowledge is available about the quality of groundwater throughout the entire country, and its quality has not been investigated extensively yet like in other countries in the world. While most people think that consuming groundwater is a reliable and safe source of drinking water for health, the United Nations (UN) agencies report various kinds of waterborne diseases and even child mortalities due to drinking water quality in the country. In this article, significant geogenic and anthropogenic factors that play a vital role in groundwater contamination of the country are identified and explained. Different geogenic contaminations such as arsenic, fluoride, sulfate, and boron occur in several areas of Afghanistan that have a direct effect on human health. The water quality mapping for Afghanistan is completed for half of the country, which shows that groundwater is plagued by high levels of fluoride and arsenic in some areas. The water quality mapping of the other half of the country cannot be completed due to security concerns currently. Also, there are different kinds of waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, and dysentery that can be seen in different parts of the country because of anthropogenic activities which continuously deteriorate groundwater.

  19. [Rubella: a current issue?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Bouthry, Elise; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle

    2014-06-01

    Sporadic cases of rubella infection are reported each year in France due to insufficient vaccination coverage. Rubella virus is a very unstable enveloped RNA virus. For this reason, transportation and storage of samples collected for its detection require particular conditions. The genetic stability of rubella virus has allowed the development of very effective vaccines. During the recent rubella outbreaks in Algeria and Tunisia, an unusual high rate of encephalitis was reported. The role of the laboratory is crucial in the management of rubella infection during pregnancy. Rubella serological results must be interpreted with caution. Congenital rubella is a severe disease that should already be eliminated thanks to a very effective vaccine that has been developed. All women of childbearing age should be vaccinated. Rubella vaccination of an unknowingly pregnant woman is not an indication for abortion.

  20. Tunisia: Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-19

    held two months before national elections. In November 2005, Tunisia hosted the U.N. World Summit on the Information Society in an effort to burnish...Research Service 8 Foreign Minister, who was born in Tunisia, and Communications Minister attended the World Summit on the Information Society in Tunisia

  1. Morocco: Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    especially phosphates. In 2009, however, a surge in farm yields offset these difficulties and helped produce positive growth. Oil price increases...October 2001, Morocco had authorized French and U.S. oil companies to explore off the Saharan coast, and the prospect of discoveries, as yet...Europe and drug ( cannabis )-trafficking have caused friction in Moroccan-European relations. High unemployment drives Moroccan youths to Europe and EU

  2. Current issues in contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drača Petar D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The authors analyze contemporary methods of contraception. Regarding oral contraception, they point to agents which decrease the efficacy of oral contraception. They also deal with agents which increase the level of estrogen, thus increasing side effects (paracetamol, vitamin C. Oral contraceptives Oral contraceptives may also have an impact on the efficacy of some medications (anticonvulsants, antidepressants. Health risks of oral contraceptives are also mentioned, as well as WHO's, guidelines for women using contraceptives based on risks and benefits. Other methods of contraception The authors also offer criteria for use of bioactive intrauterine devices (IUD, with recommendations of WHO. Besides men's, there are women's condoms, which are very reliable protection against infections, but their negative side is that they are rather expensive. Bad sides of vaginal wash are also emphasized, although this method is rather widespread in the world. Conclusion. At the end, the authors quote the International Family Planning Fund (IFPF which considers IUD to be the most reliable method of contraception nowadays. .

  3. Current Issues with Hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecologic surgeries. Early adoption of surgical advancements in hysterectomies has raised concerns over safety, quality, and costs. The risk of potential leiomyosarcoma in women undergoing minimally invasive hysterectomy led the US Food and Drug Administration to discourage the use of electronic power morcellator. Minimally invasive hysterectomies have increased substantially despite lack of data supporting its use over other forms of hysterectomy and increased costs. Health care reform is incentivizing providers to improve quality, improve safety, and decrease costs through standardized outcomes and process measures.

  4. Nigeria: Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-12

    confirmed the presence of H5N1 virus, which causes avian influenza, or bird flu , in a 22-year-old deceased female from Lagos. She is believed to be...et al. 43 U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, “Fewer Bird Flu Outbreaks This Year,” Apr. 2, 2007. 44 U.S. State Department, “Nigeria,” Country

  5. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2011-12-01

    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  6. Current Issues and Challenges in the Use of Aerosolized Surfactant for Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion Darius Samsudin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surfactant replacement therapy is a recognized treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in the newborns. Over the past 30 years, human and animal trials have been performed regarding administration of aerosolized surfactant to the injured lung, however the result has been unsatisfactory when compared with instilled surfactant delivery via endotracheal tube (ETT. This review aims to investigate the current issues, challenges and future recommendation of aerosolized surfactant therapy. CONTENT: Five randomized clinical trials in humans and 13 animal trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Most animal trials agree that this method of treatment is feasible. However, human trials presented conflicting results, and generally showed it to be ineffective. When compared with surfactant delivery via ETT, aerosolized surfactant is less effective in improving respiratory function. SUMMARY: The current data from human trials does not support the implementation of aerosolized surfactant therapy to treat newborns with RDS. Further research is necessary to improve nebulization, delivery, distribution and deposition in the lung, to investigate aerosolized surfactant delivery via ETT and to determine the appropriate dose. KEYWORDS: surfactant, aerosol, prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome.

  7. Youth With Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: Prevention and Intervention Strategies. Examining Current Challenges in Secondary Education and Transition. Issue Brief. Volume 4, Issue 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhjem, Pam

    2005-01-01

    How do communities begin to address the issue of youth with disabilities who become involved with correctional systems? This brief provides information on proactive solutions based on restorative justice and wrap-around services, models, and strategies. This topic is receiving more attention as research has begun supporting a critical need for…

  8. GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AND CHEMICAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The existing knowledge base regarding the presence and significance of chemicals foreign to the subsurface environment is large and growing -the papers in this volume serving as recent testament. But complex questions with few answers surround the unknowns regarding the potential for environmental or human health effects from trace levels of xenobiotics in groundwater, especially groundwater augmented with treated wastewater. Public acceptance for direct or indirect groundwater recharge using treated municipal wastewater ( especially sewage) spans the spectrum from unquestioned embrace to outright rejection. In this article, I detour around the issues most commonly discussed for groundwater recharge and instead focus on some of the less-recognized issues- those that emanate from the mysteries created at the many literal and virtual interfaces involved with the subsurface world. My major objective is to catalyze discussion that advances our understanding of the barriers to public acceptance of wastewater reuse -with its ultimate culmination in direct reuse for drinking. I pose what could be a key question as to whether much of the public's frustration or ambivalence in its decision making process for accepting or rejecting water reuse (for various purposes including personal use) emanates from fundamental inaccuracies, misrepresentation, or oversimplification of what water 'is' and how it functions in the environment -just what exactly is the 'water cyc

  9. 浅层地下水源热泵系统若干问题的研究%Research on several issues of shallow groundwater source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭银华

    2012-01-01

    对浅层地下水源热泵系统中易忽视的空调循环水泵并联、空调井外网保温、空调井、水源热泵+地板辐射采暖系统等相关问题进行了探讨,并对可能解决的方案进行了讨论,对浅层地下水源热泵系统的设计与施工有一定指导意义。%This article explores issues including parallel air-conditioning cycling pumping, thermal insulation of external airconditioning shaft network, air-conditioning shaft, water source heating pump + radiant floor heating system which are easily neglected in shallow groundwater source heat pump system, and discusses possible solving schemes, which has certain guiding meaning for the design and construction of shallow groundwater source heat pump system.

  10. Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Bruce

    2013-03-13

    The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the 1970s and early 1980s has recurring bouts of popularity. That research traced the flow of various energy types from nature to the final product or service, using modified economic input-output analysis. That information allowed for a comparison of alternative uses of products and services that delivered the same demand. The goal of the study was to identify the energy-conserving potential of the alternatives. Interest in that research has risen and fallen with the price of energy through three cycles now, with the current interest also encompassing materials conservation. Although the specific numerical results of this work are dated, the process by which the analysis was conducted creates, at least, a suggestion for future analysis in the arena of materials research. A review of the ERG history, including techniques pioneered for investigating the potential for energy conservation and some of the ancillary lessons learned along the way, may be of some use to those working on issues of materials conservation today. In the coming years, the most relevant research will include assessment of the socio-economic-ecological impact of technological materials conservation policies.

  11. Groundwater flow modelling under ice sheet conditions. Scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquet, O.; Namar, R. (In2Earth Modelling Ltd (Switzerland)); Jansson, P. (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    The potential impact of long-term climate changes has to be evaluated with respect to repository performance and safety. In particular, glacial periods of advancing and retreating ice sheet and prolonged permafrost conditions are likely to occur over the repository site. The growth and decay of ice sheets and the associated distribution of permafrost will affect the groundwater flow field and its composition. As large changes may take place, the understanding of groundwater flow patterns in connection to glaciations is an important issue for the geological disposal at long term. During a glacial period, the performance of the repository could be weakened by some of the following conditions and associated processes: - Maximum pressure at repository depth (canister failure). - Maximum permafrost depth (canister failure, buffer function). - Concentration of groundwater oxygen (canister corrosion). - Groundwater salinity (buffer stability). - Glacially induced earthquakes (canister failure). Therefore, the GAP project aims at understanding key hydrogeological issues as well as answering specific questions: - Regional groundwater flow system under ice sheet conditions. - Flow and infiltration conditions at the ice sheet bed. - Penetration depth of glacial meltwater into the bedrock. - Water chemical composition at repository depth in presence of glacial effects. - Role of the taliks, located in front of the ice sheet, likely to act as potential discharge zones of deep groundwater flow. - Influence of permafrost distribution on the groundwater flow system in relation to build-up and thawing periods. - Consequences of glacially induced earthquakes on the groundwater flow system. Some answers will be provided by the field data and investigations; the integration of the information and the dynamic characterisation of the key processes will be obtained using numerical modelling. Since most of the data are not yet available, some scoping calculations are performed using the

  12. Integrated assessment of groundwater resources in the Ouémé basin, Benin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, R.; Sonneveld, B. G. J. S.; Götzinger, J.; Keyzer, M. A.; Pande, S.; Printz, A.; Gaiser, T.

    An integrated assessment of groundwater resources in Benin, West Africa was performed within the framework of the EC-funded research project RIVERTWIN ( www.rivertwin.org). The assessment included a spatial analysis of groundwater relevant parameters taken from more than 4000 wells stored in a countrywide water database (BDI - Banque des Données Intégrée) and an estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge using a modified version of the hydrological model HBV. Additionally, a socio-economic assessment of the impacts of groundwater availability and accessibility on national health issues as well as an assessment of groundwater development costs was carried out. The analysis revealed particularly unfavourable conditions for groundwater use in the northern part of the country where groundwater recharge during the wet season does not lead to the formation of persistent groundwater storage in its shallow, unconfined aquifers. Poor storage capacity and hydraulic properties of the deeper fractured aquifers additionally limit the capacity of individual wells to capture groundwater recharge. Including climate change scenarios forecasting less precipitation (generated from global climate models (GCM) based on IPCC scenarios) indicates that the situation in water scarce regions will worsen, as recharge volumes lessen and occur over a shorter time period. Drilling more wells may be a limited option to capture larger portions of the recharge, since the capture zone and therefore the regional influence of existing wells is rather small. In the south, deeper confined aquifers guarantee better and more reliable yields, yet the lack of long-term monitoring and groundwater age data does not allow an appraisal of the limits of the sustainable use of these aquifers. Finally, it has been shown that access to suitable aquifers and diarrhea prevalence are spatially correlated. Access to groundwater is thereby not only a function of aquifer suitability

  13. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the source of drinking water for ∼1.4 million people in the Coastal Plain Province of Maryland (USA). In addition, groundwater is essential for commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approximately 0.757 × 109 L d–1 (200 million gallons/d) were withdrawn in 2010. As a result of decades of withdrawals from the coastal plain confined aquifers, groundwater levels have declined by as much as 70 m (230 ft) from estimated prepumping levels. Other issues posing challenges to long-term groundwater sustainability include degraded water quality from both man-made and natural sources, reduced stream base flow, land subsidence, and changing recharge patterns (drought) caused by climate change. In Maryland, groundwater supply is managed primarily by the Maryland Department of the Environment, which seeks to balance reasonable use of the resource with long-term sustainability. The chief goal of groundwater management in Maryland is to ensure safe and adequate supplies for all current and future users through the implementation of appropriate usage, planning, and conservation policies. To assist in that effort, the geographic information system (GIS)–based Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System was developed as a tool to help water managers access and visualize groundwater data for use in the evaluation of groundwater allocation and use permits. The system, contained within an ESRI ArcMap desktop environment, includes both interpreted and basic data for 16 aquifers and 14 confining units. Data map layers include aquifer and ­confining unit layer surfaces, aquifer extents, borehole information, hydraulic properties, time-series groundwater-level data, well records, and geophysical and lithologic logs. The aquifer and confining unit layer surfaces were generated specifically for the GIS system. The system also contains select groundwater-quality data and map layers that quantify groundwater and surface-water withdrawals. The aquifer

  14. Analysis on Current Situation of Coal Mine Area Groundwater Quality in Xingyang%荥阳市煤矿区地下水水质现状浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学问

    2015-01-01

    Based on analyzing the hydrogeological conditions of coal mine area in Xingyang, 26 representative water samples were taken for analysis, and a conclusion is drew that the shallow groundwater has been seriously polluted in this area, and deep groundwater less seriously. The total hardness, nitrate, iron, nitrite have not reached the standard. Moreover, the article also discusses the pollution process of the main excessive substances, and analyzes the deteriorating trend of the groundwater water quality, then puts forward proposals for the development and protection of groundwater resources.%在研究荥阳市煤矿区水文地质条件的基础上,通过对具有代表性的26个水样测试成果分析认为,该区浅层地下水污染严重,深层地下水污染较严重;超标成分主要为总硬度、硝酸盐、总铁、亚硝酸盐等。本文叙述了主要超标成分的污染过程,简析了地下水水质的恶化趋势,提出了地下水资源开发和保护建议。

  15. GWVis: A tool for comparative ground-water data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application ( GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. GWVis works with ground-water level elevation data collected or modeled over a given time span, together with a matching fixed underlying terrain. GWVis was developed using the Python programming language in conjunction with associated extension packages and application program interfaces such as OpenGLTM to improve performance and allow us fine control of attributes of the model such as lighting, material properties, transformations, and interpolation. There are currently several systems available for visualizing ground-water data. We classify these into two categories: research-oriented models and static presentation-based models. While both of them have their strengths, we find the former overly complex and non-intuitive and the latter not engaging and presenting problems showing multiple data dimensions. GWVis bridges the gap between static and research based visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives, infer information about simulations, and view a comparison of two datasets. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows that information to be presented to a large audience base.

  16. Effectiveness of the palliative care 'Availability, Current issues and Anticipation' (ACA) communication training programme for general practitioners on patient outcomes: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slort, Willemjan; Blankenstein, Annette H; Schweitzer, Bart P M; Knol, Dirk L; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Aaronson, Neil K; Deliens, Luc

    2014-09-01

    Although communicating effectively with patients receiving palliative care can be difficult, it may contribute to maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. Little is known about the effect of training general practitioners in palliative care-specific communication. We hypothesized that palliative care patients of general practitioners exposed to the 'Availability, Current issues and Anticipation' communication training programme would report better outcomes than patients of control general practitioners. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation training programme for general practitioners on patient-reported outcomes. In a controlled trial, general practitioners followed the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation programme or were part of the control group. Patients receiving palliative care of participating general practitioners completed the Palliative Care Outcome Scale, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative, the Rest & Peace Scale, the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-III and the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation Scale, at baseline and 12 months follow-up. We analysed differences between groups using linear mixed models. ISRCTN56722368. General practitioners who attended a 2-year Palliative Care Training Course in the Netherlands. Questionnaire data were available for 145 patients (89 in intervention and 56 in control group). We found no significant differences over time between the intervention and control groups in any of the five outcome measures. Ceiling effects were observed for the Rest & Peace Scale, Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-III and Availability, Current issues and Anticipation Scale. General practitioner participation in the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation training programme did not have a measurable effect on any of the outcomes investigated. Patients reported high levels of

  17. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J; Mark, J

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

  18. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, current ACS cancer screening guidelines are summarized, as are updated guidelines on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening with low-dose helical computed tomography. The latest data on the use of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey also are described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

  19. groundwater contribution to crop water requirement groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Groundwater, water table, capillary rise, soil type, waterleaf, ... GROUNDWATER CONTRIBUTION TO WATERLEAF (TALINUM TRIANGULARE) IN OXISOLS, I. J. ... Nutritionally, ... information to facilitate increased crop production,.

  20. Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraqs Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing: A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues, recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, and descriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

  1. The Olympia Proceedings. Section III: Pre-Olympia Survey Results. Current Issues in School Psychology: Opinion x Impact Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. Jerry; Coulter, W. Alan

    1982-01-01

    Crucial issues in the future of school psychology, regardless of the opinion rating in a questionnaire were found to be the role definition of school psychologist, influences of PL 94-142, assessment practices, intervention techniques, political and economic forces and legal-ethical conflicts. The survey of psychologists was an information base…

  2. The U.S. Navy Littoral Combat Ship: Current Issues and How to Employ It in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    SH-60R or SH-60S helicopter’s BRU-14 bomb rack . There are two issues with mine sweeping aircraft: If the helicopter has an emergency and has to...bunks and personal stowage .62 In a February 15, 2012 Washington Post article, Secretary of the Navy Ray Maybus was reported as saying that four LCS

  3. Groundwater hydrology instructional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ronald G.

    Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, is preparing for its third cycle of the Interactive Remote Instructional System (IRIS) in groundwater hydrology, beginning January 15, 1986. The first cycle finished with an impressive completion ratio for registered participants, and the second cycle has currently been underway since July. This comprehensive hydrogeology program was originally developed for the Soil Conservation Service (of the U.S. Department of Agriculture) to prepare their personnel for professional practice work. Since its evolution into IRIS, an 80% participant completion rate has been recorded for the first cycle, which is a significant departure from success rates traditionally recorded by correspondence courses. This excellent rate of success is the result of 2 years of refinement and demonstrates the progressive nature of the program. IRIS has met the needs of participants by developing a curriculum that reflects current trends in the groundwater industry and has provided a unique educational approach that ensures maximum interaction between the instructional staff and participants.

  4. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, East-Central New Mexico-Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer in Curry and Roosevelt Counties, N. Mex., and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. This report provides a summary of the current (2007) water-level status of the Southern High Plains aquifer in New Mexico, including a basis for estimating future trends by comparison with historical conditions. This report includes estimates of the extent of ground-water level declines in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey-Lingo Ground-water Management Area parts of the High Plains Aquifer in eastern New Mexico since predevelopment. Maps representing 2007 water levels, water-level declines, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. The results of this mapping show the water level declined as much as 175 feet in the study area at rates as high as 1.76 feet per year.

