WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater age indicators

  1. Several natural indicators of radial well ageing at the Belgrade groundwater source, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkić, M; Pusić, M; Vidovic, D; Petković, A; Boreli-Zdravković, D

    2011-01-01

    Over time, the radial collector wells of the Belgrade Groundwater Source, located in the alluvial sediments of the Sava River, exhibit a decline in discharge and a reduction in operating efficiency due to well ageing. An increase in hydraulic losses at the lateral screens, due to chemical and biochemical clogging, has been identified as the primary cause. Certain hydrogeological, hydrochemical and microbiological parameters reflect the well-ageing process and can, therefore, be considered as its indicators. An indicator-based determination of scale is an important aspect in the selection of appropriate well locations, structural characteristics, and maintenance approaches. Well ageing was studied over a period of 5 years (2005-2009). The objective was to investigate the causes of well ageing. The correlations established between the groundwater redox potential, the total iron concentration in groundwater, the grain-size distribution of the aquifer, and well discharge, are presented in the paper.

  2. Mixing of shallow and deep groundwater as indicated by the chemistry and age of karstic springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, David J.; Katz, Brian G.

    2006-06-01

    Large karstic springs in east-central Florida, USA were studied using multi-tracer and geochemical modeling techniques to better understand groundwater flow paths and mixing of shallow and deep groundwater. Spring water types included Ca-HCO3 (six), Na-Cl (four), and mixed (one). The evolution of water chemistry for Ca-HCO3 spring waters was modeled by reactions of rainwater with soil organic matter, calcite, and dolomite under oxic conditions. The Na-Cl and mixed-type springs were modeled by reactions of either rainwater or Upper Floridan aquifer water with soil organic matter, calcite, and dolomite under oxic conditions and mixed with varying proportions of saline Lower Floridan aquifer water, which represented 4-53% of the total spring discharge. Multiple-tracer data—chlorofluorocarbon CFC-113, tritium (3H), helium-3 (3Hetrit), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)—for four Ca-HCO3 spring waters were consistent with binary mixing curves representing water recharged during 1980 or 1990 mixing with an older (recharged before 1940) tracer-free component. Young-water mixing fractions ranged from 0.3 to 0.7. Tracer concentration data for two Na-Cl spring waters appear to be consistent with binary mixtures of 1990 water with older water recharged in 1965 or 1975. Nitrate-N concentrations are inversely related to apparent ages of spring waters, which indicated that elevated nitrate-N concentrations were likely contributed from recent recharge.

  3. Erratum: Mixing of shallow and deep groundwater as indicated by the chemistry and age of karstic springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, David J.; Katz, Brian G.

    2006-09-01

    Large karstic springs in east-central Florida, USA were studied using multi-tracer and geochemical modeling techniques to better understand groundwater flow paths and mixing of shallow and deep groundwater. Spring water types included Ca-HCO3 (six), Na-Cl (four), and mixed (one). The evolution of water chemistry for Ca-HCO3 spring waters was modeled by reactions of rainwater with soil organic matter, calcite, and dolomite under oxic conditions. The Na-Cl and mixed-type springs were modeled by reactions of either rainwater or Upper Floridan aquifer water with soil organic matter, calcite, and dolomite under oxic conditions and mixed with varying proportions of saline Lower Floridan aquifer water, which represented 4-53% of the total spring discharge. Multiple-tracer data—chlorofluorocarbon CFC-113, tritium (3H), helium-3 (3Hetrit), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)—for four Ca-HCO3 spring waters were consistent with binary mixing curves representing water recharged during 1980 or 1990 mixing with an older (recharged before 1940) tracer-free component. Young-water mixing fractions ranged from 0.3 to 0.7. Tracer concentration data for two Na-Cl spring waters appear to be consistent with binary mixtures of 1990 water with older water recharged in 1965 or 1975. Nitrate-N concentrations are inversely related to apparent ages of spring waters, which indicated that elevated nitrate-N concentrations were likely contributed from recent recharge.

  4. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched δ15N and δ18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

  5. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  6. Virus and indicator relationships in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation examines indicator-virus relationships from 13 international studies of public groundwater systems. This presentation shows that the absence of classic indicators is a strong predictor of the absence of viral pathogens. However, indicators are often present in t...

  7. Isotopic Composition and Age of Surface Water as Indicators of Groundwater Sustainability in a Semiarid Area: Case of the Souss Basin (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchaou, L.; Tagma, T.; Boutaleb, S.; Hsissou, Y. [LAGAGE Laboratory, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir (Morocco); Nathaniel, W.; Vengosh, A. [Duke University (United States); Michelot, J. L.; Massault, M. [UMR ' IDES' , CNRS - Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Elfaskaoui, M. [Hydraulic Agency of Souss-Massa-Draa Basins, Agadir (Morocco)

    2013-07-15

    This study aims to determine the surface water and groundwater interconnection in the Souss catchment of western Morocco by applying multiple isotopic tracers such as {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H, {sup 3}H, Ra, {sup 14}C, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and CFCs. Stable water isotope data indicate that the High Atlas Mountains, with their high rainfall and low {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values, constitute the major source of recharge to the Souss-Massa aquifer. Carbon-{sup 14} activities (34-94 pMC) and {sup 3}H indicate a long residence time of groundwater in some areas. The high {sup 14}C activities measured in the Ifni spring located at 2158 m a.s.l. and the Tiar spring at 711 m a.s.l. indicate a modern contribution, which is consistent with recharge from the High Atlas tributaries. In the upstream mountainous section, the mass balance mixing model suggest that groundwater contribution to stream flow is about 72% during the wet season and 36% during the dry season. In the downstream plain, 80% of surface flow infiltrates to the aquifer. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr variations were indistinguishable for surface waters and groundwater. (author)

  8. Revised conceptualization of the North China Basin groundwater flow system: Groundwater age, heat and flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater flow in deep sedimentary basins results from complex evolution processes on geological timescales. Groundwater flow systems conceptualized according to topography and/or groundwater table configuration generally assume a near-equilibrium state with the modern landscape. However, the time to reach such a steady state, and more generally the timescales of groundwater flow system evolution are key considerations for large sedimentary basins. This is true in the North China Basin (NCB), which has been studied for many years due to its importance as a groundwater supply. Despite many years of study, there remain contradictions between the generally accepted conceptual model of regional flow, and environmental tracer data. We seek to reconcile these contractions by conducting simulations of groundwater flow, age and heat transport in a three dimensional model, using an alternative conceptual model, based on geological, thermal, isotope and historical data. We infer flow patterns under modern hydraulic conditions using this new model and present the theoretical maximum groundwater ages under such a flow regime. The model results show that in contrast to previously accepted conceptualizations, most groundwater is discharged in the vicinity of the break-in-slope of topography at the boundary between the piedmont and central plain. Groundwater discharge to the ocean is in contrast small, and in general there are low rates of active flow in the eastern parts of the basin below the central and coastal plain. This conceptualization is more compatible with geochemical and geothermal data than the previous model. Simulated maximum groundwater ages of ∼1 Myrs below the central and coastal plain indicate that residual groundwater may be retained in the deep parts of the basin since being recharged during the last glacial period or earlier. The groundwater flow system has therefore probably not reached a new equilibrium state with modern-day hydraulic conditions. The

  9. Practical problems of groundwater model ages for groundwater protection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthess, G.; Muennich, K.O.; Sonntag, C.

    1976-01-01

    Water authorities in the Federal Republic of Germany have established a system of protection zones for the protection of groundwater supplies from pollution. One zone (Zone II) is defined by an outer boundary from which the groundwater needs 50 days to flow to the well. 50 days is the period accepted for the elimination of pathogenic germs. However, within Zone II carbon-14 measurements of water may give model ages of several thousand years, which may lead to some confusion in the legal and practical aspects of this scheme. These model ages may result from uncertainties in the chemical model, or from mixing of waters of different ages, either within the aquifer or during extraction at the well. The paper discusses scientific aspects of the establishment of protection zones. Two processes affecting the model age determinations are examined in detail. First, the mechanism of diffusion transport downwards through porous, but impermeable, aquicludes is examined for stable trace substances and radioactive isotopes. Secondly, examples are given of model ages resulting from mixtures of new and old waters. It is recommended that such model ages should not be reported as 'ages' since they may be misinterpreted in groundwater protection applications. (author)

  10. Exploring Hydrofluorocarbons as Groundwater Age Tracers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, K. B.; Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L. N.; Casile, G.; Sanford, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater dating tracers are an essential tool for analyzing hydrologic conditions in groundwater systems. Commonly used tracers for dating post-1940's groundwater include sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 3H-3He, and other isotopic tracers (85Kr, δ2H and δ18O isotopes, etc.). Each tracer carries a corresponding set of advantages and limitations imposed by field, analytical, and interpretive methods. Increasing the number available tracers is appealing, particularly if they possess inert chemical properties and unique temporal emission histories from other tracers. Atmospherically derived halogenated trace gases continue to hold untapped potential for new tracers, as they are generally inert and their emission histories are well documented. SF5CF3, and CFC-13 were previously shown to have application as dating tracers, though their low mixing ratios and low solubility require large amounts of water to be degassed for their quantification. Two related groups of compounds, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are hypothesized to be potential age tracers, having similar mixing ratios to the CFCs and relatively high solubility. However, these compounds yield gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) responses that are 10-2 -10-5 less than CFC-12, making purge and trap or field stripping GC-ECD approaches impractical. Therefore, in order to use dissolved HCFCs and HFCs as age tracers, different approaches are needed. To solve this problem, we developed an analytical method that uses an atomic emission detector (GC-AED) in place of an ECD to detect fluorinated compounds. In contrast to the ECD, the AED is a universally sensitive, highly linear, elementally specific detector. The new GC-AED system is being used to measure chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), and other fluorinated compounds in one liter water samples to study their potential as age dating tracers. HCFC-22 is a

  11. Mapping groundwater renewability using age data in the Baiyang alluvial fan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe; Li, Jie; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Zhijiang

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater age has been used to map renewability of water resources within four groups: strong, partial, and rare renewability, and non-renewable. The Baiyang alluvial fan in NW China is a representative area for examining groundwater recharge from river infiltration and for mapping groundwater renewability, and it has been investigated using multiple isotopes and water chemistry. Systematic sampling included 52 samples for 2H and 18O analysis and 32 samples for 3H, 13C and 14C analysis. The δ13C compositions remain nearly constant throughout the basin (median -12.7‰) and indicate that carbonate dissolution does not alter 14C age. The initial 14C activity of 80 pmC, obtained by plotting 3H and 14C activity, was used to correct groundwater 14C age. The results show that areas closer to the river consist of younger groundwater ages; this suggests that river infiltration is the main recharge source to the shallow groundwater system. However, at distances far away from the river, groundwater ages become older, i.e., from modern water (less than 60 year) to pre-modern water (from 60 to 1,000 years) and paleowater (more than 1,000 yeas). The four classifications of groundwater renewability have been associated with different age ranges. The area of shallow groundwater with strong renewability accounts for 74% of the total study area. Because recharge condition (river infiltration) controls overall renewability, a groundwater renewability map is of significant importance to the management of groundwater exploitation of this area as well as other arid groundwater basins.

  12. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse or p...

  13. Groundwater arsenic concentrations in Vietnam controlled by sediment age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming; Thai, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater continues to threaten the health of millions of people in southeast Asia. The oxidation of organic carbon, coupled to the reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron oxides, is thought to control the release of sediment-bound arsenic into groundwater. However......, the cause of the high spatial variability in groundwater arsenic concentrations—which can range from 5 to 500 μg l−1 within distances of a few kilometres—has been uncertain. Here, we combine measurements of sediment age, organic-matter reactivity and water chemistry at four locations along a cross......-section of the arsenic-contaminated Red River floodplain in Vietnam to determine the origin of variations in groundwater arsenic concentrations. The burial age of the aquifer sediments, determined using optical stimulated luminescence, ranged from 460 years near the course of the present-day river to 5,900 years...

  14. Groundwater vulnerability indices conditioned by Supervised Intelligence Committee Machine (SICM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiri, Ata Allah; Gharekhani, Maryam; Khatibi, Rahman; Sadeghfam, Sina; Moghaddam, Asghar Asghari

    2017-01-01

    This research presents a Supervised Intelligent Committee Machine (SICM) model to assess groundwater vulnerability indices of an aquifer. SICM uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to overarch three Artificial Intelligence (AI) models: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) and Gene Expression Programming (GEP). Each model uses the DRASTIC index, the acronym of 7 geological, hydrological and hydrogeological parameters, which collectively represents intrinsic (or natural) vulnerability and gives a sense of contaminants, such as nitrate-N, penetrating aquifers from the surface. These models are trained to modify or condition their DRASTIC index values by measured nitrate-N concentration. The three AI-techniques often perform similarly but have differences as well and therefore SICM exploits the situation to improve the modeled values by producing a hybrid modeling results through selecting better performing SVM, NF and GEP components. The models of the study area at Ardabil aquifer show that the vulnerability indices by the DRASTIC framework produces sharp fronts but AI models smoothen the fronts and reflect a better correlation with observed nitrate values; SICM improves on the performances of three AI models and cope well with heterogeneity and uncertain parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Hydrochemistry for Use as Groundwater Age Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; Daughney, Chris; Jackson, Bethanna; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating can aid groundwater management by providing information on groundwater flow, mixing and residence-, storage- and exposure-time of groundwater in the subsurface. Groundwater age can be inferred from environmental tracers, such as tritium, SF6 and CFCs (CFC-12, -11 and -113). These tracers often need to be applied complementarily, since they have a restricted application range and ambiguous age interpretations can be obtained. Some tracers, such as the CFCs, will become of limited use in near future, due their fading out atmospheric concentration. As a consequence of these limitations, there is a need for additional, complementary tracers to ensure groundwater dating in future. Hydrochemistry parameters, such as the concentrations and ratios of major ions, appear to be promising candidates. Hydro-chemistry data at various spatial and temporal scales are widely available through local, regional and national groundwater monitoring programmes. Promising relationships between hydrochemistry parameters and groundwater residence time or aquifer depth have been found in near piston flow environments. However, most groundwater samples contain proportions of different aged water, due to mixing of water emerging from different flow lines during sampling or discharge, which complicates the establishment of hydrochemistry-time relationships in these environments. In this study, we establish a framework to infer hydrochemistry - (residence) time relationships in non-piston flow environments by using age information inferred from environmental tracer data and lumped parameter models (LPMs). The approach involves the generation of major element concentrations by 'classic' Monte Carlo simulation and subsequent comparison of simulated and observed element concentrations by means of an objective function to establish hydrochemistry-time relationships. The framework also allows for assessment of the hydrochemistry-time relationships with regards to their potential to

  16. Modeling groundwater age using tritium and groundwater mineralization processes - Morondava sedimentary basin, Southwestern Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMAROSON, V.

    2007-01-01

    The tritium method in the lumped parameter approach was used for groundwater dating in the Morondava sedimentary basin, Southwestern Madagascar. Tritium data were interpreted by the dispersion model. The modeling results, with P D values between 0.05 and 0.7, show that shallow groundwater age is ranging from 17 to 56 years. Different types of chemical composition were determined for these shallow ground waters, among others, Ca-HCO 3 , Ca-Na-HCO 3 , Ca-Na-Mg-HCO 3 , Ca-K-HCO 3 -NO 3 -SO 4 , Na-Cl, or Ca-Na-Mg-Cl. Likewise, deeper ground waters show various chemical type such as Ca-Na-HCO 3 , Ca-Mg-Na H CO 3 , Ca-Na-Mg-HCO 3 , Ca-Na-Mg-HCO 3 -Cl-SO 4 , Ca-Mg-HCO 3 , Na-Ca-Mg-HCO 3 -SO 4 -Cl, Na-Cl-HCO 3 or Na-HCO 3 -Cl. To evaluate the geochemical processes, the NETPATH inverse geochemical modeling type was implemented. The modeling results show that silicate minerals dissolution , including olivine, plagioclase, and pyroxene is more important than calcite or dolomite dissolution, for both shallow and deeper groundwater . In the Southern part of the study area, while halite dissolution is likely to be the source of shallow groundwater chloride concentration rise, the mineral precipitation seems to be responsible for less chloride content in deeper groundwater. Besides, ion exchange contributes to the variations of major cations concentrations in groundwater. The major difference between shallow and deep groundwater mineralization process lies in the leaching of marine aerosols deposits by local precipitation, rapidly infiltrated through the sandy formation and giving marine chemical signature to shallow groundwater [fr

  17. Hydrogeologic controls and geochemical indicators of groundwater movement in the Niles Cone and southern East Bay Plain groundwater subbasins, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Nicholas F.; Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, Jim; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2018-02-01

    subbasin. Residual effects of pre-1970s intrusion of saline water from San Francisco Bay, including high chloride concentrations in groundwater, are evident in parts of the Niles Cone subbasin. Noble gas recharge temperatures indicate two primary recharge sources (Quarry Lakes and Alameda Creek) in the Niles Cone groundwater subbasin. Although recharge at Quarry Lakes affects hydraulic heads as far as the transition zone between the Niles Cone and East Bay Plain groundwater subbasins (about 5 miles), the effect of recharged water on water quality is only apparent in wells near (less than 2 miles) recharge sources. Groundwater chemistry from upper aquifer system wells near Quarry Lakes showed an evaporated signal (less negative oxygen and hydrogen isotopic values) relative to surrounding groundwater and a tritium concentration (2 tritium units) consistent with recently recharged water from a surface-water impoundment.Uncorrected carbon-14 activities measured in water sampled from wells in the Niles Cone groundwater subbasin range from 16 to 100 percent modern carbon (pmC). The geochemical reaction modeling software NETPATH was used to interpret carbon-14 ages along a flowpath from Quarry Lakes toward the East Bay Plain groundwater subbasin. Model results indicate that changes in groundwater chemistry are controlled by cation exchange on clay minerals and weathering of primary silicate minerals. Old groundwater (lower carbon-14 activities) is characterized by high dissolved silica and pH. Interpreted carbon-14 ages ranged from 830 to more than 7,000 years before present and are less than helium-4 ages that range from 2,000 to greater than 11,000 years before present. The average horizontal groundwater velocity along the studied flowpath, as calculated using interpreted carbon-14 ages, through the Deep aquifer of the Niles Cone groundwater subbasin is between 3 and 12 feet per year. The groundwater velocity decreases near the boundary of the transition zone to the southern

  18. Degradation of sucralose in groundwater and implications for age dating contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W D; Van Stempvoort, D R; Spoelstra, J; Brown, S J; Schiff, S L

    2016-01-01

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has been in use in Canada and the US since about 2000 and in the EU since 2003, and is now ubiquitous in sanitary wastewater in many parts of the world. It persists during sewage treatment and in surface water environments and as such, has been suggested as a powerful tracer of wastewater. In this study, longer-term persistence of sucralose was examined in groundwater by undertaking a series of three sampling snapshots of a well constrained wastewater plume in Canada (Long Point septic system) over a 6-year period from 2008 to 2014. A shrinking sucralose plume in 2014, compared to earlier sampling, during this period when sucralose use was likely increasing, provides clear evidence of degradation. However, depletion of sucralose from a mean of 40 μg/L in the proximal plume zone, occurred at a relatively slow rate over a period of several months to several years. Furthermore, examination of septic tank effluent and impacted groundwater at six other sites in Canada, revealed that sucralose was present in all samples of septic tank effluent (6-98 μg/L, n = 32) and in all groundwater samples (0.7-77 μg/L, n = 64). Even though sucralose degradation is noted in the Long Point plume, its ubiquitous presence in the groundwater plumes at all seven sites implies a relatively slow rate of decay in many groundwater septic plume environments. Thus, sucralose has the potential to be used as an indicator of 'recent' wastewater contamination. The presence of sucralose identifies groundwater that was recharged after 2000 in Canada and the US and after 2003 in the EU and many Asian countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Age on Pentacam Keratoconus Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged Maher Salib Roshdy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the effect of age on elevation and pachymetric Pentacam keratoconus (KC detection indices, and the need to adjust normative values accordingly. Methods. In a retrospective study, 95 eyes of myopic normal subjects without KC were evaluated using the OCULUS Pentacam, with an age range of 17.4 to 46.8 years. Subjects were categorised into three groups according to their age: the first included those younger than 21 years (19 eyes, the second was for the age range of 21–40 years (65 eyes, and the third comprised subjects older than 40 years (11 eyes. Results. There were statistically significant differences among the three groups regarding many elevation indices: AE from BFS, PE from BFS, and PE minus AE from BFS (P=0.003, 0.010, and <0.001, resp., and pachymetric indices: PPI avg, PPI max, ART avg, ART max, and diagonal decentration of the thinnest point (P=<0.001, 0.024, 0.003, 0.026, and 0.026, resp.. On comparing subjects below 21 years to those above 40 years, there was a statistically significant decrease of both PE from BFS and PE minus AE (P=0.005 and <0.001, resp. and statistically significant increase in AE from BFS (P=0.001. Conclusions. Age is an important determinant of elevation indices, significantly altering their normative values. The use of the more robust pachymetry, rather than elevation, indices is recommended in subjects below 21 or above 40 years of age.

  20. Metadata from 12 international groundwater studies: virus and microbial indicator occurrence

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains raw data from 12 international groundwater studies that monitored for human viruses and microbial indicators. Please see the first worksheet...

  1. Groundwater development stress: Global-scale indices compared to regional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William; Clark, Brian R.; Ely, Matt; Faunt, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem.

  2. Groundwater age determination using 85Kr and multiple age tracers (SF6, CFCs, and 3H to elucidate regional groundwater flow systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kagabu

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The groundwater ages could not be estimated using CFCs or SF6, particularly in the urban areas because of artificial additions to the concentration over almost the entire study area. However, even in these regional circumstances, apparent ages of approximately 16, 36, and not less than 55 years were obtained for three locations on the A–A’ line (recharge area, discharge area, and stagnant zone of groundwater, respectively from 85Kr measurements. This trend was also supported by lumped parameter model analysis using a time series of 3H observations. In contrast, along the B–B’ line, the groundwater age of not less than 55 years at three locations, including the recharge to discharge area, where CFCs and SF6 were not detected, implies old groundwater: this is also the area in which denitrification occurs. In the C area, very young groundwater was obtained from shallow water and older groundwater was detected at greater depths, as supported by the long-term fluctuations of the NO3−–N concentration in the groundwater. The results of this study can be effectively used as a “time axis” for sustainable groundwater use and protection of groundwater quality in the study area, where groundwater accounts for almost 100% of the drinking water resources.

  3. Groundwater age and chemistry, and future nutrient loads for selected Rotorua Lakes catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, U.; Reevers, R.R.; Daugney, C.J.; Cameron, S.; Gordon, D.

    2005-01-01

    since catchment development) of less than 80%. Significant fractions of these groundwaters were therefore recharged before land-use intensification, and these water discharges do not yet reflect the full effect of current land-use practices on the groundwater quality. Further deterioration of water quality must therefore be expected. Age dating of the main groundwater-fed streams in the Lake Rotorua catchment revealed mostly mean residence times between 35 and 130 years. The streams with the oldest water are Waingaehe (127 years), Hamurana (110 years), Awahou (61 years), and Utuhina streams (48 years). Only Ngongotaha Stream has younger water of 16 years mean residence time. Total phosphorus increases with groundwater age, concentration in young groundwater is 20 years. Trends for nitrate (NO 3 , potassium (K) and sulphate (SO 4 ) indicate that these are increased in the young groundwaters as result of land-use intensification. The natural background level of groundwater NO 3 -N is determined from old groundwater (pre-land-use intensification) to 0.14 mg/L, and the current level is determined from young groundwater (post-land-use intensification) to 1.6 mg/L. Therefore, 9% of the current level can be attributed to the natural background, and 91% to land-use impacts. This is an increase in NO 3 by a factor 11. Potassium concentrations indicate a natural background level of 0.6 mg/L and a current level of 3.8 mg/L. About 16% of the current K level is therefore natural background, and 84% is land-use impact, an increase by a factor 6. SO 4 shows a trend of elevated values of 3 mg/L in young waters compared to older water of 1.5 mg/L. Nitrogen loading was calculated from a mass budget for the major streams to Lake Rotorua. Only NO 3 -N, the main N component, was considered. Most of the nutrient flux via surface streams (ca. 90%) is contributed by the western catchment - Hamurana, Awahou, Puarenga, Waiteti, Ngongotaha and Utuhina streams. The total load of NO 3 -N is

  4. Estimating the Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Age Using Synoptic Surveys of Environmental Tracers in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    A model which simulates tracer concentration in surface water as a function the age distribution of groundwater discharge is used to characterize groundwater flow systems at a variety of spatial scales. We develop the theory behind the model and demonstrate its application in several groundwater systems of local to regional scale. A 1-D stream transport model, which includes: advection, dispersion, gas exchange, first-order decay and groundwater inflow is coupled a lumped parameter model that calculates the concentration of environmental tracers in discharging groundwater as a function of the groundwater residence time distribution. The lumped parameters, which describe the residence time distribution, are allowed to vary spatially, and multiple environmental tracers can be simulated. This model allows us to calculate the longitudinal profile of tracer concentration in streams as a function of the spatially variable groundwater age distribution. By fitting model results to observations of stream chemistry and discharge, we can then estimate the spatial distribution of groundwater age. The volume of groundwater discharge to streams can be estimated using a subset of environmental tracers, applied tracers, synoptic stream gauging or other methods, and the age of groundwater then estimated using the previously calculated groundwater discharge and observed environmental tracer concentrations. Synoptic surveys of SF6, CFC's, 3H and 222Rn, along with measured stream discharge are used to estimate the groundwater inflow distribution and mean age for regional scale surveys of the Berland River in west-central Alberta. We find that groundwater entering the Berland has observable age, and that the age estimated using our stream survey is of similar order to limited samples from groundwater wells in the region. Our results show that the stream can be used as an easily accessible location to constrain the regional scale spatial distribution of groundwater age.

  5. Characterization of groundwater quality using water evaluation indices, multivariate statistics and geostatistics in central Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bodrud-Doza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the groundwater quality in the Faridpur district of central Bangladesh based on preselected 60 sample points. Water evaluation indices and a number of statistical approaches such as multivariate statistics and geostatistics are applied to characterize water quality, which is a major factor for controlling the groundwater quality in term of drinking purposes. The study reveal that EC, TDS, Ca2+, total As and Fe values of groundwater samples exceeded Bangladesh and international standards. Ground water quality index (GWQI exhibited that about 47% of the samples were belonging to good quality water for drinking purposes. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI, degree of contamination (Cd, heavy metal evaluation index (HEI reveal that most of the samples belong to low level of pollution. However, Cd provide better alternative than other indices. Principle component analysis (PCA suggests that groundwater quality is mainly related to geogenic (rock–water interaction and anthropogenic source (agrogenic and domestic sewage in the study area. Subsequently, the findings of cluster analysis (CA and correlation matrix (CM are also consistent with the PCA results. The spatial distributions of groundwater quality parameters are determined by geostatistical modeling. The exponential semivariagram model is validated as the best fitted models for most of the indices values. It is expected that outcomes of the study will provide insights for decision makers taking proper measures for groundwater quality management in central Bangladesh.

  6. 234U/238U activity ratio in groundwater - an indicator of past hydrogeological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Suksi, J.; Marcos, N.; Nordman, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this report we describe the long-term behaviour of the uranium isotopes, U-234 and U-238 in groundwater systems. U is a redox sensitive element what for its behaviour is largely controlled by changes in the environmental conditions. A striking feature in U isotope geochemistry is seemingly different behaviour of U-238 and U-234. U isotopes fractionate at the rock-groundwater interface depending on chemical and radiological factors. Changes of the redox conditions in groundwater may thus affect the behaviour of U and its isotopes resulting in variable U concentration and U-234/U-238 activity ratios (AR). We examined the formation of ARs in different groundwater types from a geochemical and a physical/radiological point of view. It was envisaged that AR in groundwater is the consequence of radiological, chemical and hydrological processes. Groundwater condition (redox, flow, etc.) play a very important role in controlling the mass flow of U isotopes. Quantitative α-recoil modelling showed that α-recoil induced flux can be considered insignificant in cases of high-flow. This was an important finding because the exclusion of direct a-recoil means that it is groundwater chemistry and its variations which controls the U-234 mass flow and the formation of AR. Therefore, AR values could be used more confidently to indicate past redox changes and possibly flow paths. (orig.)

  7. Radon as an indicator of submarine groundwater discharge in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.; Suresh Babu, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the various available methodologies to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and demonstrates the utility of radon with a case study. An attempt has been made to identify the existence of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and semi-quantitatively estimate its rate in the coastal area of Vizhinjam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Natural 222 Rn (half-life = 3.8 days) was used as a tracer of SGD because of its conservative nature, short half-life, easiness in measurement and high abundance in groundwater. As in situ radon ( 222 Rn) monitoring study conducted in this region indicated comparatively higher 222 Rn activities (average 14.1±1.7 Bq/m 3 ) in the coastal waters revealing significant submarine groundwater discharge. The SGD may be a combination of fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater that is controlled by the hydraulic gradient in the adjacent aquifer and varying tidal conditions in the coastal waters. Using a transient 222 Rn mass balance model for the coastal waters, SGD rates were computed and the average value was found to be 10.9±6.1 cm/day. These estimates are comparable with those reported in the literature. In general, identification and estimation of submarine groundwater discharge is important in the Indian context because of the possibility of large amounts of groundwater loss through its long coastline, that can be judiciously exploited to cater to the present water requirements for drinking and irrigation purposes. (author)

  8. Application of hydrogeology and groundwater-age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at the site of a landfill to the Mahomet Aquifer, near Clinton, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Buszka, Paul M.

    2016-03-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey used interpretations of hydrogeologic conditions and tritium-based groundwater age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at a landfill site near Clinton, Illinois (the “Clinton site”) where a chemical waste unit (CWU) was proposed to be within the Clinton landfill unit #3 (CLU#3). Glacial deposits beneath the CWU consist predominantly of low-permeability silt- and clay-rich till interspersed with thin (typically less than 2 feet in thickness) layers of more permeable deposits, including the Upper and Lower Radnor Till Sands and the Organic Soil unit. These glacial deposits are about 170 feet thick and overlie the Mahomet Sand Member of the Banner Formation. The Mahomet aquifer is composed of the Mahomet Sand Member and is used for water supply in much of east-central Illinois.Eight tritium analyses of water from seven wells were used to evaluate the overall age of recharge to aquifers beneath the Clinton site. Groundwater samples were collected from six monitoring wells on or adjacent to the CLU#3 that were open to glacial deposits above the Mahomet aquifer (the upper and lower parts of the Radnor Till Member and the Organic Soil unit) and one proximal production well (approximately 0.5 miles from the CLU#3) that is screened in the Mahomet aquifer. The tritium-based age estimates were computed with a simplifying, piston-flow assumption: that groundwater moves in discrete packets to the sampled interval by advection, without hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing.Tritium concentrations indicate a recharge age of at least 59 years (pre-1953 recharge) for water sampled from deposits below the upper part of the Radnor Till Member at the CLU#3, with older water expected at progressively greater depth in the tills. The largest tritium concentration from a well sampled by this study (well G53S; 0.32 ± 0.10 tritium units) was in groundwater from a sand deposit in the upper part of the Radnor Till Member; the shallowest permeable unit

  9. Establishing indices for groundwater contamination risk assessment in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfills in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Li Jinhui; Chen Shusheng; Diao Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by leachate is the most damaging environmental impact over the entire life of a hazardous waste landfill (HWL). With the number of HWL facilities in China rapidly increasing, and considering the poor status of environmental risk management, it is imperative that effective environmental risk management methods be implemented. A risk assessment indices system for HWL groundwater contamination is here proposed, which can simplify the risk assessment procedure and make it more user-friendly. The assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: source term, underground media, leachate properties, risk receptors and landfill management quality, and a risk assessment indices system consisting of 38 cardinal indicators was established. Comparison with multimedia models revealed that the proposed indices system was integrated and quantitative, that input data for it could be easily collected, and that it could be widely used for environmental risk assessment (ERA) in China. - Highlights: ► No comprehensive environmental risk assessment method for hazardous waste management is proposed in China. ► An assessment indices system is established for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfill. ► All indicators are quantitative and applicable in China. - Capsule: This research identified critical indices and established a system for environmental risk assessment for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of HWLs in China.

  10. Coupling 3D groundwater modeling with CFC-based age dating to classify local groundwater circulation in an unconfined crystalline aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Tamara; Marçais, Jean; Thomas, Zahra; Abbott, Benjamin W.; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Rousseau-Gueutin, Pauline; Aquilina, Luc; Labasque, Thierry; Pinay, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen pollution of freshwater and estuarine environments is one of the most urgent environmental crises. Shallow aquifers with predominantly local flow circulation are particularly vulnerable to agricultural contaminants. Water transit time and flow path are key controls on catchment nitrogen retention and removal capacity, but the relative importance of hydrogeological and topographical factors in determining these parameters is still uncertain. We used groundwater dating and numerical modeling techniques to assess transit time and flow path in an unconfined aquifer in Brittany, France. The 35.5 km2 study catchment has a crystalline basement underneath a ∼60 m thick weathered and fractured layer, and is separated into a distinct upland and lowland area by an 80 m-high butte. We used groundwater discharge and groundwater ages derived from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentration to calibrate a free-surface flow model simulating groundwater flow circulation. We found that groundwater flow was highly local (mean travel distance = 350 m), substantially smaller than the typical distance between neighboring streams (∼1 km), while CFC-based ages were quite old (mean = 40 years). Sensitivity analysis revealed that groundwater travel distances were not sensitive to geological parameters (i.e. arrangement of geological layers and permeability profile) within the constraints of the CFC age data. However, circulation was sensitive to topography in the lowland area where the water table was near the land surface, and to recharge rate in the upland area where water input modulated the free surface of the aquifer. We quantified these differences with a local groundwater ratio (rGW-LOCAL), defined as the mean groundwater travel distance divided by the mean of the reference surface distances (the distance water would have to travel across the surface of the digital elevation model). Lowland, rGW-LOCAL was near 1, indicating primarily topographical controls. Upland, r

  11. Groundwater flow analysis using radon-222 existing in environment as an indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komae, Takami

    1996-01-01

    Several kinds of isotopes have been used to trace water movement in the hydrology including surface and ground water as indicators. But those are not effective to analyze the contaminant movement with groundwater though short distance in short time owing to long life. Radon ( 222 Rn) existing in environment was chosen for this purpose as an short-lived indicator. Radon is a radioactive gas, with a half life of 3.8 days, generated from radium ( 226 Ra) in strata. Radon concentration in groundwater increases to reach an equilibrated value within about three weeks after infiltrating underground. The equilibrated concentration becomes an own value of the aquifer depending on the radium content, the grain size and porosity of aquifer. The characteristic makes it able to identify aquifers and sub basins. Since radon concentration in groundwater is 100 to 1000 times as high as that in surface water, groundwater and surface water interaction is quantitatively analyzed. A liquid scintillation counter was employed to measure radon concentration after extracting radon in water to toluene. We applied those advantage of radon-222 to various field investigations and discussed the applicability. It was really possible to analyze the groundwater flow. Monitoring radon concentration in pumped water, occurrences of squeeze and leakage from the different aquifer were detected. Main aquifer was easily determined from the vertical distribution of radon concentration in bore hole. In the injection test using surface water, the spread of injected water was confirmed by the decrease of radon concentration in bore hole water. The radon method was useful to analyze the dam leakage, effluent seepage of groundwater in river, influent seepage of river water underground, and groundwater recharge with irrigation water through unsaturated zone. (author)

  12. Indicative effects of climate change on groundwater levels in Estonian raised bogs over 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lode

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of 50-year (1962–2011 monthly air temperature and precipitation data indicated substantial climate change in the locations of two raised bogs (Linnusaare and Männikjärve in central-east Estonia. During recent years the cross-year winter air temperature increased by 1.7 ºC, while the cold-season precipitation increased by 4 mm. The fluctuation amplitude of temperature and precipitation values decreased. Snow depth proved to be the most sensitive variable to winter warming, followed by groundwater levels together with mean and maximum soil frosts. Long-term groundwater levels on the domes of the bogs and in the forested/treed lagg areas were 0.3−0.4 m and 0.4−0.8 m below the soil surface, respectively. Warming caused changes in groundwater level amplitude of 3−22 cm in the bog domes and 3−14 cm in the forested lagg zones. The lowest groundwater levels in ridge-pool ecotopes at Männikjärve rose by 6−10 cm (i.e. these ecotopes became wetter; but the incidence of low groundwater levels increased in most ecotopes, indicating a more general trend towards drier conditions in the bog.

  13. Establishing indices for groundwater contamination risk assessment in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Chen, Shusheng; Diao, Weihua

    2012-06-01

    Groundwater contamination by leachate is the most damaging environmental impact over the entire life of a hazardous waste landfill (HWL). With the number of HWL facilities in China rapidly increasing, and considering the poor status of environmental risk management, it is imperative that effective environmental risk management methods be implemented. A risk assessment indices system for HWL groundwater contamination is here proposed, which can simplify the risk assessment procedure and make it more user-friendly. The assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: source term, underground media, leachate properties, risk receptors and landfill management quality, and a risk assessment indices system consisting of 38 cardinal indicators was established. Comparison with multimedia models revealed that the proposed indices system was integrated and quantitative, that input data for it could be easily collected, and that it could be widely used for environmental risk assessment (ERA) in China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Indicators of Dysphagia in Aged Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Dai; Murry, Thomas; Wong, May C. M.; Yiu, Edwin M. L.; Chan, Karen M. K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The current cross-sectional study aimed to investigate risk factors for dysphagia in elderly individuals in aged care facilities. Method: A total of 878 individuals from 42 aged care facilities were recruited for this study. The dependent outcome was speech therapist-determined swallowing function. Independent factors were Eating…

  15. Extraction and development of inset models in support of groundwater age calculations for glacial aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Haserodt, Megan J.; Clark, Brian R.; Juckem, Paul F.

    2018-06-22

    treated statistically, may be capable of explaining much of the variance in the simulated age metrics. One example of a predictor that model results indicate strongly affects simulated age is the depth of the well open interval below the simulated water table. The strength of this example variable as an overall predictor of groundwater age and its relation to other predictors can be statistically tested through the metamodeling process. In this way the inset models are designed to serve as a training area for metamodels that estimate groundwater age in glacial wells, which in turn will contribute to ongoing studies, under the direction of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment, of contaminant susceptibility of shallow groundwater across the glacial aquifer system.

  16. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  17. Application of groundwater sustainability indicators to the Upper Pliocene aquifer in Ho Chi Minh city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, T. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Woo, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater plays an importance role for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses in Ho Chi Minh city, Viet Nam. This study is objected to evaluate the sustainability of groundwater by using groundwater sustainability indicators (GWSIs) defined by UNESCO/IAEA/IAH Working Group on Groundwater Indicators at aquifer scale (the Upper Pliocene aquifer). There are four main indicators selected and one new indicator designed for the particular characteristic of Ho Chi Minh city which is under influence of by saline-water intrusion. The results indicated groundwater of the Upper Pliocene aquifer, the main groundwater supply source, is generally in the unsustainable state. The abstraction of groundwater, which was much greater than its capability, is probably causing the serious state of annual groundwater depletion and saline-water intrusion. The GWSIs, which expressed in such a simple way but scientifically-based and policy-relevant, proved its usefulness in evaluating the sustainability of groundwater at the aquifer scale in Ho Chi Minh city, and subsequently should be incorporated in water resource management practices.

  18. A new approach to constrain basal helium flux into aquifers for better estimation of groundwater ages by Helium 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Sturchio, Neil C.; Chang, Hung K.; Gastmans, Didier; Araguas-Araguas, Luis J.; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; Yokochi, Reika; Purtschert, Roland; Zongyu, Chen; Shuiming, Hu; Aggarwal, Pradeep K.

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of groundwater age through the combined use of isotope methods and groundwater flow modelling is the common approach used for developing the required level of knowledge in the case of groundwater pumped from deep aquifers. For more than 50 years radiocarbon and tritium have been the common tools used in isotope hydrology studies to provide first estimates of groundwater age and dynamics. The half-life of carbon-14 (5730 years) and the complex geochemistry of carbon species in most environments have limited the proper characterization of groundwater flow patterns in large sedimentary basins and deep aquifers to ages more recent than about 40 000 years. Over the last years, a number of long-live radionuclides and other isotopes have been tested as more reliable age indicators by specialised laboratories. Among these methods, chlorine-36 (half-life of 300 000 yr) has been used with mixed results, mainly due to problems derived from in-situ production of this radionuclide. Uranium isotopes have also been used in a few instances, but never became a routine tool. Accumulation of helium-4 in deep groundwaters has also been proposed and used in a few instance, but one major obstacle in the 4He dating method is a difficulty in assessing a rate constant of 4He input into aquifers (namely, the entering basal 4He flux). In this context, recent breakthrough developments in analytical methods allow the precise determination of dissolved noble gases in groundwater as well as trace-level noble gas radionuclides present in very old groundwaters. Atom trap trace analysis, or ATTA, has dramatically improved over the last years the processing of very small amount of noble gases, providing now real possibilities for routine measurements of extremely low concentration of exotic radionuclides dissolved in groundwater, such as krypton-81 (half-life 229 000 years). Atom trap trace analysis involves the selective capture of individual atoms of a given isotope using six laser

  19. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-01-01

    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmaceuticals as indicators of anthropogenic influence on the groundwater of Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko barje aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The attention of numerous researches has been recently focused on the determination of pharmaceuticals and other persistent chemicals in the environment. The substances enter groundwater either thorough direct discharge or indirectly (through surface or waste water. Pharmaceuticals in groundwater can be regarded as artificial tracers that enable the evaluation of general anthropogenic influence on the environment and identification of the most vulnerable areas of aquifers.The article presents the properties of distribution of caffeine, carbamazepine and propyphenazone in the area of Ljubljansko polje and Ljubljansko barje. Ljubljansko polje and Barje are important drinking water resources. These pollutants are indicators of sewage system efficiency,however,in urban areas without sewage they indicate the aquifer’s ability of natural attenuation.

  1. A Bayesian modeling approach for estimation of a shape-free groundwater age distribution using multiple tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoudieh, A.; Visser, A.; Sharifi, S.; Broers, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the mixing of groundwaters with different ages in aquifers, groundwater age is more appropriately represented by a distribution rather than a scalar number. To infer a groundwater age distribution from environmental tracers, a mathematical form is often assumed for the shape of the

  2. Determination of timescales of nitrate contamination by groundwater age models in a complex aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E. H.; Lee, E.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K. K.; Green, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Timing and magnitudes of nitrate contamination are determined by various factors like contaminant loading, recharge characteristics and geologic system. Information of an elapsed time since recharged water traveling to a certain outlet location, which is defined as groundwater age, can provide indirect interpretation related to the hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer system. There are three major methods (apparent ages, lumped parameter model, and numerical model) to date groundwater ages, which differently characterize groundwater mixing resulted by various groundwater flow pathways in a heterogeneous aquifer system. Therefore, in this study, we compared the three age models in a complex aquifer system by using observed age tracer data and reconstructed history of nitrate contamination by long-term source loading. The 3H-3He and CFC-12 apparent ages, which did not consider the groundwater mixing, estimated the most delayed response time and a highest period of the nitrate loading had not reached yet. However, the lumped parameter model could generate more recent loading response than the apparent ages and the peak loading period influenced the water quality. The numerical model could delineate various groundwater mixing components and its different impacts on nitrate dynamics in the complex aquifer system. The different age estimation methods lead to variations in the estimated contaminant loading history, in which the discrepancy in the age estimation was dominantly observed in the complex aquifer system.

  3. Application of multiple-isotope and groundwater-age data to identify factors affecting the extent of denitrification in a shallow aquifer near a river in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaown, Dugin; Koh, Eun-Hee; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Heejung; Park, Dong Kyu; Park, Byeong-Hak; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2018-01-01

    The extent of denitrification in a small agricultural area near a river in Yangpyeong, South Korea, was determined using multiple isotopes, groundwater age, and physicochemical data for groundwater. The shallow groundwater at one monitoring site had high concentrations of NO3-N (74-83 mg L-1). The δ15N-NO3 values for groundwater in the study area ranged between +9.1 and +24.6‰ in June 2014 and +12.2 to +21.6‰ in October 2014. High δ15N-NO3 values (+10.7 to +12.5‰) in both sampling periods indicated that the high concentrations of nitrate in the groundwater originated from application of organic fertilizers and manure. In the northern part of the study area, some groundwater samples showed elevated δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 values, which suggest that nitrate was removed from the groundwater via denitrification, with N isotope enrichment factors ranging between -4.8 and -7.9‰ and O isotope enrichment factors varying between -3.8 and -4.9‰. Similar δD and δ18O values of the surface water and groundwater in the south appear to indicate that groundwater in that area was affected by surface-water infiltration. The mean residence times (MRTs) of groundwater showed younger ages in the south (10-20 years) than in the north (20-30 years). Hence, it was concluded that denitrification processes under anaerobic conditions with longer groundwater MRT in the northern part of the study area removed considerable amounts of nitrate. This study demonstrates that multi-isotope data combined with physicochemical data and age-dating information can be effectively applied to characterize nitrate contaminant sources and attenuation processes.

  4. Human virus and microbial indicator occurrence in public-supply groundwater systems: meta-analysis of 12 international studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater quality is often evaluated using microbial indicators. This study examines data from 12 international groundwater studies (conducted 1992–2013). Sites were chosen from 718 public drinking-water systems with a range of hydrogeological conditions. Focus was on testing the value of indicato...

  5. Inferring Groundwater Age in an Alluvial Aquifer from Tracer Concentrations in the Stream - Little Wind River, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, D.; Gardner, W. P.; Naftz, D. L.; Solder, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    We use environmental tracers: CFC's, SF6, and 222Rn measured in stream water to determine volume and mean age of groundwater discharging to the Little Wind River, near Riverton, Wyoming. Samples of 222Rn were collected every 200 m along a 2 km reach, surrounding a known groundwater discharge zone. Nearby groundwater wells, in-stream piezometers and seepage meters were sampled for 222Rn, CFC's and SF6. Tracer concentrations measured in groundwater and in-stream piezometers were used to estimate the mean age of the subsurface system. High resolution 222Rn samples were used to determine the location and volume of groundwater inflow using a model of instream transport that includes radioactive decay and gas exchange with the atmosphere. The age of groundwater entering the stream was then estimated from in-stream measured CFC and SF6 concentrations using a new coupled stream transport and lumped-parameter groundwater age model. Ages derived from in-stream measurements were then compared to the age of subsurface water measured in piezometers, seepage meters, and groundwater wells. We then asses the ability of groundwater age inferred from in-stream samples to provide constraint on the age of the subsurface discharge to the stream. The ability to asses groundwater age from in-stream samples can provide a convenient method to constrain the regional distribution of groundwater circulation rates when groundwater sampling is challenging or wells are not in place.

  6. Strontium isotopes as an indicator for groundwater salinity sources in the Kirkuk region, Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahib, Layth Y. [Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Geology Department, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Jadreya, Baghdad (Iraq); Marandi, Andres; Schüth, Christoph [Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The Kirkuk region in northern Iraq hosts some of the largest oil fields in the Middle East. Several anticline structures enabled vertical migration and entrapment of the oil. Frequently, complex fracture systems and faults cut across the Eocene and middle Oligocene reservoirs and the cap rock, the Fatha Formation of Miocene age. Seepage of crude oil and oil field brines are therefore a common observation in the anticline axes and contamination of shallow groundwater resources is a major concern. In this study, 65 water samples were collected in the Kirkuk region to analyze and distinguish mixing processes between shallow groundwater resources, uprising oil field brines, and dissolution of gypsum and halite from the Fatha Formation. Hydrochemical analyses of the water samples included general hydrochemistry, stable water isotopes, as well as strontium concentrations and for 22 of the samples strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr). Strontium concentrations increased close to the anticline axes with highest concentrations in the oil field brines (300 mg/l). Strontium isotopes proved to be a valuable tool to distinguish mixing processes as isotope signatures of the oil field brines and of waters from the Fatha Formation are significantly different. It could be shown, that mixing of shallow groundwater with oil field brines is occurring close to the major fault zones in the anticlines but high concentrations of strontium in the water samples are mainly due to dissolution from the Fatha Formation. - Highlights: • This field study evaluates the salinity sources in the groundwater in Kirkuk region. • Salinity is related to evaporates dissolving and/or mixing with oil field brine. • Strontium isotopes proved to be a valuable tool to distinguish mixing processes.

  7. TracerLPM (Version 1): An Excel® workbook for interpreting groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; Böhlke, J.K.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    TracerLPM is an interactive Excel® (2007 or later) workbook program for evaluating groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data by using lumped parameter models (LPMs). Lumped parameter models are mathematical models of transport based on simplified aquifer geometry and flow configurations that account for effects of hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing within the aquifer, well bore, or discharge area. Five primary LPMs are included in the workbook: piston-flow model (PFM), exponential mixing model (EMM), exponential piston-flow model (EPM), partial exponential model (PEM), and dispersion model (DM). Binary mixing models (BMM) can be created by combining primary LPMs in various combinations. Travel time through the unsaturated zone can be included as an additional parameter. TracerLPM also allows users to enter age distributions determined from other methods, such as particle tracking results from numerical groundwater-flow models or from other LPMs not included in this program. Tracers of both young groundwater (anthropogenic atmospheric gases and isotopic substances indicating post-1940s recharge) and much older groundwater (carbon-14 and helium-4) can be interpreted simultaneously so that estimates of the groundwater age distribution for samples with a wide range of ages can be constrained. TracerLPM is organized to permit a comprehensive interpretive approach consisting of hydrogeologic conceptualization, visual examination of data and models, and best-fit parameter estimation. Groundwater age distributions can be evaluated by comparing measured and modeled tracer concentrations in two ways: (1) multiple tracers analyzed simultaneously can be evaluated against each other for concordance with modeled concentrations (tracer-tracer application) or (2) tracer time-series data can be evaluated for concordance with modeled trends (tracer-time application). Groundwater-age estimates can also be obtained for samples with a single tracer measurement at one

  8. Groundwater evolution in the Continental Intercalaire aquifer of southern Algeria and Tunisia: trace element and isotopic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, W.M.; Guendouz, A.H.; Mamou, A.; Moulla, A.; Shand, P.; Zouari, K.

    2003-01-01

    The geochemical processes taking place along an 800 km flow line in the non-carbonate Continental Intercalaire aquifer (CI) aquifer in North Africa are described using chemical (major and trace element) and isotopic indicators. The aquifer is hydraulically continuous from the Atlas Mountains in Algeria to the Chotts of Tunisia and the geochemical evidence corroborates this. The highest discharge temperature is 73 deg. C but silica geothermometry indicates a maximum temperature of 94 deg. C at depth. Chloride concentrations increase from 200 to 800 mg l -1 and the Br/Cl ratios confirm the dissolution of non-marine evaporites or interstitial waters as the main source of salinity. Fluoride concentrations are low and are likely to be derived from rainfall, recording oscillations in source. Radiocarbon ages, except near outcrop, are at or near detection limits and the δ 18 O and δ 2 H values indicate a cooler recharge regime with rainfall having lower primary evaporation than today. This is shown by the fact that mean isotope ratios of CI waters are around 3 per mille lighter than the present-day weighted mean value for rain. Major ion ratios and most trace elements indicate that despite the complex structure and stratigraphy, uniform evolution with continuous water-rock interaction takes place along the flow lines, which are only disturbed near the Tunisian Chotts by groundwater converging from additional flow lines. The ageing of the water can also be followed by the smooth increase in several indicator elements such as Li, K and Mn which are least affected by solubility controls. Similarly the influence of marine facies in the Tunisian sector may be recognised by the changing Mg/Ca and higher Br/Cl as well as trace element indicators. The groundwaters are oxidising up to 300 km from outcrop (dissolved O 2 has persisted for at least 20 ka) and within this zone the concentrations of several elements forming oxy-anions, such as U and Cr, increase and NO 3 remains

  9. Use of multiple age tracers to estimate groundwater residence times and long-term recharge rates in arid southern Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Th.; Osenbrück, K.; Strauch, G.; Pavetich, S.; Al-Mashaikhi, K.-S.; Herb, C.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Aeschbach, W.; Sanford, W.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple age tracers were measured to estimate groundwater residence times in the regional aquifer system underlying southwestern Oman. This area, known as the Najd, is one of the most arid areas in the world and is planned to be the main agricultural center of the Sultanate of Oman in the near future. The three isotopic age tracers "4He, "1"4C and "3"6Cl were measured in waters collected from wells along a line that extended roughly from the Dhofar Mountains near the Arabian Sea northward 400 km into the Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula. The wells sampled were mostly open to the Umm Er Radhuma confined aquifer, although, some were completed in the mostly unconfined Rus aquifer. The combined results from the three tracers indicate the age of the confined groundwater is  100 ka in the central section north of the mountains, and up to and > one Ma in the Empty Quarter. The "1"4C data were used to help calibrate the "4He and "3"6Cl data. Mixing models suggest that long open boreholes north of the mountains compromise "1"4C-only interpretations there, in contrast to "4He and "3"6Cl calculations that are less sensitive to borehole mixing. Thus, only the latter two tracers from these more distant wells were considered reliable. In addition to the age tracers, δ"2H and δ"1"8O data suggest that seasonal monsoon and infrequent tropical cyclones are both substantial contributors to the recharge. The study highlights the advantages of using multiple chemical and isotopic data when estimating groundwater travel times and recharge rates, and differentiating recharge mechanisms. - Highlights: • Multiple age tracers are required for the interpretation of the groundwater system. • Different tracers are applicable along different sections of the flowpath. • Groundwater residence times >1 Ma have been determined for the northern Najd area.

  10. Methods for using argon-39 to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Brandenberger, Jill; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Humble, Paul; Keillor, Martin; Kulongoski, Justin; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen; White, Signe; Wilcox Freeburg, Eric; Williams, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Argon-39 can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of 269 years, 39Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (50-1,000 years) not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. We present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater.

  11. Groundwater mixing and mineralization processes in a mountain-oasis-desert basin, northwest China: hydrogeochemistry and environmental tracer indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Jin, Menggui; Liang, Xing; Li, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Hydrogeochemistry and environmental tracers (2H, 18O, 87Sr/86Sr) in precipitation, river and reservoir water, and groundwater have been used to determine groundwater recharge sources, and to identify mixing characteristics and mineralization processes in the Manas River Basin (MRB), which is a typical mountain-oasis-desert ecosystem in arid northwest China. The oasis component is artificial (irrigation). Groundwater with enriched stable isotope content originates from local precipitation and surface-water leakage in the piedmont alluvial-oasis plain. Groundwater with more depleted isotopes in the north oasis plain and desert is recharged by lateral flow from the adjacent mountains, for which recharge is associated with high altitude and/or paleo-water infiltrating during a period of much colder climate. Little evaporation and isotope exchange between groundwater and rock and soil minerals occurred in the mountain, piedmont and oasis plain. Groundwater δ2H and δ18O values show more homogeneous values along the groundwater flow direction and with well depths, indicating inter-aquifer mixing processes. A regional contrast of groundwater allows the 87Sr/86Sr ratios and δ18O values to be useful in a combination with Cl, Na, Mg, Ca and Sr concentrations to distinguish the groundwater mixing characteristics. Two main processes are identified: groundwater lateral-flow mixing and river leakage in the piedmont alluvial-oasis plain, and vertical mixing in the north oasis plain and the desert. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios and selected ion ratios reveal that carbonate dissolution and mixing with silicate from the southern mountain area are primarily controlling the strontium isotope hydrogeochemistry.