  5. Groundwater Storage vs. Surface Water Storage - Why Sustainability Requires a Different Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, S.; Davids, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Storing water in times of excess for use in times of shortage is an essential water-management tool, especially in climates typified by precipitation in one season and demand in another. The three primary water storage mechanisms in the Western US, and much of the world in fact, are: seasonal snow pack, surface water reservoirs, and groundwater aquifers. In California, nearly every major river has one or more large dam and reservoir and current focus has shifted toward off-stream storage. In addition to California's surface reservoirs, groundwater aquifers provide huge volumes of water storage that are heavily utilized during times of drought. With California's new Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) substantial attention is presently focused on developing strategies for using groundwater storage more effectively in conjunction with surface-storage reservoirs. However, compared to surface water storage, we need to think differently and develop new frameworks if we want to manage groundwater storage sustainably. Despite its immense capacity, groundwater storage is harder to manage because there are physical constraints to how fast water can be put into and withdrawn from aquifers, its boundaries are not as well defined as those of a surface reservoir, and it is part of a dynamic, porous media flow system where the Theis concepts of capture govern. Therefore, groundwater does not behave as a level pool like surface water reservoirs, which has several implications for effective management: 1) extraction/injection locations can have substantial impacts on the system, 2) interactions with the surface water systems can be nonlinear and complex and 3) hydraulic effects can continue long after pumping/injection has stopped. These nonlinear spatial and temporal responses, coupled with long time scales, makes management of groundwater storage much different than surface water storage. Furthermore, failure to fully understand these issues can lead to mismanagement

  6. Groundwater Quality Monitoring at Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the current project was to continue establishing a long term groundwater quality monitoring program at Logan Cave that would allow groundwater threats...

  7. Integrated groundwater management: An overview of concepts and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Managing water is a grand challenge problem and has become one of humanity’s foremost priorities. Surface water resources are typically societally managed and relatively well understood; groundwater resources, however, are often hidden and more difficult to conceptualize. Replenishment rates of groundwater cannot match past and current rates of depletion in many parts of the world. In addition, declining quality of the remaining groundwater commonly cannot support all agricultural, industrial and urban demands and ecosystem functioning, especially in the developed world. In the developing world, it can fail to even meet essential human needs. The issue is: how do we manage this crucial resource in an acceptable way, one that considers the sustainability of the resource for future generations and the socioeconomic and environmental impacts? In many cases this means restoring aquifers of concern to some sustainable equilibrium over a negotiated period of time, and seeking opportunities for better managing groundwater conjunctively with surface water and other resource uses. However, there are many, often-interrelated, dimensions to managing groundwater effectively. Effective groundwater management is underpinned by sound science (biophysical and social) that actively engages the wider community and relevant stakeholders in the decision making process. Generally, an integrated approach will mean “thinking beyond the aquifer”, a view which considers the wider context of surface water links, catchment management and cross-sectoral issues with economics, energy, climate, agriculture and the environment. The aim of the book is to document for the first time the dimensions and requirements of sound integrated groundwater management (IGM). The primary focus is on groundwater management within its system, but integrates linkages beyond the aquifer. The book provides an encompassing synthesis for researchers, practitioners and water resource managers on the concepts and

  8. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.

  9. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop DICE2010: Space-Time-Matter - Current Issues in Quantum Mechanics and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diósi, Lajos; Elze, Hans-Thomas; Fronzoni, Leone; Halliwell, Jonathan; Prati, Enrico; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Yearsley, James

    2011-07-01

    These proceedings present the Invited Lectures and Contributed Papers of the Fifth International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2010, held at Castello Pasquini, Castiglioncello (Tuscany), 13-17 September 2010. These proceedings are intended to document the stimulating exchange of ideas at this conference for both the interested public and the wider scientific community, as well as for the participants. The number of participants attending this series of meetings has been growing steadily, which reflects its increasing attraction. Our intention to bring together leading researchers, advanced students, and renowned scholars from various areas in order to stimulate new ideas and their exchange across the borders of specialization seems to bear fruit. In this way, the series of meetings has continued successfully from the beginning with DICE 2002 [1], followed by DICE 2004 [2], DICE 2006 [3], and DICE 2008 [4], uniting more than 100 participants representing almost 30 countries worldwide. It has been a great honour and inspiration to have Professor Luc Montagnier (Nobel Prize for Medicine 2008) from the World Foundation for AIDS Research and Prevention with us, who presented the lecture DNA waves and water (included in this volume). The discussions took place under the wider theme Space-Time-Matter - current issues in quantum mechanics and beyond in the very pleasant and inspiring atmosphere of Castello Pasquini, which - with its beautiful surroundings, overlooking the Tuscany coast - hosted the conference very successfully for the second time. The five-day program was grouped according to the following topics: Gravity and Quantum Mechanics Quantum Coherent Processes in Biology / Many-Body Systems From Quantum Foundations to Particle Physics The Deep Structure of Spacetime Quantum - Relativity - Cosmology A Public Roundtable Discussion formed an integral part of the program under the theme Sull' Onda Della Coerenza" - le nuove

  10. European Communication Monitor: Current developments, issues and tendencies of the professional practice of public relations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, A.; Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) research explores the current developments for communications disciplines, practices and instruments. It is an extensive research project to monitor trends in communication management, analyse the changing framework for the profession driven by European integ

  11. An evaluation of current Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge monitoring programs in regards to sample sizes and other monitoring issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an evaluation of data produced by current monitoring programs at Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge. For all of these programs there is an interest...

  12. European Communication Monitor: Current developments, issues and tendencies of the professional practice of public relations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, A.; Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) research explores the current developments for communications disciplines, practices and instruments. It is an extensive research project to monitor trends in communication management, analyse the changing framework for the profession driven by European

  13. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  14. Global Groundwater related Risk Indicators: quantifying groundwater stress and groundwater table decline (1990-2010) at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faneca Sanchez, Marta; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Kuijper, Marijn; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is an invisible but indispensable resource for the economic development of many countries. Due to the need for this resource, in many cases it is exploited under severe pressure and the exploitation can become not sustainable. The non-sustainable exploitation of water is a well-known problem on both regional and global scales. However, most currently-available assessments on water stress still mostly focus on surface water and on water balances. In this work, we presented two global maps of groundwater risk indicators: an updated version of the groundwater stress (Gleeson et al., 2011, DOI: 10.1038/nature11295) and an indicator on groundwater table decline for the period 1990-2010. To calculate both indicators, we used the updated PCR-GLOBWB model output at 5 arcmin resolution (about 10 km at the equator), that is extended with an offline coupling to a global groundwater MODFLOW model. PCR-GLOBWB simulates daily river discharge and groundwater recharge, as well as surface water and groundwater abstraction rates. The latter are estimated internally within the model based on the simulation of their availabilities and water demands for irrigation and other sectors. The daily output of PCR-GLOBWB would then be aggregated to the monthly resolution and used to force the MODFLOW groundwater model resolving spatio-temporal groundwater table dynamics, incorporating the simulated groundwater abstraction of PCR-GLOBWB. Using the PCR-GLOBWB and MODFLOW simulation results from the period 1990-2010, we then quantified groundwater stress and assessed the groundwater table decline. Results are presented on four different spatial scales: 5 arcmin pixel, drainage/sub-catchment unit, state level, and major aquifer unit. The maps clearly show where groundwater is under stress, where there is a trend in the drop of the groundwater table, the slope of the drop and the significance of it.

  15. Large scale groundwater flow and hexavalent chromium transport modeling under current and future climatic conditions: the case of Asopos River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokou, Zoi; Karagiorgi, Vasiliki; Karatzas, George P; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), have been observed in the groundwater system of the Asopos River Basin, raising public concern regarding the quality of drinking and irrigation water. The work described herein focuses on the development of a groundwater flow and Cr(VI) transport model using hydrologic, geologic, and water quality data collected from various sources. An important dataset for this goal comprised an extensive time series of Cr(VI) concentrations at various locations that provided an indication of areas of high concentration and also served as model calibration locations. Two main sources of Cr(VI) contamination were considered in the area: anthropogenic contamination originating from Cr-rich industrial wastes buried or injected into the aquifer and geogenic contamination from the leaching process of ophiolitic rocks. The aquifer's response under climatic change scenario A2 was also investigated for the next two decades. Under this scenario, it is expected that rainfall, and thus infiltration, will decrease by 7.7 % during the winter and 15 % during the summer periods. The results for two sub-scenarios (linear and variable precipitation reduction) that were implemented based on A2 show that the impact on the study aquifer is moderate, resulting in a mean level decrease less than 1 m in both cases. The drier climatic conditions resulted in higher Cr(VI) concentrations, especially around the industrial areas.

  16. Summarization on application of multi-parameter direct current induced polarization sounding method to exploration groundwater in China%我国多参数激电测深找水应用综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆云祥; 陈建荣; 陈华根; 刘军强; 徐岳行; 张琴希

    2011-01-01

    In the last four decades, geophysical techniques have been applied to groundwater exploration in China. New geophysical techniques to groundwater investigation have emerged, such as IP,TEM, EH4, CASMT, SNMR, etc. . This paper introduces principles and technical methods to groundwater prospecting by using induced polarization sounding method. Three types of groundwater are found successfully by using the multi-parameter direct current IP sounding method in Zhejiang province. This testifies that traditional geophysical method has unique advantages than other geophysical method in groundwater exploration. Aquifer characteristics of induced polarization anomalies, the relationship between aquifer depth and the polar distance,the relationship between water inflow and half-decay time, and notes in field work are proposed. The importance of the real, reliable field data collection and the IP anomalies background value determination are Emphasized. Exception should be interpreted based on a reasonable geologicalgeophysical model of groundwater prospecting. To improve efficiency and reduce the intensity of work during groundwater exploration, combined with other geophysical methods according to the actual situation is proposed. Finally, this paper points out that high-density IP sounding should become the direction of the technology.%近40年来,地球物理技术在我国的地下水勘查中得到了比较多的应用,IP、TEM、EH4、CSAMT、SNMR等物探找水方法不断涌现.本文在介绍激电找水原理和技术方法的基础上,通过3个不同类型地下水勘查的成功实例,表明多参数直流激电测深这一传统的地球物理勘查方法在地下水勘查中仍具有独特的优势.提出了含水层的激电异常特征、含水层埋深与极距的关系、涌水量的估算方法以及野外工作注意事项.强调野外资料采集的真实、可靠及确定激电异常背景值的重要性;异常解释应建立一个尽可能合理的地

  17. [Current issues in pulmonary pathology. Report of the working group on pulmonary pathology of the German Society of Pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Ph A; Petersen, I; Junker, K

    2012-11-01

    The working group on pulmonary pathology of the German Society of Pathology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pathologie, DGP) developed very actively in the last year. Apart from the autumn meeting in Heidelberg in 2011 and the sessions at the annual DGP meeting in Berlin it was possible to realize a first publication with support and coauthorship of several members of the working group dealing with the classification of lung adenocarcinoma. In this report the key aspects of the activity related to the following issues are summarized including non-small cell lung carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs, interstitial pulmonary diseases, cell blocks in cytology and banking in thoracic pathology.

  18. Ethical issues in the translation of social neuroscience: a policy analysis of current guidelines for public dialogue in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emma; Racine, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Social neuroscience and its potential implications create an interesting case study for examining human research ethics policies on the topic of public communication of research. We reviewed mainstream national and international human research ethics guidelines and policies on issues of public communication of research. Our analysis relied on five thematic nets to capture the interactions between research and the public: public understanding, knowledge translation, public participation, social outcomes, and dual use. Coverage of these topics is sparse and inconsistent in mainstream policies and guidelines. We identify three options to address these gaps and analyze their strengths and weaknesses.

  19. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders: a survey of the presentations at the ISSPD anniversary congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-10-01

    The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current trends in research and clinical interests in personality disorders. The keynote video presentations, invited symposia, and slide presentations are freely available at www.isspd2013.com.

  20. Review on current advances, future challenges and consideration issues for post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based absorbents☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwu Liang; Kaiyun Fu; Raphael Idem; Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul

    2016-01-01

    Among the current technologies for post-combustion CO2 capture, amine-based chemical absorption appears to be the most technologically mature and commercial y viable method. This review highlights the opportunities and challenges in post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based chemical absorption technologies. In addi-tion, this review provides current types and emerging trends for chemical solvents. The issues and performance of amine solvents are reviewed and addressed in terms of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass transfer, regeneration and solvent management. This review also looks at emerging and future trends in post-combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents in the near to mid-term.

  1. Groundwater and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, K.I.; Kukurić, N.; Gupta, J.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Bhaduri, A.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans abstract two hundred times more groundwater than oil, annually. Ironically, the role of groundwater in water management and supply is underappreciated, partially due to its invisibility. By conducting a literature survey and investigating groundwater information databases, this chapter answer

  2. Energy Efficiency Financing for Low- and Moderate-Income Households: Current State of the Market, Issues, and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-01

    Although the need is great, many LMI households may not be able to afford efficiency improvements or may be inhibited from adopting efficiency for other reasons. Decision-makers across the country are currently exploring the challenges and potential solutions to ramping up adoption of efficiency in LMI households, including the use of financing.

  3. Evidence for stabilization of the ice-cemented cryosphere in earlier martian history: Implications for the current abundance of groundwater at depth on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David K.; Head, James W.

    2017-05-01

    The present-day martian mean annual surface temperature is well below freezing at all latitudes; this produces a near-surface portion of the crust that is below the freezing point of water for > 2 consecutive years (defined as permafrost). This permafrost layer (i.e., the cryosphere) is a few to tens of km thick depending on latitude. Below the base of the permafrost (i.e., the cryosphere), groundwater is stable if it exists, and can increase and decrease in abundance as the freezing isotherm rises and falls. Where water is available, ice fills the pore space within the cryosphere; this region is known as the ice-cemented cryosphere (ICC). The potential for a large reservoir of pore ice beneath the surface has been the subject of much discussion: previous studies have demonstrated that the theoretical thickness of the martian cryosphere in the Amazonian period ranges from up to ∼9 km at the equator to ∼10-22 km at the poles. The total thickness of ice that might fill the pore space within the cryosphere (the ICC), however, remains unknown. A class of martian crater, the Hesperian-Amazonian-aged single-layered ejecta crater, is widely accepted as having formed by impact into an ice-cemented target. Although the target structure related to the larger multiple-layered ejecta craters remains uncertain, they have recently been interpreted to be formed by impact crater excavation below the ice-cemented target, and here we tentatively adopt this interpretation in order to infer the thickness of the ice-cemented cryosphere. Our global examination of the excavation depths of these crater populations points to a Hesperian-Amazonian-aged ice-cemented cryosphere that is ∼1.3 km thick at the equator, and ∼2.3 km thick at the poles (corresponding to a global equivalent water layer of ∼200 m assuming ∼20% pore ice at the surface). To explore the implications of this result on the martian climatic and hydrologic evolution, we then assess the surface temperature

  4. New Approach For Prediction Groundwater Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to quantify groundwater depletion involve water balance and satellite gravity. However, the water balance technique includes uncertain estimation of parameters such as evapotranspiration and runoff. The satellite method consumes time and effort. The work reported in this paper proposes using failure theory in a novel way to predict groundwater saturated thickness depletion. An important issue in the failure theory proposed is to determine the failure point (depletion case). The proposed technique uses depth of water as the net result of recharge/discharge processes in the aquifer to calculate remaining saturated thickness resulting from the applied pumping rates in an area to evaluate the groundwater depletion. Two parameters, the Weibull function and Bayes analysis were used to model and analyze collected data from 1962 to 2009. The proposed methodology was tested in a nonrenewable aquifer, with no recharge. Consequently, the continuous decline in water depth has been the main criterion used to estimate the depletion. The value of the proposed approach is to predict the probable effect of the current applied pumping rates on the saturated thickness based on the remaining saturated thickness data. The limitation of the suggested approach is that it assumes the applied management practices are constant during the prediction period. The study predicted that after 300 years there would be an 80% probability of the saturated aquifer which would be expected to be depleted. Lifetime or failure theory can give a simple alternative way to predict the remaining saturated thickness depletion with no time-consuming processes such as the sophisticated software required.

  5. Current Aeromedical Issues in Rotary Wing Operations. (Problemes actuels de medecine aeronautique poses par les operations utilisant des voilures tournantes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    accident, the other had early ankylosing malformation (eg spondylolisthesis) and previous spinal spondylitis . surgery. The current locations of all...Caldwell, K.A. Roberts and H.D. Jones The Effects of Exercise Versus Napping on Alertness and Mood in Sleep-Deprived Aviators 28 by P.A. LeDuc, J.A...for aircrew and passengers involved of Zolpiden and exercise on the performance of in mishaps. It was made by an analysis of sleep deprived pilots

  6. Current Economic and Financial Crisis – New Issues or Returning to the Old Problems? Paradigms, Causes, Effects and Solutions Adopted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix TOTIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the ideological level, the current crisis, as the others in history, has triggered an intellectual debate among several applicable ideas: ultra-liberal theory of the "invisible hand" of Adam Smith, Keynes's theory of state interventionism and even neo-Marxist theories. Globalization, with all its core components, generates a chain reaction when the phenomenon occurs, either positive or negative. The origin of the current financial crisis should be sought in the effects of massive cross-border capital flows and the use of more complex derivatives. Reaching the saturation of the three engines of economic growth worldwide in the period after the collapse of the socialist bloc is another important cause of all the failures that currently exist worldwide. Acquisition of toxic assets from bank balance sheets, their recapitalization and takeover by the state, but also the reinforcement of the prudential supervision of capitalization, liquidity and risk management system, improved transparency and speed the process of evaluating or reinforcing authorities' response to risk, can be considered short or long term anti-crisis measures, as appropriate.

  7. Narcotic analgesic utilization amongst injured workers: using concept mapping to understand current issues from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortin Claire

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related injuries result in considerable morbidity, as well as social and economic costs. Pain associated with these injuries is a complex, contested topic, and narcotic analgesics (NA remain important treatment options. Factors contributing to NA utilization patterns are poorly understood. This qualitative study sought to characterize the factors contributing to NA utilization amongst injured workers from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists. Methods The study employed concept mapping methodology, a structured process yielding a conceptual framework of participants' views on a particular topic. A visual display of the ideas/concepts generated is produced. Eligible physicians and pharmacists (n = 22 serving injured workers in the province of Ontario (Canada were recruited via purposive sampling, and participated in concept mapping activities (consisting of brainstorming, sorting, rating, and map exploration. Participants identified factors influencing NA utilization, and sorted these factors into categories (clusters. Next, they rated the factors on two scales: 'strength of influence on NA over-utilization' and 'amenability to intervention'. During follow-up focus groups, participants refined the maps and discussed the findings and their implications. Results 82 factors were sorted into 7 clusters: addiction risks, psychosocial issues, social/work environment factors, systemic-third party factors, pharmacy-related factors, treatment problems, and physician factors. These clusters were grouped into 2 overarching categories/regions on the map: patient-level factors, and healthcare/compensation system-level factors. Participants rated NA over-utilization as most influenced by patient-level factors, while system-level factors were rated as most amenable to intervention. One system-level cluster was rated highly on both scales (treatment problems - e.g. poor continuity of care, poor interprofessional communication

  8. Thinking about breastmilk donation: What are the current issues in unregulated practices of breastmilk donation in the UK?

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, S.

    2016-01-01

    This work draws on a review of the evidence and of the current situation, and on reflection following previous conference presentations and discussions rather than on empirical research, although it forms the basis of developing and on-going research. \\ud There are many ways in which breastmilk is donated informally, often using the terminology of ‘sharing’ and usually to full-term infants. In contrast breastmilk is donated, primarily to premature and sick infants, to ‘milk banks’ (with, in t...

  9. Of Otakus and Fansubs: A Critical Look at Anime Online in Light of Current Issues in Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan S. Hatcher

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of digital technology and increased global connectivity has, to put it mildly, caused some ripples for the entertainment industry specifically and copyright law generally. In the aftermath, many are searching for new ways to incorporate the benefits of digital copies and the internet while minimizing the harms. To some, the anime industry and its fans offer examples of how an industry can benefit and even grow from allowing copyright infringement. This article examines the anime industry in-depth with this suggestion in mind and places the industry among current copyright policy debates, such as those suggested by Lawrence Lessig.

  10. Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-Related Issues Facing Professional Team-Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; Coutts, Aaron J; Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim

    2015-11-01

    While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.

  11. Position statement—altitude training for improving team-sport players’ performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-01-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213

  12. Position statement--altitude training for improving team-sport players' performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-12-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.

  13. Evaluation of a Model-Based Groundwater Drought Indicator in the Conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring groundwater drought using land surface models is a valuable alternative given the current lack of systematic in situ measurements at continental and global scales and the low resolution of current remote sensing based groundwater data. However, uncertainties inherent to land surface models may impede drought detection, and thus should be assessed using independent data sources. In this study, we evaluated a groundwater drought index (GWI) derived from monthly groundwater storage output from the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) using a GWI similarly derived from in situ groundwater observations. Groundwater observations were obtained from unconfined or semi-confined aquifers in eight regions of the central and northeastern U.S. Regional average GWI derived from CLSM exhibited strong correlation with that from observation wells, with correlation coefficients between 0.43 and 0.92. GWI from both in situ data and CLSM was generally better correlated with the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) at 12 and 24 month timescales than at shorter timescales, but it varied depending on climate conditions. The correlation between CLSM derived GWI and SPI generally decreases with increasing depth to the water table, which in turn depends on both bedrock depth (a CLSM parameter) and mean annual precipitation. The persistence of CLSM derived GWI is spatially varied and again shows a strong influence of depth to groundwater. CLSM derived GWI generally persists longer than GWI derived from in situ data, due at least in part to the inability of coarse model inputs to capture high frequency meteorological variability at local scales. The study also showed that groundwater can have a significant impact on soil moisture persistence where the water table is shallow. Soil moisture persistence was estimated to be longer in the eastern U.S. than in the west, in contrast to previous findings that were based on models that did not represent groundwater. Assimilation of terrestrial

  14. Analysis of the Network of Protected Areas in China Based on a Geographic Perspective: Current Status, Issues and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengtian Cao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By applying a geographic perspective in an analysis of the development and evolution of protected areas in China, this paper presents the results of an analysis focused on the status and the types of current approaches to the management of natural protected areas to reveal the problems that exist in their management and to further explore an integration strategy for the protected area network. It proposes that the future management of protected areas should prioritize their legal status, the sustainable livelihood of individuals living in close proximity to them, and the establishment of a unified database to achieve grid and information management of the protected areas.

  15. GEOTOURISM IN THE NIŠAVA RIVER MIDSTREAM VALLEY, SOUTHEASTERN SERBIA – CURRENT STATE AND ISSUES OF FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Began

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The region of East  and Southeast Serbia, has the biggest collection of geoheritage sites in the Republic of Serbia. In the southeastern part of Serbia, following various mineralogical compositions of the rocks, the Nišava river has carved a composite valley. This is an area of extraordinary nature capacity because of large number of natural rarities and phenomena that have great possibilities for geotourism development. Despite exceptional predispositions in terms of the value of geological heritage, geosites of this area are still unknown to a wider audience. Aim of this paper is to analyze current state of geotourism and to highlight the values of geosites in Srednje Ponišavlje using the evaluating model as well to evaluate its quality and give the assessment of geotourism development success. Using GAM model, 7 geosites have been analyzed, the ones with extraordinary geological/geomorphological and hydrological features for geotourism development.

  16. Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Bulk Heterojunctions: Leakage Currents and the Dewetting Issue for Inverted Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouesse, Elodie; Chambon, Sylvain; Courtel, Stéphanie; Hirsch, Lionel; Wantz, Guillaume

    2015-11-11

    In organic photovoltaic (PV) devices based on solution-processed small molecules, we report here that the physicochemical properties of the substrate are critical for achieving high-performances organic solar cells. Three different substrates were tested: ITO coated with PSS, ZnO sol-gel, and ZnO nanoparticles. PV performances are found to be low when the ZnO nanoparticles layer is used. This performance loss is attributed to the formation of many dewetting points in the active layer, because of a relatively high roughness of the ZnO nanoparticles layer, compared to the other layers. We successfully circumvented this phenomenon by adding a small quantity of polystyrene (PS) in the active layer. The introduction of PS improves the quality of film forming and reduces the dark currents of solar cells. Using this method, high-efficiency devices were achieved, even in the case of substrates with higher roughness.

  17. Is tissue an issue? Current practice and opinion in Western Australia for routine histopathology on products of conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Shui-Jean; Watts, Jared C; Faithfull, Tiffany J; Wong, Sabrina Z; Wylde, Kate L; McGurgan, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    An anonymous questionnaire-based survey was used to determine current practices and opinions of senior health professionals working in Western Australian (WA) hospitals performing gynaecological procedures, regarding the routine use of histopathology for products of conception (POC) obtained either from the surgical management of miscarriage or termination of pregnancy. Sixty-one senior health professionals completed the survey. Tissue histopathology on POC was routinely requested for miscarriage and termination of pregnancy (TOP) by 87 and 59% of respondents, respectively. Respondents listed the main reasons for requesting routine histopathology as avoidance of misdiagnosis, medico-legal and quality assurance. There were inconsistent practices among WA health professionals regarding sending POC for histopathology; 63% of gynaecology head of departments recommend the introduction of state or national guidelines for the use of histopathology in the surgical management of miscarriages or terminations of pregnancy.

  18. [Maintenance and health promotion of adolescent--pledge of sustainable development of society and state (current status of the issue)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Il'in, A G

    2014-01-01

    The article presents submitted data of population dynamics of adolescent (10-17 years old) in Russian Federation over the period of 1995-2012 In the presence of reduction by 8.2 million of adolescent population the top-priority task of adolescent health and life maintenance was declared. The article deals with physical growth and development statistics of schoolchildren of 15-19 years old: as opposed to peers of 80-es increase of length, body weight and circumference of chest as well as reduction of muscle strength is observed. On the ground of the data analysis of authoritative statistical reporting the increase of morbidity rate by factor of 1.4 was detected over the last 10 years. It has been established that the true morbidity level is above the authoritative by the factor of 1.5. The number of adolescent at the age of 10-15 referred to 1st and 2nd health groups decreased almost on 20%, at the same time pathological processes become chronic. The reproductive and mental health of adolescent at the age of 15-17 years was analyzed over the last 10 years. The rate of mental health disorders in adolescent living in country is more than in the peers living in cities by the factor of 1.2-1.4. The rate of period disorders, salpingitis and oothecitis increased in girls under 10 years and ones at the age of 15-17. The rate and structure of child disability was analyzed. It was fixed that leading causes of adolescent disability are mental disorders, diseases of nervous system, congenital anomalies. The most commonly encountered seed of physical dysfunction is capacity to study. It is demonstrated that there is misreporting on both child disability in totally and adolescent disability in Russian Federation. After the analysis of particular provisions of legislation concerning medical and social issues of child disability the week points were detected. The morbidity rate of adolescent was studied: primary cause of death in adolescent is extrinsic factor (more than 70%), the

  19. Towards sustainable groundwater use: setting long-term goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Alley, William M; Allen, Diana M; Sophocleous, Marios A; Zhou, Yangxiao; Taniguchi, Makoto; VanderSteen, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of crucial earth resources, such as groundwater, is a critical issue. We consider groundwater sustainability a value-driven process of intra- and intergenerational equity that balances the environment, society, and economy. Synthesizing hydrogeological science and current sustainability concepts, we emphasize three sustainability approaches: setting multigenerational sustainability goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively. As most aquifer problems are long-term problems, we propose that multigenerational goals (50 to 100 years) for water quantity and quality that acknowledge the connections between groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems be set for many aquifers. The goals should be set by a watershed- or aquifer-based community in an inclusive and participatory manner. Policies for shorter time horizons should be developed by backcasting, and measures implemented through adaptive management to achieve the long-term goals. Two case histories illustrate the importance and complexity of a multigenerational perspective and adaptive management. These approaches could transform aquifer depletion and contamination to more sustainable groundwater use, providing groundwater for current and future generations while protecting ecological integrity and resilience.

  20. TREATMENT OF GASEOUS EFFLUENTS ISSUED FROM RECYCLING – A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES AND PROSPECTIVE IMPROVEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; William Kerlin; Steven Bakhtiar

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of gaseous waste management for the recycling of nuclear used fuel is to reduce by best practical means (ALARA) and below regulatory limits, the quantity of activity discharged to the environment. The industrial PUREX process recovers the fissile material U(VI) and Pu(IV) to re-use them for the fabrication of new fuel elements e.g. recycling plutonium as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel or recycling uranium for new enrichment for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Meanwhile the separation of the waste (activation and fission product) is performed as a function of their pollution in order to store and avoid any potential danger and release towards the biosphere. Raffinate, that remains after the extraction step and which contains mostly all fission products and minor actinides is vitrified, the glass package being stored temporarily at the recycling plant site. Hulls and end pieces coming from PWR recycled fuel are compacted by means of a press leading to a volume reduced to 1/5th of initial volume. An organic waste treatment step will recycle the solvent, mainly tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and some of its hydrolysis and radiolytic degradation products such as dibutyl phosphate (HDPB) and monobutyl phosphate (H2MBP). Although most scientific and technological development work focused on high level waste streams, a considerable effort is still under way in the area of intermediate and low level waste management. Current industrial practices for the treatment of gaseous effluents focusing essentially on Iodine-129 and Krypton-85 will be reviewed along with the development of novel technologies to extract, condition, and store these fission products. As an example, the current industrial practice is to discharge Kr-85, a radioactive gas, entirely to the atmosphere after dilution, but for the large recycling facilities envisioned in the near future, several techniques such as 1) cryogenic distillation and selective absorption in solvents, 2) adsorption on activated

  1. Will farmers save water? A theoretical analysis of groundwater conservation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of agricultural irrigation systems has generated significant increases in food production and farm income. However, unplanned and unconstrained groundwater use could also cause serious consequences. To extend the economic life of groundwater, water conservation issues have become the...

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi in South Asia-current status, issues and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Sarker, Mahfuzur R; Jabeen, Kausar; Sattar, Ahsan; Qamar, Aftab; Fasih, Naima

    2015-01-01

    The human race owes a debt of gratitude to antimicrobial agents, penicillin and its successors that have saved people from tremendous pain and suffering in the last several decades. Unfortunately, this consideration is no more true, as millions of people are prone to the challenging threat of emergence of antimicrobial resistance worldwide and the menace is more distressing in developing countries. Comparable with other bacterial species, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) and Paratyphi (S. paratyphi) have been evolving multidrug resistance (MDR) against a wide array of antibiotics, including chloramphenicol, ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, and globally affecting 21 million people with 220,000 deaths each year. S. typhi and S. paratyphi infections are also endemic in South Asia and a series of antibiotics used to treat these infections, have been losing efficacy against enteric fever. Currently, quinolones are regarded as a choice to treat MDR Salmonella in these regions. Travel-related cases of enteric fever, especially from South Asian countries are the harbinger of the magnitude of MDR Salmonella in that region. Conclusively, the MDR will continue to grow and the available antimicrobial agents would become obsolete. Therefore, a radical and aggressive approach in terms of rational use of antibiotics during treating infections is essentially needed.

  3. Energy Efficiency Financing for Low- and Moderate-Income Households: Current State of the Market, Issues, and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-09

    Ensuring that low- and moderate-income (LMI) households have access to energy efficiency is equitable, provides energy savings as a resource to meet energy needs, and can support multiple policy goals, such as affordable energy, job creation, and improved public health. Although the need is great, many LMI households may not be able to afford efficiency improvements or may be inhibited from adopting efficiency for other reasons. Decision-makers across the country are currently exploring the challenges and potential solutions to ramping up adoption of efficiency in LMI households, including the use of financing. The report’s objective is to offer state and local policymakers, state utility regulators, program administrators, financial institutions, consumer advocates and other LMI stakeholders with an understanding of: -The relationship between LMI communities and financing for energy efficiency, including important considerations for its use such as consumer protections -The larger programmatic context of grant-based assistance and other related resources supporting LMI household energy efficiency -Lessons learned from existing energy efficiency financing programs serving LMI households -Financing products used by these programs and their relative advantages and disadvantages in addressing barriers to financing or to energy efficiency uptake for LMI households

  4. Some current legal issues that may affect oral and maxillofacial radiology: part 1. Basic principles in digital dental radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald-Jankowski, David S; Orpe, Elaine C

    2007-06-01

    Developments in oral and maxillofacial radiology affect almost every aspect of dentistry: some change the legal framework in which Canadian dentists practise; some re-emphasize established standards of care, such as the dental radiologist's mantra, ALARA (using a dose that is as low as reasonably achievable) and viewing images in reduced ambient lighting. Developments in the legislation that regulates the use of radiology, such as Health Canada"s Safety Code 30 for radiation safety in dentistry and the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act, also affect the practice of dental radiology. Some technical developments, such as charge-coupled devices and photostimulatable phosphors, are already well-known to the profession. Teleradiology, currently used in hospitals, but unfamiliar to most dentists (especially those working in urban communities), may soon have an impact on dentistry when it is used for Canada"s electronic health record, now under development. In this first of 2 articles about dental digital technology, we discuss the legal impact of developments in oral and maxillofacial radiology on dental practice and patient care.

  5. Current issues in patient adherence and persistence: focus on anticoagulants for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P Kneeland

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patrick P Kneeland, Margaret C FangThe University of California, San Francisco Division of Hospital Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Warfarin therapy reduces morbidity and mortality related to thromboembolism. Yet adherence to long-term warfarin therapy remains challenging due to the risks of anticoagulantassociated complications and the burden of monitoring. The aim of this paper is to review determinants of adherence and persistence on long-term anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. We evaluate what the current literature reveals about the impact of warfarin on quality of life, examine warfarin trial data for patterns of adherence, and summarize known risk factors for warfarin discontinuation. Studies suggest only modest adverse effects of warfarin on quality of life, but highlight the variability of individual lifestyle experiences of patients on warfarin. Interestingly, clinical trials comparing anticoagulant adherence to alternatives (such as aspirin show that discontinuation rates on warfarin are not consistently higher than in control arms. Observational studies link a number of risk factors to warfarin non-adherence including younger age, male sex, lower stroke risk, poor cognitive function, poverty, and higher educational attainment. In addition to differentiating the relative impact of warfarin-associated complications (such as bleeding versus the lifestyle burdens of warfarin monitoring on adherence, future investigation should focus on optimizing patient education and enhancing models of physician–patient shared-decision making around anticoagulation.Keywords: anticoagulation, warfarin, adherence, persistence, thromboembolism

  6. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  7. Ecology-oriented groundwater resource assessment in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. Y.; Wang, W. K.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, G. H.; Li, W. L.

    2016-08-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, a close relationship exists between groundwater and supergene eco-environmental issues such as swampiness, soil salinization, desertification, vegetation degradation, reduction of stream base flow, and disappearance of lakes and wetlands. When the maximum allowable withdrawal of groundwater (AWG) is assessed, an ecology-oriented regional groundwater resource assessment (RGRA) method should be used. In this study, a hierarchical assessment index system of the supergene eco-environment was established based on field survey data and analysis of the supergene eco-environment factors influenced by groundwater in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China. The assessment system comprised 11 indices, including geomorphological type, lithology and structure of the vadose zone, depth of the water table (DWT), total dissolved solids content of groundwater, etc. Weights for all indices were calculated using an analytical hierarchy process. Then, the current eco-environmental conditions were assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Under the imposed constraints, and using both the assessment results on the current eco-environment situation and the ecological constraint of DWT (1.5-5.0 m), the maximum AWG (0.408 × 108 m3/a or 24.29 % of the river base flow) was determined. This was achieved by combining the groundwater resource assessment with the supergene eco-environmental assessment based on FCE. If the maximum AWG is exceeded in a watershed, the eco-environment will gradually deteriorate and produce negative environmental effects. The ecology-oriented maximum AWG can be determined by the ecology-oriented RGRA method, and thus sustainable groundwater use in similar watersheds in other arid and semi-arid regions can be achieved.

  8. Ecology-oriented groundwater resource assessment in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. Y.; Wang, W. K.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, G. H.; Li, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, a close relationship exists between groundwater and supergene eco-environmental issues such as swampiness, soil salinization, desertification, vegetation degradation, reduction of stream base flow, and disappearance of lakes and wetlands. When the maximum allowable withdrawal of groundwater (AWG) is assessed, an ecology-oriented regional groundwater resource assessment (RGRA) method should be used. In this study, a hierarchical assessment index system of the supergene eco-environment was established based on field survey data and analysis of the supergene eco-environment factors influenced by groundwater in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China. The assessment system comprised 11 indices, including geomorphological type, lithology and structure of the vadose zone, depth of the water table (DWT), total dissolved solids content of groundwater, etc. Weights for all indices were calculated using an analytical hierarchy process. Then, the current eco-environmental conditions were assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Under the imposed constraints, and using both the assessment results on the current eco-environment situation and the ecological constraint of DWT (1.5-5.0 m), the maximum AWG (0.408 × 108 m3/a or 24.29 % of the river base flow) was determined. This was achieved by combining the groundwater resource assessment with the supergene eco-environmental assessment based on FCE. If the maximum AWG is exceeded in a watershed, the eco-environment will gradually deteriorate and produce negative environmental effects. The ecology-oriented maximum AWG can be determined by the ecology-oriented RGRA method, and thus sustainable groundwater use in similar watersheds in other arid and semi-arid regions can be achieved.

  9. Groundwater Level Predictions Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓敏; 尚松浩; 刘翔

    2002-01-01

    The prediction of groundwater level is important for the use and management of groundwater resources. In this paper, the artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to predict groundwater level in the Dawu Aquifer of Zibo in Eastern China. The first step was an auto-correlation analysis of the groundwater level which showed that the monthly groundwater level was time dependent. An auto-regression type ANN (ARANN) model and a regression-auto-regression type ANN (RARANN) model using back-propagation algorithm were then used to predict the groundwater level. Monthly data from June 1988 to May 1998 was used for the network training and testing. The results show that the RARANN model is more reliable than the ARANN model, especially in the testing period, which indicates that the RARANN model can describe the relationship between the groundwater fluctuation and main factors that currently influence the groundwater level. The results suggest that the model is suitable for predicting groundwater level fluctuations in this area for similar conditions in the future.