  12. Distinct kinetics and mechanisms of mZVI particles aging in saline and fresh groundwater: H2 evolution and surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jia; Tang, Fenglin; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Kolditz, Olaf; Lu, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Application of microscale zero-valent iron (mZVI) is a promising technology for in-situ contaminated groundwater remediation; however, its longevity is negatively impacted by surface passivation, especially in saline groundwater. In this study, the aging behavior of mZVI particles was investigated in three media (milli-Q water, fresh groundwater and saline groundwater) using batch experiments to evaluate their potential corrosion and passivation performance under different field conditions. The results indicated that mZVI was reactive for 0-7 days of exposure to water and then gradually lost H2-generating capacity over the next hundred days in all of the tested media. In comparison, mZVI in saline groundwater exhibited the fastest corrosion rate during the early phase (0-7 d), followed by the sharpest kinetic constant decline in the latter phases. The SEM-EDS and XPS analyses demonstrated that in the saline groundwater, a thin and compact oxide film was immediately formed on the surface and significantly shielded the iron reactive site. Nevertheless, in fresh groundwater and milli-Q water, a passive layer composed of loosely and unevenly distributed precipitates slowly formed, with abundant reactive sites available to support continuous iron corrosion. These findings provide insight into the molecular-scale mechanism that governs mZVI passivation and provide implications for long-term mZVI application in saline contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon isotope systematics of the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in the northern Baltic Basin: Implications to the age and evolution of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raidla, Valle; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Vaikmäe, Rein; Kaup, Enn; Martma, Tõnu

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system has a strongly depleted stable isotope composition (δ 18 O values of about −22‰) and a low radiocarbon concentration, which suggests that the water is of glacial origin from the last Ice Age. The aim of this paper was to elucidate the timing of infiltration of glacial waters and to understand the geochemical evolution of this groundwater. The composition of the dissolved inorganic C (DIC) in Cambrian–Vendian groundwater is influenced by complex reactions and isotope exchange processes between water, organic materials and rock matrix. The δ 13 C composition of dissolved inorganic C in Cambrian–Vendian water also indicates a bacterial modification of the isotope system. The corrected radiocarbon ages of groundwater are between 14,000 and 27,000 radiocarbon years, which is coeval with the advance of the Weichselian Glacier in the area.

  14. Chemistry and age of groundwater in bedrock aquifers of the Piceance and Yellow Creek watersheds, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Thomas, J.C.; Hunt, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen monitoring wells completed in the Uinta and Green River Formations in the Piceance Creek and Yellow Creek watersheds in Rio Blanco County, Colorado, were sampled for chemical, isotopic, and groundwater-age tracers to provide information on the overall groundwater quality, the occurrence and distribution of chemicals that could be related to the development of underlying natural-gas reservoirs, and to better understand groundwater residence times in the flow system. Methane concentrations in groundwater ranged from less than 0.0005 to 387 milligrams per liter. The methane was predominantly biogenic in origin, although the biogenic methane was mixed with thermogenic methane in water from seven wells. Three BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) were detected in water from six of the wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded Federal drinking-water standards. The presence of thermogenic methane in the aquifers indicates a connection and vulnerability to chemicals in deeper geologic units. Helium-4 data indicate that groundwater had ages ranging from less than 1,000 years to greater than 50,000 years. The presence of old groundwater in parts of the aquifers indicates that these aquifers may not be useful for large-scale water supply because of low recharge rates.

  15. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  16. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, V.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Esser, B.

    2016-01-01

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  17. Functional age as an indicator of reservoir senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been conjectured that reservoirs differ in the rate at which they manifest senescence, but no attempt has been made to find an indicator of senescence that performs better than chronological age. We assembled an indicator of functional age by creating a multimetric scale consisting of 10 metrics descriptive of reservoir environments that were expected to change directionally with reservoir senescence. In a sample of 1,022 U.S. reservoirs, chronological age was not correlated with functional age. Functional age was directly related to percentage of cultivated land in the catchment and inversely related to reservoir depth. Moreover, aspects of reservoir fishing quality and fish population characteristics were related to functional age. A multimetric scale to indicate reservoir functional age presents the possibility for management intervention from multiple angles. If a reservoir is functionally aging at an accelerated rate, action may be taken to remedy the conditions contributing most to functional age. Intervention to reduce scores of selected metrics in the scale can potentially reduce the rate of senescence and increase the life expectancy of the reservoir. This leads to the intriguing implication that steps can be taken to reduce functional age and actually make the reservoir grow younger.

  18. Methods of investigation and analysis on groundwater using radon as an indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Hiromasa; Imaizumi, Masayuki; Komae, Takami

    1997-01-01

    As for groundwater, the quality is good, and the temperature is constant throughout year, further, it can be easily utilized only by digging wells. The quantity of its utilization in one year is about 20% of total water utilization, and about 17 billion m 3 . Recently in Japan, the frequency of occurrence of water shortage is high, and the supply of river water is unstable, therefore, the importance of groundwater increased. It is indispensable to grasp in detail the state of groundwater flow as groundwater pollution is actualized, and the water quality has become problem. As the principle that radon becomes the index for groundwater analysis, the physical characteristic of radon and the features of the radon in groundwater are explained. The method of measuring radon concentration in groundwater and surface water is described. The investigation and analysis methods, to which the processes of radon formation and radon decay are applied, in which the equilibrium radon concentration in groundwater is used as the index, to which the relation of the degree of saturation in aquifer to the radon concentration in liquid phase is applied, and to which the difference of the concentrations in surface water and groundwater is applied, are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Excess air in groundwater as a potential indicator of past environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeschenbach-Hertig, W.; Beyerle, U.; Holocher, J.; Peeters, F.; Kipfer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Dissolved noble gases in groundwater are used to reconstruct paleotemperature, but also yield information about 'excess air', a component of dissolved gases in excess of solubility equilibrium, derived from dissolution of trapped air in the ground. A good characterization of the excess air component is necessary not only to obtain reliable noble gas temperatures, but also to investigate the potential of excess air as a proxy for past environmental conditions. Two excess air related quantities can be derived from groundwater noble gas data sets: The initial air/water ratio and the pressure exerted on the entrapped air. Under recharge conditions typical for many aquifers, the excess of dissolved gases, expressed by the relative Ne excess ΔNe, is mainly determined by the hydrostatic pressure on the entrapped air. Thus, we suggest that ΔNe is essentially a measure of the amplitude of water table fluctuations in the recharge area. Comparing data sets from three aquifers in temperate, humid latitudes and three aquifers in tropical, semi-arid regions, we find that ΔNe is generally higher in the tropical aquifers, possibly related to larger water table fluctuations in these aquifers characterized by deep unsaturated zones. Whereas ΔNe shows little temporal variation in the mid-latitude aquifers, there is a strong signal of higher ΔNe in the paleowaters of the tropical aquifers as compared to water recharged under modern climate conditions. This finding may indicate a higher variability of recharge in the past at the studied tropical sites. (author)

  20. Krypton-81, Helium-4 and Carbon-14 based estimation of groundwater ages in the Guarani Aquifer System: implications for the He-4 geochronometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Chang, H. K.; Gastmans, D.; Sturchio, N. C.; Araguas, L.; Matsumoto, T.; Lu, Z.; Jiang, W.; Yokochi, R.; Mueller, P.

    2012-12-01

    Characterization of aquifer systems remains a challenge, particularly for large aquifers with limited hydrogeological information. Groundwater age is an important parameter that integrates aquifer recharge and flow dynamics and provides the ability to reliably constrain groundwater models. We have used multiple isotope tracers (C-14, He-4, and Kr-81) to estimate the age of groundwater along a 400-km transect in the north-eastern part of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in Brazil. Carbon-14 measurements were made with an AMS, He-4 by mass-spectrometry, and Kr-81 by atom trap trace analysis (ATTA). Groundwater samples were collected along a groundwater flow path that runs from the outcrop area in the east to the deep confined section in the west, where the aquifer is up to about 1000 m deep. Present groundwater recharge occurs in the outcrop areas, as indicated by the presence of tritium and modern 14C. Carbon-14 activities reach values below detection limit at relatively short distances (a few km) from the outcrop. Abundance of 81Kr (half-life 229 Ka), in samples free of C-14, decreases from 0.81±0.11 (expressed as (81Kr/Kr)sample/(81Kr/Kr)air) in the east to 0.18±0.03 in the western-most sample (estimated age = 566±60 ka). Measured 4He-excess is far above that expected from in-situ production rates in sandstone aquifers and overestimates the age by several orders of magnitude. We used 81Kr ages to calibrate the 4He geochronometer which indicates a basal flux of about 2.8 x10-11 cm3STP He/cm2/a. This flux is lower than most estimates of basal flux in previous studies and will allow a wider use of 4He for groundwater dating and aquifer characterization.

  1. Potassium adsorption ratios as an indicator for the fate of agricultural potassium in groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Fertilization of agricultural land in groundwater infiltration areas often causes deterioration of groundwater quality. In addition to nitrogen and phosphorous, potassium deserves attention. The fate of potassium in the subsurface is controlled mainly by cation-exchange. Use of the Potassium

  2. U-ages in soils and groundwater evidencing wet periods 400-600 kyr ago in southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Jimenez-Rueda, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    238 U and its radiogenic daughter 234 U have been utilized for dating soil formation and groundwater residence time during the last 1.5 million years, in this case based on the U-dissolution/precipitation occurring during modifications of the oxidation-reduction conditions. In this paper, we report a 400-600 kyr proxy of wet periods from sediments occurring in a soil profile developed over rocks outcropping at the Parana sedimentary basin in Brazil, and from groundwater exploited of Guarani aquifer at the same basin. The approaches indicated successful use of the U-modeled ages for suggesting wet periods exceeding the past 116-210 kyr from previous studies

  3. Effects of aged sorption on pesticide leaching to groundwater simulated with PEARL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, Jos J.T.I.

    2017-01-01

    Leaching to groundwater is an important element of the regulatory risk assessment of pesticides in western countries. Including aged sorption in this assessment is relevant because there is ample evidence of this process and because it leads to a decrease in simulated leaching. This work assesses

  4. Statin prescribing according to gender, age and indication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Støvring, Henrik; Holme Hansen, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALES, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The increasing dispensing of statins has raised concern about the appropriateness of prescribing to various population groups. We aimed to (1) investigate incident and prevalent statin prescribing according to indication, gender and age and (2) relate prescribing...... patterns to evidence on beneficial and adverse effects. METHODS: A cohort of Danish inhabitants (n = 4 424 818) was followed in nationwide registries for dispensed statin prescriptions and hospital discharge information. We calculated incidence rates (2005-2009), prevalence trends (2000-2010) and absolute...... numbers of statin users according to register proxies for indication, gender and age. RESULTS: In 2010, the prevalence became highest for ages 75-84 and was higher in men than women (37% and 33%, respectively). Indication-specific incidences and prevalences peaked at ages around 65-70, but in myocardial...

  5. Indications for breast imaging in women under age 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, V.J.; Jackson, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Many women under age 35 years undergo breast imaging, and the vast majority of studies are normal or compatible with benign disease. In our series of 649 patients aged 13 - 34, the only significant indicators were a palpable mass or infection. In the 383 patients with either of these indications, mammographic and/or US findings were normal in 53%, compatible with benign disease in 14%, and suggestive of malignancy in 33%. Biopsy performed in 80 of these women revealed breast cancer in five (6%). None of the 266 women with low-yield indications (pain, modularity, galactorrhea, fibrocystic disease, screening) had significant imaging findings or clinical or surgical evidence of breast cancer

  6. Constructing Regional Groundwater Models from Geophysical Data of Varying Type, Age, and Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vest Christiansen, Anders; Auken, Esben; Marker, Pernille Aabye

    for parameterization of a 3D model of the subsurface, integrating lithological information from boreholes with resistivity models. The objective is to create a direct input to regional groundwater models for sedimentary areas, where the sand/clay distribution governs the groundwater flow. The resistivity input is all......-inclusive in the sense that we include data from a variety of instruments (DC and EM, ground-based and airborne), with a varying spatial density and varying ages and quality. The coupling between hydrological and geophysical parameters is managed using a translator function with spatially variable parameters, which...

  7. Assessing intrinsic and specific vulnerability models ability to indicate groundwater vulnerability to groups of similar pesticides: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Steven; Dixon, Barnali; Griffin, Dale W.

    2018-01-01

    With continued population growth and increasing use of fresh groundwater resources, protection of this valuable resource is critical. A cost effective means to assess risk of groundwater contamination potential will provide a useful tool to protect these resources. Integrating geospatial methods offers a means to quantify the risk of contaminant potential in cost effective and spatially explicit ways. This research was designed to compare the ability of intrinsic (DRASTIC) and specific (Attenuation Factor; AF) vulnerability models to indicate groundwater vulnerability areas by comparing model results to the presence of pesticides from groundwater sample datasets. A logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the environmental variables and the presence or absence of pesticides within regions of varying vulnerability. According to the DRASTIC model, more than 20% of the study area is very highly vulnerable. Approximately 30% is very highly vulnerable according to the AF model. When groundwater concentrations of individual pesticides were compared to model predictions, the results were mixed. Model predictability improved when concentrations of the group of similar pesticides were compared to model results. Compared to the DRASTIC model, the AF model more accurately predicts the distribution of the number of contaminated wells within each vulnerability class.

  8. Geostatistical analysis of tritium, groundwater age and other noble gas derived parameters in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, A; Moran, J E; Hillegonds, Darren; Singleton, M J; Kulongoski, Justin T; Belitz, Kenneth; Esser, B K

    2016-03-15

    Key characteristics of California groundwater systems related to aquifer vulnerability, sustainability, recharge locations and mechanisms, and anthropogenic impact on recharge are revealed in a spatial geostatistical analysis of a unique data set of tritium, noble gases and other isotopic analyses unprecedented in size at nearly 4000 samples. The correlation length of key groundwater residence time parameters varies between tens of kilometers ((3)H; age) to the order of a hundred kilometers ((4)Heter; (14)C; (3)Hetrit). The correlation length of parameters related to climate, topography and atmospheric processes is on the order of several hundred kilometers (recharge temperature; δ(18)O). Young groundwater ages that highlight regional recharge areas are located in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, in the southern Santa Clara Valley Basin, in the upper LA basin and along unlined canals carrying Colorado River water, showing that much of the recent recharge in central and southern California is dominated by river recharge and managed aquifer recharge. Modern groundwater is found in wells with the top open intervals below 60 m depth in the southeastern San Joaquin Valley, Santa Clara Valley and Los Angeles basin, as the result of intensive pumping and/or managed aquifer recharge operations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating Chemical Tracers in Suburban Groundwater as Indicators of Nitrate-Nitrogen Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitka, A.; DeVita, W. M.; McGinley, P.

    2015-12-01

    The CDC reports that over 15 million US households use private wells. These wells are vulnerable to contamination. One of the most common contaminants in private wells is nitrate. Nitrate has a health standard of 10 mg/L. This standard is set to prevent methemaglobinemia, or "blue baby" syndrome, in infants. In extreme cases it can affect breathing and heart function, and even lead to death. Elevated nitrate concentrations have also been associated with increased risk of thyroid disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Unlike municipal wells, there is no mandatory testing of private wells. It is the responsibility of users to have their well water tested. The objective of this research was to identify the most useful chemical tracers for determining sources of nitrate in private water supplies. Chemical characteristics, such as mobility in groundwater and water solubility, as well as frequency of use, were considered when choosing source indicators. Fourteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products unique to human use were chosen to identify wells impacted by septic waste. A bovine antibiotic and five pesticide metabolites were used to identify contamination from agricultural sources. Eighteen private wells were selected in a suburban area with septic systems and adjacent agricultural land. The wells were sampled five times and analyzed to provide a temporal profile of nitrate and the tracers. The artificial sweetener sucralose was found in >70% of private wells. Wells with sucralose detected had nitrate concentrations between 5-15 mg/L. The herbicide metabolite metolachlor ESA was detected in 50% of the wells. These wells typically had the highest nitrate concentrations, often >10 mg/L. The common use and frequent detection of these two compounds made them the most reliable indicators of nitrate sources evaluated in this study. This information will help well owners determine appropriate treatment and remediation options and could direct future

  10. Water ages of 20 groundwater bodies and its relevance for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Brielmann, Heike; Humer, Franko; Grath, Johannes; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The 'Mean Residence Time' (MRT) of groundwater is required to develop reliable hydrogeological concepts of groundwater bodies as a prerequisite for a qualified monitoring and risk assessment. MRTs from monitoring wells help to assess if groundwater bodies are 'at risk' or 'not at risk' failing to meet good groundwater quantitative and chemical status according to the Water Framework Directive and therefore not being able to use the groundwater as drinking water or industrial water resource. A combination of 18O/2H, 3H, 3H/3He and in some cases additional CFC, SF6, 85Kr and 35S measurements allow to calculate reliable MRTs in 20 groundwater bodies covering 13% (approx.10719 km2) of the Austrian territory. Altogether 401 groundwater wells and springs from the existing groundwater monitoring network were analysed for δ18O (n=1500), 3H (n=800) and 3He (n=327) since 2006. Considering both the fact that monitoring wells may have multiple or long well screens and the inherent uncertainties of groundwater age dating techniques, age estimations were classified into 5 categories of short ( 50years) mean residence times for each monitoring site. Subsequently, median values of the MRT categories were assigned to each investigated groundwater body. These are valuable information to fix extraction rates, to set measures to improve the land use and groundwater protection and to validate hydrogeological concepts. Generally, MRTs of groundwater bodies increase from shallow Alpine groundwater bodies over deeper Alpine valley-aquifers to longer MRTs in the Pannonian climate range in the east of Austria.

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of Large Sets of Age-Related Physiological Indicators Reveals Rapid Aging around the Age of 55 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixie, Erin; Edgeworth, Jameson; Shamir, Lior

    2015-01-01

    While many studies show a correlation between chronological age and physiological indicators, the nature of this correlation is not fully understood. To perform a comprehensive analysis of the correlation between chronological age and age-related physiological indicators. Physiological aging scores were deduced using principal component analysis from a large dataset of 1,227 variables measured in a cohort of 4,796 human subjects, and the correlation between the physiological aging scores and chronological age was assessed. Physiological age does not progress linearly or exponentially with chronological age: a more rapid physiological change is observed around the age of 55 years, followed by a mild decline until around the age of 70 years. These findings provide evidence that the progression of physiological age is not linear with that of chronological age, and that periods of mild change in physiological age are separated by periods of more rapid aging. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Groundwater Flow Computed with Modflow and Isotopic Age Tracer Data in the Continental Intercalaire (Sahara)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, J. O.; Goncalves, J.; Deschamps, P.; Hamelin, B. [Centre Europeen de Recherche et d' Enseignement de Geosciences de l' Environnement, Aix-en-Provence (France); Zouari, K. [Laboratoire de Radio-Analyses et Environnement, Sfax (Tunisia); Guendouz, A. [University of Blida, Science Engineering Faculty, Soummaa Blida (Algeria); Michelot, J. -L. [Interactions et Dynamique des Environnements de Surface, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    2013-07-15

    In one of the largest confined aquifers of the world, the Continental Intercalaire (Sahara), which is located in an arid region (57 mm/y of mean of precipitation), groundwater flow patterns are rather complex. Coupling measurements of isotopic composition of water and age mass calculations obtained by numerical simulations can allow, to a greater extent than a simple comparison, to constrain and validate the recharge scenario, transport and age of groundwater. First, the multiple tracers {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, or {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U used in this study including noble gases such as {sup 4}He, allow investigation of a large range of groundwater ages. Then a MODFLOW simulation is built using (i) the distribution of hydrological parameters, (ii) geometrical limits and iii) the concept of age mass of water, accounting for the tracers data. This approach improves the understanding of the hydrodynamics of this system. In particular, the mixing of old and young waters should be better constrained and the interpretation of paleohydrological conditions is permitted. (author)

  13. Use of multiple age tracers to estimate groundwater residence times and long-term recharge rates in arid southern Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Th.; Osenbrück, K.; Strauch, G.; Pavetich, S.; Al-Mashaikhi, K.-S.; Herb, C.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Aeschbach, W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple age tracers were measured to estimate groundwater residence times in the regional aquifer system underlying southwestern Oman. This area, known as the Najd, is one of the most arid areas in the world and is planned to be the main agricultural center of the Sultanate of Oman in the near future. The three isotopic age tracers 4He, 14C and 36Cl were measured in waters collected from wells along a line that extended roughly from the Dhofar Mountains near the Arabian Sea northward 400 km into the Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula. The wells sampled were mostly open to the Umm Er Radhuma confined aquifer, although, some were completed in the mostly unconfined Rus aquifer. The combined results from the three tracers indicate the age of the confined groundwater is  100 ka in the central section north of the mountains, and up to and > one Ma in the Empty Quarter. The 14C data were used to help calibrate the 4He and 36Cl data. Mixing models suggest that long open boreholes north of the mountains compromise 14C-only interpretations there, in contrast to 4He and 36Cl calculations that are less sensitive to borehole mixing. Thus, only the latter two tracers from these more distant wells were considered reliable. In addition to the age tracers, δ2H and δ18O data suggest that seasonal monsoon and infrequent tropical cyclones are both substantial contributors to the recharge. The study highlights the advantages of using multiple chemical and isotopic data when estimating groundwater travel times and recharge rates, and differentiating recharge mechanisms.

  14. Uncertainty in 14C model ages of groundwater: The influence of soil gas in terranes dominated by C3 plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.; Hart, R.; Eggett, D.

    2009-12-01

    groundwater age models due to the choice of soil gas δ13C inputs. However, differences in the mean values changes calculated groundwater ages by about 800 years. Due to diffusive exchange, δ13C values of carbon dioxide in the soil zone vary between -8‰ at the soil/atmosphere interface and a steady state value of ˜ -23‰ at depth, thus greatly increasing the uncertainty in the choice of model input values depending on where in the soil column recharge water acquires its dissolved gas. Direct measurement, inverse models, and forward models of δ13C gradients indicate that during recharge events, the occupation of >50% of dry pore space by water decreases the effective gas porosity and increases the tortuosity to such a degree that large isotopic gradients between soil and atmospheric carbon dioxide are effectively erased at depths below 10 to 20 cm. As a result, although assumptions must be clearly stated and resulting groundwater ages are model dependent, increased precision in 14C ages of groundwater can be obtained, especially for temperate climates dominated by C3 flora.

  15. Age determination of ground-waters by means of carbon 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, L.

    1982-02-01

    At present the age determination of ground-waters aged between 1,500 and approximately 40,000 years is only possible by measuring their 14 C content. A precise age assignment can be established in slightly mineralised waters, whereas it becomes vague in mineralised waters, particularly in acidulous springs. In general, additional information and data are required about the 13 C, D, 18 O, 3 H, 85 Kr and the 39 Ar contents, about the ph value, temperature and the principal ions. (DG) [de

  16. Human enteric viruses in groundwater indicate offshore transport of human sewage to coral reefs of the Upper Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, J. Carrie; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the issue of human sewage reaching corals along the main reef of the Florida Keys, samples were collected from surface water, groundwater and coral [surface mucopolysaccharide layers (SML)] along a 10 km transect near Key Largo, FL. Samples were collected semi-annually between July 2003 and September 2005 and processed for faecal indicator bacteria (faecal coliform bacteria, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens) and human-specific enteric viruses (enterovirus RNA and adenovirus DNA) by (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction. Faecal indicator bacteria concentrations were generally higher nearshore and in the coral SML. Enteric viruses were evenly distributed across the transect stations. Adenoviruses were detected in 37 of 75 samples collected (49.3%) whereas enteroviruses were only found in 8 of 75 samples (10.7%). Both viruses were detected twice as frequently in coral compared with surface water or groundwater. Offshore, viruses were most likely to be found in groundwater, especially during the wet summer season. These data suggest that polluted groundwater may be moving to the outer reef environment in the Florida Keys.

  17. Analysis and determination of age of oil spills in soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedl, P.; Schindlbauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    The extensive searching for hydrocarbon-based spills in soil and groundwater during the last few years rises the question of whom caused these contaminations. The answer to this very specific question is not easy and often requires the exact determination of age of the contamination. Therefore, the sampling of all imaginable data around the spilled material is necessary. Beginning at the precise check-up of the geological surrounding, including the definition of the condition and construction of the soil as well as the determination of the flow-direction of the groundwater, the chemical analysis should describe the containing substances and/or the products in the best possible way. Summing all these data and taking into consideration of the well-known microbiological pathways of decomposition for one- and/or a group of substances, it should be possible to determine the age of a contamination. (orig.) [de

  18. The Study of Groundwater Age in Semarang Area Considering Beta Activityof Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F, Wisjachudin; Agus-Sulistiyono; Fajar-Budi Haendrapratikto

    2000-01-01

    The groundwater age in Semarang regency, they are Genuk, Pedurungan,North Semarang, Urban Semarang, Mijen, Mangkang, Manyaran, Tembalang, Sekaranconsidering tritium content inside has been done. Tritium content ingroundwater given pretreatment that is enriching tritium content usingsynthesize technique by benzene synthesizer (H 2 O converted into C 6 H 6 ).Tritium activity in C 6 H 6 was analyzed using liquid scintillation counterPackard 2000 CA/LL. Optimum condition of volume ratio between cocktail(picofluor) and sample solution is reached ratio of 10 : 10. Efficiencydetection (ε) = 42.16 %, while merit factor = 1.981.10 5 . From twolocations that can be detected show that analysis on groundwater age onManyaran location (damar formation) is younger than Urban Semarang (alluviumsediment), which is match to geological analysis considering geological layershows that on geology layer of volcanic breksi layer is younger than damarformation area and the oldest is the alluvium sediment area. (author)

  19. Oxygen isotope composition as late glacial palaeoclimate indicators of groundwater recharge in the Baltic Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrik, R.; Mazeika, J.

    2002-01-01

    Several hypotheses were established to explain low δ 18 O values of groundwater which have been found in the Estonian Homocline. Traces of depleted groundwater were found also in other parts of the Baltic Basin near the shoreline. From data collected in this and previous studies, the δ 18 O values of groundwater in most aquifers are known to range from -7.7 to -13.9 per mille. However, the groundwater in Estonia in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system has significantly lower δ 18 O values, which vary mainly from -18 to -22.5 per mille. The overlying Ordovician-Cambrian aquifer is also depleted in 18 O, but, as a rule, the degree of depletion is several per mille less than in case of the Cambrian- Vendian aquifer. The thickness of the depleted water in Estonia reaches 450 m. At similar depths beneath Gotland Island (Sweden Homocline), groundwater has significantly higher δ 18 O values (from -5.7 to -6.1 per mille). A hydrogeologic model, depicting conditions during the pre Late Glacial, and accounting for hydraulic connections between the lake and river systems through taliks in permafrost, was developed to explain the observed groundwater isotope data. According to the adopted model, penetration of isotopically depleted surface waters could have reached depths of up to 500 m, with subsequent mixing between subglacial meltwater and old groundwater of Huneborg-Denekamp time. Traces of this penetration were discovered only near the shoreline, where δ 18 O values vary from -12 to -13.9 per mille and 14 C is below 4%. In the territory of the Estonian Homocline, the hydraulically close connection via the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer between talik systems of the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland existed through permafrost before the Late Glacial. This was due to subglacial recharge during the recessional Pandivere (12 ka BP) and Palivere (11.2 ka BP) phases, which is also associated with recharge of isotopically depleted groundwater. (author)

  20. Dry Stream Reaches in Carbonate Terranes: Surface Indicators of Ground-Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahana, J.V.; Hollyday, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    In areas where dry stream reaches occur, subsurface drainage successfully competes with surface drainage, and sheet-like dissolution openings have developed parallel to bedding creating the ground-water reservoir. Union Hollow in south-central Tennessee is the setting for a case study that illustrates the application of the dry stream reach technique. In this technique, dry stream reach identification is based on two types of readily acquired information: remotely sensed black and white infrared aerial photography; and surface reconnaissance of stream channel characteristics. Test drilling in Union Hollow subsequent to identification of the dry reach proved that a localized ground-water reservoir was present.

  1. Bacterial sulphate reduction and mixing processes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory indicated by groundwater δ34S isotope signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, Bill

    2011-04-01

    This report includes data mostly obtained from δ 34 S isotope measurements of groundwater at the Aespoe Island and one sampling from the Laxemar site, southeastern Sweden, during tunnel construction. Early sampling at Aespoe (up to 1992), before tunnel excavation, indicates a groundwater system with multiple sulphur sources. The isotope changes over time in the dissolved sulphate were studied during a sampling campaign in the monitoring phase from 1993 to 1995. A total of 88 samples were collected by SKB between 1992 and 1995 from core-drilled surface boreholes and from boreholes drilled in the tunnel (34 of these samples were collected from the tunnel boreholes). The results of the analyses have been the focus of discussion of the isotope changes with time in the dissolved sulphate (SO 4 2- ). The results indicate that the sulphur isotope signatures in the dissolved sulphate of the groundwater and those from fracture-filling sulphides at Aespoe originate from multiple sulphur sources in the groundwater at Aespoe and Laxemar. The data may be grouped as follows: a) typically homogeneous marine signatures of dissolved SO 4 2- are observed, with δ 34 S values of approximately +21 per mille CDT at intermediate depths of approximately 100-250 m; b) dissolved sulphate in the groundwater at greater depths (below 600 m) with average values of approximately +10 per mille CDT; and c) a dissolved SO 4 2- originating from a mixture of these sulphur sources (100-600m), although there is a difference between a mixture and modification by reduction. Reduced sulphur with low δ 34 S values is also recorded in fracture-filling sulphides, with δ 34 S values of approximately 0 to -10 per mille CDT. This may contribute to small changes in the isotope signature of the dissolved SO 4 2- , probably by sulphide oxidation in the past. The changes in the δ 34 S isotope data for dissolved SO 4 2- over the 1992-1996 period suggest a complex situation, indicating both sulphate reduction by

  2. Apparent 85Kr ages of groundwater within the Royal watershed, Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, W C

    2006-01-01

    Specific 85Kr activity is mapped from 264 domestic and municipal wells sampled during 2002-2004 in the Royal watershed (361 km2), Maine. Gas samples are collected at 20 m, 40 m, and > 50 m interval depths within the unconfined aquifers. Gas extraction for 85Kr from wells is obtained directly via a wellhead methodology avoiding conventional collection of large sample volumes. Atmospheric 85Kr input to the recharge environment is estimated at 1.27 Bq m(-3) by time-series analyses of weighted monthly precipitation (2001-2004). Numerical simulation of Kr gas transport through the variable unsaturated zones to the water table suggests up to 12-year time lags locally, thus biasing the 85Kr groundwater ages. Apparent 85Kr ages suggest that approximately 70% of groundwater near 20 m depth was recharged less than 30 years BP (2004). Mass-age transport modeling suggests that post mid-1950s recharge penetrates to part of the basin's floor and that older groundwater seeps from the underlying fractured bedrock may occur.

  3. [Psychanalitic psychotherapy: practice and indications in the aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudel, Bertrand

    2004-09-01

    Use of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for the elderly remains an issue. Even though regular psychoanalysis cure is contraindicated for elderly patients in most cases, yet, face-to-face psychotherapies can prove useful. The methods used for psychoanalytic psychotherapy for elderly patients are different from those applicable to middle age patients. These methods take into account the mourning process experienced by the elderly patient in three spheres: loss of object, loss of function and loss of oneself. Indications concerning psychoanalytic psychotherapy for the elderly have to be carefully assessed and will be detailed throughout the paper.

  4. Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Indices of Mashhad Plain using Geostatistics and GIS Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Yazdani

    2017-11-01

    The outcomes illustrate that the qualitative conditions of underground water resources, particularly in TDS and TH are in the inappropriate condition in the southern parts of Mashhad. It is related to the high population density and the lack of proper drainage. It is needed to restrict over exploitation of groundwater resources in critical hot spots, along with defining alternative safe water sources for urban consumption.

  5. Pollution indicators in groundwater of two agricultural catchments in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Lidia; Modelska, Magdalena; Staśko, Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the content and source of mineral nitrogen compounds in groundwater, based on the data collected in two river catchments in two series (spring and autumn 2014). The study area comprises two catchments located in Lower Silesia, Poland - Cicha Woda and Sąsiecznica. Both catchments are characterised agricultural character of development. In the both researched areas, the points of State Environmental Monitoring (SEM) are located but only the Cicha Woda area is classified as nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ). To analyse and compare the contamination of Quaternary and Neogene aquifers, the concentration of nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and potassium ions was measured primarily. Results showed the exceedance of nitrogen mineral forms of shallow groundwater Quaternary aquifer in both basins. The concentration of nitrates range from 0.08 to 142.12 mgNO3 -/dm3 (Cicha Woda) and from 2.6 to 137.65 mg NO3 -/dm3 (Sąsiecznica). The major source of pollution is probably the intensive agriculture activity. It causes a degradation of the shallow groundwater because of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, phosphates and ammonium contents. There was no observed contamination of anthropogenic origin in the deeper Neogene aquifer of Cicha Woda catchment.

  6. Chemical Evolution of Groundwater Near a Sinkhole Lake, Northern Florida: 1. Flow Patterns, Age of Groundwater, and Influence of Lake Water Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Lee, Terrie M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    1995-06-01

    Leakage from sinkhole lakes significantly influences recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer in poorly confined sediments in northern Florida. Environmental isotopes (oxygen 18, deuterium, and tritium), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CCl3F; CFC-12, CCl2F2; and CFC-113, C2Cl3F3), and solute tracers were used to investigate groundwater flow patterns near Lake Barco, a seepage lake in a mantled karst setting in northern Florida. Stable isotope data indicated that the groundwater downgradient from the lake contained 11-67% lake water leakage, with a limit of detection of lake water in groundwater of 4.3%. The mixing fractions of lake water leakage, which passed through organic-rich sediments in the lake bottom, were directly proportional to the observed methane concentrations and increased with depth in the groundwater flow system. In aerobic groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco, CFC-modeled recharge dates ranged from 1987 near the water table to the mid 1970s for water collected at a depth of 30 m below the water table. CFC-modeled recharge dates (based on CFC-12) for anaerobic groundwater downgradient from the lake ranged from the late 1950s to the mid 1970s and were consistent with tritium data. CFC-modeled recharge dates based on CFC-11 indicated preferential microbial degradation in anoxic waters. Vertical hydraulic conductivities, calculated using CFC-12 modeled recharge dates and Darcy's law, were 0.17, 0.033, and 0.019 m/d for the surficial aquifer, intermediate confining unit, and lake sediments, respectively. These conductivities agreed closely with those used in the calibration of a three-dimensional groundwater flow model for transient and steady state flow conditions.

  7. Human virus and microbial indicator occurrence in public-supply groundwater systems: meta-analysis of 12 international studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fout, G. Shay; Borchardt, Mark A.; Kieke, Burney A.; Karim, Mohammad R.

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater quality is often evaluated using microbial indicators. This study examines data from 12 international groundwater studies (conducted 1992-2013) of 718 public drinking-water systems located in a range of hydrogeological settings. Focus was on testing the value of indicator organisms for identifying virus-contaminated wells. One or more indicators and viruses were present in 37 and 15% of 2,273 samples and 44 and 27% of 746 wells, respectively. Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and somatic coliphage are 7-9 times more likely to be associated with culturable virus-positive samples when the indicator is present versus when it is absent, while F-specific and somatic coliphages are 8-9 times more likely to be associated with culturable virus-positive wells. However, single indicators are only marginally associated with viruses detected by molecular methods, and all microbial indicators have low sensitivity and positive predictive values for virus occurrence, whether by culturable or molecular assays, i.e., indicators are often absent when viruses are present and the indicators have a high false-positive rate. Wells were divided into three susceptibility subsets based on presence of (1) total coliform bacteria or (2) multiple indicators, or (3) location of wells in karst, fractured bedrock, or gravel/cobble settings. Better associations of some indicators with viruses were observed for (1) and (3). Findings indicate the best indicators are E. coli or somatic coliphage, although both indicators may underestimate virus occurrence. Repeat sampling for indicators improves evaluation of the potential for viral contamination in a well.

  8. Plants as bio-indicators of subsurface conditions: impact of groundwater level on BTEX concentrations in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan; Bartz, Rachel; Limmer, Matt; Burken, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated trees' ability to extract and translocate moderately hydrophobic contaminants, and sampling trees for compounds such as BTEX can help delineate plumes in the field. However, when BTEX is detected in the groundwater, detection in nearby trees is not as reliable an indicator of subsurface contamination as other compounds such as chlorinated solvents. Aerobic rhizospheric and bulk soil degradation is a potential explanation for the observed variability of BTEX in trees as compared to groundwater concentrations. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of groundwater level on BTEX concentrations in tree tissue. The central hypothesis was increased vadose zone thickness promotes biodegradation of BTEX leading to lower BTEX concentrations in overlying trees. Storage methods for tree core samples were also investigated as a possible reason for tree cores revealing lower than expected BTEX levels in some sampling efforts. The water level hypothesis was supported in a greenhouse study, where water table level was found to significantly affect tree BTEX concentrations, indicating that the influx of oxygen coupled with the presence of the tree facilitates aerobic biodegradation of BTEX in the vadose zone.

  9. BrainAGE score indicates accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Igor; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2017-08-30

    BrainAGE (brain age gap estimation) is a novel morphometric parameter providing a univariate score derived from multivariate voxel-wise analyses. It uses a machine learning approach and can be used to analyse deviation from physiological developmental or aging-related trajectories. Using structural MRI data and BrainAGE quantification of acceleration or deceleration of in individual aging, we analysed data from 45 schizophrenia patients, 22 bipolar I disorder patients (mostly with previous psychotic symptoms / episodes), and 70 healthy controls. We found significantly higher BrainAGE scores in schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder patients. Our findings indicate significantly accelerated brain structural aging in schizophrenia. This suggests, that despite the conceptualisation of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, there might be an additional progressive pathogenic component. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Groundwater quality, age, and susceptibility and vulnerability to nitrate contamination with linkages to land use and groundwater flow, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2016-03-03

    The Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin is located about 25 kilometers east of Colorado Springs, Colorado. The primary aquifer is a productive section of unconsolidated deposits that overlies bedrock units of the Denver Basin and is a critical resource for local water needs, including irrigation, domestic, and commercial use. The primary aquifer also serves an important regional role by the export of water to nearby communities in the Colorado Springs area. Changes in land use and development over the last decade, which includes substantial growth of subdivisions in the Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, have led to uncertainty regarding the potential effects to water quality throughout the basin. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Cherokee Metropolitan District, El Paso County, Meridian Service Metropolitan District, Mountain View Electric Association, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Groundwater Management District, Woodmen Hills Metropolitan District, Colorado State Land Board, and Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the stakeholders represented in the Groundwater Quality Study Committee of El Paso County conducted an assessment of groundwater quality and groundwater age with an emphasis on characterizing nitrate in the groundwater.

  11. Therapeutic indications for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in aged people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Hisao; Kawasoe, Takuma; Miyata, Shiro; Nakano, Shinichi; Wakisaka, Shinichiro; Fujime, Kenichi; Ohta, Hajime; Arikawa, Shoji

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the therapeutic indications for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in aged people. Between April 1999 and March 2002, 142 patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated and enrolled in this study. They were divided into 3 groups: 33 patients 75 years old and older (Group A, 23.2%), 37 between 65 and 74 years old (Group B, 26.1%), and 72 64 years old and younger (Group C, 47.4). Hunt and Kosnik grades, Fisher's CT classifications and clinical outcome were evaluated in each group. Clinical outcome was measured by Glasgow Outcome Scale, and good recovery and moderately disabled were defined as favorable outcome. Group A had a significantly higher incidence of serious Hunt and Kosnik grades of patients compared with the other 2 groups (p<0.05, <0.01). Fisher's CT classification was also more severe in Group A than Group C (p<0.05). Therefore the rate of radical treatments was significantly lower in Group A (45.5%) compared with Group B (73.0%) and C (86.1%). Only 4 of the 33 patients (12.1%) with favorable outcome were in Group A, whereas the rates of favorable outcome in Group B and C were 54.1 and 62.5%, respectively. Group A had a significantly poor outcome compared with the other 2 groups. Particularly, none of the patients in Group A with Hunt and Kosnik Grades 4-5 and Fisher's Classification 4 had favorable outcome. Since there were no significant differences in the rate of radical treatments and clinical outcome between Group B and C, aged people 74 years old and younger should be actively treated in the same manner as the young. In aged people 75 years old and older, however, radical treatment should be restricted to those with Hunt and Kosnik Grade 1-3 and Fisher's CT Classification 2-3. (author)

  12. Effects of aged sorption on pesticide leaching to groundwater simulated with PEARL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesten, Jos J T I

    2017-01-15

    Leaching to groundwater is an important element of the regulatory risk assessment of pesticides in western countries. Including aged sorption in this assessment is relevant because there is ample evidence of this process and because it leads to a decrease in simulated leaching. This work assesses the likely magnitude of this decrease for four groundwater scenarios used for regulatory purpose in the EU (from the UK, Portugal, Austria and Greece) and for ranges of aged-sorption parameters and substance properties using the PEARL model. Three aged-sorption parameters sets were derived from literature, representing approximately 5th, 50th and 95th percentile cases for the magnitude of the effect of aged sorption on leaching concentrations (called S, M and L, respectively). The selection of these percentile cases was based only on the f NE parameter (i.e. the ratio of the aged sorption and the equilibrium sorption coefficients) because leaching was much more affected by the uncertainty in this parameter than by the uncertainty in the desorption rate coefficient of these sites (k d ). For the UK scenario, the annual flux concentration of pesticide leaching at 1m depth decreased by typically a factor of 5, 30 and >1000 for the S, M and L parameter sets, respectively. This decrease by a factor of 30 for the M parameter set appeared to be approximately valid also for the other three scenarios. Decreasing the Freundlich exponent N from 0.9 into 0.7 for the M parameter set, increased this factor of 30 into a factor of typically 1000, considering all four scenarios. The aged-sorption sites were close to their equilibrium conditions during the leaching simulations for two of the four scenarios (for all substances considered and the M parameter set), but this was not the case for the other two scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial Indicators, Pathogens, and Antibiotic Resistance in Groundwater Impacted by Animal Farming: Field Scale to Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Li, X.; Atwill, E. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Several surveys of microbial indicators and pathogens were conducted to determine the impact of confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) on shallow, local, and regional groundwater quality in the Central Valley aquifer system, California. The aquifer system consists of highly heterogeneous, alluvial, unconsolidated coarse- to fine-grained sediments and is among the largest aquifers in the U.S.. Overlying landuse includes 3 million ha of irrigated agriculture and 1.7 million mature dairy cows in nearly 1,500 CAFOs. A multi-scale survey of water-borne indicator pathogens (Enterococcus spp. and generic E. coli) and of three water-borne pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7) was conducted at five different spatial scales, increasing with distance from animal sources of these enteric microbial organisms: moist surfaces within individual CAFO sub-systems (calf-hutches, heifer corrals, mature cow stalls, hospital barn etc.), first encountered (shallow) groundwater immediately below these sub-systems, production aquifer below CAFOs, production aquifer near CAFOs, and production aquifer away from CAFOs. Where found, indicator pathogens were tested for antibiotic resistance. Hundreds of samples were collected at each scale: continuously during irrigation events and seasonally over a multi-year period at the three smaller site-scales; and in a one-time survey at the two larger, regional scales. All three pathogens were frequently detected in moist surface samples across CAFO sub-systems, albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude lower than enteric indicators. Two of the three pathogens (but not Campylobacter) were also detected in first encountered groundwater, at 3-9 m below ground surface, in 1% of samples. No pathogens were found at the production aquifer scales. Generic E. coli was detected in ¼ of first encountered groundwater samples, and in 4% of production aquifer samples, while Enterococcus spp. was ubiquitously present across the

  14. Physical parameters of groundwater as indicators of pollution in industrial areas of Taxila, Wah and Hasanabdal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Zaheer-ud-Dln-Qureshi

    2004-01-01

    The Wah area historically famous for having sweet aquifer system is greatly effected due to environmental activities, such as industrialization and poor sewage system in the recent past. Thirty water samples have been collected from dug wells penetrating to shallow two layers in a multi layered aquifer system. The shallow aquifer is located at a depth of 45-85 feet and composed of very fine grained sand to silt in two layers separated by silty clay. To assess the contamination problems, physical parameters of groundwater such as temperature, color, turbidity, odour and taste have been estimated fifty percent of the dug wells have been found as contaminated and not fit for human consumption according 10 WHO standards. High values of electrical conductance determined in fifty percent of wells show trends of chemical contamination and their probable sources near by these wells against the general recharge pattern prevailing in the area can be located. (author)

  15. Investigation of geochemical indicators to evaluate the connection between inland and coastal groundwater systems near Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, Fred D; Oki, Delwyn S.; Johnson, Adam G.; Barber, Larry B.; Beisner, Kimberly R.

    2014-01-01

    mixing process between the inland impounded and coastal unconfined-groundwater systems. Stable isotopes of water in many samples from the coastal unconfined-groundwater system require an aggregate recharge altitude that is substantially higher than the boundary between the coastal unconfined and inland impounded systems, a further indication of a hydrologic connection between the two systems. The stable isotope composition of the freshwater component of water samples from KAHO indicates that about 25–70% of the freshwater is derived from the inland impounded system

  16. Hydrochemistry of the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, East-Central Illinois: indicators of recharge and ground-water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, Chao-Li

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual model of the ground-water flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA), east-central Illinois, was developed using major ion chemistry and isotope geochemistry. The MVA is a 'basal' fill in the east-west trending buried bedrock valley composed of clean, permeable sand and gravel to thicknesses of up to 61 m. It is covered by a thick sequence of glacial till containing thinner bodies of interbedded sand and gravel. Ground water from the MVA was found to be characterized by clearly defined geochemical regions with three distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west. Ground water in the Onarga Valley, a northeastern tributary of the MVA, is of two types, a mixed cation-SO42- type and a mixed cation-HCO3- type. The ground water is enriched in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- which appears to be the result of an upward hydraulic gradient and interaction of deeper ground water with oxidized pyritic coals and shale. We suggest that recharge to the Onarga Valley and overlying aquifers is 100% from bedrock (leakage) and lateral flow from the MVA to the south. The central MVA (south of the Onarga Valley) is composed of relatively dilute ground water of a mixed cation-HCO3- type, with low total dissolved solids, and very low concentrations of Cl- and SO42-. Stratigraphic relationships of overlying aquifers and ground-water chemistry of these and the MVA suggest recharge to this region of the MVA (predominantly in Champaign County) is relatively rapid and primarily from the surface. Midway along the westerly flow path of the MVA (western MVA), ground water is a mixed cation-HCO3- type with relatively high Cl-, where Cl- increases abruptly by one to ??? two orders of magnitude. Data suggest that the increase in Cl- is the result of leakage of saline ground water from bedrock into the MVA. Mass-balance calculations indicate that approximately 9.5% of

  17. Dental and Skeletal Maturity- A Biological Indicator of Chronologic Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sonali; Yadav, Gunjan; Tripathi, Abhay Mani; Grover, Kavita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Precise evaluation of the developmental stage of a child is not only an integral part of both diagnosis and treatment of paediatric patients; it is also essential in Forensic Medicine and Dentistry. Physiologic age can be estimated by somatic, sexual, skeletal and dental maturity. Aim: Investigate the relationship between the dental age (DA) and skeletal age (SA) of children and comparing it with the chronological age (CA). Materials and Methods: The dental age estimation methods of Schour and Massler (S&M), and Demirjian and Goldstien (D&G) and skeletal assessment methods of Greulich and Pyle (G&P), and Tanner et al., (TW2) were used to analyze the orthopantomograms and hand-wrist radiographs respectively of 150 healthy subjects within the age range of 5-15 y and compared with the Chronological Age. Statistical Analysis: Data collected was statistically analysed using the SPSS version 15.0 Statistical Analysis Software. For all tests p-value of <0.05 were considered statistically significance. Results: Dental age estimation techniques were found comparable and equally reliable as the skeletal age estimation methods. Strong correlations between dental and skeletal maturation were demonstrated. PMID:25386525

  18. Environmental tracers as indicators of groundwater flow and evolution in a fractured rock aquifer, Clare Valley, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, A.J.; Cook, P.G.; Herczeg, A.L.; Simmons, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental tracers, chemistry and hydraulic data have been used to develop a conceptual model for groundwater flow in a fractured rock aquifer, at Clare, South Australia. In the upper 36 m there is relatively high horizontal flow, closely spaced fractures and large apertures. Below 36 m, horizontal flow rates are less and apertures become smaller. A sub horizontal fracture at 36 m separates the upper system from flow systems below. There is minimum vertical connection of groundwater above and below 36 m as indicated by low hydraulic conductivity and a steep 14 C concentration gradient. The observed linear trends in chemistry and isotope data are a result of mixing between old saline water and relatively younger fresh water. Greater mixing has occurred in the upper 36 m, with the amount of mixing diminishing with depth. We propose that this mixing is a recent process that has been triggered as a result of increased recharge to the system since the clearing of native vegetation approximately 100 years ago. Increased recharge of lower salinity water has resulted in the establishment of concentration gradients between the matrix and the fractures. This has resulted in diffusion of relatively immobile water in the matrix into relatively fast moving water in the fractures. Greater flushing has occurred in the upper 36 m due greater fracture density and larger apertures and higher horizontal flow rates. (author)

  19. Radiological Indicators of Bone Age Assessment in Cephalometric Images. Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Derwich, Marcin; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Łoboda, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to assess bone age accurately is important and allows to diagnose the patient correctly and to plan orthodontic treatment appropriately. The aim of the work is to present views of different authors on the subject of using cephalometric images to determine bone age and its significance for conducting appropriate orthodontic treatment. Publications from the PubMed medical database were analyzed. Search criteria: bone age assessment, CVM method. Ultimately, 36 papers out of 1354 publications were selected. The research of many authors confirms the usefulness of various methods using cephalometric images to assess skeletal age. Currently, the CVM method devised by Baccetti et al. is the most frequently mentioned one in literature. It seems that bone age assessment methods based on evaluating the morphological structure of the cervical vertebrae in cephalometric images can clearly differentiate skeletal maturity in children regardless of their race or sex. Bearing in mind the constant technological progress in medicine and stomatology, bone age assessment methods need to be perfected in order to alleviate their impact on the patient as much as possible. PMID:27536337

  20. Predictive neuromechanical simulations indicate why walking performance declines with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seungmoon; Geyer, Hartmut

    2018-04-01

    Although the natural decline in walking performance with ageing affects the quality of life of a growing elderly population, its physiological origins remain unknown. By using predictive neuromechanical simulations of human walking with age-related neuro-musculo-skeletal changes, we find evidence that the loss of muscle strength and muscle contraction speed dominantly contribute to the reduced walking economy and speed. The findings imply that focusing on recovering these muscular changes may be the only effective way to improve performance in elderly walking. More generally, the work is of interest for investigating the physiological causes of altered gait due to age, injury and disorders. Healthy elderly people walk slower and energetically less efficiently than young adults. This decline in walking performance lowers the quality of life for a growing ageing population, and understanding its physiological origin is critical for devising interventions that can delay or revert it. However, the origin of the decline in walking performance remains unknown, as ageing produces a range of physiological changes whose individual effects on gait are difficult to separate in experiments with human subjects. Here we use a predictive neuromechanical model to separately address the effects of common age-related changes to the skeletal, muscular and nervous systems. We find in computer simulations of this model that the combined changes produce gait consistent with elderly walking and that mainly the loss of muscle strength and mass reduces energy efficiency. In addition, we find that the slower preferred walking speed of elderly people emerges in the simulations when adapting to muscle fatigue, again mainly caused by muscle-related changes. The results suggest that a focus on recovering these muscular changes may be the only effective way to improve performance in elderly walking. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  1. A local freshwater impact – proposing a groundwater indicator AGWaRe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Ryle Nørskov; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Rasmussen, Jens

    on the water resource. Furthermore a local water stress indicator is necessary for benchmarking regional water supplies against each other. AWaRe is the freshwater impact recommended by the Lifecycle Initiative (developed by WULCA). It is defined as the inverse function of Availability Minus Demand (AMD) which......Currently there are several world maps showing the water stress in regions or nations. They give a good indication of water stress on a larger scale, but do not have information on a local scale that may assist a water utility in their prioritization of well fields to lower the overall pressure...... is compared to the world average AMD. The AMD represents the water remaining after human consumption and environmental requirements. This is done for a grid of 50x50km worldwide, but it does not give sufficient information on a local scale. Therefore we modified the AWaRe indicator so that it can account...

  2. Using dissolved gases to observe the evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Baseflows in snowmelt-dominated mountain streams are critical for sustaining ecosystems and water resources during periods of greatest demand. Future climate predictions for mountainous areas throughout much of the western U.S. include increasing temperatures, declining snowpacks, and earlier snowmelt periods. The degree to and rate at which these changes will affect baseflows in mountain streams remains unknown, largely because baseflows are groundwater-fed and the relationship between climate and groundwater recharge/discharge rates in mountain watersheds is uncertain. We use groundwater age determinations from multiple dissolved gas tracers (CFCs, SF6, and 3H/3He) to track changes in groundwater age over a period of thirteen years in the Sagehen Creek watershed, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA. Data were collected from springs and wells in 2009 and 2010 and combined with those obtained in prior studies from 1997 to 2003. Apparent ages range from 0 to >60 years. Comparison between variations in age and variations in snow water equivalent (SWE) and mean annual air temperature reveals the degree of correlation between these climate variables and recharge rate. Further, comparison of apparent ages from individual springs obtained at different times and using different tracers helps constrain the age distribution in the sampled waters. The age data are generally more consistent with an exponential age distribution than with piston-flow. However, many samples, even those with relatively old mean ages, must have a disproportionately large very young fraction that responds directly to annual SWE variations. These findings have important implications for how future baseflows may respond to decreasing SWE.