  10. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability mapping is a practical tool to implement strategies for land-use planning and sustainable socioeconomic development coherent with groundwater protection. The objective of vulnerability mapping is to identify the most vulnerable zones of catchment areas and to provide criteria for protecting the groundwater used for drinking water supply. The delineation of protection zones in fractured aquifers is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities, which makes difficult prediction of groundwater flow organization and flow velocities. Different methods of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability mapping were applied in the Atemajac-Toluquilla groundwater body, an aquifers system that covers around 1300 km2. The aquifer supplies the 30% of urban water resources of the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (Mexico), where over 4.6 million people reside. Study area is located in a complex neotectonic active volcanic region in the Santiago River Basin (Western Mexico), which influences the aquifer system underneath the city. Previous works have defined the flow dynamics and identified the origin of recharge. In addition, the mixture of fresh groundwater with hydrothermal and polluted waters have been estimated. Two main aquifers compose the multilayer system. The upper aquifer is unconfined and consists of sediments and pyroclastic materials. Recharge of this aquifer comes from rainwater and ascending vertical fluids from the lower aquifer. The lower aquifer consists of fractured basalts of Pliocene age. Formerly, the main water source has been the upper unit, which is a porous and unconsolidated unit, which acts as a semi-isotropic aquifer. Intense groundwater usage has resulted in lowering the water table in the upper aquifer. Therefore, the current groundwater extraction is carried out from the deeper aquifer and underlying bedrock units, where fracture flow predominates. Pollution indicators have been reported in

  11. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-08-23

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for drinking in China is a health threat that was first recognized in the 1960s. However, because of the sheer size of the country, millions of groundwater wells remain to be tested in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health Organization guideline and current Chinese standard for drinking water. We estimate that 19.6 million people are at risk of being affected by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Although the results must be confirmed with additional field measurements, our risk model identifies numerous arsenic-affected areas and highlights the potential magnitude of this health threat in China.

  12. Groundwater ecohydrology: GIScience tools to forecast change and sustainability of global ecosystems, studies in Africa, Europe and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, D. R.; de Lange, W. J.; Yang, X.; Vasak, S. L.; Olsthoorn, T. N.

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the interface between groundwater hydrology and ecology, and addresses a scientific grand challenge to develop a comprehensive, systematic understanding of continental water dynamics by linking the hydrosphere and biosphere. There exists a current lack of data interoperability between groundwater modeling tools due to differences in numerical techniques - Analytic Element Method (AEM), Finite Difference Method (FDM), and Finite Element Method (FEM) - which lend themselves well to either vector or raster data, and legacy input/output file formats that are not well suited across models. Nonetheless, investigative computational tools are all founded in the same conceptualization of hydrologic properties associated with mass, flux, pathways and residence time. A consistent framework is developed using modern Geographic Information Science (GIScience) methods to organize and archive important information from international datasets and previous groundwater ecohydrology studies organized around aquifer and water point, line, polygon and raster features. Case studies illustrate the efficacy of this platform to address existing data interoperability issues for representative groundwater ecohydrology problems of global significance including the impact of human-induced forcings, change in species, and forcings by natural processes on groundwater ecohydrology. In North America, we study the relationships between groundwater pumping in the Ogallala Aquifer and changes in riparian habitat and phreatophyte species composition. In Europe, we study the impacts of changes in forest species composition on groundwater recharge and baseflow to biologically diverse fens and wetlands in the Veluwe sand hill region of The Netherlands. In Africa, we study the wetlands of the Okavango Delta in Botswana that forms an oasis in the midst of the Kalahari Desert and the role of groundwater in flushing salts from this freshwater ecosystem. In each study, we document the

  13. Current issues in medical education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing, virtual reality, the use ol' simulated subjects, e learn- ing, and the new .... leges (AAMCÏ proposed a group oi' leaming objectives as guide- lines for medical schools. .... Suggestions for action research studies of cli- mates in medical ...

  14. Current Issues in Evolutionary Paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Erik Paul

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the contributions made by the field of paleontology to theories in geology and biology. Suggests that the two best examples of modern evolutionary paleontology relate to the theory of punctuated equilibria, and the possibility that mass extinctions may be cyclic. (TW)

  15. [Current issues in psychiatric ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, József

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes some ethical problems in psychiatry that have been emerging in recent years. It deals with the ongoing intensive debates about the DSM-5 before its publication, and with some of the criticisms of the DSM-5 itself. Then it goes on to analyze the use of placebo. This is followed by the ethical problems of the treatment of ADHD with stimulant drugs, among which one is the question of authenticity, namely whether the pre-treatment or the post-treatment personality is the real, authentic self of the patient. This question has been raised not only in the case of the ADHD, but also in relation with the antidepressant treatment of depression earlier, and in relation with deep brain stimulation and dopamine replacement therapy now, all of which causes changes in the treated patient's personality and motivations. Finally the article describes some ethical problems of informed consent in the case of antidepressant medication, together with the necessity to involve psychiatric nurses and rating scales in the assessment of the patient's decision making capacity.

  16. Current Issues in Teacher Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a review of a selection of the literature in the field of English foreign language teaching related to teacher autonomy. The focus is on the core themes recurring in the literature, which comprise: rationale for teacher autonomy, definitions of the concept, descriptions of an autonomous teacher, recognition of the constraints on autonomy and suggestions for teacher education promoting teacher autonomy.

  17. The Peace Corps: Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    dollars needed for a dose of measles vaccine. In the end, Congress approved an FY2010 appropriation of $400 million, an 18% increase over the...when viewed in the context of incidents per 1,000 volunteer years to account for the rise in number of volunteers in this period, vary from year to...year. Aggravated assaults went from 1.35 per 100 volunteer years in 1998 to .49 per 100 volunteer years in 2007 (36 incidents ). Reports of rape rose

  18. [Current issues in hereditary neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, A

    2013-12-01

    This short review highlights five studies published in 2012 in the field of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and transthyretin familial amyloid neuropathies (TTR-FAN). Regarding CMT, an Australian pediatric study shows the high prevalence of impaired speech perception and hearing disability in children with CMT1 or CMT2 with normal or near normal audiometry (Rance et al., 2012). In a second study, the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of 14 patients with CMT4C due to mutations in SH3TC2 gene are described (Yger et al., 2012). The 3 clinical hallmarks of CMT4C patients in this French cohort are the high prevalence of scoliosis, the proximal motor weakness and the cranial nerves involvement. Concerning TTR-FAN, the first data from French and international registries are reported (Adams et al., 2012; Coelho et al., 2013) and a phase II trial describes the results of taurourodeoxycholic acid and doxycycline treatment (Obici et al., 2012).

  19. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  20. Uncertainty in global groundwater storage estimates in a Total Groundwater Stress framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is a finite resource under continuous external pressures. Current unsustainable groundwater use threatens the resilience of aquifer systems and their ability to provide a long‐term water source. Groundwater storage is considered to be a factor of groundwater resilience, although the extent to which resilience can be maintained has yet to be explored in depth. In this study, we assess the limit of groundwater resilience in the world's largest groundwater systems with remote sensing observations. The Total Groundwater Stress (TGS) ratio, defined as the ratio of total storage to the groundwater depletion rate, is used to explore the timescales to depletion in the world's largest aquifer systems and associated groundwater buffer capacity. We find that the current state of knowledge of large‐scale groundwater storage has uncertainty ranges across orders of magnitude that severely limit the characterization of resilience in the study aquifers. Additionally, we show that groundwater availability, traditionally defined as recharge and redefined in this study as total storage, can alter the systems that are considered to be stressed versus unstressed. We find that remote sensing observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment can assist in providing such information at the scale of a whole aquifer. For example, we demonstrate that a groundwater depletion rate in the Northwest Sahara Aquifer System of 2.69 ± 0.8 km3/yr would result in the aquifer being depleted to 90% of its total storage in as few as 50 years given an initial storage estimate of 70 km3. PMID:26900184

  1. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge is the basis for accurate estimation of groundwater resources, for determining the modes of water allocation and groundwater resource susceptibility to climate change. Accurate estimations of groundwater recharge with models...

  2. Understanding High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Groundwater Recharge Using Process Based Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, G.; Qiu, H.; Li, S. G.; Lusch, D.; Phanikumar, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the natural rates of groundwater recharge and identifying the location and timing of major recharge events are essential for maintaining sustainable water yields and for understanding contaminant transport mechanisms in groundwater systems. Using Ottawa County, Michigan as a case study in sustainable water resources management, this research is part of a larger project that examines the issues of declining water tables and increasing chloride concentrations within the county. A process-based hydrologic model (PAWS) is used to mechanistically evaluate the integrated hydrologic response of both the surface and subsurface systems to further compute daily fluxes due to evapotranspiration, surface runoff, recharge and groundwater-stream interactions. Both rain gauge (NCDC) and NEXRAD precipitation data are used as input for the model. The model is built based on three major watersheds at 300m spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution, covering all of Ottawa County and is calibrated using streamflow data from USGS gauging stations. In addition, synoptic and time-series baseflow data collected using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers and electromagnetic flow meters during the summer of 2015 are used to test the ability of the model to simulate baseflows and to quantify the uncertainty. The MODIS evapotranspiration product is used to evaluate model performance in simulating ET. The primary objectives of this study are to (1) understand the periods of high and low groundwater recharge in the county between the years 2009 and 2015; and (2) analyze the impacts of different types of land use, soil, elevation, and slope on groundwater recharge.

  3. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  4. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the

  5. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  6. Submarine and deep-sea mine tailing placements: A review of current practices, environmental issues, natural analogs and knowledge gaps in Norway and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Trannum, Hilde C; Evenset, Anita; Levin, Lisa A; Andersson, Malin; Finne, Tor Erik; Hilario, Ana; Flem, Belinda; Christensen, Guttorm; Schaanning, Morten; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-08-15

    The mining sector is growing in parallel with societal demands for minerals. One of the most important environmental issues and economic burdens of industrial mining on land is the safe storage of the vast amounts of waste produced. Traditionally, tailings have been stored in land dams, but the lack of land availability, potential risk of dam failure and topography in coastal areas in certain countries results in increasing disposal of tailings into marine systems. This review describes the different submarine tailing disposal methods used in the world in general and in Norway in particular, their impact on the environment (e.g. hyper-sedimentation, toxicity, processes related to changes in grain shape and size, turbidity), current legislation and need for future research. Understanding these impacts on the habitat and biota is essential to assess potential ecosystem changes and to develop best available techniques and robust management plans.

  7. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  8. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  9. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  10. Newspaper Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Thomas A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This special issue includes "The Microfilming of Newspapers: An Overview" (Thomas Bourke); "United States Newspaper Program: Progress and Propsects" (Larry Sullivan); "The Preservation of Canadian Newspapers" (Mary Jane Starr); "Current Filming of the New York Times at UMI" (Kenneth Tillman); and "The…

  11. Current Travertines Precipitation from CO{sub 2}-rich Groundwaters as an alert of CO{sub 2} Leakages from a Natural CO{sub 2} Storage at Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary Basin (Murcia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Delgado, A.; Herrero, M. J.; Granados, A.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2013-02-01

    Carbon capture and storage technologies (CCS) represent the most suitable solutions related to the high anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. As a consequence, monitoring of the possible CO{sub 2} leakages from an artificial deep geological CO{sub 2} storage (DGS) is indispensable to guarantee its safety. Fast surficial travertine precipitation related to these CO{sub 2} leakages can be used as an alert for these escapes. Since few studies exist focusing on the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO{sub 2} DGS, natural CO{sub 2} storage affected by natural or artificial escapes must be studied as natural analogues for predicting the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO{sub 2} storage. In this context, a natural CO{sub 2} reservoir affected by artificial CO{sub 2} escapes has been studied in this work. This study has mainly focused on the current travertines precipitation associated with the upwelling CO{sub 2}-rich waters from several hydrogeological wells drilled in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary basin (SE Spain), and consists of a comprehensive characterisation of parent-waters and their associated carbonates, including elemental and isotopic geochemistry, mineralogy and petrography. Geochemical characterisation of groundwaters has led to recognise 4 hydrofacies from 3 different aquifers. These groundwaters have very high salinity and electrical conductivity; are slightly acid; present high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and free CO{sub 2}; are oversaturated in both aragonite and calcite; and dissolve, mobilize and transport low quantities of heavy and/or toxic elements. Isotopic values indicate that: i) the origin of parent-waters is related to rainfalls from clouds originated in the Mediterranean Sea or continental areas; ii) the origin of C is mainly inorganic; and iii) sulphate anions come mainly from the dissolution of the Messinian gypsum from the Tertiary Basin sediments. Current travertines precipitation seems to be controlled by a

  12. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  13. Ecology and living conditions of groundwater fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thulin, Barbara (Geo Innova AB (Sweden)); Hahn, Hans Juergen (Arbeitsgruppe Grundwasseroekologie, Univ. of Koblenz-Landau (Germany))

    2008-09-15

    This report presents the current state of ecological knowledge and applied research relating to groundwater. A conceptual picture is given of groundwater fauna occurrence in regard to Swedish environmental conditions. Interpretation features for groundwater fauna and applications are outlined. Groundwater is one of the largest and oldest limnic habitats populated by a rich and diverse fauna. Both very old species and species occurring naturally in brackish or salt water can be found in groundwater. Groundwater ecosystems are heterotrophic; the fauna depends on imports from the surface. Most species are meiofauna, 0.3-1 mm. The food chain of groundwater fauna is the same as for relatives in surface water and salt water. Smaller animals graze biofilms and detritus, larger animals act facutatively as predators. A difference is that stygobiotic fauna has become highly adapted to its living space and tolerates very long periods without food. Oxygen is a limiting factor, but groundwater fauna tolerates periods with low oxygen concentrations, even anoxic conditions. For longer periods of time a minimum oxygen requirement of 1 mg/l should be fulfilled. Geographic features such as Quaternary glaciation and very old Pliocene river systems are important for distribution patterns on a large spatial scale, but aquifer characteristics are important on a landscape scale. Area diversity is often comparable to surface water diversity. However, site diversity is low in groundwater. Site specific hydrological exchange on a geological facies level inside the aquifer, e.g. porous, fractured and karstic aquifers as well as the hyporheic zone, controls distribution patterns of groundwater fauna. For a better understanding of controlling factors indicator values are suggested. Different adequate sampling methods are available. They are representative for the aquifer, but a suitable number of monitoring wells is required. The existence of groundwater fauna in Sweden is considered as very

  14. Current Issues Affecting the Practice of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgeons: Results of the 2014 Workforce Survey of American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Copley, Lawson; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Schwend, Richard M; Sawyer, Jeffrey R

    2016-09-22

    The opinions of the pediatric orthopaedic workforce are shaped by market forces, regulatory processes, and local experience. The purpose of this report is to summarize the findings of the recent Workforce Survey of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Section on Orthopaedics (SOOr). This submission has been reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA). In 2014, the AAP generated a survey to assess perceptions of pediatric orthopaedic surgeons about current issues that affect practice. The survey was sent to 856 POSNA and 141 AAP-SOOr members. Responses were topically organized to report current workforce composition, practice patterns, and perceptions about electronic medical records (EMRs). Responses were collected from August to December, 2014, from 496 (50%) survey recipients including 83 of 141 (59%) AAP-SOOr members and 413 of 856 (48%) POSNA members. Analyses were restricted to the 397 respondents who reported that they are currently practicing pediatric orthopaedics. Nearly all of these (390/391, 100%) indicated that they provide direct patient care and work an average of 60 hours per week. Many (105/378, 28%) indicated that they would soon limit their practice or retire. A majority (299/394, 76%) indicated that they face competition in their geographic area, predominantly due to pediatric orthopaedic subspecialists (269/299, 90%). Major business changes had recently occurred or were anticipated by 21% of participants. Respondents reported that use of EMR makes them less efficient (252/397, 63%) and interferes with the patient-physician relationship (172/397, 43%). This workforce survey suggests that pediatric orthopaedic surgeons are concerned with challenges of competition despite concurrent increasing volume and complexity of referrals. External processes such as EMR changes are perceived to negatively impact practice efficiency and satisfaction.

  15. Pursuing Solutions to Sustain Groundwater in California's Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James

    2014-08-01

    A century of groundwater development in California with comparatively little regulation has yielded enduring legal, political, and hydrologic challenges compounded by drought, population growth and shifts, and climate change. With the debate over state and local roles in managing the resource garnering considerable attention, focus is shifting to how best to address groundwater issues for future sustainability. Groundwater does not exist in isolation, and sustainable management requires understanding interconnections with climate, land surface, and human actions. This integrated approach to California's groundwater raises significant cross-disciplinary questions that will need to be answered by the next generation of scientists, managers, and policy makers.

  16. Groundwater Policy Research: Collaboration with Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Guerrero, Bridget L.; Weinheimer, Justin; Amosson, Stephen H.; Almas, Lal K.; Golden, Bill B.; Wheeler-Cook, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The unique nature of the Ogallala Aquifer presents interesting and confounding problems for water policymakers who are coping with changing groundwater rules in Texas. The purpose of this article is to link previous efforts in water policy research for the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas with current collaborations that are ongoing with regional water planners. A chronological progression of economic water modeling efforts for the region is reviewed. The results of two recent collaborative studies ...

  17. Groundwater Policy Research: Collaboration with Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Guerrero, Bridget L.; Weinheimer, Justin; Amosson, Stephen H.; Almas, Lal K.; Golden, Bill B.; Wheeler-Cook, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The unique nature of the Ogallala Aquifer presents interesting and confounding problems for water policymakers who are coping with changing groundwater rules in Texas. The purpose of this article is to link previous efforts in water policy research for the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas with current collaborations that are ongoing with regional water planners. A chronological progression of economic water modeling efforts for the region is reviewed. The results of two recent collaborative studies ...

  18. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  19. Groundwater dating for understanding nitrogen in groundwater systems - Time lag, fate, and detailed flow path ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Hadfield, John; Stenger, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is a problem world-wide. Nitrate from land use activities can leach out of the root zone of the crop into the deeper part of the unsaturated zone and ultimately contaminate the underlying groundwater resources. Nitrate travels with the groundwater and then discharges into surface water causing eutrophication of surface water bodies. To understand the source, fate, and future nitrogen loads to ground and surface water bodies, detailed knowledge of the groundwater flow dynamics is essential. Groundwater sampled at monitoring wells or discharges may not yet be in equilibrium with current land use intensity due to the time lag between leaching out of the root zone and arrival at the sampling location. Anoxic groundwater zones can act as nitrate sinks through microbial denitrification. However, the effect of denitrification on overall nitrate fluxes depends on the fraction of the groundwater flowing through such zones. We will show results from volcanic aquifers in the central North Island of New Zealand where age tracers clearly indicate that the groundwater discharges into large sensitive lakes like Lake Taupo and Lake Rotorua are not yet fully realising current land use intensity. The majority of the water discharging into these lakes is decades and up to over hundred years old. Therefore, increases in dairy farming over the last decades are not yet reflected in these old water discharges, but over time these increased nitrate inputs will eventually work their way through the large groundwater systems and increasing N loads to the lakes are to be expected. Anoxic zones are present in some of these aquifers, indicating some denitrification potential, however, age tracer results from nested piezo wells show young groundwater in oxic zones indicating active flow in these zones, while anoxic zones tend to have older water indicating poorer hydraulic conductivity in these zones. Consequently, to evaluate the effect of denitrification

  20. Modelling Urban diffuse pollution in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jato, Musa; Smith, Martin; Cundy, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse urban pollution of surface and ground waters is a growing concern in many cities and towns. Traffic-derived pollutants such as salts, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may wash off road surfaces in soluble or particulate forms which later drain through soils and drainage systems into surface waters and groundwater. In Brighton, about 90% of drinking water supply comes from groundwater (derived from the Brighton Chalk block). In common with many groundwater sources the Chalk aquifer has been relatively extensively monitored and assessed for diffuse rural contaminants such as nitrate, but knowledge on the extent of contamination from road run-off is currently lacking. This project examines the transfer of traffic-derived contaminants from the road surface to the Chalk aquifer, via urban drainage systems. A transect of five boreholes have been sampled on a monthly basis and groundwater samples analysed to examine the concentrations of key, mainly road run-off derived, hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminants in groundwater across the Brighton area. Trace concentrations of heavy metals and phenols have been observed in groundwater. Electrical conductivity changes in groundwater have also been used to assess local changes in ionic strength which may be associated with road-derived contaminants. This has been supplemented by systematic water and sediment sampling from urban gully pots, with further sampling planned from drainage and settlement ponds adjacent to major roads, to examine initial road to drainage system transport of major contaminants.

  1. Estimating Groundwater Quality Changes Using Remotely Sensed Groundwater Storage and Multivariate Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, A.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Global groundwater dependence is likely to increase with continued population growth and climate-driven freshwater redistribution. Recent groundwater quantity studies have estimated large-scale aquifer depletion rates using monthly water storage variations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. These innovative approaches currently fail to evaluate groundwater quality, integral to assess the availability of potable groundwater resources. We present multivariate relationships to predict total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations as a function of GRACE-derived variations in water table depth, dominant land use, and other physical parameters in two important aquifer systems in the United States: the High Plains aquifer and the Central Valley aquifer. Model evaluations were performed using goodness of fit procedures and cross validation to identify general model forms. Results of this work demonstrate the potential to characterize global groundwater potability using remote sensing.

  2. Isotope hydrology of deep groundwater in Syria: renewable and non-renewable groundwater and paleoclimate impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Charideh, A.; Kattaa, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Regional Deep Cretaceous Aquifer (RDCA) is the principal groundwater resource in Syria. Isotope and hydrochemical data have been used to evaluate the geographic zones in terms of renewable and non-renewable groundwater and the inter-relation between current and past recharge. The chemical and isotopic character of groundwater together with radiometric 14C data reflect the existence of three different groundwater groups: (1) renewable groundwater, in RDCA outcropping areas, in western Syria along the Coastal and Anti-Lebanon mountains. The mean δ18O value (-7.2 ‰) is similar to modern precipitation with higher 14C values (up to 60-80 pmc), implying younger groundwater (recent recharge); (2) semi-renewable groundwater, which is located in the unconfined section of the RDCA and parallel to the first zone. The mean δ18O value (-7.0 ‰) is also similar to modern precipitation with a 14C range of 15-45 pmc; (3) non-renewable groundwater found in most of the Syrian interior, where the RDCA becomes confined. A considerable depletion in δ18O (-8.0 ‰) relative to the modern rainfall and low values of 14C (<15 pmc) suggest that the large masses of deep groundwater are non-renewable and related to an older recharge period. The wide scatter of all data points around the two meteoric lines in the δ18O-δ2H diagram indicates considerable variation in recharge conditions. There is limited renewable groundwater in the mountain area, and most of the stored deep groundwater in the RDCA is non-renewable, with corrected 14C ages varying between 10 and 35 Kyr BP.

  3. Transfer of European Approach to Groundwater Monitoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.

    2007-12-01

    in 3 pilot areas have been conducted to build research capacities of the central and provincial groundwater information centers in providing groundwater information services to decision makers and public. Groundwater regime zoning and pollution risk maps were used to lay-out groundwater quantity and quality monitoring networks, respectively. Automatic groundwater recorders were installed in selected observation wells. ArcGIS based regional groundwater information systems were constructed and used to create groundwater regime zoning and pollution risk maps. Steady state groundwater models have been constructed and calibrated. Transient groundwater models are under calibration. Groundwater resources development scenarios were formulated. The model will be used to predict what will be consequences in next 20 years if current situation continues as business as usual. Possibilities of reducing groundwater abstraction and opportunities of artificially enhanced groundwater recharge will be analyzed. Combination of decreasing abstraction and increasing recharge may lead to a sustainable plan of future groundwater resources development.

  4. Vulnerability assessment of groundwater-dependent ecosystems based on integrated groundwater flow modell construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ádám; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Havril, Timea; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are highly influenced by the amount of groundwater, seasonal variation of precipitation and consequent water table fluctuation and also the anthropogenic activities. They can be regarded as natural surface manifestations of the flowing groundwater. The preservation of environment and biodiversity of these GDEs is an important issue worldwide, however, the water management policy and action plan could not be constructed in absense of proper hydrogeological knowledge. The concept of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow could aid the understanding of flow pattern and interpretation of environmental processes and conditions. Unless the required well data are available, the geological-hydrogeological numerical model of the study area cannot be constructed based only on borehole information. In this case, spatially continuous geophysical data can support groundwater flow model building: systematically combined geophysical methods can provide model input. Integration of lithostratigraphic, electrostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic information could aid groundwater flow model construction: hydrostratigraphic units and their hydraulic behaviour, boundaries and geometry can be obtained. Groundwater-related natural manifestations, such as GDEs, can be explained with the help of the revealed flow pattern and field mapping of features. Integrated groundwater flow model construction for assessing the vulnerability of GDEs was presented via the case study of the geologically complex area of Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, surface water-groundwater interaction, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. In spite of its important and protected status, fluid flow model of the area, which could support water management and natural protection policy, had not been constructed previously. The 3D

  5. GREAT (Groundwater Resources & Educational Activities for Teaching). An Iowa Project for Earth/Life/General Science, 7th-9th Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gail, Ed.

    These resource materials are a part of a larger plan for groundwater education, as detailed in the Iowa Groundwater Education Strategy. The six units are arranged in priority order. The first unit covers the basics of groundwater and hydrogeology in Iowa. The other five units cover Iowa's groundwater issues in priority order, as outlined in the…

  6. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  7. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  8. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  9. Groundwater recharge in a semi-arid environment under high climatic variability and over-pumping: Ajlun Highlands example, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggad, Marwan; Salameh, Elias; Magri, Fabien; Siebert, Christian; Roediger, Tino; Moller, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Jordan's ground water resources are being exploited up to 190% of the safe yield while rainfall rates are decreasing and highly variable, thereby affecting recharge volumes of the aquifers. The Ajlun highlands, forming the northwestern edge of Jordan are characterized by annual rainfall rates exceeding 500 mm, the highest in the country, which leads to accordingly high replenishment of almost the entire groundwater system in northern Jordan. The high recharge and the NW-wards dipping strata lead to a groundwater flow towards the north and northwest, areas which host the vital aquifers of the region. Limited and degraded groundwater recharge combined with growing over-pumping are the main issues that regard the northern groundwater basins, such as Wadi Arab, Yarmouk and the Jordan Valley side basins. To evaluate the groundwater potential under high recharge variability, groundwater recharge was modeled and compared to different Global Circulation Models (GCMs). Groundwater recharge was calculated based on climatic data covering the time period from 1965 to 2014. Recharge modeling was conducted by applying the J2000 water budget model. The simulation of hydrologic processes uses independent parameters that are calculated prior to simulate the recharge flow. The simulations estimate recharge of 47.6 MCM, which is 12% less than the values given by the Jordanian authorities. The low calculated recharge is likely due to an overestimation of the evapotranspiration in areas with high topographic slopes. To examine the variability of groundwater recharge under current climatic conditions, statistical downscaling of global circulation models was conducted for the time period 1965 - 2000. Data for the time period 2001 - 2014 was used for the model validation. Results indicated a decline of 18.7% in precipitation by the year 2050 with an increase of 1.7 and 2.2 degrees in maximum and minimum temperatures respectively. Accordingly recharge for the year 2050 is 27% less than

  10. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  11. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  12. Evaluation of Groundwater Renewability in the Henan Plains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Shi, X.

    2011-12-01

    The sustainability of groundwater resources in the Henan Plains, located in the eastern portion of central China, has been threatened by both increasing industrial and agricultural pumping and periods of drought occurring since the 1990s. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve water resources management in the Henan Plains. However, the recharge and annual renewal rate are very difficult to calculate when based only on traditional hydrogeological methods because of inadequate hydrometeorologic data. In this study, tritium concentrations in groundwater and reconstructed 3H concentration time series from 1953~2009 in precipitation were used to determine the annual groundwater renewal rate. The 3H concentrations mostly range from 2.91 to 40.30 TU in the shallow groundwater with a mean 3H concentration of 19.13TU, which suggests that the shallow groundwater is recharged from modern precipitation after 1953 in the study area. Three exceptionally low 3H concentration(less than 1TU) wells were sampled in Xinxiang, Puyang and Zhengyang which indicates that those wells contain deep old groundwater recharge before 1953 as a result of over-pumping. High renewal rates (more than 4%/a) of groundwater are located mainly in the recharge area such as along the Yellow River and in the pediments of Taihang Mountain, Songqi Mountain, Funiu Mountain, Dabie Mountain, where the groundwater extraction volume could be increased. Moderate renewal rates (2%/a~3%/a) of groundwater are mainly in the runoff area where the groundwater extraction volume can be kept at current levels. Low renewal rates (1%/a~2%/a) of groundwater are located mainly in the discharge areas in the eastern regions of Nanle, Puyang, Shangqiu, Luyi where the groundwater extraction volume should be reduced. The lowest renewal rates of (less than 1%/a) groundwater are in Puyang, Xinxiang, Zhengyang and Xixian, where the groundwater extraction volume should be restricted.

  13. Reforming health care in Canada: current issues La reforma del sistema de atención a la salud en Canadá: situación actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enis Baris

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government’s clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among stake-holders. They recommend decentralized governance and restructuring for better management and more citizen participation. Although Canada’s health care system remains committed to safeguarding its guiding principles, the balance of power may be shifting from providers to citizens and "technocrats". Also, all provinces are likely to increase their pressure on physicians by means of salary caps, by exploring payment methods such as capitation, limiting access to costly technology, and by demanding practice changes based on evidence of cost-effectiveness.Este artículo examina los temas más recientes en las reformas del sistema de atención a la salud en Canadá. Los planes de seguridad en el sector salud durante los años sesenta y setenta tuvieron efectos inapropiados en cuanto a que limitaron el poder del gobierno federal para controlar costos y promover un sistema centrado en la atención médico-hospitalaria. Recientemente, varias comisiones provinciales reportaron que las actuales estructuras de gobierno y gestión de los procesos no están actualizadas en términos del nuevo conocimiento, las nuevas realidades fiscales y la evolución en las formas de poder entre los grupos de interés. Sus recomendaciones incluyen formas descentralizadas de gobierno y mayor participación ciudadana. A pesar de que el sistema de atención a la salud en Canadá permanece comprometido a garantizar sus principios centrales, el balance de poder estaría cambiando de los

  14. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Ruiz, Roberto (Tracy, CA); Pico, Tristan M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  15. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  16. Current Sociopolitical, Sociocultural, and Sociolinguistic Issues of Latino Immigrants in Julia Álvarez's Novel "How the García Girls Lost Their Accents"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Naar, José

    2016-01-01

    The sociopolitical, sociocultural, and sociolinguistic issues many Latino immigrants face as they embark on the process of adjusting to American society have been depicted by many Hispanic American writers in the United States. Julia Álvarez's "How the García Girls Lost Their Accents" attempts to raise awareness of these issues through…

  17. Current Sociopolitical, Sociocultural, and Sociolinguistic Issues of Latino Immigrants in Julia Álvarez's Novel "How the García Girls Lost Their Accents"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Naar, José

    2016-01-01

    The sociopolitical, sociocultural, and sociolinguistic issues many Latino immigrants face as they embark on the process of adjusting to American society have been depicted by many Hispanic American writers in the United States. Julia Álvarez's "How the García Girls Lost Their Accents" attempts to raise awareness of these issues through…

  18. Remote instruction in groundwater hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    staff of the Interactive Remote Instructional System

    Wright State University (Dayton, Ohio) is preparing for its fourth cycle of the Interactive Remote Instructional System (IRIS) in groundwater hydrology beginning July 15, 1986. The Department of Geological Sciences proudly announces that the first two cycles recorded an impressive 83% completion ratio for registered participants. This completion rate is a significant departure from success rates traditionally recorded by courses of this nature; it is the result of 2 years of implementation and refinement and demonstrates the progressive orientation of the program. The third cycle has been underway since January. This comprehensive hydrogeology program was originally developed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service to prepare their personnel for professional practice work. As a result of that cooperative effort, the IRIS program has evolved to meet the needs of participants by developing a curriculum that reflects current trends in the groundwater industry and has provided a unique educational approach that ensures maximum interaction between the instructional staff and participants.

  19. Erratum to "Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

    2009-04-15

    Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl- concentration and delta18O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3--N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas.

  20. Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

    2008-10-15

    Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl(-) concentration and delta(18)O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3(-)-N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas.

  1. Hydrogeochemistry of Maine seepage lakes and related groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Robert E.; Wittchen, Bruce D.

    1992-10-01

    Southeastern Maine contains numerous small seepage lakes (no perennial surface inflows or outflows), set in felsic, glacial deposits (eskers, pitted outwash, glacio-marine deltaic terraces) dating from the Wisconsin glacial retreat ca. 12 500 years B.P. The modern landscape is either forested or maintained as low blueberry heath by semi-annual mowing and burning. Although local precipitation is currently moderately acidic (volume-weighted pH ≈ 4.5), spring waters issuing from the glacial deposits are only weakly acidic (6.1 Na > Mg > K, the same as for upland granitic terrane in the same region. Springwater composition is temporally stable but geographically variable. The most dilute springwaters drain blueberry barrens. Here, chemical weathering is limited by available acidity as evidenced by the relatively high final pHs (> 6.3) and low concentrations of strong oxy-anions (nitrate, sulfate) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC 100 cm year -1) for groundwater discharge lakes. Approximately 88% of Si inputs to regional seepage lakes is retained in the sediments. Non-marine sulfate is lowest in groundwater discharge lakes containing the highest concentrations of BC and F, and featuring the shortest hydraulic residence times, suggesting that S retention in lake sediments is currently less efficient than in the adjoining terrestrial soils and vegetation.

  2. Baseline groundwater model update for p-area groundwater operable unit, NBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Amidon, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the development of a numerical groundwater flow and transport model of the hydrogeologic system of the P-Area Reactor Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). The P-Area model provides a tool to aid in understanding the hydrologic and geochemical processes that control the development and migration of the current tritium, tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) plumes in this region.

  3. Sustainable conjunctive use of groundwater for additional irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, N.

    2014-01-01

    Currently millions of private wells in the Punjab are pumping groundwater as an additional source for irrigation to compensate for irregular surface water supply. Since the 1990s, most of them are skimming wells that aim to reduce the salinity of the pumped groundwater. However, salinization continu

  4. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  5. Groundwater and Distribution Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, John E.

    Presented is a student manual designed for the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical and Adult Education Groundwater and Distribution Training Course. This program introduces waterworks operators-in-training to basic skills and knowledge required for the operation of a groundwater distribution waterworks facility. Arranged according to the general order…

  6. Parameter and Uncertainty Estimation in Groundwater Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Birk

    The data basis on which groundwater models are constructed is in general very incomplete, and this leads to uncertainty in model outcome. Groundwater models form the basis for many, often costly decisions and if these are to be made on solid grounds, the uncertainty attached to model results must...... be quantified. This study was motivated by the need to estimate the uncertainty involved in groundwater models.Chapter 2 presents an integrated surface/subsurface unstructured finite difference model that was developed and applied to a synthetic case study.The following two chapters concern calibration...... and uncertainty estimation. Essential issues relating to calibration are discussed. The classical regression methods are described; however, the main focus is on the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology. The next two chapters describe case studies in which the GLUE methodology...

  7. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  8. Organization 2020 - an empirical study of the current and future importance of organizational issues for horticultural companies and their perceived competence in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    MEYERDING STEPHAN G.H.

    2016-01-01

    Structural change, the increasing concentration of industry, and environmental issues are changing the competitive landscape in German horticulture. As in other fields of corporate management the priorities of organizational design are constantly changing. The aim of the present study is to identify issues which will characterize organizational design in the future from the perspective of decision-makers in German horticultural companies, to identify overarching trends and to capture the curr...

  9. Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F P; van Beek, Ludovicus P H

    2012-08-09

    Groundwater is a life-sustaining resource that supplies water to billions of people, plays a central part in irrigated agriculture and influences the health of many ecosystems. Most assessments of global water resources have focused on surface water, but unsustainable depletion of groundwater has recently been documented on both regional and global scales. It remains unclear how the rate of global groundwater depletion compares to the rate of natural renewal and the supply needed to support ecosystems. Here we define the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services) and show that humans are overexploiting groundwater in many large aquifers that are critical to agriculture, especially in Asia and North America. We estimate that the size of the global groundwater footprint is currently about 3.5 times the actual area of aquifers and that about 1.7 billion people live in areas where groundwater resources and/or groundwater-dependent ecosystems are under threat. That said, 80 per cent of aquifers have a groundwater footprint that is less than their area, meaning that the net global value is driven by a few heavily overexploited aquifers. The groundwater footprint is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the use, renewal and ecosystem requirements of groundwater at an aquifer scale. It can be combined with the water footprint and virtual water calculations, and be used to assess the potential for increasing agricultural yields with renewable groundwaterref. The method could be modified to evaluate other resources with renewal rates that are slow and spatially heterogeneous, such as fisheries, forestry or soil.