  3. Using StorAge Selection Functions to Improve Simulation of Groundwater Nitrate Lag Times in the SWAT Modeling Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilusz, D. C.; Fuka, D.; Cho, C.; Ball, W. P.; Easton, Z. M.; Harman, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Intensive agriculture and atmospheric deposition have dramatically increased the input of reactive nitrogen into many watersheds worldwide. Reactive nitrogen can leach as nitrate into groundwater, which is stored and eventually released over years to decades into surface waters, potentially degrading water quality. To simulate the fate and transport of groundwater nitrate, many researchers and practitioners use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) or an enhanced version of SWAT that accounts for topographically-driven variable source areas (TopoSWAT). Both SWAT and TopoSWAT effectively assume that nitrate in the groundwater reservoir is well-mixed, which is known to be a poor assumption at many sites. In this study, we describe modifications to TopoSWAT that (1) relax the assumption of groundwater well-mixedness, (2) more flexibly parameterize groundwater transport as a time-varying distribution of travel times using the recently developed theory of rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions, and (3) allow for groundwater age to be represented by position on the hillslope or hydrological distance from the stream. The approach conceptualizes the groundwater aquifer as a population of water parcels entering as recharge with a particular nitrate concentration, aging as they move through storage, and eventually exiting as baseflow. The rSAS function selects the distribution of parcel ages that exit as baseflow based on a parameterized probability distribution; this distribution can be adjusted to preferentially select different distributions of young and old parcels in storage so as to reproduce (in principle) any form of transport. The modified TopoSWAT model (TopoSWAT+rSAS) is tested at a small agricultural catchment in the Eastern Shore, MD with an extensive hydrologic and hydrochemical data record for calibration and evaluation. The results examine (1) the sensitivity of TopoSWAT+rSAS modeling of nitrate transport to assumptions about the distribution of travel

  4. Groundwater age, mixing and flow rates in the vicinity of large open pit mines, Pilbara region, northwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter; Dogramaci, Shawan; McCallum, James; Hedley, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Determining groundwater ages from environmental tracer concentrations measured on samples obtained from open bores or long-screened intervals is fraught with difficulty because the sampled water represents a variety of ages. A multi-tracer technique (Cl, 14C, 3H, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113 and SF6) was used to decipher the groundwater ages sampled from long-screened production bores in a regional aquifer around an open pit mine in the Pilbara region of northwest Australia. The changes in tracer concentrations due to continuous dewatering over 7 years (2008-2014) were examined, and the tracer methods were compared. Tracer concentrations suggest that groundwater samples are a mixture of young and old water; the former is inferred to represent localised recharge from an adjacent creek, and the latter to be diffuse recharge. An increase in 14C activity with time in wells closest to the creek suggests that dewatering of the open pit to achieve dry mining conditions has resulted in change in flow direction, so that localised recharge from the creek now forms a larger proportion of the pumped groundwater. The recharge rate prior to development, calculated from a steady-state Cl mass balance, is 6 mm/y, and is consistent with calculations based on the 14C activity. Changes in CFC-12 concentrations with time may be related to the change in water-table position relative to the depth of the well screen.

  5. Local Staple Food Price Indices in the Age of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    In many poor, food insecure regions, agriculture is a primary source of income and farmers are reliant both on their own production and on purchasing food in the market to feed their families. Large local food price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation and may be the consequence of weather-related food production declines, Dr can simply be the result of price transmission from the international commodity market. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets far from the places where the chronically food insecure live. A much better understanding of how local staple food prices in isolated regions such as West Africa that grow most of the food they eat to better understand the impact of global commodity market transformations on sensitive communities at the margin. This information will also enable improved strategies for these farmers who are extraordinarily sensitive to climate change impacts on agricultural growing conditions.

  6. PROSPECTIVE 180S04 INDICATOR FOR IDENTIFYING ELEVATED ARSENIC RELEASE AREAS IN GROUNDWATER: GOOSE RIVER AND NORTHPORT WATERSHEDS, MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally-occurring arsenic is the most abundant source of As to groundwater in this nation. In Maine the perfect arsenic storm exists for drinking water supplies since over 70% of homeowners depend on groundwater wells. Most of these wells are developed in granites with ubiquito...

  7. Geohydrology of Big Bear Valley, California: phase 1--geologic framework, recharge, and preliminary assessment of the source and age of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Brandt, Justin; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Jachens, Robert; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Martin, Peter; Sneed, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Big Bear Valley. The INFILv3 model was modified for this study to include a perched zone beneath the root zone to better simulate lateral seepage and recharge in the shallow subsurface in mountainous terrain. The climate input used in the INFILv3 model was developed by using daily climate data from 84 National Climatic Data Center stations and published Parameter Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) average monthly precipitation maps to match the drier average monthly precipitation measured in the Baldwin Lake drainage basin. This model resulted in a good representation of localized rain-shadow effects and calibrated well to measured lake volumes at Big Bear and Baldwin Lakes. The simulated average annual recharge was about 5,480 acre-ft/yr in the Big Bear study area, with about 2,800 acre-ft/yr in the Big Bear Lake surface-water drainage basin and about 2,680 acre-ft/yr in the Baldwin Lake surface-water drainage basin. One spring and eight wells were sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic data in 2005 and 2006 to determine if isotopic techniques could be used to assess the sources and ages of groundwater in the Big Bear Valley. This approach showed that the predominant source of recharge to the Big Bear Valley is winter precipitation falling on the surrounding mountains. The tritium and uncorrected carbon-14 ages of samples collected from wells for this study indicated that the groundwater basin contains water of different ages, ranging from modern to about 17,200-years old.The results of these investigations provide an understanding of the lateral and vertical extent of the groundwater basin, the spatial distribution of groundwater recharge, the processes responsible for the recharge, and the source and age of groundwater in the groundwater basin. Although the studies do not provide an understanding of the detailed water-bearing properties necessary to determine the groundwater availability of the basin, they do provide a framework for the future

  8. Research on the neutron flux, secular equilibrium of chlorine-36 and groundwater age of the deep quaternary sediments, Hebei plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yuean; He Ming; Jiang Songsheng; Wu Shaoyong; Jiang Shan

    2001-01-01

    For the study of the neutron flux, secular equilibrium of chlorine-36 in the deep quaternary sediments of Hebei plain, the main chemical composition of water sand and confining bed was determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean neutron flux is 2.79 x 10 -5 cm -2 s -1 which was calculated by the chemical composition of the strata. The mean 36 Cl/Cl ratio in secular equilibrium is 1.27 x 10 -14 in the deep quaternary sediments, Hebei Plain. For the study of the groundwater age of the deep Quaternary sediments of Hebei Plain, the 36 Cl/Cl ratio of groundwater samples were determined by tandem accelerator mass spectrometry. The mixed groundwater 36 Cl/Cl ratio of the second and the third aquifer of Quaternary sediments in Baoding district is 247 x 10 -15 , that of the fourth aquifer in Baoding city is 224 x 10 -15 and the third aquifer in Cangzhou district is 40.5 x 10 -15 . The groundwater age of Baoding district was young and that of the third aquifer in Cangzhou was 229.2 ka

  9. Arsenic speciation and uranium concentrations in drinking water supply wells in Northern Greece: Correlations with redox indicative parameters and implications for groundwater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A.; Hug, Stephan J.; Ammann, Adrian; Zikoudi, Antonia; Hatziliontos, Christodoulos

    2007-01-01

    The cities in the Aksios and Kalikratia areas in Northern Greece rely on arsenic contaminated groundwater for their municipal water supply. As remedial action strongly depends on arsenic speciation, the presence of other possible contaminants, and on the general water composition, a detailed study with samples from 21 representative locations was undertaken. Arsenic concentrations were typically 10-70 μg/L. In the groundwaters of the Aksios area with lower Eh values (87-172 mV), pH 7.5-8.2 and 4-6 mM HCO 3 alkalinity, As(III) predominated. Manganese concentrations were mostly above the EC standard of 0.05 mg/L (0.1-0.7 mg/L). In groundwaters of the Kalikratia area with higher Eh values (272-352 mV), pH 6.7-7.5 and 6-12 mM HCO 3 alkalinity, As(V) was the main species. Uranium in the groundwaters was also investigated and correlations with total arsenic concentrations and speciation were examined to understand more of the redox chemistry of the examined groundwaters. Uranium concentrations were in the range 0.01-10 μg/L, with the higher concentrations to occur in the oxidizing groundwaters of the Kalikratia area. Uranium and total arsenic concentrations showed no correlation, whereas uranium concentrations correlated strongly with As(III)/As(tot) ratios, depicting their use as a possible indicator of groundwater redox conditions. Finally, boron was found to exceed the EC drinking water standard of 1 mg/L in some wells in the Kalikratia area and its removal should also be considered in the design of a remedial action

  10. Preliminary simulation model to determine ground-water flow and ages within the Palo Duro Basin hydrogeologic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, H.; Picking, L.

    1986-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins is simulated by developing a hydrogeolgic profile and applying a cross-sectional, finite-element, numerical model to the profile. The profile is 350 miles long and 2 miles deep and extends from east-central New Mexico to the Texas-Oklahoma border. It is comprised of hydrogeologic units that are identified from geophysical well logs, sample logs, and core descriptions. A hydrogeologic unit as used in this profile is a physically continuous rock sequence with hydrologic properties that are relatively consistent throughout and distinct from surrounding units. The resulting hydrogeologic profile, with the exception of the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group, is discretized into a 6000-element mesh and a 22,000-element mesh. Permeability values assigned to hydrogeologic units were, in part, calculated from drill stem tests conducted throughout the Palo Duro Basin. Ground-water age and travel paths are determined by applying Darcy's equation to selected flow lines. The 170 million-year age determined from ground-water at points within the Wolfcamp Series compares favorably with the geochemical data for this region. An age of 188 million years is determined for the Pennsylvanian granite wash

  11. 14C age reassessment of groundwater from the discharge zone due to cross-flow mixing in the deep confined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xumei; Wang, Hua; Feng, Liang

    2018-05-01

    In a groundwater flow system, the age of groundwater should gradually increase from the recharge zone to the discharge zone within the same streamline. However, it is occasionally observed that the groundwater age becomes younger in the discharge zone in the piedmont alluvial plain, and the oldest age often appears in the middle of the plain. A new set of groundwater chemistry and isotopes was employed to reassess the groundwater 14C ages from the discharge zone in the North China Plain (NCP). Carbonate precipitation, organic matter oxidation and cross-flow mixing in the groundwater from the recharge zone to the discharge zone are recognized according to the corresponding changes of HCO3- (or DIC) and δ13C in the same streamline of the third aquifer of the NCP. The effects of carbonate precipitation and organic matter oxidation are calibrated with a 13C mixing model and DIC correction, but these corrected 14C ages seem unreasonable because they grow younger from the middle plain to the discharge zone in the NCP. The relationship of Cl- content and the recharge distance is used to estimate the expected Cl- content in the discharge zone, and ln(a14C)/Cl is proposed to correct the a14C in groundwater for the effect of cross-flow mixing. The 14C ages were reassessed with the corrected a14C due to the cross-flow mixing varying from 1.25 to 30.58 ka, and the groundwater becomes older gradually from the recharge zone to the discharge zone. The results suggest that the reassessed 14C ages are more reasonable for the groundwater from the discharge zone due to cross-flow mixing.

  12. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow, Transport, Age, and Particle Tracking near York, Nebraska, for a Study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants (TANC) to Public-Supply Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Landon, Matthew K.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Hornberger, George Z.

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of public-supply wells has resulted in public-health threats and negative economic effects for communities that must treat contaminated water or find alternative water supplies. To investigate factors controlling vulnerability of public-supply wells to anthropogenic and natural contaminants using consistent and systematic data collected in a variety of principal aquifer settings in the United States, a study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells was begun in 2001 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The area simulated by the ground-water flow model described in this report was selected for a study of processes influencing contaminant distribution and transport along the direction of ground-water flow towards a public-supply well in southeastern York, Nebraska. Ground-water flow is simulated for a 60-year period from September 1, 1944, to August 31, 2004. Steady-state conditions are simulated prior to September 1, 1944, and represent conditions prior to use of ground water for irrigation. Irrigation, municipal, and industrial wells were simulated using the Multi-Node Well package of the modular three-dimensional ground-water flow model code, MODFLOW-2000, which allows simulation of flow and solutes through wells that are simulated in multiple nodes or layers. Ground-water flow, age, and transport of selected tracers were simulated using the Ground-Water Transport process of MODFLOW-2000. Simulated ground-water age was compared to interpreted ground-water age in six monitoring wells in the unconfined aquifer. The tracer chlorofluorocarbon-11 was simulated directly using Ground-Water Transport for comparison with concentrations measured in six monitoring wells and one public supply well screened in the upper confined aquifer. Three alternative model simulations indicate that simulation results are highly sensitive to the distribution of multilayer well bores where leakage

  13. A partial exponential lumped parameter model to evaluate groundwater age distributions and nitrate trends in long-screened wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant; Böhlke, John Karl; Kauffman, Leon J.; Belitz, Kenneth; Esser, Bradley K.

    2016-01-01

    A partial exponential lumped parameter model (PEM) was derived to determine age distributions and nitrate trends in long-screened production wells. The PEM can simulate age distributions for wells screened over any finite interval of an aquifer that has an exponential distribution of age with depth. The PEM has 3 parameters – the ratio of saturated thickness to the top and bottom of the screen and mean age, but these can be reduced to 1 parameter (mean age) by using well construction information and estimates of the saturated thickness. The PEM was tested with data from 30 production wells in a heterogeneous alluvial fan aquifer in California, USA. Well construction data were used to guide parameterization of a PEM for each well and mean age was calibrated to measured environmental tracer data (3H, 3He, CFC-113, and 14C). Results were compared to age distributions generated for individual wells using advective particle tracking models (PTMs). Age distributions from PTMs were more complex than PEM distributions, but PEMs provided better fits to tracer data, partly because the PTMs did not simulate 14C accurately in wells that captured varying amounts of old groundwater recharged at lower rates prior to groundwater development and irrigation. Nitrate trends were simulated independently of the calibration process and the PEM provided good fits for at least 11 of 24 wells. This work shows that the PEM, and lumped parameter models (LPMs) in general, can often identify critical features of the age distributions in wells that are needed to explain observed tracer data and nonpoint source contaminant trends, even in systems where aquifer heterogeneity and water-use complicate distributions of age. While accurate PTMs are preferable for understanding and predicting aquifer-scale responses to water use and contaminant transport, LPMs can be sensitive to local conditions near individual wells that may be inaccurately represented or missing in an aquifer-scale flow model.

  14. Calibration of a transient transport model to tritium data in streams and simulation of groundwater ages in the western Lake Taupo catchment, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gusyev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a general approach of calibrating transient transport models to tritium concentrations in river waters developed for the MT3DMS/MODFLOW model of the western Lake Taupo catchment, New Zealand. Tritium has a known pulse-shaped input to groundwater systems due to the bomb tritium in the early 1960s and, with its radioactive half-life of 12.32 yr, allows for the determination of the groundwater age. In the transport model, the tritium input (measured in rainfall passes through the groundwater system, and the simulated tritium concentrations are matched to the measured tritium concentrations in the river and stream outlets for the Waihaha, Whanganui, Whareroa, Kuratau and Omori catchments from 2000–2007. For the Kuratau River, tritium was also measured between 1960 and 1970, which allowed us to fine-tune the transport model for the simulated bomb-peak tritium concentrations. In order to incorporate small surface water features in detail, an 80 m uniform grid cell size was selected in the steady-state MODFLOW model for the model area of 1072 km2. The groundwater flow model was first calibrated to groundwater levels and stream baseflow observations. Then, the transient tritium transport MT3DMS model was matched to the measured tritium concentrations in streams and rivers, which are the natural discharge of the groundwater system. The tritium concentrations in the rivers and streams correspond to the residence time of the water in the groundwater system (groundwater age and mixing of water with different age. The transport model output showed a good agreement with the measured tritium values. Finally, the tritium-calibrated MT3DMS model is applied to simulate groundwater ages, which are used to obtain groundwater age distributions with mean residence times (MRTs in streams and rivers for the five catchments. The effect of regional and local hydrogeology on the simulated groundwater ages is investigated by demonstrating groundwater ages

  15. Radiographic correlation of dental and skeletal age: Third molar, an age indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, Gn; Rao, Balaji B; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Rao, Dayashankara Jk; Goel, Sumit

    2011-01-01

    Age estimation plays a great role in forensic investigations, orthodontic and surgical treatment planning, and tooth transplantation. Teeth offer an excellent material for age determination by stages of development below the age of 25 years and by secondary changes after the age of 25 years. Third molar is often not included for this purpose due to its notorious developmental patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of third molar anlage in relation to skeletal maturities and the chronological age. One hundred and fifty-six young individuals, 78 males and 78 females, were selected. The stages of development of all the third molars in every individual were determined from panoramic radiographs. The skeletal development was assessed using hand wrist radiographs. Data were analyzed statistically for mean value, standard deviation and the relationship between the recorded characteristics. A STRONG CORRELATION WAS FOUND BETWEEN THIRD MOLAR DEVELOPMENT AND SKELETAL MATURITY (IN MALES: r=0.88, Pthird molar and 0.89 for mandibular third molar, Page, developmental stages of third molars and maturation of epiphyses of hand. Any of the three parameters could be used for the assessment of other maturities.

  16. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Ageing Indices in Relation to Glycated Haemoglobin in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna H I, Shruthi; Moodithaya, Shailaja; Sharma, Raghava

    2017-01-01

    Ageing is a natural phenomenon that has tremendous amount of control over normal physiological functions. Diabetes mellitus and ageing share common symptoms like stiffness and loss of functioning of tissues due to cross-liked proteins and free radicals. Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) is often used as a stable cumulative index of glycemic control and has shown that even in non-diabetic adults, there is a steady increase in HbA1c levels with age. Aim of the study is to evaluate the strength of association of HbA1c with metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices in subjects between the age group of 40 to 60 yrs. A total of 220 subjects, with (n=110) and without (n=110) diabetes were assessed for the metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices. BMI, waist hip ratio, fat percentage, Fasting blood sugar and HbA1c were assessed as metabolic ageing indices. The cardiovascular ageing indices measured were resting heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate variability. Ageing indices were compared between subjects with and without diabetes using independent' t' test and showed that the T2DM group exhibit significant accelerated ageing as compared to that of the controls. Pearson's and partial correlation coefficient was used to assess the association of HbA1c with the ageing indices without and with controlling for chronological age, indicated that, strength of association of levels of HBA1c with cardiovascular and other metabolic indices of ageing is statistically significant. The study concludes that the tightness of glycemic control has a significant impact on the biological ageing process. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Ground-Water Age and Quality in the High Plains Aquifer near Seward, Nebraska, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Landon, Matthew K.; Turco, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Seward, Nebraska, conducted a study of ground-water age and quality to improve understanding of: (1) traveltimes from recharge areas to public-supply wells, (2) the effects of geochemical reactions in the aquifer on water quality, and (3) how water quality has changed historically in response to land-use practices. Samples were collected from four supply wells in the Seward west well field and from nine monitoring wells along two approximate ground-water flow paths leading to the well field. Concentrations of three different chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-12, CFC-11, and CFC-113), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and ratios of tritium (3H) to helium-3 (3He) isotope derived from radioactive decay of 3H were used to determine the apparent recharge age of ground-water samples. Age interpretations were based primarily on 3H/3He and CFC-12 data. Estimates of apparent ground-water age from tracer data were complicated by mixing of water of different ages in 10 of the 13 ground-water samples collected. Apparent recharge dates of unmixed ground-water samples or mean recharge dates of young fractions of mixed water in samples collected from monitoring wells ranged from 1985 to 2002. For monitoring-well samples containing mixed water, the fraction of the sample composed of young water ranged from 26 to 77 percent of the sample. Apparent mean recharge dates of young fractions in samples collected from four supply wells in the Seward west well field ranged from about 1980 to 1990. Estimated fractions of the samples composed of young water ranged from 39 to 54 percent. It is implicit in the mixing calculations that the remainder of the sample that is not young water is composed of water that is more than 60 years old and contains no detectable quantities of modern atmospheric tracers. Estimated fractions of the mixed samples composed of 'old' water ranged from 23 to 74 percent. Although alternative mixing models can be used to

  19. Age dating and flow path evaluation of groundwater by SF6 and microbe in the foot of Mt. Fuji, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Tsujimura, Maki; Kato, Kenji; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Sakakibara, Koichi; Umei, Yohei; Ohara, Kazuma

    2016-04-01

    A variety of industries are developed at the foot of volcanic mountains in Japan and the groundwater is major source for industrial activity in those regions. The age of groundwater has been estimated to be from 10 to 30 years in Mt. Fuji regions by using 36Cl and 3H. However, the age has not been evaluated using SF6 with higher time resolution in these regions. Also, the total number of prokaryotes shows a specific value in each spring water, suggesting different path and age of the groundwater. Therefore, we aim to estimate residence time and the groundwater flow in three dimensions using the multi-tracers approach; CFCs, SF6, the total number of prokaryotes, the stable isotopes of oxygen-18, deuterium. We collected totally 25 spring water samples in Mt. Fuji and analyzed concentration of inorganic ions, the stable isotopes of oxygen-18, deuterium, CFCs, SF6. The apparent age of the spring water was estimated to be ranging from 4 to 19 years at the foot of Mt. Fuji. These results are reasonable as considering the existed age data by36Cl (Tosaki, 2008) in this region. The spring water with younger age tends to show higher total number of prokaryotes, suggesting that the groundwater flows dominantly through the shallow and young lava with the higher total number of prokaryotes, leads to younger age. Focusing on a specific spring water, the seasonal change of SF6 and total number of prokaryotes were monitored. The spring water showed a younger age and higher total number of prokaryotes during the high water flow season, whereas it showed an older age and lower total number of prokaryotes. Therefore, the total number of prokaryotes shows a good negative correlation with the residence time of the spring/ groundwater in space and time. This shows a possibility that the total number of prokaryotes could be a useful tracer of groundwater for time and space in the three dimensions information.

  20. Environmental isotope study related to groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in Quaternary aquifers of North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigan; Payne, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    An isotopic hydrology section across the North China Plain has been studied to investigate problems of groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in a semi-arid pre-mountain artesian basin. Two local and one regional flow system along the section have been recognized. Turnover time of water for alluvial fan, shallow and regional systems are estimated to be the order of 10 2 , 10 3 , and 10 4 years respectively. Specific flow rates for the three systems have been calculated. Only less than 5 percent of flow from alluvial fan is drained by the regional flow system and the rest, in natural conditions, discharges at surface in the front edge of an alluvial fan and forms a groundwater discharge belt at a good distance away from the mountain foot. Developed in the alluvial plain and coastal plain areas the shallow flow system embraces a series of small local systems. Groundwater in these systems appears to be the salt carrier during continental salinization. It washes salt out of the recharge area and deep-occurred strata by circulating and carries it up to the surface in lowland areas. Consequently, in parallel with salinization at surface a desalinization process occurs at depth, which provides an additional explanation for the existing thick deep fresh water zone in most arid and semi-arid regions, where continental salting process is in progress. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Groundwater recharge ages in the eastern nile delta based on environmental tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, M.S.; Aly, A.I.M.; Swailem, F.M.; Nada, A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the tritium composition of groundwater from eastern Nile delta is presented and compared with the tritium content of the nile according to a given model. A contour map of isoline of tritium in the area was drawn. The decrease of tritium content values in the direction from southwest to northeast was attributed to salt water intrusion. The clustered tritium isoline could be due to local geophysical structures or mixing with other water of older recharge (paleowater).2 fig.,1 tab

  2. A hydrological budget (2002-2008) for a large subtropical wetland ecosystem indicates marine groundwater discharge accompanies diminished freshwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Amartya K.; Moses, Christopher S.; Price, Rene M.; Engel, Victor; Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Water budget parameters are estimated for Shark River Slough (SRS), the main drainage within Everglades National Park (ENP) from 2002 to 2008. Inputs to the water budget include surface water inflows and precipitation while outputs consist of evapotranspiration, discharge to the Gulf of Mexico and seepage losses due to municipal wellfield extraction. The daily change in volume of SRS is equated to the difference between input and outputs yielding a residual term consisting of component errors and net groundwater exchange. Results predict significant net groundwater discharge to the SRS peaking in June and positively correlated with surface water salinity at the mangrove ecotone, lagging by 1 month. Precipitation, the largest input to the SRS, is offset by ET (the largest output); thereby highlighting the importance of increasing fresh water inflows into ENP for maintaining conditions in terrestrial, estuarine, and marine ecosystems of South Florida.

  3. Isotope analyses for classification of the age and origin of bodies of groundwater in the area of the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.; Batsche, H.; Graf, W.; Rauert, W.; Trimborn, P.; Klarr, K.; Stempel, C. v.

    1994-01-01

    Within the framework of a hydrogeological research project which contributes to the evaluation of the long- time safety of the Asse salt mine large-scale hydrological isotope analyses were made to classify bodies of groundwater by their age and origin. The radioactive isotopes carbon-14 and tritium, and the stable isotopes deuterium, oxygen-18 and carbon- 13 from boring, well and spring groundwater in the area of the Asse salt mine were analyzed. The environmental isotope data obtained were interpreted considering the chemical composition of the groundwater through hydrogeochemical model calculations by use of the PHREEQE program. The results of the study are summarized. (HP) [de

  4. Groundwater age and lifetime expectancy modelling approach for site characterization and performance assessment of radwaste repository in clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornaton, F.; Perrochet, P.; Benabderrahmane, H.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A deep geological repository of high level and long lived radwaste requires an understanding of the far field and near field groundwater flow and of the transport properties, at actual and future climatic conditions. Andra, French National radioactive waste management Agency, is developing since last 15 years an integrated multi-scale hydrogeological model of whole Paris basin of 200000 km 2 of area (regional scale) to produce a regional flow field associated to groundwater behavior. It includes locally the Meuse/Haute Marne clay site of about 250 km 2 of area in the eastern part of the Paris basin that was chosen for the emplacement of a repository. The Callovo-Oxfordian host formation is a clay layer characterized by a very low permeability of the order 10 -14 m/s, a mean thickness of 130 m at about 500 m depth, and is embedded by calcareous aquifer formations (Dogger and Oxfordian). The hydrogeological conceptual model is based on stratigraphic and petro-physic modeling of the Paris basin and is accounting for the structural, geological, hydrogeological and geochemical data in an integrated way. This model represents 27 hydrogeological units at the scale of the Paris Basin, and it is refined at the scale of the sector to represent 27 different layers that range in age from the Trias to the Portlandian. The finite element flow and transport simulator Ground Water (GW) is used to solve for groundwater flow at steady-state in a 3 Million elements model, considering current climatic conditions. The model is calibrated against about 1250 hydraulic head measurements, and results in maximum absolute hydraulic head differences of 20 meters at the regional scale and 3 meters at the local scale. The calibrated reference model includes transmissive major faults as well as structures acting as barrier to flow. Groundwater age (the time elapsed since recharge) and lifetime expectancy (the time remaining prior to exit) are

  5. Natural 222Rn and 220Rn indicate the impact of the Water–Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) on submarine groundwater discharge in the Yellow River estuary, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bochao; Xia, Dong; Burnett, William C.; Dimova, Natasha T.; Wang, Houjie; Zhang, Longjun; Gao, Maosheng; Jiang, Xueyan; Yu, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 220 Rn and 222 Rn were combined to locate intensive SGD sites. • Influence of WSRS to SGD was found for the first time. • SGD was a dominant nutrient pathway in the Yellow River estuary. - Abstract: Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in estuaries brings important influences to coastal ecosystems. In this study, we observed significant SGD in the Yellow River estuary, including a fresh component, during the Water–Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) period. We used the 222 Rn and 220 Rn isotope pair to locate sites of significant SGD within the study area. Three apparent SGD locations were found during a non-WSRS period, one of which became much more pronounced, according to the remarkably elevated radon levels, during the WSRS. Increased river discharge (from 245 m 3 s −1 to 3560 m 3 s −1 ) and the elevated river water level (from 11 m to 13 m) during the WSRS led to a higher hydraulic head, enhancing groundwater discharge in the estuary. Our results suggest that high river discharge (>3000 m 3 s −1 ) might be necessary for elevated fresh submarine groundwater discharging (FSGD). Vertical profiles of salinity, DO and turbidity anomalies along the benthic boundary layer also indicated significant FSGD in the estuary during the WSRS. Nutrient concentrations had positive correlations with 222 Rn during a 24-h observation, which indicates that SGD is a dominant nutrient pathway in this area

  6. Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-08-01

    Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (δ18O and δ2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have δ18O and δ2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (δ15N NO3) values above 10 ‰ in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (δ15N NO3 = 4.6 4.9 ‰), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N, N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil’s Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer

  7. Influence of gender and age on haematological indicators of Polbar’s breed chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryzińska Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the values of selected haematological indices of the Polbar breed of chickens by gender and age. There was a significant WBC difference in cocks and hens with age. In each of the periods, cocks were characterized by a lower than hens number of LY. LY and NE declined with increasing age. Most values showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences for birds at different ages. These results of the haematological indices from consolidated Polbar breed can be used for comparisons with other breeds of poultry. The study deepens and organizes the knowledge within the possibilities of using and interpreting levels of haematological indicators for monitoring health of hens. In this paper, we managed to obtain information on the level of indicators rarely determined in chickens.

  8. Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J. Hal

    2009-01-01

    Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3 m 3 /s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64 million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774 ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15 km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2 ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water

  9. Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Brian G. [U.S. Geological Survey, 2010 Levy Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)], E-mail: bkatz@usgs.gov; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J. Hal [U.S. Geological Survey, 2010 Levy Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3 m{sup 3}/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64 million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774 ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15 km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2 ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water

  10. Evaluation of high-frequency mean streamwater transit-time estimates using groundwater age and dissolved silica concentrations in a small forested watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Norman E.; Burns, Douglas A.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2014-01-01

    Many previous investigations of mean streamwater transit times (MTT) have been limited by an inability to quantify the MTT dynamics. Here, we draw on (1) a linear relation (r 2 = 0.97) between groundwater 3H/3He ages and dissolved silica (Si) concentrations, combined with (2) predicted streamwater Si concentrations from a multiple-regression relation (R 2 = 0.87) to estimate MTT at 5-min intervals for a 23-year time series of streamflow [water year (WY) 1986 through 2008] at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia. The time-based average MTT derived from the 5-min data was ~8.4 ± 2.9 years and the volume-weighted (VW) MTT was ~4.7 years for the study period, reflecting the importance of younger runoff water during high flow. The 5-min MTTs are normally distributed and ranged from 0 to 15 years. Monthly VW MTTs averaged 7.0 ± 3.3 years and ranged from 4 to 6 years during winter and 8–10 years during summer. The annual VW MTTs averaged 5.6 ± 2.0 years and ranged from ~5 years during wet years (2003 and 2005) to >10 years during dry years (2002 and 2008). Stormflows are composed of much younger water than baseflows, and although stormflow only occurs ~17 % of the time, this runoff fraction contributed 39 % of the runoff during the 23-year study period. Combining the 23-year VW MTT (including stormflow) with the annual average baseflow for the period (~212 mm) indicates that active groundwater storage is ~1,000 mm. However, the groundwater storage ranged from 1,040 to 1,950 mm using WY baseflow and WY VW MTT. The approach described herein may be applicable to other watersheds underlain by granitoid bedrock, where weathering is the dominant control on Si concentrations in soils, groundwater, and streamwater.

  11. Obtaining appropriate interval estimates for age when multiple indicators are used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy; Larsen, Sara Tangmose

    2016-01-01

    When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical regres...... the need for interval estimation. To illustrate and evaluate the method, Köhler et al. (1995) third molar scores are used to estimate the age in a dataset of 3200 male subjects in the juvenile age range.......When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical...... regression models but becomes less trivial as soon as the number of indicators increases. Each of the age indicators can lead to a different point estimate ("the most plausible value for age") and a prediction interval ("the range of possible values"). The major challenge in the combination of multiple...

  12. Study on risk indicator for appropriate plant maintenance considering aging effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Akihiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Takata, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Since, nuclear power plants run for a long term and plant component may deteriorate due to aging, plant safety must be maintained through maintenance activities of components. The maintenance will become more important as the number of aged plant increases. In the planning of maintenance, one must select appropriate components and interval. In general, Fussell-Vesely importance (FV) and Risk Achievement Worth (RAW) are used as a risk indicator for the maintenance. A priority order of each component can be evaluated using those risk indicators at a certain condition. However, the influence of aging (time history) on the order cannot be estimated directly. In the paper, a change of conditional core damage probability (ΔCCDP) and a change of conditional containment failure probability (ΔCCFP) are proposed as additional indicators in which the aging effect is evaluated directly so as to determine the priority order. A simplified level one probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been carried out in order to investigate the change of the risk indicators by considering the change of a component failure probability due to aging. In the analyses, three conditions are assumed; base (original) state, aging state and further aging state without maintenance activities. It is demonstrated that the proposed indicator (ΔCCDP and ΔCCFP) reveals the aging effect of each component, while the change of the FV and RAW represent unrealistic behavior through the states. As a result, it is found that the ΔCCDP and ΔCCFP are superior to the others in terms of the ability to evaluate components appropriately in deteriorated (aging) states and take account of differences of deterioration behavior. It is also found that the priority order of the multiple-components maintenance at the same time can also be evaluated using the ΔCCDP and ΔCCFP. Additionally, a risk informed decision making based on the risk acceptance criteria can be discussed for the maintenance procedure using the

  13. Aging Mechanisms and Nondestructive Aging Indicator of Filled Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLPE) Exposed to Simultaneous Thermal and Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shuaishuai; Fifield, Leonard S.; Bowler, Nicola

    2018-04-11

    Aging mechanisms and a nondestructive aging indicator of filled cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation material used in nuclear power plants (NPPs) are studied. Using various material characterization techniques, likely candidates and functions for the main additives in a commercial filled-XLPE insulation material have been identified. These include decabromodiphenyl ether and Sb2O3 as flame retardants, ZnS as white pigment and polymerized 1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline as antioxidant. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, oxidation induction time and measurements of dielectric loss tangent are utilized to monitor property changes as a function of thermal and radiation exposure of the cable material. Small-molecular-weight hydrocarbons are evolve with gamma radiation aging at 90 °C. The level of antioxidant decreases with aging by volatilization and chemical reaction with free radicals. Thermal aging at 90 °C for 25 days or less causes no observable change to the cross-linked polymer structure. Gamma radiation causes damage to crystalline polymer regions and introduces defects. Dielectric loss tangent is shown to be an effective and reliable nondestructive indicator of the aging severity of the filled-XLPE insulation material.

  14. Groundwater recharge and flow on Montserrat, West Indies: Insights from groundwater dating

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmings, Brioch; Gooddy, Daren; Whitaker, Fiona; George Darling, W.; Jasim, Alia; Gottsmann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Study region Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, Caribbean. Study focus Analysis of δ2H and δ18O isotopes, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) anthropogenic tracers in Montserrat groundwater provides insights into the age and provenance of the spring waters. New hydrological insights δ2H and δ18O analysis indicates uniform recharge elevations for groundwaters on Montserrat. CFC-11 and CFC-12 analysis reveals age differences between isotopically similar, high elevation springs and low eleva...

  15. [Echocardiographic indices of the right heart in patients with coronary artery disease in different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajfulin, R A; Sumin, A N; Arhipov, O G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to examine echocardiographic indices of right heart chambers in patients with coronary artery disease in different age groups. On 678 patients aged 38-85 years, who underwent echocardiography, are including with the use of spectral tissue Doppler. Obtained 2 age groups: 1st - patients up to 60 years (n=282) and group 2nd - patients 60 years and older (n=396). In the analysis the obtained results in patients with coronary heart disease in older age groups showed an increase in right ventricular wall thickness, systolic and average pressure in the pulmonary artery. These changes were accompanied by deterioration in left ventricular diastolic function, while the systolic function of the left and right ventricle were independent of age. Thus, the results can be recommended for assessment of right ventricular dysfunction in patients of older age groups.

  16. CT MEASUREMENTS OF TWO CEREBROVENTRICULAR INDICES AND THEIR RELATION WITH AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambili Puthanveettil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cerebroventricular Indices are the relative measurements of the size of lateral ventricle to that of brain. A normal study of these indices are necessary in order to understand any changes in size of the ventricles or other associated abnormalities of the brain. The study uses measurements from Computerised Tomography (CT which is uniformly calibrated, has reproducible data and is less expensive than MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS CT scans of 186 apparently healthy normal individuals of age group 1 to 85 years were taken and the subjects were categorized into age intervals of 10 years; males and females taken separately. The linear measurements of lateral ventricle and brain were taken directly from the screen. The cerebrovascular indices were calculated. The mean values in each group were compared with age and sex, using appropriate statistical tests. RESULTS Mean value for Bifrontal index was 0.31±0.03 and that of Bicaudate index was 0.12±0.02. Both indices showed a positive correlation with age. The relative size of the lateral ventricle with the brain did not show any gender difference. CONCLUSION The study results coincide with previous similar studies. Both the indices showed positive correlation with age, of which the Bicaudate index was more sensitive.

  17. Key goals and indicators for successful aging of adults with early-onset disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Mitchell P

    2014-01-01

    Substantial improvements have occurred in the longevity of several groups of individuals with early-onset disabilities, with many now surviving to advanced ages. This paper estimates the population of adults aging with early-onset disabilities at 12-15 million persons. Key goals for the successful aging of adults with early-onset disabilities are discussed, emphasizing reduction in risks for aging-related chronic disease and secondary conditions, while promoting social participation and independence. However, indicators suggest that elevated risk factors for aging-related chronic diseases, including smoking, obesity, and inactivity, as well as barriers to prevention and the diminished social and economic situation of adults with disabilities are continuing impediments to successful aging that must be addressed. Increased provider awareness that people with early-onset disabilities are aging and can age successfully and the integration of disability and aging services systems are transformative steps that will help adults with early-onset disability to age more successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Orthognathic surgery in patients over 40 years of age: indications and special considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Zachary S; Lee, Cameron C Y; Klein, Katherine P; Kaban, Leonard B

    2014-10-01

    To assess indications, incidence, patient experience, and outcomes of orthognathic surgery in patients over 40 years of age. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent orthognathic surgical procedures at Massachusetts General Hospital from 1995 to 2012. Demographic variables, including age, gender, indications, date, and type of operation, were documented. Patients were divided into 2 groups by date of operation: 1) 1995 to 2002 and 2) 2003 to 2012. The predictor variable was age (>40 vs orthognathic surgery varies by age and gender. Older patients, particularly men, tend to seek treatment for functional rather than esthetic reasons. Patients older than 40 years had longer hospital stays and an increased rate of postoperative hardware removal. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age and speciation of iodine in groundwater and mudstones of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for the origin and migration of iodine during basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Yoko S.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Amano, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Terada, Yasuko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ito, Kazumasa; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the concentration, speciation and isotope ratio (129I/127I) of iodine from both groundwater and host rocks in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, to clarify the origin and migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks. Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary rocks deposited nearly horizontally in Tenpoku Basin and in the Horonobe area were uplifted above sea level during active tectonics to form folds and faults in the Quaternary. Samples were collected from the Pliocene Koetoi and late Miocene Wakkanai formations (Fms), which include diatomaceous and siliceous mudstones. The iodine concentration in groundwater, up to 270 μmol/L, is significantly higher than that of seawater, with the iodine enrichment factor relative to seawater reaching 800-1500. The iodine concentration in the rocks decreases from the Koetoi to Wakkanai Fms, suggesting that iodine was released into the water from the rocks of deeper formations. The iodine concentration in the rocks is sufficiently high for forming iodine-rich groundwater as found in this area. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis shows that iodine exists as organic iodine and iodide (I-) in host rocks, whereas it exists mainly as I- in groundwater. The isotope ratio is nearly constant for iodine in the groundwater, at [0.11-0.23] × 10-12, and it is higher for iodine in rocks, at [0.29-1.1] × 10-12, giving iodine ages of 42-60 Ma and 7-38 Ma, respectively. Some iodine in groundwater must have originated from Paleogene and even late Cretaceous Fms, which are also considered as possible sources of oil and gas, in view of the old iodine ages of the groundwater. The iodine ages of the rocks are older than the depositional ages, implying that the rocks adsorbed some iodine from groundwater, which was sourced from greater depths. The iodine concentration in groundwater decreases with decreasing chlorine concentration due to mixing of iodine-rich connate water and meteoric water. A likely scenario

  20. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria are indicators of very recent human faecal pollution in streams and groundwater habitats in urban tropical lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria (SFB) proved to be an excellent indicator of very recent human faecal pollution (hours to days) in the investigated tropical stream and groundwater habitats. SFB were recovered from human faeces and sources potentially contaminated with human excreta. SFB were undetectable in animal faeces and environmental samples not contaminated with human faeces. Microcosm studies demonstrated a rapid die-off rate in groundwater (T90 value 0.6 days) and stream water (T90 value 0.9–1.7 days). Discrimination sensitivity analysis, including E. coli, faecal coliforms, total coliforms and Clostridium perfringens spores, revealed high ability of SFB to distinguish differing levels of faecal pollution especially for streams although high background levels of interfering bacteria can complicate its recovery on the used medium. Due to its faster die-off, as compared to many waterborne pathogens, SFB cannot replace microbiological standard parameters for routine water quality monitoring but it is highly recommendable as a specific and complementary tool when human faecal pollution has to be localized or verified. Because of its exclusive faecal origin and human specificity it seems also worthwhile to include SFB in future risk evaluation studies at tropical water resources in order to evaluate under which situations risks of infection may be indicated. PMID:20375476

  1. Selected indicators of mental health in the elderly - the participants the University of the Third Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tomagová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the research study is to identify the selected indicators of mental health, such as meaning of life, experience of well-being, hope, and feelings of loneliness and depression in the elderly participating in the University of the Third Age, in relation to their age and gender. Design: A quantitative descriptive study. Methods: The selection of respondents was deliberate. The sample consisted of 147 seniors with a mean age of 67.4 (± 4.9 years enrolled at the University of the Third Age at Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University. Data were collected by means of self-assessment scales - the Life Meaningfulness Scale, Snyder´s Hope Scale, the Emotional Habitual Subjective Well-being Scale, the Loneliness Scale, and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Results: Seniors considered their life meaningful, and expressed a high level of hope. Their emotions were predominately positive. We identified low levels of loneliness and found no indication of depressed mood. We identified significant differences between men and women in evaluation indicators of mental health only in the frequency of positive emotions. Conclusion: The study indicates the presence of salutogenic factors affecting the mental health of the sample of seniors in the process of active aging. The results could form the basis for implementing preventive strategies in clinical nursing practice.

  2. Age Related Differences in Diffusion Tensor Indices and Fiber Architecture in the Medial and Lateral Gastrocnemius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Usha; Csapo, Robert; Malis, Vadim; Xue, Yanjie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate age related changes in diffusion tensor indices and fiber architecture of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) muscles using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods The lower leg of five young and five senior subjects was scanned at 3T and DTI indices extracted using three methods: ROI, histogram and tract based. Tracked fibers were automatically edited to ensure physiologically relevant tracks. Pennation angles were measured with respect to the deep and superficial aponeuroses of both muscles. Results The three methods provided internally consistent measures of the DTI indices (correlation coefficient in the range of 0.90-0.99). The primary, secondary and tertiary eigenvalues in the MG and LG increased significantly in the senior cohort (p<0.05), while the small increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) with age was not significant (MG/LG: p=0.39/0.85; 95% CI:[ −0.059/-0.056, 0.116/0.064]). Fiber lengths of MG fibers originating distally were significantly decreased in seniors (p<0.05) while pennation angles decreased with age in the MG and LG but this was not significant. Conclusion Fiber atrophy and increased fibrosis have opposing effects on the diffusion indices resulting in a complicated dependence with aging. Fiber architectural changes could play a role in determining aging muscle function. PMID:24771672

  3. Correlation between chronological age, cervical vertebral maturation and Fishman's skeletal maturity indicators in southern Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhal, Hessa Abdulla; Wong, Ricky W K; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the correlation between chronological age, cervical vertebral maturation (CVM), and Fishman's hand-wrist skeletal maturity indicators in southern Chinese. Four hundred contemporary hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of southern Chinese subjects were randomly selected and analyzed. The female subjects were between 10 and 15 years of age, and the male subjects were between 12 and 17 years of age; all subjects were within the circumpubertal period. The CVM was assessed using the method developed by Baccetti and coworkers, but the hand-wrist maturation was assessed using the method developed by Fishman. These two methods and the chronological age were correlated using the Spearman rank correlation analysis. The CVM was significantly correlated with the hand-wrist skeletal age (Spearman r male = 0.9206, female = 0.9363). All patients in the cervical maturation stage (CS3) of CVM were discovered to be in the skeletal maturational indicator (SMI2 or SMI3) stages of hand-wrist maturation (HWM), which was around the peak of the growth spurt. Low correlations were found between the CVM and chronological age (male r = 0.7577; female r = 0.7877) and between the HWM and chronological age (male r = 0.7492; female r = 0.7758). CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal and has a high correlation with the HWM for the southern Chinese population. However, the low correlations found between the chronological age and both CVM and HWM showed that the chronological age was not suitable to measure skeletal maturity.

  4. The Role of Retinal Carotenoids and Age on Neuroelectric Indices of Attentional Control among Early to Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Walk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One apparent consequence of aging appears to be loss of some aspects of cognitive control. This loss is measurable as early as mid-adulthood. Since, like many aspects of cognition, there is wide variance among individuals, it is possible that behavior, such as one’s diet, could drive some of these differences. For instance, past data on older humans and non-human primates have suggested that dietary carotenoids could slow cognitive decline. In this study, we tested how early such protection might manifest by examining a sample (n = 60 of 25–45 year olds. Carotenoid status was assessed by directly measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD which has shown to be highly correlated with the primary carotenoid in brain, lutein. Cognitive control was measured using event-related potentials during the performance of cognitive control tasks designed to tap into different aspects of attentional (i.e., selective attention, attentional inhibition, and response inhibition control. Our results showed that, across participants, MPOD was related to both age and the P3 component of participants’ neuroelectric profile (P3 amplitude for attentional, but not response, inhibition. Although younger adults exhibited larger P3 amplitudes than their older adult counterparts, older subjects with higher MPOD levels displayed P3 indices similar to their younger adult counterparts in amplitude. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analyses showed that age was no longer a significant predictor of P3 amplitude when MPOD was included as a predictor in the model, suggesting that MPOD may partially contribute to the relationship between age and P3 amplitude. In addition, age and MPOD were shown to have independent associations with intraindividual variability of attentional control, such that younger individuals and individuals with higher MPOD showed less intraindividual variability. These results show a relationship between retinal carotenoids and neuroelectric

  5. Cardiometabolic risk indicators that distinguish adults with psychosis from the general population, by age and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra L Foley

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18-64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25-64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  6. Radiocarbon dating of groundwater in tertiary sediments of the eastern Murray Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.W.; Calf, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Tertiary sediments located in the eastern part of the Murray Basin contain one of the most important low salinity groundwater resources in New South Wales. It is imperative that the hydrogeological environment in which the groundwater occurs be thoroughly understood to allow adequate management of the resource. A radiocarbon dating project was carried out on 37 groundwater samples from bores screened in these unconsolidated sediments. The results indicate water ages in the range 'modern' to 15 800 years. Groundwater recharge areas are indicated and rates of groundwater recharge and movement determined. The latter shows close correlation with velocity values quantitatively determined by Darcy's law

  7. Radiocarbon dating of groundwater in Tertiary sediments of the eastern Murray Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, L.W. (Water Resources Commission of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)); Calf, G.E. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights. Isotope Div.); Dharmasiri, J.K. (Colombo Univ. (Sri Lanka))

    1984-01-01

    The Tertiary sediments located in the eastern part of the Murray Basin contain one of the most important low salinity groundwater resources in New South Wales. It is imperative that the hydrogeological environment in which the groundwater occurs be thoroughly understood to allow adequate management of the resource. A radiocarbon dating project was carried out on 37 groundwater samples from bores screened in these unconsolidated sediments. The results indicate water ages in the range 'modern' to 15 800 years. Groundwater recharge areas are indicated and rates of groundwater recharge and movement determined. The latter shows close correlation with velocity values quantitatively determined by Darcy's law.

  8. Radium mobility and the age of groundwater in public-drinking-water supplies from the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system, north-central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Szabo, Zoltan; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2018-01-01

    High radium (Ra) concentrations in potable portions of the Cambrian-Ordovician (C-O) aquifer system were investigated using water-quality data and environmental tracers (3H, 3Hetrit, SF6, 14C and 4Herad) of groundwater age from 80 public-supply wells (PSWs). Groundwater ages were estimated by calibration of tracers to lumped parameter models and ranged from modern (1 Myr) in the most downgradient, confined portions of the potable system. More than 80 and 40 percent of mean groundwater ages were older than 1000 and 50,000 yr, respectively. Anoxic, Fe-reducing conditions and increased mineralization develop with time in the aquifer system and mobilize Ra into solution resulting in the frequent occurrence of combined Ra (Rac = 226Ra + 228Ra) at concentrations exceeding the USEPA MCL of 185 mBq/L (5 pCi/L). The distribution of the three Ra isotopes comprising total Ra (Rat = 224Ra + 226Ra + 228Ra) differed across the aquifer system. The concentrations of 224Ra and 228Ra were strongly correlated and comprised a larger proportion of the Rat concentration in samples from the regionally unconfined area, where arkosic sandstones provide an enhanced source for progeny from the 232Th decay series. 226Ra comprised a larger proportion of the Ratconcentration in samples from downgradient confined regions. Concentrations of Rat were significantly greater in samples from the regionally confined area of the aquifer system because of the increase in 226Ra concentrations there as compared to the regionally unconfined area. 226Ra distribution coefficients decreased substantially with anoxic conditions and increasing ionic strength of groundwater (mineralization), indicating that Ra is mobilized to solution from solid phases of the aquifer as adsorption capacity is diminished. The amount of 226Ra released from solid phases by alpha-recoil mechanisms and retained in solution increases relative to the amount of Ra sequestered by adsorption processes or co

  9. Pore-water indicators of rainwater-dominated versus groundwater-dominated peat bog profiles (Jura Mountains, Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shotyk, W.; Steinmann, P.

    1994-01-01

    The dominant inorganic anions and cations, and dissolved organic carbon have been measured in the pore waters expressed from peat cores taken from two Sphagnum bogs in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland: Etang de la Gruyere (EGr) consists of > 6 m of peat representing more than 12,000 yr of peat formation while at La Tourbiere de Genevez (TGe) approximately 1.5 m of peat have accumulated over the past 5,000 yr. The pore-water analyses of the core taken at EGr show that the first 100 cm of the core are influenced only by atmospheric inputs. Relative to the average composition of rainwater in this area, Na + is enriched throughout the pore-water profiles, K 2+ is neither enriched nor depleted, Mg 2+ is significantly depleted in the deeper pore waters and Ca 2+ strongly depleted through the profile. The dominant process affecting the cations in these waters is ion exchange, with the peats behaving like a simple cation exchanger with ion preference decreasing in the order Ca 2+ >Mg 2+ >H + >K + much-greater than Na + . In contrast, at TGe the pH increases from pH approximately 4 at the surface to pH 5 at 80 cm. The Cl - and K + concentrations are up to 10 times higher than rainwater values because of mixing of the bog pore water with nearby groundwaters. The Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ concentrations increase with depth to concentrations up to 10 times higher than rainwater values, mainly because of the increasing importance of mineral dissolution within the profile

  10. Prediction of Selected Fitness Indicators by Gender, Age, Alienation, and Perceived Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Nancy A.; Wendt, Janice C.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships between physical factors, psychological factors, gender, and age in middle school physical education (PE) students. Data on PE alienation, perceived competency toward physical fitness (PCf) and physical activity (PCp), and various fitness and strength measures indicated that gender and PCf significantly predicted fitness.…

  11. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development.

  12. A Study of Correlation of Various Growth Indicators with Chronological Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Sandhu, Navreet; Puri, Taruna; Gulati, Ritika; Kashyap, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of chronological age with cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, frontal sinus width and antegonial notch depth and a correlation, if any, among the three variables. The samples were derived from lateral cephalometric radiographs of 80 subjects (40 males, 40 females; age range: 10 to 19 years). Cervical vertebral development was evaluated by the method of Hassel and Farman, frontal sinus width was measured by the method described by Ertürk and antegonial notch depth as described by Singer et al. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were estimated to assess the relationship of chronological age with cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, frontal sinus width and antegonial notch depth. The Pearson's correlation coefficient were 0.855 (p correlation was found between chronological age and cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, and between chronological age and frontal sinus width. Nonsignificant correlation was found between chronological age and antegonial notch depth. How to cite this article: Singh S, Sandhu N, Puri T, Gulati R, Kashyap R. A Study of Correlation of Various Growth Indicators with Chronological Age. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3): 190-195.

  13. [Elaboration of Criteria and Indicators to Develop and Evaluate Programs of Healthy Aging in the Workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Bernal Solano, Mariola; Sánchez Pérez, M José

    2015-10-01

    In the actual context of population ageing and extension of working age, programs for health promotion at the workplace are a key and necessary tool to promote an active and healthy ageing. This work presents the methodological process followed to elaborate a checklist tool, within the framework of the European project Progress, that contributes to orientate planning, implementation and evaluation of good practices in this field, to be applicable to a variety of programs, countries and workplaces. A Delphi technique has been applied in three rounds in which experts in the area from five European countries participated. A questionnaire created from a list of criteria and indicators was adapted throughout the rounds, with the use of webmail, to the evaluation of interventions in the field of interest. Through processes of assessment and consensus, criteria and indicators most relevant were prioritized. From the nine starting criteria and after the implementation of the technique, four key criteria were prioritized: relevance: 62, adequacy to objective: 57, innovation: 50 and guarantee of quality: 41. Using this group of criteria and indicators, a checklist was designed containing the key information that should be collected for planning, implementation and evaluation of good practices in interventions in this field. The checklist tool helps to systematize the global methodology for the implementation of interventions which could be very useful for persons responsible of programmes to promote active and healthy ageing in the workplace.

  14. Mineralization of mandibular third molars can estimate chronological age--Brazilian indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Álvares; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; de Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer Rubira

    2012-06-10

    Forensic age estimation is an important element of anthropological research, as it produces one of the primary sources of data that researchers use to establish the identity of a person living or the identity of unknown bodily remains. The aim of this study was to determine if the chronology of third molar mineralization could be an accurate indicator of estimated age in a sample Brazilian population. If so, mineralization could determine the probability of an individual being 18 years or older. The study evaluated 407 panoramic radiographs of males and females from the past 5 years in order to assess the mineralization status of the mandibular third molars. The evaluation was carried out using an adaptation of Demirjian's system. The results indicated a strong correlation between chronological age and the mineralization of the mandibular third molars. The results indicated that modern Brazilian generation tends to demonstrate an earlier mandibular third molar mineralization than older Brazilian generation and people of other nationalities. Males reached developmental stages slightly earlier than females, but statistically significant differences between the sex were not found. The probability that an individual with third molar mineralization stage H had reached an age of 18 years or older was 96.8-98.6% for males and females, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribut......This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis...... of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first...... two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded...

  16. THE Na 8200 Å DOUBLET AS AN AGE INDICATOR IN LOW-MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Simon, Michal; Lépine, Sébastien; Rice, Emily; Fielding, Drummond; Tomasino, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of the gravity sensitive neutral sodium (Na I) doublet at 8183 Å and 8195 Å (Na 8200 Å doublet) as an age indicator for M dwarfs. We measured the Na doublet equivalent width (EW) in giants, old dwarfs, young dwarfs, and candidate members of the β Pic moving group using medium-resolution spectra. Our Na 8200 Å doublet EW analysis shows that the feature is useful as an approximate age indicator in M-type dwarfs with (V – K s ) ≥ 5.0, reliably distinguishing stars older and younger than 100 Myr. A simple derivation of the dependence of the Na EW on temperature and gravity supports the observational results. An analysis of the effects of metallicity shows that this youth indicator is best used on samples with similar metallicity. The age estimation technique presented here becomes useful in a mass regime where traditional youth indicators are increasingly less reliable, is applicable to other alkali lines, and will help identify new low-mass members in other young clusters and associations.

  17. THE Na 8200 Angstrom-Sign DOUBLET AS AN AGE INDICATOR IN LOW-MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Simon, Michal [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Lepine, Sebastien; Rice, Emily [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Fielding, Drummond [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tomasino, Rachael, E-mail: michal.simon@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: schlieder@mpia-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: lepine@amnh.org, E-mail: erice@amnh.org, E-mail: dfieldi1@jhu.edu, E-mail: tomas1r@cmich.edu [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We investigate the use of the gravity sensitive neutral sodium (Na I) doublet at 8183 Angstrom-Sign and 8195 Angstrom-Sign (Na 8200 Angstrom-Sign doublet) as an age indicator for M dwarfs. We measured the Na doublet equivalent width (EW) in giants, old dwarfs, young dwarfs, and candidate members of the {beta} Pic moving group using medium-resolution spectra. Our Na 8200 A doublet EW analysis shows that the feature is useful as an approximate age indicator in M-type dwarfs with (V - K{sub s}) {>=} 5.0, reliably distinguishing stars older and younger than 100 Myr. A simple derivation of the dependence of the Na EW on temperature and gravity supports the observational results. An analysis of the effects of metallicity shows that this youth indicator is best used on samples with similar metallicity. The age estimation technique presented here becomes useful in a mass regime where traditional youth indicators are increasingly less reliable, is applicable to other alkali lines, and will help identify new low-mass members in other young clusters and associations.

  18. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B B; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2015-01-01

    responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z...... indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. DESIGN: The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374......) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...

  19. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child...... indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. DESIGN: The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374......) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...

  20. Stable Isotopes of Dissolved Nitrate and Boron as Indicators of the Origin and Fate of Nitrate Contamination in Groundwater. Results from the Western Po Plain (Northern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchi, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Pavia (Italy); Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR, Pavia (Italy); Delconte, C. A. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Pavia (Italy); Pennisi, M. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR, Pisa (Italy); Allais, E. [ISO4 s.n.c., Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Stable isotopes of dissolved nitrates and boron represent a powerful tool, complementary to existing monitoring data, enabling the identification of nitrate sources, the assessment of their relative contribution to nitrate pollution and the quantification of nitrate transport and removal processes. This contribution aims to present groundwater isotope data obtained in an area of 15 000 km{sup 2} of the western Po plain. Nitrate isotope data show that synthetic fertilisers and anthropogenic organic matter are the main sources of contamination. {delta}{sup 11}B allows the discrimination between manure derived and sewage derived contamination. Results indicate that even in agricultural areas, contamination from sewage exists. Samples from the suburban area of Milan, where sewage was considered the most likely source of contamination, show instead a {delta}{sup 11}B typical for cattle manure. This study demonstrates that the attribution of the contamination to a source based solely on present-day land use may lead to inappropriate conclusions. (author)

  1. SOME COMMENTS ABOUT THE IMPACT OF POPULATION AGEING ON FISCAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Cristina NUTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine the impact that demographic changes have had during the 1995-2013 fiscal indicators such as the level of public expenditure, the total/social budget deficit or public debt in Romania. Population aging affects a number of categories of expenditures (social protection expenditure, the health care expenditure or long-term care, and government revenue, through many mechanisms.

  2. 1/f neural noise and electrophysiological indices of contextual prediction in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, S; Brothers, T A; Swaab, T Y

    2018-07-15

    Prediction of upcoming words during reading has been suggested to enhance the efficiency of discourse processing. Emerging models have postulated that predictive mechanisms require synchronous firing of neural networks, but to date, this relationship has been investigated primarily through oscillatory activity in narrow frequency bands. A recently-developed measure proposed to reflect broadband neural activity - and thereby synchronous neuronal firing - is 1/f neural noise extracted from EEG spectral power. Previous research has indicated that this measure of 1/f neural noise changes across the lifespan, and these neural changes predict age-related behavioral impairments in visual working memory. Using a cross-sectional sample of young and older adults, we examined age-related changes in 1/f neural noise and whether this measure predicted ERP correlates of successful lexical prediction during discourse comprehension. 1/f neural noise across two different language tasks revealed high within-subject correlations, indicating that this measure can provide a reliable index of individualized patterns of neural activation. In addition to age, 1/f noise was a significant predictor of N400 effects of successful lexical prediction; however, noise did not mediate age-related declines in other ERP effects. We discuss broader implications of these findings for theories of predictive processing, as well as potential applications of 1/f noise across research populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. What Can Catchment Transit Time Distributions Tell Us About Runoff Mechanisms? Exploring "Age Equifinality" with an Integrated Surface-Groundwater Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilusz, D. C.; Harman, C. J.; Ball, W. P.; Maxwell, R. M.; Buda, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The backward transit-time distribution (bTTD) is the time-varying, probabilistic distribution of water travel times or, equivalently, water ages in catchment outflow. The bTTD is increasingly seen as a master variable of catchment hydrology that links flow and transport processes, in part because it is believed to embed information about runoff generation mechanisms (RGMs) that are difficult to directly observe. The ability to use water age to make inferences about RGMs depends on the degree of "age equifinality" in a watershed, defined here as the phenomenon where significant volumes of similarly-aged water are delivered to the outlet by different RGMs at the same time. When age equifinality is low (e.g., all discharge is old groundwater), the mapping of water age to the RGM may be simple; when age equifinality is high (e.g., discharge is a mix of old groundwater and old interflow), this mapping may be impossible. In this study we conduct experiments in a virtual watershed to (1) understand the hydrologic conditions that lead to age equifinality, (2) identify relationships between water age and RGMs that are particularly obscured/unobscured by age equifinality, and (3) test the generalizability of these relationships in other watersheds. Our experiments used the fully-distributed surface-groundwater model ParFlow, which simulates a suite of RGMs, plus SLIM-FAST particle tracking. To improve realism, the watershed model was parameterized and forced using extensive field data from the USDA's Mahantango Creek experimental catchment in PA, USA. The model output is being interrogated to understand the time-varying relationships between the composition of RGMs and the bTTD at the outlet. We are also testing the robustness of these relationships by re-running our model with controlled differences in climate, topography, and scale. Initial results suggest high age equifinality at peak flows due to overlapping young water contributions from infiltration- and saturation

  4. Determination of indices of the corpus callosum associated with normal aging in Japanese individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, S.; Hirashima, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Endo, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani 2630, Toyama-shi, 930-0194, Toyama (Japan); Sugino, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Sugino Hospital, Sengoku-cho 6-3-3, 930-0066, Toyama (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    Indices of the corpus callosum with normal aging and their sex differences were elucidated using quantitative MRI. We studied 94 Japanese men (mean{+-}SD 57.3{+-}20.8 years, range 6-90 years) and 111 Japanese women (mean{+-}SD 61.2{+-}17.6 years, range 9-86 years) who had no intracranial lesions on MRI and no history of neurological illness. The widths of the rostrum, body and splenium, the anterior to posterior length, and the maximum height in the midsagittal image were selected for measurement. The Evans index, which is the relative ratio of lateral ventricle expansion, and the maximum width of the third ventricle in the axial image were also estimated for comparison. The widths of rostrum, body and splenium of the corpus callosum became thinner with age. Conversely, the anterior to posterior length and the maximum height of the corpus callosum increased with age. The ratio of the width of the body to the length of the corpus callosum and the ratio of the width of the body to the height of the corpus callosum are best correlated with age. No sex differences in regional size of corpus callosum, including these two ratios, were observed in any raw measures, although ventricular indices were larger in men than women. Evaluation of the ratio of the width of the body to its length and the ratio of the width of the body to its height may enable accurate estimation of normal or pathological changes of the corpus callosum. Aging and pathological atrophy of corpus callosum can be evaluated without any adjustment for gender. (orig.)

  5. Determination of indices of the corpus callosum associated with normal aging in Japanese individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Hirashima, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Endo, S.; Sugino, M.

    2003-01-01

    Indices of the corpus callosum with normal aging and their sex differences were elucidated using quantitative MRI. We studied 94 Japanese men (mean±SD 57.3±20.8 years, range 6-90 years) and 111 Japanese women (mean±SD 61.2±17.6 years, range 9-86 years) who had no intracranial lesions on MRI and no history of neurological illness. The widths of the rostrum, body and splenium, the anterior to posterior length, and the maximum height in the midsagittal image were selected for measurement. The Evans index, which is the relative ratio of lateral ventricle expansion, and the maximum width of the third ventricle in the axial image were also estimated for comparison. The widths of rostrum, body and splenium of the corpus callosum became thinner with age. Conversely, the anterior to posterior length and the maximum height of the corpus callosum increased with age. The ratio of the width of the body to the length of the corpus callosum and the ratio of the width of the body to the height of the corpus callosum are best correlated with age. No sex differences in regional size of corpus callosum, including these two ratios, were observed in any raw measures, although ventricular indices were larger in men than women. Evaluation of the ratio of the width of the body to its length and the ratio of the width of the body to its height may enable accurate estimation of normal or pathological changes of the corpus callosum. Aging and pathological atrophy of corpus callosum can be evaluated without any adjustment for gender. (orig.)

  6. Different indicators of socioeconomic status and their relative importance as determinants of health in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander; Fors, Stefan; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2017-09-26

    Socioeconomic status has been operationalised in a variety of ways, most commonly as education, social class, or income. In this study, we also use occupational complexity and a SES-index as alternative measures of socioeconomic status. Studies show that in analyses of health inequalities in the general population, the choice of indicators influence the magnitude of the observed inequalities. Less is known about the influence of indicator choice in studies of older adults. The aim of this study is twofold: i) to analyse the impact of the choice of socioeconomic status indicator on the observed health inequalities among older adults, ii) to explore whether different indicators of socioeconomic status are independently associated with health in old age. We combined data from two nationally representative Swedish surveys, providing more than 20 years of follow-up. Average marginal effects were estimated to compare the association between the five indicators of SES, and three late-life health outcomes: mobility limitations, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), and psychological distress. All socioeconomic status indicators were associated with late-life health; there were only minor differences in the effect sizes. Income was most strongly associated to all indicators of late-life health, the associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for the other indicators. In the fully adjusted models, education contributed to the model fits with 0-3% (depending on the outcome), social class with 0-1%, occupational complexity with 1-8%, and income with 3-18%. Our results indicate overlapping properties between socioeconomic status indicators in relation to late-life health. However, income is associated to late-life health independently of all other variables. Moreover, income did not perform substantially worse than the composite SES-index in capturing health variation. Thus, if the primary objective of including an indicator of socioeconomic

  7. Impact of excessive groundwater pumping on rejuvenation processes in the Bandung basin (Indonesia) as determined by hydrogeochemistry and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiq, Ahmad; Hosono, Takahiro; Ide, Kiyoshi; Kagabu, Makoto; Iskandar, Irwan; Effendi, Agus J.; Hutasoit, Lambok M.; Shimada, Jun

    2017-12-01

    In the Bandung basin, Indonesia, excessive groundwater pumping caused by rapid increases in industrialization and population growth has caused subsurface environmental problems, such as excessive groundwater drawdown and land subsidence. In this study, multiple hydrogeochemical techniques and numerical modeling have been applied to evaluate the recharge processes and groundwater age (rejuvenation). Although all the groundwater in the Bandung basin is recharged at the same elevation at the periphery of the basin, the water type and residence time of the shallow and deep groundwater could be clearly differentiated. However, there was significant groundwater drawdown in all the depression areas and there is evidence of groundwater mixing between the shallow and deep groundwater. The groundwater mixing was traced from the high dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) concentrations in some deep groundwater samples and by estimating the rejuvenation ratio (R) in some representative observation wells. The magnitude of CFC-12 concentration, as an indicator of young groundwater, showed a good correlation with R, determined using 14C activity in samples taken between 2008 and 2012. These correlations were confirmed with the estimation of vertical downward flux from shallower to deeper aquifers using numerical modeling. Furthermore, the change in vertical flux is affected by the change in groundwater pumping. Since the 1970s, the vertical flux increased significantly and reached approximately 15% of the total pumping amount during the 2000s, as it compensated the groundwater pumping. This study clearly revealed the processes of groundwater impact caused by excessive groundwater pumping using a combination of hydrogeochemical methods and modeling.

  8. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  9. Food shopping habits, physical activity and health-related indicators among adults aged ≥70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L; Bentley, Georgina; Davis, Mark; Coulson, Jo; Stathi, Afroditi; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the food shopping habits of older adults in the UK and explore their potential associations with selected health-related indicators. A cross-sectional study including objectively measured physical activity levels, BMI, physical function and self-reported health status and dietary intake. Bristol, UK. A total of 240 older adults aged ≥70 years living independently. Mean age was 78·1 (sd 5·7) years; 66·7 % were overweight or obese and 4 % were underweight. Most (80·0 %) carried out their own food shopping; 53·3 % shopped at least once weekly. Women were more likely to shop alone (P driven (P car at least once weekly at large supermarket chains, with most finding high-quality fruit, vegetables and low-fat products easily accessible. Higher levels of physical function and physical activity and better self-reported health are important in supporting food shopping and maintaining independence.

  10. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, Adrian

    2006-05-01

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  11. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  12. Fatigue in older adults: An early indicator of the aging process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of research on fatigue in older adults, with a focus on fatigue as an early indicator of the aging process. Fatigue is a strong predictor of functional limitations, disability, mortality, and other adverse outcomes in young-old and old-old populations......, between men and women, and in different geographic localities. Several biological, physiological and social explanations are proposed: fatigue may be seen not only as a self-reported indicator of frailty, defined as a physiologic state of increased vulnerability to stressors, which results from decreased...... physiologic reserves and even dysregulation of multiple physiologic systems, but also this state may be accelerated because of the cumulative impact of social, mental and biological factors throughout life....

  13. Simulations of groundwater flow, transport, and age in Albuquerque, New Mexico, for a study of transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants (TANC) to public-supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Vulnerability to contamination from manmade and natural sources can be characterized by the groundwater-age distribution measured in a supply well and the associated implications for the source depths of the withdrawn water. Coupled groundwater flow and transport models were developed to simulate the transport of the geochemical age-tracers carbon-14, tritium, and three chlorofluorocarbon species to public-supply wells in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A separate, regional-scale simulation of transport of carbon-14 that used the flow-field computed by a previously documented regional groundwater flow model was calibrated and used to specify the initial concentrations of carbon-14 in the local-scale transport model. Observations of the concentrations of each of the five chemical species, in addition to water-level observations and measurements of intra-borehole flow within a public-supply well, were used to calibrate parameters of the local-scale groundwater flow and transport models. The calibrated groundwater flow model simulates the mixing of “young” groundwater, which entered the groundwater flow system after 1950 as recharge at the water table, with older resident groundwater that is more likely associated with natural contaminants. Complexity of the aquifer system in the zone of transport between the water table and public-supply well screens was simulated with a geostatistically generated stratigraphic realization based upon observed lithologic transitions at borehole control locations. Because effective porosity was simulated as spatially uniform, the simulated age tracers are more efficiently transported through the portions of the simulated aquifer with relatively higher simulated hydraulic conductivity. Non-pumping groundwater wells with long screens that connect aquifer intervals having different hydraulic heads can provide alternate pathways for contaminant transport that are faster than the advective transport through the aquifer material. Simulation of

  14. Using 81Kr-age of groundwater in the Guarani Aquifer, Brazil, to constrain estimates of continental degassing flux of 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Matsumoto, T.; Sturchio, N. C.; Chang, H. K.; Gastmans, D.; Lu, Z.; Jiang, W.; Müller, P.; Yokochi, R.; Han, L.; Klaus, P.; Torgersen, T.

    2013-12-01

    Continental degassing flux of helium is the dominant component of dissolved helium in deep groundwater together with that produced in-situ in the aquifer. A reliable estimate of the degassing flux is critical to the use of 4He as a dating tool in groundwater studies. The degassing flux is also important for understanding fluid and heat transport in the mantle and the rust. An independent tracer of groundwater age is required in order to deconvolute the two signals of the external, degassing flux and in situ production. Estimates of degassing flux mostly have relied upon shorter-lived radionuclides such as 14C and tritium and the resulting flux estimates have a significant variability (Torgersen, 2010). In the Guarani Aquifer in Brazil, an effective crustal 4He degassing flux into the aquifer was estimated from 81Kr ages ranging from about 70 Ka to 570 Ka. We then used the model framework of Toregesen and Ivey (1985), modified to include a diffusive reduction of originally uniform crustal helium flux from basement rocks through a thick sedimentary layer beneath the aquifer, to calculate a distribution of radiogenic 4He within the aquifer. With this framework, we obtain 4He ages that are consistent with ages based on 81Kr and 14C, and with a crustal degassing flux equivalent to that estimated from U and Th contents in the crust. The model framework for the Guarani Aquifer is also applied to data from other deep aquifers in Africa and Australia and our results suggest that the continental flux of 4He may be uniform, at least in stable continental areas. Additionally, a reliable estimate of the 4He degassing flux also helps to constrain the surficial discharge of deep groundwater.

  15. Underground structures increasing the intrinsic vulnerability of urban groundwater: Sensitivity analysis and development of an empirical law based on a groundwater age modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    In a previous paper published in Journal of Hydrology, it was shown that underground structures are responsible for a mixing process between shallow and deep groundwater that can favour the spreading of urban contamination. In this paper, the impact of underground structures on the intrinsic vulnerability of urban aquifers was investigated. A sensitivity analysis was performed using a 2D deterministic modelling approach based on the reservoir theory generalized to hydrodispersive systems to better understand this mixing phenomenon and the mixing affected zone (MAZ) caused by underground structures. It was shown that the maximal extent of the MAZ caused by an underground structure is reached approximately 20 years after construction. Consequently, underground structures represent a long-term threat for deep aquifer reservoirs. Regarding the construction process, draining operations have a major impact and favour large-scale mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. Consequently, dewatering should be reduced and enclosed as much as possible. The role played by underground structures' dimensions was assessed. The obstruction of the first aquifer layer caused by construction has the greatest influence on the MAZ. The cumulative impact of several underground structures was assessed. It was shown that the total MAZ area increases linearly with underground structures' density. The role played by materials' properties and hydraulic gradient were assessed. Hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy and porosity have the strongest influence on the development of MAZ. Finally, an empirical law was derived to estimate the MAZ caused by an underground structure in a bi-layered aquifer under unconfined conditions. This empirical law, based on the results of the sensitivity analysis developed in this paper, allows for the estimation of MAZ dimensions under known material properties and underground structure dimensions. This empirical law can help urban planners assess the area of

  16. THE PREVALENCE OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC INDICATORS AMONG MEN AND WOMEN OF OLDER AGES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Muromtseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the prevalence of ECG ischemic disorders assessed by theMinnesota code on a sample of people over 50 years, depending on gender, age and employment.Material and methods. The results of a survey of a representative sample of the unorganized population of 13 regions, participants of the ESSE-RF program in 2012-2014, were included into the study (n=8334 people; men - 2784, women - 5550. Analysis of the prevalence of ECG changes was carried out by the Minnesota code in groups of 50-54, 55-59 and 60-64 years old, depending on gender and employment (employed and unemployed.Results. Pathological changes were recorded on the ECG more often in men compared to women – Q(QS-wave (5% vs 1.9%, atrial fibrillation (2.1% vs 0.8%; p<0.01, conduction abnormalities (2.7% vs 1.6%; p<0.002 with a maximum in 60-64 years old (4.4% vs 2.6%; p<0.01, respectively. ST segment depression and the T wave abnormalities (myocardial ischemia occurred more often in women than in men (6.9% vs 5.1%, respectively; p<0.001, with a significant increase of these changes in women after 60 years old. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities increases with age. Significant rise of ECG-changes prevalence was found in men at the age of 55-59 years (pathological QQS, myocardial ischemia, left ventricular hypertrophy; and in women – at 60-64 years (myocardial ischemia, atrial fibrillation, conduction abnormalities. Almost two-fold increase in the incidence of arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities was found in men and women aged 60-64 years, regardless of employment status.Conclusion. Given the poor prognosis of ischemic ECG abnormalities, even their low prevalence indicates to unfavorable epidemiological situation among people around retirement age (55-64. These results emphasize the need for practitioners to careful attention to the ECG-abnormalities with poor prognosis in patients pre-retirement and retirement age. They may also be useful for practical public health as a

  17. Developmental Indicators of School-Age Children, Living in the Regions with Iodine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the results of studying developmental indicators of children living in the areas of iodine deficiency. The basic anthropometric parameters (height and weight, chest circumference were defined, the estimation of intellectual development in 819 children aged 7–16 years living in the regions with mild (472 persons and moderate (347 persons iodine deficiency was carried out. Examined children were standardized by major factors of developmental effect. Anthropometric measurements were carried out by standard methods. Maturity of intellectual functioning was determined using the fragment of R. Cattell test, indicators of mental activity — with proofreading test in conjunction with reading rate test. In all children we have carried out measurement of daily ioduria (Sandell — Kolthoff reaction, palpation of the thyroid gland, determination of its size and structure using ultrasound. It was found that the diet of children is characterized by deficiency of food rich in iodine. Iodized salt was used only by 1 of 50 families. Children living in the regions with moderate iodine deficiency in all age subgroups have lower rates of physical development. A third of children living in areas of iodine deficiency have disharmonic physical development. 13.8 % of children from the regions of iodine deficiency have changes in the majority of the studied cognitive functions. Leading disabilities in the whole group of children were memory impairment and fine motor skills disorders. The level of intellectual maturity, productivity and accuracy of human performance decreases with growing iodine deficiency.

  18. Quality of life and psychological health indicators in the national social life, health, and aging project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara; Graber, Jessica; Karraker, Amelia

    2009-11-01

    The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) measures seven indicators of quality of life (QoL) and psychological health. The measures used for happiness, self-esteem, depression, and loneliness are well established in the literature. Conversely, measures of anxiety, stress, and self-reported emotional health were modified for their use in this unique project. The purpose of this paper is to provide (a) an overview of NSHAP's QoL assessment and (b) evidence for the adequacy of the modified measures. First, we examined the psychometric properties of the modified measures. Second, the established QoL measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the modified measures. Finally, gender- and age-group differences were examined for each modified measure. The anxiety index exhibited good internal reliability and concurrent validity. Consistent with the literature, a single-factor structure best fit the data. Stress was satisfactory in terms of concurrent validity but with only fair internal consistency. Self-reported emotional health exhibited good concurrent validity and moderate external validity. The modified indices used in NSHAP tended to exhibit good internal reliability and concurrent validity. These measures can confidently be used in the exploration of QoL and psychological health in later life and its many correlates.

  19. Performance estimation of control rod position indicator due to aging of magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Ji Ho; Huh, Hyung; Choi, Myoung Hwan; Sohn, Dong Seong

    2009-01-01

    The Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) for the integral reactor is designed to raise and lower the control rod in steps of 2mm in order to satisfy the design features of the integral reactor which are the soluble boron free operation and the use of a nuclear heating for the reactor start-up. The actual position of the control rod could be achieved to sense the magnet connected to the control rod by the position indicator around the upper pressure housing of CEDM. It is sufficient that the actual position information of control rod at 20mm interval from the position indicator is used for the core safety analysis. As the magnet moves upward along the position indicator assembly from the bottom to the top in the upper pressure housing, the output voltage increases linearly step-wise at 0.2VDC increments. Between every step there are transient areas which occur by a contact closing of three reed switches which is the 2-3-2 contact closing sequence. In this paper the output voltage signal corresponding to the position of control rod was estimated on the 2-1-2 contact closing sequence due to the aging of the magnet.

  20. Using 14C and 3H to understand groundwater flow and recharge in an aquifer window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, A. P.; Cartwright, I.; Gilfedder, B. S.; Cendón, D. I.; Unland, N. P.; Hofmann, H.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of groundwater residence times and recharge locations is vital to the sustainable management of groundwater resources. Here we investigate groundwater residence times and patterns of recharge in the Gellibrand Valley, southeast Australia, where outcropping aquifer sediments of the Eastern View Formation form an "aquifer window" that may receive diffuse recharge from rainfall and recharge from the Gellibrand River. To determine recharge patterns and groundwater flow paths, environmental isotopes (3H, 14C, δ13C, δ18O, δ2H) are used in conjunction with groundwater geochemistry and continuous monitoring of groundwater elevation and electrical conductivity. The water table fluctuates by 0.9 to 3.7 m annually, implying recharge rates of 90 and 372 mm yr-1. However, residence times of shallow (11 to 29 m) groundwater determined by 14C are between 100 and 10 000 years, 3H activities are negligible in most of the groundwater, and groundwater electrical conductivity remains constant over the period of study. Deeper groundwater with older 14C ages has lower δ18O values than younger, shallower groundwater, which is consistent with it being derived from greater altitudes. The combined geochemistry data indicate that local recharge from precipitation within the valley occurs through the aquifer window, however much of the groundwater in the Gellibrand Valley predominantly originates from the regional recharge zone, the Barongarook High. The Gellibrand Valley is a regional discharge zone with upward head gradients that limits local recharge to the upper 10 m of the aquifer. Additionally, the groundwater head gradients adjacent to the Gellibrand River are generally upwards, implying that it does not recharge the surrounding groundwater and has limited bank storage. 14C ages and Cl concentrations are well correlated and Cl concentrations may be used to provide a first-order estimate of groundwater residence times. Progressively lower chloride concentrations from 10

  1. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldfield Gary

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement. 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01 indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2

  2. Determinants of Indices of Cerebral Volume in Former Very Premature Infants at Term Equivalent Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Naud

    Full Text Available Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at term equivalent age (TEA is suggested to be a reliable tool to predict the outcome of very premature infants. The objective of this study was to determine simple reproducible MRI indices, in premature infants and to analyze their neonatal determinants at TEA. A cohort of infants born before 32 weeks gestational age (GA underwent a MRI at TEA in our center. Two axial images (T2 weighted, were chosen to realize nine measures. We defined 4 linear indices (MAfhlv: thickness of lateral ventricle; CSI: cortex-skull index; VCI: ventricular-cortex index; BOI: bi occipital index and 1 surface index (VS.A: volume slice area. Perinatal data were recorded. Sixty-nine infants had a GA (median (interquartile range of 30.0 weeks GA (27.0; 30.0 and a birth weight of 1240 grams (986; 1477. MRI was done at 41.0 (40.0; 42.0 weeks post menstrual age (PMA. The inter-investigator reproducibility was good. Twenty one MRI (30.5% were quoted abnormal. We observed an association with retinopathy of prematurity (OR [95CI] = 4.205 [1.231-14.368]; p = 0.017, surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (OR = 4.688 [1.01-21.89]; p = 0.036, early onset infection (OR = 4.688 [1.004-21.889]; p = 0.036 and neonatal treatment by cefotaxime (OR = 3.222 [1.093-9.497]; p = 0.03. There was a difference for VCI between normal and abnormal MRI (0.412 (0.388; 0.429 vs. 0.432 (0.418; 0.449; p = 0,019; BOI was higher when fossa posterior lesions were observed; VS.A seems to be the best surrogate for cerebral volume, 80% of VS.As' variance being explained by a multiple linear regression model including 7 variables (head circumference at birth and at TEA, PMA, dopamine, ibuprofen treatment, blood and platelets transfusions. These indices, easily and rapidly achievable, seem to be useful but need to be validated in a large population to allow generalization for diagnosis and follow-up of former premature infants.

  3. Effect of age, sex and physiological stages on hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehul D; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S; Patel, Ajay G; Joshi, Axay B

    2016-01-01

    To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases.

  4. Social isolation after spinal cord injury: Indicators from the Longitudinal Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Susan D; Li, Chao; Krause, James S

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a conceptual model of social isolation, incorporating social disconnectedness (objective measures) and perceived isolation (subjective appraisals) in an aging sample of participants with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study used cross-sectional data from 768 participants from the most recent administration of the SCI Longitudinal Aging Study, which was initiated in 1973. Measures included the revised version of the Life Situation Questionnaire, items from the Craig Handicap Assessment Reporting Technique, and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Indicators of social isolation were combined into scales assessing social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. We tested the hypothesized model of social isolation, including both social disconnectedness and perceived isolation, after SCI using structural equation modeling. Results of structural equation modeling indicated good fit between the hypothesized model and data (root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.073, 90% confidence interval [0.070, 0.075]; comparative fit index = 0.949; Tucker Lewis Index = 0.946). Perceived isolation was significantly related with social disconnectedness (standardized coefficient [r] = .610). Several exogenous factors were significantly related to social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. Older participants were more likely to report lower levels of perceived isolation. Time since injury demonstrated an inverse relationship with both social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. Higher level and severity of injury were associated with higher levels of social disconnectedness. Our study establishes a stable model of social isolation to guide future research exploring the effect of social isolation on health after SCI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Age, Stigma, Adherence and Clinical Indicators in HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Katryna; Higgins, Melinda; Zuñiga, Julie Ann; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    Stigma has become a gendered phenomenon that affects increasing numbers of HIV-infected women worldwide. This study examined the role of age as a possible moderator of the relationship between stigma and antiretroviral therapy adherence, CD4% and viral load among 120 HIV-infected women. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the Keeping Healthy and Active with Risk Reduction and Medication Adherence (KHARMA) Project, an National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded randomized controlled trial to improve Antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence and reduce risky behaviors in HIV-infected women at five clinical sites in a South-eastern city from 2005 to 2008. Stigma was measured using the Perceived Personal Stigma of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) scale. Among participants stigma was negatively associated with CD4% (r =-.26, p=.02). For the 30 participants >50 years old, age was not significantly associated with viral load, stigma or CD4%, and there was no significant association between stigma and CD4% (r=.07, p=.70). These findings indicate the need for further study regarding this potential moderating effect and possible interventions to address the susceptibility of younger women to the harmful effects of stigma.

  6. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-06-14

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African-Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African-Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures.

  7. Advanced bone age as an indicator facilitates the diagnosis of precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Qin Xu

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Diagnosis of central precocious puberty has always been challenging in clinical practice. As an important method in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test is complex and time-consuming. In many cases, clinical traits are inconsistent with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test results, therefore not reliable for diagnosis. In this study, the authors intended to find an indicator that predicts the results of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test among subjects with early pubertal signs. Methods: Cases of 382 girls with early breast development before 8 years old and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test before 9 years old were included and underwent follow-up tests. Patients with peak luteinizing hormone level ≥5 IU/L were considered positive in the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test. Anthropometric data, body mass index, bone age evaluation, blood hormones levels of luteinizing hormone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and uterine and ovarian volumes were analyzed. Results: Subjects with positive results in the initial test demonstrated early bone maturation, accelerated growth, and elevated basal blood luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, when compared with subjects with negative results in the initial test. Subjects with positive results in the follow-up test presented a more advanced bone age and more accelerated linear growth, when compared with subjects with negative results in the follow-up test. Conclusions: According to the statistical analysis, advanced bone age is the most effective predictor of the result of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test.

  8. [ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICATORS AND CARDIOMETABOLIC EVENTS AMONG SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN FROM SONORA, MEXICO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Peña, Sandra Lidia; Reséndiz González, Eunice; Rubí Vargas, María; Terrazas Medina, Efraín Alonso; Cupul Uicab, Lea Aurora

    2015-10-01

    obesity in childhood is predictive of obesity in adulthood and it is associated with adverse health effect apparent since childhood; however, the joint assessment of obesity and adverse events among children in clinical settings is unusual. to assess the association of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat with systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP] blood pressure, lipid profile and glucose levels; and to identify the best anthropometric indicator of such events. we conducted a cross-sectional study in a sample of 412 schoolchildren. The presence of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity and excess body fat was determined among all participants; levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoproteins, and glucose were measured in a subsample (n = 133). The associations of interest were assessed using adjusted linear and logistic regression models. 33% of the children were overweight or obese. Overall, overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat were associated with elevated SBP and DBP and with a lipid profile and glucose levels that could indicate health risks among these children. Overweight and obesity were the best predictors of such events. among these school-aged children, we observed that obesity was associated with high odds of having adverse health outcomes such as high blood pressure, lipids and glucose. Such adverse events can be predicted by the presence of obesity measured by BMI, which is a noninvasive, inexpensive and easy to implement measure. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Statin utilization according to indication and age: A Danish cohort study on changing prescribing and purchasing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Vass, Mikkel; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    indications and ages. Conclusion: While patent expiry and lower prices most likely boosted the general increase in statin utilization, the gradually altered indication and age pattern seems to be driven by guidelines, influencing both reimbursement rules and general healthcare policies. A media debate...... on statin side effects may have modified the general attitudes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Ground-Water Flow Direction, Water Quality, Recharge Sources, and Age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, South-Central Colorado, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2004-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Monument is located in south-central Colorado along the eastern edge of the San Luis Valley. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument contains the tallest sand dunes in North America; some rise up to750 feet. Important ecological features of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument are palustrine wetlands associated with interdunal ponds and depressions along the western edge of the dune field. The existence and natural maintenance of the dune field and the interdunal ponds are dependent on maintaining ground-water levels at historic elevations. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in collaboration with the National Park Service, of ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. A shallow unconfined aquifer and a deeper confined aquifer are the two principal aquifers at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. Ground water in the unconfined aquifer is recharged from Medano and Sand Creeks near the Sangre de Cristo Mountain front, flows underneath the main dune field, and discharges to Big and Little Spring Creeks. The percentage of calcium in ground water in the unconfined aquifer decreases and the percentage of sodium increases because of ionic exchange with clay minerals as the ground water flows underneath the dune field. It takes more than 60 years for the ground water to flow from Medano and Sand Creeks to Big and Little Spring Creeks. During this time, ground water in the upper part of the unconfined aquifer is recharged by numerous precipitation events. Evaporation of precipitation during recharge prior to reaching the water table causes enrichment in deuterium (2H) and oxygen-18 (18O) relative to waters that are not evaporated. This recharge from precipitation events causes the apparent ages determined using chlorofluorocarbons and tritium to become younger, because relatively young precipitation water is mixing with older waters

  11. Arsenic in Holocene aquifers of the Red River floodplain, Vietnam: Effects of sediment-water interactions, sediment burial age and groundwater residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sø, Helle Ugilt; Postma, Dieke; , Mai Lan, Vi; Pham, Thi Kim Trang; Kazmierczak, Jolanta; Dao, Viet Nga; Pi, Kunfu; Koch, Christian Bender; Pham, Hung Viet; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2018-03-01

    Water-sediment interactions were investigated in arsenic contaminated Holocene aquifers of the Red River floodplain, Vietnam, in order to elucidate the origin of the spatial variability in the groundwater arsenic concentration. The investigated aquifers are spread over an 8 × 13 km field area with sediments that varied in burial age from V) redox couple was found in disequilibrium with the other redox couples. Using the pe calculated from the CH4/CO2 redox couple we show that the groundwater has a reducing potential towards Fe-oxides ranging from ferrihydrite to poorly crystalline goethite, but not for well crystalline goethite or hematite. Hematite and poorly crystalline goethite were identified as the Fe-oxides present in the sediments. Reductive dissolution experiments identify two phases releasing Fe(II); one rapidly dissolving that also contains As and a second releasing Fe(II) more slowly but without As. The initial release of Fe and As occurs at a near constant As/Fe ratio that varied from site to site between 1.2 and 0.1 mmol As/mol Fe. Siderite (FeCO3) is the main sink for Fe(II), based on saturation calculations as well as the identification of siderite in the sediment. Most of the carbonate incorporated in siderite originates from the dissolution of sedimentary CaCO3. Over time the CaCO3 content of the sediments diminishes and FeCO3 appears instead. No specific secondary phases that incorporate arsenite could be identified. Alternatively, the amount of arsenic mobilized during the dissolution of reactive phases can be contained in the pool of adsorbed arsenite. Combining groundwater age with aquifer sediment age allows the calculation of the total number of pore volumes flushed through the aquifer. Comparison with groundwater chemistry shows the highest arsenic concentration to be present within the first 200 pore volumes flushed through the aquifer. These results agree with reactive transport modeling combining a kinetic description of reductive

  12. Body mass index and skinfolds as indicators of obesity in schoolchildren aged 8 to 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Buraneli Mantoan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the concordance of two obesity indicators, BMI and % body fat in boys and girls. Therefore, 100 girls and 100 boys, with ages ranging from 8 to 10 years, were submitted to anthropometric measurements for subsequent calculation of Body Mass Index (BMI and % body fat, both as obesity indicators. The variables were analyzed with relation to the reference criteria proposed by Williams et al and Cole et al. The results were then analyzed with the kappa index, elucidating that 79% of the boys and 85% of the girls were classified simultaneously by both procedures. The kappa index indicated a moderate agreement between the two obesity indicators for obese and non-obese classification. However, our data demonstrated that 21% of the boys and 15% of the girls showed normal weight according to BMI, but were classified as obese according to the % body fat. The results show that BMI, when compared with skinfolds, had moderate agreement in children from 8 to 10 years old for detecting obesity. ResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a concordância entre dois indicadores de obesidade, IMC e percentual de gordura, em escolares de ambos os sexos. Para tanto, 100 meninas e 100 meninos de 8 a 10 anos, alunos do ensino fundamental do município de Londrina, foram submetidos a medidas antropométricas para subseqüente cálculo do Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC e percentual de gordura como indicadores de obesidade. As variáveis foram analisadas em relação aos critérios de referência apresentados por Williams et al e Cole et al. Os resultados foram analisados pelo índice Kappa, evidenciando que 79% dos meninos e 85% das meninas foram classificados simultaneamente pelos dois procedimentos. Uma concordância moderada entre os dois indicadores de obesidade na classificação para meninos e meninas foi evidenciada (kappa=0,43 e 0,50, respectivamente. Entretanto, os dados encontrados demonstraram que 21% dos meninos e 15% das

  13. Correlates of volunteering among aging Texans: the roles of health indicators, spirituality, and social engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, SangNam; Phillips, Karon L; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with volunteering among older adults. Based on data from the 2008 Aging Texas Well (ATW) Indicators Survey, we examined the degree to which demographic factors, health status, spiritual participation, and community involvement are associated with volunteering among adults aged 60 years or older (n = 525). Rates of volunteering varied by race/ethnicity: non-Hispanic Whites (56.4%), African Americans (51.1%), and Hispanics (43.2%). Bivariate analyses showed that non-Hispanic White older adults were more likely to participate in formal volunteering activities, while their African American and Hispanic counterparts tended to participate in informal volunteering activities. Logistic regression analyses revealed that volunteering was less observed among Hispanics (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.78). Volunteering was more observed among those who reported providing informal care (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.14-3.28), having very good or excellent mental health (OR = 1.90 and 2.07, 95% CI 1.09-3.32 and 1.20-3.55, respectively), having weekly or daily spiritual participation (OR = 2.15 and 2.35, 95% CI 1.28-3.63 and 1.29-4.28, respectively), perceiving community involvement very important (OR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.55-3.62), and being very satisfied with the community interaction (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.15-2.85). Given the positive associations of mental health, spirituality, and social engagement with volunteering among older adults, system-level efforts to increase the sense of community among older adults and recognize their roles as volunteers will be helpful in recruiting and retaining older volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flow, origin, and age of groundwater in some deep-lying poorly permeable aquifers in the Netherlands; implications for geological waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasbergen, P.

    1985-01-01

    Interest in the hydrological properties of deep strata has been increasing rapidly, especially in relation to waste disposal. For the assessment of the geohydrological stability of the host-rock itself as well as of the migration of contaminants leached from a disposal facility, investigation of the hydrological system is obligatory. Three drillings down to and beyond 500 m through very thick clay layers yielded a number of data providing new information about the hydrological system of deep strata in the Netherlands. Clay samples were taken profiles of water quality vs. depth were established, and groundwater present above and below the deep clay strata was subjected to chemical analyses in isotope determinations. Well tests and slug tests were performed to determine the permeability of the underlying aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity was found to range from 10 -7 to 10 -6 m/s. The estimated age of the deep groundwater below the Oligocene clay is at most about 4 x 10 4 years. An interpretation of the flow system is given on the basis of the relations found between water quality, depth, the conductivity, and the measured water pressures. The present observations and interpretations lead to the conclusion that the groundwater in the investigated deep strata is part of a hydrological cycle whose scale is probably limited and in some places very limited. Studies based on a model support the presented conclusions. 18 references, 9 figures

  15. Differences between groundwater fauna in shallow and in deep intergranular aquifers as an indication of different characteristics of habitats and hydraulic connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Brancelj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fauna in the hyporheic zones of rivers has been relatively well studied but that from the phreatic zone remains comparatively unknown and there are few investigations into deeper intergranular aquifers (over 30 m in depth due to technical difficulties. Two shallow boreholes of 29 m depth and two deep boreholes of 100 m depth, both near Ljubljana (Slovenia, were sampled more than 30 times between 14 January 2008 and 3 March 2009.  On each occasion 14.4 to 18.0 m3 of water were abstracted using a high-capacity pump, then filtered by means of a plankton net with a mesh size of 60 µm. Organisms larger than 2 mm were damaged by the pump rotors, but their identification was still possible, while smaller representatives of the Copepoda (Crustacea passed the rotors without  damage. A near-by artesian borehole was sampled on 6 occasions. Water chemistry, physical properties and faunal composition analyses were carried out for each borehole. A total of 32 taxa, 24 of which were stygobites, were identified. Copepoda alone were represented by 16 species, 15 of which were stygobites. The shallow boreholes differ from the deep boreholes in their higher temperatures and higher concentrations of K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- ions. The copepod communities in samples from the shallow boreholes differ sharply from those from the deep boreholes. There were also clear differences between shallow boreholes in two aquifers located a few kilometres apart, in physical and chemical characteristics as well as in fauna composition. Taxa with different ecological affinities, collected from groundwater, are indicators of hydraulic connections between different parts of an aquifer as well as of communication between surface and subsurface water bodies. The present study suggests that subterranean fauna, as well as epigean fauna, can provide effective support for classical dye/salt tracing experiments.

  16. Correlative link ages between indices of bone metabolism and thyroid hormones in rats with periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Shcherba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been established that changes in the bone tissue of the jaw are present in all cases where there are at least small pathological inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. This suggests a significantly greater pathogenetic relationship between inflammatory changes in the mucosa and changes in the bone part of the periodontal disease. Despite a large number of studies, the molecular mechanisms of the influence of thyroid hormones on the bone metabolism have not been completely studied.  The aim of study: to clarify mechanisms of the periodontitis development in rats with thyroid dysfunction based on a comparative analysis of the correlations between the bone metabolism indices and the concentration of  thyroid stimulating hormone,  free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine. Material and methods: Experimental studies were conducted on male, nonliner, white rats of around 4 months of age.  The experimental animals were divided into the following groups: І – control animals;  ІІ – animals with periodontitis; ІІІ – animals with periodontitis combined with hyperthyroidism; IV – animals with periodontitis combined with hypothyroidism. Total calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin concentration and  activity of phosphatases were measured. Correlation analysis was performed between all the studied indices. Coefficient of linear correlation (r and its fidelity (p was calculated that was accordingly denoted in the tables (correlation matrices. The correlation coefficient was significant at p<0.05. Results: The conducted correlative analysis shows that there are different interconnections between the indices of calcium-phosphorus metabolism, bone formation and bone resorption with free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone, in case of the experimental periodontitis combined with thyroid dysfunction. In animals with modelled periodontitis combined with

  17. [Hematologic indices in different age wistar rats, receiving a balanced semi-synthetic vivary diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafina, O K; Trushina, É N; Shumakova, E A; Arianova, E A; Tyshko, N V; Pashorina, V A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research of hematologic parameters of male Wistar rats 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months age, which received a balanced semisynthetic diet. Studies were carried out at the Hematology analyzer Coulter AC TTM 5 diff OV (Beckman Coulter, USA) with the program, specially developed for the study of rats' blood. According to the results of research, was found a statistically significant increased of the number of red blood cells; the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit in animals 2-6 months compared with rats, 1 month age. With age, there is a decrease of the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The number of white blood cells in rats of 2-4 months age are significantly higher than in rats of 1 and 6 months age. The number of neutrophils and eosinophils in rats of to the 2 month are of is lover than once in rats of 1 month age, and increases values in animals of 6 months age. The number of lymphocytes has the highest value in the rat of 2-3 months age and the minimum value is that in animals of 6 months age. With increasing of the age of the animals the reduction of contents of monocytes was noted. The content of platelets and the platelet crit in the blood of rats 6 months age is statistically greater than those in 1-month age animals. The average volume of platelet is the stable index, with age does not change.

  18. The Association of Arsenic With Redox Conditions, Depth, and Ground-Water Age in the Glacial Aquifer System of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    More than 800 wells in the glacial aquifer system of the Northern United States were sampled for arsenic as part of U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) studies during 1991-2003. Elevated arsenic concentrations (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms per liter) were detected in 9 percent of samples. Elevated arsenic concentrations were associated with strongly reducing conditions. Of the samples classified as iron reducing or sulfate reducing, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 19 percent. Of the methanogenic samples, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 45 percent. In contrast, concentrations of arsenic were elevated in only 1 percent of oxic samples. Arsenic concentrations were also related to ground-water age. Elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 34 percent of old waters (recharged before 1953) as compared to 4 percent of young waters (recharged since 1953). For samples classified as both old and methanogenic, elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 62 percent of samples, as compared to 1 percent for samples classified as young and oxic. Arsenic concentrations were also correlated with well depth and concentrations of several chemical constituents, including (1) constituents linked to redox processes and (2) anions or oxyanions that sorb to iron oxides. Observations from the glacial aquifer system are consistent with the idea that the predominant source of arsenic is iron oxides and the predominant mechanism for releasing arsenic to the ground water is reductive desorption or reductive dissolution. Arsenic is also released from iron oxides under oxic conditions, but on a more limited basis and at lower concentrations. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relative significance of redox, ground-water age, depth, and other water-quality constituents as indicators of elevated arsenic concentrations in the glacial aquifer system. The single variable that explained the greatest amount of variation in

  19. Aging and Variability of Individual Differences: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social, Psychological, and Physiological Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, George L.; Douglass, Elizabeth B.

    This paper explores the relationship between age and individual differences. Two hypotheses were tested through the use of repeated measures of functioning in terms of social, psychological, and physiological parameters: (1) individual differences do not decrease with age, and (2) individuals tend to maintain the same rank in relation to age peers…

  20. Tree diameter a poor indicator of age in West Virginia hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter B. Gibbs

    1963-01-01

    Foresters generally recognize that diameter growth, height growth, sprouting vigor, and seed production are partially related to age; so age often has an important bearing upon silvicultural decisions. But unless past stand histories are fully known, the ages of hardwood trees can be determined only by increment borings, which not only require excessive time but also...

  1. Caveolin-1 as a Novel Indicator of Wound-Healing Capacity in Aged Human Corneal Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, Ji Heon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kim, Jae Chan; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Excess caveolin-1 has been reported to play a role in age-dependent hyporesponsiveness to growth factors in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesized that caveolin-1–dependent hyporesponsiveness to growth factors in aged corneal epithelial cells might be responsible for delayed wound healing in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated corneal wound-healing time by vital staining using fluorescein after laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). We compared wound-healing times in young, middle-aged a...

  2. Association of Anthropometric Indices of Obesity with Hypertension in Chinese Elderly: An Analysis of Age and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Lingzhong; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Long; Qin, Wenzhe; Ding, Gan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Zihang; Xie, Su

    2018-04-19

    This study aims to explore the association of anthropometric indices of obesity with hypertension in Chinese elderly and its possible gender and age differences. A total of 7070 adults age 60 or older were interviewed in a cross-sectional study conducted in 2017. Anthropometric indices for each participant were measured by using standard methods of trained doctoral/master students. We performed two binary logistic regression models to examine the association of the nine different anthropometric indices and hypertension by gender. Lastly, analyses were performed in two steps stratified for age. Comparing individuals with and without hypertension, there were statistically significant differences in anthropometric indices except height, a body shape index (ABSI), and hip index (HI) in males; and except height in females. There were gender differences in the relationship between anthropometric indices and the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese older adults. After stratification by age, the associations of all anthropometric indices became weaker, disappeared, or even went in the opposite direction. Furthermore, body mass index (BMI) in men (except individuals older than 80) and hip circumference (HC) in women showed a significant impact on the risk of hypertension. The association of anthropometric indices of obesity with hypertension in Chinese elderly differ by gender and age. These findings indicate a need to develop gender-specific strategies for the male and female elderly in the primary and secondary prevention of hypertension.

  3. Hanford groundwater scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Gephart, R.E.; Deju, R.A.; Cole, C.R.; Ahlstrom, S.W.

    1977-05-01

    This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level radioactive waste. The predictive and control capacity of the onsite Hanford modeling technology is used to evaluate both scenarios. The results of the first study indicate that Cold Creek Valley irrigationis unlikely to cause significant changes in the water table underlying the high-level waste areas or in the movement of radionuclides already in the groundwater. The hypothetical tank leak study showed that an active response (in this case waste recovery) can be modeled and is a possible alternative to passive monitoring of radionuclide movement in the unlikely event that high-level waste is introduced into the groundwater

  4. The third molar maturity index in indicating the legal adult age in Kosovar population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmendi, Jeta; Cameriere, Roberto; Koçani, Ferit; Galić, Ivan; Mehmeti, Blerim; Vodanović, Marin

    2017-12-16

    The third molar tooth, known as the "wisdom tooth," is the only tooth that can be used to determine legal adult age. This study aimed to test the accuracy of Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I 3M ) in assessing the legal adult age of 18 years in the Kosovar population. Orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 1221 healthy living Kosovar individuals, aged between 12 and 23 years and with no congenital or developmental anomalies, were analyzed. Intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.858 (95% CI, 0.786 to 0.906) and 0.852 (95% CI, 0.779 to 0.903) for intra-rater and for inter-rater agreement, respectively. The sample was divided into training dataset (800 OPTs) and test dataset (421 OPTs). The training dataset was used to generate the logistic regression model, while the test dataset was used to study the performance of the model. I 3M and gender as independent variables and adult age (≥ 18 years) or minor age (age. The results showed that only I 3M statistically significantly contributed to discriminating adults and minors. ROC analysis showed that the cut-off value of I 3M  age gradually increased. The performance of the cut-off value of I 3M  age in a Kosovar population.

  5. [Successful aging and indicators of frailty in the elderly. Octabaix Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Sanz, Héctor; Monserrate, Elena; Verges, Dolors

    2014-11-01

    Successful aging as a process of adaptation to the optimal state is little known in older people. To describe successful aging and to analyze the factors associated with frailty in people aged 86 years. A cross-sectional study of a clinical trial at the second year of follow-up (Octabaix Study). Seven Primary Care Centers. Non-institutionalized subjects born in 1924. Data on sociodemographic, comorbidity and geriatric assessment scales were collected. Frailty was defined by the presence of 3 or more of the following criteria: muscle weakness, slow walking, weight loss, exhaustion, low physical activity. Successful aging was defined as: Barthel index >90/100 and Lobo test ≥ 24/35. Multiple regression analysis was performed. A total of 273 patients were evaluated, 39.2% men. The prevalence of successful aging was 47.2% (129). In the unsuccessful aging, the frailty prevalence was 34.7% (50). The frailty factors associated with unsuccessful aging were low activity (OR: 7.56; 95%CI: 3.8 -14.9), weakness (OR: 6.08; 95%CI: 2.5-14.7), slowness (OR: 5.1; 95%CI: 2.8-9.5), and exhaustion (OR: 3.6; 95%CI: 1.6-8.3). The prevalence of successful aging is high in 86-year-old community-dwelling subjects. The low physical activity multiplied by seven, and muscle weakness by 6, were the factors most associated with unsuccessful aging. Therefore, incorporating screening designed to detect these two factors could improve future interventions towards more optimal aging in the community, if these results are confirmed in future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrate in Danish groundwater during the last 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B; Thorling, L; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribut......This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis...... of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first...... two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater (see Figure 1). Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark...

  7. TVA–based assessment of attentional capacities – associations with age and indices of brain white matter microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eEspeseth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the primary aims were to characterize the effects of age on basic components of visual attention derived from assessments based on a theory of visual attention (TVA in 325 healthy volunteers covering the adult lifespan (19-81 years. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate how age-related differences on TVA parameters are associated with white matter (WM microstructure as indexed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Finally, we explored how TVA parameter estimates were associated with complex, or multicomponent indices of processing speed (Digit-symbol substitution, DSS and fluid intelligence (gF. The results indicated that the TVA parameters for visual short-term memory capacity, K, and for attentional selectivity, α, were most strongly associated with age before the age of 50. However, in this age range, it was the parameter for processing speed, C, that was most clearly associated with DTI indices, in this case fractional anisotropy (FA, particularly in the genu and body of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, differences in the C parameter partially mediated differences in DSS within this age range. After the age of 50, the TVA parameter for the perceptual threshold, t0, as well as K, were most strongly related to participant age. Both parameters, but t0 more strongly so than K, were associated WM diffusivity, particularly in projection fibers such as the internal capsule, the sagittal stratum, and the corona radiata. Within this age range, t0 partially mediated age-related differences in gF. The results are consistent with, and provide novel empirical support for the neuroanatomical localization of TVA computations as outlined in the neuronal interpretation of TVA (NTVA. Furthermore, the results indicate that to understand the biological sources of age-related changes in processing speed and fluid cognition, it may be useful to employ methods that allow for computational fractionation of these multicomponent measures.

  8. Prevalence of Invalid Performance on Baseline Testing for Sport-Related Concussion by Age and Validity Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeare, Christopher A; Messa, Isabelle; Zuccato, Brandon G; Merker, Bradley; Erdodi, Laszlo

    2018-03-12

    Estimated base rates of invalid performance on baseline testing (base rates of failure) for the management of sport-related concussion range from 6.1% to 40.0%, depending on the validity indicator used. The instability of this key measure represents a challenge in the clinical interpretation of test results that could undermine the utility of baseline testing. To determine the prevalence of invalid performance on baseline testing and to assess whether the prevalence varies as a function of age and validity indicator. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included data collected between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2016, from a clinical referral center in the Midwestern United States. Participants included 7897 consecutively tested, equivalently proportioned male and female athletes aged 10 to 21 years, who completed baseline neurocognitive testing for the purpose of concussion management. Baseline assessment was conducted with the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), a computerized neurocognitive test designed for assessment of concussion. Base rates of failure on published ImPACT validity indicators were compared within and across age groups. Hypotheses were developed after data collection but prior to analyses. Of the 7897 study participants, 4086 (51.7%) were male, mean (SD) age was 14.71 (1.78) years, 7820 (99.0%) were primarily English speaking, and the mean (SD) educational level was 8.79 (1.68) years. The base rate of failure ranged from 6.4% to 47.6% across individual indicators. Most of the sample (55.7%) failed at least 1 of 4 validity indicators. The base rate of failure varied considerably across age groups (117 of 140 [83.6%] for those aged 10 years to 14 of 48 [29.2%] for those aged 21 years), representing a risk ratio of 2.86 (95% CI, 2.60-3.16; P indicator and the age of the examinee. The strong age association, with 3 of 4 participants aged 10 to 12 years failing validity indicators, suggests that the

  9. A Study of Correlation of Various Growth Indicators with Chronological Age

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Sandhu, Navreet; Puri, Taruna; Gulati, Ritika; Kashyap, Rita

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of chronological age with cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, frontal sinus width and antegonial notch depth and a correlation, if any, among the three variables. Materials and methods: The samples were derived from lateral cephalometric radiographs of 80 subjects (40 males, 40 females; age range: 10 to 19 years). Cervical vertebral development was evaluated by the method of Hassel and Farman, frontal sinus width ...