  10. Classification management plan of groundwater quality in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun Ming; Chen, Yu Ying; Pan, Shih Cheng; Li, Hui Jun; Hsiao, Fang Ke

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration has been monitoring regional water quality for 14 years. Since the beginning of 2002 till now, there are 453 regional groundwater monitoring wells in ten groundwater subregions in Taiwan, and the monitoring of groundwater quality has been carried out for a long time. Currently, water quality monitoring project has reached 50 items, while the number of water quality monitoring data has reached more than 20,000. In order to use the monitoring data efficiently, this study constructed the localized groundwater quality indicators of Taiwan. This indicator takes into account the different users' point of view, incorporating the Taiwan groundwater pollution monitoring standards (Category II), irrigation water quality standard and drinking water source water quality standard. 50 items of water quality monitoring projects were simplified and classified. The groundwater quality parameters were divided into five items, such as potability for drinking water, salting, external influence, health influences and toxicity hazard. The weight of the five items of groundwater was calculated comprehensively, and the groundwater quality of each monitoring well was evaluated with three grades of good, ordinary, and poor. According to the monitoring results of the groundwater monitoring wells in October to December of 2016, about 70% of groundwater quality in Taiwan is in good to ordinary grades. The areas with poor groundwater quality were mostly distributed in coastal, agriculture and part of the urban areas. The conductivity or ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher in those regions, showing that groundwater may be salinized or affected by external influences. Groundwater quality indicators can clearly show the current comprehensive situation of the groundwater environment in Taiwan and can be used as a tool for groundwater quality classification management. The indicators can coordinate with the Taiwan land planning policy in the

  11. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin

    2017-09-01

    The issue of unsustainable groundwater utilization is becoming increasingly an evident problem and the key concern for many developing countries. One of the problems is the absence of updated spatial information on the quantity and distribution of groundwater resource. Like the other developing countries, groundwater evaluation in Ethiopia has been usually conducted using field survey which is not feasible in terms of time and resource. This study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Wollo Zone, in Gerardo River Catchment district to spatially delineate the groundwater potential areas using geospatial and MCDA tools. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like geomorphology, lithology, slope, rainfall, land use land cover (LULC), soil, lineament density and drainage density were considered. The sources of these data were satellite image, digital elevation model (DEM), existing thematic maps and metrological station data. Landsat image was used in ERDAS Imagine to drive the LULC of the area, while the geomorphology, soil, and lithology of the area were identified and classified through field survey and digitized from existing maps using the ArcGIS software. The slope, lineament and drainage density of the area were derived from DEM using spatial analysis tools. The rainfall surface map was generated using the thissen polygon interpolation. Finally, after all these thematic maps were organized, weighted value determination for each factor and its field value was computed using IDRSI software. At last, all the factors were integrated together and computed the model using the weighted overlay so that potential groundwater areas were mapped. The findings depicted that the most potential groundwater areas are found in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while the northern and western parts of the Gerado River Catchment have poor potential of groundwater availability. This is mainly due to the cumulative effect of steep topographic and

  12. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin

    2016-06-01

    The issue of unsustainable groundwater utilization is becoming increasingly an evident problem and the key concern for many developing countries. One of the problems is the absence of updated spatial information on the quantity and distribution of groundwater resource. Like the other developing countries, groundwater evaluation in Ethiopia has been usually conducted using field survey which is not feasible in terms of time and resource. This study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Wollo Zone, in Gerardo River Catchment district to spatially delineate the groundwater potential areas using geospatial and MCDA tools. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like geomorphology, lithology, slope, rainfall, land use land cover (LULC), soil, lineament density and drainage density were considered. The sources of these data were satellite image, digital elevation model (DEM), existing thematic maps and metrological station data. Landsat image was used in ERDAS Imagine to drive the LULC of the area, while the geomorphology, soil, and lithology of the area were identified and classified through field survey and digitized from existing maps using the ArcGIS software. The slope, lineament and drainage density of the area were derived from DEM using spatial analysis tools. The rainfall surface map was generated using the thissen polygon interpolation. Finally, after all these thematic maps were organized, weighted value determination for each factor and its field value was computed using IDRSI software. At last, all the factors were integrated together and computed the model using the weighted overlay so that potential groundwater areas were mapped. The findings depicted that the most potential groundwater areas are found in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while the northern and western parts of the Gerado River Catchment have poor potential of groundwater availability. This is mainly due to the cumulative effect of steep topographic and

  13. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  14. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  15. Specifying the differentiated contribution of farmers to groundwater depletion in two irrigated areas in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameur, Fatah; Amichi, Hichem; Kuper, Marcel; Hammani, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Much attention has been paid to the issue of groundwater depletion linked to intensive groundwater-based agriculture in (semi-)arid areas. Often referred to as the "overexploitation" of aquifers, groundwater depletion is generally attributed to the entire agricultural sector without distinguishing between different uses and users. Although it expresses a general concern for future users, the ambiguous term of "overexploitation" does not acknowledge the contested nature of groundwater use and emerging inequalities. Also, the impact of inequality on groundwater depletion is rarely questioned. The aim of this article is to investigate how and by whom groundwater is depleted, and in turn, how unequal access to groundwater fuels the socioeconomic differentiation of farms and groundwater depletion. Based on a detailed analysis of groundwater use from a user perspective in two irrigated areas in North Africa (Morocco and Algeria), this study shows how the context of groundwater depletion exacerbates—and is exacerbated by—existing inequalities. The paper concludes that knowing how much is withdrawn, where, and by whom provides helpful information for more informed groundwater management by a better understanding of the response of users to declining groundwater conditions and the interests and incentives of different social categories of famers to contribute to groundwater management.

  16. Building groundwater modeling capacity in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Anderson, Mark T.; Davis, Kyle W.; Haynes, Michelle A.; Dorjsuren Dechinlhundev,

    2016-06-16

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia (fig. 1), is dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. The population of Mongolia is about 3 million people, with about one-half the population residing in or near Ulaanbaatar (World Population Review, 2016). Groundwater is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence indicates that current water use may not be sustainable from existing water sources, especially when factoring the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population (Ministry of Environment and Green Development, 2013). In response, the Government of Mongolia Ministry of Environment, Green Development, and Tourism (MEGDT) and the Freshwater Institute, Mongolia, requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS and USACE provided two workshops in 2015 to Mongolian hydrology experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using the USGS groundwater modeling program MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005). The purpose of the workshops was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling.A preliminary steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed as part of the workshops to demonstrate groundwater modeling techniques to simulate groundwater conditions in alluvial deposits along the Tuul River in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar. ModelMuse (Winston, 2009) was used as the graphical user interface for MODFLOW for training purposes during the workshops. Basic and advanced groundwater modeling concepts included in the workshops were groundwater principles; estimating hydraulic properties; developing model grids, data sets, and MODFLOW input files; and viewing and evaluating MODFLOW output files. A key to success was

  17. Limits to the availability of groundwater in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, W. Mike

    2012-06-01

    The recent paper on Africa's groundwater by MacDonald et al (2012) has attracted much attention. This is good news, especially since groundwater has been widely ignored, misunderstood or abused, as a fundamental global resource. This important paper goes a long way to raising the profile of groundwater in Africa by providing first-order estimates of the available storage (taking account of saturated aquifer thickness and porosity) as well as mapping expected water yields (aquifer productivity) in that continent. Reliable estimates of groundwater resources can now be set against the far more widely reported surface water availability. The constraints of the methodology used to compile these maps are duly acknowledged, and are well within the hydrogeological state-of-the-art. The paper is backed by carefully reviewed sources of data and a considerable effort has been made to incorporate the extensive grey literature. It is important that this benchmark study is received with the acclaim it deserves. However, the headline—that groundwater storage is some 100 times the annual renewable surface waters—could be misconstrued as implying that groundwater is an abundant new resource, which it is not. Whilst groundwater is key to sustainable development, renewability and accessibility issues need to be addressed. The paper may therefore be seized upon to justify unsustainable groundwater exploitation, or to provide an argument against funding to NGOs and others, for water provision for needy communities. Some constraints that must be taken into account are elaborated here. The conclusions of the paper (MacDonald et al 2012) demonstrate that modest yields of groundwater are quite widely available at accessible depths and sufficient to sustain small communities and their development, but larger yields (>5 l s-1) suitable for urban development or major agricultural schemes are unlikely outside of the sedimentary terrain. The availability and accessibility of groundwater

  18. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening...

  19. Distribution of acidic groundwater around quaternary volcanoes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asamori, Koichi; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Iwatsuki, Teruki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    2002-06-01

    One important key issue in the understanding of the long-term stability of the geological environment is the influence of magmatism. In this study, we examined the general spatial distribution of acidic groundwater around Quaternary volcanoes in Japan using a database of groundwater geochemistry. The results may be summarized as follows: Acidic groundwater with pH < 4.8 mainly occur in present volcanic regions and are distributed from several kilometers to about 20 km from Quaternary volcanoes. The pH value of groundwater tends to decrease with increasing distance from a volcano. However, these results may be affected by inhomogeneity of groundwater data distribution and the characteristic activity of each volcano. In order to assess a specific volcanic region, a detailed analysis that considers volcanic activity, using a data set with high spatial density is necessary. (author)

  20. Groundwater availability of the Mississippi embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Hart, Rheannon M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for agricultural and municipal uses in the Mississippi embayment. Arkansas ranks first in the Nation for rice and third for cotton production, with both crops dependent on groundwater as a major source of irrigation requirements. Multiple municipalities rely on the groundwater resources to provide water for industrial and public use, which includes the city of Memphis, Tennessee. The demand for the groundwater resource has resulted in groundwater availability issues in the Mississippi embayment including: (1) declining groundwater levels of 50 feet or more in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in parts of eastern Arkansas from agricultural pumping, (2) declining groundwater levels of over 360 feet over the last 90 years in the confined middle Claiborne aquifer in southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana from municipal pumping, and (3) litigation between the State of Mississippi and a Memphis water utility over water rights in the middle Claiborne aquifer. To provide information to stakeholders addressing the groundwater-availability issues, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program supported a detailed assessment of groundwater availability through the Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS). This assessment included (1) an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time through the use of groundwater budgets, (2) development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends, and (3) application of statistical tools to evaluate the importance of individual observations within a groundwater-monitoring network. An estimated 12 million acre-feet per year (11 billion gallons per day) of groundwater was pumped in 2005 from aquifers in the Mississippi embayment. Irrigation constitutes the largest groundwater use, accounting for approximately 10 million acre-feet per year (9 billion gallons per day) in 2000 from the Mississippi

  1. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we provid

  2. Evaluating groundwater flow using passive electrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, E.; Revil, A.; Singha, K.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate quantification of groundwater flow patterns, both in magnitude and direction, is a necessary component of evaluating any hydrologic system. Groundwater flow patterns are often determined using a dense network of wells or piezometers, which can be limited due to logistical or regulatory constraints. The self-potential (SP) method, a passive geophysical technique that relies on currents generated by water movement through porous materials, is a re-emerging alternative or addition to traditional piezometer networks. Naturally generated currents can be measured as voltage differences at the ground surface using only two electrodes, or a more complex electrode array. While the association between SP measurements and groundwater flow was observed as early as 1890s, the method has seen resurgence in hydrology since the governing equations were refined in the 1980s. The method can be used to analyze hydrologic processes at various temporal and spatial scales. Here we present the results of multiple SP surveys collected a multiple scales (1 to 10s of meters). Here single SP grid surveys are used to evaluate flow patterns through artic hillslopes at a discrete point in time. Additionally, a coupled groundwater and electrical model is used to analyze multiple SP data sets to evaluate seasonal changes in groundwater flow through an alpine meadow.

  3. Groundwater data network interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, Boyan; Booth, Nathaniel; Boisvert, Eric; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Water data networks are increasingly being integrated to answer complex scientific questions that often span large geographical areas and cross political borders. Data heterogeneity is a major obstacle that impedes interoperability within and between such networks. It is resolved here for groundwater data at five levels of interoperability, within a Spatial Data Infrastructure architecture. The result is a pair of distinct national groundwater data networks for the United States and Canada, and a combined data network in which they are interoperable. This combined data network enables, for the first time, transparent public access to harmonized groundwater data from both sides of the shared international border.

  4. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  6. Hydrologic Influences on the Potential Benefits of Basinwide Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.

    1987-01-01

    The potential benefits of basinwide groundwater management in agricultural areas are analyzed with an optimization model. The model incorporates functions to compute spatial and temporal groundwater responses to hydraulic stresses, net agricultural revenues as a function of water use, and groundwater recharge from individual stream reaches. Stream recharge is computed on the basis of both groundwater elevations and the amount of streamflow. The model can be run either to maximize basinwide net revenue over a planning period or to simulate private optimization by individual agricultural sectors. The effects of several hydrologic factors on the benefits of basinwide groundwater management are estimated by comparing model results for conditions in the Salinas Valley in California prior to reservoir construction with a number of other hydrologic scenarios. Results indicate that basinwide groundwater management and reservoir operation may be close substitutes for each other under certain conditions, that an interesting relationship appears to exist between the potential benefits of groundwater management and the annual amount of streamflow available for recharge, and that consideration of stochastic variations in streamflow is unnecessary in the analysis of systems relying primarily on groundwater. A framework is also presented for identifying strategies that meet environmental constraints while minimizing the revenue losses to current water users. For all scenarios considered, basinwide groundwater management generates larger revenues than private optimization while using considerably less water.

  7. [Risk assessment of quaternary groundwater contamination in Beijing Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gao-Xuan; Li, Yu; Xu, Liang; Li, Zhi-Ping; Yang, Qing; Xu, Miao-Juan

    2014-02-01

    Firstly, advances in investigation and evaluation of groundwater pollution in China in the last decade were presented, and several issues in the field which hinder the development of groundwater environment were pointed out. Then, four key concepts in risk assessment of groundwater pollution were briefly described with more emphasis on the difference between groundwater pollution assessment and groundwater quality assessment in this paper. After that, a method on risk assessment of groundwater pollution which included four indicators, the pollution assessment, the quality assessment, the vulnerability and the pollution load of groundwater, was presented based on the regional characteristics of Beijing Plain. Also, AHP and expert scoring method were applied to determine the weight of the four evaluation factors. Finally, the application of this method in Beijing Plain showed the area with high, relative high, medium, relative low and low risk of groundwater contamination was 1 232.1 km2, 699.3 km2, 1 951.4 km, 2 644 km2, and 133.2 km2, respectively. The study results showed that the higher risk in the western region was likely caused by the higher pollution load and its higher vulnerability, while the relatively high risk in the southeast of Beijing plain area, the Tongzhou District, is mainly caused by historical pollution sources.

  8. Unsustainable Groundwater Exploitation and Stochastic Regime Shifts: Converging Management Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suresh; Park, Jeryang

    2014-05-01

    Increasing water security concerns arise from projected increases in competing freshwater demands, resulting from rapid urbanization, growing affluent population, and the need for increased production of food and bio-energy. These global trends in concert with the convergence of three groups of threats are likely to exacerbate freshwater security issues: (1) increasing dependency on effectively non-renewable groundwater ("peak water"); (2) increasing groundwater quality impairment("land-use intensification") from larger contaminant loads delivered from the vadose zone and surface water; and (3) increasing uncertainties in groundwater demand/supply from climate change ("stochastic risks"). Here, we present a conceptual framework for exploring water security threats, with a consideration of aquifers as complex hydrological systems with two stable states. Regime shifts in groundwater pumping -- from "sufficient" to "insufficient" -- result from changes in both internal system dynamics and external forcing from stochastic divers (non-stationary demands, hydro-climatic patterns). Examples from recent related work, in groundwater and surface water systems and ecosystems, are briefly reviewed as a prelude to presentation of model simulations of hypothetical scenarios of regime-shifts (tipping points) involving groundwater quantity and quality constraints. In addition to three types of widely recognized tipping points, we introduce a new type, stochastic tipping, that contributes to unexpected, undesirable regime shifts, resulting in inability to meet groundwater pumping needs, even when the perceived precariousness is small and the system is far from bifurcation point (deterministic tipping). Implications to sustainable groundwater management are discussed.

  9. Canada's groundwater resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivera, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential for life in arid and semiarid region. It is also important in humid regions, and is one of the fundamental requirements for the maintenance of natural landscapes and aquatic ecosystem...

  10. Groundwater Capture Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Source water protection areas are delineated for each groundwater-based public water supply system using available geologic and hydrogeologic information to...

  11. APPLICATION OF DIRECT CURRENT SOUNDING METHOD FOR PROSPECTING GROUNDWATER RESOURCE IN DAXIWAN%直流电测深法在大西湾地下水资源勘察中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕占义; 朱庆俊

    2001-01-01

    Based on the geophysical characteristics of each medium in the studied area, combining with the geophysical inversion technique, the location of tertiary thin-layer aquifer is delineated, the top depth of granite basement is identified. The yield of groundwater is increased by rational exploitation of the groundwater resources storaged at different locations and in various media.%依据区内各介质的地球物理特征,结合物探数据反演技术,利用直流电测深法,圈定出第三系薄层含水层的位置。为合理开采利用不同层位,不同介质含水层的地下水资源,提供了有用资料。

  12. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  13. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  14. Windows of Opportunity for Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Brozovic, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    To date, there has been little attention focused on how the value and effectiveness of groundwater management is influenced by the timing of regulatory intervention relative to aquifer depletion. To address this question, we develop an integrated framework that couples an agro-economic model of farmers' field-level irrigation decision-making with a model of a groundwater abstraction borehole. Unlike existing models that only consider the impact of aquifer depletion on groundwater extraction costs, our model also captures the dynamic changes in well productivity and how these in turn affect crop yields and farmer incomes. We use our model to analyze how the value of imposing groundwater quotas is affected by the prior level of depletion before regulations are introduced. Our results demonstrate that there is a range of aquifer conditions within which regulating groundwater use will deliver long-term economic benefits for farmers. In this range, restricting abstraction rates slows the rate of change in well yields and, as a result, increases agricultural production over the simulated planning horizon. Contrastingly, when current saturated thickness is outside this range, regulating groundwater use will provide negligible social benefits and will impose large negative impacts on farm-level profits. We suggest that there are 'windows of opportunity' for managing aquifer depletion that are a function of local hydrology as well as economic characteristics. Regulation that is too early will harm the rural economy needlessly, while regulation that is too late will be unable to prevent aquifer exhaustion. The insights from our model can be a valuable tool to help inform policy decisions about when, and at what level, regulations should be implemented in order to maximize the benefits obtained from limited groundwater resources.

  15. Assessment of Halon-1301 as a groundwater age tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, M.; van der Raaij, R.; Morgenstern, U.; Jackson, B.