  10. Effect of gender, age and deprivation on key performance indicators in a FOBT-based colorectal screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, R J C; Kostourou, I; McClements, P; Watling, C; Libby, G; Weller, D; Brewster, D H; Black, R; Carey, F A; Fraser, C

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of gender, age and deprivation on key performance indicators in a colorectal cancer screening programme. Between March 2000 and May 2006 a demonstration pilot of biennial guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) colorectal screening was carried out in North-East Scotland for all individuals aged 50-69 years. The relevant populations were subdivided, by gender, into four age groups and into five deprivation categories according to the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD), and key performance indicators analysed within these groups. In all rounds, uptake of the gFOBT increased with age (P key performance indicators, and this has implications both for the evaluation of screening programmes and for strategies designed to reduce inequalities.

  11. The impact of natural aging on computational and neural indices of perceptual decision making: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dully, Jessica; McGovern, David P; O'Connell, Redmond G

    2018-02-10

    It is well established that natural aging negatively impacts on a wide variety of cognitive functions and research has sought to identify core neural mechanisms that may account for these disparate changes. A central feature of any cognitive task is the requirement to translate sensory information into an appropriate action - a process commonly known as perceptual decision making. While computational, psychophysical, and neurophysiological research has made substantial progress in establishing the key computations and neural mechanisms underpinning decision making, it is only relatively recently that this knowledge has begun to be applied to research on aging. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this work which is beginning to offer new insights into the core psychological processes that mediate age-related cognitive decline in adults aged 65 years and over. Mathematical modelling studies have consistently reported that older adults display longer non-decisional processing times and implement more conservative decision policies than their younger counterparts. However, there are limits on what we can learn from behavioural modeling alone and neurophysiological analyses can play an essential role in empirically validating model predictions and in pinpointing the precise neural mechanisms that are impacted by aging. Although few studies to date have explicitly examined correspondences between computational models and neural data with respect to cognitive aging, neurophysiological studies have already highlighted age-related changes at multiple levels of the sensorimotor hierarchy that are likely to be consequential for decision making behaviour. Here, we provide an overview of this literature and suggest some future directions for the field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and risk indicators of depression in elderly nursing home patients : the AGED study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2004-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder in later life. Particular frail nursing home patients seem to be at increased risk. Nursing home-based studies on risk indicators of depression are scarce. Methods: Prevalence and risk indicators of depression were assessed in 333

  13. Hair as an indicator of the body burden of metals in relation to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors influencing metal deposition in hair are still unknown. Animal experiments were performed to obtain data on the mechanism of transfer of elements into hair and to estimate whether hair retention is influenced by age, sex and chelating agent treatment. Experiments were performed on albino rats (Wistar strain) of different age and sex. Whole body hair (skin included) and organ retention of various elements was determined at different periods of time after intraperitoneal administration of the radioactive isotopes 115m Cd, 203 Hg, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 65 Zn, 141 Ce, 137 Cs, 203 Pb and 85 Sr. In some experiments DTPA was used for reducing body retention of 155m Cd and 141 Ce and DMPS for reducing 203 Hg retention. Results show that hair and organ retention of elements in rats varies with age, sex and chelation treatment and such changes are specific for each element and can not be generalized. Age as a factor influencing hair retention of metals is likely to be more important for some elements than for others. In kinetic studies we found that due to differences in element distribution and kinetics, the relationship between hair and organ retention at various time intervals varies both with age and the element concerned. Sex influences not only hair but also metal retention and distribution in other organs. (author). 4 refs

  14. Groundwater flow system under a rapidly urbanizing coastal city as determined by hydrogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagabu, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Delinom, Robert; Tsujimura, Maki; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    In the Jakarta area (Indonesia), excessive groundwater pumping due to the rapidly increasing population has caused groundwater-related problems such as brackish water contamination in coastal areas and land subsidence. In this study, we adopted multiple hydrogeochemical techniques to demonstrate the groundwater flow system in the Jakarta area. Although almost all groundwater existing in the Jakarta basin is recharged at similar elevations, the water quality and residence time demonstrates a clear difference between the shallow and deep aquifers. Due to the rapid decrease in the groundwater potential in urban areas, we found that the seawater intrusion and the shallow and deep groundwaters are mixing, a conclusion confirmed by major ions, Br -:Cl - ratios, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12 analysis. Spring water and groundwater samples collected from the southern mountainside area show younger age characteristics with high concentrations of 14C and Ca-HCO 3 type water chemistry. We estimated the residence times of these groundwaters within 45 years under piston flow conditions by tritium analysis. Also, these groundwater ages can be limited to 20-30 years with piston flow evaluated by CFCs. Moreover, due to the magnitude of the CFC-12 concentration, we can use a pseudo age indicator in this field study, because we found a positive correlation between the major type of water chemistry and the CFC-12 concentration.

  15. THE UNIVERSITY OF THE THIRD AGEINDICATIVE OF A DIFFERENT KIND OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta\tPUŞCAŞU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a short view on a new perspective concerning the future model of ageing lifestyle. What is called the University of the Third Age (UTA or U3A represents above all a real cultural revolution born in developed societies.The structure of the article has two parts. The first presents the general context of the emergence of the phenomenon. The second one focuses on a particular exemple represented by the U3A from Liege. The conclusions of the article emphsize the variety of the movement, including in the Romanian experience, as argument for a new social cooperation that should counterbalance traditional approaches.

  16. Efficacy of obesity indices and age in predicting diabetes: study on a transitional tribe of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungreiphy, N K; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between blood sugar level and obesity, and the interplay of socioeconomic change, and to investigate the efficacy of different obesity indices and age in predicting diabetes. Cross-sectional study was carried out among 603 adult Tangkhul Nagas of NE India. Anthropometric measurements, random blood sugar level, general and regional obesity indices were evaluated along with their information on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Socioeconomic change observed among the Tangkhuls influence the rise of overweight/obesity and blood sugar level. Obesity and elevated blood sugar level were highly prevalent and interrelated. Diabetes and obesity were also found to be associated with age. Central obesity indices were highly associated with blood sugar level. Odds ratio showed the likelihood of developing prediabetes/diabetes among centrally obese participants. Correlation between blood sugar level, age and obesity indices showed that waist hip ratio had the highest correlation with blood sugar. It implies the higher reliability of central obesity than general obesity or age in determining blood sugar level. The transition of the Tangkhul Naga tribe in terms of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors contributes to the escalating prevalence of overweight/obesity and diabetes. The rising epidemic is not restricted to highly urbanized societies but now has penetrated even to traditional and transitional tribes owing to their changing lifestyle. Different facets of the complex associations between obesity, age, diabetes and socioeconomic change were observed. Central obesity indicator, waist hip ratio emerge as the paramount predictors of prediabetes/diabetes.

  17. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  18. Requests for body computed tomography: increasing workload, increasing indications and increasing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toms, A.P.; Cash, C.J.C.; Dixon, A.K.; Linton, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing numbers of increasingly elderly patients were being examined in our Body CT department. At the same time, some of our clinical colleagues perceived that their patients might be discriminated against on the basis of their age when allocating CT time. We therefore studied the population trends in our department over a 10-year period. The ages of patients attending the Body CT department were collected from the hospital's computer information system from 1995 to 2000 and from handwritten logbooks for the months of September 1988 and 1998. Comparison was made with population trends within the hospital and local demographic data. There has been an average increase of 11% per annum in the number of examinations performed in the Body CT unit. The average age of patients examined increased from 52.7 years in 1988 to 58.9 years in 1998. The largest increase occurred in the over 75-year population (18% rise per annum). Hospital and local demographic population profiles changed little during the same period. We are performing increasing numbers of body CT examinations on increasingly elderly patients. This is probably due to an increased willingness to investigate and treat elderly patients, rather than changes in the local population. There is no evidence of a general discriminatory policy on the basis of age. (orig.)

  19. Smoking and drinking as risk indicators for tooth loss in middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Avlund, Kirsten; Christensen, Lisa Bøge

    2014-01-01

    , drinking, and various covariates was obtained using self-administered, structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression (dependent variable: 6+ vs. ...: Our findings suggest that smoking is positively associated, while alcoholic beverage consumption is inversely related to tooth loss in middle-aged Danes....

  20. Caveolin-1 as a novel indicator of wound-healing capacity in aged human corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Ji Heon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kim, Jae Chan; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Excess caveolin-1 has been reported to play a role in age-dependent hyporesponsiveness to growth factors in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesized that caveolin-1-dependent hyporesponsiveness to growth factors in aged corneal epithelial cells might be responsible for delayed wound healing in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated corneal wound-healing time by vital staining using fluorescein after laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). We compared wound-healing times in young, middle-aged and elderly patients. We also examined caveolin-1 levels and other aging markers, such as p53 and p21, in the corneal epithelium. Elderly patients generally had higher caveolin-1 levels in the corneal epithelia than young patients. There were, however, variations among individuals with increased caveolin-1 in some young patients and decreased levels in some elderly patients. Wound-healing time after LASEK correlated well with the corneal caveolin-1 status. Therefore, we suggest that caveolin-1 status might be responsible for delayed wound healing in elderly patients after LASEK. Caveolin-1 status might be a regulator for wound-healing capacity and a novel target for in vivo adjustment.

  1. Ossification score is a better indicator of maturity related changes in eating quality than animal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F; Gardner, G E

    2016-04-01

    Ossification score and animal age are both used as proxies for maturity-related collagen crosslinking and consequently decreases in beef tenderness. Ossification score is strongly influenced by the hormonal status of the animal and may therefore better reflect physiological maturity and consequently eating quality. As part of a broader cross-European study, local consumers scored 18 different muscle types cooked in three ways from 482 carcasses with ages ranging from 590 to 6135 days and ossification scores ranging from 110 to 590. The data were studied across three different maturity ranges; the complete range of maturities, a lesser range and a more mature range. The lesser maturity group consisted of carcasses having either an ossification score of 200 or less or an age of 987 days or less with the remainder in the greater maturity group. The three different maturity ranges were analysed separately with a linear mixed effects model. Across all the data, and for the greater maturity group, animal age had a greater magnitude of effect on eating quality than ossification score. This is likely due to a loss of sensitivity in mature carcasses where ossification approached and even reached the maximum value. In contrast, age had no relationship with eating quality for the lesser maturity group, leaving ossification score as the more appropriate measure. Therefore ossification score is more appropriate for most commercial beef carcasses, however it is inadequate for carcasses with greater maturity such as cull cows. Both measures may therefore be required in models to predict eating quality over populations with a wide range in maturity.

  2. Event-related potential indices of inter-individual and age differences in visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Töllner, Thomas; Dyrholm, Mads

    The ‘Theory of Visual Attention’ quantifies an individual’s capacity of attentional resources in parameters visual processing speed C and vSTM storage capacity K. By combining TVA-based assessment with neurophysiology, we showed that distinct ERP components index inter-individual differences......-related changes in attentional capacities, these ERP markers of individual differences in processing speed and storage capacity were validated in an older group. Furthermore, additional components were related to performance exclusively in older inidividuals: Anterior N1 amplitudes were reduced for slower older...... that reorganization of attentional brain networks, including age-specific decline and compensation mechanisms, determines older individuals’ attention capacity. Furthermore, we show that the distinctiveness of the two functions, as defined in TVA, is preserved (or even increased) in older age....

  3. Age, Stigma, Adherence and Clinical Indicators in HIV-Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Katryna; Higgins, Melinda; Zuñiga, Julie Ann; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2015-01-01

    Stigma has become a gendered phenomenon that affects increasing numbers of HIV-infected women worldwide. This study examined the role of age as a possible moderator of the relationship between stigma and antiretroviral therapy adherence, CD4% and viral load among 120 HIV-infected women. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the Keeping Healthy and Active with Risk Reduction and Medication Adherence (KHARMA) Project, an National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded randomized control...

  4. Dental erosion among children aged 3-6 years and its associated indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dan-Ying; Hao, Gu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Tian, Yu; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the status quo of dental erosion in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. A stratified, cluster, multistage random sampling methods was applied to 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai in 2012. Both questionnaire and clinical oral examination were performed in the survey. The questionnaire included general information, such as age, gender, parental education, dietary habit, oral health behavior, general medical health, and socioeconomic status. The clinical examination focused on the eroded tooth surface and dental erosion extent. SPSS v19.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. A total of 1,837 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected in Shanghai. The overall dental erosion prevalence was 15.1 percent. Among different age groups, a relatively high prevalence of 17.1 percent was found in the 4-year-old group, and a relatively low prevalence of 12.0 percent was observed in the 3-year-old group. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference among the four age groups. The occurrence of dental erosion was influenced by habits of vinegar/coffee/tea consumption, mother's educational background, birthplace, and regurgitation (P dental erosion prevalence in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai appears to be close to that of other Chinese provinces as well as that observed in most of surveys carried out in different parts of the world. Efforts should be made to raise public awareness about the disease. Moreover, further studies targeted to explore the relationship between dental erosion and risk factors are needed. It is also necessary to establish a unified diagnostic standard for future epidemiological investigations. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Body Acceleration as Indicator for Walking Economy in an Ageing Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Giulio; Bonomi, Alberto G; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2015-01-01

    In adults, walking economy declines with increasing age and negatively influences walking speed. This study aims at detecting determinants of walking economy from body acceleration during walking in an ageing population. 35 healthy elderly (18 males, age 51 to 83 y, BMI 25.5±2.4 kg/m2) walked on a treadmill. Energy expenditure was measured with indirect calorimetry while body acceleration was sampled at 60Hz with a tri-axial accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph), positioned on the lower back. Walking economy was measured as lowest energy needed to displace one kilogram of body mass for one meter while walking (WCostmin, J/m/kg). Gait features were extracted from the acceleration signal and included in a model to predict WCostmin. On average WCostmin was 2.43±0.42 J/m/kg and correlated significantly with gait rate (r2 = 0.21, peconomy is induced by the adoption of an increased gait rate and by irregular body acceleration in the horizontal plane.

  6. A Case Study from Southwest Germany. Shifting of Groundwater Age During One Year Pumping Test and Comparison of Isotope Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, G. D.; Eichinger, L.; Heidinger, M.; Schneider, J. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (Germany); Funk, E. [Buero fuer Hydrogeologie, Staufen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    A two in one well in southwest Germany, separately tapping aquifers in the formations of Muschelkalk and Keuper, was tested in a one year pumping test. The waters were continuously analysed for chemical and isotopic composition (major ions, {sup 3}H, {sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr) and trace gases (CFC, SF{sub 6}). The analytical results of {sup 3}H and {sup 85}Kr showed a shift in the composition of 25% young, {sup 3}H-bearing water to a proportion of 50% young water after half a year of pumping. The residence time of the young water of about 10 to 20 years remained the same. The shift is also visible in the increasing contents of nitrate and chloride. Though the analytical results of SF{sub 6} showed the same shift, SF{sub 6} - most probably influenced by crystalline gravel - indicates a residence time of the young water of less than one year. The CFCs, on the other hand, point to lower proportions of young water as they are influenced by degradation processes and/or adsorption. Though both aquifers are effectively separated from each other, the same shifting of age structure can be observed. (author)

  7. Quantification of the relative age effect in three indices of physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Taylor, Matthew J; Voss, Christine; Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Cohen, Daniel D; Parry, David A

    2013-12-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) describes the relationship between an individual's birth month and their level of attainment in sports. There is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for selection in age-grouped sports, and it is hypothesized that such relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. There is, however, little empirical evidence of any such advantage. This study investigated whether schoolchildren's physical performance differed according to which quarter of the school year they were born in. Mass, stature, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and power were measured in 10 to 16 year olds (n = 8,550, 53% male). We expressed test performance as age- and sex-specific z-scores based on reference data with age rounded down to the nearest whole year and also as units normalized for body mass. We then compared these values between yearly birth quarters. There were no significant main effects for differences in anthropometric measures in either sex. Girls born in the first quarter of the school year were significantly stronger than those born at other times when handgrip was expressed as a z-score. As z-scores, all measures were significantly higher in boys born in either the first or second yearly quarters. Relative to body mass, cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in boys born in the first quarter and power was higher in those born in the second quarter. The RAE does not appear to significantly affect girls' performance test scores when they are expressed as z-score or relative to body mass. Boys born in the first and second quarters of the year had a significant physical advantage over their relatively younger peers. These findings have practical bearing if coaches use fitness tests for talent identification and team selection. Categorizing test performance based on rounded down values of whole-year age may disadvantage children born later in the selection year. These

  8. Epiphyseal maturity indicators at the knee and their relationship to chronological age: results of an Irish population study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Jean E

    2013-09-01

    Skeletal maturation is divisible to three main components; the time of appearance of an ossification center, its change in morphology and time of fusion to a primary ossification center. With regard to the knee, the intermediate period between appearance and fusion of the ossification centers extends over a period of greater than 10 years. This study aims to investigate radiographically the age at which morphological changes of the epiphyses at the knee occur in a modern Irish population. Radiographs of 221 subjects (137 males; 84 females) aged 9-19 years were examined. Seven nonmetric indicators of maturity were assessed using criteria modified from the Roche, Wainer, and Thissen method and Pyle and Hoerr\\'s atlas of the knee. Reference charts are presented which display the timeline for each of the grades of development of the seven indicators. Mean age was found to increase significantly with successive grades of development of each of the seven indicators. A significant difference was noted between males and females at the same grade of development for six of the seven indicators. The narrowest age range reported for a single grade of development was 2.2 years for Grade 2 of development of the tibial tuberosity for males. The information on changing morphology of the epiphyses at the knee in the present study may provide an adjunct to methods used for evaluation of skeletal maturity before surgery for orthopedic disorders or to evaluate skeletal age in clinical scenarios where either delayed or precocious skeletal maturation is suspected.

  9. Age-related differences in diffusion tensor indices and fiber architecture in the medial and lateral gastrocnemius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Usha; Csapo, Robert; Malis, Vadim; Xue, Yanjie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2015-04-01

    To investigate age related changes in diffusion tensor indices and fiber architecture of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) muscles using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The lower leg of five young and five senior subjects was scanned at 3 Tesla and DTI indices extracted using three methods: region of interest, histogram, and tract based. Tracked fibers were automatically edited to ensure physiologically relevant tracks. Pennation angles were measured with respect to the deep and superficial aponeuroses of both muscles. The three methods provided internally consistent measures of the DTI indices (correlation coefficient in the range of 0.90-0.99). The primary, secondary, and tertiary eigenvalues in the MG and LG increased significantly in the senior cohort (P < 0.05), while the small increase in fractional anisotropy with age was not significant (MG/LG: P = 0.39/0.85; 95% confidence interval: [-0.059/-0.056, 0.116/0.064]). Fiber lengths of MG fibers originating distally were significantly decreased in seniors (P < 0.05) while pennation angles decreased with age in the MG and LG but this was not significant. Fiber atrophy and increased fibrosis have opposing effects on the diffusion indices resulting in a complicated dependence with aging. Fiber architectural changes could play a role in determining aging muscle function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  11. Effects of Sea Level Rise on Groundwater Flow Paths in a Coastal Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, S. K.; Clark, J. F.; Bennett, M. W.; Richardson, E.; Stute, M.

    2008-05-01

    Changes in groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system, South Florida, from the rise in sea level at the end of the last glacial period may be indicative of changes coastal aquifers will experience with continued sea level rise. As sea level rises, the hydraulic head near the coast increases. Coastal aquifers can therefore experience decreased groundwater gradients (increased residence times) and seawater intrusion. Stable isotopes of water, dissolved noble gas temperatures, radiocarbon and He concentrations were analyzed in water collected from 68 wells in the Floridan aquifer system throughout South Florida. Near the recharge area, geochemical data along groundwater flow paths in the Upper Floridan aquifer show a transition from recently recharged groundwater to glacial-aged water. Down gradient from this transition, little variation is apparent in the stable isotopes and noble gas recharge temperatures, indicating that most of the Upper Floridan aquifer contains groundwater recharged during the last glacial period. The rapid 120-meter rise in sea level marking the end of the last glacial period increased the hydraulic head in the Floridan aquifer system near the coast, slowing the flow of groundwater from the recharge area to the ocean and trapping glacial-aged groundwater. The raised sea level also flooded half of the Florida platform and caused seawater to intrude into the Lower Floridan. This circulation of seawater in the Lower Floridan continues today as our data indicate that the groundwater is similar to modern seawater with a freshwater component entering vertically from the recharge area to the Upper Floridan.

  12. [Indicators of general, cerebral, and regional hemodynamics in myopic schoolchildren aged 13-15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iastrebtseva, T A; Chuprov, A D; Plotnikova, Iu A

    2002-01-01

    110 schoolchildren aged 13-15 years were examined. 24 of them had pseudomyopia and 6 patients myopia of various forms. A control group consisted of 38 children. Central hemodynamics was estimated by average dynamic pressure, cerebral hemodynamics--by rheoencephalography, regional hemodynamics--by dopplerography of the internal carotid and suprapubic arteries. It was found that with myopia progression, the average dynamic pressure positively comes down with reduction of reographic waves amplitude in rheogram. The blood flow rate in internal carotid and suprapubic arteries has no substantial impact on myopia course. Predisposition to arterial hypotension is a risk factor for myopia development and progression.

  13. Assessment of NDE for key indicators of aging cables in nuclear power plants - Interim status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Ramuhalli, P.; Fifield, L. S.; Prowant, M. S.; Dib, G.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Suter, J. D.; Jones, A. M.; Good, M. S.; Pardini, A. F.; Hartman, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. System tests verify cable function under normal loads; however, the concern is over cable performance under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events (DBEs). The cable's ability to perform safely over the initial 40-year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. Currently the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation is the elongation-at-break (EAB). This, however, is an ex-situ measurement and requires removal of a sample for laboratory investigation. A reliable nondestructive examination (NDE) in-situ approach is desirable to objectively determine the suitability of the cable for service. A variety of tests are available to assess various aspects of electrical and mechanical cable performance, but none of these tests are suitable for all cable configurations nor does any single test confirm all features of interest. Nevertheless, the complete collection of test possibilities offers a powerful range of tools to assure the integrity of critical cables. Licensees and regulators have settled on a practical program to justify continued operation based on condition monitoring of a lead sample set of cables where test data is tracked in a database and the required test data are continually adjusted based on plant and fleet-wide experience. As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program sponsored

  14. [Age changes of immunological, morphological and biochemical indices of male reproductive system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, O V; Akhmineeva, A Kh; Gudinskaia, N I; Boĭko, V I; Kozak, D M

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the dependence of bactericidal activity of sperm--natural resistance factors controlling the survival of bacteria in the urogenital tract, on the age of men. These data are compared with the results of the standard (on the recommendations of the WHO) spermogram, reflecting reproductive health. Due to the fact that one of the main etiological agents of infectious disease groups in the male reproductive system in adulthood are Staphylococcus spp., we consider the level of bactericidal activity of sperm in resident and transient carriage of S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue in Clinical Applications for Dermatological Indications and Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Gaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating at multiple levels of control, mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSCs communicate with organ systems to adjust immune response, provide signals for differentiation, migration, enzymatic reactions, and to equilibrate the regenerative demands of balanced tissue homeostasis. The identification of the mechanisms by which ADSCs accomplish these functions for dermatological rejuvenation and wound healing has great potential to identify novel targets for the treatment of disorders and combat aging. Herein, we review new insights into the role of adipose-derived stem cells in the maintenance of dermal and epidermal homeostasis, and recent advances in clinical applications of ADSCs related to dermatology.

  16. Social position and health in old age: the relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Osler, Merete

    2003-01-01

    for men and women. In men the odds ratios of housing tenure on four health variables were strong and unaffected by education and occupation while in women the odds ratios of income on three health variables were strong and unaffected by education and occupation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates strong......AIMS: An analysis was undertaken to investigate social inequalities in health among old men and women in relation to five indicators of social position. METHODS: The study is based on a population-based cross-sectional survey among 748 75-year-old men and women, which was performed as clinical......, consistent associations between variables of material wealth indicators and various measures of health among 75-year-old men and women....

  17. Using geochemistry to identify the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in Central Arizona, USA: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; DeWitt, Ed; Wirt, Laurie; Manning, Andrew H.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Montezuma Well is a unique natural spring located in a sinkhole surrounded by travertine. Montezuma Well is managed by the National Park Service, and groundwater development in the area is a potential threat to the water source for Montezuma Well. This research was undertaken to better understand the sources of groundwater to Montezuma Well. Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) indicate that groundwater in the recharge area has flowed through surficial basalts with subsequent contact with the underlying Permian aged sandstones and the deeper, karstic, Mississippian Redwall Limestone. The distinctive geochemistry in Montezuma Well and nearby Soda Springs (higher concentrations of alkalinity, As, B, Cl, and Li) is coincident with added carbon dioxide and mantle-sourced He. The geochemistry and isotopic data from Montezuma Well and Soda Springs allow for the separation of groundwater samples into four categories: (1) upgradient, (2) deep groundwater with carbon dioxide, (3) shallow Verde Formation, and (4) mixing zone. δ18O and δD values, along with noble gas recharge elevation data, indicate that the higher elevation areas to the north and east of Montezuma Well are the groundwater recharge zones for Montezuma Well and most of the groundwater in this portion of the Verde Valley. Adjusted groundwater age dating using likely 14C and δ13C sources indicate an age for Montezuma Well and Soda Springs groundwaters at 5,400–13,300 years, while shallow groundwater in the Verde Formation appears to be older (18,900). Based on water chemistry and isotopic evidence, groundwater flow to Montezuma Well is consistent with a hydrogeologic framework that indicates groundwater flow by (1) recharge in higher elevation basalts to the north and east of Montezuma Well, (2) movement through the upgradient Permian and Mississippian units, especially the Redwall Limestone, and (3) contact with a basalt dike/fracture system that provides a mechanism for groundwater to flow to the surface

  18. On the use of mean groundwater age, life expectancy and capture probability for defining aquifer vulnerability and time-of-travel zones for source water protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molson, J W; Frind, E O

    2012-01-01

    Protection and sustainability of water supply wells requires the assessment of vulnerability to contamination and the delineation of well capture zones. Capture zones, or more generally, time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific contaminant travel times, are most commonly delineated using advective particle tracking. More recently, the capture probability approach has been used in which a probability of capture of P=1 is assigned to the well and the growth of a probability-of-capture plume is tracked backward in time using an advective-dispersive transport model. This approach accounts for uncertainty due to local-scale heterogeneities through the use of macrodispersion. In this paper, we develop an alternative approach to capture zone delineation by applying the concept of mean life expectancy E (time remaining before being captured by the well), and we show how life expectancy E is related to capture probability P. Either approach can be used to delineate time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific travel times, as well as the ultimate capture zone. The related concept of mean groundwater age A (time since recharge) can also be applied in the context of defining the vulnerability of a pumped aquifer. In the same way as capture probability, mean life expectancy and groundwater age account for local-scale uncertainty or unresolved heterogeneities through macrodispersion, which standard particle tracking neglects. The approach is tested on 2D and 3D idealized systems, as well as on several watershed-scale well fields within the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Younger age as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer: A cohort study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A.H.

    2011-08-28

    Abstract Background The debate continues as to whether younger women who present with breast cancer have a more aggressive form of disease and a worse prognosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of breast cancer in women under 40 years old and to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome compared to an older patient cohort. Methods Data was acquired from a review of charts and the prospectively reviewed GUH Department of Surgery database. Included in the study were 276 women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty and 2869 women over forty. For survival analysis each women less than 40 was matched with two women over forty for both disease stage and grade. Results The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty in our cohort was 8.8%. In comparison to their older counterparts, those under forty had a higher tumour grade (p = 0.044) and stage (p = 0.046), a lower incidence of lobular tumours (p < 0.001), higher estrogen receptor negativity (p < 0.001) and higher HER2 over-expression (p = 0.002); there was no statistical difference as regards tumour size (p = 0.477). There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) for both groups; and factors like tumour size (p = 0.026), invasion (p = 0.026) and histological type (p = 0.027), PR (p = 0.031) and HER2 (p = 0.002) status and treatment received were independent predictors of OS Conclusion Breast cancer in younger women has distinct histopathological characteristics; however, this does not result in a reduced survival in this population.

  20. Younger age as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer: A cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A; Boggs, Jennifer ME; Curran, Catherine; Glynn, Ronan W; Dooley, Cara; Sweeney, Karl J; Kerin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The debate continues as to whether younger women who present with breast cancer have a more aggressive form of disease and a worse prognosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of breast cancer in women under 40 years old and to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome compared to an older patient cohort. Data was acquired from a review of charts and the prospectively reviewed GUH Department of Surgery database. Included in the study were 276 women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty and 2869 women over forty. For survival analysis each women less than 40 was matched with two women over forty for both disease stage and grade. The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty in our cohort was 8.8%. In comparison to their older counterparts, those under forty had a higher tumour grade (p = 0.044) and stage (p = 0.046), a lower incidence of lobular tumours (p < 0.001), higher estrogen receptor negativity (p < 0.001) and higher HER2 over-expression (p = 0.002); there was no statistical difference as regards tumour size (p = 0.477). There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) for both groups; and factors like tumour size (p = 0.026), invasion (p = 0.026) and histological type (p = 0.027), PR (p = 0.031) and HER2 (p = 0.002) status and treatment received were independent predictors of OS Breast cancer in younger women has distinct histopathological characteristics; however, this does not result in a reduced survival in this population

  1. Age-Related Shifts in the Density and Distribution of Genetic Marker Water Quality Indicators in Cow and Calf Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that different adult bovine animal feeding practices dramatically influence fecal indicator bacteria shedding, however very little is known about juvenile milk-fed calves. Calves (≤ 6 months of age) make up about 16% of the current bovine population in ...

  2. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  3. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  4. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Martyniuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  5. Quantifying shallow and deep groundwater inputs to rivers with groundwater dating in hydrological observatories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Marçais, Jean; Gauvain, Alexandre; Kolbe, Tamara; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Labasque, Thierry; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Vergnaud, Virginie; Chatton, Eliot; Thomas, Zahra; Ruiz, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Pinay, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    river from the groundwater age deduced from a deterministic model of the aquifer (Kolbe et al., 2016). The relationship between silica concentration determined with anthropogenic gases and observed silica concentration was strong (R2= 0.54-0.92), indicating that silica was a reliable geochemical chronometer, though it systematically underestimated anthropogenic gas age estimates. The difference could be accounted for by the very young water contribution : approximately 20 - 40% of overall discharge. Both approaches indicated that very young water is particularly important during winter and that deep groundwater contributes at least a third of the river discharge throughout the year. This last result has implications for river nitrate dynamics and understanding the potential limits of catchment management interventions which only reduce nitrate dynamics in shallow groundwater on decadal timescales. Aquilina L. et al., 2012 - Nitrate dynamics in agricultural catchments deduced from groundwater dating and long-term nitrate monitoring in surface- and groundwaters. Sci of the total Environment 435, 167-178. Kolbe et al., 2016 - Coupling 3D groundwater modeling with CFC-based age dating to classify local groundwater circulation in an unconfined crystalline aquifer. J. of Hydrology DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.05.020

  6. Social Inequalities on Selected Determinants of Active Aging and Health Status Indicators in a Large Brazilian City (2003-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luciana de Souza; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; César, Cibele Comini; Macinko, James

    2016-02-01

    To assess trends in social inequalities among 2,624 elderly living in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in three domains of the World Health Organization's Active Aging model (physical environment, social determinants, use of health services) and health status indicators. Data came from two representative household surveys conducted in 2003 and 2010. Social inequality was measured by the slope and the relative index of inequality. Educational level was used to define socioeconomic status. Significant improvements were observed in the prevalence rates of 7 out of 12 indicators. However, the social inequalities persisted through 10 out of 12 selected active aging and health status indicators, except for fear of falling on the sidewalks/crossing the streets and fear of being robbed. Social inequalities persistence might be assigned to the continuity of unequal distribution of resources among groups with different educational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Groundwater sustainability in Central Australia studied using chlorine-36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.; Jacobson, G.

    1998-01-01

    The sustainability of Aboriginal community water supplies in arid Central Australia has been evaluated using the radioisotope chlorine-36 as a tracer within groundwaters to indicate the age of waters being tapped by local bores. Shallow regional groundwaters from fractured sandstones of the Ngalia Basin, fractured metamorphic rocks and Cainozoic sands and gravels show a bimodal distribution of 36 Cl ratios. The higher ratio probably represents modern (Holocene) recharge diluted with windblown salts from local playa lakes and is seen in bores around the margin. The lower ratio corresponds to a 36 Cl age of 80-100ka, implying that the last major recharge occurred during the last interglacial. These values are mainly observed in the interior of the basin, and are believed to be minimum ages for most of the shallow groundwaters in this region. Substantial recharge only appears to occur during favourable interglacial climatic regimes. Most community water supplies depend on these waters. (authors)

  8. Parent-reported indicators for detecting feeding and swallowing difficulties and undernutrition in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Arvedson, Joan; Boyd, Roslyn N; Bell, Kristie L

    2017-11-01

    To determine the most accurate parent-reported indicators for detecting (1) feeding/swallowing difficulties and (2) undernutrition in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP). This was a longitudinal, population-based study, involving 179 children with CP, aged 18 to 60 months (mean 34.1mo [SD 11.9] at entry, 111 males, 68 females [Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, 84; II, 23; III, 28; IV, 18; V, 26], 423 data points). Feeding/swallowing difficulties were determined by the Dysphagia Disorders Survey and 16 signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment. Undernutrition was indicated by height-weight and skinfold composite z-scores less than -2. Primary parent-reported indicators included mealtime duration, mealtime stress, concern about growth, and respiratory problems. Other indicators were derived from a parent feeding questionnaire, including 'significant difficulty eating and drinking'. Data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects regression and diagnostic statistics. Primary parent-reported indicators associated with feeding/swallowing were 'moderate-severe parent stress' (odds ratio [OR]=3.2 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.3-7.8]; ppalsy. Most accurate screening questions were 0-10 scales for 'difficulty eating' and 'difficulty drinking'. Supplementation of these scales with additional indicators would improve detection. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  9. Public assessment of key performance indicators of healthcare in a Canadian province: the effect of age and chronic health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurullah, Abu Sadat; Northcott, Herbert C; Harvey, Michael D

    2014-01-15

    This study explores the effect of age and chronic conditions on public perceptions of the health system, as measured by the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of healthcare, in the province of Alberta in Canada. Drawing from data collected by Government of Alberta's Department of Health and Wellness, this research examines two key questions: (1) Do people in the 65+ age group rate the KPIs of healthcare (i.e., availability, accessibility, quality, outcome, and satisfaction) more favorably compared to people in younger age groups in Alberta? (2) Does the rating of KPIs of healthcare in Alberta vary with different chronic conditions (i.e., no chronic problem, chronic illnesses without pain, and chronic pain)? The findings indicate that people in the older age group tend to rate the KPIs of healthcare more favorably compared to younger age groups in Alberta, net of socio-demographic factors, self-reported health status, and knowledge and utilization of health services. However, people experiencing chronic pain are less likely to rate the KPIs of healthcare favorably compared to people with no chronic health problem in Alberta. Discussion includes implications of the findings for the healthcare system in the province.

  10. [Nutrictional behaviours of men at the age 20-60 with regard to anthropometric indicators of nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse eating behaviours of men in regard to selected anthropometric indicators of nutritional status (BMI and waist circumference). The test sample for this research were men aged 20-40 (n = 592) and 40-60 (n = 802) employees of Tadeusz Sendzimir Steel Mill in Cracow. The indices of nutritional status were established on the basis of anthropometric measurements, whereas eating behaviours were described on the basis of an authorial questionnaire. Statistical analysis of data was conducted by means of chi2 independence test. The research corroborated the existence of a correlation between BMI and waist circumference indices and certain male eating behaviours. Having 1-2 meals per day was to be observed among men with a higher BMI, whereas having 4-5 meals per day among men with a healthy BMI (p fast-food" products. However a tendency among obese men to cut down on eating sweets has been discovered (according to BMI), irrespective of their age, as compared to men with proper body mass (p < 0.05). The same phenomenon was also confirmed in the group of younger men in the waist circumference category (p < 0.05). Hence, correlations exist between psychosomatic indices and certain eating behaviours of men aged 20-60, which explain the development of obesity. At the same time obese men tend to rationalise certain eating behaviours, whose purpose is to reduce excessive body weight.

  11. Isotopic and geochemical tracers in the evaluation of groundwater residence time and salinization problems at Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, Paula M.; Nunes, Dina; Marques, Jose M.; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Goncalves, Rui; Pina, Antonio; Mota Gomes, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotopes (δ 18 O, δ 2 H) and tritium ( 3 H), together with geochemistry and geophysical data, were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times in a watershed on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, West Africa. Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. Low tritium concentrations at seven sampling sites indicate groundwater residence times greater than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other locations suggest more recent recharge. Young ages indicate local recharge and potential groundwater vulnerability to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. Geochemical results indicate that water-rock interaction mechanisms are the major processes responsible for the groundwater quality (mainly calcium-bicarbonate type), reflecting the lithological composition of subsurface soil. (authors)

  12. Isotopic and geochemical tracers in the evaluation of groundwater residence time and salinization problems at Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreira, Paula M.; Nunes, Dina [Quimica Analitica e Ambiental, IST/ITN, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional no. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Marques, Jose M. [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica. Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Monteiro Santos, Fernando A. [Universidade de Lisboa-IDL, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Goncalves, Rui [Inst. Politecnico de Tomar, Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300 Tomar (Portugal); Pina, Antonio; Mota Gomes, Antonio [Instituto Superior de Educacao, Praia, Santiago (Cape Verde)

    2013-07-01

    Stable isotopes (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) and tritium ({sup 3}H), together with geochemistry and geophysical data, were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times in a watershed on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, West Africa. Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. Low tritium concentrations at seven sampling sites indicate groundwater residence times greater than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other locations suggest more recent recharge. Young ages indicate local recharge and potential groundwater vulnerability to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. Geochemical results indicate that water-rock interaction mechanisms are the major processes responsible for the groundwater quality (mainly calcium-bicarbonate type), reflecting the lithological composition of subsurface soil. (authors)

  13. Groundwater flow pattern in the Ruataniwha Plains as derived from the isotope and chemistry signature of the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, U.; van der Raaij, R.; Baalousha, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Ruataniwha Basin is situated in the upper Tukituki catchment, approximately 70 km south west of Napier City. The boundaries of the Ruataniwha Basin are the foothills of the Ruahine Range in the west, Turiri Range and Raukawa Range in the east and rolling hills in the north. The Ruataniwha Plains groundwater system is a multi-layered aquifer system that has a complex hydrogeological setting, as the plains evolved in response to sea-level changes, tectonic activity, and geomorphic processes. Aquifers in the basin occur in gravel, sandstone, pumice and limestone strata within a basin structure. In this study, groundwater samples have been collected for hydrochemistry, dissolved gases, and age tracer analysis. Tracer results were interpreted in terms of groundwater recharge source and rate, groundwater age, changes in groundwater source, and the homogeneity of the aquifers. This helps with conceptual understanding of Ruataniwha Basin groundwater flow patterns, and provides data for calibration of a numerical surface-groundwater flow model. Most water samples across the Ruataniwha Basin contain old water, with a mean residence time (MRT) > 25 years. The old age of most of the waters indicates that these groundwaters are not directly linked to surface water. In the south eastern part of the basin, all groundwater samples are old (>100 years), indicating slow movement of groundwater and slow recharge, consistent with the geology of the area. In the south eastern part of the basin the geologic units have low permeability. The age depth relationship is biased by upwelling groundwater and reflects the closed nature of the basin. The average vertical flow velocity indicates a recharge rate of 0.19 m/y. Four wells in the vicinity of the lower Waipawa River show excellent age-depth relationships, indicating absence of disturbance by groundwater upwelling. The recharge rate there of 0.42 m/y is substantially higher than in the other parts of the basin, indicating river

  14. A Multi-Methodology for improving Adelaide's Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batelaan, Okke; Banks, Eddie; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Breciani, Etienne; Cook, Peter; Cranswick, Roger; Smith, Stan; Turnadge, Chris; Partington, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Pool Ramirez, Maria; Werner, Adrian; Xie, Yueqing; Yang, Yuting

    2015-04-01

    through aquitard. Risk assessment of water resources status by 2050 is achieved via uncertainty quantification of potential future scenarios. This includes several development scenarios (current or increased extraction rate) as well as different outputs from climate change predictions. It is shown that groundwater in the fractured aquifer bedrock in the hills is significantly younger than groundwater in the Adelaide plains area, indicating that the Adelaide groundwater system is, at least, partially recharged by lateral flow from water infiltrated in the hills. However, increasing ages with depth, are indicative of vertical infiltration from rainfall and possible inter-aquifer leakage. A better understanding of processes controlling these two sources of fresh groundwater, as well as evaluating their relative importance to Adelaide's groundwater budget is being thoroughly investigated using the regional numerical groundwater model. The salinity distribution along the coastline is shown not to be simply an equilibrium situation with an intruded seawater wedge extending inland. Tertiary aquifers can still contain old freshwater near the coast, and in deeper layers a hypersaline brine has been identified, which could constitute a previously-overlooked source of salinity. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the groundwater resources within the Adelaide environment and supports strongly integrated water management of the resource.

  15. A comparison of emotional indicators and depressive symptom levels of school-age children with and without cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durualp, Ender; Altay, Naime

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to compare the emotional indicators and depressive symptom levels of 6- to 12-year-old children with and without cancer. The sample included 20 children with cancer and 20 healthy children of similar ages and gender. Data were collected by using the Child Introduction Form, Children's Depression Inventory, the Human Figure Drawing test, and children's drawings. The results showed that the depressive symptom levels of children with cancer were significantly higher than those of healthy children. Impulsivity, mistrust, and anger were observed significantly more in children with cancer (P .05). The emotional indicators of both groups of children did not have an effect on their depression scores.

  16. Oxygen, hydrogen, and helium isotopes for investigating groundwater systems of the Cape Verde Islands, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, K.D.; Gingerich, S.B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotopes (??18O, ??2H), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He, 4He) were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times of three watersheds in the Cape Verde Islands (West Africa). Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. In contrast to other active oceanic hotspots, environmental tracers show that deep geothermal circulation does not strongly affect groundwater. Low tritium concentrations at seven groundwater sites indicate groundwater residence times of more than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other sites suggest some recent recharge. High 4He and 3He/4He ratios precluded 3H/3He dating at six sites. These high 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra values of up to 8.3) are consistent with reported mantle derived helium of oceanic island basalts in Cape Verde and provided end-member constraints for improved dating at seven other locations. Tritium and 3H/3He dating shows that S??o Nicolau Island's Ribeira Faj?? Basin has groundwater residence times of more than 50 years, whereas Fogo Island's Mosteiros Basin and Santo Ant??o Island's Ribeira Paul Basin contain a mixture of young and old groundwater. Young ages at selected sites within these two basins indicate local recharge and potential groundwater susceptibility to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  17. Occurrence and distribution of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in anthropogenically affected groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, J; Püttmann, W; Merz, C; Berthold, G

    2011-02-01

    Occurrence and distribution of chlorinated and non-chlorinated organophosphates in 72 groundwater samples from Germany under different recharge/infiltration conditions were investigated. Tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were the most frequently detected organophosphates in groundwater samples. Highest individual organophosphate concentrations (>0.1 µg L(-1)) were determined in groundwater polluted by infiltrating leachate and groundwater recharged via riverbank filtration of organophosphate-loaded recipients. In samples from springs and deep groundwater monitoring wells that are not affected by surface waters, organophosphate concentrations were mostly below the limit of detection. The occurrence (3-9 ng L(-1)) of TCPP and TCEP in samples from aquifers with groundwater ages between 20 and 45 years indicates the persistence of both compounds within the aquifer. At urban sites organophosphate-loaded precipitation, surface runoff, and leakage of wastewater influenced groundwater quality. For rural sites, where groundwater recharge is only influenced by precipitation, organophosphates were very rarely detectable in groundwater.

  18. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Yoshida

    Full Text Available Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  19. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  20. Groundwater Potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    4Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Corresponding ... integrated for the classification of the study area into different groundwater potential zones. .... table is mainly controlled by subsurface movement of water into ...

  1. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6–23 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geok Lin Khor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119 of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%; (ii minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%; (iii consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%; and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%. While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4% and iron (71.4%, lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3% and energy (56.3%. The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87 (p = 0.000 among the core IYCF indicators. Conclusion: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated.

  2. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6-23 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Geok Lin; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Kok Leong; Chan, Pauline S; Amarra, Maria Sofia V

    2016-12-01

    The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group ( N = 119) of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i) timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%); (ii) minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%); (iii) consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%); and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%). While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4%) and iron (71.4%), lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3%) and energy (56.3%). The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87) ( p = 0.000) among the core IYCF indicators. Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated.

  3. Groundwater chemical changes at SFR in Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Gurban, Ioana [3DTerra (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    The examination of the groundwater sampled at the SFR tunnel system indicated that the groundwater consist mainly of a Na-Cl to Na-Ca-Cl type of water. Most of the samples fall within the Cl range of 2500-5500 mg/l having a neutral pH (6.6-7.7 units). The water is reducing and despite the fact that the tunnel acts like a hydraulic sink constantly withdrawing water out from the rock into the tunnel the groundwater changes are moderate with time. Most of the sampling points in the SFR tunnel system are located under the Sea and M3 calculations indicated that most of the sampling points have a change of water types from an older marine water type affected by glacial melt water to an more modern marine water type such as Baltic Sea water which has been modified by possibly microbial sulphate reduction and ion exchange. Mass balance calculations indicated that the waters seem to be in equilibrium with the fracture filling mineral such as calcite. The quality of the aluminium data made the modelling with the major rock forming aluminium silicates such as feldspars and clay minerals uncertain and was therefore not reported. The conclusion is that the groundwater evolution and patterns at SFR are a result of many factors such as: 1. the changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation and land uplift, 2. repeated Sea/lake water regressions/transgressions 3. the closeness to Baltic Sea resulting in relative small hydrogeological driving forces which could preserve old water types from being flushed out, 4. organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater caused by microbial processes or in situ water/rock interactions 5. tunnel construction which changed the flow system The modelled present-day groundwater conditions of the SFR site consist of a mixture in varying degrees of different water types. The data indicate that all the groundwater at SFR is strongly affected by Sea water of different origin and ages. The meteoric (0- 1000 B.P) portion is located close

  4. 40Ar-39Ar age clustering in the active phonolitic Cadamosto Seamount (Cape Verdes): Indications for periodic magmatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrock, L. K.; Hansteen, T. H.; Wartho, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Cape Verde archipelago is situated 400-800 km off the west coast of Africa and is comprised of a northern and southern chain of islands and seamounts. Morphological observations and previous radiometric dating of the islands indicate a slow age progression, over 22 Ma, from east to west (Holm et al. 2008). We present the first radiometric ages for Cadamosto Seamount, which is composed of complex evolved volcanics and is situated at the southwestern tip of the Cape Verde archipelago (e.g. Barker et al. 2012). We analyzed five different submarine phonolites that were sampled by remotely operated vehicles (ROV) Kiel 6000 and dredging during the RV Meteor (M80/3) and RV Poseidon (POS320/2) cruises. Fresh sanidine, nepheline, and biotite grains were selected and carefully prepared for 40Ar-39Ar single grain total fusion analysis. Sanidine single grain 40Ar-39Ar ages from 5 samples range from 11.5 ± 6.5 ka to 349.0 ± 20.4 ka (2σ errors), and cluster in several age groupings (using the decay constant and atmospheric air ratio of Steiger & Jäger (1977), and age standard TCS2 (27.87 ± 0.04 Ma; 1σ; M.A. Lanphere, pers. comm.)). Three age groups can be identified within the youngest (0-170 ka) sanidines, which are separated by periods of 52-54 ka. Nepheline grains from one sample yielded much older ages of 169.5 ± 16.5 ka to 1521.5 ± 8.3 ka (2σ). Our data suggests young ages for the Cadamosto Seamount, which is in accordance with recorded seismic activity (Grevemeyer et al. 2010), and its position adjacent to the recently active islands of Fogo (last eruption in 2014/2015) and Brava (recent seismic activity). The different sub-groups of sanidine 40Ar-39Ar ages can be used to identify different activity maxima corresponding to cycles of magmatic productivity in a long-lived magmatic system. Ongoing petrologic investigations will be used to identify the relative importance of processes such as mantle melting rates, magma replenishment and magma chamber processes

  5. Ensemble models on palaeoclimate to predict India's groundwater challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi Datta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, freshwater crisis is largely due to increasing water consumption and pollution by rapidly growing population and aspirations for economic development, but, ascribed usually to the climate. However, limited understanding and knowledge gaps in the factors controlling climate and uncertainties in the climate models are unable to assess the probable impacts on water availability in tropical regions. In this context, review of ensemble models on δ18O and δD in rainfall and groundwater, 3H- and 14C- ages of groundwater and 14C- age of lakes sediments helped to reconstruct palaeoclimate and long-term recharge in the North-west India; and predict future groundwater challenge. The annual mean temperature trend indicates both warming/cooling in different parts of India in the past and during 1901–2010. Neither the GCMs (Global Climate Models nor the observational record indicates any significant change/increase in temperature and rainfall over the last century, and climate change during the last 1200 yrs BP. In much of the North-West region, deep groundwater renewal occurred from past humid climate, and shallow groundwater renewal from limited modern recharge over the past decades. To make water management to be more responsive to climate change, the gaps in the science of climate change need to be bridged.

  6. Grip Strength as an Indicator of Health-Related Quality of Life in Old Age-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Christina; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2017-11-24

    Over the last century life expectancy has increased dramatically nearly all over the world. This dramatic absolute and relative increase of the old aged people component of the population has influenced not only population structure but also has dramatic implications for the individuals and public health services. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the impact of physical well-being assessed by hand grip strength and social factors estimated by social contact frequency on health-related quality of life among 22 men and 41 women ranging in age between 60 and 94 years. Physical well-being was estimated by hand grip strength, data concerning subjective wellbeing and health related quality of life were collected by personal interviews based on the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Number of offspring and intergenerational contacts were not related significantly to health-related quality of life, while social contacts with non-relatives and hand grip strength in contrast had a significant positive impact on health related quality of life among old aged men and women. Physical well-being and in particular muscle strength-estimated by grip strength-may increase health-related quality of life and is therefore an important source for well-being during old age. Grip strength may be used as an indicator of health-related quality of life.

  7. Indications of CT scan after minor head trauma in children. Can age younger than 2 years be a risk factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Mitsunori; Seo, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    The indications of CT scan after minor head trauma in children are often discussed, including risks of radiation-induced malignancy. Our aim is to identify whether children younger than 2 years have greater risk of traumatic brain injury compared to older children. We enrolled and analysed 1,830 patients younger than 7 years who underwent CT scans after head trauma in our institute. Patients without any symptoms (n=916) were defined as Group A (age<2: n=391, age 2-6: n=525). Patients with extracranial traumatic findings such as scalp hematoma or laceration, and without any neurological symptoms (n=600) were defined as Group B (age<2: n=163, age 2-6: n=437). In order to analyze whether children younger than 2 years have risks of abnormal CT findings due to head trauma, we used the chi-square test in both Group A and Group B. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In Group A, there was no significant difference in the frequency of abnormal CT findings between the younger and older groups (p=0.526). In Group B, however, there was a significant difference between those groups (p=0.0186). We suggest that, based on our findings, children younger than 2 years without any symptoms don't have a greater risk of brain injury compared to older children after minor head trauma. This study might contribute to save those children from receiving unnecessary radiation. (author)

  8. [Quality of care indicators for the care of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, adapted to the pediatric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Palacín, Pere; Provens, Ana Clara; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Espiau, María; Fernández-Polo, Aurora; Figueras, Concepció

    2014-03-01

    Since infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was first described, there have been many advances in its diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. However, few contributions are related to the area of health care quality. In this sense, the Spanish Study Group on AIDS (GESIDA) has developed a set of quality care indicators for adult patients living with HIV infection that includes a total of 66 indicators, 22 of which are considered to be relevant. Standards were calculated for each of them in order to reflect the level of the quality of care offered to these patients. Similar documents for pediatric patients are currently lacking. Preparation of a set of quality care indicators applicable to pediatric patients based on the GESIDA document and the Spanish Guidelines for monitoring of pediatric patients infected with HIV. Each indicator was analysed with respect to the required standards in all patients under 18 years of age followed-up in our Unit, with the aim of evaluating the quality of care provided. A total of 61 indicators were collected (51 from the GESIDA document and 10 from currently available pediatric guidelines), 30 of which were considered to be relevant. An overall compliance of 81%-83% was obtained when assessing the relevant indicators. The availability of health care quality standards is essential for the care of pediatric HIV-infected patients. The assessment of these indicators in our Unit yielded satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Henry S; Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011-2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men's SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40-49 (men) or 60-69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral groups. Documenting the distribution and sociodemographic features

  10. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2011-12-01

    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  11. Geochemistry and environmental isotope of groundwater from the upper Cretaceous aquifer of Orontes basin (Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.

    2010-03-01

    Chemical and environmental isotopes have been used for studying the Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems in the Middle Orontes basin. The results indicate that the salinity of groundwater (0.2 to 2 g/l) reveals the dissolution of evaporate rocks is the main factor of high salinity especially in the Homes depression. The degree of salinity and its spaces distribution are basically related to the pattern of groundwater movement in the Upper cretaceous aquifer. The stable isotopes composition of groundwater in the Homes depression are more depleted by -2.5% and -17.0% for δ 18 O and δ 2 H respectively, than the groundwater from Hama elevation, suggested different origin and recharge time between this two groundwater groups. Estimates of their mean subsurface residence times have been constrained on the basis of 14 C D IC. The corrected ages of groundwater are recent and less to 10 thousand years in Hama uplift. However, the corrected age of groundwater in the Homs depression range between 10 to 25 thousand years indicate late Pleistocene recharge period. (author)

  12. Assessing groundwater availability and the response of the groundwater system to intensive exploitation in the North China Plain by analysis of long-term isotopic tracer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen; Cheng, Zhongshuang; Wei, Wen; Chen, Zongyu

    2018-03-01

    The use of isotope tracers as a tool for assessing aquifer responses to intensive exploitation is demonstrated and used to attain a better understanding of the sustainability of intensively exploited aquifers in the North China Plain. Eleven well sites were selected that have long-term (years 1985-2014) analysis data of isotopic tracers. The stable isotopes δ18O and δ2H and hydrochemistry were used to understand the hydrodynamic responses of the aquifer system, including unconfined and confined aquifers, to groundwater abstraction. The time series data of 14C activity were also used to assess groundwater age, thereby contributing to an understanding of groundwater sustainability and aquifer depletion. Enrichment of the heavy oxygen isotope (18O) and elevated concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and nitrate were found in groundwater abstracted from the unconfined aquifer, which suggests that intensive exploitation might induce the potential for aquifer contamination. The time series data of 14C activity showed an increase of groundwater age with exploitation of the confined parts of the aquifer system, which indicates that a larger fraction of old water has been exploited over time, and that the groundwater from the deep aquifer has been mined. The current water demand exceeds the sustainable production capabilities of the aquifer system in the North China Plain. Some measures must be taken to ensure major cuts in groundwater withdrawals from the aquifers after a long period of depletion.

  13. Anthropometric indices for non-pregnant women of childbearing age differ widely among four low-middle income populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Michael Hambidge

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal stature and body mass indices (BMI of non-pregnant women (NPW of child bearing age are relevant to maternal and offspring health. The objective was to compare anthropometric indices of NPW in four rural communities in low- to low-middle income countries (LMIC. Methods Anthropometry and maternal characteristics/household wealth questionnaires were obtained for NPW enrolled in the Women First Preconception Maternal Nutrition Trial. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 was calculated. Z-scores were determined using WHO reference data. Results A total of 7268 NPW participated in Equateur, DRC (n = 1741; Chimaltenango, Guatemala (n = 1695; North Karnataka, India (n = 1823; and Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan (n = 2009. Mean age was 23 y and mean parity 1.5. Median (P25-P75 height (cm ranged from 145.5 (142.2–148.9 in Guatemala to 156.0 (152.0–160.0 in DRC. Median weight (kg ranged from 44.7 (39.9–50.3 in India to 52.7 (46.9–59.8 in Guatemala. Median BMI ranged from 19.4 (17.6–21.9 in India to 24.9 (22.3–28.0 in Guatemala. Percent stunted (<−2SD height for age z-score ranged from 13.9% in DRC to 80.5% in Guatemala; % underweight (BMI <18.5 ranged from 1.2% in Guatemala to 37.1% in India; % overweight/obese (OW, BMI ≥25.0 ranged from 5.7% in DRC to 49.3% in Guatemala. For all sites, indicators for higher SES and higher age were associated with BMI. Lower SES women were underweight more frequently and higher SES women were OW more frequently at all sites. Younger women tended to be underweight, while older women tended to be OW. Conclusions Anthropometric data for NPW varied widely among low-income rural populations in four countries located on three different continents. Global comparisons of anthropometric measurements across sites using standard reference data serve to highlight major differences among populations of low-income rural NPW and assist in evaluating the rationale for and the design of optimal

  14. Dissolved Organic Carbon 14C in Southern Nevada Groundwater and Implications for Groundwater Travel Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, Ronald L. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Fereday, Wyall [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Thomas, James M [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute

    2016-08-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) carbon-14 (14C) ages must be corrected for complex chemical and physical reactions and processes that change the amount of 14C in groundwater as it flows from recharge to downgradient areas. Because of these reactions, DIC 14C can produce unrealistically old ages and long groundwater travel times that may, or may not, agree with travel times estimated by other methods. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 14C ages are often younger than DIC 14C ages because there are few chemical reactions or physical processes that change the amount of DOC 14C in groundwater. However, there are several issues that create uncertainty in DOC 14C groundwater ages including limited knowledge of the initial (A0) DOC 14C in groundwater recharge and potential changes in DOC composition as water moves through an aquifer. This study examines these issues by quantifying A0 DOC 14C in recharge areas of southern Nevada groundwater flow systems and by evaluating changes in DOC composition as water flows from recharge areas to downgradient areas. The effect of these processes on DOC 14C groundwater ages is evaluated and DOC and DIC 14C ages are then compared along several southern Nevada groundwater flow paths. Twenty-seven groundwater samples were collected from springs and wells in southern Nevada in upgradient, midgradient, and downgradient locations. DOC 14C for upgradient samples ranged from 96 to 120 percent modern carbon (pmc) with an average of 106 pmc, verifying modern DOC 14C ages in recharge areas, which decreases uncertainty in DOC 14C A0 values, groundwater ages, and travel times. The HPLC spectra of groundwater along a flow path in the Spring Mountains show the same general pattern indicating that the DOC compound composition does not change along this flow path

  15. Associations of the fatty liver and hepatic steatosis indices with risk of cardiovascular disease: Interrelationship with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Bakker, Stephan J L; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2017-03-01

    The fatty liver index (FLI) and the hepatic steatosis index (HSI), are biomarker-based algorithms developed as proxies for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We assessed associations of FLI and HSI with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The FLI and HSI were estimated at baseline in the PREVEND cohort involving 6340 participants aged 28-75years without pre-existing CVD. During a median follow-up of 10.5years, 631 CVD events occurred. In age-and sex-adjusted analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) for CVD comparing FLI≥60 versus FLI36 versus HSI<30, the corresponding adjusted HRs were 1.29 (1.02-1.65), 0.84 (0.65-1.09) and 0.79 (0.55-1.13) respectively. Subgroup analyses suggested a positive association in younger participants (<50years) for FLI and inverse associations in older participants (≥50years) for both indices (P for interaction for all=0.001). Current data suggest age interactions in the association of NAFLD (as assessed by FLI or HSI) with CVD risk in a general Caucasian population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the relationship between national economic indicators and relative fitness and frailty in middle-aged and older Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theou, Olga; Brothers, Thomas D.; Rockwood, Michael R.; Haardt, David; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background: on an individual level, lower-income has been associated with disability, morbidity and death. On a population level, the relationship of economic indicators with health is unclear. Objective: the purpose of this study was to evaluate relative fitness and frailty in relation to national income and healthcare spending, and their relationship with mortality. Design and setting: secondary analysis of data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE); a longitudinal population-based survey which began in 2004. Subjects: a total of 36,306 community-dwelling people aged 50 and older (16,467 men; 19,839 women) from the 15 countries which participated in the SHARE comprised the study sample. A frailty index was constructed as the proportion of deficits present in relation to the 70 deficits available in SHARE. The characteristics of the frailty index examined were mean, prevalence of frailty and proportion of the fittest group. Results: the mean value of the frailty index was lower in higher-income countries (0.16 ± 0.12) than in lower-income countries (0.20 ± 0.14); the overall mean frailty index was negatively correlated with both gross domestic product (r = −0.79; P < 0.01) and health expenditure (r = −0.63; P < 0.05). Survival in non-frail participants at 24 months was not associated with national income (P = 0.19), whereas survival in frail people was greater in higher-income countries (P < 0.05). Conclusions: a country's level of frailty and fitness in adults aged 50+ years is strongly correlated with national economic indicators. In higher-income countries, not only is the prevalence of frailty lower, but frail people also live longer. PMID:23443511

  17. Risk indicators of oral health status among young adults aged 18 years analyzed by negative binomial regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Xia; Wong, May Chun Mei; Lo, Edward Chin Man; McGrath, Colman

    2013-08-19

    Limited information on oral health status for young adults aged 18 year-olds is known, and no available data exists in Hong Kong. The aims of this study were to investigate the oral health status and its risk indicators among young adults in Hong Kong using negative binomial regression. A survey was conducted in a representative sample of Hong Kong young adults aged 18 years. Clinical examinations were taken to assess oral health status using DMFT index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to WHO criteria. Negative binomial regressions for DMFT score and the number of sextants with healthy gums were performed to identify the risk indicators of oral health status. A total of 324 young adults were examined. Prevalence of dental caries experience among the subjects was 59% and the overall mean DMFT score was 1.4. Most subjects (95%) had a score of 2 as their highest CPI score. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that subjects who had a dental visit within 3 years had significantly higher DMFT scores (IRR = 1.68, p < 0.001). Subjects who brushed their teeth more frequently (IRR = 1.93, p < 0.001) and those with better dental knowledge (IRR = 1.09, p = 0.002) had significantly more sextants with healthy gums. Dental caries experience of the young adults aged 18 years in Hong Kong was not high but their periodontal condition was unsatisfactory. Their oral health status was related to their dental visit behavior, oral hygiene habit, and oral health knowledge.

  18. Quantifying Apparent Groundwater Ages near Managed Aquifer Recharge Operations Using Radio-Sulfur (35S as an Intrinsic Tracer

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    Jordan F. Clark

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of the cosmogenic radioisotope sulfur-35 (35S as a chronometer near spreading basins is evaluated at two well-established Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR sites: the Atlantis facility (South Africa and Orange County Water District’s (OCWD’s Kraemer Basin (Northern Orange County, CA, USA. Source water for both of these sites includes recycled wastewater. Despite lying nearer to the outlet end of their respective watersheds than to the headwaters, 35S was detected in most of the water sampled, including from wells found close to the spreading ponds and in the source water. Dilution with 35S-dead continental SO4 was minimal, a surprising finding given its short ~3 month half-life. The initial work at the Atlantis MAR site demonstrated that remote laboratories could be set up and that small volume samples—saline solutions collected after the resin elution step from the recently developed batch method described below—can be stored and transported to the counting laboratory. This study also showed that the batch method needed to be altered to remove unknown compounds eluted from the resin along with SO4. Using the improved batch method, times series measurements of both source and well water from OCWD’s MAR site showed significant temporal variations. This result indicates that during future studies, monthly to semi-monthly sampling should be conducted. Nevertheless, both of these initial studies suggest the 35S chronometer may become a valuable tool for managing MAR sites where regulations require minimum retention times.

  19. Physical hydrogeology and environmental isotopes to constrain the age, origins, and stability of a low-salinity groundwater lens formed by periodic river recharge: Murray Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Ian; Weaver, Tamie R.; Simmons, Craig T.; Fifield, L. Keith; Lawrence, Charles R.; Chisari, Robert; Varley, Simon

    2010-01-01

    SummaryA low-salinity (total dissolved solids, TDS, Australia. Hydraulic heads, surface water elevations, δ 18O values, major ion geochemistry, 14C activities, and 3H concentrations show that the lens is recharged from the Murray River largely through the riverbank with limited recharge through the floodplain. Recharge of the lens occurs mainly at high river levels and the low-salinity groundwater forms baseflow to some river reaches during times of low river levels. Within the lens, flow through the shallow Channel Sands and deeper Parilla Sands aquifers is sub-horizontal. While the Blanchetown Clay locally separates the Channel Sands and the Parilla Sands, the occurrence of recently recharged low-salinity groundwater below the Blanchetown Clay suggests that there is considerable leakage through this unit, implying that it is not an efficient aquitard. The lateral margin of the lens with the regional groundwater (TDS >25,000 mg/L) is marked by a hectometer to kilometer scale transition in TDS concentrations that is not stratigraphically controlled. Rather this boundary represents a mixing zone with the regional groundwater, the position of which is controlled by the rate of recharge from the river. The lens is part of an active and dynamic hydrogeological system that responds over years to decades to changes in river levels. The lens has shrunk during the drought of the late 1990s to the mid 2000s, and it will continue to shrink unless regular high flows in the Murray River are re-established. Over longer timescales, the rise of the regional water table due to land clearing will increase the hydraulic gradient between the regional groundwater and the groundwater in the lens, which will also cause it to degrade. Replacement of low-salinity groundwater in the lens with saline groundwater will ultimately increase the salinity of the Murray River reducing its utility for water supply and impacting riverine ecosystems.

  20. Environmental isotope studies on groundwater problems in the Thar Desert, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, A.R.; Navada, S.V.; Rao, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the groundwater problems encountered in arid areas like the Thar Desert in Rajasthan is to know whether the shallow groundwater is being actively recharged. Environmental isotopes particularly tritium are very useful in providing evidence of recent recharge. In the Barmer area, the shallow groundwaters have tritium levels generally in the range 3-6 TU showing modern recharge. Most of the recharge possibly occurs by direct infiltration of precipitation. Indirect recharge through wadis (river channels) could sometimes be an important mechanism of groundwater recharge. Environmental isotope study in Jalore area showed that the shallow groundwaters near the Sukri river course had δ 2 H and δ 18 O are depleted compared to present day precipitation but not as depleted as the present day Himalayan rivers. Carbon-24 values of some of these groundwaters are in the range of 54-58 pMC showing that they possibly represent old river with headwater connection outside the desert. In the Thar, the deep groundwaters which sometimes form the bulk of water supply are generally paleowaters as sown by environmental δ 2 H, δ 18 O, 3 H and 14 C. For example in the Barmer area, deep groundwaters (depth > 150m) have depleted δ 2 H and δ 18 O compared to the shallow groundwaters and present day precipitation. They have negligible 3 H and 14 C model ages ranging from 4000 to 9500 BP. Hence the isotope data of the deep groundwaters indicate they are paleowaters recharged during humid periods in the Holocene. Over-exploitation of deep groundwaters could lead to mixing of shallow and deep groundwaters or influx of waters from adjoining aquifers. In the Bikaner area similar δ 2 H and δ 18 O of the shallow and deep wells and young waters encountered in some of the deep wells indicated mixing between the two aquifers due to heavy exploitation of groundwaters in the area. In a limestone belt of Jodhpur-Nagaur district heavy exploitation of groundwaters is taking place in the southern

  1. Effects of Motor Development Stimulation on Anthropometric Indices of Infants Aged 1-12 Months in Foster Care Homes

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    Arezou NikNezhad Jalali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first three years of life have a pivotal role in growth and development of infants. Extra-uterine environment largely affects brain development of infants during the first year of life.However,no specific programs are available for brain development stimulation in foster homes. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of motor development stimulation package on anthropometric indices of infants staying in foster homes. Method: This experimental study was conducted on 50 infants aged 1-12 months at Ali Asghar foster home of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Infants were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=25 and control (n=25. Motor development stimulation packages were used for intervention group three times a week for eight consecutive weeks (24 sessions, two hours each. Anthropometric indices of infants were evaluated using standard instruments before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.11.5 using independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In this study, mean age of infants in intervention and control groups was 6.04±3.48 and 4.3±3.70 months, respectively. In total, 68% of infants were male, and 32% were female. After intervention, Mann-Whitney test results showed no statistically significant difference in height (P=0.47 and head circumference (P=0.11 of infants between the groups. However, independent T-test showed a statistically significant difference in body weight of infants (P=0.007 between the groups after intervention with the stimulation care package. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, use of evidence-based motor development stimulation package for eight weeks resulted in increased weight of infants, while it had no effect on height and head circumference. Therefore, it is recommended that complementary studies be conducted in this regard.

  2. Some quantitative indicators of postovulatory aging and its effect on larval and juvenile development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommens, Maren; Storset, Arne; Babiak, Igor

    2015-07-01

    Modern out-of-season egg production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the risk of postovulatory aging (POA) of oocytes. Postovulatory aging is known to influence oocyte quality in salmonids, but reliable tests for POA are lacking in Atlantic salmon egg production. To address this problem, we have collected oocytes from the same 20 Atlantic salmon females sequentially in approximately 1-week intervals, from the start of ovulation until 28 days postovulation (dpo), to determine the effect of natural retention of matured oocytes in body coelomic cavity on further performance of embryos and juveniles produced from those oocytes. Also, we investigated oocyte water hardening and several coelomic fluid parameters as potential quantitative indicators of POA. Oocyte quality decreased significantly from 22 dpo onward, as inferred from decrease in fertilization success and survival of embryos, alevins, and juveniles and increase in alevin and juvenile deformity rates. The occurrence of head deformities was significantly related to postovulatory age of oocytes. Coelomic fluid pH decreased significantly at 28 dpo and correlated positively with fertilization rates (r = 0.45), normal eyed embryo rates (r = 0.67), and alevin relative survival rates (r = 0.63) and negatively correlated with total alevin deformity rates (r = -0.59). Oocyte weight gain at 60 minutes decreased significantly at 28 dpo and correlated negatively with total alevin deformities and the occurrence of cranial nodules (r = -0.99). Generally, quality of ovulated oocytes remained stable for the first 2 weeks after ovulation. Later on, POA negatively influenced Atlantic salmon embryo, alevin, and juvenile performance. For the first time, we show a long-term effect of POA on salmonid juvenile performance. Standardized pH measurements of coelomic fluid could potentially improve embryo and juvenile production by identifying low-quality oocytes at an early stage during the production. Copyright © 2015

  3. Complex refractive indices in the near-ultraviolet spectral region of biogenic secondary organic aerosol aged with ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J. M.; Washenfelder, Rebecca; Adler, Gabriela; Lee, H-J; Segev, Lior; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Brown, Steven; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-05-14

    Atmospheric absorption by brown carbon aerosol may play an important role in global radiative forcing. Brown carbon arises from both primary and secondary sources, but the mechanisms and reactions for the latter are highly uncertain. One proposed mechanism is the reaction of ammonia or amino acids with carbonyl products in secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We generated SOA in situ by reacting biogenic alkenes (α-pinene, limonene, and α-humulene) with excess ozone, humidifying the resulting aerosol, and reacting the humidified aerosol with gaseous ammonia. We determined the complex refractive indices (RI) in the 360 – 420 nm range for these aerosols using broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy (BBCES). The average real part (n) of the measured spectral range of the NH3-aged α-pinene SOA increased from n = 1.50 (±0.01) for the unreacted SOA to n = 1.57 (± 0.01) after a 1.5h exposure to 1.9 ppm NH3; whereas,the imaginary component (k) remained below k < 0.001 (± 0.002). For the limonene and α-humulene SOA the real part did not change significantly, and we observed a small change in the imaginary component of the RI. The imaginary component increased from k = 0.0 to an average k= 0.029 (± 0.021) for α-humulene SOA, and from k < 0.001 (± 0.002) to an average k = 0.032 (±0.019) for limonene SOA after a 1.5 h exposure to 1.3 and 1.9 ppm of NH3, respectively. Collected filter samples of the aged and unreacted α-pinene SOA and limonene SOA were analyzed off-line with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (nano-DESI/HR-MS), and in-situ with a Time-of-Fligh Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, confirming that the SOA reacted and that various nitrogen-containing reaction products formed. If we assume that NH3 aging reactions scale linearly with time and concentration, then a 1.5 h reaction with 1 ppm NH3 in the laboratory is equivalent to 24 h reaction with 63 ppbv NH3, indicating that the observed aerosol absorption will be limited

  4. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  5. Anthropometric and body composition indicators of males and females between ages 20 and 39,9 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Simões Pires Neto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze anthropometric and body composition variables of males and females aged 20-40 years. The sample was made up of 4 groups: G1, n=70; G3, n=70, males and females aged 20-29,9yo respectively; G2, males=20 and G4, females = 19 aged 30-39,9yo. Subjects were evaluated for height (H, cm, weight (W, kg, skinfolds (SKF, mm, percent fat (%fat and Lean Body Mass (LBM, kg. Body density was estimated according to equations by Petroski (1995 and %fat according to Siri (1961. Descriptive statistics, independent t test and single-sample t test were used for data analysis. Signifi cant differences were found for males on SS and TR SKF, density, %fat and FM between age groups, and for females at calf SKF, and %fat. Signifi cant differences were observed between indicators/mean values from other published reports when compared to this study’s results. In conclusion, males were shown to have much larger variability in all analyzed variables that their female counterparts. RESUMO O objetivo deste foi investigar indicadores antropométricos e da composição corporal de homens e mulheres entre 20 e 39,9 anos de idade. A amostra foi dividida em 4 grupos, sendo G1 (n=70 e G3 (n=70, homens e mulheres de 20 a 29,9 anos, respectivamente; e, G2 (homens, n=20 e G4 (mulheres, n=19, entre 30 e 39,9 anos de idade, sendo analisados nas variáveis estatura (EST, cm, massa corporal (MC, kg e dobras cutâneas (DC, mm. Para estimativa da densidade corporal (D, foi utilizada a equação proposta por Petroski (1995. O cálculo da gordura relativa (%G, foi estimado através da equação de Siri (1961. Usou-se a estatística descritiva, teste “t” para grupos independentes e teste “t” para uma amostra. Foram observadas diferenças signifi cativas entre DC subescapular, tricipital, %G e massa de gordura entre G1 e G2; e entre G3 e G4 em DC de panturrilha medial e %G. Observou-se diferenças signifi cativas entre indicadores/valores m

  6. The composition of cuticular compounds indicates body parts, sex and age in the model butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eHeuskin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals with low or no volatility exchanged during precopulatory gustatory contacts. Yet, knowledge on this latter type of chemicals is so far mostly restricted to the Drosophila fly model. Here we provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the cuticular chemical profile, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds, of a model butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. First, we characterized the body distribution of 103 cuticular lipids, mostly alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Second, we developed a multivariate statistical approach to cope with such complex chemical profiles and showed that variation in the presence or abundance of a subset of the cuticular lipids indicated body parts, and traits involved in B. anynana mate choice, namely sex and age. Third, we identified the chemical structure of the 20 most indicative compounds, which were on average more abundant (1346.4 ± 1994.6 ng; mean ± SD than other, likely less indicative, compounds (225.9 ± 507.2 ng; mean ± SD. Fourth, we showed that wings and legs displayed most of the chemical information found on the entire body of the butterflies. Fifth, we showed that non-random gustatory contacts occurred between specific male and female body parts during courtship. The body parts mostly touched by the conspecific displayed the largest between-sex differentiation in cuticular composition. Altogether, the large diversity of cuticular lipids in B. anynana, which exceeds the one of Drosophila flies, and its non-random distribution and evaluation across individuals, together suggest that gustatory information is likely exchanged during sexual interactions in Lepidoptera.

  7. Global aquifers dominated by fossil groundwaters but wells vulnerable to modern contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Perrone, Debra; Befus, Kevin M.; Bayani Cardenas, M.; Ferguson, Grant; Gleeson, Tom; Luijendijk, Elco; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Taylor, Richard G.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kirchner, James W.

    2017-06-01

    The vulnerability of groundwater to contamination is closely related to its age. Groundwaters that infiltrated prior to the Holocene have been documented in many aquifers and are widely assumed to be unaffected by modern contamination. However, the global prevalence of these `fossil' groundwaters and their vulnerability to modern-era pollutants remain unclear. Here we analyse groundwater carbon isotope data (12C, 13C, 14C) from 6,455 wells around the globe. We show that fossil groundwaters comprise a large share (42-85%) of total aquifer storage in the upper 1 km of the crust, and the majority of waters pumped from wells deeper than 250 m. However, half of the wells in our study that are dominated by fossil groundwater also contain detectable levels of tritium, indicating the presence of much younger, decadal-age waters and suggesting that contemporary contaminants may be able to reach deep wells that tap fossil aquifers. We conclude that water quality risk should be considered along with sustainable use when managing fossil groundwater resources.

  8. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33-521mg/L) in NO3(-) concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) analysis, (3)H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from -8.5 to -7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92-467years) and the NO3(-) concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8-411years) and the NO3(-) concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the complex carbonate

  9. Large-scale hydrological modeling for calculating water stress indices: implications of improved spatiotemporal resolution, surface-groundwater differentiation, and uncertainty characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Venkatesh, Aranya; Karuppiah, Ramkumar; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-04-21

    Physical water scarcities can be described by water stress indices. These are often determined at an annual scale and a watershed level; however, such scales mask seasonal fluctuations and spatial heterogeneity within a watershed. In order to account for this level of detail, first and foremost, water availability estimates must be improved and refined. State-of-the-art global hydrological models such as WaterGAP and UNH/GRDC have previously been unable to reliably reflect water availability at the subbasin scale. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was tested as an alternative to global models, using the case study of the Mississippi watershed. While SWAT clearly outperformed the global models at the scale of a large watershed, it was judged to be unsuitable for global scale simulations due to the high calibration efforts required. The results obtained in this study show that global assessments miss out on key aspects related to upstream/downstream relations and monthly fluctuations, which are important both for the characterization of water scarcity in the Mississippi watershed and for water footprints. Especially in arid regions, where scarcity is high, these models provide unsatisfying results.

  10. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Hunter, Stephen; Kuzik, Nicholas; Gray, Casey E; Poitras, Veronica J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Saunders, Travis J; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Okely, Anthony D; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Lee, Helena; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review is an update examining the relationships between objectively and subjectively measured sedentary behaviour and health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Medline were searched in December 2014, and date limits were imposed (≥February 2010). Included studies were peer-reviewed and met the a priori-determined population (apparently healthy children and youth, mean age: 5-17 years), intervention (durations, patterns, and types of sedentary behaviours), comparator (various durations, patterns, and types of sedentary behaviours), and outcome (critical: body composition, metabolic syndrome/cardiovascular disease risk factors, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, academic achievement; important: fitness, self-esteem) study criteria. Quality of evidence by outcome was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. Due to heterogeneity, a narrative analysis was conducted. A total of 235 studies (194 unique samples) were included representing 1 657 064 unique participants from 71 different countries. Higher durations/frequencies of screen time and television (TV) viewing were associated with unfavourable body composition. Higher duration/frequency of TV viewing was also associated with higher clustered cardiometabolic risk scores. Higher durations of TV viewing and video game use were associated with unfavourable behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour. Higher durations of reading and doing homework were associated with higher academic achievement. Higher duration of screen time was associated with lower fitness. Higher durations of screen time and computer use were associated with lower self-esteem. Evidence ranged from "very low" to "moderate" quality. Higher quality studies using reliable and valid sedentary behaviour measures should confirm this largely observational evidence.

  11. Age-related changes in electrophysiological and neuropsychological indices of working memory, attention control, and fluid intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Brumback Peltz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults exhibit great variability in their cognitive abilities, with some maintaining high levels of performance on executive control tasks and others showing significant deficits. Previous event-related potential (ERP work has shown that some of these performance differences are correlated with persistence of the novelty/frontal P3 in older adults elicited by task-relevant events, presumably reflecting variability in the capacity to suppress orienting to unexpected but no longer novel events. In recent ERP work in young adults, we showed that the operation-span task (OSPAN, a measure of attention control is predictive of the ability of individuals to keep track of stimulus sequencing and to maintain running mental representations of task stimuli, as indexed by the parietally-distributed P300 (or P3b. Both of these phenomena reflect aspects of frontal function (cognitive flexibility and attention control, respectively. To investigate these phenomena we sorted both younger and older adults into low- and high-working memory spans and low- and high-cognitive flexibility subgroups, and examined ERPs during an equal-probability choice reaction-time task. For both age groups (a participants with high OSPAN scores were better able to keep track of stimulus sequencing, as indicated by their smaller P3b to sequential changes; and (b participants with lower cognitive flexibility had larger P3a than their high-scoring counterparts. However, these two phenomena did not interact suggesting that they manifest dissociable control mechanisms. Further, the fact that both effects are already visible in younger adults suggests that at least some of the brain mechanisms underlying individual differences in cognitive aging may already operate early in life.

  12. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.

  13. Estimating groundwater 14C ages in the arid Ti-Tree Basin, Central Australia: Use of 87Sr/86Sr to constrain sources of inorganic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, G.A.; Herczeg, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Ti-Tree Basin in the Northern Territory of and Central Australia contains several Tertiary and Quaternary aquifers which yield high-quality groundwater (TDS generally < 1500 mg/l). This resource is vital to the existence of major horticultural developments in the Basin, and provides a reliable supply of water to the township of Ti-Tree (population ∼ 100) and numerous remote Aboriginal communities. To meet increasing demands for water to expand the horticulture industry, it has become necessary to gain a proper understanding of the processes which govern the lifetime of this groundwater resource

  14. Isotope characteristics of groundwater in Beishan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Lu Chuanhe

    2004-01-01

    Using the isotope techniques, the authors studied the origin, evolution and circulation of the groundwater in the potential site of China's high-level waste repository. The results indicate that both deep groundwater and shallow groundwater are mainly recharged by modern and local precipitation, and the deep groundwater in the site area is of meteoric origin. The shallow groundwater is mainly recharged by modern and local precipitation, and the deep groundwater originates from regional precipitation at higher elevation, or might be derived from the precipitation during the geological period of lower temperature. It is also known from the study that the deep underground is a system of very low-permeability where the groundwater flow rates are very low. (author)

  15. Isotopes reveal dynamics of groundwater system in Region 2, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, N.D.S.; Racadio, C.D.T.; Sucgang, R.J.; Castañeda, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Steady economic and population growth in Region 2 could lead to an exponential increase freshwater demand. However, region 2’s main source of freshwater is groundwater and, if not checked and managed carefully, it could eventually affect the availability and sustainability of groundwater resources in Water Resource Region 2 (WRR2). Stable isotopes along with Tritium analysis in different water bodies such as rain, shallow and deep groundwater, springs and rivers were used to gain insight about the hydrological process in WRR2. Local meteoric water line for WRR2 was found to be δ2H = 8.6 δ 18O + 13.3 (r = 0.98). The estimated annual mean, which was used as a local index was to be -7.1 ‰ δ “1”8O_v_s_m_o_w_-_s_l_a_p. Shallow wells (20 – 30 m) and production wells (multi-screened wells, max depth of about 100 – 120m) were found to exhibit relatively more enrich than the index (i.e. -7.1‰) with means of -6.2 ‰ (s.d. 1.1‰, n=19) and -6.6 ‰ (s.d. 0.9; n= 151), respectively, which was an indication of infiltration of evaporated waters possibly from river and irrigation waters. Tritium analysis were done on selected sites to identify groundwater age (GWA) and possibly track the flow of groundwater from recharge areas (such as in Nueva Vizcaya, GWA = 3 years) down to the plains (Tuguegarao, GWA range from 9 to 30 years). Groundwaters drawn from production wells in Tuguegarao with ages of more than 30 years suggest that more fraction of water were being drawn from deeper aquifers. Such scenario could mean that were less water in shallow aquifers (e.g. 30 m deep) which are typically younger in age than waters found at deeper aquifers (e.g. 100 m deep). (author)

  16. Calculation of groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Sagar, B.; Baca, R.G.

    1984-12-01

    Pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time is one indicator of the isolation capability of the geologic system surrounding a repository. Two distinct modeling approaches exist for prediction of groundwater flow paths and travel times from the repository location to the designated accessible environment boundary. These two approaches are: (1) the deterministic approach which calculates a single value prediction of groundwater travel time based on average values for input parameters and (2) the stochastic approach which yields a distribution of possible groundwater travel times as a function of the nature and magnitude of uncertainties in the model inputs. The purposes of this report are to (1) document the theoretical (i.e., mathematical) basis used to calculate groundwater pathlines and travel times in a basalt system, (2) outline limitations and ranges of applicability of the deterministic modeling approach, and (3) explain the motivation for the use of the stochastic modeling approach currently being used to predict groundwater pathlines and travel times for the Hanford Site. Example calculations of groundwater travel times are presented to highlight and compare the differences between the deterministic and stochastic modeling approaches. 28 refs

  17. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO_3"− concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ"1"8O, δ"2H) analysis, "3H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the

  18. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongmei [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Cao, Guoliang [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Center for Water Research, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McCallum, James [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) analysis, {sup 3}H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be

  19. A multiple-tracer approach to understanding regional groundwater flow in the Snake Valley area of the eastern Great Basin, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Age tracers and noble gases constrain intra- and inter-basin groundwater flow. • Tritium indicates modern (<60 yr) recharge occurring in all mountain areas. • Noble-gas data identify an important interbasin hydraulic discontinuity. • Further groundwater development may significantly impact Snake Valley springs. - Abstract: Groundwater in Snake Valley and surrounding basins in the eastern Great Basin province of the western United States is being targeted for large-scale groundwater extraction and export. Concern about declining groundwater levels and spring flows in western Utah as a result of the proposed groundwater withdrawals has led to efforts that have improved the understanding of this regional groundwater flow system. In this study, environmental tracers (δ 2 H, δ 18 O, 3 H, 14 C, 3 He, 4 He, 20 Ne, 40 Ar, 84 Kr, and 129 Xe) and major ions from 142 sites were evaluated to investigate groundwater recharge and flow-path characteristics. With few exceptions, δ 2 H and δ 18 O show that most valley groundwater has similar ratios to mountain springs, indicating recharge is dominated by relatively high-altitude precipitation. The spatial distribution of 3 H, terrigenic helium ( 4 He terr ), and 3 H/ 3 He ages shows that modern groundwater (<60 yr) in valley aquifers is found only in the western third of the study area. Pleistocene and late-Holocene groundwater is found in the eastern parts of the study area. The age of Pleistocene groundwater is supported by minimum adjusted radiocarbon ages of up to 32 ka. Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) are generally 1–11 °C in Snake and southern Spring Valleys and >11 °C to the east of Snake Valley and indicate a hydraulic discontinuity between Snake and Tule Valleys across the northern Confusion Range. The combination of NGTs and 4 He terr shows that the majority of Snake Valley groundwater discharges as springs, evapotranspiration, and well withdrawals within Snake Valley rather than

  20. A Black Hills-Madison Aquifer origin for Dakota Aquifer groundwater in northeastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, Randy; Harvey, F Edwin; Gosselin, David C

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of the Dakota Aquifer in South Dakota attributed elevated groundwater sulfate concentrations to Madison Aquifer recharge in the Black Hills with subsequent chemical evolution prior to upward migration into the Dakota Aquifer. This study examines the plausibility of a Madison Aquifer origin for groundwater in northeastern Nebraska. Dakota Aquifer water samples were collected for major ion chemistry and isotopic analysis ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (34)S, (18)O-SO(4), (87)Sr, (37)Cl). Results show that groundwater beneath the eastern, unconfined portion of the study area is distinctly different from groundwater sampled beneath the western, confined portion. In the east, groundwater is calcium-bicarbonate type, with delta(18)O values (-9.6 per thousand to -12.4 per thousand) similar to local, modern precipitation (-7.4 per thousand to -10 per thousand), and tritium values reflecting modern recharge. In the west, groundwater is calcium-sulfate type, having depleted delta(18)O values (-16 per thousand to -18 per thousand) relative to local, modern precipitation, and (14)C ages 32,000 to more than 47,000 years before present. Sulfate, delta(18)O, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O-SO(4) concentrations are similar to those found in Madison Aquifer groundwater in South Dakota. Thus, it is proposed that Madison Aquifer source water is also present within the Dakota Aquifer beneath northeastern Nebraska. A simple Darcy equation estimate of groundwater velocities and travel times using reported physical parameters from the Madison and Dakota Aquifers suggests such a migration is plausible. However, discrepancies between (14)C and Darcy age estimates indicate that (14)C ages may not accurately reflect aquifer residence time, due to mixtures of varying aged water.

  1. Bias correction of nutritional status estimates when reported age is used for calculating WHO indicators in children under five years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Amado D; García-Guerra, Armando; Escobar, Leticia

    2016-06-01

    To assess the performance of a simple correction method for nutritional status estimates in children under five years of age when exact age is not available from the data. The proposed method was based on the assumption of symmetry of age distributions within a given month of age and validated in a large population-based survey sample of Mexican preschool children. The main distributional assumption was consistent with the data. All prevalence estimates derived from the correction method showed no statistically significant bias. In contrast, failing to correct attained age resulted in an underestimation of stunting in general and an overestimation of overweight or obesity among the youngest. The proposed method performed remarkably well in terms of bias correction of estimates and could be easily applied in situations in which either birth or interview dates are not available from the data.

  2. Bias correction of nutritional status estimates when reported age is used for calculating WHO indicators in children under five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado D Quezada

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective.To assess the performance of a simple correction method for nutritional status estimates in children under five years of age when exact age is not available from the data. Materials and methods. The proposed method was ba- sed on the assumption of symmetry of age distributions within a given month of age and validated in a large population-based survey sample of Mexican preschool children. Results. The main distributional assumption was consistent with the data. All prevalence estimates derived from the correction method showed no statistically significant bias. In contrast, failing to correct attained age resulted in an underestimation of stunting in general and an overestimation of overweight or obesity among the youngest. Conclusions. The proposed method performed remarkably well in terms of bias correction of estimates and could be easily applied in situations in which either birth or interview dates are not available from the data.

  3. Assessment of groundwater salinization mechanisms in Santiago Island - Cabo Verde: An environmental isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, P.M.; Nunes, D.; Marques, J.M.; Pina, A.; Mota Gomes, A.; Almeida, E.; Goncalves, R.; Monteiro Santos, F.

    2007-01-01

    Two sampling campaigns were carried out at Santiago Island - Cabo Verde under the scope of an isotopic and geochemical research study. An evaluation of the groundwater systems was carried out through the application of environmental isotopes and geochemical data in order to answer questions such as: origin and mechanisms of groundwater recharge; relation between the hydrochemical evolution of the groundwater systems with the geological matrix (minerals dissolution) or mixture with seawater and aerosol marine influence; identification of seawater intrusion mechanisms and, determination of the apparent groundwater 'age'. The results obtained so far are not conclusive on the identification of the process responsible for the increase of salinity. In general, all the data obtained seems to indicate that the waters have the same isotopic history but different geochemical evolution, which depends on the weathering and permeability of the rocks. (author)

  4. Estimating Groundwater Development area in Jianan Plain using Standardized Groundwater Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Hsiang; Haw, Lee Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan has been facing severe water crises in recent years owing to the effects of extreme weather conditions. Changes in precipitation patterns have also made the drought phenomenon increasingly prominent, which has indirectly affected groundwater recharge. Hence, in the present study, long-term monitoring data were collected from the study area of the Jianan plain. The standardized groundwater index (SGI) and was then used to analyse the region's drought characteristics. To analyse the groundwater level by using SGI, making SGI180 groundwater level be the medium water crises, and SGI360 groundwater level be the extreme water crises. Through the different water crises signal in SGI180 and SGI360, we divide groundwater in Jianan plain into two sections. Thereby the water crises indicators establishing groundwater level standard line in Jianan Plain, then using the groundwater level standard line to find the study area where could be groundwater development area in Jianan plain. Taking into account relatively more water scarcity in dry season, so the study screen out another emergency backup groundwater development area, but the long-term groundwater development area is still as a priority development area. After finding suitable locations, groundwater modeling systems(GMS) software is used to simulate our sites to evaluate development volume. Finally, the result of study will help the government to grasp the water shortage situation immediately and solve the problem of water resources deployment.

  5. Monitoring and Assessing Groundwater Impacts on Vegetation Health in Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, M. M.; Ulrich, C.; Howard, J.; Sweet, S.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable groundwater management is important for preserving our economy, society, and environment. Groundwater supports important habitat throughout California, by providing a reliable source of water for these Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDEs). Groundwater is particularly important in California since it supplies an additional source of water during the dry summer months and periods of drought. The drought and unsustainable pumping practices have, in some areas, lowered groundwater levels causing undesirable results to ecosystems. The Sustainable Groundwater Management Act requires local agencies to avoid undesirable results in the future, but the location and vulnerabilities of the ecosystems that depend on groundwater and interconnected surface water is often poorly understood. This presentation will feature results from a research study conducted by The Nature Conservancy and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that investigated how changes in groundwater availability along an interconnected surface water body can impact the overall health of GDEs. This study was conducted in California's Central Valley along the Cosumnes River, and situated at the boundary of a high and a medium groundwater basin: South American Basin (Sacramento Hydrologic Region) and Cosumnes Basin (San Joaquin Hydrologic Region). By employing geophysical methodology (electrical resistivity tomography) in this study, spatial changes in groundwater availability were determined under groundwater-dependent vegetation. Vegetation survey data were also applied to this study to develop ecosystem health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation. Health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation were found to directly correlate with groundwater availability, such that greater availability to groundwater resulted in healthier vegetation. This study provides a case study example on how to use hydrological and biological data for setting appropriate minimum thresholds and

  6. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  7. Geochemical and isotopic determination of deep groundwater contributions and salinity to the shallow groundwater and surface water systems, Mesilla Basin, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A.; Carroll, K. C.; Kubicki, C.; Purtshert, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system, extending from southern New Mexico to Chihuahua, Mexico, is a priority transboundary aquifer under the 2006 United States­-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing groundwater use by municipal, industrial, and agricultural users on both sides of the international border raise concerns about long-term aquifer sustainability. Relative contributions of present-day and "paleo" recharge to sustainable fresh groundwater yields has not been determined and evidence suggests that a large source of salinity at the distal end of the Mesilla Basin is saline discharge from deep groundwater flow. The magnitude and distribution of those deep saline flow paths are not determined. The contribution of deep groundwater to discharge and salinity in the shallow groundwater and surface water of the Mesilla Basin will be determined by collecting discrete groundwater samples and analyzing for aqueous geochemical and isotopic tracers, as well as the radioisotopes of argon and krypton. Analytes include major ions, trace elements, the stable isotopes of water, strontium and boron isotopes, uranium isotopes, the carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gas concentrations and helium isotope ratios. Dissolved gases are extracted and captured from groundwater wells using membrane contactors in a process known as ultra-trace sampling. Gas samples are analyzed for radioisotope ratios of krypton by the ATTA method and argon by low-level counting. Effectiveness of the ultra-trace sampling device and method was evaluated by comparing results of tritium concentrations to the krypton-85 content. Good agreement between the analyses, especially in samples with undetectable tritium, indicates that the ultra-trace procedure is effective and confirms that introduction of atmospheric air has not occurred. The geochemistry data indicate a complex system of geochemical

  8. Variation in SPC/STC Ratio as an Indicator of Age: A Computer-aided Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Debta

    2010-01-01

    Results: Pearson correlation between SPC/STC ratio with different age group was found to be statistically significant. So, measurement of amount of secondary dentin seems to be reliable and rapid method in forensic odontology.

  9. Isotope study of groundwater in Beishan area, Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Yang Tianxiao

    2004-01-01

    Using the isotope techniques, the groundwater origin, evolution and circulation in the potential site of China's high-level waste repository are studied. The results indicate that both shallow groundwaters are and deep groundwaters in the site area are of meteoric origin. The shallow groundwaters are mainly recharged by modern and local precipitation, and the deep groundwaters are originated from regional history period with lower temperature. Through the study we can also understand that the deep underground is a very low-permeability system where the groundwater flow-rates are very low. (author)

  10. Stochastic modeling indicates that aging and somatic evolution in the hematopoetic system are driven by non-cell-autonomous processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhok, Andrii I; Salstrom, Jennifer L; DeGregori, James

    2014-12-01

    Age-dependent tissue decline and increased cancer incidence are widely accepted to be rate-limited by the accumulation of somatic mutations over time. Current models of carcinogenesis are dominated by the assumption that oncogenic mutations have defined advantageous fitness effects on recipient stem and progenitor cells, promoting and rate-limiting somatic evolution. However, this assumption is markedly discrepant with evolutionary theory, whereby fitness is a dynamic property of a phenotype imposed upon and widely modulated by environment. We computationally modeled dynamic microenvironment-dependent fitness alterations in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) within the Sprengel-Liebig system known to govern evolution at the population level. Our model for the first time integrates real data on age-dependent dynamics of HSC division rates, pool size, and accumulation of genetic changes and demonstrates that somatic evolution is not rate-limited by the occurrence of mutations, but instead results from aged microenvironment-driven alterations in the selective/fitness value of previously accumulated genetic changes. Our results are also consistent with evolutionary models of aging and thus oppose both somatic mutation-centric paradigms of carcinogenesis and tissue functional decline. In total, we demonstrate that aging directly promotes HSC fitness decline and somatic evolution via non-cell-autonomous mechanisms.

  11. Effects of groundwater-flow paths on nitrate concentrations across two riparian forest corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, Gary K.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater levels, apparent age, and chemistry from field sites and groundwater-flow modeling of hypothetical aquifers collectively indicate that groundwater-flow paths contribute to differences in nitrate concentrations across riparian corridors. At sites in Virginia (one coastal and one Piedmont), lowland forested wetlands separate upland fields from nearby surface waters (an estuary and a stream). At the coastal site, nitrate concentrations near the water table decreased from more than 10 mg/L beneath fields to 2 mg/L beneath a riparian forest buffer because recharge through the buffer forced water with concentrations greater than 5 mg/L to flow deeper beneath the buffer. Diurnal changes in groundwater levels up to 0.25 meters at the coastal site reflect flow from the water table into unsaturated soil where roots remove water and nitrate dissolved in it. Decreases in aquifer thickness caused by declines in the water table and decreases in horizontal hydraulic gradients from the uplands to the wetlands indicate that more than 95% of the groundwater discharged to the wetlands. Such discharge through organic soil can reduce nitrate concentrations by denitrification. Model simulations are consistent with field results, showing downward flow approaching toe slopes and surface waters to which groundwater discharges. These effects show the importance of buffer placement over use of fixed-width, streamside buffers to control nitrate concentrations.

  12. Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Raj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alleppey is one of the thickly populated coastal towns of the Kerala state in southern India. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the 240,991 people living in this region. The groundwater is being extracted from a multi-layer aquifer system of unconsolidated to semi-consolidated sedimentary formations, which range in age from Recent to Tertiary. The public water distribution system uses dug and tube wells. Though there were reports on fluoride contamination, this study reports for the first time excess fluoride and excess salinity in the drinking water of the region. The quality parameters, like Electrical Conductivity (EC ranges from 266 to 3900 μs/cm, the fluoride content ranges from 0.68 to 2.88 mg/L, and the chloride ranges between the 5.7 to 1253 mg/L. The main water types are Na-HCO3, Na-CO3 and Na-Cl. The aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− show positive correlation whereas F− and Ca2+ show negative correlation. The source of fluoride in the groundwater could be from dissolution of fluorapatite, which is a common mineral in the Tertiary sediments of the area. Long residence time, sediment–groundwater interaction and facies changes (Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3 during groundwater flow regime are the major factors responsible for the high fluoride content in the groundwater of the area. High strontium content and high EC in some of the wells indicate saline water intrusion that could be due to the excess pumping from the deeper aquifers of the area. The water quality index computation has revealed that 62% of groundwater belongs to poor quality and is not suitable for domestic purposes as per BIS and WHO standards. Since the groundwater is the only source of drinking water in the area, proper treatment strategies and regulating the groundwater extraction are required as the quality deterioration poses serious threat to human health.

  13. Can the anterior-posterior thigh diameter be used as an indicator for fetal age using two-dimensional sonography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Saad Ramzi

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness and direct correlation of a simple new method of predicting fetal age by measurement of the anterior-posterior thigh diameter (APTD) in a normal 18 to 28 week pregnancies using two-dimensional sonography. Little published research exists in the area of fetal thigh biometry, specifically in the use of the anterior-posterior fetal thigh diameter (APTD). The only study I found was that of fetal thigh circumference. Continuing review of existing practices needs to be coupled with evaluation of alternate or additional methodology. Materials and methods: This was a quantitative prospective study of 55 patients in High Level General Hospital, Alberta, Canada. Anterior-posterior thigh diameters (APTD) were sonographically measured. The normal range for each week of pregnancy was determined five times for reliability. Results: Significant correlation was found between (APTD) and fetal age from simple line regression analysis, with 99.993% confidence intervals at each week from 18 to 28 weeks gestation. There was a correlation of 1 mm APTD per 1 week of fetal age. In addition R > 0.93, P < 0.001. The residual scatter plots confirmed the APTD validity. Conclusion: APTD is a reliable and valid method for assessing fetal age in a normal pregnancy and may be particularly useful when other parameters are unable to accurately predict fetal age. An accurate linear measurement of multiple fetal parameters allows a more complete profile of fetal growth and estimated date of delivery (EDD). APTD may also be useful in identifying fetal growth problems. All of the values of fetal age lie directly on the 'best-fit' regression line. Since the coefficient of determination (Rsq) is very high, this model is very effective

  14. Do gender, disability, and morbidity affect aging rate in the LLFS? Application of indices of cumulative deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    of deficits. When a wider spectrum of health dimensions is considered these rates are better approximated by quadratic law. Exponential rates are more characteristic for more severe health dimensions. The aging rates are the same for males and females. Individuals who contracted major diseases and those who...

  15. Forest age structure as indicator of boreal forest sustainability under alternative management and fire regimes: a landscape level sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didion, M.P.; Fortin, M.J.; Fall, A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective forest ecosystem-based management requires a thorough understanding of the interactions between anthropogenic and natural disturbance processes over larger spatial and temporal scales than stands and rotation ages. Because harvesting does not preclude fire, it is important to evaluate the

  16. Groundwater recharge mechanism in an integrated tableland of the Loess Plateau, northern China: insights from environmental tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe; Liu, Jilai; Ma, Jinzhu; Gates, John

    2017-11-01

    Assessing groundwater recharge characteristics (recharge rate, history, mechanisms (piston and preferential flow)) and groundwater age in arid and semi-arid environments remains a difficult but important research frontier. Such assessments are particularly important when the unsaturated zone (UZ) is thick and the recharge rate is limited. This study combined evaluations of the thick UZ with those of the saturated zone and used multiple tracers, such as Cl, NO3, Br, 2H, 18O, 13C, 3H and 14C, to study groundwater recharge characteristics in an integrated loess tableland in the Loess Plateau, China, where precipitation infiltration is the only recharge source for shallow groundwater. The results indicate that diffuse recharge beneath crops, as the main land use of the study area, is 55-71 mm yr-1 based on the chloride mass balance of soil profiles. The length of time required for annual precipitation to reach the water table is 160-400 yrs. The groundwater is all pre-modern water and paleowater, with corrected 14C age ranging from 136 to 23,412 yrs. Most of the water that eventually becomes recharge originally infiltrated in July-September. The Cl and NO3 contents in the upper UZ are considerably higher than those in the deep UZ and shallow groundwater because of recent human activities. The shallow groundwater has not been in hydraulic equilibrium with present near-surface boundary conditions. The homogeneous material of the UZ and relatively old groundwater age imply that piston flow is the dominant recharge mechanism for the shallow groundwater in the tableland.

  17. Modelling the distribution of tritium in groundwater across South Africa to assess the vulnerability and sustainability of groundwater resources in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, Jared; Miller, Jodie; Watson, Andrew; Butler, Mike

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is critical for sustaining human populations, especially in semi-arid to arid areas, where surface water availability is low. Shallow groundwater is usually abstracted for this purpose because it is the easiest to access and assumed to be renewable and regularly recharged by precipitation. Renewable, regularly recharged groundwater is also called modern groundwater, ie groundwater that has recently been in contact with the atmosphere. Tritium can be used to determine whether or not a groundwater resource is modern because the half-life of tritium is only 12.36 years and tritium is dominantly produced in the upper atmosphere and not in the rock mass. For this reason, groundwater with detectable tritium activities likely has a residence age of less than 50 years. In this study, tritium activities in 277 boreholes distributed across South Africa were used to develop a national model for tritium activity in groundwater in order to establish the extent of modern groundwater across South Africa. The tritium model was combined with modelled depth to water using 3079 measured static water levels obtained from the National Groundwater Archive and validated against a separate set of 40 tritium activities along the west coast of South Africa. The model showed good agreement with the distribution of rainfall which has been previously documented across the globe (Gleeson et al., 2015), although the arid Karoo basin in south west South Africa shows higher than expected tritium levels given the very low regional precipitation levels. To assess the vulnerability of groundwater to degradation in quality and quantity, the tritium model was incorporated into a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) model which incorporated other indicators of groundwater stress including mean annual precipitation, mean annual surface temperature, electrical conductivity (as a proxy for groundwater salinization), potential evaporation, population density and cultivated land usage. The MCE model

  18. Electrical conductivity and pH of groundwater: important exploratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical conductivity and pH of groundwater: important exploratory tools in groundwater surveys. ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... An analysis of the spatial variation of these parameters indicates that the EC and pH values of groundwater allow us to make deductions not only on the changes in the ...

  19. Geochemical studies of groundwater systems of semiarid Yola area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was to determine the process controlling the water chemistry and to assess the ... for the deep groundwater and Na+-Cl- for the surface water bodies. ... Groundwater samples from the shallow groundwater indicate pH values (6.10 to 7.08) ...

  20. Indicators of a balanced long-term service and support system: examining the impact on individuals aging with a lifelong disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sarah; Urdapilleta, Oswaldo; Clark-Shirley, Leanne J; Howard, Jennifer; Poey, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how rebalancing efforts can support the needs of individuals aging with a lifelong disability. The National Balancing Indicator project examined the overall long-term supports and services system (LTSS) progress in five indicators within the Sustainability, Coordination and Transparency, and Prevention principles toward a balanced LTSS system for those aging with a lifelong disability. In assessing state efforts to create a balanced participant-directed LTSS system with the National Balancing Indicators, the findings suggest states are better equipping the system to handle a burgeoning population of individuals aging with a lifelong disability, but more progress is still needed. Overall, states need to continue to create a seamless system that allows individuals with lifelong disabilities to transition smoothly through the life course.

  1. Presence of the dinosaur Scelidosaurus indicates Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation (Glen Canyon Group, northern Arizona)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padian, Kevin

    1989-05-01

    The Glen Canyon Group (Moenave, Wingate, Kayenta and Navajo Formations) of northern Arizona represents an extensive outcrop of early Mesozoic age terrestrial sediments. The age of these formations has long been disputed because independent stratigraphic data from marine tie-ins, paleobotanical and palynological evidence, and radiometric calibrations have been scanty or absent. The fauna of the Kayenta Formation in particular has been problematic because it has appeared to contain both typical Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa Here I report that the principal evidence for Late Triassic taxa, dermal scutes previously assigned to an aetosaur, in fact belongs to the thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaur Scelidosaurus, previously known only as a washed-in form found in marine sediments in the Early Jurassic of England. The presence of this dinosaur represents the first vertebrate biostratigraphic tie-in of the Glen Canyon Group horizons with reliably dated marine deposits in Europe. Together with revised systematic assessments of other vertebrates and independent evidence from fossil pollen, it supports an Early Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation and most or all of the Glen Canyon Group.

  2. Effects of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on sex hormones and antioxidant indices in a d-galactose-induced aging female mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Najimi, Seyedeh Asma; Farbood, Yaghoob

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with the loss of endocrine function. In this study, Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex), which has antioxidant effects and high levels of phytoestrogen, was investigated with regard to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and antioxidant indices in natural aging and in a d-galactose induced aging model in female mice. The mice were subcutaneously injected with d-galactose (500 mg/kg/d for 45 days). Extract of Vitex (600 mg/kg/bid for 7 days by gavage) was used to treat d-galactose-induced aging and natural aging in mice. Seventy-two female NMRI mice (48 3-month-old normal mice and 24 18-24-month-old mice), weighing 30-35 g were randomly divided into six groups: control, Vitex, d-galactose, Vitex + d-galactose, Aging, and Vitex + Aging. The antioxidant indices and sex hormone levels were subsequently measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Body weight and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels were significantly increased in the d-galactose aging and natural aging groups, whereas catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and estrogen level were significantly decreased in these same groups. d-Galactose can also disrupt the estrous cycle and damage the uterus and ovarian tissues. Vitex could effectively attenuate these alterations. Vitex improved some aging events in the reproductive system of female mice. Therefore, because of its apparent antiaging effects, Vitex can be suitable for some aging problems such as oxidative stress, female sex hormone deficiency, and an atrophic endometrium. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  3. Sex- and age-specific percentiles of body composition indices for Chinese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zeyu; Guo, Bin; Gong, Jian; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Cheng, Yong; Xu, Hao

    2017-10-01

    The aims of the study were to develop sex- and age-specific percentiles for lean mass index (LMI), appendicular LMI (aLMI), fat mass index (FMI), and body fat distribution indices in Chinese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to compare those indices with those of other ethnicities using the US NHANES data. Whole-body and regional lean mass and fat mass (FM) were measured using DXA in 5688 healthy males (n = 1693) and females (n = 3995) aged 20-90 years. Body fat distribution indices were expressed as % fat trunk/% fat legs, trunk/appendicular FM ratio (FMR), and android/gynoid FMR. Percentile curves of LMI, aLMI, FMI, and body fat distribution indices were obtained by the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method. The aLMI and LMI were negatively associated with age, decreasing from the fifth decade for males, but were not associated with age in females. Females had more total FM than males, whereas males had greater central adiposity (% fat trunk/% fat legs ratio, trunk/appendicular FMR, and android/gynoid FMR) than females. Moreover, FMI and body fat distribution indices consistently increased with age in both sexes, especially in women. In comparison with white, black, and Mexican populations in the USA, Chinese adults had lower total FM, but had greater central adiposity (% fat trunk/% fat legs ratio and trunk/appendicular FMR). Additionally, older white and Mexican populations showed greater decreases for aLMI and LMI than their Chinese counterparts. We present the sex- and age-specific percentiles for aLMI, LMI, FMI, and body fat distribution indices by DXA in Chinese adults, which may refine the individual assessment of the nutritional status of Chinese adults.