    2015-06-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to their dynamics, i.e. direction and timescale of groundwater flow and recharge, contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However, ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and their individual restricted application ranges. For more robust groundwater dating multiple tracers need to be applied complementarily (or other characterisation methods need to be used to complement tracer information). It is important that additional, groundwater age tracers are found to ensure robust groundwater dating in future. We have recently suggested that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate, but its behaviour in water and suitability as a groundwater age tracer had not yet been assessed in detail. In this study, we determined Halon-1301 and inferred age information in 17 New Zealand groundwater samples and various modern (river) water samples. The samples were simultaneously analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6, which allowed for identification of issues such as contamination of the water with modern air during sampling. All analysed groundwater sites had also been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6, and exhibited mean residence times ranging from modern (close to 0 years) to over 100 years. The investigated groundwater samples ranged from oxic to highly anoxic. All samples with available CFC data were degraded and/or contaminated in one or both of CFC-11 and CFC-12. This allowed us to make a first attempt of assessing the conservativeness of Halon-1301 in water, in terms of presence of local sources and its sensitivity towards degradation, which could affect the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer. Overall we found Halon-1301

  16. Assessment of Halon-1301 as a groundwater age tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to their dynamics, i.e. direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge, to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However, ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and their individual restricted application ranges. For more robust groundwater dating multiple tracers need to be applied complementarily and it is vital that additional, groundwater age tracers are found to ensure robust groundwater dating in future. We recently suggested that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate, but its behaviour in water and suitability as a groundwater age tracer had not yet been assessed in detail. In this study, we determine Halon-1301 and infer age information in 17 New Zealand groundwaters and various modern (river water samples. The samples are simultaneously analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6, which allows identification of issues such as contamination of the water with modern air during sampling. Water at all analysed groundwater sites have also been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6, and exhibit mean residence times ranging from modern (close to 0 years to over 100 years. The investigated groundwater ranged from oxic to highly anoxic, and some showed evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allowed us to make a first attempt of assessing the conservativeness of Halon-1301 in water, in terms of presence of local sources and its sensitivity towards degradation etc., which could affect the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer. Overall we found Halon-1301 reliably inferred the mean residence time of groundwater recharged between 1980 and 2014. Where direct age comparison

  17. Groundwater sustainability and urban development - a major challenge for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is a critical, but often under appreciated, resource for urban water supply, a serious and costly hazard to urban infrastructure, and the 'invisible link' between various facets of the urbanisation process. An overview is presented of the benefits of urban groundwater use, together with some insidious and persistent problems that groundwater can present (especially those related to groundwater pollution from inadequate sanitation) for urban development. Spontaneous piecemeal approaches invariably mean that 'one person's solution becomes another person's problem' - and there is a strong argument for groundwater considerations to be part of a more holistic approach to urban infrastructure planning and management. However this is not a simple task because of the widespread vacuum of institutional responsibility and accountability for groundwater in urban areas. The current state of urban groundwater management will be reviewed, and pragmatic solutions to strengthening various facets of urban groundwater governance and management presented, using examples from Latin America and South Asia.

  18. Hydrogeologic assessment of escalating groundwater exploitation in the Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S.; Rana, T.; Gabriel, H. F.; Ullah, Muhammad K.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater development has contributed significantly to food security and reduction in poverty in Pakistan. Due to rapid population growth there has been a dramatic increase in the intensity of groundwater exploitation leading to declining water tables and deteriorating groundwater quality. In such prevailing conditions, the hydrogeological appraisal of escalating groundwater exploitation has become of paramount importance. Keeping this in view, a surface water-groundwater quantity and quality model was developed to assess future groundwater trends in the Rechna Doab (RD), a sub-catchment of the Indus River Basin. Scenario analysis shows that if dry conditions persist, there will be an overall decline in groundwater levels of around 10 m for the whole of RD during the next 25 years. The lower parts of RD with limited surface water supplies will undergo the highest decline in groundwater levels (10 to 20 m), which will make groundwater pumping very expensive for farmers. There is a high risk of groundwater salinization due to vertical upconing and lateral movement of highly saline groundwater into the fresh shallow aquifers in the upper parts of RD. If groundwater pumping is allowed to increase at the current rate, there will be an overall decline in groundwater salinity for the lower and middle parts of RD because of enhanced river leakage.

  19. Gradual Variation Analysis for Groundwater Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater flow in Washington DC greatly influences the surface water quality in urban areas. The current methods of flow estimation, based on Darcy's Law and the groundwater flow equation, can be described by the diffusion equation (the transient flow) and the Laplace equation (the steady-state flow). The Laplace equation is a simplification of the diffusion equation under the condition that the aquifer has a recharging boundary. The practical way of calculation is to use numerical methods to solve these equations. The most popular system is called MODFLOW, which was developed by USGS. MODFLOW is based on the finite-difference method in rectangular Cartesian coordinates. MODFLOW can be viewed as a "quasi 3D" simulation since it only deals with the vertical average (no z-direction derivative). Flow calculations between the 2D horizontal layers use the concept of leakage. In this project, we have established a mathematical model based on gradually varied functions for groundwater data volume reconstruction. T...

  20. Environmental Sciences Division Groundwater Program Office. Annual report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    This first edition of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems GWPO for fiscal year (FY) 1993. This introductory section describes the GWPO`s staffing, organization, and funding sources. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater program at the three Oak Ridge facilities [ORNL, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], and the PGDP and PORTS, respectively. Several years ago, Energy systems senior management recognized that the manner in which groundwater activities were conducted at the five facilities could result in unnecessary duplication of effort, inadequate technical input to decisions related to groundwater issues, and could create a perception within the regulatory agencies of a confusing and inconsistent approach to groundwater issues at the different facilities. Extensive interactions among management from Environmental Compliance, Environmental Restoration (ER), Environmental Sciences Division, Environmental Safety and Health, and the five facilities ultimately led to development of a net technical umbrella organization for groundwater. On April 25, 1991, the GWPO was authorized to be set up within ORNL thereby establishing a central coordinating office that would develop a consistent technical and administrative direction for the groundwater programs of all facilities and result in compliance with all relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations such as RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as well as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and orders. For example, DOE Order 5400.1, issued on November 9, 1988, called for each DOE facility to develop an environmental monitoring program for all media (e.g., air, surface water, and groundwater).

  1. Groundwater ecohydrology: GIScience tools to forecast change and sustainability of global ecosystems, studies in Africa, Europe and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Steward

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the interface between groundwater hydrology and ecology, and addresses a scientific grand challenge to develop a comprehensive, systematic understanding of continental water dynamics by linking the hydrosphere and biosphere. There exists a current lack of data interoperability between groundwater modeling tools due to differences in numerical techniques – Analytic Element Method (AEM, Finite Difference Method (FDM, and Finite Element Method (FEM – which lend themselves well to either vector or raster data, and legacy input/output file formats that are not well suited across models. Nonetheless, investigative computational tools are all founded in the same conceptualization of hydrologic properties associated with mass, flux, pathways and residence time. A consistent framework is developed using modern Geographic Information Science (GIScience methods to organize and archive important information from international datasets and previous groundwater ecohydrology studies organized around aquifer and water point, line, polygon and raster features. Case studies illustrate the efficacy of this platform to address existing data interoperability issues for representative groundwater ecohydrology problems of global significance including the impact of human-induced forcings, change in species, and forcings by natural processes on groundwater ecohydrology. In North America, we study the relationships between groundwater pumping in the Ogallala Aquifer and changes in riparian habitat and phreatophyte species composition. In Europe, we study the impacts of changes in forest species composition on groundwater recharge and baseflow to biologically diverse fens and wetlands in the Veluwe sand hill region of The Netherlands. In Africa, we study the wetlands of the Okavango Delta in Botswana that forms an oasis in the midst of the Kalahari Desert and the role of groundwater in flushing salts from this freshwater ecosystem. In each study

  2. Groundwater and contaminant transport modelling at the Sydney Tar Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M. [Groundwater Insight Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada); Check, G. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Halifax, NS (Canada); Carey, G. [Environmental Inst. for Continuing Education, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Abbey, D. [Waterloo Hydrogeologic, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Baechler, F. [ADI Ltd., Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The Muggah Creek Watershed, a tidal estuary located in Sydney, Nova Scotia, is known locally as the Tar Ponds. Over the past century, the Tar Ponds have accumulated contaminants in the contributing watershed from the iron, steel and coke manufacturing. There are sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A groundwater modelling program was developed to estimate current contaminant fluxes to the estuary and site streams, through groundwater. Attempts were made to incorporate a complex stratigraphic profile, where groundwater flow and contaminant transport is strongly controlled by shallow fractured bedrock, into the conceptual model developed for the site. This conceptual model for groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Sydney Tar Ponds site was presented. The complex flow patterns between bedrock and overburden, and between the bedrock units and surface water bodies were illustrated with model simulations. It was found that groundwater flow was dominated by discharge to the streams and the estuary. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  3. Topical Collection: Groundwater-based agriculture in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Marcel; Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Bouarfa, Sami

    2017-09-01

    This essay introduces a collection of articles that explore the future of groundwater-based agriculture in the Mediterranean from an interdisciplinary perspective, in a context of declining water tables due to intensive groundwater use. The imminent crisis that many groundwater economies face due to very rapid and intense global change may have severe irreversible social, economic and environmental consequences, but could also be the opportunity to make a clear break with current agricultural development models and move towards more sustainable agricultural practices. The Mediterranean region is, therefore, an interesting case for the future of intensive groundwater use, as innovative ideas and practices may emerge and inspire similar groundwater-based agricultural systems around the world.

  4. Human Health Impact of Fluoride in Groundwater in the Chiang Mai Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Y.; Takizawa, S.; Wattanachira, S.; Wongrueng, A.; Ibaraki, M.

    2005-12-01

    Chiang Mai Basin, in Northern Thailand, is known as a fluorotic area. Groundwater of the Chiang Mai Basin has been gradually replaced by contaminated surface water since the 1980's. People have been exposed to fluoride contaminated groundwater since that time. As a result, harmful health effects on dental and skeletal growth were observed in the 90's. These include dental and skeletal fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is characterized by yellow or white spots on teeth and pitting or mottled enamel, consequently causing the teeth to look unsightly. Skeletal fluorosis leads to changes in bone structure, making them extremely weak and brittle. The most severe form of this is known as ``crippling skeletal fluorosis,'' a condition that can cause immobility, muscle wasting, and neurological problems related to spinal cord compression. This study focuses on the problematic issue of the Chiang Mai Basin's groundwater from the viewpoint of fluoride occurrence and current health impacts. Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces comprise the Chiang Mai Basin. Fluoride rich granites or fluorite deposits are scattered across the mountainside of the Lamphun Province. Tropical savanna climate conditions with seasonal monsoons bring more than 1,000 mm of annual precipitation, which can prompt weathering of minerals containing fluoride. The Ping River dominates the Basin, and the main eastern tributary of the Ping River runs through the Lamphun Province. The Basin has geological units composed of lower semi-consolidated Tertiary fluvial and upper unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium deposits. The main aquifers are in the upper unconsolidated unit. High fluoride concentrations tend to be observed in the aquifer located in lower part of this unconsolidated unit. We have been investigating two areas in the Basin. These two locations are similar with respect to geological and hydrological settings. However, one area in which groundwater is Ca-bicarbonate dominant has a low fluoride occurrence

  5. Achieving the millennium development goal for under-five mortality in Bangladesh: current status and lessons for issues and challenges for further improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Amir Mohammad; Nury, Abu Taher Md Sanaullah; Hossain, Md Delwar

    2011-04-01

    The study assessed the achievements in, critically reviewed the relevant issues of, and put forward recommendations for achieving the target of the Millennium Development Goal relating to mortality of children aged less than five years (under-five mortality) in Bangladesh within 2015. To materialize the study objectives, a thorough literature review was done. Mortality of under-five children and infants decreased respectively to 65 from 151 and to 52 from 94 per 1,000 livebirths during 1990-2006. The immunization coverage increased from 54% to 81.9% during the same period. The projection shows that Bangladesh will achieve targeted reduction in under-five mortality and infant mortality within the time limit, except immunization coverage. Neonatal mortality contributed to the majority of childhood deaths. Contribution of neonatal mortality to child mortality was the highest. There were remarkable differences in child mortality by sex, division, and residence. To progress further for achieving the target of MDG relating to child mortality, some issues, such as lower use of maternal healthcare services, hazardous environmental effects on childhood illness, high malnutrition among children, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding practices, various child injuries leading to death, low healthcare-use of children, probable future threat of financial shortage, and strategies lacking area-wise focus on child mortality, need to be considered. Without these, the achievement of MDG relating to child mortality may not be possible within 2015.

  6. A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ginsberg, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties.

  7. Stygoregions – a promising approach to a bioregional classification of groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Heide; Griebler, Christian; Berkhoff, Sven; Matzke, Dirk; Fuchs, Andreas; Hahn, Hans Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Linked to diverse biological processes, groundwater ecosystems deliver essential services to mankind, the most important of which is the provision of drinking water. In contrast to surface waters, ecological aspects of groundwater systems are ignored by the current European Union and national legislation. Groundwater management and protection measures refer exclusively to its good physicochemical and quantitative status. Current initiatives in developing ecologically sound integrative assessment schemes by taking groundwater fauna into account depend on the initial classification of subsurface bioregions. In a large scale survey, the regional and biogeographical distribution patterns of groundwater dwelling invertebrates were examined for many parts of Germany. Following an exploratory approach, our results underline that the distribution patterns of invertebrates in groundwater are not in accordance with any existing bioregional classification system established for surface habitats. In consequence, we propose to develope a new classification scheme for groundwater ecosystems based on stygoregions. PMID:22993698

  8. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  9. Groundwater recharge variation under climatic variability in Ajlun area and the recharge zone of Wadi Arab well field - Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggad, Marwan Al; Alqadi, Mohammad; Magri, Fabien; Disse, Markus; Chiogna, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    Pumping of 75 MCM/yr from Ajlun area and Wadi Arab well field has led to diminished groundwater levels in North Jordan and dramatically affects ecosystem services. Climate change compounds these issues by reducing recharge and increasing the ecosystem's hydrological demand. This paper investigates groundwater recharge response to climatic changes in North Jordan by modeling climatic parameters for the time frame 2015 - 2050. Water budget components were modeled through the J2000 hydrological model considering a groundwater recharge of 47 MCM/yr. Statistical downscaling of global circulation models indicated a decline in precipitation of around 30% by the year 2050 with 2.5 and 2 °C increases in maximum and minimum temperature, respectively. Recharge for the year 2050 was recalculated based on the downscaling results to be 27% less than current recharge. Continuous over-pumping with recharge reduction will cause a 30-70% reduction in saturated thickness by the same year. Modeling groundwater resilience under the new conditions showed a severe impact on the study area especially in the central parts which are expected to comprise a semi dry aquifer by 2050.

  10. U/Th series radionuclides as coastal groundwater tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The study of coastal groundwater has recently surfaced as an active interdisciplinary area of research, driven foremost by its importance as a poorly quantified pathway for subsurface material transport into coastal ecosystems. Key issue in coastal groundwater research include a complete geochemical characterization of the groundwater(s); quantification of the kinetics of subsurface transport, including rock-water interactions; determination of groundwater ages; tracing of groundwater discharge into coastal waters using radiochemical fingerprints; and an assessment of the potential ecological impact of such subsurface flow to a reviving water body. For such applications, the isotopic systemics of select naturally occurring radionucludes in the U/Th series has proven to be particularly useful. These radionuclides (e.g., U, Th, Ram and Rn) are ubiquitous in all groundwaters ad are represented by several isotopes with widely different half-lives and chemistries (Figure 1). As a result, varied biogeochemical processes occurring over a broad range of time scales can be studied. In source rock, most U/Th series isotopes in secular equilibrium; that is, the rate of decay of a daughter isotope is equal to that of it radiogenic parent, and so will have equal activities (in this context, the specific activity is simply a measure of the amount of radioactivity per unit amount). In contrast, these nuclides exhibit strong fractionations within the surrounding groundwaters because of their respective physiochemical differences. Disequilibria in U/Th series radionuclides can thus be used to identify distinct water masses, quantify release rates from source rocks, assess groundwater migration rates, and assess groundwater discharge rates in coastal waters., Large isotopic variations also have the potential for providing precise fingerprints for groundwaters from specific aquifers and have been explored as a means for calculating groundwater ages and estuarine water mass transit

  11. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  12. Evaluating the impact of irrigation on surface water – groundwater interaction and stream temperature in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Caldwell, Rodney R.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in groundwater discharge to streams caused by irrigation practices can influence stream temperature. Observations along two currently flood-irrigated reaches in the 640-square-kilometer upper Smith River watershed, an important agricultural and recreational fishing area in west-central Montana, showed a downstream temperature decrease resulting from groundwater discharge to the stream. A watershed-scale coupled surface water and groundwater flow model was used to examine changes in streamflow, groundwater discharge to the stream and stream temperature resulting from irrigation practices. The upper Smith River watershed was used to develop the model framework including watershed climate, topography, hydrography, vegetation, soil properties and current irrigation practices. Model results were used to compare watershed streamflow, groundwater recharge, and groundwater discharge to the stream for three scenarios: natural, pre-irrigation conditions (PreIrr); current irrigation practices involving mainly stream diversion for flood and sprinkler irrigation (IrrCurrent); and a hypothetical scenario with only groundwater supplying sprinkler irrigation (IrrGW). Irrigation increased groundwater recharge relative to natural PreIrr conditions because not all applied water was removed by crop evapotranspiration. Groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream increased relative to natural PreIrr conditions when the source of irrigation water was mainly stream diversion as in the IrrCurrent scenario. The hypothetical IrrGW scenario, in which groundwater withdrawals were the sole source of irrigation water, resulted in widespread lowering of the water table and associated decreases in groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream. A mixing analysis using model predicted groundwater discharge along the reaches suggests that stream diversion and flood irrigation, represented in the IrrCurrent scenario, has led to cooling of stream temperatures

  13. Groundwater vulnerability to drought in agricultural watersheds, S. Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jin-Sung; Lee, Byungsun

    2017-04-01

    Drought can be generally defined by a considerable decrease in water availability due to a deficit in precipitation during a significant period over a large area. In South Korea, the severe drought occurred over late spring to early summer during from 2012 to 2015. In this period, precipitation decreased up to 10-40% compared with a normal one, resulting in reduction of stream flow and reservoir water over the country. It led to a shortage of irrigation water that caused great damage to grow rice plants on early stage. Furthermore, drought resulted in a negative effect on groundwater system with decline of its level. Change of the levels significantly reflects intrinsic characteristics of aquifer system. Identifying drought effects on groundwater system is very difficult because change of groundwater level after hydrological events tends to be delayed. Therefore, quantitative assessment on decline of groundwater level in agricultural watersheds plays an essential role to make customized policies for water shortage since groundwater system is directly affected by drought. Furthermore, it is common to analyze the time-series groundwater data from monitoring wells including hydrogeological characteristics in company with meteorological data because drought effects on groundwater system is site-specific. Currently, a total of 364 groundwater monitoring wells including 210 wells for rural groundwater management network(RGMN) and 154 wells for seawater intrusion monitoring network (SIMN) have been operating in agricultural watersheds in S. Korea. To estimate the effect of drought on groundwater system, monthly mean groundwater level data were obtained from RGMN and SIMN during the periods of 2012 to 2015. These data were compared to their past data in company with rainfall data obtained from adjacent weather stations. In 2012 and 2014, mean groundwater level data in the northern part of the country during irrigation season(April to June), when precipitation was recorded

  14. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  15. Aquifers of Arkansas: protection, management, and hydrologic and geochemical characteristics of groundwater resources in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Merriman, Katherine R.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Fugitt, D. Todd; Spellman, Jane L.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Blackstock, Joshua M.; Battreal, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen aquifers in Arkansas that currently serve or have served as sources of water supply are described with respect to existing groundwater protection and management programs, geology, hydrologic characteristics, water use, water levels, deductive analysis, projections of hydrologic conditions, and water quality. State and Federal protection and management programs are described according to regulatory oversight, management strategies, and ambient groundwater-monitoring programs that currently (2013) are in place for assessing and protecting groundwater resources throughout the State.