  4. Is water age a reliable indicator for evaluating water quality effectiveness of water diversion projects in eutrophic lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Zou, Rui; Wang, Yilin; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Xiang; Guo, Huaicheng

    2016-11-01

    Water diversion has been applied increasingly to promote the exchange of lake water and to control eutrophication of lakes. The accelerated water exchange and mass transport by water diversion can usually be represented by water age. But the responses of water quality after water diversion is still disputed. The reliability of using water age for evaluating the effectiveness of water diversion projects in eutrophic lakes should be thereby explored further. Lake Dianchi, a semi-closed plateau lake in China, has suffered severe eutrophication since the 1980s, and it is one of the three most eutrophic lakes in China. There was no significant improvement in water quality after an investment of approximately 7.7 billion USD and numerous project efforts from 1996 to 2015. After the approval of the Chinese State Council, water has been transferred to Lake Dianchi to alleviate eutrophication since December 2013. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model and eight scenarios were developed in this study to quantity the influence of this water diversion project on water quality in Lake Dianchi. The model results showed that (a) Water quality (TP, TN, and Chla) could be improved by 13.5-32.2%, much lower than the approximate 50% reduction in water age; (b) Water exchange had a strong positive relationship with mean TP, and mean Chla had exactly the same response to water diversion as mean TN; (c) Water level was more beneficial for improving hydrodynamic and nutrient concentrations than variation in the diverted inflowing water volume; (d) The water diversion scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with the water level of 1886.5 m and 1887 m in the remaining months was the best water diversion mode for mean hydrodynamics and TP, but the scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with 1887 m throughout the year was optimum for mean TN and Chla; (e) Water age influenced the effectiveness of water diversion on the

  5. Groundwater environmental capacity and its evaluation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li Ting; Wu, Qiang; Ye, Chun He; Ye, Nan

    2010-10-01

    To date, no unified and acknowledged definition or well-developed evaluation index system of groundwater environment capacity can be found in the academia at home or abroad. The article explores the meaning of water environment capacity, and analyzes the environmental effects caused by the exploitation of groundwater resources. This research defines groundwater environmental capacity as a critical value in terms of time and space, according to which the groundwater system responds to the external influences within certain goal constraint. On the basis of observing the principles of being scientific, dominant, measurable, and applicable, six level 1 evaluation indexes and 11 constraint factors are established. Taking Jinan spring region for a case study, this research will adopt groundwater level and spring flow as constraint factors, and the allowable groundwater yield as the critical value of groundwater environmental capacity, prove the dynamic changeability and its indicating function of groundwater environmental capacity through calculation, and finally point out the development trends of researches on groundwater environmental capacity.

  6. Effects of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on sex hormones and antioxidant indices in a d-galactose-induced aging female mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Ahangarpour; Seyedeh Asma Najimi; Yaghoob Farbood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging is associated with the loss of endocrine function. In this study, Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex), which has antioxidant effects and high levels of phytoestrogen, was investigated with regard to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and antioxidant indices in natural aging and in a d-galactose induced aging model in female mice. Methods: The mice were subcutaneously injected with d-galactose (500 mg/kg/d for 45 days). Extract of Vitex (600 mg/kg/bid for 7 days by gavage) was...

  7. Does age at onset of first major depressive episode indicate the subtype of major depressive disorder?: the clinical research center for depression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age at onset of the first major depressive episode on the clinical features of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large cohort of Korean depressed patients. We recruited 419 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study in South Korea. At the start of the study, the onset age of the first major depressive episode was self-reported by the subjects. The subjects were divided into four age-at-onset subgroups: childhood and adolescent onset (ages depressive episodes (F=3.475, p=0.016) and higher scores on the brief psychiatric rating scale (F=3.254, p=0.022), its negative symptom subscale (F=6.082, pdepressive episode is a promising clinical indicator for the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of MDD.

  8. Age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in human populations, as indicated by schistosome circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polman Katja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our group determined the relationship between serum CAA levels and fecal egg counts in two foci with very intense Schistosoma mansoni transmission: Maniema (Zaire, an area endemic for S. mansoni since several decades, and Ndombo (Senegal, where transmission has only been established since a few years. The objective was to study and compare age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in these two different endemic settings. Here, we will summarize the most important findings and conclusions of this study.

  9. Groundwater recharge and flow on Montserrat, West Indies: Insights from groundwater dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioch Hemmings

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights: δ2H and δ18O analysis indicates uniform recharge elevations for groundwaters on Montserrat. CFC-11 and CFC-12 analysis reveals age differences between isotopically similar, high elevation springs and low elevation aquifer waters. Low CFC concentrations within a confined low elevation aquifer suggest water ages of ∼45 years. High CFC concentrations in the northern and western springs are explained by rapid infiltration of cool (high CFC concentration rainfall into saturated compartments, with flow through the vadose zone to the phreatic zone dominated by compartment flow. Lower CFC concentrations in a number of aligned warmer springs suggest a contribution from older, warmer waters from depth. Temperatures and CFC concentrations indicate older component supply rates of up to 8 L/s to the highest yielding spring on Centre Hills, with contributions of up to 75% in the warmest spring waters.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    wells screened in Sierra Nevada sands contained low concentrations of nitrite or ammonium, indicating reduction of nitrate by denitrification or dissimilatory processes, respectively.Geology of the Coast Ranges westward of the study unit strongly affects groundwater quality in the WSJV. Elevated concentrations of TDS, sulfate, boron, selenium and strontium in groundwater were primarily associated with aquifer sediments and recharge derived from areas of the Coast Ranges dominated by Cretaceous-to-Miocene age, organic-rich, reduced marine shales, known as the source of selenium in WSJV soils, surface water, and groundwater. Low sulfur-isotopic values (δ34S) of dissolved sulfate indicate that the sulfate was largely derived from oxidation of biogenic pyrite from the shales, and correlations with trace element concentrations, geologic setting, and groundwater geochemical modeling indicated that distributions of sulfate, strontium, and selenium in groundwater were controlled by dissolution of secondary sulfate minerals in soils and sediments.Elevated concentrations of chromium(VI) were primarily associated with aquifer sediments and recharge derived from areas of the Coast Ranges dominated by the Franciscan Complex and ultramafic rocks. The Franciscan Complex also has boron-rich, sodium-chloride dominated hydrothermal fluids that contribute to elevated concentrations of boron and TDS.Groundwater from wells screened in Coast Ranges alluvium was primarily oxic and relatively alkaline (median pH value of 7.55) in the Delta–Mendota study area, and primarily nitrate-reducing or suboxic and alkaline (median pH value of 8.4) in the Westside study area. Many groundwater samples from those wells have elevated concentrations of arsenic(V), molybdenum, selenium, or chromium(VI), consistent with desorption of metal oxyanions from mineral surfaces under those geochemical conditions.High concentrations of benzene were associated with deep wells located in the vicinity of petroleum

  11. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  12. Cl/Br ratios and chlorine isotope evidences for groundwater salinization and its impact on groundwater arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in the Datong basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn; Xie, Xianjun

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify the salinization processes and its impact on arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in groundwater, hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope studies have been conducted on groundwater from the Datong basin, China. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations in groundwater ranged from 451 to 8250 mg/L, and 41% of all samples were identified as moderately saline groundwater with TDS of 3000–10,000 mg/L. The results of groundwater Cl concentrations, Cl/Br molar ratio and Cl isotope composition suggest that three processes including water-rock interaction, surface saline soil flushing, and evapotranspiration result in the groundwater salinization in the study area. The relatively higher Cl/Br molar ratio in groundwater from multiple screening wells indicates the contribution of halite dissolution from saline soil flushed by vertical infiltration to the groundwater salinization. However, the results of groundwater Cl/Br molar ratio model indicate that the effect of saline soil flushing practice is limited to account for the observed salinity variation in groundwater. The plots of groundwater Cl vs. Cl/Br molar ratio, and Cl vs δ{sup 37}Cl perform the dominant effects of evapotranspiration on groundwater salinization. Inverse geochemical modeling results show that evapotranspiration may cause approximately 66% loss of shallow groundwater to account for the observed hydrochemical pattern. Due to the redox condition fluctuation induced by irrigation activities and evapotranspiration, groundwater salinization processes have negative effects on groundwater arsenic enrichment. For groundwater iodine and fluoride enrichment, evapotranspiration partly accounts for their elevation in slightly saline water. However, too strong evapotranspiration would restrict groundwater fluoride concentration due to the limitation of fluorite solubility. - Highlights: • Natural high arsenic, fluoride and iodine groundwater co-occur with saline water.

  13. Cl/Br ratios and chlorine isotope evidences for groundwater salinization and its impact on groundwater arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in the Datong basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify the salinization processes and its impact on arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in groundwater, hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope studies have been conducted on groundwater from the Datong basin, China. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations in groundwater ranged from 451 to 8250 mg/L, and 41% of all samples were identified as moderately saline groundwater with TDS of 3000–10,000 mg/L. The results of groundwater Cl concentrations, Cl/Br molar ratio and Cl isotope composition suggest that three processes including water-rock interaction, surface saline soil flushing, and evapotranspiration result in the groundwater salinization in the study area. The relatively higher Cl/Br molar ratio in groundwater from multiple screening wells indicates the contribution of halite dissolution from saline soil flushed by vertical infiltration to the groundwater salinization. However, the results of groundwater Cl/Br molar ratio model indicate that the effect of saline soil flushing practice is limited to account for the observed salinity variation in groundwater. The plots of groundwater Cl vs. Cl/Br molar ratio, and Cl vs δ"3"7Cl perform the dominant effects of evapotranspiration on groundwater salinization. Inverse geochemical modeling results show that evapotranspiration may cause approximately 66% loss of shallow groundwater to account for the observed hydrochemical pattern. Due to the redox condition fluctuation induced by irrigation activities and evapotranspiration, groundwater salinization processes have negative effects on groundwater arsenic enrichment. For groundwater iodine and fluoride enrichment, evapotranspiration partly accounts for their elevation in slightly saline water. However, too strong evapotranspiration would restrict groundwater fluoride concentration due to the limitation of fluorite solubility. - Highlights: • Natural high arsenic, fluoride and iodine groundwater co-occur with saline water. • Groundwater

  14. Measuring and understanding total dissolved gas pressure in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C.; Roy, J. W.; Randell, J.; Castellon, L.

    2009-05-01

    Since dissolved gases are important to a number of aspects of groundwater (e.g. age dating, active or passive bioremediation, greenhouse gas fluxes, understanding biogeochemical processes involving gases, assessing potential impacts of coal bed methane activities), accurate concentration measurements, and understanding of their subsurface behaviour are important. Researchers have recently begun using total dissolved gas pressure (TGP) sensor measurements, more commonly applied for surface water monitoring, in concert with gas composition analyses to estimate more accurate groundwater gas concentrations in wells. We have used hydraulic packers to isolate the well screens where TDP is being measured, and pump tests to indicate that in-well degassing may reduce TDG below background groundwater levels. Thus, in gas-charged groundwater zones, TGPs can be considerably underestimated in the absence of pumping or screen isolation. We have also observed transient decreased TGPs during pumping that are thought to result from ebullition induced when the water table or water level in the well is lowered below a critical hydrostatic pressure.

  15. Partitioning sources of recharge in environments with groundwater recirculation using carbon-14 and CFC-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Sarah A.; Cook, Peter G.; Dogramaci, Shawan; Kipfer, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    Groundwater recirculation occurs when groundwater is pumped from an aquifer onto the land surface, and a portion of that water subsequently infiltrates back to the aquifer. In environments where groundwater is recirculated, differentiation between various sources of recharge (e.g. natural rainfall recharge vs. recirculated water) can be difficult. Groundwater age indicators, in particular transient trace gases, are likely to be more sensitive tracers of recharge than stable isotopes or chloride in this setting. This is because, unlike stable isotopes or chloride, they undergo a process of equilibration with the atmosphere, and historical atmospheric concentrations are known. In this paper, groundwater age indicators (14C and CFC-12) were used as tracers of recharge by surplus mine water that is discharged to streams. Ternary mixing ratios were calculated based on 14C and CFC-12 concentrations measured along three transects of piezometers and monitoring wells perpendicular to the creeks, and from dewatering wells. Uncertainty in calculated mixing ratios was estimated using a Monte Carlo approach. Ternary mixing ratios in dewatering wells suggest that recharge by mine water accounted for between 10% and 87% of water currently abstracted by dewatering wells. The calculated mixing ratios suggest that recharge by mine water extends to a distance of more than 550 m from the creeks. These results are supported by seepage flux estimates based on the water and chloride balance along the creeks, which suggest that 85-90% of mine water discharged to the creeks recharges the aquifer and recharge by mine water extends between 110 and 730 m from the creeks. Mixing calculations based on gaseous groundwater age indicators could also be used to partition recharge associated with agricultural irrigation or artificial wetland supplementation.

  16. The strength of two indicators of social position on oral health among persons over the age of 80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to analyze how two dimensions of social position, education and social class, are associated with oral health among generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 years. METHODS: The present investigation is based on a sample of 157...... community-dwelling individuals from The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) and included data from interviews and oral examinations. Social position was measured by education and social class. Oral health was measured by active coronal caries, active root caries, edentulism and use of dental...... of being edentulous. Further, persons with elementary/ medium education tended to forego regular dental services more than persons with high education. CONCLUSION: The study identified social inequalities in oral health even in a population of independently living, generally healthy very old Swedes...

  17. Application of a new model for groundwater age distributions: Modeling and isotopic analysis of artificial recharge in the Rialto-Colton basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, T.R.; Woolfenden, L.

    2002-01-01

    A project for modeling and isotopic analysis of artificial recharge in the Rialto-Colton basin aquifer in California, is discussed. The Rialto-Colton aquifer has been divided into four primary and significant flowpaths following the general direction of groundwater flow from NW to SE. The introductory investigation include sophisticated chemical reaction modeling, with highly simplified flow path simulation. A comprehensive reactive transport model with the established set of geochemical reactions over the whole aquifer will also be developed for treating both reactions and transport realistically. This will be completed by making use of HBGC123D implemented with isotopic calculation step to compute Carbon-14 (C14) and stable Carbon-13 (C13) contents of the water. Computed carbon contents will also be calibrated with the measured carbon contents for assessment of the amount of imported recharge into the Linden pond.

  18. Clinical, physical and lifestyle indicators and relationship with cognition and mood in aging: a cross-sectional analysis of distinct educational groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Correia Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function. Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educational groups categorized by the number of completed formal school years: less than 4, 4, completed primary education, and more than 4. Participants (n = 1051 were randomly selected from local health registries and representative of the Portuguese population for age and gender. Neurocognitive and clinical assessments were conducted in local health care centers. Structural equation modeling was used to derive a cognitive score, and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for each educational group. Education, age and depressed mood were significant variables in directly explaining the obtained cognitive score, while gender was found to be an indirect variable. In all educational groups, mood was the most significant factor with effect on cognitive performance. Specifically, a depressed mood led to lower cognitive performance. The clinical disease indices cardiac and stroke associated with a more negative mood, while moderate increases in BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity associated positively with improved mood and thus benefitted cognitive performance. Results warrant further research on the cause-effect (longitudinal relationship between clinical indices of disease and risk factors and mood and cognition throughout aging.

  19. Paleotemperatures derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater and in relation to soil temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stute, M.; Sonntag, C.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe dissolved in groundwater at two sites (Bocholt, Germany, and the Great Hungarian Plain) were taken to prove the reliability of noble gas temperatures as indicators of paleotemperatures. Noble gas temperatures of groundwater of Holocene age were found to reflect the annual mean soil temperature in the recharge are with an accuracy close to the precision of measurement (1σ approx. ±0.5 deg. C). Noble gas temperature data demonstrate the influence of vegetation cover on the soil temperature in the infiltration area. Groundwater formed in forests at the Bocholt site shows noble gas temperatures that are 2.2 deg. C lower than the groundwater formed in fields or meadows. The temperature data obtained from groundwater of the Great Hungarian Plain for the last glaciation are ≥ 8.6 deg. C lower than data from recent groundwater for maximum glaciation (approx. 18,000 years ago) and 4.7 ± 1 deg. C lower for the preceding interstadial (approx. 28,000-35,000 years ago). These data permit independent reconstruction of paleoclimatic conditions. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  20. Tree microhabitat structures as indicators of biodiversity in Douglas-fir forests of different stand ages and management histories in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa K. Michel; Susanne. Winter

    2009-01-01

    In this study, microhabitat structures in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests were defined and their frequency and abundance in natural stands and stands of varying active management histories and stand ages was compared. Indicator microhabitat structures for natural forests were determined and the relationship of the abundance of...

  1. Clinic Attenders with Autism or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Cognitive Profile at School Age and Its Relationship to Preschool Indicators of Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S.; Miniscalco, Carmela; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have had early indicators of language delay. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive profile of school age children referred to a specialist clinic for ASD, ADHD, or both, and relate this profile…

  2. Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances and Indicators of Immune Function in Children Aged 12 – 19 years: NHANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cheryl R.; McGovern, Kathleen J.; Pajak, Ashley M.; Maglione, Paul J.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are immunotoxic in laboratory studies. Humans studies of immune effects are inconsistent. Using the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) we examined PFAS serum concentration and indicators of prevalent immune function among 12 to 19 year old children. Methods In this cross-sectional study we examined PFAS serum concentration in relation to measles, mumps, and rubella antibody concentrations in NHANES 1999 – 2000 and 2003 – 2004 (n=1,191) and to allergic conditions and allergic sensitization in NHANES 2005 – 2006 (n=640). Results In adjusted, survey-weighted models, a doubling of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration among seropositive children was associated with a 13.3% (95% CI −19.9, −6.2) decrease in rubella antibody concentration and a 5.9% decrease in mumps antibody concentration (95% CI −9.9, −1.6). We observed no adverse association between exposure and current allergic conditions, including asthma. Children with higher PFOS concentration were less likely to be sensitized to any allergen (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.95). Conclusion Increased exposure to several PFAS was associated with lower levels to mumps and rubella antibody concentrations, especially among seropositive individuals. These lower antibody concentrations may indicate a less robust response to vaccination or greater waning of vaccine-derived immunity over time. PMID:26492286

  3. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  4. 85Kr dating of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.; Florkowski, T.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of 85 Kr dating of groundwater is being investigated. The method of gas extraction from 200 to 300 litres of water sample has been developed. The Argon and Krypton mixture, separated from the gas extracted from water, was counted in a 1.5 ml volume proportional counter. The amount of krypton gas in the counter was determined by mass spectrometry. A number of surface and groundwater samples were analyzed indicating an 85 Kr concentration ranging from present atmospheric content (river water) to zero values. 85 Kr 'blank value' was determined to be about 5 per cent of present 85 Kr atmospheric content. For groundwater samples, the mean residence time in the system was calculated assuming the exponential model and known 85 Kr input function. Further improvement of the method should bring higher yield of krypton separation and lower volume of water necessary for analysis. (orig.) [de

  5. Slow arsenic poisoning of the contaminated groundwater users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M. M.; Harun-Ar-Rashid, A. K. M.; Hossain, S. M.; Hafiz, M. A.; Nahar, K.; Mubin, S. H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives impact of Arsenic contaminated water on human health as well as overview of the extent and severity of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. Scalp hair is the most important part of the human body to monitor the accumulation of this type of poison. Therefore, an experiment has been carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis at Atomic Energy Research Establishment , Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh on human hair of corresponding tube well water users of these areas to determine the total accumulation of arsenic to their body. Hair samples collected from the region where the groundwater was found highly contaminated with arsenic. The obtained results of arsenic concentration in the lower age (Hb) categories of users (below 12 years of age users) is in the range of 0.33 to 3.29 μg/g (ppm) and that in the Hu categories (upper 12 years of age users) is 0.47 to 6.64 μg/g (ppm). Where as maximum permissible range is 1 ppm certified from WHO. Results show that the peoples are highly affected where the groundwater is highly contaminated with arsenic and acts as the primary source of arsenic poisoning among the peoples of those areas. The results indicate that human population is affected with arsenic locally using the contaminated water for a long time

  6. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  7. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to induced emotional states: effects of RSA indices, emotion induction method, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2012-09-01

    The literature shows large inconsistencies in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responses to induced emotional states. This may be caused by differences in emotion induction methods, RSA quantification, and non-emotional demands of the situation. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to pictures and film fragments eliciting six different discrete emotions relative to neutral baseline stimuli. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean heart rate and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA response measures. Subjective ratings of emotional stimuli and facial electromyographic responses indicated that pictures and film fragments elicited the intended emotions. Although RSA measures showed various emotional effects, responses were quite heterogeneous and frequently nonsignificant. They were substantially influenced by methodological factors, in particular time vs. frequency domain response measures, correction for changes in respiration rate, use of pictures vs. film fragments, and sex of participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  9. Age-related differences during simple working memory decisions: ERP indices of early recognition and compensation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tays, William J; Dywan, Jane; Capuana, Lesley J; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2011-06-01

    Imaging data has identified frontal cortical activation in older adults during simple recognition tasks that relates positively with performance and could, therefore, be considered compensatory. However, in a previous electrophysiological study involving a Sternberg task with proactive interference manipulations, we observed a frontal positive scalp potential between 400 and 500 ms that was unique to older adults and predictive of poorer performance. These results led us to ask whether unique frontal activation in older adults serves a compensatory role only during relatively simple tasks when stimulus familiarity provides an unambiguous basis for response selection. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis by having younger and older adults complete a verbal Sternberg task without interference manipulations. In younger adults, we observed an early posterior negativity (90-120 ms) that predicted performance accuracy. Older adults failed to show this early negativity but did produce the expected frontal positivity. However, the frontal positivity was again associated with poorer performance. These data support the view that younger adults are able to bias early target discrimination to benefit response selection whereas older adults rely on later controlled processes that are not always effective in buffering against normative age-related decline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Analysis of Sulfur-35 as a Young Groundwater Tracer at E-Tunnel, Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinhart, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tompson, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-09

    Analysis of the relatively short-lived radionuclide sulfur-35 (t1/2 = 87 days) provides useful insight into groundwater discharge from E-Tunnel at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Discharge rates at E-Tunnel vary with precipitation, potentially as the result of short or fast flowpaths between recharge and discharge. The presence of sulfur-35 in groundwater would indicate a significant component of young (< 2-year-old) groundwater. We collected two large volume (20 L) samples of discharge water in November 2016. The samples were sent to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), where they were processed and analyzed by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). Sulfur-35 was not detected in either the sample or field duplicate, a finding consistent with E-Tunnel discharge containing no significant component of groundwater with age less than six months.

  11. [The influence of procaine electrophoresis and mesotherapy on the indices of body components and biochemical characteristics in the subjects above 30 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turova, E A; Konchugova, T V; Balaban, E I; Fadeeva, N I; Golovach, A V; Teniaeva, E A

    2013-01-01

    This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of a 2% procaine solution given with a view to improving metabolic parameters of aging, such as the body weight and composition along with the lipid profile in the patients varying in age from 30 years to 75 years. The study involved 95 patients treated with a 2% procaine solution that was administered by different methods (electrophoresis and mesotherapy) into several points of the collar region and upper back. The control group was comprised of the patients who received placebo by means of galvanization and mesotherapy. The results of the study indicate that the introduction of a 2% procaine solution in the treatment of metabolic disorders effectively improves selected metabolic characteristics of ageing and thereby helps to reduce the biological age in comparison with the control patients treated with placebo.

  12. Aging influences multiple indices of oxidative stress in the heart of the Fischer 344/NNia x Brown Norway/BiNia rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shinichi; Rice, Kevin M; Kakarla, Sunil; Katta, Anjaiah; Desai, Devashish H; Walker, Ernest M; Wehner, Paulette; Blough, Eric R

    2007-01-01

    We report the influence of aging on multiple markers of oxidative-nitrosative stress in the heart of adult (6-month), aged (30-month) and very aged (36-month) Fischer 344/NNiaHSd x Brown Norway/BiNia (F344/NXBN) rats. Compared to adult (6-month) hearts, indices of oxidative (superoxide anion [O2*-], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE]) and nitrosative (protein nitrotyrosylation) stress were 34.1 +/- 28.1%, 186 +/- 28.1% and 94 +/- 5.8% higher, respectively, in 36-month hearts and these findings were highly correlated with increases in left ventricular wall thickness (r > 0.669; r > 0.710 and P lead to age-associated alterations in cardiac oxidative stress.

  13. One-year measurements of chloroethenes in tree cores and groundwater at the SAP Mimoň Site, Northern Bohemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlingerova, Z; Machackova, J; Petruzelkova, A; Trapp, S; Vlk, K; Zima, J

    2013-02-01

    Chlorinated ethenes (CE) are among the most frequent contaminants of soil and groundwater in the Czech Republic. Because conventional methods of subsurface contamination investigation are costly and technically complicated, attention is directed on alternative and innovative field sampling methods. One promising method is sampling of tree cores (plugs of woody tissue extracted from a host tree). Volatile organic compounds can enter into the trunks and other tissues of trees through their root systems. An analysis of the tree core can thus serve as an indicator of the subsurface contamination. Four areas of interest were chosen at the experimental site with CE groundwater contamination and observed fluctuations in groundwater concentrations. CE concentrations in groundwater and tree cores were observed for a 1-year period. The aim was to determine how the CE concentrations in obtained tree core samples correlate with the level of contamination of groundwater. Other factors which can affect the transfer of contaminants from groundwater to wood were also monitored and evaluated (e.g., tree species and age, level of groundwater table, river flow in the nearby Ploučnice River, seasonal effects, and the effect of the remediation technology operation). Factors that may affect the concentration of CE in wood were identified. The groundwater table level, tree species, and the intensity of transpiration appeared to be the main factors within the framework of the experiment. Obtained values documented that the results of tree core analyses can be used to indicate the presence of CE in the subsurface. The results may also be helpful to identify the best sampling period for tree coring and to learn about the time it takes until tree core concentrations react to changes in groundwater conditions. Interval sampling of tree cores revealed possible preservation of the contaminant in the wood of trees.

  14. Assessing regional groundwater stress for nations using multiple data sources with the groundwater footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource for agricultural production, ecosystems, drinking water and industry, yet groundwater depletion is accelerating, especially in a number of agriculturally important regions. Assessing the stress of groundwater resources is crucial for science-based policy and management, yet water stress assessments have often neglected groundwater and used single data sources, which may underestimate the uncertainty of the assessment. We consistently analyze and interpret groundwater stress across whole nations using multiple data sources for the first time. We focus on two nations with the highest national groundwater abstraction rates in the world, the United States and India, and use the recently developed groundwater footprint and multiple datasets of groundwater recharge and withdrawal derived from hydrologic models and data synthesis. A minority of aquifers, mostly with known groundwater depletion, show groundwater stress regardless of the input dataset. The majority of aquifers are not stressed with any input data while less than a third are stressed for some input data. In both countries groundwater stress affects agriculturally important regions. In the United States, groundwater stress impacts a lower proportion of the national area and population, and is focused in regions with lower population and water well density compared to India. Importantly, the results indicate that the uncertainty is generally greater between datasets than within datasets and that much of the uncertainty is due to recharge estimates. Assessment of groundwater stress consistently across a nation and assessment of uncertainty using multiple datasets are critical for the development of a science-based rationale for policy and management, especially with regard to where and to what extent to focus limited research and management resources. (letter)

  15. Pleistocene paleo-groundwater as a pristine fresh water resource in southern Germany--evidence from stable and radiogenic isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Baier, Alfons; Subert, Hannah L; Kowol, Sigrid; Balk, Laura; Barth, Johannes A C

    2014-10-15

    Shallow groundwater aquifers are often influenced by anthropogenic contaminants or increased nutrient levels. In contrast, deeper aquifers hold potentially pristine paleo-waters that are not influenced by modern recharge. They thus represent important water resources, but their recharge history is often unknown. In this study groundwater from two aquifers in southern Germany were analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope compositions. One sampling campaign targeted the upper aquifer that is actively recharged by modern precipitation, whereas the second campaign sampled the confined, deep Benkersandstein aquifer. The groundwater samples from both aquifers were compared to the local meteoric water line to investigate sources and conditions of groundwater recharge. In addition, the deep groundwater was dated by tritium and radiocarbon analyses. Stable and radiogenic isotope data indicate that the deep-aquifer groundwater was not part of the hydrological water cycle in the recent human history. The results show that the groundwater is older than ~20,000 years and most likely originates from isotopically depleted melt waters of the Pleistocene ice age. Today, the use of this aquifer is strictly regulated to preserve the pristine water. Clear identification of such non-renewable paleo-waters by means of isotope geochemistry will help local water authorities to enact and justify measures for conservation of these valuable resources for future generations in the context of a sustainable water management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of schistosome infection on Plasmodium falciparum Malariometric indices and immune correlates in school age children in Burma Valley, Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison T Sangweme

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A group of children aged 6-17 years was recruited and followed up for 12 months to study the impact of schistosome infection on malaria parasite prevalence, density, distribution and anemia. Levels of cytokines, malaria specific antibodies in plasma and parasite growth inhibition capacities were assessed. Baseline results suggested an increased prevalence of malaria parasites in children co-infected with schistosomiasis (31% compared to children infected with malaria only (25% (p = 0.064. Moreover, children co-infected with schistosomes and malaria had higher sexual stage geometric mean malaria parasite density (189 gametocytes/µl than children infected with malaria only (73/µl gametocytes (p = 0.043. In addition, a larger percentage of co-infected children (57% had gametocytes as observed by microscopy compared to the malaria only infected children (36% (p = 0.06. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of the prevalence of anemia, which was approximately 64% in both groups (p = 0.9. Plasma from malaria-infected children exhibited higher malaria antibody activity compared to the controls (p = 0.001 but was not different between malaria and schistosome plus malaria infected groups (p = 0.44 and malaria parasite growth inhibition activity at baseline was higher in the malaria-only infected group of children than in the co-infected group though not reaching statistical significance (p = 0.5. Higher prevalence and higher mean gametocyte density in the peripheral blood may have implications in malaria transmission dynamics during co-infection with helminths.

  17. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  18. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  19. Assessment of groundwater management at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the groundwater management and environmental monitoring programs at the Hanford reservation was initiated in 1973. A large number of recommendations made as a result of this review are summarized. The purpose of the Hanford Hydrology Program is to maintain a groundwater surveillance network to assess contamination of the natural water system. Potential groundwater contamination is primarily a function of waste management decisions. The review revealed that although the hydrology program would greatly benefit from additional improvements, it is adequate to predict levels of contaminants present in the groundwater system. Studies are presently underway to refine advanced mathematical models to use results of the hydrologic investigation in forecasting the response of the system to different long-term management decisions. No information was found which indicates that a hazard through the groundwater pathway presently exists as a result of waste operations at Hanford. (CH)

  20. Groundwater sustainability and groundwater/surface-water interaction in arid Dunhuang Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingjing; Ma, Rui; Hu, Yalu; Sun, Ziyong; Wang, Yanxin; McCarter, Colin P. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Dunhuang Basin, a typical inland basin in northwestern China, suffers a net loss of groundwater and the occasional disappearance of the Crescent Lake. Within this region, the groundwater/surface-water interactions are important for the sustainability of the groundwater resources. A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was established and calibrated using MODFLOW 2000, which was used to predict changes to these interactions once a water diversion project is completed. The simulated results indicate that introducing water from outside of the basin into the Shule and Danghe rivers could reverse the negative groundwater balance in the Basin. River-water/groundwater interactions control the groundwater hydrology, where river leakage to the groundwater in the Basin will increase from 3,114 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 11,875 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 17,039 × 104 m3/year in 2036. In comparison, groundwater discharge to the rivers will decrease from 3277 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 1857 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 510 × 104 m3/year by 2036; thus, the hydrology will switch from groundwater discharge to groundwater recharge after implementing the water diversion project. The simulation indicates that the increased net river infiltration due to the water diversion project will raise the water table and then effectively increasing the water level of the Crescent Lake, as the lake level is contiguous with the water table. However, the regional phreatic evaporation will be enhanced, which may intensify soil salinization in the Dunhuang Basin. These results can guide the water allocation scheme for the water diversion project to alleviate groundwater depletion and mitigate geo-environmental problem.

  1. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability mapping is a practical tool to implement strategies for land-use planning and sustainable socioeconomic development coherent with groundwater protection. The objective of vulnerability mapping is to identify the most vulnerable zones of catchment areas and to provide criteria for protecting the groundwater used for drinking water supply. The delineation of protection zones in fractured aquifers is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities, which makes difficult prediction of groundwater flow organization and flow velocities. Different methods of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability mapping were applied in the Atemajac-Toluquilla groundwater body, an aquifers system that covers around 1300 km2. The aquifer supplies the 30% of urban water resources of the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (Mexico), where over 4.6 million people reside. Study area is located in a complex neotectonic active volcanic region in the Santiago River Basin (Western Mexico), which influences the aquifer system underneath the city. Previous works have defined the flow dynamics and identified the origin of recharge. In addition, the mixture of fresh groundwater with hydrothermal and polluted waters have been estimated. Two main aquifers compose the multilayer system. The upper aquifer is unconfined and consists of sediments and pyroclastic materials. Recharge of this aquifer comes from rainwater and ascending vertical fluids from the lower aquifer. The lower aquifer consists of fractured basalts of Pliocene age. Formerly, the main water source has been the upper unit, which is a porous and unconsolidated unit, which acts as a semi-isotropic aquifer. Intense groundwater usage has resulted in lowering the water table in the upper aquifer. Therefore, the current groundwater extraction is carried out from the deeper aquifer and underlying bedrock units, where fracture flow predominates. Pollution indicators have been reported in

  2. Use of human nails as bio-indicators of heavy metals environmental exposure among school age children in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein Were, Faridah; Njue, Wilson; Murungi, Jane; Wanjau, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Metal pollution and its health effects present a challenge currently facing the developing countries. Metal poisoning is usually difficult and expensive to assess or screen in these countries due to limited resources, which means that policies, guidelines, regulations and institutional managements are limited. Hair and nail as biopsy materials were suggested as more attractive biomarkers in assessing heavy metals environmental exposure. This paper deals with quantitative determination of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) in fingernails of children (n = 200) in urban and rural areas using atomic absorption spectrometry. Factors that were suspected to influence the accumulation of Pb and Cd in children were obtained through a questionnaire. The mean levels of heavy metals in children in urban areas were found to be higher (27.5 ± 1.8 μg/g Pb and 0.73 ± 0.08 μg/g Cd) than in rural areas (19.7 ± 0.9 μg/g Pb and 0.44 ± 0.06 μg/g Cd). The difference was significant (P 0.05), suggesting a common source of contaminants in the areas. The correlation results also indicated that a high level of Pb in the nail influenced negatively Zn and Fe but not Ca levels (R = - 0.256 Zn; - 0.188 Fe) while high levels of Cd had a negative relationship with Fe only (R = - 0.241). The association of toxic metals in the nails of children with environmental exposure, and nutritional status implies that policies and actions to reduce heavy metal levels must be implemented and reinforced to address the health issues affecting children and by extension the general public in this country

  3. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  4. Environmental isotope and hydrochemical investigation of Bauru and Botucatu groundwaters, Parana basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmelmann, A.

    1991-06-01

    A combined hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope investigation is being carried out in the Bauru- and Botucatu groundwaters. Based on former isotope data, the 2 H/ 18 O-, 3 H-, 13 C-, 14 C- and 3 He/ 4 He-contents of representative groundwaters out from the Bauru- and Botucatu-aquifer are now investigated to reveal a possible interaction of the groundwater systems and to correlate 14 C-groundwater residence times with groundwater ages derived from other isotope methods. (author)

  5. Pleistocene paleo-groundwater as a pristine fresh water resource in southern Germany – evidence from stable and radiogenic isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldern, Robert van; Baier, Alfons; Subert, Hannah L.; Kowol, Sigrid; Balk, Laura; Barth, Johannes A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Shallow groundwater aquifers are often influenced by anthropogenic contaminants or increased nutrient levels. In contrast, deeper aquifers hold potentially pristine paleo-waters that are not influenced by modern recharge. They thus represent important water resources, but their recharge history is often unknown. In this study groundwater from two aquifers in southern Germany were analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope compositions. One sampling campaign targeted the upper aquifer that is actively recharged by modern precipitation, whereas the second campaign sampled the confined, deep Benkersandstein aquifer. The groundwater samples from both aquifers were compared to the local meteoric water line to investigate sources and conditions of groundwater recharge. In addition, the deep groundwater was dated by tritium and radiocarbon analyses. Stable and radiogenic isotope data indicate that the deep-aquifer groundwater was not part of the hydrological water cycle in the recent human history. The results show that the groundwater is older than ∼20,000 years and most likely originates from isotopically depleted melt waters of the Pleistocene ice age. Today, the use of this aquifer is strictly regulated to preserve the pristine water. Clear identification of such non-renewable paleo-waters by means of isotope geochemistry will help local water authorities to enact and justify measures for conservation of these valuable resources for future generations in the context of a sustainable water management. - Highlights: • Groundwater from deep aquifer identified as paleo-water with age over 20,000 years. • Low stable isotope values indicate recharge during Pleistocene. • Shallow aquifer mirrors stable isotope signature of average modern precipitation. • Identification of non-renewable paleo-waters enhance sustainable water management. • Strict protection measures of authorities justified by isotope geochemistry

  6. Pleistocene paleo-groundwater as a pristine fresh water resource in southern Germany – evidence from stable and radiogenic isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldern, Robert van, E-mail: robert.van.geldern@fau.de [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Baier, Alfons; Subert, Hannah L. [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Kowol, Sigrid [Erlanger Stadtwerke AG, Äußere Brucker Str. 33, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Balk, Laura; Barth, Johannes A.C. [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Shallow groundwater aquifers are often influenced by anthropogenic contaminants or increased nutrient levels. In contrast, deeper aquifers hold potentially pristine paleo-waters that are not influenced by modern recharge. They thus represent important water resources, but their recharge history is often unknown. In this study groundwater from two aquifers in southern Germany were analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope compositions. One sampling campaign targeted the upper aquifer that is actively recharged by modern precipitation, whereas the second campaign sampled the confined, deep Benkersandstein aquifer. The groundwater samples from both aquifers were compared to the local meteoric water line to investigate sources and conditions of groundwater recharge. In addition, the deep groundwater was dated by tritium and radiocarbon analyses. Stable and radiogenic isotope data indicate that the deep-aquifer groundwater was not part of the hydrological water cycle in the recent human history. The results show that the groundwater is older than ∼20,000 years and most likely originates from isotopically depleted melt waters of the Pleistocene ice age. Today, the use of this aquifer is strictly regulated to preserve the pristine water. Clear identification of such non-renewable paleo-waters by means of isotope geochemistry will help local water authorities to enact and justify measures for conservation of these valuable resources for future generations in the context of a sustainable water management. - Highlights: • Groundwater from deep aquifer identified as paleo-water with age over 20,000 years. • Low stable isotope values indicate recharge during Pleistocene. • Shallow aquifer mirrors stable isotope signature of average modern precipitation. • Identification of non-renewable paleo-waters enhance sustainable water management. • Strict protection measures of authorities justified by isotope geochemistry.

  7. Iris colour as an indicator of age feature in female Brazilian tanagers (Passeriformes: Emberizidae confirmed by a molecular sexing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Monnerat Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian tanager, Ramphocelus bresilius is an endemic species from Brazil that is sexually dimorphic in adult plumage. Young males are similar to adult and young females until their second year. Adults and young females are not distinguishable in plumage. We tested whether iris colour can be used to separate adult females from immature females. We used for the first time the molecular sexing technique based on CHD-genes to confirm the sex of the individuals classified as "female plumage with red iris", and to identify the sex of individuals classified as "female plumage and brown iris". The adult males were used as a positive control. DNA samples from 190 individuals were analysed. The sizes of the PCR products were identified as 350 base pairs (bp for CHD-Z and 388 bp for CHD-W. We confirmed that adult females have a red iris and the young females a brown iris. We could also separate young males and females which present the same iris colour and plumage. Although there are indications that the iris colour can be used by birds to identify the adults in co-operative breeding species such as the Brazilian tanager, more behavioural data are required to understand the role of iris coloration in this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1629-1633. Epub 2008 December 12.El ave Ramphocelus bresilius es una especie endémica de Brasil con dimorfismo sexual en el plumaje del adulto. Los machos jóvenes son similares a las hembras adultas y jóvenes hasta el segundo año de vida. Adultos y hembras jóvenes son indistinguibles por el plumaje. Evaluamos si el color del iris puede ser utilizado para distinguir hembras adultas de hembras inmaduras. Utilizamos por primera vez la técnica molecular de identificación de sexos basada en los genes CHD para confirmar el género de individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino con iris rojo, y para identificar el sexo de los individuos clasificados como plumaje femenino e iris marrón. Usamos machos adultos como

  8. Ecology and living conditions of groundwater fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thulin, Barbara; Hahn, Hans Juergen

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the current state of ecological knowledge and applied research relating to groundwater. A conceptual picture is given of groundwater fauna occurrence in regard to Swedish environmental conditions. Interpretation features for groundwater fauna and applications are outlined. Groundwater is one of the largest and oldest limnic habitats populated by a rich and diverse fauna. Both very old species and species occurring naturally in brackish or salt water can be found in groundwater. Groundwater ecosystems are heterotrophic; the fauna depends on imports from the surface. Most species are meiofauna, 0.3-1 mm. The food chain of groundwater fauna is the same as for relatives in surface water and salt water. Smaller animals graze biofilms and detritus, larger animals act facutatively as predators. A difference is that stygobiotic fauna has become highly adapted to its living space and tolerates very long periods without food. Oxygen is a limiting factor, but groundwater fauna tolerates periods with low oxygen concentrations, even anoxic conditions. For longer periods of time a minimum oxygen requirement of 1 mg/l should be fulfilled. Geographic features such as Quaternary glaciation and very old Pliocene river systems are important for distribution patterns on a large spatial scale, but aquifer characteristics are important on a landscape scale. Area diversity is often comparable to surface water diversity. However, site diversity is low in groundwater. Site specific hydrological exchange on a geological facies level inside the aquifer, e.g. porous, fractured and karstic aquifers as well as the hyporheic zone, controls distribution patterns of groundwater fauna. For a better understanding of controlling factors indicator values are suggested. Different adequate sampling methods are available. They are representative for the aquifer, but a suitable number of monitoring wells is required. The existence of groundwater fauna in Sweden is considered as very

  9. Ecology and living conditions of groundwater fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thulin, Barbara [Geo Innova AB (Sweden); Hahn, Hans Juergen [Arbeitsgruppe Grundwasseroekologie, Univ. of Koblenz-Landau (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    This report presents the current state of ecological knowledge and applied research relating to groundwater. A conceptual picture is given of groundwater fauna occurrence in regard to Swedish environmental conditions. Interpretation features for groundwater fauna and applications are outlined. Groundwater is one of the largest and oldest limnic habitats populated by a rich and diverse fauna. Both very old species and species occurring naturally in brackish or salt water can be found in groundwater. Groundwater ecosystems are heterotrophic; the fauna depends on imports from the surface. Most species are meiofauna, 0.3-1 mm. The food chain of groundwater fauna is the same as for relatives in surface water and salt water. Smaller animals graze biofilms and detritus, larger animals act facutatively as predators. A difference is that stygobiotic fauna has become highly adapted to its living space and tolerates very long periods without food. Oxygen is a limiting factor, but groundwater fauna tolerates periods with low oxygen concentrations, even anoxic conditions. For longer periods of time a minimum oxygen requirement of 1 mg/l should be fulfilled. Geographic features such as Quaternary glaciation and very old Pliocene river systems are important for distribution patterns on a large spatial scale, but aquifer characteristics are important on a landscape scale. Area diversity is often comparable to surface water diversity. However, site diversity is low in groundwater. Site specific hydrological exchange on a geological facies level inside the aquifer, e.g. porous, fractured and karstic aquifers as well as the hyporheic zone, controls distribution patterns of groundwater fauna. For a better understanding of controlling factors indicator values are suggested. Different adequate sampling methods are available. They are representative for the aquifer, but a suitable number of monitoring wells is required. The existence of groundwater fauna in Sweden is considered as very

  10. Assessment and uncertainty analysis of groundwater risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fawen; Zhu, Jingzhao; Deng, Xiyuan; Zhao, Yong; Li, Shaofei

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater with relatively stable quantity and quality is commonly used by human being. However, as the over-mining of groundwater, problems such as groundwater funnel, land subsidence and salt water intrusion have emerged. In order to avoid further deterioration of hydrogeological problems in over-mining regions, it is necessary to conduct the assessment of groundwater risk. In this paper, risks of shallow and deep groundwater in the water intake area of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Tianjin, China, were evaluated. Firstly, two sets of four-level evaluation index system were constructed based on the different characteristics of shallow and deep groundwater. Secondly, based on the normalized factor values and the synthetic weights, the risk values of shallow and deep groundwater were calculated. Lastly, the uncertainty of groundwater risk assessment was analyzed by indicator kriging method. The results meet the decision maker's demand for risk information, and overcome previous risk assessment results expressed in the form of deterministic point estimations, which ignore the uncertainty of risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Are gestational age, birth weight, and birth length indicators of favorable fetal growth conditions? A structural equation analysis of Filipino infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Noble, Mark D; Adair, Linda S

    2013-07-30

    The fetal origins hypothesis emphasizes the life-long health impacts of prenatal conditions. Birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are indicators of the fetal environment. However, these variables often have missing data and are subject to random and systematic errors caused by delays in measurement, differences in measurement instruments, and human error. With data from the Cebu (Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, we use structural equation models, to explore random and systematic errors in these birth outcome measures, to analyze how maternal characteristics relate to birth outcomes, and to take account of missing data. We assess whether birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are influenced by a single latent variable that we call favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) and if so, which variable is most closely related to FFGC. We find that a model with FFGC as a latent variable fits as well as a less parsimonious model that has birth weight, birth length, and gestational age as distinct individual variables. We also demonstrate that birth weight is more reliably measured than is gestational age. FFGCs were significantly influenced by taller maternal stature, better nutritional stores indexed by maternal arm fat and muscle area during pregnancy, higher birth order, avoidance of smoking, and maternal age 20-35 years. Effects of maternal characteristics on newborn weight, length, and gestational age were largely indirect, operating through FFGC. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Groundwater Discharges to Rivers in the Western Canadian Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J.; Jasechko, S.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater discharges into rivers impacts the movement and fate of nutrients and contaminants in the environment. Understanding groundwater-surface water interactions is especially important in the western Canadian oil sands, where groundwater contamination risks are elevated and baseline water chemistry data is lacking, leading to substantial uncertainties about anthropogenic influences on local river quality. High salinity groundwater springs sourced from deep aquifers, comprised of Pleistocene-aged glacial meltwater, are known to discharge into many rivers in the oil sands. Understanding connections between deep aquifers and surficial waterways is important in order to determine natural inputs into these rivers and to assess the potential for injected wastewater or oil extraction fluids to enter surface waters. While these springs have been identified, their spatial distribution along rivers has not been fully characterized. Here we present river chemistry data collected along a number of major river corridors in the Canadian oil sands region. We show that saline groundwater springs vary spatially along the course of these rivers and tend to be concentrated where the rivers incise Devonian- or Cretaceous-aged aquifers along an evaporite dissolution front. Our results suggest that water sourced from Devonian aquifers may travel through bitumen-bearing Cretaceous units and discharge into local rivers, implying a strong groundwater-surface water connection in specialized locations. These findings indicate that oil sands process-affected waters that are injected at depth have the potential to move through these aquifers and reach the rivers at the surface at some time in the future. Groundwater-surface water interactions remain key to understanding the risks oil sands activities pose to aquatic ecosystems and downstream communities.

  13. Geochemistry and isotope hydrology of groundwaters in the Stripa Granite: results and preliminary interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, P.; Barker, J.F.; Gale, J.E.

    1979-04-01

    The results of geochemical and isotopic analyses on water samples from the granite at Stripa, Sweden, are presented. Groundwater samples collected from shallow, private wells; surface boreholes; and boreholes drilled from the 330 m and 410 m mine levels were analyzed for their major ion chemistry, dissolved gases, and environmental isotope contents. The principal change in the chemical load with depth is typified by chloride concentration, which increases from less than 5 mg/liter to about 300 mg/liter. There is a parallel increase in pH, which changes from about 6.5 to over 9.75. It is important to notice that calcite saturation is maintained and that, because of rising pH, dissolved inorganic carbon is lost. The total carbonate content thus decreases from about 70 mg/liter to less than 7 mg/liter. The 18 O and deuterium analyses demonstrate that different fracture systems contain different water masses, whose age increases with depth. Groundwater age determinations with 14 C and isotopes of the uranium decay series strongly indicate that water ages exceed 25,000 years. The 13 C contents of the aqueous carbonate in these groundwaters indicate groundwater recharge through vegetated soil, presumably during an interglacial period. The 13 C and 18 O determinations show that most fracture calcites have formed in a wide variety of depositional environments, and not in the waters circulating today

  14. Application of δ18O, δD, 3H-3He and CFCs to characterize the nitrate contamination of groundwater in Eumsung, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Y. J.; Kaown, D.; Hahm, D.; Kim, I.; Lee, S. S.; Koh, E. H.; Kim, M.; Yoon, Y. Y.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    We measured the major ions, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, 3H-3He and CFCs concentration in groundwater to identify the characteristics of nitrate contamination and to understand the groundwater recharge patterns. In this study, 17 groundwater samples were collected for 5days (from March 3rd to 7th, 2015) in Eumseong, Korea. In the study area, NO3- concentrations in some groundwater samples (16 of 17) ranged from 5.7 to 103.7 mg/L (avg. 43.3 mg/L), which were substantially higher than the drinking water quality standard (10 mg/L). These excess NO3- inputs in groundwater seem to be originated from the agricultural use of chemical fertilizers because major ions associated with fertilizers were significantly correlated with NO3-. It seems that major groundwater recharge event during monsoon season is highly probable from the analysis of δ18O and δD. The apparent groundwater age using 3H-3He and CFCs varies from 5 to 40 yrs although the study area is small (1 km2). For the samples showed large deficiency of 3He, the sensitivity analysis was performed using NOBLE 90 in an effort to quantify the degassed amount. Since nitrate sources are quite evenly distributed through the field site, groundwater ages from shallow aquifer is inversely correlated with the nitrate concentrations. Our result implies that the 3H-3He ratio can be a useful indicator of tracing the recharge pattern of groundwater but also the nitrate loading characteristic in a small scale agricultural area. Acknowlegments: Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003) and the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+)" in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  15. Indicators of age, body size and sex in goat kid calls revealed using the source-filter theory. 133, 175-185.

    OpenAIRE

    Briefer E McElligott EG

    2011-01-01

    The source–filter theory is an important framework recently applied to the study of animal vocalisations which links the mode of vocal production to call parameters. Vocalisations can be good indicators of a sender’s characteristics such as identity body size age and even hormonal status and affective states. For these reasons applied vocal communication research would greatly benefit from adopting the source–filter theory approach to identify key call parameters linked to physical and physio...

  16. Are Gestational Age, Birth Weight, and Birth Length Indicators of Favorable Fetal Growth Conditions? A Structural Equation Analysis of Filipino Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Noble, Mark D.; Adair, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    The fetal origin hypothesis emphasizes the life-long health impacts of prenatal conditions. Birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are indicators of the fetal environment. However, these variables often have missing data and are subject to random and systematic errors caused by delays in measurement, differences in measurement instruments, and human error. With data from the Cebu (Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, we use structural equation models (SEMs), to expl...

  17. Relationship between sensorimotor peripheral nerve function and indicators of cardiovascular autonomic function in older adults from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Maia, Brittney S; Newman, Anne B; Jakicic, John M; Cauley, Jane A; Boudreau, Robert M; Schwartz, Ann V; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Vinik, Aaron I; Zivkovic, Sasa; Harris, Tamara B; Strotmeyer, Elsa S

    2017-10-01

    Age-related peripheral nervous system (PNS) impairments are highly prevalent in older adults. Although sensorimotor and cardiovascular autonomic function have been shown to be related in persons with diabetes, the nature of the relationship in general community-dwelling older adult populations is unknown. Health, Aging and Body Composition participants (n=2399, age=76.5±2.9years, 52% women, 38% black) underwent peripheral nerve testing at the 2000/01 clinic visit. Nerve conduction amplitude and velocity were measured at the peroneal motor nerve. Sensory nerve function was assessed with vibration detection threshold and monofilament (1.4-g/10-g) testing at the big toe. Symptoms of lower-extremity peripheral neuropathy were collected by self-report. Cardiovascular autonomic function indicators included postural hypotension, resting heart rate (HR), as well as HR response to and recovery from submaximal exercise testing (400m walk). Multivariable modeling adjusted for demographic/lifestyle factors, medication use and comorbid conditions. In fully adjusted models, poor motor nerve conduction velocity (function or symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and indicators of cardiovascular autonomic function. Motor nerve function and indicators of cardiovascular autonomic function remained significantly related even after considering many potentially shared risk factors. Future studies should investigate common underlying processes for developing multiple PNS impairments in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DOE groundwater protection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, S.

    1988-01-01

    EH is developing a DOE-wide Groundwater Quality Protection Strategy to express DOE's commitment to the protection of groundwater quality at or near its facilities. This strategy responds to a September 1986 recommendation of the General Accounting Office. It builds on EPA's August 1984 Ground-Water Protection Strategy, which establishes a classification system designed to protect groundwater according to its value and vulnerability. The purposes of DOE's strategy are to highlight groundwater protection as part of current DOE programs and future Departmental planning, to guide DOE managers in developing site-specific groundwater protection practices where DOE has discretion, and to guide DOE's approach to negotiations with EPA/states where regulatory processes apply to groundwater protection at Departmental facilities. The strategy calls for the prevention of groundwater contamination and the cleanup of groundwater commensurate with its usefulness. It would require long-term groundwater protection with reliance on physical rather than institutional control methods. The strategy provides guidance on providing long-term protection of groundwater resources; standards for new remedial actions;guidance on establishing points of compliance; requirements for establishing classification review area; and general guidance on obtaining variances, where applicable, from regulatory requirements. It also outlines management tools to implement this strategy

  19. Groundwater evolution of the granite area, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.; Bae, D.S.; Koh, Y.K.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The geochemistry and environmental isotopes of groundwater in the Cretaceous granite of the Yeongcheon area has been investigated. The hydrochemistry of groundwater belongs to the Ca-HCO 3 type. The oxygen-18 and deuterium data are clustered along the meteoric water line, indicating that the groundwater is of meteoric water origin. Tritium data show that the groundwaters were mostly recharged before pre-thermonuclear period and have been mixed with younger surface water flowing rapidly along fractured zones. Based on the mass balance and reaction simulation approaches using both the hydrochemistry of groundwater and the secondary mineralogy of fracture-filling materials, the low-temperature hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in the area has been modeled. The results of geochemical simulation show that the concentrations of Ca, Na and HCO 3 and pH of waters increase progressively owing to the dissolution of reactive minerals in flow paths. The concentrations of Mg and K first increase with the dissolution of reactant minerals, but later decrease when montmorillonite and illitic material are precipitated respectively. The continuous adding of reactive minerals, i. e. the progressively larger degrees of water/rock interaction, causes the formation of secondary minerals with the following sequence: hematite > gibbsite > kaolinite > montmorillonite > illitic material > microcline. The results of reaction simulation agree well with the observed water chemistry and secondary mineralogy, indicating the successful applicability of this simulation technique to delineate the complex hydrogeochemistry of bedrock groundwaters. (author)

  20. Groundwater Molybdenum from Emerging Industries in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Min; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the influence of emerging industries development on molybdenum (Mo) groundwater contamination. A total of 537 groundwater samples were collected for Mo determination, including 295 samples from potentially contaminated areas of 3 industrial parks in Taiwan and 242 samples from non-potentially contaminated areas during 2008-2014. Most of the high Mo samples are located downstream from a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel factory. Mean groundwater Mo concentrations from potentially contaminated areas (0.0058 mg/L) were significantly higher (p industry and following wastewater batch treatment were 0.788 and 0.0326 mg/L, respectively. This indicates that wastewater containing Mo is a possible source of both groundwater and surface water contamination. Nine samples of groundwater exceed the World Health Organization's suggested drinking water guideline of 0.07 mg/L. A non-carcinogenic risk assessment for Mo in adults and children using the Mo concentration of 0.07 mg/L yielded risks of 0.546 and 0.215, respectively. These results indicate the importance of the development of a national drinking water quality standard for Mo in Taiwan to ensure safe groundwater for use. According to the human health risk calculation, the groundwater Mo standard is suggested as 0.07 mg/L. Reduction the discharge of Mo-contaminated wastewater from factories in the industrial parks is also the important task in the future.