  16. Protection strategies for drinking groundwater sources in small Quebec municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Bruno; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2008-07-01

    Awareness of groundwater protection has increased substantially in recent decades. In the Province of Quebec, Canada, the Groundwater Catchment Regulation (GWCR) was promulgated in 2002 to protect water quality in public wells. The goal of the present study was to document groundwater protection in the context of emerging regulations and identify factors explaining the propensity of municipalities applying protection strategies. Two types of information were used in this study: data from a questionnaire-based survey conducted among 665 municipalities in the Province of Quebec and complementary information gathered from various sources. Data from the survey revealed that fewer than half of the municipalities have been able to comply with the GWCR, mainly because of financial limitations. Also, close to half of the municipalities have either identified or are expecting land use conflicts to arise between protection areas required by the GWCR and other land usage, with agriculture being the main conflicting activity. Multivariate logistic regression models served to identify factors explaining the likelihood of municipalities to take groundwater protection measures. Those factors were municipality revenue, history of water contamination in distribution systems, land use near wellheads, location of municipalities within a provincial priority watershed and the importance of groundwater use in a region. Results of the study may prove helpful for government authorities in better understanding the groundwater protection issue and in implementing strategies that improve the ability of municipalities to protect groundwater.

  17. Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) diagnosis and therapy of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: current problems, critical issues and presentation of a sample case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, M R; Aktolun, C; Buzzoni, R; Seregni, E; Chiesa, C; Maccauro, M; Aliberti, G L; Vellani, C; Lorenzoni, A; Bombardieri, E

    2013-06-01

    Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been used for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas (PHEO) and paragangliomas (PGL) since 1980's. Despite increasing amount of experience with iodine-131 (I-131) MIBG therapy, many important questions still exist. In this article, we will discuss the current problems learned from clinical experience in diagnosis and therapy of PHEO/PGL with I-131 MIBG, and present a sample case to emphasize the critical aspects for an optimal treatment strategy.

  18. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif S. Al-Abri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR, with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV.

  19. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brain B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Denham, Miles E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  20. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  1. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As cont...

  2. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  3. Groundwater quality and depletion in the Indo-Gangetic Basin mapped from in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A. M.; Bonsor, H. C.; Ahmed, K. M.; Burgess, W. G.; Basharat, M.; Calow, R. C.; Dixit, A.; Foster, S. S. D.; Gopal, K.; Lapworth, D. J.; Lark, R. M.; Moench, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rao, M. S.; Shamsudduha, M.; Smith, L.; Taylor, R. G.; Tucker, J.; van Steenbergen, F.; Yadav, S. K.

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater abstraction from the transboundary Indo-Gangetic Basin comprises 25% of global groundwater withdrawals, sustaining agricultural productivity in Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Recent interpretations of satellite gravity data indicate that current abstraction is unsustainable, yet these large-scale interpretations lack the spatio-temporal resolution required to govern groundwater effectively. Here we report new evidence from high-resolution in situ records of groundwater levels, abstraction and groundwater quality, which reveal that sustainable groundwater supplies are constrained more by extensive contamination than depletion. We estimate the volume of groundwater to 200 m depth to be >20 times the combined annual flow of the Indus, Brahmaputra and Ganges, and show the water table has been stable or rising across 70% of the aquifer between 2000 and 2012. Groundwater levels are falling in the remaining 30%, amounting to a net annual depletion of 8.0 +/- 3.0 km3. Within 60% of the aquifer, access to potable groundwater is restricted by excessive salinity or arsenic. Recent groundwater depletion in northern India and Pakistan has occurred within a longer history of groundwater accumulation from extensive canal leakage. This basin-wide synthesis of in situ groundwater observations provides the spatial detail essential for policy development, and the historical context to help evaluate recent satellite gravity data.

  4. Characterization of redox conditions in groundwater contaminant plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Banwarth, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behaviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few...... dubious, if not erroneous. Several other approaches have been used in addressing redox conditions in pollution plumes: redox-sensitive compounds in groundwater samples, hydrogen concentrations in groundwater, concentrations of volatile fatty acids in groundwater, sediment characteristics and microbial...... cases have been reported. No standardised or generally accepted approach exists. Slow electrode kinetics and the common lack of internal equilibrium of redox processes in pollution plumes make, with a few exceptions, direct electrochemical measurement and rigorous interpretation of redox potentials...

  5. Groundwater Security in Yemen: Who is Accountable to Whom? - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Steenbergen, Omar Bamaga and Adel Al-Weshali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The overuse of groundwater in Yemen is now recognized as a national security issue. Groundwater exploitation has increased rapidly over the last four decades. While this has boosted high value farming and created rural jobs, there are grave concerns whether agriculture is not bound for a potentially destabilizing setback. This paper discusses the emergence of local management rules – by water users themselves - and their interplay with formal state institutions. It argues that the existence of formal institutions - including the National Water Law – was more important than their actual almost non-existent implementation. Groundwater where managed is managed locally in Yemen – but in spite of this autonomy, the presence of the Water Law creates the context in which these otherwise contentious local rules develop. The implication is that further strengthening and promoting local regulation is the best option for groundwater management rather than refining and investing in national regulatory institutions.

  6. The Issue of Age Estimation in a Modern Skeletal Population: Are Even the More Modern Current Aging Methods Satisfactory for the Elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Annalisa; Cummaudo, Marco; Arrigoni, Elena; Collini, Federica; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The main idea behind age assessment in adults is related to the analysis of the physiological degeneration of particular skeletal structures with age. The main issues with these procedures are due to the fact that they have not been tested on different modern populations and in different taphonomic contexts and that they tend to underestimate the age of older individuals. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability and the reliability of these methods on a contemporary population of skeletal remains of 145 elderly individuals of known sex and age. The results show that, due to taphonomic influences, some skeletal sites showed a lower survival. Therefore, the methods with the highest percentage of applicability were Lovejoy (89.6%) and Rougé-Maillart (81.3%), followed by Suchey-Brooks (59.3%), and those with the lowest percentage of applicability were Beauthier (26.2%) and Iscan (22.7%). In addition, this research has shown how for older adults the study of both acetabulum and auricular surface may be more reliable for aging. This is also in accordance with the fact that auricular surface and the acetabulum are the areas more frequently surviving taphonomic insult. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. More than a belated Gutenberg Age: Daily Newspapers in India. An Overview of the Print Media Development since the 1980s, Key Issues and Current Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja-Christina Schneider

    2013-01-01

    While TV may still be the dominant medium in India today, and the internet and mobile phone industry are currently growing at a tremendous speed, ‘old’ media such as the press don’t seem to be losing ground as yet. In times of a recurrent debate about the crisis of print media in Europe and the US, the Indian newspaper market still keeps growing and has attracted the interest of multinational corporations. One reason for this is that India is presently one of the largest market...

  8. Interactions of water quality and integrated groundwater management: Examples from the United States and Europe: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.; Barataud, Fabienne; Hunt, Randall J.; Benoit, Marc; Anglade, Juliette; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is available in many parts of the world, but the quality of the water may limit its use. Contaminants can limit the use of groundwater through concerns associated with human health, aquatic health, economic costs, or even societal perception. Given this broad range of concerns, this chapter focuses on examples of how water quality issues influence integrated groundwater management. One example evaluates the importance of a naturally occurring contaminant Arsenic (As) for drinking water supply, one explores issues resulting from agricultural activities on the land surface and factors that influence related groundwater management, and the last examines unique issues that result from human-introduced viral pathogens for groundwater-derived drinking water vulnerability. The examples underscore how integrated groundwater management lies at the intersections of environmental characterization, engineering constraints, societal needs, and human perception of acceptable water quality. As such, water quality factors can be a key driver for societal decision making.

  9. Coalbed methane produced water in China: status and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yanjun; Tang, Dazhen; Xu, Hao; Li, Yong; Gao, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    As one of the unconventional natural gas family members, coalbed methane (CBM) receives great attention throughout the world. The major associated problem of CBM production is the management of produced water. In the USA, Canada, and Australia, much research has been done on the effects and management of coalbed methane produced water (CMPW). However, in China, the environmental effects of CMPW were overlooked. The quantity and the quality of CMPW both vary enormously between coal basins or stratigraphic units in China. The unit produced water volume of CBM wells in China ranges from 10 to 271,280 L/well/day, and the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) ranges from 691 to 93,898 mg/L. Most pH values of CMPW are more than 7.0, showing the alkaline feature, and the Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl are typical types of CMPW in China. Treatment and utilization of CMPW in China lag far behind the USA and Australia, and CMPW is mainly managed by surface impoundments and evaporation. Currently, the core environmental issues associated with CMPW in China are that the potential environmental problems of CMPW have not been given enough attention, and relevant regulations as well as environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines for CMPW are still lacking. Other potential issues in China includes (1) water quality monitoring issues for CMPW with special components in special areas, (2) groundwater level decline issues associated with the dewatering process, and (3) potential environmental issues of groundwater pollution associated with hydraulic fracturing.

  10. Data-Driven Techniques for Regional Groundwater Level Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F. J.; Chang, L. C.; Tsai, F. H.; Shen, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Data-Driven Techniques for Regional Groundwater Level Forecasts Fi-John Changa, Li-Chiu Changb, Fong He Tsaia, Hung-Yu Shenba Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC. b Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan, ROC..Correspondence to: Fi-John Chang (email: changfj@ntu.edu.tw)The alluvial fan of the Zhuoshui River in Taiwan is a good natural recharge area of groundwater. However, the over extraction of groundwater occurs in the coastland results in serious land subsidence. Groundwater systems are heterogeneous with diverse temporal-spatial patterns, and it is very difficult to quantify their complex processes. Data-driven methods can effectively capture the spatial-temporal characteristics of input-output patterns at different scales for accurately imitating dynamic complex systems with less computational requirements. In this study, we implement various data-driven methods to suitably predict the regional groundwater level variations for making countermeasures in response to the land subsidence issue in the study area. We first establish the relationship between regional rainfall, streamflow as well as groundwater levels and then construct intelligent groundwater level prediction models for the basin based on the long-term (2000-2013) regional monthly data sets collected from the Zhuoshui River basin. We analyze the interaction between hydrological factors and groundwater level variations; apply the self-organizing map (SOM) to obtain the clustering results of the spatial-temporal groundwater level variations; and then apply the recurrent configuration of nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (R-NARX) to predicting the monthly groundwater levels. As a consequence, a regional intelligent groundwater level prediction model can be constructed based on the adaptive results of the SOM. Results demonstrate that the development

  11. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Nepal—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, arsenic (As contamination is a major issue of current drinking water supply systems using groundwater and has recently been one of the major environmental health management issues especially in the plain region, i.e., in the Terai districts, where the population density is very high. The Terai inhabitants still use hand tube and dug wells (with hand held pumps that are bored at shallow to medium depth for their daily water requirements, including drinking water. The National Sanitation Steering Committee (NSSC, with the help of many other organizations, has completed arsenic blanket test in 25 districts of Nepal by analysing 737,009 groundwater samples. Several organizations, including academic institutions, made an effort to determine the levels of arsenic concentrations in groundwater and their consequences in Nepal. The results of the analyses on 25,058 samples tested in 20 districts, published in the status report of arsenic in Nepal (2003, demonstrated that the 23% of the samples were containing 10–50 µg/L of As, and the 8% of the samples were containing more than 50 µg/L of As. Recent status of over 737,009 samples tested, the 7.9% and 2.3% were contaminated by 10–50 µg/L and >50 µg/L, respectively of As. The present paper examines the various techniques available for the reduction of arsenic concentrations in Nepal in combination with the main results achieved, the socio-economic status and the strategies. This paper aims to comprehensively compile all existing data sets and analyze them scientifically, by trying to suggest a common sustainable approach for identifying the As contamination in the nation, that can be easily adopted by local communities for developing a sustainable society. The paper aims also to find probable solutions to quantify and mitigate As problem without any external support. The outcome of this paper will ultimately help to identify various ways for: identify risk areas; develop awareness; adopt

  12. Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric D.; Gates, Timothy K.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the world’s key agricultural production systems face big challenges to both water quantity and quality due to shallow groundwater that results from long-term intensive irrigation, namely waterlogging and salinity, water losses, and environmental problems. This paper focuses on water quantity issues, presenting finite-difference groundwater models developed to describe shallow water table levels, non-beneficial groundwater consumptive use, and return flows to streams across two regions within an irrigated alluvial river valley in southeastern Colorado, USA. The models are calibrated and applied to simulate current baseline conditions in the alluvial aquifer system and to examine actions for potentially improving these conditions. The models provide a detailed description of regional-scale subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow processes, thereby enabling detailed spatiotemporal description of groundwater levels, recharge to infiltration ratios, partitioning of ET originating from the unsaturated and saturated zones, and groundwater flows, among other variables. Hybrid automated and manual calibration of the models is achieved using extensive observations of groundwater hydraulic head, groundwater return flow to streams, aquifer stratigraphy, canal seepage, total evapotranspiration, the portion of evapotranspiration supplied by upflux from the shallow water table, and irrigation flows. Baseline results from the two regional-scale models are compared to model predictions under variations of four alternative management schemes: (1) reduced seepage from earthen canals, (2) reduced irrigation applications, (3) rotational lease fallowing (irrigation water leased to municipalities, resulting in temporary dry-up of fields), and (4) combinations of these. The potential for increasing the average water table depth by up to 1.1 and 0.7 m in the two respective modeled regions, thereby reducing the threat of waterlogging and lowering non-beneficial consumptive use

  13. 逆向物流的立法现状及问题研究%Study on Current Status and Issues of Reverse Logistics Legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the foundation and current status of the reverse logistics legislation in China, analyzed the problems existing therein, and at the end, from the aspects of legal subject, legal entity and legal content, proposed the countermeasures to improve the legislative structure of the reverse logistics legal system of China.%阐述了我国逆向物流立法的现实基础和立法现状,分析了我国逆向物流立法存在的问题,并从法律主体、法律客体、法律内容三方面提出了完善我国逆向物流立法的对策建议。

  14. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  15. Regulating groundwater use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, Jaime; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    Around the world it has proven very difficult to develop policies and interventions that ensure socio-environmentally sustainable groundwater use and exploitation. In the state of Guanajuato, Central Mexico, both the national government and the decentralized state government have pursued to regulate

  16. More than a belated Gutenberg Age: Daily Newspapers in India. An Overview of the Print Media Development since the 1980s, Key Issues and Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja-Christina Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While TV may still be the dominant medium in India today, and the internet and mobile phone industry are currently growing at a tremendous speed, ‘old’ media such as the press don’t seem to be losing ground as yet. In times of a recurrent debate about the crisis of print media in Europe and the US, the Indian newspaper market still keeps growing and has attracted the interest of multinational corporations. One reason for this is that India is presently one of the largest markets for English-language newspapers and magazines in the world. Notwithstanding the continued growth of the English-language press, it is above all daily newspapers in the major Indian languages which form the motor of this unprecedented press boom. The article shows that in the wake of economic liberalization and the enforcement of the consumption-oriented market economy, the newspaper market in India can be said to be changing from a linguistically ‘split public’, which was characterized by many asymmetries for decades, to an integrated multilingual ‘consumer sphere’. It can thus be argued that in this new consumer sphere, the old existing and imaginary boundaries between ‘English-language’, ‘Indian-language’ or ‘regional newspapers’ are becoming increasingly fuzzy, whereas the new geographies of the ‘regional’ are now very important for the expansion and consolidation of daily newspapers. In order to de-westernize the current debate about the ‘newspaper crisis’, it would thus be important to look at different historical as well as contemporary trajectories of newspaper developments in the framework of changing media configurations in the so-called global South, which may differ significantly from the European or North American context.

  17. 浅析认知负荷教学设计理论的问题%Analysis on Current Issues and Open Questions in Cognitive Load Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石伟

    2011-01-01

    对认知负荷理论存在的一些问题进行了探讨,认为:①理清认知负荷与学习之间的关系,可探索影响工作记忆及调节认知过程的个体差异变量对认知负荷的作用;②澄清三种认知负荷的定义,可将其与教学目标相联系,并考虑先前知识、工作记忆容量和具体领域能力的个体差异,加强直接测量认知负荷的实证研究;③应该明确假设工作记忆的结构及其与认知负荷的关系,认知负荷的可加性假设也应建立在工作记忆不同的亚系统基础之上;④认知负荷研究应采用并接纳其他可提高外部效度的研究方法,并将其研究内容扩展到定义不良的学科领域.%Cognitive load theory is one of the most influential theories in instructional design.However, several issues arise when delving deeper into the theory.First, there is a need to clarify the relation between cognitive load and learning, so we should explore the effect of the individual differences that can potentially affect working memory and regulate cognitive processing on cognitive loads.Second, there is a need to clarify the definitions of the three cognitive loads, relating them with the specific educational goals of instruction, and considering individual differences in prior knowledge, working memory capacity, and domain-specific abilities, and strengthening empirical research on direct measure of cognitive load.Third, it should be assumed explicitly about the architecture of working memory and its relation to cognitive load, and the additivity should be revised based on the different subsystems of working memory model.Fourth, cognitive load research should accept and use other methods that can increase the external validity, and extend well-defined domains to ill-defined domains.

  18. Groundwater sampling: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingren; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Foster, Adam; Migliaccio, Kati W.; Li, Yuncong; Migliaccio, Kati

    2011-01-01

    About the book: As water quality becomes a leading concern for people and ecosystems worldwide, it must be properly assessed in order to protect water resources for current and future generations. Water Quality Concepts, Sampling, and Analyses supplies practical information for planning, conducting, or evaluating water quality monitoring programs. It presents the latest information and methodologies for water quality policy, regulation, monitoring, field measurement, laboratory analysis, and data analysis. The book addresses water quality issues, water quality regulatory development, monitoring and sampling techniques, best management practices, and laboratory methods related to the water quality of surface and ground waters. It also discusses basic concepts of water chemistry and hydrology related to water sampling and analysis; instrumentation; water quality data analysis; and evaluation and reporting results.

  19. Ground-water recharge in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    Quantification of the ground-water recharge from streamflow in the Fortymile Wash watershed will contribute to regional ground-water studies. Regional ground-water studies are an important component in the studies evaluating the ground-water flow system as a barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Knowledge gained in understanding the ground-water recharge mechanisms and pathways in the Pah Canyon area, which is 10 km to the northeast of Yucca Mountain, may transfer to Yucca site specific studies. The current data collection network in Fortymile Canyon does not permit quantification of ground-water recharge, however a qualitative understanding of ground-water recharge was developed from these data.

  20. Review of inputs provided to Jason Associates Corporation in support of RWEV-REP-001, the Analysis of Postclosure Groundwater Impacts report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Weck, Philippe F.; Vaughn, Palmer; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2014-04-01

    Report RWEV-REP-001, Analysis of Postclosure Groundwater Impacts for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada was issued by the DOE in 2009 and is currently being updated. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided support for the original document, performing calculations and extracting data from the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment Model that were used as inputs to the contaminant transport and dose calculations by Jason Associates Corporation, the primary developers of the DOE report. The inputs from SNL were documented in LSA-AR-037, Inputs to Jason Associates Corporation in Support of the Postclosure Repository Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. To support the updating of the original Groundwater Impacts document, SNL has reviewed the inputs provided in LSA-AR-037 to verify that they are current and appropriate for use. The results of that assessment are documented here.