  1. Inverse modeling and uncertainty analysis of potential groundwater recharge to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Markus; Houben, Georg; Lohe, Christoph; Quinger, Martin; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The identification of potential recharge areas and estimation of recharge rates to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer (KOH-2) is crucial for its future sustainable use. The KOH-2 is located within the endorheic transboundary Cuvelai-Etosha-Basin (CEB), shared by Angola and Namibia. The main objective was the development of a strategy to tackle the problem of data scarcity, which is a well-known problem in semi-arid regions. In a first step, conceptual geological cross sections were created to illustrate the possible geological setting of the system. Furthermore, groundwater travel times were estimated by simple hydraulic calculations. A two-dimensional numerical groundwater model was set up to analyze flow patterns and potential recharge zones. The model was optimized against local observations of hydraulic heads and groundwater age. The sensitivity of the model against different boundary conditions and internal structures was tested. Parameter uncertainty and recharge rates were estimated. Results indicate that groundwater recharge to the KOH-2 mainly occurs from the Angolan Highlands in the northeastern part of the CEB. The sensitivity of the groundwater model to different internal structures is relatively small in comparison to changing boundary conditions in the form of influent or effluent streams. Uncertainty analysis underlined previous results, indicating groundwater recharge originating from the Angolan Highlands. The estimated recharge rates are less than 1% of mean yearly precipitation, which are reasonable for semi-arid regions.

  2. Earthworm bioassays and seedling emergence for monitoring toxicity, aging and bioaccumulation of anthropogenic waste indicator compounds in biosolids-amended soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Chad A.; Campbell, Bryan R.; Thompson, Regina; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Hay, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Land application of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) can be an important route for introducing xenobiotic compounds into terrestrial environments. There is a paucity of available information on the effects of biosolids amendment on terrestrial organisms. In this study, the influence of biosolids and biosolids aging on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and survival and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to soils amended with varying quantities of biosolids (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% dry mass). To investigate the influence of biosolids aging, the biosolids used in the study were aged for differing lengths of time (2 or 8 weeks) prior to exposure. All of the adult earthworms survived in the biosolids–amended soils at all concentrations that were aged for 2 weeks; however, only 20% of the adults survived in the soil amended with the highest concentration of biosolids and aged for 8 weeks. Reproduction as measured by mean number of juveniles and unhatched cocoons produced per treatment correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, although the effects were generally more pronounced in the 8-week aged biosolids–soil samples. Latent seedling emergence and reduced seedling fitness correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, but these effects were tempered in the 8-week aged versus the 2-week aged soil–biosolids mixtures. Anthropogenic waste indicator compounds (AWIs) were measured in the biosolids, biosolids–soil mixtures, and earthworm samples. Where possible, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated or estimated. A wide variety of AWIs were detected in the biosolids (51 AWIs) and earthworm samples (≤ 19 AWI). The earthworms exposed to the 8-week aged biosolids–soil mixtures tended to accumulate greater quantities of AWIs compared to the 2-week aged mixture, suggesting that the bioavailability of some AWIs was enhanced with aging. The BAFs for a given AWI varied with treatment. Notably large

  3. The Wechsler Digit Symbol Substitution Test as the best indicator of the risk of impaired driving in Alzheimer disease and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Sylviane; Marin-Lamellet, Claude; Paire-Ficout, Laurence; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Laurent, Bernard; Fabrigoule, Colette

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to identify cognitive tools associated with unsafe driving among elderly drivers of varying cognitive levels. Twenty drivers with early-stage dementia of the Alzheimer type and 56 nondemented drivers aged 65-85 were recruited. Various cognitive processes were measured and unsafe driving was evaluated during an in-traffic road test with 3 different indicators and a composite indicator. The Wechsler Digit Symbol Substitution Test score was the best cognitive measure to detect unsafe drivers using the composite driving indicator. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test may be used by physicians for the evaluation and follow-up of older patients, with or without Alzheimer-type dementia, as a screening tool of unsafe driving.

  4. A multi-tracer approach to delineate groundwater dynamics in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Quezadas, Juan; Heilweil, Victor M.; Cortés Silva, Alejandra; Araguas, Luis; Salas Ortega, María del Rocío

    2016-12-01

    Geochemistry and environmental tracers were used to understand groundwater resources, recharge processes, and potential sources of contamination in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico. Total dissolved solids are lower in wells and springs located in the basin uplands compared with those closer to the coast, likely associated with rock/water interaction. Geochemical results also indicate some saltwater intrusion near the coast and increased nitrate near urban centers. Stable isotopes show that precipitation is the source of recharge to the groundwater system. Interestingly, some high-elevation springs are more isotopically enriched than average annual precipitation at higher elevations, indicating preferential recharge during the drier but cooler winter months when evapotranspiration is reduced. In contrast, groundwater below 1,200 m elevation is more isotopically depleted than average precipitation, indicating recharge occurring at much higher elevation than the sampling site. Relatively cool recharge temperatures, derived from noble gas measurements at four sites (11-20 °C), also suggest higher elevation recharge. Environmental tracers indicate that groundwater residence time in the basin ranges from 12,000 years to modern. While this large range shows varying groundwater flowpaths and travel times, ages using different tracer methods (14C, 3H/3He, CFCs) were generally consistent. Comparing multiple tracers such as CFC-12 with CFC-113 indicates piston-flow to some discharge points, yet binary mixing of young and older groundwater at other points. In summary, groundwater within the Rio Actopan Basin watershed is relatively young (Holocene) and the majority of recharge occurs in the basin uplands and moves towards the coast.

  5. The association between Act-Belong-Commit indicators and problem drinking among older Irish adults: Findings from a prospective analysis of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Nielsen, Line; Hinrichsen, Carsten; Tolstrup, Janne S; Vinther, Johan L; Koyanagi, Ai; Donovan, Robert J; Koushede, Vibeke

    2017-11-01

    The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program to promote mental health. However, its potential for preventing substance use disorders is unknown. Further, a literature gap is evident concerning behavioral modification strategies to prevent such disorders. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and the development of problem drinking. Data from two waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The sample consisted of 3950 adults aged ≥50years. A validated scale for problem drinking was used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used as an indicator of Act, social network integration as an indicator of Belong, and frequency of participation in these social/recreational activities as an indicator of Commit. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between baseline indicators of Act-Belong-Commit and the development of problem drinking at two-year follow-up. Each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted the onset of problem drinking. Similarly, being well integrated into social networks (Belong) was negatively associated with the development of problem drinking. Finally, frequency of participation in social/recreational activities (Commit) also inversely predicted the onset of problem drinking. These associations were apparent regardless of the presence of baseline common mental disorders. Act-Belong-Commit indicators are shown to be associated with a reduced risk for problem drinking. This lends further support to the Act-Belong-Commit domains and has wide-ranging implications for preventing substance use disorders in the aging community. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Isotope and chemical tracers in groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, C.; Stewart, M.K.; Morgenstern, U.; Trompetter, V.

    1999-01-01

    The course sessions cover: session 1, Fundamentals of stable and radioactive isotopes; session 2, Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in hydrology: background, examples, sampling strategy; session 3, Catchment studies using oxygen and hydrogen isotopes: background - the hydrologic water balance, evapotranspiration - the lion's share, runoff generation - new water/old water fractions, groundwater recharge - the crumbs; session 4, Isotopes in catchment hydrology: survey of applications, future developments; session 5, Applications of tritium in hydrology: background and measurement, interpretation, examples; session 6, Case studies using mixing models: Hutt Valley groundwater system, an extended mixing model for simulating tracer transport in the unsaturated zone; session 7, Groundwater dating using CFC concentrations: background, sampling and measurement, use and applications; session 8, Groundwater dating with carbon-14: background, sampling and measurement, use and applications; session 9, NZ case studies: Tauranga warm springs, North Canterbury Plains groundwater; session 10, Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes: background and examples, biological applications of C-N-S isotopes; session 11, New developments in isotope hydrology: gas isotopes, compound specific applications, age dating of sediments etc; session 12, NZ case studies: North Canterbury Plains groundwater (continued), Waimea Plains groundwater. (author). refs., figs

  7. Adoption of the WHO Child Growth Standards to classify Indonesian children under 2 years of age according to nutrition status: stronger indication for nutritional intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Madarina

    2009-09-01

    The National Center for Health Statistics/World Health Organization (NCHS/WHO) reference is considered unsuitable for assessing the nutritional status of breastfed children. It is gradually being replaced by the WHO Child Growth Standards in many countries. To assess the implications of adopting the WHO Child Growth Standards to classify Indonesian children according to nutrition status. Data were obtained from two cross-sectional surveys in two districts in Indonesia in 1998. Children under 2 years of age were randomly selected using a two-stage cluster sampling. Z-scores of weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-age (WAZ) were calculated based on both the NCHS/WHO reference and the WHO Child Growth Standards. Wasting, stunting, and underweight were defined as z-scores less than -2.0. We included 1,374 children, of whom 693 (50.4%) were male and 681 (49.6%) were female. Almost all of the children had initiated breastfeeding and were still being breastfed when the data were collected. According to the WHO Child Growth Standards, the prevalence of wasting did not change with age, but the prevalence rates of stunting and underweight rose steadily with age. Although the contribution of wasting to the classification of underweight was relatively constant, the contribution of stunting increased as the children grew. The WHO Child Growth Standards are a better tool for assessing the nutritional status of Indonesian children than the NCHS/WHO reference. However, low WAZ is not a suitable indicator for commencing an extra feeding program, because it reflects stunting instead of wasting. The high prevalence of stunting indicates the need to perform preventive nutritional intervention beginning earlier in life, i.e., in utero.

  8. Nitrate in groundwater of the United States, 1991-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Rupert, Michael G.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the United States indicates that concentrations are highest in shallow, oxic groundwater beneath areas with high N inputs. During 1991-2003, 5101 wells were sampled in 51 study areas throughout the U.S. as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The well networks reflect the existing used resource represented by domestic wells in major aquifers (major aquifer studies), and recently recharged groundwater beneath dominant land-surface activities (land-use studies). Nitrate concentrations were highest in shallow groundwater beneath agricultural land use in areas with well-drained soils and oxic geochemical conditions. Nitrate concentrations were lowest in deep groundwater where groundwater is reduced, or where groundwater is older and hence concentrations reflect historically low N application rates. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to identify the relative importance of N inputs, biogeochemical processes, and physical aquifer properties in explaining nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Factors ranked by reduction in sum of squares indicate that dissolved iron concentrations explained most of the variation in groundwater nitrate concentration, followed by manganese, calcium, farm N fertilizer inputs, percent well-drained soils, and dissolved oxygen. Overall, nitrate concentrations in groundwater are most significantly affected by redox conditions, followed by nonpoint-source N inputs. Other water-quality indicators and physical variables had a secondary influence on nitrate concentrations.

  9. Optical ages indicate the southwestern margin of the Green Bay Lobe in Wisconsin, USA, was at its maximum extent until about 18,500 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, J.W.; Hanson, P.R.; Rawling, J.E.; Young, A.R.; Carson, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Samples for optical dating were collected to estimate the time of sediment deposition in small ice-marginal lakes in the Baraboo Hills of Wisconsin. These lakes formed high in the Baraboo Hills when drainage was blocked by the Green Bay Lobe when it was at or very near its maximum extent. Therefore, these optical ages provide control for the timing of the thinning and recession of the Green Bay Lobe from its maximum position. Sediment that accumulated in four small ice-marginal lakes was sampled and dated. Difficulties with field sampling and estimating dose rates made the interpretation of optical ages derived from samples from two of the lake basins problematic. Samples from the other two lake basins-South Bluff and Feltz basins-responded well during laboratory analysis and showed reasonably good agreement between the multiple ages produced at each site. These ages averaged 18.2. ka (n= 6) and 18.6. ka (n= 6), respectively. The optical ages from these two lake basins where we could carefully select sediment samples provide firm evidence that the Green Bay Lobe stood at or very near its maximum extent until about 18.5. ka.The persistence of ice-marginal lakes in these basins high in the Baraboo Hills indicates that the ice of the Green Bay Lobe had not experienced significant thinning near its margin prior to about 18.5. ka. These ages are the first to directly constrain the timing of the maximum extent of the Green Bay Lobe and the onset of deglaciation in the area for which the Wisconsin Glaciation was named. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Spatial variability analysis of combining the water quality and groundwater flow model to plan groundwater and surface water management in the Pingtung plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2014-05-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. The groundwater is quite rich in the Pingtung plain and the most important water sources. During the several decades, a substantial amount of groundwater has been pumped for the drinking, irrigation and aquaculture water supplies. However, because the sustainable use concept of groundwater resources is lack, excessive pumping of groundwater causes the occurrence of serious land subsidence and sea water intrusion. Thus, the management and conservation of groundwater resources in the Pingtung plain are considerably critical. This study aims to assess the conjunct use effect of groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung plain on recharge by reducing the amount of groundwater extraction. The groundwater quality variability and groundwater flow models are combined to spatially analyze potential zones of groundwater used for multi-purpose in the Pingtung Plain. First, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) is used to analyze spatial variability of groundwater quality based on drinking, aquaculture and irrigation water quality standards, and probabilistically delineate suitable zones in the study area. Then, the groundwater flow model, Processing MODFLOW (PMWIN), is adopted to simulate groundwater flow. The groundwater flow model must be conducted by the calibration and verification processes, and the regional groundwater recovery is discussed when specified water rights are replaced by surface water in the Pingtung plain. Finally, the most suitable zones of reducing groundwater use are determined for multi-purpose according to combining groundwater quality and quantity. The study results can establish a sound and low-impact management plan of groundwater resources utilization for the multi-purpose groundwater use, and prevent decreasing ground water tables, and the occurrence of land subsidence and sea water intrusion in the Pingtung plain.

  11. Circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Golden

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its well-established role in nerve cell survival and adaptive plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is also involved in energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Although BDNF is present in the systemic circulation, it is unknown whether plasma BDNF correlates with circulating markers of dysregulated metabolism and an adverse cardiovascular profile.To determine whether circulating BDNF correlates with indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health, we measured plasma BDNF levels in 496 middle-age and elderly subjects (mean age approximately 70, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, regardless of age. In females, BDNF was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and inversely correlated with folate. In males, BDNF was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, free thiiodo-thyronine (FT3, and bioavailable testosterone, and inversely correlated with sex-hormone binding globulin, and adiponectin.Plasma BDNF significantly correlates with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular dysfunction. Whether BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or functions in adaptive responses to cellular stress (as occurs in the brain remains to be determined.

  12. Sources of groundwater and characteristics of surface-water recharge at Bell, White, and Suwannee Springs, Florida, 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; McBride, W. Scott

    2016-12-21

    considered together, evidence from water-level, specific conductance, major-ion concentration, and isotope data indicated that groundwater at Bell Springs and the UFA well was a mixture of surface water and groundwater from the upper confining unit, and that groundwater at White and Suwannee Springs was a mixture of surface water, groundwater from the upper confining unit, and groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Higher concentrations of magnesium in groundwater samples at the UFA well than in samples at Bell Springs might indicate less mixing with surface water at the UFA well than at Bell Springs. Characteristics of surface-water recharge, such as residence time at the surface, apparent age, and recharge water temperature, were estimated on the basis of isotopic ratios, and dissolved concentrations of gases such as argon, tritium, and sulfur hexafluoride. Oxygen and deuterium isotopic ratios were consistent with rapid recharge by rainwater for samples collected in 2012, and longer residence time at the surface (ponding) for samples collected in 2013. Apparent ages of groundwater samples, computed on the basis of tritium activity and sulfur hexafluoride concentration, indicated groundwater recharge occurred after the late 1980s; however, the estimated apparent ages likely represent the average of ages of multiple sources. Recharge since the 1980s is consistent with groundwater from shallow sources, such as the upper confining unit and Upper Floridan aquifer. Recharge water temperature computed for the three springs and UFA well averaged 20.1 degrees Celsius, which is similar to the mean annual air temperature of 20.6 degrees Celsius at a nearby weather station for 1960–2014.

  13. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  14. Socioeconomic indicators and prosthetic replacement of missing teeth in a working-age population--results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Torsten; Polzer, Ines; Samietz, Stefanie; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Messerschmidt, Heidrun; Dören, Martina; Schwarz, Sabine; Kocher, Thomas; Biffar, Reiner; Schwahn, Christian

    2009-04-01

    To analyse the possible effects of the socioeconomic status (SES) on the prosthetic replacement of missing teeth in working-age people and to explore the role of potential confounders. Cross-sectional data were collected from 2310 German adults aged 30-59 years. The relationship between each of the three SES indicators (education, income, and occupational status) and dental prostheses were examined by multinomial logistic regression analyses. For that, partially dentate participants with suboptimal and no replacement of missing teeth were compared with partially dentate participants having optimal replacement. Potential confounders (age, sex, dental status, social network and social support) were entered if their inclusion in the model led to >or= 10% change in the coefficient of interest. Social network and social support did not meet the criterion for confounding. In the maxilla, having no replacement was positively associated with lower categories for each of the three SES indicators [Odds ratios (OR) between 1.6 and 2.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI) between 1.1 and 3.4]. Low occupational status was the single predictor for suboptimal dental prostheses (OR=3.2; 95% CI: 1.6-6.2). In the mandible, occupational status showed no association with the prosthetic status, whereas low educational level and low household income were determinants for having no replacement (OR=1.9 and 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.5 and 1.1-3.0, respectively). Low household income was the single determinant for suboptimal replacement of missing teeth (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.1-5.2). The findings may indicate the relevance of the financing of prosthodontic treatment. The strong association between various forms of upper dentures and occupational prestige can be seen as key contributing concept to how individuals' characteristics affect the outcome in prosthodontic care.

  15. Why is the Groundwater Level Rising? A Case Study Using HARTT to Simulate Groundwater Level Dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Danis, Cara; Paffard, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater from a shallow unconfined aquifer at a site in coastal New South Wales has been causing recent water logging issues. A trend of rising groundwater level has been anecdotally observed over the last 10 years. It was not clear whether the changes in groundwater levels were solely natural variations within the groundwater system or whether human interference was driving the level up. Time series topographic images revealed significant surrounding land use changes and human modification to the environment of the groundwater catchment. A statistical model utilising HARTT (multiple linear regression hydrograph analysis method) simulated the groundwater level dynamics at five key monitoring locations and successfully showed a trend of rising groundwater level. Utilising hydrogeological input from field investigations, the model successfully simulated the rise in the water table over time to the present day levels, whilst taking into consideration rainfall and land changes. The underlying geological/land conditions were found to be just as significant as the impact of climate variation. The correlation coefficient for the monitoring bores (MB), excluding MB4, show that the groundwater level fluctuation can be explained by the climate variable (rainfall) with the lag time between the atypical rainfall and groundwater level ranging from 4 to 7 months. The low R2 value for MB4 indicates that there are factors missing in the model which are primarily related to human interference. The elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are the result of long term cumulative land use changes, instigated by humans, which have directly resulted in detrimental changes to the groundwater aquifer properties.

  16. Shallow groundwater in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, Alaska—Conceptualization and simulation of flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    estimated during field investigations on several small streams. Regional groundwater flow patterns were characterized by synthesizing previous water-table maps with a synoptic water-level measurement conducted during 2009. Time-series water-level data were collected at groundwater and lake monitoring stations over the study period (2009–present). Comparison of historical groundwater-level records with time-series groundwater-level data collected during this study showed similar patterns in groundwater-level fluctuation in response to precipitation. Groundwater-age data collected during previous studies show that water moves quickly through the groundwater system, suggesting that the system responds quickly to changes in climate forcing. Similarly, the groundwater system quickly returns to long-term average conditions following variability due to seasonal or interannual changes in precipitation. These analyses indicate that the groundwater system is in a state of dynamic equilibrium, characterized by water-level fluctuation about a constant average state, with no long-term trends in aquifer-system storage. To address the second study goal, a steady-state groundwater flow model was developed to simulate regional groundwater flow patterns. The groundwater flow model was bounded by physically meaningful hydrologic features, and appropriate internal model boundaries were specified on the basis of conceptualization of the groundwater system resulting in a three-layer model. Calibration data included 173 water‑level measurements and 18 measurements of streamflow gains and losses along small streams. Comparison of simulated and observed heads and flows showed that the model accurately simulates important regional characteristics of the groundwater flow system. This model is therefore appropriate for studying regional-scale groundwater availability. Mismatch between model-simulated and observed hydrologic quantities is likely because of the coarse grid size of the model and

  17. Status of geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution at the Tono in-situ tests site, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu; Arthur, R.C.

    1999-12-01

    Hydrochemical investigation of Tertiary sedimentary rocks at JNC's Tono in-situ tests site indicate the groundwaters are: meteoric in origin, chemically reducing at depths greater than a few tens of meters in the sedimentary rock, relatively old [carbon-14 ages of groundwaters collected from the lower part of the sedimentary sequence range from 13,000 to 15,000 years BP (before present)]. Ca-Na-HCO 3 type solutions near the surface, changing to Na-HCO 3 type groundwaters with increasing depth. The chemical evolution of the groundwaters is modeled assuming local equilibrium for selected mineral-fluid reactions, taking into account the rainwater origin of these solutions. Results suggest it is possible to interpret approximately the 'real' groundwater chemistry (i.e., pH, Eh, total dissolved concentrations of Si, Na, Ca, K, Al, carbonate and sulfate) if the following assumptions are adopted: CO 2 concentration in the gas phase contacting pore solutions in the overlying soil zone=10 -1 bar, minerals in the rock zone that control the solubility of respective elements in the groundwater include; chalcedony (Si), albite (Na), kaolinite (Al), calcite (Ca and carbonate), muscovite (K) and pyrite (Eh and sulfate). It is noted, however, that the available field data may not be sufficient to adequately constrain parameters in the groundwater evolution model. In particular, more detailed information characterizing certain site properties (e.g., the actual mineralogy of 'plagioclase', 'clay' and 'zeolite') are needed to improve the model. Alternative conceptual models of key reactions may also be necessary. For this reason, a model that accounts for ion-exchange reactions among clay minerals, and which is based on the results of laboratory experiments, has also been evaluated in the present study. Further improvements of model considering ion-exchange reactions are needed in future, however. (author)

  18. Evaluation of groundwater droughts in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Droughts are abnormally dry periods that affect various aspects of human life on earth, ranging from negative impacts on agriculture or industry, to being the cause for conflict and loss of human life. The changing climate reinforces the importance of investigations into this phenomenon. Various methods to analyze and classify droughts have been developed. These include drought indices such as the Standard Precipitation Index SPI, the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI or the Crop Moisture Index CMI. These and other indices consider meteorological parameters and/or their effects on soil moisture. A depletion of soil moisture triggered by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration may also cause reduced groundwater recharge and thus decreasing groundwater levels and reduced groundwater flow to springs, streams, and wetlands. However, the existing indices were generally not designed to address such drought effects on groundwater. Thus, a Standardized Groundwater level Index has recently been proposed by Bloomfied and Marchant (2013). Yet, to our knowledge, this approach has only been applied to consolidated aquifers in the UK. This work analyzes time series of groundwater levels from various, mostly unconsolidated aquifers in Austria in order to characterize the effects of droughts on aquifers in different hydrogeologic and climatic settings as well as under different usage scenarios. In particular, comparisons are made between the water rich Alpine parts of Austria, and the dryer parts situated in the East. The time series of groundwater levels are compared to other data, such as meteorological time series and written weather records about generally accepted phenomena, such as the 2003 European drought and heat wave. Thus, valuable insight is gained into the propagation of meteorological droughts through the soil and the aquifer in different types of hydrogeologic and climatic settings, which provides a prerequisite for the assessment of the aquifers' drought

  19. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, R.; Iqbal, J.; Gorai, A. K.; Pathak, G.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table ( D), net recharge ( R), aquifer media ( A), soil media ( S), topography or slope ( T), impact of vadose zone ( I) and hydraulic Conductivity( C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  20. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, R; Iqbal, J; Gorai, A K; Pathak, G; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table ( D ), net recharge ( R ), aquifer media ( A ), soil media ( S ), topography or slope ( T ), impact of vadose zone ( I ) and hydraulic Conductivity( C )] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  1. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  2. Association between circulating levels of adiponectin and indices of bone mass and bone metabolism in middle-aged post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenta, R; Kontogianni, M D; Yiannakouris, N

    2012-03-01

    Adiponectin, a fat derived cytokine, is a potential independent contributor to bone mineral density (BMD); however, its action on bone metabolism in humans is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of adiponectin with bone mass indices and bone metabolic markers in middle-aged post-menopausal women without diabetes. A random sample consisted of 81 post-menopausal women (age range 45-61 yr, osteopenic/osteoporotic no.=43) was studied. Lumbar-spine BMD (BMD(L2-L4)) and total-body bone mineral content (TBBMC) were measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma levels of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) and IGF-I were determined. No association was observed between total or HMW adiponectin and BMD(L2-L4) or TBBMC. On the contrary, adiponectin levels were positively associated with OPG levels (partial r=0.276, p=0.015) and negatively with IGF-I (partial r=-0.438, pfailed to show statistically significant association between circulating adiponectin levels and indices of bone mass in women during the postmenopausal period, we showed significant associations with OPG and IGF-I levels, suggesting an anabolic role of adiponectin, which may contribute in the understanding of the interplay between adipose tissue-derived hormones and bone metabolism. © 2012, Editrice Kurtis.

  3. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15-49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  4. Characterizing the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the karst aquifer of Fangshan, Beijing (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haibo; Wei, Jiahua; Wang, Rong; Xin, Baodong

    2017-03-01

    Correct understanding of groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction in karst systems is of greatest importance for managing the water resources. A typical karst region, Fangshan in northern China, was selected as a case study. Groundwater levels and hydrochemistry analyses, together with isotope data based on hydrogeological field investigations, were used to assess the GW-SW interaction. Chemistry data reveal that water type and the concentration of cations in the groundwater are consistent with those of the surface water. Stable isotope ratios of all samples are close to the local meteoric water line, and the 3H concentrations of surface water and groundwater samples are close to that of rainfall, so isotopes also confirm that karst groundwater is recharged by rainfall. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that rainfall leads to a rise in groundwater level with a lag time of 2 months and groundwater exploitation leads to a fall within 1 month. Spectral analysis also reveals that groundwater level, groundwater exploitation and rainfall have significantly similar response periods, indicating their possible inter-relationship. Furthermore, a multiple nonlinear regression model indicates that groundwater level can be negatively correlated with groundwater exploitation, and positively correlated with rainfall. The overall results revealed that groundwater level has a close correlation with groundwater exploitation and rainfall, and they are indicative of a close hydraulic connection and interaction between surface water and groundwater in this karst system.

  5. Control of groundwater in surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, C. O.

    1982-03-01

    The presence of groundwater in surface mining operations often creates serious problems. The most important is generally a reduction in stability of the pit slopes. This is caused by pore water pressures and hydrodynamic shock due to blasting which reduce the shear strength and seepage pressures, water in tension cracks and increased unit weight which increase the shear stress. Groundwater and seepage also increase the cost of pit drainage, shipping, drilling and blasting, tyre wear and equipment maintenance. Surface erosion may also be increased and, in northern climates, ice flows on the slopes may occur. Procedures have been developed in the field of soil mechanics and engineering of dams to obtain quantitative data on pore water pressures and rock permeability, to evaluate the influence of pore water and seepage pressures on stability and to estimate the magnitude of ground-water flow. Based on field investigations, a design can be prepared for the control of groundwater in the slope and in the pit. Methods of control include the use of horizontal drains, blasted toe drains, construction of adits or drainage tunnels and pumping from wells in or outside of the pit. Recent research indicates that subsurface drainage can be augmented by applying a vacuum or by selective blasting. Instrumentation should be installed to monitor the groundwater changes created by drainage. Typical case histories are described that indicate the approach used to evaluate groundwater conditions.

  6. Comparative investigation of indicators of growth and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age in Isfahan during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Yousefi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents' and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009 and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10. The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49. Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children.

  7. Wairarapa Valley groundwater : residence time, flow pattern, and hydrochemistry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, U.

    2005-01-01

    The Wairarapa groundwater system has a complicated hydrogeological setting as it evolved from sea level changes, tectonic activity, and geomorphic process. Due to increasing groundwater demand a better understanding of the groundwater resources is required to help achieve effective management and sustainable use. In addition to previous 'classical' hydrogeology studies, this report represents the first stage of a comprehensive approach using age dating and chemistry time trends for understanding the Wairarapa groundwater system. The methodology of groundwater age dating and mixing models is described in Appendix 1. Historic tritium data were evaluated, and combined with new tritium and CFC/SF 6 data to allow for robust age dating. (author). 14 refs., 30 figs

  8. Influence of seawater intrusion on microbial communities in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Tatsuya; Kim, Jungman; Kim, Yumi; Nguyen, Son G; Guevarra, Robin B; Kim, Gee Pyo; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of potable water on Jeju Island in the Republic of (South) Korea. Groundwater is also used for irrigation and industrial purposes, and it is severely impacted by seawater intrusion in coastal areas. Consequently, monitoring the intrusion of seawater into groundwater on Jeju is very important for health and environmental reasons. A number of studies have used hydrological models to predict the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by seawater intrusion. However, there is conflicting evidence of intrusion due to complicated environmental influences on groundwater quality. Here we investigated the use of next generation sequencing (NGS)-based microbial community analysis as a way to monitor groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. Pristine groundwater, groundwater from three coastal areas, and seawater were compared. Analysis of the distribution of bacterial species clearly indicated that the high and low salinity groundwater differed significantly with respect to microbial composition. While members of the family Parvularculaceae were only identified in high salinity water samples, a greater percentage of the phylum Actinobacteria was predominantly observed in pristine groundwater. In addition, we identified 48 shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with seawater, among which the high salinity groundwater sample shared a greater number of bacterial species with seawater (6.7%). In contrast, other groundwater samples shared less than 0.5%. Our results suggest that NGS-based microbial community analysis of groundwater may be a useful tool for monitoring groundwater quality and detect seawater intrusion. This technology may also provide additional insights in understanding hydrological dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of geohydrologic framework, recharge estimates and ground-water flow of the Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin and 5 in the Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin) between 1980 and 2002 and analyzing the samples for major ions, nutrients, and selected trace elements. Selected samples also were analyzed for oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, and carbon-14. The water-quality data indicated that dissolved solids and nitrate concentrations were below regulatory limits for potable water; however, fluoride concentrations in the lower aquifer exceeded regulatory limits. Arsenic concentrations and chromium concentrations were generally below regulatory limits; however, arsenic concentrations measured in water from wells perforated in the lower aquifer exceeded regulatory limits. The carbon-14 activities ranged from 2 to 72 percent modern carbon and are consistent with uncorrected ground-water ages (time since recharge) of about 32,300 to 2,700 years before present. The oxygen-18 and deuterium composition of water sampled from the upper aquifer is similar to the volume-weighted composition of present-day winter precipitation indicating that winter precipitation was the predominant source of ground-water recharge. Field studies, conducted during water years 2001 through 2003 to determine the distribution and quantity of recharge, included installation of instrumented boreholes in selected washes and at a nearby control site. Core material and cuttings from the boreholes were analyzed for physical, chemical, and hydraulic properties. Instruments installed in the boreholes were monitored to measure changes in matric potential and temperature. Borehole data were supplemented with temperature data collected from access tubes installed at additional sites along study washes. Streambed hydraulic properties and the response of instruments to infiltration were measured using infiltrometers. Physical and geochemical data collected away from the stream channels show that direct infiltration of precipitation to depths below the root zone and subsequent gro

  10. A close or positive margin after mastectomy is not an indication for chest wall irradiation except in women aged fifty or younger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, G.M.; Fowble, B.L.; Hanlon, A.L.; Myint, M.A.; Hoffman, J.P.; Sigurdson, E.R.; Eisenberg, B.L.; Goldstein, L.J.; Fein, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Indications for postmastectomy radiation include primary tumor size > 5 cm and ≥ 4 positive axillary nodes. In clinical practice, patients with a close or positive margin after mastectomy are also often treated with postmastectomy radiation. However, there is little data regarding the risk of a chest wall recurrence in patients with this pathologic feature who otherwise would be considered low risk (tumor size 25% at 8 years: Age ≤ 50 years was 28% vs. 0% for age > 50 (p=0.08). There was no correlation with chest wall failure and number of nodes, ER status, lymphovascular invasion, location of primary, grade, family history or type of tumor close to the margin. All four chest wall failures were in patients who had received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy ± Tamoxifen. Chest wall failures occurred in patients with margins within 1-2 mm in three patients and 5 mm in one patient. The cumulative chest wall recurrence at 8 years by margin proximity was 24% ≤ 2mm vs. 7% 2.1-6 mm (p=0.44), and by clinical size 24% for T2 tumors vs. 7% for T1 (p=0.55). Conclusions: A close or positive margin is uncommon (< 5%) after mastectomy in patients with tumor size < 5 cm and 0-3 positive axillary nodes, but when present it appears to be in a younger patient population. The subgroup of patients aged 50 or younger with clinical T1-T2 tumor size and 0-3 positive nodes who have a close (≤ 5 mm) or positive mastectomy margin are at high risk (28% at 8 years) for chest wall recurrence regardless of adjuvant systemic therapy, and therefore we recommend they be considered for postmastectomy radiation. This high risk of local failure was not observed in patients over age 50, suggesting this subgroup may not require adjuvant chest wall irradiation

  11. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the upper Yakima River Basin, Kittitas County, central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Ely, D. Matthew; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    unconfined part of the aquifers in unconsolidated sediments indicate generalized groundwater movement toward the Yakima River and its tributaries and the outlet of the study area. Groundwater movement through fractures within the bedrock aquifers is complex and varies over spatial scales depending on the architecture of the fracture-flow system and its hydraulic properties. The complexity of the fracturedbedrock groundwater-flow system is supported by a wide range of groundwater ages determined from geochemical analyses of carbon-14, sulfur hexafluoride, and tritium in groundwater. These geochemical data also indicate that the shallow groundwater system is actively flushing with young, isotopically heavy groundwater, but isotopicallylight, Pleistocene-age groundwater with a geochemicallyevolved composition occurs at depth within the fracturedbedrock aquifers of upper Kittitas County. An eastward depletion of stable isotopes in groundwater is consistent with hydrologically separate subbasins. This suggests that groundwater that recharges in one subbasin is not generally available for withdrawal or discharge into surface-water features within other subbasins. Water budget components were calculated for 11 subbasins using a watershed model and varied based on the climate, land uses, and geology of the subbasin. Synoptic streamflow measurements made in August 2011 indicate that groundwater discharges into several tributaries of the Yakima River with several losses of streamflow measured where the streams exit bedrock uplands and flow over unconsolidated sediments. Profiles of stream temperature during late summer suggest cool groundwater inflow over discrete sections of streams. This groundwater/surfacewater connection is further supported by the stable-isotope composition of stream water, which reflects the local stableisotope composition of groundwater measured at some wells and springs. Collectively, these hydrogeologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data support a framework

  12. Fluorine geochemistry in bedrock groundwater of South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Seong-Yong; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kangjoo; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2007-01-01

    High fluoride concentrations (median = 4.4 mg/L) in deep bedrock groundwater of South Korea prevent the usage of it as a drinking water source. The hydrogeochemistry of deep thermal groundwaters (N = 377) in diverse bedrocks has been studied in order to evaluate the geologic and geochemical controls on fluoride concentrations in groundwater. The groundwater samples were clustered geologically, and the average and median concentrations of fluoride were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. The order of median fluoride concentration with respect to geology is as follows: metamorphic rocks ≥ granitoids ≥ complex rock >> volcanic rocks ≥ sedimentary rocks. This result indicates that the geological source of fluoride in groundwater is related to the mineral composition of metamorphic rocks and granitoids. With respect to groundwater chemistry, the fluoride concentration was highest in Na-HCO 3 type groundwater and lowest in Ca-HCO 3 type groundwater. Ionic relationships also imply that the geochemical behavior of fluoride in groundwater is related to the geochemical process releasing Na and removing Ca ions. The thermodynamic relationship between the activities of Ca and F indicates that fluoride concentration is controlled by the equilibrium of fluorite (CaF 2 ). In other words, the upper limits of fluoride concentration are determined by the Ca ion; i.e., Ca concentrations play a crucial role in fluoride behavior in deep thermal groundwater. The result of this study suggests that the high fluoride in groundwater originates from geological sources and fluoride can be removed by fluorite precipitation when high Ca concentration is maintained. This provides a basis for a proper management plan to develop the deep thermal groundwater and for treatment of high fluoride groundwater frequently found in South Korea

  13. Kalahari groundwaters: Their hydrogen, carbon and oxygen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazor, E.; Verhagen, B.T.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Robins, N.S.; Hutton, L.G.

    1974-01-01

    Tritium and 14 C measurements have revealed several cases of post-nuclear bomb-test rain recharge of local groundwaters, along with values indicating recharge over larger, yet hydrologically active, time scales. In general, recharge seems to follow rain distribution in being more intense in the northern rather than in the southern Kalahari. Initial δ 13 C values vary over a wide range and reveal some correlation to pH and chemical composition of the water. They cannot be used to correct for fossil carbon dilution in 14 C-age calculations. Radiocarbon-deduced ages range from recent to 30,000 years. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes indicate recharge from direct rain infiltration. (author)

  14. Groundwater Assessment Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Podgorski, Joel; Berg, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Groundwater Assessment Platform is a free, interactive online GIS platform for the mapping, sharing and statistical modeling of groundwater quality data. The modeling allows users to take advantage of publicly available global datasets of various environmental parameters to produce prediction maps of their contaminant of interest.

  15. Modeling the effects of atmospheric emissions on groundwater composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    A composite model of atmospheric, unsaturated and groundwater transport is developed to evaluate the processes determining the distribution of atmospherically derived contaminants in groundwater systems and to test the sensitivity of simulated contaminant concentrations to input parameters and model linkages. One application is to screen specific atmospheric emissions for their potential in determining groundwater age. Temporal changes in atmospheric emissions could provide a recognizable pattern in the groundwater system. The model also provides a way for quantifying the significance of uncertainties in the tracer source term and transport parameters on the contaminant distribution in the groundwater system, an essential step in using the distribution of contaminants from local, point source atmospheric emissions to examine conceptual models of groundwater flow and transport

  16. Understanding groundwater dynamics on barrier islands using geochronological data: An example from North Stradbroke Island, South-east Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Newborn, Dean; Cartwright, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater lenses underneath barrier islands are dynamic systems affected by changing sea levels and groundwater use. They are vulnerable to contamination and over-abstraction. Residence times of fresh groundwater in barrier islands are poorly understood and have mostly been assessed by modelling approaches and estimates without fundamental validation with geochronological data. Assessing residence time and recharge rates will improve significantly our understanding of hydrological processes of coastal environments that will in turn allow us to make informed decisions on groundwater use and environmental protection. This project focused on groundwater recharge rates and residence times of the fresh water aquifer system of North Stradbroke Island, south-east Queensland, Australia. Groundwater bores, wetlands and submarine groundwater discharge points in the tidal areas (wonky holes) were sampled along a transect across the island and were analysed for major ion chemistry and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C) in combination with 3H and 14C analysis. Calculated 3H using a 95% exponential-piston flow model and 14C ages range from 12 to >100 years and modern to 3770 years, respectively, indicating a highly heterogeneous aquifer system with mixing from low and high conductive areas. The major ion chemistry in combination with stable and radiogenic isotopes suggests that a significant groundwater component derives from the fractured rock basement and older sedimentary formations underlying the sand dunes of the island. The results help refining the conceptual and numerical groundwater flow model for North Stradbroke island in this particular case but also demonstrate the possible complexity of barrier island hydrogeology.

  17. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Fajã Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Antão, and Ribeira Fajã on São Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development.Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Fajã indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Fajã tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Fajã have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s.Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground-water

  18. Cl/Br ratios and chlorine isotope evidences for groundwater salinization and its impact on groundwater arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in the Datong basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify the salinization processes and its impact on arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in groundwater, hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope studies have been conducted on groundwater from the Datong basin, China. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations in groundwater ranged from 451 to 8250 mg/L, and 41% of all samples were identified as moderately saline groundwater with TDS of 3000-10,000 mg/L. The results of groundwater Cl concentrations, Cl/Br molar ratio and Cl isotope composition suggest that three processes including water-rock interaction, surface saline soil flushing, and evapotranspiration result in the groundwater salinization in the study area. The relatively higher Cl/Br molar ratio in groundwater from multiple screening wells indicates the contribution of halite dissolution from saline soil flushed by vertical infiltration to the groundwater salinization. However, the results of groundwater Cl/Br molar ratio model indicate that the effect of saline soil flushing practice is limited to account for the observed salinity variation in groundwater. The plots of groundwater Cl vs. Cl/Br molar ratio, and Cl vs δ(37)Cl perform the dominant effects of evapotranspiration on groundwater salinization. Inverse geochemical modeling results show that evapotranspiration may cause approximately 66% loss of shallow groundwater to account for the observed hydrochemical pattern. Due to the redox condition fluctuation induced by irrigation activities and evapotranspiration, groundwater salinization processes have negative effects on groundwater arsenic enrichment. For groundwater iodine and fluoride enrichment, evapotranspiration partly accounts for their elevation in slightly saline water. However, too strong evapotranspiration would restrict groundwater fluoride concentration due to the limitation of fluorite solubility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oanh Thi Hoang Trinh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective: This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Design: Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011 with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results: Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%. Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion: Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  20. Distribution of Isotopic and Environmental Tracers in Groundwater, Northern Ada County, Southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Residents of northern Ada County, Idaho, depend on groundwater for domestic and agricultural uses. The population of this area is growing rapidly and groundwater resources must be understood for future water-resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, used a suite of isotopic and environmental tracers to gain a better understanding of groundwater ages, recharge sources, and flowpaths in northern Ada County. Thirteen wells were sampled between September and October 2009 for field parameters, major anions and cations, nutrients, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, tritium, radiocarbon, chlorofluorocarbons, and dissolved gasses. Well depths ranged from 30 to 580 feet below land surface. Wells were grouped together based on their depth and geographic location into the following four categories: shallow aquifer, intermediate/deep aquifer, Willow Creek aquifer, and Dry Creek aquifer. Major cations and anions indicated calcium-bicarbonate and sodium-bicarbonate water types in the study area. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes carried an oxygen-18 excess signature, possibly indicating recharge from evaporated sources or water-rock interactions in the subsurface. Chlorofluorocarbons detected modern (post-1940s) recharge in every well sampled; tritium data indicated modern water (post-1951) in seven, predominantly shallow wells. Nutrient concentrations tended to be greater in wells signaling recent recharge based on groundwater age dating, thus confirming the presence of recent recharge in these wells. Corrected radiocarbon results generated estimated residence times from modern to 5,100 years before present. Residence time tended to increase with depth, as confirmed by all three age-tracers. The disagreement among residence times indicates that samples were well-mixed and that the sampled aquifers contain a mixture of young and old recharge. Due to a lack of data, no conclusions about sources of recharge could be drawn

  1. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  2. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  3. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  4. Distribution and sources of 226Rain groundwater of arid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, M. J.; Murad, A.; Zhou, X. D.

    2016-01-01

    As a part of characterizing radioactivity in groundwater of the eastern Arabian Peninsula, a first systematic evaluation of 226Ra activity in groundwater indicates a wide range (0.65-203.66 mBq L-1) with average of 17.56 mBq L-1. Adsorption/desorption process, groundwater residence time and urani...... concentration are the main controlling factors of 226Ra distribution in groundwater of the different aquifers. Estimation of 226Ra effective dose from water ingestion suggests potential risk of drinking water from the carbonate aquifer....

  5. Anisotropic analysis for seismic sensitivity of groundwater monitoring wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Hsu, K.

    2011-12-01

    Taiwan is located at the boundaries of Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. The movement of plate causes crustal uplift and lateral deformation to lead frequent earthquakes in the vicinity of Taiwan. The change of groundwater level trigged by earthquake has been observed and studied in Taiwan for many years. The change of groundwater may appear in oscillation and step changes. The former is caused by seismic waves. The latter is caused by the volumetric strain and reflects the strain status. Since the setting of groundwater monitoring well is easier and cheaper than the setting of strain gauge, the groundwater measurement may be used as a indication of stress. This research proposes the concept of seismic sensitivity of groundwater monitoring well and apply to DonHer station in Taiwan. Geostatistical method is used to analysis the anisotropy of seismic sensitivity. GIS is used to map the sensitive area of the existing groundwater monitoring well.

  6. Testicular Cell Indices and Peripheral Blood Testosterone Concentrations in Relation to Age and Semen Quality in Crossbred (Holstein Friesian×Tharparkar Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Rajak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study analyzed the changes in peripheral blood testosterone concentrations and testicular cytogram in relation to age and semen quality in crossbred males. Three different age groups of crossbred males viz. bull calves (6 months, n = 5, young bulls (15 months, n = 5 and adult bulls (4 to 6 years, n = 8 were utilized for the study. Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology technique was used to quantify testicular cytology and their indices. Peripheral blood testosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Semen samples collected from adult bulls were microscopically evaluated for quality parameters. Mean peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves, young bulls and adult bulls were 2.28±0.09 ng/mL, 1.42±0.22 ng/mL and 5.66±1.08 ng/mL respectively, and that in adult bulls were significantly different (p<0.01 from young bulls and bull calves. There was no significant difference between the proportion of different testicular cells in bull calves and young bulls. Between young and adult bulls, significant differences (p<0.01 were observed in the proportion of spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and sperm: Sertoli cell ratio. The proportions of Sertoli cells showed a significant difference (p<0.01 between the three age groups. The number of primary spermatocytes had a positive correlation with peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves (r = 0.719, p<0.01. Number of Sertoli cells per 100 germ cells was negatively correlated with blood testosterone concentration in young bulls (r = −0.713, p<0.01. Among different semen parameters in adult bulls, ejaculate volume (r = 0.790, p<0.05 had positive relationship, and sperm motility had significant negative correlation (r = −0.711, p<0.05 with testosterone concentrations. The number of Sertoli cells and Sertoli cell index had a positive correlation with various semen quality parameters (p<0.001. Results of the present study

  7. Marine water from mid-Holocene sea level highstand trapped in a coastal aquifer: Evidence from groundwater isotopes, and environmental significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Stephen [School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Currell, Matthew, E-mail: Matthew.currell@rmit.edu.au [School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Cendón, Dioni I. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee (Australia); Connected Water Initiative, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    A multi-layered coastal aquifer in southeast Australia was assessed using environmental isotopes, to identify the origins of salinity and its links to palaeo-environmental setting. Spatial distribution of groundwater salinity (electrical conductivity values ranging from 0.395 to 56.1 mS/cm) was examined along the coastline along with geological, isotopic and chemical data. This allowed assessment of different salinity sources and emplacement mechanisms. Molar chloride/bromide ratios range from 619 to 1070 (621 to 705 in samples with EC > 15 mS/cm), indicating salts are predominantly marine. Two distinct vertical salinity profiles were observed, one with increasing salinity with depth and another with saline shallow water overlying fresh groundwater. The saline shallow groundwater (EC = 45.4 to 55.7 mS/cm) has somewhat marine-like stable isotope ratios (δ{sup 18}O = − 2.4 to − 1.9 ‰) and radiocarbon activities indicative of middle Holocene emplacement (47.4 to 60.4 pMC). This overlies fresher groundwater with late Pleistocene radiocarbon ages and meteoric stable isotopes (δ{sup 18}O = − 5.5 to − 4.6‰). The configuration suggests surface inundation of the upper sediments by marine water during the mid-Holocene (c. 2–8 kyr BP), when sea level was 1–2 m above today's level. Profiles of chloride, stable isotopes, and radiocarbon indicate mixing between this pre-modern marine water and fresh meteoric groundwater to varying degrees around the coastline. Mixing calculations using chloride and stable isotopes show that in addition to fresh-marine water mixing, some salinity is derived from transpiration by halophytic vegetation (e.g. mangroves). The δ{sup 13}C ratios in saline water (− 17.6 to − 18.4‰) also have vegetation/organic matter signatures, consistent with emplacement by surface inundation and extensive interaction between vegetation and recharging groundwater. Saline shallow groundwater is preserved only in areas where low

  8. Uranium in groundwater from Western Haryana, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balvinder Singh; Nawal Kishore; Vandana Pulhani

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess uranium in groundwater and radiological and chemical risks associated with its ingestion in rural habitats in the vicinity of proposed nuclear power project in Western Haryana, India. Uranium concentration in the groundwater of the study area varied from 0.3 to 256.4 μg L -1 . Radiological risk calculated in the form of average life time dose was found 5.1 × 10 -2 mSv to the residents of the area from the ingestion of groundwater. The average cancer mortality and average cancer morbidity risk were calculated to be 4.9 × 10 -6 and 7.7 × 10 -6 respectively indicating the absence of carcinogenic risks. Chemical risk was in the range of 0.02-18.8 μg kg -1 day -1 . Hazard quotient for 72 % samples was greater than unity which indicates health risk due to chemical toxicity of uranium in groundwater. The results indicate that uranium concentrations in the groundwater of the study area are important due to chemical risk than radiological risk. (author)

  9. Dissolved helium, inert gases, radium and radon in groundwaters from the Altnabreac research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.N.; Kay, R.L.F.

    1985-01-01

    A groundwater geochemical study has been carried out at Altnabreac, Cenithness, Scotland, to investigate the feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in crystalline rock. A groundwater flow model was constructed for sampling a section at depths up to 300 m. Measurements of inert gases dissolved in groundwaters are used, with parallel measurements of 14 C, tritium, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes to infer groundwater ages and residence times. (UK)

  10. Groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Jaeger, G.K.; McMahon, W.J.; Ford, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Project. This plan is prepared based on the assumption that the ERDF will receive waste containing hazardous/dangerous constituents, radioactive constituents, and combinations of both. The purpose of this plan is to establish a groundwater monitoring program that (1) meets the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, (2) documents baseline groundwater conditions, (3) monitors those conditions for change, and (4) allows for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program. Groundwater samples indicate the occurrence of preexisting groundwater contamination in the uppermost unconfined aquifer below the ERDF Project site, as a result of past waste-water discharges in the 200 West Area. Therefore, it is necessary for the ERDF to establish baseline groundwater quality conditions and to monitor changes in the baseline over time. The groundwater monitoring program presented in this plan will provide the means to assess onsite and offsite impacts to the groundwater. In addition, a separate leachate management program will provide an indication of whether the liners are performing within design standards

  11. Building groundwater modeling capacity in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Anderson, Mark T.; Davis, Kyle W.; Haynes, Michelle A.; Dorjsuren Dechinlhundev,

    2016-06-16

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia (fig. 1), is dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. The population of Mongolia is about 3 million people, with about one-half the population residing in or near Ulaanbaatar (World Population Review, 2016). Groundwater is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence indicates that current water use may not be sustainable from existing water sources, especially when factoring the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population (Ministry of Environment and Green Development, 2013). In response, the Government of Mongolia Ministry of Environment, Green Development, and Tourism (MEGDT) and the Freshwater Institute, Mongolia, requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS and USACE provided two workshops in 2015 to Mongolian hydrology experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using the USGS groundwater modeling program MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005). The purpose of the workshops was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling.A preliminary steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed as part of the workshops to demonstrate groundwater modeling techniques to simulate groundwater conditions in alluvial deposits along the Tuul River in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar. ModelMuse (Winston, 2009) was used as the graphical user interface for MODFLOW for training purposes during the workshops. Basic and advanced groundwater modeling concepts included in the workshops were groundwater principles; estimating hydraulic properties; developing model grids, data sets, and MODFLOW input files; and viewing and evaluating MODFLOW output files. A key to success was

  12. Isotopes and Sustainability of the Shallow Groundwater System in Spring and Snake Valleys, Eastern White Pine County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, S. Y.

    2007-12-01

    A critical component to managing water resources is understanding the source of ground water that is extracted from a well. Detail information on the source of recharge and the age of groundwater is thus vital for the proper assessment, development, management, and monitoring of the groundwater resources in an area. Great differences in the isotopic composition of groundwater in a basin and the basin precipitation imply that the groundwater in the basin originates from a source outside the basin or is recharged under different climatic conditions. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation were compared with the isotopic composition of water from wells, springs, and creeks to evaluate the source of the shallow groundwater recharge in Spring and Snake Valleys, Nevada, as part of an evaluation of the water resources in the area. Delta deuterium and delta oxygen-18 composition of springs, wells, creeks, and precipitation in Spring and Snake Valleys show that groundwater recharge occurs primarily from winter precipitation in the surrounding mountains. The carbon-14 content of the groundwater ranged from 30 to 95 percent modern carbon (pmc). Twenty two of the thirty samples had carbon-14 values of greater than 50 pmc. The relatively high carbon-14 values suggest that groundwater in the area is recharged by modern precipitation and the waters have rapid travel times. Total dissolved solids content of the samples outside the playa areas are generally low, and suggests that the water has a relatively short travel time between the recharge areas and sample sites. The presence of tritium in some of the springs and wells also indicate that groundwater mixes with post 1952 precipitation. Hydrogen bomb tests which began in 1952 in the northern hemisphere added large amounts of tritium to the atmosphere and reached a peak in 1963. The stable isotopic composition, the high carbon-14 activities, and the presence of tritium, show that the shallow groundwater in

  13. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we

  14. Influence of land reclamation on the status of groundwater in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of land reclamation on the status of groundwater in Borokiri area of Port Harcourt, Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... The resulting resistivity data were iterated using a RES2DINV Computer Program. The results were used to map the quality potential of groundwater in the area. The results of the mapping process indicate that ...

  15. Natural organics in groundwaters and their potential effect on contaminant transport in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Bachinski, D.B.; Richer, D.

    1996-07-01